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1

Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners engage in a radiating heat activity and an activity that measures temperature in models with and without greenhouse gases. Learners will draw conclusions about the effect of greenhouse gases on temperature and on human life and kinesthetically model the absorbing and re-radiation of heat. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 3 in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase studentsâ awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

2

Greenhouse Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... Emissions FAQs Does EIA report water vapor emissions data? — http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm? ... in_brief/greenhouse_gas.cfm Environment and emissions data — http://www.eia.gov/environment.html U.S. EPA ...

3

Regulating Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video highlights the work of climate scientists in the Amazon who research the relationship between deforestation, construction of new dams, and increased amounts of greenhouse gases being exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

Kqed; Domain, Teachers'

4

Hyper-spectral observations of greenhouse gases in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the most ambitious hydroelectric and flood control project in human history. Its riparian zone has areas of ~300 km2 with water levels fluctuating between 175m above the sea in winter and 145m in summer, and is a special type of wetlands at the low water levels. These wetlands may release CO2 and CH4 with significantly spatial and temporal variations, and have been misleadingly described as a “methane menace” and caused a worldwide concern. A joint research program for TGR greenhouse gases monitoring is operated by several institutions and based at Yangtze Normal Univ. in Fuling of Chongqing. It is characterized by the combined satellite, airship, and ground-based hyper-spectral observations, which serve to simultaneously measure various eco-environmental parameters in a large area with high spatial and spectral resolutions, and to model the status and key dynamic processes of the TGR greenhouse gases. In this talk, the retrieval algorithm of the gas species from satellite near-infrared observations is discussed with special attentions paid to the mountainous and foggy TGR region. The distributions and variations of TGR greenhouse gases are studied by using the AIRS and SCIAMACHY monthly means of multiple years. The airship and ground-based observation system is outlined and expected to provide unique data needed to address the TGR environmental issues, and to evolve towards operational service.

Wang, Ding Yi; Zhang, Chun-ming; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiang-hong; Li, Hong-qun; Yang, Fu-Mo; Chen, Gang-Cai; Wang, Shu-peng; Zhang, Xing-ying; Zhang, Peng

5

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization is the only existing long-term international global programme providing a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to greenhouse gases and climate change. The WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), integrates the observations from different platforms (surface-based, aircraft and satellite). Surface observations are made at about 180 stations for CO2. The latest analysis shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2008 with CO2 at 385.2 ppm, CH4 at 1797 ppb and N2O at 321.8 ppb: higher than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 38%, 157% and 19%, respectively. Atmospheric growth rates of CO2 and N2O in 2008 are consistent with recent years. The increase in atmospheric CH4 was 7 ppb from 2007 to 2008, similar to the increase of the year before. These are the largest increases since 1998. From the existing data it is not clear if this 14 ppb increase over two years represents the beginning of a new upward trend in CH4. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2008 the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases has increased by 26.2%. The combined radiative forcing by halocarbons is nearly double that of N2O. Some halocarbons are decreasing slowly as a result of emission reductions under the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, whereas others are increasing rapidly. GAW is supporting the atmospheric component of the Integrated Global Carbon Observation System that assesses routinely the state of the global carbon budget and is aimed at better understanding atmospheric carbon sources and sinks through top-down inverse modelling.

Tarasova, Oksana A.; Braathen, Geir O.; Barrie, Leonard A.; Suda, Kazuto; Dlugokencky, Ed

2010-05-01

6

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations; these requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 16th meeting was held in Wellington, New Zealand, on 25 - 28 October 2011 (http://www.niwa.co.nz/our-science/atmosphere/ggmt-2011). Surface observations are made at more than 100 stations worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of stations for many other greenhouse gases. Results of the latest global analysis were published in the WMO/GAW Greenhouse Gas Bulletin in November 2011. It highlights the importance of N2O, the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2010, with CO2 at 389.0 ppm, CH4 at 1808 ppb and N2O at 323.2 ppb. These values are greater than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 39%, 158% and 20%, respectively. An increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2009 to 2010 amounted to 2.3 ppm, which is higher than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~ 1.5 ppm/yr) and the one for the past decade (~ 2.0 ppm/yr). The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~ 13 ppb/yr during the early 1980s to near zero from 1999 to 2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again. The 19 ppb rise from 2006 to 2009 was followed by a 5 ppb rise in 2010. The growth rate of N2O in 2010 was 0.8 ppb/yr which is comparable to the average over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb/yr). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2010, radiative forcing from nearly all long-lived greenhouse gases increased by 29% and reached 2.81W/m2, with CO2 accounting for nearly 80% of this increase. This radiative forcing corresponds to a CO2-eq mole fraction of 469.7 ppm, which falls in the middle of the IPCC AR4 category I scenario with CO2-eq in the range 445-490 ppm (corresponding to the projected global average temperature rise above pre-industrial level at equilibrium in the range of 2-2.4 degree C). The radiative forcing of N2O now exceeds that of CFC-12.

Tarasova, O. A.; Koide, H.; Dlugokencky, E.; Hall, B.; Montzka, S. A.; Krummel, P.; Brunke, E.; Scheel, H.-E.

2012-04-01

7

Global CO2 Distributions over Land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

January 2009 saw the successful launch of the first space-based mission specifically designed for measuring greenhouse gases, the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We present global land maps (Level 3 data) of column-averaged CO2 concentrations (X(sub CO2)) derived using observations from the GOSAT ACOS retrieval algorithm, for July through December 2009. The applied geostatistical mapping approach makes it possible to generate maps at high spatial and temporal resolutions that include uncertainty measures and that are derived directly from the Level 2 observations, without invoking an atmospheric transport model or estimates of CO2 uptake and emissions. As such, they are particularly well suited for comparison studies. Results show that the Level 3 maps for July to December 2009 on a lO x 1.250 grid, at six-day resolution capture much of the synoptic scale and regional variability of X(sub CO2), in addition to its overall seasonality. The uncertainty estimates, which reflect local data coverage, X(sub CO2) variability, and retrieval errors, indicate that the Southern latitudes are relatively well-constrained, while the Sahara Desert and the high Northern latitudes are weakly-constrained. A probabilistic comparison to the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA-GFED model reveals that the most statistically significant discrepancies occur in South America in July and August, and central Asia in September to December. While still preliminary, these results illustrate the usefulness of a high spatiotemporal resolution, data-driven Level 3 data product for direct interpretation and comparison of satellite observations of highly dynamic parameters such as atmospheric CO2.

Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; O'Dell, Christopher; Kawa, Randolph S.

2012-01-01

8

Global CO2 distributions over land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

January 2009 saw the successful launch of the first space-based mission specifically designed for measuring greenhouse gases, the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We present global land maps (Level 3 data) of column-averaged CO2 concentrations (XCO2) derived using observations from the GOSAT ACOS retrieval algorithm, for July through December 2009. The applied geostatistical mapping approach makes it possible to generate maps at high spatial and temporal resolutions that include uncertainty measures and that are derived directly from the Level 2 observations, without invoking an atmospheric transport model or estimates of CO2 uptake and emissions. As such, they are particularly well suited for comparison studies. Results show that the Level 3 maps for July to December 2009 on a 1° × 1.25° grid, at six-day resolution capture much of the synoptic scale and regional variability of XCO2, in addition to its overall seasonality. The uncertainty estimates, which reflect local data coverage, XCO2 variability, and retrieval errors, indicate that the Southern latitudes are relatively well-constrained, while the Sahara Desert and the high Northern latitudes are weakly-constrained. A probabilistic comparison to the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA-GFED model reveals that the most statistically significant discrepancies occur in South America in July and August, and central Asia in September to December. While still preliminary, these results illustrate the usefulness of a high spatiotemporal resolution, data-driven Level 3 data product for direct interpretation and comparison of satellite observations of highly dynamic parameters such as atmospheric CO2.

Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; O'Dell, Christopher; Kawa, S. Randolph

2012-04-01

9

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

EIA Publications

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

2011-01-01

10

Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

11

The Spatial and Temporal Representativeness of Atmospheric Observations of Greenhouse Gases at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous observations of trace species such as greenhouse gases (GHGs) made from ground-based stations contain excellent information in the time domain but no direct information about the spatial distribution of GHGs. Generally a rule-of-thumb is used for inferring horizontal length scales for specific time intervals, but this is approximate and does not give any indication about the specific contributions of advection and surface fluxes to GHG variability. We consider the first year of measurements from a new coastal background site in Namibia, the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory(NDAO) and apply a quantitative approach using footprints and back-trajectories to calculate a site-specific time to spatial scale conversion function. The extent of both horizontal and vertical transport exhibits seasonality and synoptic influence. The historical NOAA GHG flask record from nearby site GBB is also compared to the global background to assess how well regional and global trends are represented by observations at NDAO. Based on the results of the HYSPLIT and TM3 transport models, during austral summer the site receives marine boundary layer air with a greater extent of horizontal transport than in austral winter, when air masses are sourced from greater height and are more likely to be terrestrially influenced. This conclusion is supported by the trace gases and meteorological parameters measured at the station.

Morgan, Eric; Lavri?, Jošt; Heimann, Martin

2014-05-01

12

Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

1999-01-01

13

CARIBIC observations of greenhouse gases and non-methane hydrocarbons on flights between Germany and South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since May 2005 the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) has made near-monthly deployments of an atmospheric observatory making measurements from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 during routine passenger flights. Flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany and serve a large number of destinations, among them Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. On these flights, which took place primarily during northern hemisphere winter 2010/2011, a near-meridional profile was obtained over Europe and Africa, in similar fashion to HIPPO flight tracks over the Pacific, be it without vertical profiles. Over Central Africa, deep convection transports boundary layer air to the free troposphere, linking observations at cruise altitude to surface emissions and allowing for the investigation of emissions and sources of atmospherically relevant species in Africa. Mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (methane, carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide) and a suite of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude during flight. Several tracers, for example methane, carbon monoxide, and various NMHC, exhibit enhanced mixing ratios over tropical Africa. Using tracer-tracer correlations to characterize methane emissions from Africa, we find that biomass burning made a major contribution to the methane burden, but that also biogenic sources, such as wetlands, play a significant role. We also compare these measurements to those conducted earlier over India, which were used to investigate sources and emissions of greenhouse gases during the South Asian summer monsoon.

Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; van Velthoven, P.

2012-12-01

14

Detection of optical path in spectroscopic space-based observations of greenhouse gases: Application to GOSAT data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to detect optical path modification due to atmospheric light scattering in space-based greenhouse gas spectroscopic sounding. This method, which was applied to the analysis of radiance spectra measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), is based on the path length probability density function (PPDF) and on retrieval of PPDF parameters from radiance spectra in the oxygen A-band of absorption at 0.76 ?m. We show that these parameters can be effectively used to characterize the impact of atmospheric light scattering on carbon dioxide retrieval in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption bands at 1.6 ?m and 2.0 ?m. The threshold for PPDF parameters is set so that the optical-path modification is negligible, and these settings are recommended as a basic guideline for selecting the clearest atmospheric scenarios. An example of data processing for six global GOSAT repeat cycles in April and July 2009 shows that PPDF-based selection efficiently removes CO2 retrieval biases associated with subvisible cirrus and sandstorm activities.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Yokota, Tatsuya

2011-07-01

15

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01

16

Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes. PMID:21502165

Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

2011-05-28

17

Space-Based Measurements of CO2 from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space-based remote sensing observations hold substantial promise for future long-term monitoring of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. The principal advantages of space based measurements include: (1) Spatial coverage (especially over oceans and tropical land) (2) Sampling density (needed to resolve CO2 weather). The principal challenge is the need for high precision To reach their full potential, space based CO2 measurements must be validated against surface measurements to ensure their accuracy. The TCCON network is providing the transfer standard There is a need for a long-term vision to establish and address community priorities (1) Must incorporate ground, air, space-based assets and models (2) Must balance calls for new observations with need to maintain climate data records.

Crisp, David

2011-01-01

18

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01

19

Retrieval of greenhouse gases from space-based spectroscopic measurements with the photon pathlength probability density function method: application to GOSAT observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite “IBUKI” (GOSAT) is the world’s first satellite to observe concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) through the atmosphere. The spacecraft is in orbit since 23rd January, 2009. A large number of high-resolution spectroscopic observational data of reflected sunlight measured with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) are available from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). The major source of error in retrieving gas amounts from space-based measurements of reflected sunlight is atmospheric light scattering. Several algorithms have been developed in different groups throughout the world to process the GOSAT data for retrieving global and temporal distributions of the gas amounts. These algorithms mainly differ in how they account for atmospheric light scattering. This presentation describes application of the photon Path length Probability Density Function (PPDF) method to process GOSAT observations from three TANSO-FTS Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) bands (centered at 0.76 µm, 1.6 µm, and 2.0 µm). The retrieval procedure includes constrained minimization of the residual between the modeled and observed GOSAT spectra. We retrieve the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the greenhouse gases (XCO2 and XCH4) simultaneously with PPDF parameters from each GOSAT single sounding. PPDF parameters characterize light path shortening and light path lengthening that could take place depending on the amount and location of thin clouds and aerosols as well as depending on surface properties. As a part of validation study, we compared PPDF-based gas retrievals with those derived from FTS ground-based measurements over twelve sites included in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The sites are located in both the Southern (3 sites) and the Northern (9 sites) Hemispheres. TCCON is a reliable reference source of greenhouse gas measurements due to the direct solar-viewing geometry, which virtually eliminates the impact of atmospheric light scattering on the measurements. Both seasonal trends and pairwise GOSAT-TCCON statistical comparisons have been considered. We also evaluated XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals globally using atmospheric transport model.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Morino, Isamu; Yoshida, Yukio; Yokota, Tatsuya; Bril, Andrey

20

Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is on the press the year 2000, both published by the National Institute of Ecology of the SEMARNAT. There is not an emissions inventory of Veracruz, the few measurements campaigns that have been done in urban centers, it has not been possible to have access data, neither it has been designed a public politic that suggests the necessity of counting on information on the matter. In spite of it, because of the geographic conditions of Veracruz, the potential impact will transform Veracruz in a short period of time, that’s why the Veracruz University must leadership studies around it, where the social distribution of the obtained results will make possible the creation of politics, strategies directed to a sustainable development, economically viable, socially fair and environmentally respectful.

Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

2007-05-01

21

Transport of Greenhouse Gases in Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured in cultivated and natural regions, quantifying overall emissions for croplands, wetlands, and forests. However, segregation between soil and plant emissions is less clear, and the dynamics behind each respective emission type differs. Better defined plant transport mechanisms will yield more accurate determination of greenhouse gas flux, contributing to a comprehensive theory quantifying greenhouse gas emissions globally. While the mechanisms of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice have not been fully identified, for trees these mechanisms are virtually unknown. CH4 and N2O emissions from several species of tree (Alnus rubra, Populus trichocarpa, Thuja plicata, Fraxinus latifolia) native to the Pacific Northwest have been measured. To identify mechanisms of gas transport, correlation of emissions and stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis has been tested. A synthesis between plant physiological data and emissions is sought to elucidate the role plant physiology plays in the production and transport of CH4 and N2O. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER64515.

Kutschera, E.; Khalil, A. K.; Shearer, M.; Rosenstiel, T.

2009-12-01

22

Comparisons of aircraft measurements of greenhouse gases with GOSAT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profiles of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX). Airborne instruments measuring GHGs (Picarro Inc. G2301-m) and ozone (2B Technologies Inc., model 205) are installed in a wing pod and operated from NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, CA (37.415°N, 120.050°W). The in situ measurement instruments mounted on the aircraft yield precise and accurate vertical profiles of atmospheric GHGs and ozone. The purpose of this work is to validate GOSAT data and estimate from Alpha Jet measurements the contribution of GHGs from urban areas. We show the result of comparison of GOSAT and Alpha Jet measurements over Railroad Valley, NV and urban areas in Northern California. The Alpha Jet aircraft performs a measurement over the Railroad Valley (RRV) desert playa, Nevada (38.497°N, 115.691°W, 1437m above mean sea level) once a month for the comparison with Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) measurements from 2011. The GOSAT was developed to measure concentrations of CO2 and CH4 from space and has been in operation from 2009. The instruments onboard GOSAT are the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) (Kuze et al., 2009). The RRV playa is a flat, high altitude desert site and an area where local sources and sinks of carbon-species are expected to be minimal. The playa has virtually no vegetation and an overall size of 15 km× 15 km, which includes GOSAT's field of view. Reference Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Masakatsu Nakajima, and Takashi Hamazaki. Thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite for greenhouse gases monitoring. App. Opt., 48, 6716-6733, 2009.

Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.; Tadic, J.; Lopez, J. P.; Shiomi, K.; Kawakami, S.; kuze, A.; Yokota, T.

2013-12-01

23

Different greenhouse gases as a possible origin of the different behaviour of TIR anomalies observed from satellite in seismogenic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been suggesting for decades a relation between Thermal Infrared (TIR) anomalies, observed from satellite, and seismic activity. In particular, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) for the first time provided a statistics-based definition of \\

C. Aliano; R. Corrado; C. Filizzola; V. Lanorte; M. Lisi; R. Paciello; N. Pergola; V. Tramutoli; T. Tsamalashvili

2009-01-01

24

Signatures of Annual and Seasonal Variations of CO2 and Other Greenhouse Gases from Comparisons between NOAA TOVS Observations and Radiation Model Simulations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1979, sensors on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) series of polar meteorological satellites have provided continuous measurements of the earth's surface and atmosphere. One of these sensors, the Television Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS-N) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), observes earth-emitted radiation in the infrared-with the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS)-and in the microwave-with the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU)-portions of the spectrum. The NOAA and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Pathfinder program was designed to make these data more readily accessible to the community in the form of processed geophysical variables (temperature, water vapor, cloud characteristics, and so on) through the `interpretation' of the infrared and microwave radiances. All presently developed interpretation algorithms more or less directly rely on the comparison between a set of observed and a set of simulated radiances. For that reason, the accuracy of the simulation directly influences that of the interpretation of radiances in terms of thermodynamic variables. Comparing simulations to observations is the key to a better knowledge of the main sources of errors affecting either the former or the latter. Instrumental radiometric problems, radiosonde, surface data, and forward radiative transfer model limitations as well as difficulties raised by differences in space and in time of satellite and radiosonde observations (collocations) have long been studied in detail. Less attention has been paid to errors, presumed negligible, generated by the absence of consideration of main absorbing gases (CO2, N2O, CO, O3, and so on) atmospheric seasonal cycles and/or annual trends. In this paper, all important sources of variability of the observations and of the simulations are first reviewed. Then it is shown that analyzing, at different timescales (seasonal, annual), the departures between simulated and observed NOAA TOVS brightness temperatures reveals signatures of these greenhouse gases' concentration variations. Not only the shape of the seasonal variations (locations of the peaks) is in good agreement with what is presently known, but also their amplitude (peak-to-peak) matches relatively well the values predicted from a line-by-line radiative transfer model. Moreover, annual trends correspond very well with the known increase in concentration of gases such as CO2 or N2O, as a result of human activities. Limits of such an analysis are discussed: the most significant one finds its origin in the modest spectral resolution of the TOVS channels that integrate signatures from several absorbers and from many atmospheric layers. However, results from this work leave some hope to extract from these channels interesting information on CO2, N2O, and CO distributions. These results also strengthen the hope to improve greatly the knowledge of the global distribution of a variety of radiatively active gases with the coming second generation of vertical sounders such as NASA's Advanced Infrared Radiation Sounder (AIRS) or the CNES/Eumetsat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI), both characterized by a much higher spectral resolution.

Chédin, Alain; Serrar, Soumia; Armante, Raymond; Scott, Noëlle A.; Hollingsworth, Anthony

2002-01-01

25

Measuring the Heat Capacity of Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quantitative experiment involves lab teams in comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and measuring their heat capacity. The activity requires an infrared heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2L beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probe, volumetric flasks, a graduated cylinder, and tubing. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and becomes CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. A worksheet guides student calculations of heat capacity of the different samples. The investigation s is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

26

A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

Keating, C. F.

2007-01-01

27

40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section...further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air...

2010-07-01

28

Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change.  

PubMed

Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO(2) greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO(2), so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. Although it is clear that sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with substantial cuts in emissions of CO(2), reducing non-CO(2) greenhouse gas emissions would be a relatively quick way of contributing to this goal. PMID:21814274

Montzka, S A; Dlugokencky, E J; Butler, J H

2011-08-01

29

Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

1988-01-01

30

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997 publication was prepared under the guidance of Mary Hutzler, Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration. This report "presents the latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases." The paper states that 82% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are caused by coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Gases such as hydroflourocarbons (HFCs), perflourocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, methane, and other carbon dioxide gases comprise the other 18% of U.S. emissions. The paper provides an in-depth analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Methane Emissions, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Halocarbons and Other Gases, and Land Use Issues, among others.

31

Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

Hansen, James E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

1990-08-01

32

Synthetic greenhouse gases to decline if Montreal Protocol amended  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Montreal Protocol, an international treaty designed to reduce the release into the atmosphere of ozone-depleting gases such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons, has been successful since its implementation in the late 1980s. However, related greenhouse gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), have increased in concentration in the atmosphere since then. HFCs, along with other synthetic greenhouse gases (SGHGs), account for a radiative forcing almost 20% as large as that due to the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) since the preindustrial era.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-07-01

33

Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

1989-01-01

34

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

SciTech Connect

This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

2011-02-01

35

Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs  

E-print Network

Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 5 1.2 F-GASES 7 1.2.1 HFCs 10 1.2.2 Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 ) 10 1.2.3 Per fluorinated OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

36

Production of Greenhouse Gases in The Atmosphere of Early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars was much warmer and wetter 3.5 to 4 billion years ago than it is today, suggesting that its climate was able to support life in the distant past. Carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases which may have kept Mars warm during this time. We explore the possibility that these gases were produced via grain-catalyzed reactions in the warm, dusty aftermath of large comet and/or asteroid impacts which delivered Mars, volatile inventory.

Kress, Monika E.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

37

Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases. Chapter 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which regulates the lifetime of almost every atmospheric gas. Following biomass burning, biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane are significantly enhanced. It is hypothesized that enhanced postburn biogenic emissions of these gases are related to fire-induced changes in soil chemistry and/or microbial ecology. Biomass burning, once believed to be a tropical phenomenon, has been demonstrated by satellite imagery to also be a regular feature of the world's boreal forests. One example of biomass burning is the extensive 1987 fire that destroyed more than 12 million acres of boreal forest in the People's Republic of China and across its border in the Soviet Union. Recent estimates indicate that almost all biomass burning is human-initiated and that it is increasing with time. With the formation of greenhouse and chemically active gases as direct combustion products and a longer-term enhancement of biogenic emissions of gases, biomass burning may be a significant driver for global change.

Levine, Joel S.

1994-01-01

38

Integrity of the Emerging Global Markets in Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the integrity of the emerging emissions allowance markets for greenhouse gases (GHG) under the international emissions trading system created by the Kyoto Protocol and the parallel European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. In particular, we suggest that accepted definitions of emissions baselines, initial allocation of emission credits, verification of “additionality” for GHG reduction beyond what would have occurred

Barry D. Solomon; Michael K. Heiman

2010-01-01

39

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM DEFORESTATION IN BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA: NET COMMITTED EMISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia is a significant source of greenhouse gases today and, with almost 90% of the originally forested area still uncleared, is a very large potential source of future emissions. The 1990 rate of loss of forest (13.8 × 103 km2\\/year) and cerrado savanna (approximately 5 × 103 km2\\/year) was responsible for releasing approximately 261 × 106 metric

PHILIP M. Fearnside

1997-01-01

40

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

SciTech Connect

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01

41

Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a~warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called faint young sun problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4, and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone at 2.8 Gyr BP (80% of present solar luminosity), 0.32 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric N2, 0.20 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric N2, or 0.11 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 W m-2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1, or 2 bar, likely limiting the utility of CH4 for warming the Archean. For the other 26 HITRAN gases, radiative forcings of up to a few to 10 W m-2 are obtained from concentrations of 0.1-1 ppmv for many gases. For the 20 strongest gases, we calculate the reduction in radiative forcing due to overlap. We also tabulate the modern sources, sinks, concentrations, and lifetimes of these gases and summaries the literature on Archean sources and concentrations. We recommend the forcings provided here be used both as a first reference for which gases are likely good greenhouse gases, and as a standard set of calculations for validation of radiative forcing calculations for the Archean.

Byrne, B.; Goldblatt, C.

2014-10-01

42

Greenhouse Gases and the Kyoto Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme UNEP/ GRID Arendal Website (described in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) summarizes greenhouse gas emissions for 1998 and provides projections for 2010. The maps and statistics presented here are based on data collected by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the international summit in The Hague, November 2000. Units for totals are "thousands of metric tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) equivalent units," and for emissions per capita, the units are "tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) equivalent per person." In every case, emissions from industrialized nations are what the viewer might expect. Nevertheless, the comparison of 1998 and projected future levels is certainly instructive. A series of links provides access to additional related information.

2001-01-01

43

A review of research on human activity induced climate change I. Greenhouse gases and aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive research on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, carbon cycle modeling, and the characterization of atmospheric aerosols has been carried out in China during the last 10 years or so. This paper presents the major achievements in the fields of emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural lands, carbon cycle modeling, the characterization of Asian mineral dust, source identification of the precursors of the tropospheric ozone, and observations of the concentrations of atmospheric organic compounds. Special, more detailed information on the emissions of methane from rice fields and the physical and chemical characteristics of mineral aerosols are presented.

Wang, Mingxing; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Xin

2004-06-01

44

76 FR 61293 - Extension of Public Comment Period: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the...and Natural Gas Systems Categories of the...Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the...and Natural Gas Systems Categories of the...Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the...and Natural Gas Systems Categories of...

2011-10-04

45

Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

1981-01-01

46

Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy to fuel cellular functions. "We think this chemical process did not exist when life first formed on Earth," he says, "because it is based on oxygen being available, and there was little oxygen available on the early Earth." It is possible that there are anaerobic regions beneath the sea floor in which life forms like those early non-Krebs Cycle microbes may yet exist. To detect and potentially collect samples of life emerging from hydrothermal vents, Flynn and his colleagues created Medusa, a multi-sensor instrument designed for long-term observation of diked vents on the ocean floor. When the vents erupt, Medusa assesses indicators of life within the expelled water. If the results are positive, the observatory collects samples and detaches from the ocean floor, making the long journey to the surface for retrieval by scientists. One of the indicators Medusa measures is the ratio of carbon isotopes in the water, namely carbon-12 and carbon-13. Living organisms preferentially take up carbon-12, Flynn says, so examining the ratio of these isotopes can help to determine the source of carbon in an environment as either biological or non-biological. "On Mars, there is evidence of localized methane in the atmosphere, and that methane could come from biological sources or from geochemical ones," Flynn says. "Determining the background planetary carbon isotope ratios and then evaluating the specific carbon ratios in this methane would help to determine how it was formed." A long-duration observatory similar to Medusa could one day provide essential evidence for or against the presence of life on the Red Planet or beneath the ice-crusted oceans of Europa.

2012-01-01

47

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and  

E-print Network

% Mobile combustion sources ~ 14 % Nitric acid production ~ 5 % HFCs, PFCs, SF66 Substution of ozone - 11700 Sulphur hexafluoride, SF66 23900 - depleting gases ~ 36 % HCFC-22 production ~ 27 % Electrical transmission and production ~ 17 % HELSINKI

Zevenhoven, Ron

48

Observational determination of the greenhouse effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

1989-01-01

49

75 FR 70254 - PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0841; FRL-9228-2] PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases...posted its guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases...recently posted guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse...

2010-11-17

50

Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases  

E-print Network

Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called Faint Young Sun Problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4 and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone at 2.8 Gyr BP (80% of present solar luminosity), 0.32 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric N2, 0.20 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric N2, or 0.11 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 Wm-2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1 or 2 bar, likely limiting ...

Byrne, Brendan

2014-01-01

51

High-Resolution Urban Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases and Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate measurements of greenhouse gases and pollutants in urban areas with high spatial and temporal resolution allow scientists and policy makers determine source contributions, monitor pollution migration, and validate air quality models. Currently, these applications are limited by the poor spatial resolution of fixed air monitoring stations. We present very high-resolution measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, NH3 and NO2 taken throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, California using a flexible mobile monitoring platform. These measurements cover several highly urban and coastal regions that were repeatedly monitored over the course of several months. The data clearly shows the presence of several discrete sources and the migration of pollution through adjacent neighborhoods. Moreover, this validation study demonstrates the ease of mobile monitoring and the possibility of extending this platform to several other gas species (H2S, HF, HCl, NO, and others).

Baer, D. S.; Leen, J.; Gupta, M.; Graves, L.

2012-12-01

52

Greenhouse gases in the Earth system: setting the agenda to 2030.  

PubMed

What do we need to know about greenhouse gases? Over the next 20 years, how should scientists study the role of greenhouse gases in the Earth system and the changes that are taking place? These questions were addressed at a Royal Society scientific Discussion Meeting in London on 22-23 February 2010, with over 300 participants. PMID:21502164

Manning, Andrew C; Nisbet, Euan G; Keeling, Ralph F; Liss, Peter S

2011-05-28

53

Use of 222Rn for estimation of greenhouse gases emissions at Russian territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that 222Rn is widely used as a tracer for studying different atmospheric processes including estimations of greenhouse gases emissions. Calculation of 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere allows quantitative estimation of greenhouse gases emissions having the soil origin or sources of which are located near the surface. For accurate estimation of 222Rn fluxes detailed

E. V. Berezina; N. F. Elansky

2009-01-01

54

Lidar development for measuring greenhouse gases in Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based lidars have been widely used for greenhouse gas measurements. The APSOS (Atmospheric Profiling Synthetic Observation System) is currently being developed for measuring the range-resolved concentrations of O3, CO2 and H2O using DIAL and Raman lidar techniques. By combining active laser remote sensing instrumentation with a passive terahertz spectrometer, the APSOS will be taking long-term mesurements over Tibetan Pleateau.

Pan, W.; Lu, D.

2012-12-01

55

Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in the absence of threats from climate change and ocean acidification. Therefore, these measures represent “no regrets” policy options for the marine environment. Nevertheless, even with adaptive policies in place, continued greenhouse gas emissions increasingly risk damaging marine ecosystems and the human communities that depend on them.

Caldeira, K.

2010-12-01

56

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06

57

Diurnal cycle of greenhouse gases and biogenic hydrocarbons during summer near Cool, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosynthesis by forests is a large sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and also a large source of biogenic volatile organics (VOCs) that produce aerosols, nucleate clouds, and interact with nitrogen oxides (NOx) to produce ozone. To elucidate these complex biogeochemical mechanisms, we performed continuous high temporal resolution measurements of CO2, VOC, trace gases, and aerosol in June 2010 at the T1 site, 70 km from Sacramento, CA, during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010. Throughout the month we find that diurnal profiles exhibit minima in CO2 and maxima in isoprene during daytime. Both their amplitudes are modulated strongly by cloud cover consistent with a common photosynthetic mechanism. In contrast, we find that diurnal monoterpene profiles peak at night while CO2 is at its maxima. Their amplitudes are modulated by temperature and boundary layer height. The monoterpenes and CO2 cycle show larger increases at warmer temperatures, suggesting respiration as a common driver. Additional measurements of CH4, CO, benzene, toluene, NO, NOy and O3 are used to define biogeochemical cycling of greenhouse gases and are demonstrated as a baseline for separating anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and observing transport of greenhouse gases and air pollution.

Flowers, B. A.; Floerchinger, C.; Knighton, W. B.; Dubey, M. K.; Herndon, S. C.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Shaw, W. J.; Barnard, J.; Laulainen, N.; Zaveri, R. A.

2010-12-01

58

Sedimentary basins and greenhouse gases: a serendipitous association  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a natural association of sedimentary basins and fossil fuels. Therefore, we should expect a relation between the sedimentary basin, the exploitation of its fossil fuels, and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide is the dominant greenhouse gas resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, and it comprises more than half of all man-made greenhouse gas emissions. Among

Brian Hitchon; W. D. Gunter; Thomas Gentzis; R. T. Bailey

1999-01-01

59

Increasing greenhouse gases lead to dramatic thinning of the upper atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) analyzed changes in the orbits of selected objects to derive the yearly average density encountered by each object in different levels of the atmosphere. After adjusting for other factors, the data from every object indicated a long-term decline in the density of the thermosphere. It was found that the observed decrease in density with increased distance in the troposphere depends on height in the same way as predicted by the theoretical simulations, indicating that greenhouse gases are a likely source of the change.

Agu

60

Use of 222Rn for estimation of greenhouse gases emissions at Russian territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that 222Rn is widely used as a tracer for studying different atmospheric processes including estimations of greenhouse gases emissions. Calculation of 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere allows quantitative estimation of greenhouse gases emissions having the soil origin or sources of which are located near the surface. For accurate estimation of 222Rn fluxes detailed investigations of spatial and temporal variations of its concentrations are necessary. 222Rn concentrations data in the atmospheric surface layer over continental Russia from Moscow to Vladivostok obtained during the six TROICA (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) expeditions of the mobile laboratory along the Trans-Siberian railroad are analyzed. Spatial distribution, diurnal and seasonal variations of surface 222Rn concentrations along the Trans-Siberian railroad are investigated. According to the obtained data surface 222Rn concentration values above continental Russia vary from 0.5 to 75 Bq/m3 depending on meteorological conditions and geological features of the territory with the average value being 8.42 ± 0.10 Bq/m3. The average 222Rn concentration is maximum in the autumn expedition and minimum in the spring one. The factors mostly influencing 222Rn concentration variations are studied: surface temperature inversions, geological features of the territory, precipitations. 222Rn accumulation features in the atmospheric surface layer during night temperature inversions are analyzed. It was noted that during night temperature inversions the surface 222Rn concentration is 7 - 8 times more than the one during the nights without temperature inversions. Since atmospheric stratification determines accumulation and diurnal variations of many atmospheric pollutants as well as greenhouse gases its features are analyzed in detail. Surface temperature inversions were mainly observed from 18:00-19:00 to 06:00-07:00 in the warm season and from 16:00 to 08:00-09:00 in the cold season. During this time 222Rn accumulated in the surface atmospheric layer with its maximum concentration values being observed near sunrise. 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere from Moscow to Vladivostok during surface temperature inversions are estimated taking into account geological factors. 222Rn accumulation layer depth in the lower atmosphere is calculated. Using the data of CO2, CH4 and 222Rn concentrations obtained in the expeditions we analyzed correlations between the greenhouse gases and 222Rn. There are significant positive correlations between CO2, CH4 and 222Rn concentrations during night temperature inversions especially in summer and in autumn. It indicates similar accumulation both 222Rn and the greenhouse gases in the surface layer during atmospheric stability. On the basis of the regressions between 222Rn, CO2 and CH4 concentrations the greenhouse gases night time fluxes in the surface layer from Moscow to Vladivostok are estimated using the calculated values of 222Rn fluxes. Acknowledgments. The work was supported by International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) under contract No. 2770 and by Russian Basic Research Foundation (project No. 08-05-13589, 07-05-12063 and 07-05-00428). The authors thank I. B. Belikov for preparation and carrying out the TROICA experiments.

Berezina, E. V.; Elansky, N. F.

2009-04-01

61

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-print Network

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01

62

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10

63

Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NOx, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone

V. Ramanathan; Y. Feng

2009-01-01

64

The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central

J. T. Kiehl; B. P. Briegleb

1993-01-01

65

Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angles Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases and pollutants including CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse

D. Fu; S. P. Sander; T. J. Pongetti; R. Cheung; J. Stutz

2010-01-01

66

The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central Europe. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols contribute a globally averaged annual forcing of -0.3 watt per square meter as compared with +2.1 watts per square meter for greenhouse gases. Sources of the difference in magnitude with the previous estimate of Charlson et al. (1992) are discussed.

Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

1993-01-01

67

Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, -0.7 m a.s.l.). Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO, for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentration gradients with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations. The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500-700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000-2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr-1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr-1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr-1; for CO no significant trend could be detected. The influences of strong local sources and sinks are reflected in the amplitude of the mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25-30 ppm (higher value for lower sampling levels). The observed CH4 seasonal amplitude is 50-110 ppb. All gases except N2O show highest concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer, N2O observations show two additional concentration maxima in early summer and in autumn. Seasonal cycles of the day-time mean concentrations show that surface concentrations or high elevation concentrations alone do not give a representative value for the boundary layer concentrations, especially in winter time, but that the vertical profile data along the mast can be used to construct a useful boundary layer mean value. The variability at Cabauw in the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 on time scales of minutes to hours is several ppm and is much larger than the precision of the measurements (0.1 ppm). The diurnal and synoptical variability of the concentrations at Cabauw carry information on the sources and sinks in the footprint area of the mast, that will be useful in combination with inverse atmospheric transport model to verify emission estimates and improve ecosystem models. For this purpose a network of tall tower stations like Cabauw forms a very useful addition to the existing global observing network for greenhouse gases.

Vermeulen, A. T.; Hensen, A.; Popa, M. E.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.

2011-03-01

68

Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, -0.7 m a.s.l.). Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentrations gradient with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations. The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500-700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the global values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000-2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr-1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr-1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr-1; for CO no significant trend could be detected. The strong local sources and sinks reflect in the amplitude of mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25-30 ppm (higher value for lower levels). CH4 seasonal amplitude observed is 50-110 ppb. All gases except N2O show highest concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer, N2O observations show two additional concentrations maxima in early summer and in autumn. Seasonal cycles of the day-time mean concentrations show that surface concentrations or high elevation concentrations alone do not give a representative value for the boundary layer concentrations, especially in winter time, but that the vertical profile data along the mast can be used to construct a useful boundary layer mean value. The variability at Cabauw in the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 on time scales of minutes to hours is several ppm and is much larger than the precision of the measurements (0.1 ppm). The diurnal and synoptical variability of the concentrations at Cabauw carry information on the sources and sinks in the footprint area of the mast, that is and will be used in combination with inverse atmospheric transport model to verify emission estimates and improve ecosystem models. For this purpose a network of tall tower stations like Cabauw is a very useful addition to the existing global observing network for greenhouse gases.

Vermeulen, A. T.; Hensen, A.; Popa, M. E.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.

2010-09-01

69

Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2010-11-15

70

Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and  

E-print Network

Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 5 1.2 F-GASES 7 1.2.1 HFCs 10 1.2.2 Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 ) 10 1.2.3 Per fluorinated OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

71

The Importance of Ecosystem Thresholds in Assessing Safe Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a major strategic challenge in the public debate about global environmental change related to concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that might lead to environmentally, socially, and economically unacceptable impacts. This project takes one approach to this problem: avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" and "allowing ecosystems to adapt." But these phrases implicitly assume that the influences of climate change are likely to be gradual and that there will be substantial time for natural resources to adapt or for managers to cope with change. The current state of the science suggests that something quite different may be in the offing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other assessments of possible impacts now agree on two important points. One is that there is already well-documented evidence of the biological and ecological consequences of climate change - in the behavior of migratory birds, in corals bleached from the influence of warming ocean temperatures, in the loss of glaciers to warming air temperatures, and in the loss of sea grass beds to sea level rise. The second is that ecological systems may not in fact change gradually. Modeling studies and the historical record both suggest that changes in ecosystems can be rapid, large, and sometimes irreversible, i.e., there are thresholds that, once crossed, will present serious coping challenges to humans. Moreover, as suggested in a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) workshop on "Understanding and Responding to Multiple Environmental Stresses," dealing with threshold responses that may lead to sudden and dramatic change in societal or environmental structure and function will also require that we develop ways to proceed with decision-making despite the many uncertainties associated with thresholds. These observations present serious challenges to the modeling frameworks used in integrated assessment. Not only do the models have to characterize the dynamic behavior of ecosystems as they cross thresholds, but they also have to represent adaptation strategies that are promoted to cope with such sudden or irreversible changes. A major challenge in the discussion over the implications of tipping points and thresholds in natural resources and management systems is what lessons there are for debates over targets for concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Are there levels of greenhouse gases that would protect against ecosystems exhibiting tipping point behavior, for example? How does uncertainty in our knowledge of either the resources or the climate system influence margins of safety? What models and analytical tools are available for conducting the analyses that are needed to address these questions. The JGCRI's suite of integrated assessment models provide a systematic way of simulating different emissions and concentration scenarios that can then be used to investigate the climate triggers for ecological tipping points and thresholds.

Janetos, A. C.

2007-12-01

72

Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

Cess, R.; Owen, T.

1973-01-01

73

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-06-18

74

Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

2010-01-01

75

Greenhouse Effects due to Man-Made Perturbations of Trace Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral region 7 to 14 ..mu..m and contribute to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. The concentrations of these trace gases may undergo substantial changes because of man's activities. Extensive use of chemical fertilizers and combustion of fossil fuels may perturb

W. C. Wang; Y. L. Yung; A. A. Lacis; T. Mo; J. E. Hansen

1976-01-01

76

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GREENHOUSE GASES FROM A SOLAR CELL POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission from electricity generation sector is a subject of great debate. In order to design sustainable electricity generation scenarios, the reduction options should be assessed from an environmental life cycle perspective. Thus, life cycle assessment or LCA is used as a tool in this study for assessing the GHGs emission entire the

Muanjit Chamsilpa; Sate Sampattagul; Yucho Sadamichi; Natanee Vorayos; Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

77

D) Kinetic Study of Key Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases  

E-print Network

O(1 D) Kinetic Study of Key Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases Munkhbayar Baasandorj Supporting Information ABSTRACT: A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs and photochemical parameters for the atmospheric loss processes of key ozone depleting substances (ODSs

Jackman, Charles H.

78

Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This review examines the interactions between soil physical factors and the biological processes respon- sible for the production and consumption in soils of greenhouse gases. The release of CO2 by aerobic respiration is a non-linear function of temperature over a wide range of soil water contents, but becomes a function of water content as a soil dries out. Some

K. A. S MITH; F. C ONEN; K. E. D OBBIE; A. R EY

2003-01-01

79

Moisture effects on greenhouse gases generation in nitrifying gas-phase compost biofilters.  

PubMed

Gas-phase compost biofilters are extensively used in concentrated animal feeding operations to remove odors and, in some cases, ammonia from air sources. The expected biochemical pathway for these predominantly aerobic systems is nitrification. However, non-uniform media with low oxygen levels can shift biofilter microbial pathways to denitrification, a source of greenhouse gases. Several factors contribute to the formation of anoxic/anaerobic zones: media aging, media and particle structure, air velocity distribution, compaction, biofilm thickness, and moisture content (MC) distribution. The present work studies the effects of media moisture conditions on ammonia (NH(3)) removal and greenhouse gas generation (nitrous oxide, N(2)O and methane, CH(4)) for gas-phase compost biofilters subject to a 100-day controlled drying process. Continuous recordings were made for the three gases and water vapor (2.21-h sampling cycle, each cycle consisted of three gas species, and water vapor, for a total of 10,050 data points). Media moisture conditions were classified into three corresponding media drying rate (DR) stages: Constant DR (wetter media), falling DR, and stable-dry system. The first-half of the constant DR period (0-750 h; MC=65-52%, w.b.) facilitated high NH(3) removal rates, but higher N(2)O generation and no CH(4) generation. At the drier stages of the constant DR (750-950 h; MC=52-48%, w.b.) NH(3) removal remained high but N(2)O net generation decreased to near zero. In the falling DR stage (1200-1480 h; MC=44-13%) N(2)O generation decreased, CH(4) increased, and NH(3) was no longer removed. No ammonia removal or greenhouse gas generation was observed in the stable-dry system (1500-2500 h; MC=13%). These results indicate that media should remain toward the drier region of the constant DR (in close proximity to the falling DR stage; MC=50%, approx.), to maintain high levels of NH(3) removal, reduced levels of N(2)O generation, and nullify levels of CH(4) generation. PMID:22465726

Maia, Guilherme D N; Day, George B; Gates, Richard S; Taraba, Joseph L; Coyne, Mark S

2012-06-01

80

Greenhouse warming by minor gases on early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early atmospheres of Earth and Mars were non-oxidizing mixtures likely derived from volcanic outgassing of a silicate mantle, with some fraction of the volatiles also contributed by impacting comets and meteorites. Here the authors investigate the potential of minor atmospheric constituents produced by ultraviolet and auroral chemistry to contribute to the thermal opacity of early Earth and Mars atmospheres. Using a very simple two-stream thermal opacity model, the authors show that HCN at 10 parts per million (ppm) and N2O at 100 ppm can each block radiation in thermal infrared windows sufficiently to increase the surface temperature by 7 K separately, or 14 K together. Small quantities of other species are also produced in such experiments. Some of these have especially complex infrared spectra and should be further investigated for their potential to help close windows in the CO2 + H2O infrared transmission. Enhancement of greenhouse warming by minor atmospheric species different from those present in today's atmosphere may have played important roles in the climate of early Earth and Mars.

Heinrich, M. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.

1992-01-01

81

Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?  

PubMed Central

While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

Schmidt, C W

2001-01-01

82

Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ~ 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 × 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

Gillett, Nathan P.; Damon Matthews, H.

2010-07-01

83

Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases  

PubMed Central

Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO2 greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a given greenhouse gas concentration but also on climate system behavior, particularly the timescales of heat transfer linked to the ocean. For carbon dioxide and methane, nonlinear optical absorption effects also play a smaller but significant role in prolonging the warming. In effect, dampening factors that slow temperature increase during periods of increasing concentration also slow the loss of energy from the Earth’s climate system if radiative forcing is reduced. Approaches to climate change mitigation options through reduction of greenhouse gas or aerosol emissions therefore should not be expected to decrease climate change impacts as rapidly as the gas or aerosol lifetime, even for short-lived species; such actions can have their greatest effect if undertaken soon enough to avoid transfer of heat to the deep ocean. PMID:20937898

Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.; Sanford, Todd J.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2010-01-01

84

Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

2014-08-01

85

Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

1976-01-01

86

Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?  

SciTech Connect

Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

Wang, S-Y (Simon); Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2013-09-01

87

On the additivity of radiative forcing between land use change and greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

scientific and policy contexts, radiative forcing—an external change in Earth's mean radiative balance—has been suggested as a metric for evaluating the strength of climate perturbations resulting from different climate change drivers such as greenhouse gases and surface physical effects of land use change. However, the utility of this approach has been questioned given the spatially concentrated and sometimes nonradiative nature of land use climate disturbances. Here we show that when negative forcing from agricultural expansion is approximately balanced by a radiatively equivalent increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, significant changes in temperature, precipitation, and the timing of climate change result. These idealized experiments demonstrate the nonadditivity of radiative forcing from land use change and greenhouse gases and point to the need for new climate change metrics or the development of climate policies and assessment protocols that do not rely on single dimensional metrics.

Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Torn, Margaret S.

2013-08-01

88

Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release.  

PubMed

Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best ways to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. PMID:15259957

Guibelin, E

2004-01-01

89

Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, Process Studies and Modelling (MAMM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is a major source of atmospheric methane and other greenhouse gases, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Arctic greenhouse gas sources need to be quantified, by strength, geographic location, character (e.g. wetlands, gas fields, hydrates), and by temporal variation (daily, seasonally and annually), and their vulnerability to change assessed. To this end, the MAMM project was commissioned as part of the NERC Arctic Research Programme. It involves an integrated series of measurement and modelling activities. Analysis of atmospheric gas concentrations, isotopic character, and source fluxes, are being made from both the ground and from the FAAM aircraft. The measurements (historic and new) are being interpreted using a suite of models (trajectory, forward and inverse) to improve the understanding of the local/regional scale, placing the role of Arctic emissions in the context of large-scale global atmospheric change. The first measurement campaign was held in August 2012. Surface flux measurements were made at the Sodankylä research station in Finland, together with in-situ surface and aircraft measurements over a wider area. In addition to flights over the Sodankylä wetlands, the aircraft also flew out to Svalbard to investigate marine sources of methane. Further campaigns are taking place in Sweden in August and September 2013. The initial measurements have been used to infer wetland emission fluxes and confirm that Scandinavian wetlands are a major source of methane in this region. The aircraft also measured a high-CH4 plume over the sea between Norway and Svalbard, which was likely advected from mainland wetland sources. An overview of results from the field campaign will be presented, alongside results from the NAME model (the UK Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) to help understand the air mass histories of the observations.

Pyle, John; Cain, Michelle; Warwick, Nicola

2014-05-01

90

The impact of greenhouse gases on past changes in tropospheric ozone  

E-print Network

. Olsen,2,3 A. R. Douglass,3 Q. Liang,3,4 J. E. Nielsen,3,5 L. D. Oman,3 S. Pawson,3 and R. S. Stolarski1 velocities and water vapor. Citation: Lang, C., D. W. Waugh, M. A. Olsen, A. R. Douglass, Q. Liang, J. E. Nielsen, L. D. Oman, S. Pawson, and R. S. Stolarski (2012), The impact of greenhouse gases on past changes

Waugh, Darryn W.

91

Investigating high concentrations of three greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Montreal Protocol of 1987 calling for the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances, HCFCs and HFCs were introduced as alternatives despite still being greenhouse gases with high global warming potentials. In this study, whole air samples were collected during four research flights over Southern California aboard the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory as part of the NASA Student Airborne Science Program. These samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a suite of detectors for many compounds, including HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a. HCFC-22 is primarily used as a refrigerant, while HFC-134a and HFC-152a are also used as aerosol propellants and foam blowing agents. High concentrations of these three compounds were observed for samples taken at low altitudes over urban areas around Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Exceptionally high concentrations were seen for all three compounds in samples taken near the Ontario and San Bernardino airports. Concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a were enhanced above background levels near other airports sampled in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley. It is clear that concentrations of these three gases are higher in the San Bernardino Valley than in the Los Angeles Basin, and locations with exceptionally high concentrations were investigated to identify potential point sources. Concentrations of these three compounds were also compared to data from past SARP missions and data collected at Trinidad Head, California since 2005 as part of the AGAGE network. Comparison of the average values for each of these campaigns reveal that the background concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a are all increasing with a strong linear trend in Southern California.

Kirpes, R.; Blake, D. R.; Marrero, J.

2013-12-01

92

European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases inferred from atmospheric measurements.  

PubMed

European emissions of nine representative halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, Halon 1211, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-22, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-152a) are derived for the year 2009 by combining long-term observations in Switzerland, Italy, and Ireland with campaign measurements from Hungary. For the first time, halocarbon emissions over Eastern Europe are assessed by top-down methods, and these results are compared to Western European emissions. The employed inversion method builds on least-squares optimization linking atmospheric observations with calculations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The aggregated halocarbon emissions over the study area are estimated at 125 (106-150) Tg of CO(2) equiv/y, of which the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) make up the most important fraction with 41% (31-52%). We find that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from banks are still significant and account for 35% (27-43%) of total halocarbon emissions in Europe. The regional differences in per capita emissions are only small for the HFCs, while emissions of CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) tend to be higher in Western Europe compared to Eastern Europe. In total, the inferred per capita emissions are similar to estimates for China, but 3.5 (2.3-4.5) times lower than for the United States. Our study demonstrates the large benefits of adding a strategically well placed measurement site to the existing European observation network of halocarbons, as it extends the coverage of the inversion domain toward Eastern Europe and helps to better constrain the emissions over Central Europe. PMID:22192076

Keller, Christoph A; Hill, Matthias; Vollmer, Martin K; Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Arduini, Jgor; Maione, Michela; Ferenczi, Zita; Haszpra, Laszlo; Manning, Alistair J; Peter, Thomas

2012-01-01

93

Assessment of Public Perception of Greenhouse Gases as Precursor to Climate Change Mitigation in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rising concentrations of both CO2 and Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in the earth's atmosphere are leading to global climate change. The need to address this climate change has gained momentum in recent times, and as a result public awareness of such greenhouse gases serves as a precursor to climatic change mitigation strategy. Therefore, this study entails collection of information about public perception of Climate Change and identification of carbon dioxide, methane, fluorocarbons, and aerosols as contributors to climate forcing. The assessment was completed using conventional survey technique applied amid 1000 people in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. The results show 34.9%, 23.6%, 4.5%, 12.3% and 0.2% levels of recognition or understanding of climate change, carbon dioxide, methane, fluorocarbons and aerosols respectively. The results reveal that public awareness of climate change is low in the study area, while Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases as contributor to Climate Change is extremely low compared to CO2. The study is a preliminary effort to elicit public views and therefore, would assist decision makers and enhance communication with the public in the context of Science and Environment Policy.

Nwankwo, L.

2013-12-01

94

Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

Larson, D.L.

1994-01-01

95

Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitas and populations in the northern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect CO[sub 2] has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains. Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled CO[sub 2] scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify. 113 refs., 1 fig.

Larson, D.L. (Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, ND (United States))

1994-04-01

96

Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10-2, -1.85 × 10-3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10-1 and 3.37 × 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

2012-12-01

97

A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics. Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail. The automation software employs a new approach relying on multiple processes, database logging and web-based remote control. First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide parts of the diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months. After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

Geibel, M. C.; Gerbig, C.; Feist, D. G.

2010-10-01

98

Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas  

E-print Network

economy standards on motor vehicles by states such as California. But the states have also targeted stationary sources of greenhouse gases. In particular, they have sought to minimize carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. States have used...

Glicksman, Robert L.

2008-04-01

99

Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore how the Earth's atmosphere affects the energy balance between incoming and outgoing radiation. Using an interactive model, adjust realistic parameters such as how many clouds are present or how much carbon dioxide is in the air, and watch how these factors affect the global temperature.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-13

100

Greenhouse Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... global population has increased and our reliance on fossil fuels (such as coal, oil and natural gas) has ... agricultural sources for the gas, some industrial processes (fossil fuel-fired power plants, nylon production, nitric acid production ...

101

Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the second-generation Canadian earth system model (CanESM2) to historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) natural and anthropogenic forcing is assessed using the newly-developed representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols. Allowable emissions required to achieve the future atmospheric CO2 concentration pathways, are reported for the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. For the historical 1850-2005 period, cumulative land plus ocean carbon uptake and, consequently, cumulative diagnosed emissions compare well with observation-based estimates. The simulated historical carbon uptake is somewhat weaker for the ocean and stronger for the land relative to their observation-based estimates. The simulated historical warming of 0.9°C compares well with the observation-based estimate of 0.76 ± 0.19°C. The RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios respectively yield warmings of 1.4, 2.3, and 4.9°C and cumulative diagnosed fossil fuel emissions of 182, 643 and 1617 Pg C over the 2006-2100 period. The simulated warming of 2.3°C over the 1850-2100 period in the RCP 2.6 scenario, with the lowest concentration of GHGs, is slightly larger than the 2°C warming target set to avoid dangerous climate change by the 2009 UN Copenhagen Accord. The results of this study suggest that limiting warming to roughly 2°C by the end of this century is unlikely since it requires an immediate ramp down of emissions followed by ongoing carbon sequestration in the second half of this century.

Arora, V. K.; Scinocca, J. F.; Boer, G. J.; Christian, J. R.; Denman, K. L.; Flato, G. M.; Kharin, V. V.; Lee, W. G.; Merryfield, W. J.

2011-03-01

102

Limiting Global Cooling after Global Warming is Over — Differentiating Between Short and Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractCurrent climate policy does not take into account that, after greenhouse gas emissions have been reduced to an extent that atmospheric concentrations stabilise and then start to fall, natural decay of greenhouse gases will lead to a global cooling phase spanning several centuries. This cooling will lead to damage to humans and ecosystems that depends on the rate of temperature

Axel Michaelowa

2003-01-01

103

Global warming: Experimental study about the effect of accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project presented here was developed by fifteen year old students of the Institut Sabadell (Sabadell Secondary School. Spain). The objective of this project was to raise the students awareness' about the problem of climate change, mainly caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also intended that students use the scientific method as an effective system of troubleshooting and that they use the ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to elicit data and process information. To develop this project, four lessons of sixty minutes each were needed. The first lesson sets out the role of the atmosphere as an Earth's temperature regulator, highlighting the importance of keeping the levels of carbon dioxide, methane and water steam in balance. The second lesson is focused on the experimental activity that students will develop in the following lesson. In lesson two, students will present and justify their hypothesis about the experiment. Some theoretical concepts, necessary to carry out the experiment, will also be explained. The third lesson involves the core of the project, that is the experiment in the laboratory. The experiment consists on performing the atmosphere heating on a little scale. Four different atmospheres are created inside four plastic boxes heated by an infrared lamp. Students work in groups (one group for each atmosphere) and have to monitor the evolution of temperature by means of a temperature sensor (Multilog software). The first group has to observe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase, mainly caused by the widespread practice of burning fossil fuels by growing human populations. The task of this group is to measure simultaneously the temperature of an empty box (without CO2) and the temperature of a box with high carbon dioxide concentration. The carbon dioxide concentration is the result of the chemical reaction when sodium carbonate mixes with hydrochloric acid. The second group's task is similar to the first. Students have to study how the concentration of methane affects the temperature of their atmosphere box. Similarly, the third group monitors the influence of the water steam (generated by evaporation) on the temperature of their atmosphere box. Results must be carefully analyzed because of possible interferences from water steam. And finally, the forth and last group explores the long term effects that the accumulation of greenhouse gases have on the Earth's temperature. As temperature rises, evaporation increases and more water steam accumulates in the atmosphere. As a greenhouse gas, water absorbs heat, therefore the air gets warmer and, again, more water is evaporated. To develop this project, a previous experiment is needed so that the concentration of carbon dioxide remains constant and water steam levels increase gradually. Thus, the consequences of an uncontrolled increase of temperature can be simulated. Students' aim is to examine the data elicited from the last step of the scientific method experiment. They have to decide either if the experiment supported their hypothesis and, therefore, they can be regarded as true, or the experiment disproved them and, therefore, they are false. Finally, in the last lesson, students perform an oral presentation about their experimental results, establishing relationships amongst the different experiments. All together emphasizes the must of humankind to promote renewable energies.

Molto, Carlos; Mas, Miquel

2010-05-01

104

Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

105

A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

106

Frequency Comb-Based Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases over Kilometer Air Paths  

E-print Network

We demonstrate coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy for detecting variations in greenhouse gases. High signal-to-noise spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260 cm^-1 (1600 to 1670 nm) covering ~700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and 13CO2, across a 2-km open-air path. The transmission of each frequency comb tooth is resolved, leading to spectra with data demonstrate tracking of strong variations in mole fractions. A precision of initial demonstration. Future portable systems could support regional emissions monitoring and validation of the spectral databases critical to global s...

Rieker, Gregory B; Swann, William C; Kofler, Jon; Zolot, Alex M; Sinclair, Laura C; Baumann, Esther; Cromer, Christopher; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter P; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

2014-01-01

107

AirCore, a New Tool for Validating Satellite Retrievals of the Mole Fraction of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmospheric Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of radiation by trace gases allows their atmospheric concentrations to be estimated from satellite radiance measurements. In the case of greenhouse gases the quantity to be estimated is their mole fraction in dry air averaged over the entire column or a portion thereof. Such estimates cannot be calibrated because one cannot control the abundance of greenhouse gases in

P. P. Tans; C. Sweeney; A. Karion

2010-01-01

108

Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models  

SciTech Connect

A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

2008-04-01

109

Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate temperatures and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to temperature change are separated by a time-series analysis using a linear trend term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The temperature changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in temperature induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the temperature change near both poles with a negative temperature change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on temperature. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to temperature change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected temperature change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a crossover between lower atmospheric heating and upper atmospheric cooling that is located at about 90 hPa in the tropics and 30-40 hPa in the polar regions. This results from the combination of continuing increases in greehouse gases and recovery from ozone depletion.

Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.

2006-01-01

110

Influence of biochar amendment on greenhouse gases emission and rice production in paddy field, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar incorporating into agricultural soils as a strategy to increase soil carbon content and mitigate climate change received great attention. We present a field study about biochar amendment into paddy field in Sichuan province 2010, China. The objective was to evaluate the impacts of biochar incorporation on rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw at temperature 350-550°C. Biochar incorporated into paddy field before rice transplanting. Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured in situ using closed chamber method during whole rice growing season. Flux of greenhouse gases was monitored at about 7 day's interval. Two rates of N fertilizer (0 and 240 kg N/ha) were applied as urea in combination with 3 biochar rates (0, 20 and 40 t/ha). Amendment of biochar had no influence on rice yield even at the hightest rate of 40 t/ha. However, rice production was greatly relying on chemical N fertilization input. No interact effect was detected between biochar and N fertilizer. Amendment of biochar suppressed N2O emission. During the whole rice growing season, the total N2O emission from chemical fertilizer was reduce by 29% and 53% under biochar amendment rates of 20t/ha and 40t/ha respectively. Total amounts of CO2 and CH4 emitted from paddy fields during whole rice growing season were not greatly increased despite of much carbon brought into soil with biochar. However, biochar amendment slightly increased CO2 emission in the absence of N fertilizer. Our results showed that biochar amendment into paddy field did not increase the global warming potential (GPW) and greenhouse gases emission intensity (GHGI).

Liu, X.; Pan, G. X.; Li, L. Q.; Zhou, T.

2012-04-01

111

Atmospheric Removal of Very Long-lived Greenhouse Gases in the Mesosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorofluorocarbons are known to have serious ozone depleting and global warming potentials. Perfluorinated compounds such as SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl which have very long lifetimes (ranging from a few centuries to over 3000 years) are too stable to affect stratospheric ozone but do have among the highest per molecule radiative forcing of any greenhouse pollutant, making them extremely potent greenhouse gases. Due to the stability of these gases in the lower atmosphere, mesospheric loss processes could significantly reduce their estimated atmospheric lifetimes and hence, overall climate impact. Potential sinks include reactions with metals and energetic particles such as electrons or short wavelength photons already present in the upper atmosphere. The metals, in this instance iron, sodium or potassium, are produced by meteoric ablation, while background and energetic electrons have the continuous source of photoionization and auroral precipitation, respectively. In this study we investigate the removal potentials of four very long lived gases (SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl). First, by four metals (Fe, Mg, Na and K), where rate coefficients are measured using the Fast Flow Tube and Pulsed Laser Flash Photolysis / Laser Induced Fluorescence techniques. Second, removal by electron attachment was investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. measurements. Third, Lyman-alpha (121.56 nm) photolysis was measured in a VUV absorption cell. The resulting removal rate coefficients are currently being input into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to obtain lifetime measurements for these species.

Totterdill, A.; Kovacs, T.; Gomez Martin, J.; FENG, W.; Chipperfield, M.; Plane, J. M.

2013-12-01

112

On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases - the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the integrated temperature change potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that the global warming potential (GWP) and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity when standard assumptions about a constant background atmosphere are used. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization governing the rate of ocean heat uptake. It is found that GWP and IGTP differ by some 10% for CH4 (for a time horizon of less than 500 yr), and that the relative difference between GWP and IGTP is less for gases with a longer atmospheric life time. Further, it is found that the relative difference between IGTP and GWP increases with increasing rates of ocean heat uptake and increasing climate sensitivity since these changes increase the inertia of the climate system. Furthermore, it is shown that IGTP is equivalent to the sustained global temperature change potential (SGTP) under standard assumptions when estimating GWPs. We conclude that while it matters little for abatement policy whether IGTP, SGTP or GWP is used when making trade-offs, it is more important to decide whether society should use a metric based on time integrated effects such as GWP, a "snapshot metric" as GTP, or metrics where both economics and physical considerations are taken into account. Of equal importance is the question of how to choose the time horizon, regardless of the chosen metric. For both these overall questions, value judgments are needed.

Azar, C.; Johansson, D. J. A.

2012-11-01

113

A new UK Greenhouse Gas measurement network providing ultra high-frequency measurements of key radiatively active trace gases taken from a network of tall towers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of atmospheric concentrations of gases is important in assessing the impact of international policies related to the atmospheric environment. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocols. For over 15 years the UK Government have funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These continuous, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate regional (country-scale) emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using an inversion methodology (NAME-Inversion) that links the Met Office atmospheric dispersion model (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment - NAME) with the Mace Head observations. This unique inversion method acts to independently verify bottom up emission estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases. In 2011 the UK government (DECC) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to provide enhanced resolution emission maps and decrease uncertainty of regional emission estimates produced using the NAME-Inversion. One station included in this new UK network was already established in Scotland and was used in collaboration with Edinburgh University. The two other new stations are in England and were set-up early in 2012, they contain brand new instrumentation for measurements of greenhouse gases. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (20 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new tall tower UK measurement network in detail. Using high-frequency measurements at new operational sites, including Mace Head, we will present the latest inversion results from the new network highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government periodically and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. These results also inform policy makers on the accuracy of inventory emissions estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases.

Grant, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Moncrieff, J. B.; Sturges, W. T.

2012-04-01

114

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

Not Available

1994-10-01

115

Recent Trends in Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases, and their Implications for Emissions and Lifetime Estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine trends in non-CO2 greenhouse gases measured by the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) over the last decade. During this time, the concentrations of all the major chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) declined significantly. In contrast, a large number of replacement gases that have high global warming potentials, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), have grown rapidly. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) levels have continued to increase, but with rates that change inter-annually. Concentrations of very long lived, potent greenhouse gases such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) have also grown significantly. Using a model of atmospheric chemistry and transport, and a multi-species inverse method, we make use of the measured trends to infer global lifetimes of CFCs and global emissions of HFCs, HCFCs, CH4, N2O and other gases. We determine lifetimes of 52 (45-61) years for CFC-11 and 106 (85-138) years for CFC-113 that are somewhat higher than current `best' estimates, and a lifetime for CFC-12 in line with current estimates. Emissions estimates reveal substantial emissions growth over the last decade for most of the major long-lived, non-CO2, non-CFC greenhouse gases, highlighting the need for effective measures towards global emission reductions.

Rigby, M.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Simmonds, P. G.; Muhle, J.; Salameh, P.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.

2012-12-01

116

Wavelength stabilization using a frequency comb for differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies recently have investigated the active remote sensing of atmospheric greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4, by means of differential absorption lidar systems. According to them, the accuracy of the laser wavelengths used is one of the most important issues of this technique in terms of conformance to the high measurement sensitivity requirements defined. The most common method to stabilize the wavelength of the lidar transmitter is the use of an absorption cell, filled with the respective trace gas or another gas with appropriate absorption lines. However, the performance of this method is limited. Here, we present the application of a frequency comb. It is a powerful tool for high precision wavelength stabilization purposes providing the knowledge of the absolute wavelength. By this means the online and offline radiations of a DIAL system can be stabilized to any wavelengths needed with highest accuracy and precision.

Amediek, A.; Ehret, G.; Quatrevalet, M.; Fix, A.; Wirth, M.

2009-12-01

117

Using STELLA System Dynamic Model to Analyze Greenhouse Gases' Emission From Solid Waste Management in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Using a system dynamic model (SDM), such as STELLA, to analyze the waste management policy is a new trial for Taiwan's research communities. We have developed an easy and relatively accurate model for analyzing the greenhouse gases emission for the wastes from animal farming and municipalities. With the local research data of the past decade, we extract the most prominent factors and assemble the SDM. The results and scenarios were compared with the national inventory. By comparing to the past data, we found these models reasonably represent the situation in Taiwan. However, SDM can program many scenarios and produce a lot of prediction data. With the development of many program control tools on STELLA, we believe the models could be further used by researchers or policy-makers to find the needed research topics, to set the future scenarios and to determine the management tools.

Horng, Jao-Jia; Lee, R.F.; Liao, K.Y.

2004-03-31

118

On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have built the 'Hybrid Lab'. A continuous CO2 and CH4 cavity ring down spectroscopic analyzer (Picarro, Inc.), a CO gas-filter correlation instrument (Thermo Environmental, Inc.) and a continuous UV absorption ozone monitor (2B Technologies, Inc., model 202SC) have been installed securely onboard a 2006 Toyota Prius Hybrid vehicle with an inlet bringing in outside air from a few meters above the ground. To better characterize point and distributed sources, air samples were taken with a Portable Flask Package (PFP) for later multiple species analysis in the lab. A GPS unit hooked up to the ozone analyzer and another one installed on the PFP kept track of our location allowing us to map measured concentrations on the driving route using Google Earth. The Hybrid Lab went out for several drives in the vicinity of the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall tower located in Erie, CO and covering areas from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Fort Collins and Greeley. Enhancements in CO2, CO and destruction of ozone mainly reflect emissions from traffic. Methane enhancements however are clearly correlated with nearby point sources (landfill, feedlot, natural gas compressor ...) or with larger scale air masses advected from the NE Colorado, where oil and gas drilling operations are widespread. The multiple species analysis (hydrocarbons, CFCs, HFCs) of the air samples collected along the way bring insightful information about the methane sources at play. We will present results of the analysis and interpretation of the Hybrid Lab Front Range Study and conclude with perspectives on how we will adapt the measurement strategy to study CO2 anthropogenic emissions in Denver Basin.

Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.; Trainer, M. K.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.; Kolodzey, W.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Kitzis, D. R.; Patrick, L.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Robers, J. M.; Tans, P.

2008-12-01

119

Tittel: An Alternative to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Title: An Alternative to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design

Keith P. Shine; Jan S. Fuglestvedt; Nicola Stuber

120

Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N2O and CH4 from soil under increased atmospheric CO2 have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO2 (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N2O emissions from upland soils and CH4 emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated.

van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W.; Hungate, Bruce A.

2011-07-01

121

Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2.  

PubMed

Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from soil under increased atmospheric CO(2) have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO(2) (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N(2)O emissions from upland soils and CH(4) emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated. PMID:21753852

van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W; Hungate, Bruce A

2011-07-14

122

InGOS - a FP7 Infrastructure project for non-CO2 greenhouse gas Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InGOS is an EU funded IA (Integrating Activities) project targeted at improving and extending the European observation capacity for non-CO2 greenhouse gases. The project will run from October 2011 to September 2015. InGOS is coordinated by ECN and involves 34 partners from 15 countries. There is a big need to support and integrate the observing capacity of Europe on non-CO2 greenhouse gases. The emissions of these gases are very uncertain and it is unknown how future climate change will feedback into these (mainly land use coupled) emissions. The InGOS infrastructure project will work on standardizing the measurements, strengthen the existing observation sites into supersites, capacity building in new member states, and prepare for integration of the network with other networks already in place or currently being set up (e.g. ICOS). Attribution of source categories by using advanced isotope techniques and data-assimilation methods using high resolution transport model will be an integral part of the network to allow design and evaluation of the measurements and will link the network to remote sensing data and bottom up inventory developments.

Vermeulen, A. T.; Hensen, A.; Bleeker, A.

2012-04-01

123

Future climate impacts of direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and long-lived greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-lived greenhouse gases (GHG) are estimated to be the most important driver of climate change over the next century, while aerosols and tropospheric ozone are also expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To differentiate the equilibrium climate responses to direct radiative forcing from changes in anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year

W. Chen; H. Liao; J. H. Seinfeld

2006-01-01

124

Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By

Timothy Searchinger; Ralph Heimlich; R. A. Houghton; Fengxia Dong; Amani Elobeid; Jacinto F. Fabiosa; Simla Tokgoz; Dermot J. Hayes; Tun-Hsiang Yu

2008-01-01

125

Greenhouse gases measurements in road tunnel in São Paulo Megacity, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is the richest area in Brazil and is one of the largest megacities in the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants. The fleet, with more than 7 million vehicles, is unique in that most are fueled by ethanol or by a gasoline-ethanol (flex-fuel vehicles) mixture containing 75-78% gasoline (by volume) and 22-25% ethanol (a blend referred to as gasohol). Nowadays, approximately 50% of the fuel burned by the fleet is ethanol. The vehicular emissions are responsible for approximately 98, 97, and 96%, respectively, of all emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, the fleet is the largest source of CO2 emissions in the MASP. The goal is to evaluate of the vehicles emissions of the pollutants and greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) in the MASP. The gases carbon dioxide and methane were carried out by Picarro G2301 Analyzer for CO2/CH4/H2O in air. Field measurements were carried out in two road tunnels within the MASP: May 2 to 13, 2011 in the Janio Quadros (JQ) tunnel and from July 04 to 19, 2011 in the Rodoanel (RA) tunnel. The JQ tunnel is located in the southwest portion of São Paulo. It is a two-lane tunnel that is 1900 m in length, and the traffic in both lanes flows in the same directions. The in-tunnel emissions are mainly from gasohol- and ethanol-powered vehicles. The RA tunnel is located in the West portion of the city and different from JQ tunnel. It is 1700m in length and carries gasohol, ethanol and diesel powered vehicles, being that approximately 40% of the heavy-duty (burning diesel) in its four-lane. The results showed that the effects of the number and velocity of the vehicles in the variability of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The carbon dioxide reaching the hourly maximum value of 550 ppm in-inside the JQ tunnel, and 900 ppm in-side the RA tunnel.

Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Galichio, W.; Astolfo, R.; Miranda, R. M.

2012-04-01

126

Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products.

Searchinger, Timothy; Heimlich, Ralph; Houghton, R. A.; Dong, Fengxia; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto; Tokgoz, Simla; Hayes, Dermot; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

2008-02-01

127

Global warming potential, global warming commitment and other indexes as characteristics of the effects of greenhouse gases on Earth’s climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiative forcing (RF) is widely used for evaluation of separate radiative active substance effects on climate. For photochemically active greenhouse gases, this effect detachment for the definite radiative active substance content change poses the problem of filtering out of all other chemically connected greenhouse gas effects. Two schemes of RF calculation for such greenhouse gas are proposed and analyzed: the

Victor A Frolkis; Igor L Karol; Andrey A Kiselev

2002-01-01

128

Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

2013-07-01

129

Advances in data processing for open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry of greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

The automated quantification of three greenhouse gases, ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide, in the vicinity of a large dairy farm by open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry at intervals of 5 min is demonstrated. Spectral pretreatment, including the automated detection and correction of the effect of interrupting the infrared beam, is by a moving object, and the automated correction for the nonlinear detector response is applied to the measured interferograms. Two ways of obtaining quantitative data from OP/FT-IR data are described. The first, which is installed in a recently acquired commercial OP/FT-IR spectrometer, is based on classical least-squares (CLS) regression, and the second is based on partial least-squares (PLS) regression. It is shown that CLS regression only gives accurate results if the absorption features of the analytes are located in very short spectral intervals where lines due to atmospheric water vapor are absent or very weak; of the three analytes examined, only ammonia fell into this category. On the other hand, PLS regression works allowed what appeared to be accurate results to be obtained for all three analytes. PMID:20879801

Shao, Limin; Griffiths, Peter R; Leytem, April B

2010-10-01

130

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management--an introduction.  

PubMed

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO(2)-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies. PMID:19748948

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

2009-11-01

131

Investigation of the ground reflectance for spaceborne IPDA lidar measurements of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active remote sensing using lidar shows high potential for the measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide or methane from spaceborne platforms. Due to the weak atmospheric backscatter in the near IR the IPDA lidar (Integrating Path Differential Absorption Lidar) technique is preferred over the range resolving DIAL method. IPDA shows much better performance with respect to systems of comparable size. Sensitivity studies reveal, that this technique promises to match the stringent sensitivity requirements. The earth's surface reflectance becomes an important issue, since an IPDA lidar uses the laser return of the ground. Gradients of the ground reflectance could introduce noticeable retrieval errors in the column content of the measured gas. Therefore airborne lidar measurements at 1.6 µm wavelength were performed to investigate this type of error source. A lidar system was deployed on the DLR research aircraft Cessna Caravan to measure the variations of the ground return. Data from different regions and various terrains across Europe were collected including sea surfaces. In order to simulate a satellite system the data were upscaled to a larger ground spot corresponding to a conceivable spaceborne setup. The focus of the analyses was on the small-scale reflectance variability as well as the overall dynamic range. Comparisons to MODIS reflectances are performed additionally. It is shown that the impact of this error source is on the order of 0.3 ppm.

Amediek, A.; Fix, A.; Ehret, G.; Caron, J.; Durand, Y.

2009-04-01

132

Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model.  

PubMed

When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions. PMID:18164811

Chen, Tsao-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Fang

2008-06-30

133

The Role of Carbon Management Technologies in Addressing Atmospheric Stabilization of Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in decarbonization processes and engineered storage systems for CO2, together with preliminary cost estimates for these technologies, indicate that capture and storage of CO2 will have a major role to play in achieving deep reductions in emissions. These technologies hold the potential to reduce the cost of stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases, the ultimate objective of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Their value rises as the allowable level of cumulative carbon emissions declines. The value of these technologies is robust regardless of whether the world's economically recoverable oil and gas resources are eventually found to be large or small. This paper considers the economic implication of those advances in the context of long-term, global climate change mitigation strategies. This indicates the need for a broad, robust research and development strategy to reduce the cost of separating CO2 and to make accessible the widest range of storage reservoirs. It is also important to demonstrate excellent security of storage, in order to win public acceptance of the use of capture and storage techniques.

Edmonds, James A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Freund, Paul F. (WASTE MANAGEMENT); Dooley, James J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); David Williams, Bob Durie, et. al.

2002-08-10

134

Effect of the greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, SO2) on Martian paleoclimate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is general agreement that certain surface features on Mars are indicative of the presence of liquid water at various times in the geologic past. In particular, the valley networks are difficult to explain by a mechanism other than the flow of liquid water. It has been suggested in several studies that a thick CO2 atmosphere on Mars early in its history could have provided a greenhouse warming that would have allowed the flow of water either on the surface or just below the surface. However, this effect was examined with a detailed radiation model, and it was found that if reduced solar luminosity early in the history of the solar system is taken into account, even three bars of CO2 will not provide sufficient greeenhouse warming. The addition of water vapor and sulflur dioxide (both plausible gases that may have been emitted by Martian volcanoes) to the atmosphere also fail to warm the surface above 273 K for reduced solar luminosity conditions. The increase in temperature may be large enough, however, for the formation of these features by brines.

Postawko, S. E.; Kuhn, W. R.

1986-01-01

135

CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in  

E-print Network

be inducing rapid surface warming of the Earth. The naturally occurring greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O show large increases over the past century due to human activity (Figure 7-1). The increase of CO2 OXIDE CO2CONCENTRATION(ppmv)N2OCONCENTRATION(ppbv) 1750 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.2 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 YEAR

Jacob, Daniel J.

136

Future climate impacts of direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and long-lived greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates

Wei-Ting Chen; Hong Liao; John H. Seinfeld

2007-01-01

137

Emissions and reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture and food manufacturing -- A summary white paper  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the current scientific and technological knowledge about greenhouse gas emissions from various agricultural practices and the manufacturing of food. The study also provides estimates that compare agriculture-related alternatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Johnston, S.

1999-12-01

138

Emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, land-use change, and forestry in the Gambia.  

PubMed

The Gambia has successfully completed a national greenhouse gas emissions inventory based on the results of a study funded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Case Study Program. The concepts of multisectoral, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary collaboration were most useful in the preparation of this inventory. New data were gathered during the study period, some through regional collaboration with institutions such as Environment and Development in the Third World (ENDA-TM) Energy Program and the Ecological Monitoring Center in Dakar, Senegal, and some through national surveys and the use of remote sensing techniques, as in the Bushfires Survey. Most of the data collected are used in this paper. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency (IPCC/OECD/IEA) methodology is used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. Many of the default data in the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology have also been used. Overall results indicate that in the biomass sectors (agriculture, forestry, and land-use change) carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted most, with a total of 1.7 Tg. This is followed by methane (CH4), 22.3 Gg; carbon monoxide (CO), 18.7 Gg; nitrogen oxides (NOx), 0.3 Gg; and nitrous oxide (N2O), 0.014 Gg. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was used as an index to describe the relative effects of the various gases reported here. Based on the emissions in The Gambia in 1993, it was found that CO2 will contribute 75%, CH4 about 24.5%, and N2O 0.2% of the warming expected in the 100-year period beginning in 1993. The results in this analysis are limited by the shortcomings of the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology and scarce national data. Because the methodology was developed outside of the developing world, most of its emissions factors and coefficients were developed and tested in environments that are very different from The Gambia. This is likely to introduce some uncertainties into the results of the calculations. Factors and coefficients that are country-or region-specific are likely to provide more accurate results and should be developed. The surveys were conducted either during the wet season or just at the end of the wet season. This seasonal factor should contribute to variations in the results, particularly in the livestock numbers and composition survey. Use of one-time survey data is also likely to introduce uncertainty into the results. PMID:24197953

Jallow, B P

1995-01-01

139

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

1997-07-01

140

Climate-active Trace Gases from ACE Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of more than 30 trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Launched by NASA in August 2003 for a nominal two-year mission, ACE performance remains excellent after 8 years in orbit. Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of sixteen halogenated trace gases are routinely retrieved from ACE-FTS atmospheric spectra: CCl4, CF4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), C2Cl3F3 (CFC-113), CH3Cl, ClONO2, COF2, COCl2, COClF, CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CCl2F (HCFC-141b), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), HCl, HF and SF6. ACE also provides VMR profiles for CH4, N2O and OCS; HCFC-23 (CHF3) is a recent research product. ACE-FTS measurements were compared to surface measurements made by the AGAGE network and output from the SLIMCAT three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model, which is constrained by similar surface data. ACE-FTS measurements of CFCs (and HCl) show declining trends which agree with both AGAGE and SLIMCAT values. The concentrations of HCFCs are increasing with ACE-FTS, SLIMCAT and AGAGE all showing positive trends. These results illustrate the success of the Montreal Protocol in reducing ozone depleting substances. The replacement of CFCs with HCFCs has led to an increase in the VMR of HF in the stratosphere. As chlorine containing compounds continue to be phased out and replaced by fluorine-containing molecules, it is likely that total atmospheric fluorine will continue increasing in the near future. These species are all powerful greenhouse gases. ACE provides near global VMR distributions and stratospheric lifetimes from tracer-tracer correlations. ACE trends, global distributions and lifetimes are all experimental inputs used by inverse models to determine top down emissions estimates.

Bernath, P. F.; Brown, A.; Harrison, J.; Chipperfield, M.; Boone, C.; Wilson, C.; Walker, K. A.

2011-12-01

141

Urban greenhouse gases monitoring with the QualAir Fourier transform spectrometer in Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large cities is becoming like air quality one of the priority environmental research areas for scientists and public health authorities. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey GHGs and urban air quality. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, the ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS, IFS 125HR model) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third European megacity. The continous monitoring of GHGs and atmospheric pollutants are essential to improve the estimate of sources and sinks of GHGs and the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many pollutants and GHGs, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. A description of the QualAir FTS will be given. Concentrations of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, ...) are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. Located in the centre of Paris, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary urban measurements as compared to unpolluted ground-based stations of existing networks (NDACC and TCCON). We will show some first CO2 measurements acquired with our instrument in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project, the main goal of which is to quantify CO2 emissions from Paris megacity. Such ground-based information will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to contribute to the characterization of regional GHGs fluxes, especially regarding anthropogenic emissions and trends.

Té, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Payan, S.; Pépin, I.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

2011-12-01

142

Climatic consequences of observed ozone loss in the 1980s: Relevance to the greenhouse problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently published findings using satellite and ground-based observations indicate a large winter and summertime decrease in the column abundance of ozone at high and middle latitudes during the last decade. Using a simple ozone depletion profile reflecting the observed decrease in ozone column abundance, Ramaswamy et al. (1992) showed that the negative radiative forcing that results from the ozone decrease between 1979 and 1990 approximately balanced the greenhouse climate forcing due to the chlorofluorocarbons emitted during the same period. Here, we extend the forcing analyses by calculating the equilibrium surface temperature response explicitly, using an updated version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research two-dimensional radiative-dynamical seasonal model. The calculated steady state responses suggest that the surface cooling due to the ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere offsets about 30% of the surface warming due to greenhouse gases emitted during the same decade. The temperature offset is roughly a factor of 2 larger than the corresponding offset obtained from forcing intercomparisons. This result appears to be related to the climate feedback mechanisms operating in the model troposphere, most notably that associated with atmospheric meridional heat transport. Thus a comprehensive assessment of ozone change effects on the predicted greenhouse warming cannot be accomplished based on forcing evaluations alone. Our results also show that calculations adopting a seasonally and latitudinally dependent ozone depletion profile produce a negative forcing about 50% smaller than that calculated for the depletion profile used by Ramaswamy et al. (1992).

Molnar, G. I.; Ko, M. K. W.; Zhou, S.; Sze, N. D.

1994-01-01

143

Economic feasibility study for intensive and extensive wastewater treatment considering greenhouse gases emissions.  

PubMed

Economic feasibility assessments represent a key issue for selecting which wastewater treatment processes should be implemented. The few applications that exist focus on the positive economic value of externalities, overlooking the existence of negative externalities. However, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) consume a significant amount of energy, contributing to climate change. In this context, as a pioneering approach, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have been incorporated as a negative externality of wastewater treatment. Within this framework, this study aims to compare the economic feasibility of five technologies, both intensive and extensive, for small communities. The results show that both the investment and operation costs are higher for intensive than for extensive technologies. Moreover, significant differences in the value of negative externalities were observed. This study demonstrates that from an economic perspective, constructed wetland is the most suitable option for treating wastewater in small agglomerations. PMID:23583870

Molinos-Senante, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Sala-Garrido, R; Cirelli, G

2013-07-15

144

A Next-Generation Space Geodetic Technique: Profiling of Greenhouse Gases and Climate by Microwave and Infrared-Laser Occultation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the pioneering GNSS radio occultation (GRO) mission GPS/Met in the mid-1990ties, and fostered by many missions since then such as CHAMP, Formosat-3/COSMIC and others, the GRO method was firmly established as a leading space geodetic technique. GRO provides vital contributions to meteorology and climate applications, like numerical weather prediction and climate change monitoring, and a range of those are covered in this session. Building on this success, further advanced techniques for future missions and science applications emerge beyond GRO. In particular, next-generation occultation between Low Earth Orbit satellites (LEO-LEO) uses GNSS-type coherent signals beyond the GRO decimeter waves at centimeter, millimeter, and micrometer wavelengths. This new technique, termed LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO), enables to vastly expand from the GRO refractivity-based sounding of the thermodynamic structure to a complete set of weather and climate variables, including thermodynamic ones (pressure, temperature, water vapor), greenhouse gases, wind speed, and others (Kirchengast and Schweitzer, GRL, 38, L13701, 2011; www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2011/2011GL047617.shtml). LMIO combines microwave occultation signals at cm and mm wavelengths (within 8-25 GHz and 175-200 GHz) for thermodynamic state profiling with infrared-laser occultation signals within 2 to 2.5 ?m for greenhouse gas and line-of-sight wind profiling; greenhouse gases include water vapor (H2O), the three key long-lived ones (CO2, CH4, N2O) and others. We present the fundamentals and discuss the estimated performance of LMIO-based thermodynamic state and greenhouse gas profiling, including from quasi-realistic end-to-end performance simulations considering also clouds and aerosols. To indicate the performance, we found monthly-mean temperature and greenhouse gas profiles, assuming 30 to 40 native profiles averaged per climatological "grid cell" per month, accurate to

Kirchengast, G.; Schweitzer, S.; Proschek, V.

2012-04-01

145

Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950-2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs). The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the residual circulation of the atmosphere and chemical effects from CO2 cooling more than halve the increase in reactive nitrogen in the mid to upper stratosphere that results from the specified increase in N2O between 1950 and 2100.

Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Shepherd, T. G.; Reader, M. C.; Jonsson, A. I.

2010-09-01

146

Subsurface concentrations and surface emissions of greenhouse gases from a seasonally waterlogged peatland in the UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern peatlands are globally valuable carbon stocks that can act as either sinks or sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs); carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). We present the results of a year-long field study of subsurface concentrations and surface emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a seasonally flooded, managed lowland fen in the UK. This study aimed to determine the extent to which water status and temperature varies at the site throughout the year and how this affects both the subsurface production and surface emission of GHGs. Measured GHG fluxes were compared to estimations using measured subsurface concentrations with Fick's Law (gradient method). Fick's Law was parameterised with either a measured or a modelled value for the diffusion coefficient for gas transport through soil. Water-table depth was shown to be a more significant control on surface GHG emissions and subsurface concentrations than ambient temperature. CO2 emissions increased as the water-table lowered from the surface until 35cm, wherein CO2 emissions began to decrease once more. This break in the relationship was attributed to low available water for respiration due to drying and competition with plants, and to reduced substrate availability as a result of prolonged optimal respiration conditions. Subsurface CO2 concentrations showed the opposite relationship with water-table depth, increasing as the water-table moved toward the surface. Both CH4 emissions and subsurface concentrations showed an exponential relationship with water-table depth, increasing dramatically as the soil entered a flooded condition. N2O fluxes were primarily small and negative throughout the course of the year. N2O concentrations below the surface in the field under ungrazed conditions were shown to be low, decreasing even further under flooded conditions, suggesting full denitrification to N2. The gradient method overestimated emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O by up to 500, 200 and 15x respectively. The divergence between subsurface and surface CO2 became unworkable when combined with an artifact of overestimation discovered when using silicone rubber soil atmosphere collectors in saturated or near saturated soils. Further studies into improved methods for accurate subsurface GHG measurement in waterlogged peat soils are needed.

Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Cardenas, Laura; Chadwick, David; Verhoef, Anne

2013-04-01

147

The effect of water oxygen content on the production of greenhouse gases from shallow pond sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow lakes and ponds, including those commonly found in agricultural landscapes are often only a few metres deep, with surface areas <1ha. Despite this, landscapes may contain a high number of these ponds, amounting to a considerable cumulative surface area. Many of these features, both naturally formed and man-made, receive and trap runoff with high nutrient and sediment loadings. As such, the potential for the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through biogeochemical cycling in the pond sediments may be significant. Furthermore, the abundance of available nutrients coupled with the shallow physical characteristics of these systems, mean that short, irregular eutrophic episodes during the summer are common, causing large fluctuations in the oxygen content of the overlying water column. The oxygen content of the water column is often cited as key factor in the production of GHGs in large lake and reservoir systems. Given the limited research focusing on shallow ponds/lakes, and potential for these systems to be important sources of GHGs, the impacts of variable water oxygen content should be investigated. Here we present the results from a sediment microcosm experiment utilising sediment cores from an agricultural pond system in Cumbria, UK. Intact sediment cores were incubated in the dark at in-situ temperature and continuously fed with filtered pond water for 2 weeks. During this time the oxygen content of the water was manipulated between fully oxygenated and anaerobic. Measurements of GHG release were based on calculated dissolved gas concentrations present in the water columns of these cores. Results indicated that during times of water column anoxia, production of methane and carbon dioxide increased significantly, despite the presence of substantial quantities of nitrate in the water columns. No change in N2O production was detected. These results indicate that while representing a significant cumulative carbon store in agricultural landscapes, shallow pond and lake systems can contribute to emission of GHGs. Furthermore, the physical and ecological characteristics of these systems have the potential to significantly increase the quantity of gas produced. This understanding will be valuable when constraining both freshwater and agricultural GHG budgets.

Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

2014-05-01

148

The GHG-CCI Project to Deliver the Essential Climate Variable Greenhouse Gases: Current status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are bing further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

Buchwitz, M.; Boesch, H.; Reuter, M.

2012-04-01

149

Ground-based demonstration of imaging SWIR-FTS for space-based detection of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) has many advantages, especially for greenhouse gases and air pollution detection in the atmosphere, because a single instrument can provide wide spectral coverage and high spectral resolution with highly stabilized instrumental line function for all wavenumbers. Several channels are usually required to derive the column amount or vertical profile of a target species. Near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions are very attractive for remote sensing applications. The GHG and CO of precursors of air pollution have absorption lines in the SWIR region, and the sensitivity against change in the amounts in the boundary layer is high enough to measure mole fractions near the Earth surface. One disadvantage of conventional space-based FTS is the spatial density of effective observation. To improve the effective numbers of observations, an imaging FTS coupled with a two-dimensional (2D)-camera was considered. At first, a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT)-based imaging FTS was considered. However, an MCT-based system requires a calibration source (black body and deep-space view) and a highly accurate and super-low temperature control system for the MCT detector. As a result, size, weight, and power consumption are increased and the cost of the instrument becomes too high. To reduce the size, weight, power consumption, and cost, a commercial 2D indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera can be used to detect SWIR light. To demonstrate a small imaging SWIR-FTS (IS-FTS), an imaging FTS coupled with a commercial 2D InGaAs camera was developed. In the demonstration, the CH4 gas cell was equipped with an IS-FTS for the absorber to make the spectra in the SWIR region. The spectra of CH4 of the IS-FTS demonstration model were then compared with those of traditional FTS. The spectral agreement between the traditional and IS-FTS instruments was very good.

Imai, Tadashi; Murooka, Jumpei; Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryota

2013-10-01

150

GREENHOUSE GASES (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected for various scenarios and the most appropriate approaches and technologies for mitigation are identified by NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB). These methods contribute to reduct...

151

Cost-effective reductions of non-CO 2 greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, most of the focus on greenhouse gas emission reductions has been on energy-related CO2 emissions. This is understandable since CO2 emissions currently account for about 82 percent of the total US greenhouse gas emissions weighted by 100-year global warming potentials (EPA, www.epa.gov\\/globalwarming\\/publications\\/emissions, 2001a).11As noted in EPA, 2001a, the concept of global warming potential (GWP) has been developed to

Francisco de la Chesnaye; Reid Harvey; Dina Kruger; John A. “Skip” Laitner

2001-01-01

152

Imbalance of Nature due to Greenhouse Gases from Land-Use Change and Forestry in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The imbalance of nature in recent years has been highlighted throughout the world due to the consequences of population and economic growth and changes land use in general. These changes are the result of complex processes between the human and natural environment. This is a very important phenomenon, especially from the point of view of sustainability, as these changes have been considered as one of the most important components of global change (Plata et al., 2009). In the same way the process of deforestation and forest degradation as a result of human activities are a major source of emissions of greenhouse gases in Mexico (Masera et al., 1997). However, forests in Mexico have great potential to become carbon sinks by adopting appropriate support policies, and implementation of sustainable forestry management techniques to improve their production. From this perspective, forest management and reforestation of forests are presented as options for short and medium term climate change mitigation (Sheinbaum and Masera, 2000). Based on the foregoing, the research updates emissions from the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) for the period 2000 to 2005 for the State of Sinaloa, Mexico, from activity data and national emission factors, reliable and updated to improve certainty and to determine the emissions of greenhouse gases for the sector. This paper examines the updated statewide LCLUC inventory using the gradation level 2 of the IPCC and recommends climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.t;

Guzman Galindo, T. D.; Plata Rocha, W. D.; Aguilar-Villegas, J. M.

2013-05-01

153

Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ?FFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (?CO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ?FFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Environment and Urbanization, 21,185. [2] Arikan Y., Desaim R., Bhatia P. and W. K. Fong, 2012 Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC), C40 Cities Climate Leadership group, available at: http://www.c40.org [3] Vogel, F. R., Ishizawa, M., Chan, E., Chan, D., Hammer, S., Levin, I., & Worthy, D. E. J. (2012). Regional non-CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes inferred from atmospheric measurements in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 9(1), 41-55. *The term 'sister sites' refers to sites that share a common background signal (i.e. common large scale influence), while significantly differing sensitivities to urban GHG emissions. In our case: Egbert, Ontario and Downsview, Toronto, Ontario.

Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

2013-12-01

154

Contributions of solar and greenhouse gases forcing during the present warm period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the dramatic increase in the global mean surface temperature (GMST) during the twentieth century, the climate science community has endeavored to determine which mechanisms are responsible for global warming. By analyzing a millennium simulation (the period of 1000-1990 ad) of a global climate model and global climate proxy network dataset, we estimate the contribution of solar and greenhouse gas forcings on the increase in GMST during the present warm period (1891-1990 ad). Linear regression analysis reveals that both solar and greenhouse gas forcing considerably explain the increase in global mean temperature during the present warm period, respectively, in the global climate model. Using the global climate proxy network dataset, on the other hand, statistical approach suggests that the contribution of greenhouse gas forcing is slightly larger than that of solar forcing to the increase in global mean temperature during the present warm period. Overall, our result indicates that the solar forcing as well as the anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing plays an important role to increase the global mean temperature during the present warm period.

Lim, Hyung-Gyu; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Rokjin; Song, Chang-Keun

2014-10-01

155

Life cycle greenhouse gases, energy and cost assessment of automobiles using magnesium from Chinese Pidgeon process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium (Mg) has a great potential to reduce vehicle weight, fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The Chinese Mg industry has developed rapidly since the 1990s. The output of Mg reached 700,000tons in 2006, accounting for more than 70% of global Mg production. Most of Mg is produced in China through the Pidgeon process that has an intensive energy usage

Jindan Du; Weijian Han; Yinghong Peng

2010-01-01

156

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils  

E-print Network

, and the adoption of geoengineering as a scientific strategy to curtail the onset of climate change Words and Phrases: Climate Change--Global Warming--Geoengineering--Greenhouse Gas Fluxes--Nitrous Oxide these emissions, many scientists have developed geoengineering strategies, wherein the current state of the planet

Vallino, Joseph J.

157

Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

1998-08-01

158

The GreenHouse gas Observations in the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST) Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is determined by surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Atmospheric transport errors adversely affect surface fluxes inferred from GHG concentration measurements from surface, airborne or satellite instruments using an inverse model: uncharacterised transport model errors can result in significant bias of surface flux estimates. In the framework of the UK NERC project Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST), we will develop and fly a novel, compact short-wave IR (SWIR) spectrometer for the Global Hawk to collect observations of tropospheric CO2, CO, CH4, H2O columns and the HDO/H2O ratio over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely-resolved measurements of key species. These gases have a range of lifetimes and diverse source processes and their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of vertical and horizontal transport. We will adopt an instrument concept similar to the OCO-2 and GOSAT space-borne missions to maximize science capabilities and to minimize risk. In this paper, we will discuss the GHOST project and its objectives and we will give an overview over the instrument development.

Boesch, H.; Palmer, P. I.; Parr-Burman, P.; Vick, A.

2012-12-01

159

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-print Network

fuel combustion converts carbon that had been stored deep in the Earth to carbon dioxide that enters. The primary ones are: · Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) · Methane (CH4 ) · Nitrous oxide (N2 O) · Industrial Gases the atmosphere. Clearing land for agriculture converts carbon stored in soils and plants to carbon dioxide. Even

160

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES -- A PILOT STUDY IN MANILA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of sampling of combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. n a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested, fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Five ambient sample...

161

Greenhouse gases from biomass and fossil fuel stoves in developing countries: A Manila pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were also taken. All samples were analyzed for CO 2, CO, CH 4, NzO, and total non-methane organic

K. R. Smith; M. A. K. KhaliP; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe; F. Manegdeg; M. Apte

1993-01-01

162

Climate change and dietary choices — how can emissions of greenhouse gases from food consumption be reduced?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from an analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption during the life-cycle of carrots, tomatoes, potatoes, pork, rice and dry peas consumed in Sweden are presented and discussed. The life-cycle is delineated to the part of the production chain prior to purchase by the consumer. The study shows that emissions, expressed in g CO2 equivalents, are highest for

Annika Carlsson-Kanyama

1998-01-01

163

Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 ?mol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 ?mol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

2014-05-01

164

Inspection of non-CO 2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectrometry: Measurements with FTIS-MAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared spectrometry is a versatile basis to analyse greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A multicomponent air pollution software (MAPS) was developed for retrieval of gas concentrations from radiation emission as well as absorption measurements. Concentrations of CO, CH4, N2O, and H2O as well as CO2, NO, NO2, NH3, SO2, HCl, HCHO, and the temperature of warm gases are determined on-line.

Klaus Schäfer; Rainer Haus; Jörg Heland

1994-01-01

165

On the role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in the expected long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer caused by greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere produce a global warming of the troposphere and a global cooling of the stratosphere. The expected stratospheric cooling essentially influences the ozone layer via increased polar stratospheric cloud formation and via temperature dependences of the gas phase reaction rates. One more mechanism of how greenhouse gases influences the ozone layer is enhanced water evaporation from the oceans into the atmosphere because of increasing temperatures of the ocean surface due to greenhouse effect. The subject of this paper is a study of the influence of anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds on the expected long-term changes of the ozone layer with taking into account an increase of water vapour content in the atmosphere due to greenhouse effect. The study based on 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the troposphere and stratosphere. The model allows to self-consistently calculating diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of two types. It was supposed in the model that an increase of the ocean surface temperature caused by greenhouse effect is similar to calculated increase of atmospheric surface temperature. Evaporation rate from the ocean surface was computed in dependence of latitude. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2100 using two IPCC scenarios depicting maximum and average expected increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The model calculations show that anthropogenic increasing of water vapour abundance in the atmosphere due to heating of the ocean surface caused by greenhouse effect gives a sensible contribution to the expected ozone changes. The enhanced evaporation from the ocean increases noticeably a water vapour abundance in the stratosphere that decreases global total ozone and retards the expected recovery of the ozone layer. In polar latitudes, additional stratospheric water vapour increase due to greenhouse effect noticeably strengthens the impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on ozone through modification of polar stratospheric clouds and retards the expected recovery of the ozone, too. In the Northern hemisphere, the delay of the ozone recovery is about 5 years, in the Southern hemisphere the delay is about 2 years.

Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

166

The early faint sun paradox: organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric mixing ratios of approximately 10(-5 +/- 1) for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing.

Sagan, C.; Chyba, C.

1997-01-01

167

Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and significantly higher than those (negative value) during January (winter) when sub soil have low temperature and relatively high moisture due to snow during the winter measurement period. Averages of soil temperature and moisture during these months were 17.5±1.2oC, 45.7±8.2%WFPS for October; and 1.4±1.3oC, 89.9±8.8%WFPS for January. It may indicate that soil temperature and moisture have significant role in determining whether the CO2 and CH4 emission or uptake take place. Low temperature and high moisture above a certain optimum level during winter could weaken microbial activity and the gas diffusion in soil matrix, and then make soil GHG emission to the atmosphere decrease. Other soil parameters were also correlated with GHG emissions and discussed. Both positive and negative gas fluxes in CH4 and CO2 were observed during these measurements, but not for N2O. CH4 and CO2 gases seem to be emitted from soil surface or up taken by the soil depending on other factors such as background concentrations and physicochemical soil conditions. However, still there are many uncertainties and large scarcities in both their determination methods and soil GHG flux data. Improvement of measurement techniques and well-understanding of relationships between gas emission and controlling factors in such environments need to be required.

Kim, D.; Na, U.

2010-12-01

168

Applications of fiber lasers for remote sensing of atmospheric greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004 ITT Exelis developed the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) for measuring atmospheric CO2. This lidar relies on high efficiency telecom laser components and Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA's) to implement a unique Continuous Wave (CW) Intensity Modulated (IM) differential absorption lidar measurement. This same approach has also been used to measure atmospheric O2 by replacing the EDFA's with fiber Raman amplifier technology. The use of all fiber coupled components results in a highly reliable, flexible and robust instrument. The general architecture of the MFLL, its implementation for greenhouse gas measurements, and as a pseudorandom noise encoded altimeter system is reviewed. Results from a 2011 flight campaign on the NASA DC-8 aircraft which included CO2, O2, and PN altimetry using a single receiver for all three measurements are also discussed. In addition, an introduction to a novel variation of this approach that will enable greenhouse gas monitoring from a geostationary orbit is given. This paper provides a general overview of a set of applications for fiber lasers in the area of active remote sensing that have been developed by Exelis over the past several years.

Dobler, Jeremy T.; Braun, Michael; Nagel, James; Temyanko, Valery L.; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Harrison, F. Wallace; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.

2013-02-01

169

Radiative forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases: Estimates from climate models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative effects from increased concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs) represent the most significant and best understood anthropogenic forcing of the climate system. The most comprehensive tools for simulating past and future climates influenced by WMGHGs are fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). Because of the importance of WMGHGs as forcing agents it is essential that AOGCMs compute

W. D. Collins; V. Ramaswamy; M. D. Schwarzkopf; Y. Sun; R. W. Portmann; Q. Fu; S. E. B. Casanova; J.-L. Dufresne; D. W. Fillmore; P. M. D. Forster; V. Y. Galin; L. K. Gohar; W. J. Ingram; D. P. Kratz; M.-P. Lefebvre; J. Li; P. Marquet; V. Oinas; Y. Tsushima; T. Uchiyama; W. Y. Zhong

2006-01-01

170

Atmospheric science is a fascinating area of study. From sunny spells and scattered showers, to climate change and greenhouse gases, a wide range of meteorological  

E-print Network

, to climate change and greenhouse gases, a wide range of meteorological and climate topics are examined during the M.Sc. course in Meteorology. Students get scientific training in theoretical and applied meteorology, there is a field trip to Valentia Observatory in Cahirciveen, where students get to witness a radiosonde launch

171

MITIGATION OPTIONS FOR TURKEY IN THE POST2012 PERIOD, BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS OF GREENHOUSE GASES IN THE PERIOD 1990-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis is mainly based on the annual data provided in the inventory of greenhouse gases of Turkey submitted in early 2007. The Energy Balance Sheets of the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources are used to obtain the information on energy production and consumption. Socio-economic data are gathered from the development indicators database of the World Bank and

Gulcin OZSOY

172

Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Quéré, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are ±0.03 per mil and ±0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a separate airline and can be switched between inlets that are within 1m of grass lawn at ground level or within 5 m of a large oak tree at canopy level. Flow rates vary between the internal pumps of the CRDS instruments, but within the range 260-300 cc/min when inlet valves are fully opened. Controlling flows below 200 cc/min significantly increases stabilisation time for cylinder gases. Likewise setting outlet pressures for NOAA and target gases at 4 psi and allowing the instrument pumps to control flow speeds up stabilization. Currently the instruments are measuring CO2, CH4 and H2O at 5-second intervals. Precisions (1 SD) of NOAA tanks, based on the final 10 minutes of a 30-minute analysis period are better than ±0.03 ppm for CO2 and ±0.3 ppb for CH4. Automated inlets and automated data retrieval will be tested during spring, for deployment on the South Atlantic islands later in 2009. Fisher, R., Lowry, D., Wilkin, O., Sriskantharajah S. & Nisbet. E.G. (2006) High-precision, automated stable isotope analysis of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Comm. Mass. Spec. 20, 200-208. Le Quéré, C., C. Rödenbeck, E. T. Buitenhuis, T. J. Conway, R. Langenfelds, A. Gomez, C. Labuschagne, M. Ramonet, T. Nakazawa, N. Metzl, N. Gillett, and M. Heimann, Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change, Science, 316, 1735-1738, 2007.

Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisellé, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

2009-04-01

173

Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of -34.9 to -66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as -19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

2014-06-01

174

Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly revise the estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions for Midwest agroecology.

Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

2013-12-01

175

Radiative forcing at high concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new calculations of radiative forcing at very high concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O, relevant to extreme anthropogenic climate change and paleoclimate studies. CO2 forcing is calculated over the range 100 ppmv to 50,000 ppmv, and the maximum forcing is 38.1 W m-2. CH4 and N2O forcings are calculated over the range 100 ppbv to 100 ppmv and give maximum forcings of 6.66 W m-2 and 22.3 W m-2. The sensitivity of our calculations to spatial averaging and tropopause definition is examined. We compare our results with the "simplified expressions" reported by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and find significant differences at high greenhouse gas concentrations. We provide new simplified expressions which agree much better with the calculated forcings and suggest that these expressions be used in place of the IPCC expressions. Additionally, we provide meridionally resolved forcings which may be used to force simple and intermediate complexity climate models.

Byrne, B.; Goldblatt, C.

2014-01-01

176

Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

The world`s population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today`s risks.

Hassberger, J.A., Schock, R.N.; Isaacs, T.H.

1997-10-23

177

Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstream activities and the MRF causes negligible GHG emissions (12.8 to 52.6 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) recovered metal) compared to the reprocessing of the metal itself (360-1260 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of recovered aluminium and 400- 1020 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) of recovered steel).The reprocessing is however counterbalanced by large savings of avoided virgin production of steel and aluminium. The net downstream savings were found to be 5040-19 340 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated aluminium and 560-2360 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the technology and data choices. Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. The range of avoided impact shows that recovery of metals will always be beneficial over primary production, due to the high energy savings, and that the GHG emissions associated with the sorting of metals are negligible. PMID:19767324

Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-11-01

178

Inspection of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectrometry: Measurements with FTIS-MAPS.  

PubMed

Infrared spectrometry is a versatile basis to analyse greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A multicomponent air pollution software (MAPS) was developed for retrieval of gas concentrations from radiation emission as well as absorption measurements. Concentrations of CO, CH4, N2O, and H2O as well as CO2, NO, NO2, NH3, SO2, HCl, HCHO, and the temperature of warm gases are determined on-line. The analyses of greenhouse gases in gaseous emission sources and in ambient air are performed by a mobile remote sensing system using the double-pendulum interferometer K300 of the Munich company Kayser-Threde. Passive radiation measurements are performed to retrieve CO, N2O, and H2O as well as CO2, NO, SO2, and HCl concentrations in smoke stack effluents of thermal power plants and municipal incinerators and CO and H2O as well as CO2 and NO in exhausts of aircraft engines. Open-path radiation measurements are used to determine greenhouse gas concentrations at different ambient air conditions and greenhouse gas emission rates of diffusive sources as garbage deposits, open coal mining, stock farming together with additional compounds (e.g. NH3), and from road traffic together with HCHO. Some results of measurements are shown. A future task is the verification of emission cadastres by these inspection measurements. PMID:24213905

Schäfer, K; Haus, R; Heland, J

1994-05-01

179

Observations and Photochemistry of Reactive Trace Gases in the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO and O_3 play a significant role in the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and thus the habitability of the Earth. NO controls the photochemical production of O_3. Reliable measurements of substantial temporal and/or spatial resolution are necessary to understand the distribution, transport, and photochemistry of these trace gases. The present work includes three experiments to study the distribution of ozone and its precursors in rural environment and during convective activity, to characterize the regional air quality, and to enrich the incomplete data base of constituents that play a key role in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone. Standard meteorological parameters and concentrations of O_3 and CO were monitored in rural Virginia from October 1988 to October 1989. Seasonal, monthly, and diurnal variations of hourly averages are examined. Dry deposition of O_3 dominates in the winter and photochemistry in the summer. Various lines of evidence suggests that the data are little affected by local sources and are reasonably representative of the regional continental air quality. In recognition of the deleterious effects of photochemical oxidants on human health and on the economy of the southeastern U.S., we made simultaneous measurements of NO, NO _{rm x}, NO_ {rm y}, CO, O_3, and UV solar flux in rural North Carolina, in August 1991. The NO_{rm x}/NO _{rm y} ratio shows the expected diurnal variation with a mean value of 0.25. Calculated rates of O_3 production, using a simplified chemical scheme, are of the same order of magnitude as the observed increases in O_3 mixing ratios, offering confidence on the reliability of our NO_{rm x} measurements. Downward transport from the stratosphere is the major natural source of O_3 in the troposphere. Measurements taken near a Mesoscale Convective System during the North Dakota Thunderstorm Project on June 28, 1989, suggest the existence of a previously undiscovered mechanism for troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The anvil outflow extended well into what used to be the stratosphere. Air inside the anvil was characterized by notably low concentrations of O_3, and high CO, relative to the out-of-cloud environment. The severe storm lifted the tropopause, the deformation of which resulted in a broken boundary around the anvil, leading to extensive troposphere-stratosphere exchange.

Poulida, Olga

180

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone-Depleting Gases 19.6.2001 9-1 Figure 9.1 Increasing world population  

E-print Network

accepted that carbon dioxide and several other gases are involved in physical and chemical processes in the earth's upper troposphere and stratospere (see Figure 4.2) that may result in global climate change in gasification product gases. Concentrations in flue gases from power plants are ~ 4%- volCO2 fornaturalgas

Laughlin, Robert B.

181

Do Agricultural Soils of California have the Potential to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate Greenhouse Gases?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural ecosystems play a major role in the global carbon cycle and can be both sources of carbon emissions to the atmosphere and also carbon sinks which may be used to offset any future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In California, climate change predictions indicate major impacts and substantial alterations of agricultural systems over the next decades. In 2006, California passed the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) that requires reduction of the three major GHG's (CO2, N2O and CH4) to 1990 levels by 2020. We surveyed and synthesized available data from recent studies describing the potential to sequester carbon and reduce other GHG emissions in California agricultural soils. The studies evaluated various management practices in both annual row and perennial cropping systems, with other studies focusing upon biogeochemical model predictions for carbon sequestration and GHG mitigation calibrated towards California agriculture. Management practices considered included minimum or no tillage, cover cropping, organic residue (low and high inputs) and nitrogen fertilizer management. Though practices involving inputs of carbon, such as cover cropping and organic amendments, were often associated with increases in soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top soil layer (0-20 cm), results were not consistent across farming systems. Several studies indicated that conservation tillage, alone, increased above-ground biomass, especially when used with a cover crop. However, the reduced soil disturbance from conservation tillage merely resulted in a redistribution of the soil carbon rather than an overall accumulation, when compared with standard tillage and cover cropping practices together. Predictions from biogeochemical models indicated that increased inputs of manure and increased organic residues led to substantial carbon sequestration but did not consistently reduce non-CO2 related GHG emissions. The most effective way to reduce non-CO2 GHG emissions, and simultaneously add organic matter to soil, was to employ reduced tillage techniques and low input farming which is based upon the reduction of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides without their complete elimination and to also add carbon to the soils through the addition and incorporation of organic amendments and cover crops.

Suddick, E. C.; Scow, K. M.; Six, J. W.

2008-12-01

182

[Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].  

PubMed

Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. PMID:20560308

Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

2010-03-01

183

An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.  

PubMed

Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A; Chen, Chi-Chung

2014-03-01

184

Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system.  

PubMed

In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3 days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system. PMID:24954560

Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

2014-09-15

185

An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions  

PubMed Central

Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A.; Chen, Chi-Chung

2014-01-01

186

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15

187

Observations of seasonal variations in atmospheric greenhouse trapping and its enhancement at high sea surface temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Greenhouse trapping is examined theoretically using a version of the radiative transfer equations that demonstrates how atmospheric greenhouse trapping can vary. Satellite observations of atmospheric greenhouse trapping are examined for four months representing the various seasons. The cause of the super greenhouse effect at the highest SSTs is examined, and four processes are found to contribute. The middle and upper troposphere must be particularly moist and the temperature lapse rate must be increasingly unstable over the warmest regions to explain the observed distribution of atmospheric greenhouse trapping. Since the highest SSTs are generally associated with deep convection, this suggests that deep convection acts to moisten the middle and upper troposphere in regions of the highest SSTs relative to other regions. The tropical atmospheric circulation acts to both increase the temperature lapse rate and greatly increase the atmospheric water vapor concentration with spatially increasing SST.

Hallberg, Robert; Inamdar, Anand K.

1993-01-01

188

[Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].  

PubMed

It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved. PMID:23914568

Xie, Yuan-bo; Li, Wei

2013-05-01

189

PILOT STUDY: International comparison CCQM-P41 Greenhouse gases. 2. Direct comparison of primary standard gas mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this second part of this study, primary standard gas mixtures (PSMs) as used for calibrations for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane have been compared. The nominal amount-of-substance fraction levels were 365 µmol/mol for carbon dioxide and 1.8 µmol/mol for methane. The matrix was synthetic air, simulated by a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen (209 mmol/mol) and argon (9.3 mmol/mol). The measurements took place in the spring of 2003. In the protocol, it was foreseen to have the PSMs produced for this study in a small range, enabling regression analysis on the data to assess the consistency of the gas mixtures. The direct comparison of the PSMs shows agreement for carbon dioxide at 365 µmol/mol nominal within 0.52 µmol/mol (0.14% relative) standard uncertainty. One cylinder lies between the 95% and 99% boundaries of the regression line, and after removing this cylinder from the dataset the standard deviation of the x-residuals reduces to 0.18 µmol/mol (0.05% relative). This value for the standard deviation is substantially greater than the stated standard uncertainties for several cylinders. The standard deviation of the x-residuals for methane at 1.8 µmol/mol nominal is 0.011 µmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM.

van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Brinkmann, Freek N. C.; Arnautovic, Mile; Besley, Laurie; Heine, Hans-Joachim; Lopez Esteban, Teresa; Sega, Michela; Kato, Kenji; Seog Kim, Jin; Perez Castorena, Alejandro; Rakowska, Agata; Milton, Martin J. T.; Guenther, Frank R.; Francey, R.; Dlugokencky, E.

2007-01-01

190

Space-borne remote sensing with active optical instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, ozone and the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar Light Detection and Ranging is regarded as an innovative component of the global observing system It offers the possibility to directly sample the four-dimensional variability of the atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution In Europe space-borne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations since mid 1970 s resulting in mission and instrument concepts such as ATLID a backscatter lidar for aerosol and clouds for the EarthCARE mission or ALADIN a Doppler wind lidar considered for the ADM Aeolus mission Major advances particularly in humidity profiling are expected from the space-borne Differential Absorption Lidar DIAL being the Core instrument of the WALES Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space mission which was studied up to a level of Phase A In this presentation we report on the background definition of a future lidar system capable of monitoring the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide CO 2 methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2 O stratospheric and tropospheric ozone O 3 and the meteorological parameter pressure p and temperature T The idea of this study which was initiated by the European Space Agency ESA was to select one or two candidate instruments for follow-on activities on sensor and mission level For each parameter appropriate performance models of active optical instruments either for range-resolved or for total column measurements were defined and implemented as computer codes for parametric analysis The sampling strategy and error characteristics for the

Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.

191

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Fine Particles (PM2.5) from Wildland Fires in the United States from 2003 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fires not only affect adjacent communities, but also produce smoke that can travel long distances and significantly impact downwind communities, alter weather patterns, and contribute to global climate change. As air quality standards have tightened, smoke from wildland fires has faced greater scrutiny from the air quality management community. Wildland fire emissions in the United States from 2003 to 2011 were estimated using the SmartFire2 system and the BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. Based on various sources of observational fire activity data, including ground-based incident reports and satellite-derived fire perimeters, fire information was reconciled and passed through a chain of models that estimate fuel loading, fuel consumption, and smoke emissions. While the spatial and temporal distributions of prescribed fires follow a stable pattern, wildfires are difficult to predict and their effects vary greatly from fire to fire. We analyzed the area burned and the emissions of select greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) and fine particles (PM2.5) from the model outputs to characterize long-term temporal and spatial variations. We will present these results, discuss factors that cause variability and uncertainty, and make comparisons to typical global modeling methods.

Huang, S.; Larkin, N. K.; Raffuse, S. M.

2013-12-01

192

Dissolved greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and methane) associated with the natural iron-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS 2 cruise) in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) were measured in the Kerguelen Plateau Region (KPR), an area with annual microalgal bloom caused by natural Fe fertilization, which may stimulate microbes involved in GHG cycling. This study was carried out during the KEOPS 2 cruise during the austral spring of 2011. Two transects were sampled along and across the KRP, the north-south (N-S) transect (46-51° S, 72° E meridian) and the west-east (W-E) transect (66-75° E, 48.3° S latitude), both associated with the presence of a plateau, polar fronts and other mesoscale features. The W-E transect had N2O levels ranging from equilibrium (105%) to light supersaturation (120%) with respect to the atmosphere. CH4 levels fluctuated dramatically, with intense supersaturations (120-970%) in areas close to the coastal waters of Kerguelen Island and in the polar front (PF). There, Fe and nutrient fertilization seem to promote high total chlorophyll a (TChl a) levels. The distribution of both gases was more homogenous in the N-S transect, but CH4 peaked at southeastern stations of the KPR (A3 stations), where phytoplankton bloom was observed. Both gases responded significantly to the patchy distribution of particulate matter as Chl a, stimulated by Fe supply by complex mesoscale circulation. While CH4 appears to be produced mainly at the pycnoclines, N2O seems to be consumed superficially. Air-sea fluxes for N2O (from -10.5 to 8.65, mean 1.71 ?mol m-2d-1), and for CH4 (from 0.32 to 38.1, mean 10.07 ?mol m-2d-1) reflected sink and source behavior for N2O and source behavior for CH4, with considerable variability associated with a highly fluctuating wind regime and, in the case of CH4, due to its high superficial levels that had not been reported before in the Southern Ocean and may be caused by an intense microbial CH4 cycling.

Farías, L.; Florez-Leiva, L.; Besoain, V.; Fernández, C.

2014-08-01

193

Comparative Climate Responses of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases, All Major Aerosol Components, Black Carbon, and Methane, Accounting for the Evolution of the Aerosol Mixing State and of Clouds/Precipitation from Multiple Aerosol Size Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several modeling studies to date have simulated the global climate response of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and bulk (non-size-resolved) sulfate or generic aerosol particles together, but no study has examined the climate response of greenhouse gases simultaneously with all major size- and composition resolved aerosol particle components. Such a study is important for improving our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on climate. Here, the GATOR-GCMOM model is used to study the global climate response of (a) all major greenhouse gases and size-resolved aerosol components, (b) all major greenhouse gases alone, (c) fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, primary organic matter, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate), and (d) methane. Aerosol components treated in all simulations included water, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, hydrogen ion, soil dust, and pollen/spores. Fossil-fuel soot (FFS) was emitted into its own size distribution. All other components, including biofuel and biomass soot, sea-spray, soil dust, etc., were emitted into a second distribution (MIX). The FFS distribution grew by condensation of secondary organic matter and sulfuric acid, hydration of water, and dissolution of nitric acid, ammonia, and hydrochloric acid. It self-coagulated and heterocoagulated with the MIX distribution, which also grew by condensation, hydration, and dissolution. Treatment of separate distributions for FFS allowed FFS to evolve from an external mixture to an internal mixture. In both distributions, black carbon was treated as a core component for optical calculations. Both aerosol distributions served as CCN during explicit size-resolved cloud formation. The resulting clouds grew by coagulation and condensation, coagulated with interstitial aerosol particles, and fell to the surface as rain and snow, carrying aerosol constituents with them. Thus, cloud evolution accounted for the first and second indirect effects and the mixing state of aerosol particles. The optical properties of clouds were found by treating black carbon inclusions surrounded by a shell of water. The albedos of snow, sea ice, and water were calculated with radiative transfer solutions, assuming black carbon inclusions in the case of snow and sea ice. The simulations accounted for 3-D energy diffusion to the deep ocean and 2-D ocean circulation. Major conclusions are (a) the most important constituents of global warming, in terms of climate response, appear to be, in order, carbon dioxide, black carbon, and methane, (b) aerosol particles (all together) appear to act on top of greenhouse gases to enhance extremes in both regional cooling and regional warming, (b) the combination of important greenhouse gases and aerosol particles can explain observed major regions of historic warming and cooling, and (d) eliminating all anthropogenic aerosol emission could more than double current global warming but would have less of an effect than independently doubling carbon dioxide.

Jacobson, M. Z.

2005-12-01

194

Bad Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is designed to belie the statement that the greenhouse effect is caused when gases in the atmosphere behave as a blanket and trap radiation which is then reradiated to the Earth. Students will learn that the atmosphere does not act like a blanket, trap radiation, reradiate heat, trap heat, or behave like a greenhouse. In addition, the analogy of a closed automobile in the sun to a greenhouse is reasonable but neither has to do with the atmosphere.

Fraser, Alistair

195

Profiling Wind and Greenhouse Gases by Infrared-laser Occultation: Algorithm and Results from Simulations in Windy Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO) microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method to derive a full set of thermodynamic state variables from microwave signals and climate benchmark profiling of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind using infrared-laser signals. The focus lies on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS - 5 km to 35 km). The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. In this study we focus on the infrared-laser part of LMIO, where we introduce a new, advanced wind retrieval algorithm to derive accurate l.o.s. wind profiles. The wind retrieval uses the reasonable assumption of the wind blowing along spherical shells (horizontal winds) and therefore the l.o.s. wind speed can be retrieved by using an Abel integral transform. A 'delta-differential transmission' principle is applied to two thoroughly selected infrared-laser signals placed at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line (nominally ±0.004 cm-1 from the line center near 4767 cm-1) plus a related 'off-line' reference signal. The delta-differential transmission obtained by differencing these signals is clear from atmospheric broadband effects and is proportional to the wind-induced Doppler shift; it serves as the integrand of the Abel transform. The Doppler frequency shift calculated along with the wind retrieval is in turn also used in the GHG retrieval to correct the frequency of GHG-sensitive infrared-laser signals for the wind-induced Doppler shift, which enables improved GHG estimation. This step therefore provides the capability to correct potential wind-induced residual errors of the GHG retrieval in case of strong winds. We performed end-to-end simulations to test the performance of the new retrieval in windy air. The simulations used realistic atmospheric conditions (thermodynamic state variables and wind profiles) from an analysis field of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). GHG profiles were taken from the Fast Atmospheric Signature Code (FASCODE) model. Three geographic regions were investigated, representing three different atmospheric conditions: Tropics (TRO) - a warm and moist atmosphere, Standard (STD) - an intermediate atmosphere at mid-latitudes, and Sub-Arctic Winter (SAW) - a cold and dry atmosphere. We will discuss the results in windy air, which show an encouraging performance both for the wind retrieval throughout the stratosphere (essentially unbiased l.o.s. winds with rms errors within 2 m/s over about 15 to 35 km) and for the GHG estimation.

Plach, Andreas; Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried

2014-05-01

196

Response of the midlatitude jets and of their variability to increased greenhouse gases in the CMIP5 models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work documents how the midlatitude, eddy-driven jets respond to climate change using output from 72 model integrations run for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5). We consider separately the North Atlantic, the North Pacific and the Southern Hemisphere jets. Unlike previous studies, we do not limit our analysis to annual mean changes in the latitude and speed of the jets only, but also explore how the daily variability of each jet changes with increased greenhouse gases. Given the direct connection between synoptic activity and the location of the eddy-driven jet, changes in jet variability directly relate to the changes in the future storm tracks. We find that all jets migrate poleward with climate change: the Southern Hemisphere jet shifts poleward by 2 degrees of latitude between the Historical period and the end of the 21st century in the RCP8.5 scenario, whereas the Northern Hemisphere jets shift by only 1 degree. The speed of the Southern Hemisphere jet also increases markedly (by 1.2 m/s between 850-700 hPa), while the speed remains nearly constant for both jets in the Northern Hemisphere. The seasonality of the jet shifts will also be addressed, whereby the largest poleward jet shift occurs in the autumn of each hemisphere (i.e. MAM for the Southern Hemisphere jet, and SON for the North Atlantic and North Pacific jets). We find that the structure of the daily jet variability is a strong function of the jet position in all three sectors of the globe. For the Southern Hemisphere and the North Atlantic jets, the variability becomes less of a north-south wobbling (i.e. an `annular mode') with a poleward shift of the jet. In contrast, for the North Pacific jet, the variability becomes less of a pulsing and more of a north-south wobbling. In spite of these differences, we are able find a mechanism (based on Rossby wave breaking) that is able to explain many of the changes in jet variability within a single theoretical framework.

Barnes, Elizabeth; Polvani, Lorenzo

2013-04-01

197

A game of climate chicken : can EPA regulate greenhouse gases before the U.S. Senate ratifies the Kyoto Protocol?  

E-print Network

EPA's legal authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act is reviewed. While EPA clearly does not have the authority to implement the precise terms of the Kyoto Protocol, arguments could be put ...

Bugnion, Véronique.; Reiner, David M.

198

Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last interglacial (LIG, ~130-116 ka, ka = 1000 yr ago) is characterized by high-latitude warming and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for future warming. However, in contrast to predicted future greenhouse warming, the LIG climate is largely governed by variations in insolation. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations were relatively stable and similar to pre-industrial values, with the exception of the early LIG when, on average, GHGs were slightly lower. We performed six time-slice simulations with the low-resolution version of the Norwegian Earth System Model covering the LIG. In four simulations only the orbital forcing was changed. In two other simulations, representing the early LIG, additionally the GHG forcing was reduced. With these simulations we investigate (1) the different effects of GHG versus insolation forcing on the temperatures during the LIG; (2) whether reduced GHGs can explain the low temperatures reconstructed for the North Atlantic; and (3) the timing of the observed LIG peak warmth. Our simulations show that the insolation forcing results in seasonal and hemispheric differences in temperature. In contrast, a reduction in the GHG forcing causes a global and seasonal-independent cooling. Furthermore, we compare modelled temperatures with proxy-based LIG sea-surface temperatures along a transect in the North Atlantic. The modelled North Atlantic summer sea-surface temperatures capture the general trend of the reconstructed summer temperatures, with low values in the early LIG, a peak around 125 ka, and a steady decrease towards the end of the LIG. Simulations with reduced GHG forcing improve the model-data fit as they show lower temperatures in the early LIG. Furthermore we show that the timing of maximum summer and winter surface temperatures is in line with the local summer and winter insolation maximum at most latitudes. Two regions where the maximum local insolation and temperature do not occur at the same time are Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. The austral summer insolation has a late maximum at ~115 ka. In contrast the austral summer temperatures in Antarctica show maxima at both ~130 ka and ~115 ka, and the Southern Ocean temperatures peak only at ~130 ka. This is probably due to the integrating effect of the ocean, storing heat from other seasons and resulting in relatively warm austral summer temperatures. Reducing the GHG concentrations in the early LIG (125 and 130 ka) results in a similar timing of peak warmth, except over Antarctica. There, the lower austral summer temperatures at 130 ka shift the maximum warmth to a single peak at 115 ka.

Langebroek, P. M.; Nisancioglu, K. H.

2014-07-01

199

Laser Atmospheric Transmitter Receiver-Network (LAnTeRN): A new approach for active measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laser Atmospheric Transmitter Receiver-Network (LAnTeRN) is a new measurement concept that will enable local, regional and continental determination of key greenhouse gases, with unparalleled accuracy and precision. This new approach will offer the ability to make low bias, high precision, quasi-continuous, measurements to the accuracies required for separating anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. In 2004 ITT Exelis developed an airborne demonstration unit, based on an intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) lidar approach, for actively measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2. The multi-functional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) system relies on low peak power, high reliability, and efficient telecom laser components to implement this unique measurement approach. While evaluating methods for discriminating against thin clouds for the MFLL instrument, a new measurement concept was conceived. LAnTeRN has several fundamental characteristics in common with the MFLL instrument, but is a fundamentally different implementation and capability. The key difference is that LAnTeRN operates in transmission rather than in the traditional backscatter lidar configuration, which has several distinct advantages. Operating as a forward scatter, bistatic lidar system, LAnTeRN enables consideration of continuous monitoring from a geostationary orbit to multiple locations on the ground. Having the receivers on the ground significantly lowers cost and risk compared to an all space based mission, and allows the transmitter subsystem to be implemented, near term, as a hosted payload. Furthermore, the LAnTeRN measurement approach is also applicable for ground to ground measurements where high precision measurements over a long open path is required, such as facilities monitoring, or monitoring of passive volcanoes and fault lines. Using narrow linewidth laser sources allows flexibility to select the position on the absorption feature being probed. This feature allows for weighting the absorption toward lower altitudes for the space implementation or to handle large dynamic range measurements as would be required for volcano monitoring. This presentation will discuss results from a detailed instrument performance analyses, retrieval simulations, and from initial testing of a proof of concept demonstration unit being developed by Exelis. Initial analysis indicate that measurements from a transmitter in geostationary orbit to 25 ground receivers in the eastern U.S. can retrieve column integrated CO2 values to a precision of <0.2 ppm on monthly averages and <0.06 ppm on yearly averages, using conservative estimates of cloud cover and aerosol loading. The capability for continuous monitoring over a fixed geometry makes it possible to independently characterize the atmospheric column, using existing capabilities (e.g. aircore, aircraft and in-situ instrumentation), for quantification of bias. Furthermore, the ability to selectively locate the ground receivers can enable focused studies for specific applications.

Dobler, J. T.; Braun, M.; Zaccheo, T.

2012-12-01

200

An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

E-print Network

A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on ...

Stohl, A.

201

Biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases from the Ogooué River (west central Africa): preliminary results after two years of monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ogooué River is the fourth largest river in Africa by discharge. The Ogooué Basin mostly consists of undisturbed rainforest with some savanna grassland. Yet, there is no information on the biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and greenhouse gases in this river. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Lambaréné (Gabon) [10.24°E 0.69°S] between April 2012 and March 2014 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct annual budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Ogooué River.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Mbega, Jean-Daniel; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

202

Winter fluxes of greenhouse gases from snow-covered agricultural soil: Intra-annual and interannual variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the length of winter in cold temperate climates, few studies refer to greenhouse gas emissions from soils during the nongrowing season. In this study, N2O and CO2 fluxes from agricultural and forest soils in southeastern Quebec (Canada) were measured during winter and spring from 1994 to 1997, and the influences of climate, soil, and snow properties on the gaseous emissions were examined. N2O fluxes were far greater from the agricultural soil (2-187 ng N2O m-2 s-1) than from the forest soil (<3 ng N2O m-2 s-1), but CO2 fluxes were equivalent for both soil systems (2-102 ?g CO2 m-2 s-1). The higher N2O concentrations in the lower soil horizons could be explained by positive temperature gradients with depth and concomitant negative gas solubility gradients. However, the higher N2O concentrations could also be explained by variations in the expression of N2O reductase with depth, which can modify the N2/N2O ratios in relation to the availability of O2. Calculated N2O-N fluxes showed that N losses by gaseous emissions from soils during winter and spring were comparable to, or exceeded, similar reported N losses during the growing season. The highest winter fluxes observed in 1997 were interpreted to be due to favorable meterological conditions that prevailed for denitrification through high soil water content in summer and fall of 1996. Although interannual and interseasonal variations of fluxes are important, this study shows that wintertime losses of N2O from agricultural soil can be up to 2 to 4 times greater than emissions measured during the growing season in similar agroecosystems.

van Bochove, Eric; Jones, H. Gerald; Bertrand, Normand; Prévost, Danielle

203

Observation of trace gases in the stratosphere over a 1-year cycle at the South Pole  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a planned one year cycle of measurements which follow the behavior of selected trace gases in the stratosphere over the South Pole. A large volume of unique data on several species of trace gases including O[sub 3], N[sub 2]O, HNO[sub 3], NO[sub 2], ClO, and H[sub 2]O[sub 2] as well as other observations on characterizing dynamic and chemical effects occuring in the heart of the antarctic winter vortex. 4 refs.

Trimble, C.; De Zafra, R.L. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States))

1993-01-01

204

Competition of NAO regime changes and increasing greenhouse gases and aerosols with respect to Arctic climate projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional magnitudes and patterns of Arctic winter climate changes in consequence of regime changes of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are analyzed using a regional atmospheric climate model. The regional model has been driven with data of positive and negative NAO phases from a control simulation as well as from a time-dependent greenhouse gas and aerosol scenario simulation. Both global

W. Dorn; K. Dethloff; A. Rinke; E. Roeckner

2003-01-01

205

Influence of water table level and soil properties on emissions of greenhouse gases from cultivated peat soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic

Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

2011-01-01

206

How will greenhouse gas observations meet changing requirements, laws, and demands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent efforts to develop a global greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS) have been driven by an anticipated need to support future national emission reduction policies or international treaties with observations. Such an effort would be similar to that done in support of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone, but more complex. However, greenhouse gas emissions are much more difficult to manage and may not be controlled by international agreement. The Kyoto Protocol has been fraught with political and practical difficulties, not the least of which is the absence of an independent observation and analysis requirement. Nevertheless, no unifying agreement was reached at the much heralded 2009 Conference of Parties (COP-15) in Copenhagen. Thus, it is quite possible (likely?) that greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced owing to other, uncoordinated policies that have their own merits, e.g., energy efficiency, alternative energy development, air quality improvement, forest development, agricultural practices, etc. If this is the future, then what observations and observation system design are needed and to what end? This presentation will discuss those needs in light of critical observations, analytical approaches, and evolving, disparate policies.

Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, J. B.; Montzka, S. A.

2010-12-01

207

ENVIRON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ROMANIA--ESTROM PROJECT Sources and emission of greenhouse gases in Danube  

E-print Network

gases in Danube Delta lakes Alina Pavel & Edith Durisch-Kaiser & Sorin Balan & Silviu Radan & Sebastian (Uzlina­Isac and Puiu­Rosu­ Rosulet) in the Danube Delta during post-flood conditions in May and low water, Puiu and Rosu in May. Input from the Danube River, from redbuds and benthic release contributed to CH4

Wehrli, Bernhard

208

Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants A. Gardner(1), D. Baer (1), T. Owano (1), R. Provencal (1), V. Parsotam (1), P. Graves (1), M. Gupta (1), Allen Goldstein (2), Abhinav Guha (2) (1) Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, CA 94041-1529 (2) Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California at Berkeley Quantifying the Urban Fossil Fuel Plume: Convergence of top-down and bottom-up approaches (Session A54). We report on the design, development and deployment of a novel Mobile Emissions Laboratory, consisting of innovative laser-based gas analyzers, for rapid measurements of multiple greenhouse gases and pollutants. Designed for real-time mobile and stationery emissions monitoring, the Mobile Emissions Laboratory was deployed at several locations during 2010, including CalNEX 2010, Caldecott Tunnel (Oakland, CA), and Altamont Landfill (Livermore, CA), to record real-time continuous measurements of isotopic CO2 (?13C, CO2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and isotopic water vapor (H2O; ?18O, ?2H). The commercial gas analyzers are based on novel cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The portable analyzers provide measurements in real time, require about 150 watts (each) of power and do not need liquid nitrogen to operate. These instruments have been applied in the field for applications that require high data rates (for eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., for chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that can be 10-1000 times higher than typical ambient levels) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Mobile Emissions Laboratory, which contains onboard batteries for long-term unattended measurements without access to mains power, can provide regulatory agencies, monitoring stations, scientists and researchers with temporally and spatially resolved data (including measurements of important greenhouse gases, isotopes and pollutants) necessary for compliance monitoring, hot-spot detection, as well as cap and trade, at any location. Details of extended measurement campaigns (including lessons learned) at the various field sites (urban and rural environments) will be presented.

Gardner, A.; Baer, D. S.; Owano, T. G.; Provencal, R. A.; Gupta, M.; Parsotam, V.; Graves, P.; Goldstein, A.; Guha, A.

2010-12-01

209

EEE: A PROTOTYPE TOOL FOR THE EVALUATION OF EMBODIED ENERGY AND GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS OF EXTERIOR ENVELOPE OF CANADIAN HOUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exterior envelope has a major contribution to the life-cycle energy use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and life-cycle cost of a house. Therefore, there is a need to design the exterior envelope in such a way as to minimize these environmental and economical impacts. The Energy & Emissions Estimator (EEE), a prototype tool, is developed in order to help engineers

Rym Baouendi; Radu Zmeureanu; Brian Bradley; Avi Friedman

210

Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of total emissions of greenhouse gases from biomass burning  

SciTech Connect

One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG emissions.

Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.

1997-12-31

211

Greenhouse gases emission and carbon sequestration in agro-ecosystems under long-term no-till: implications for global warming mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No-till (NT) management has gained wide acceptance in US agriculture, and could contribute to global warming mitigation by offsetting fossil fuel emission. While C sequestration in NT systems is fairly well documented, the dynamics of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is less well understood. However, the literature abounds with viewpoints and assumptions. Because of crop residue accumulation on NT surface and generally higher soil moisture, it is often assumed that production of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) is greater in NT systems compared to conventional tillage (MP). But it is also possible that long-term implementation of NT could increase soil macro-porosity, lead to the evolution of an active population of methanotrophs, and ultimately result in enhanced CH4 uptake. Field data are needed to reconcile these conflicting assumptions. A 2-year (2009-2011) study was conducted to quantify C sequestration, and compare GHG fluxes in adjacent forest and cropland under MP and long-term NT (9, 13, 36 and 48 years). The study sites were located across Ohio on soil series with similar drainage characteristics (moderately well drained, MWD) so that duration of NT management is the experimental factor. We also included a site under NT for 48 years but located on somewhat poorly-drained soil (SPD) in order to assess the impact of soil drainage. Results revealed marked effect of NT duration and soil drainage characteristics on GHG fluxes. As hypothesized, we found a positive impact of NT on CH4 uptake, but significant difference with MP management was noted at sites under NT for > 10 years. At the sites under NT for 48 years, CH4 uptake rate was 10-12 times higher in MWD than in SPD soils. When data from all sites were pooled, N2O fluxes were significantly higher under MP (2.01 mg N2O-N m-2 d-1) than under NT (0.73), but the trend varied with NT duration. While at recent (<10 y) NT sites, N2O emission was significantly lower than under MP, the reverse was observed at sites under NT for > 30 years. At these older NT sites, N2O emissions accounted for 40-60 % of the global warming potential (GWP, sum of all GHG expressed as CO2 equivalents). These findings suggest that the viability of NT farming as a climate warming mitigation strategy hinges on the adoption of N fertilizer management practices (timing, amount, type and method of application) that minimize N2O emissions from cropland under long-term NT.

Jacinthe, P.; Dick, W. A.; Lal, R.; Shrestha, R. K.; Bilen, S.

2011-12-01

212

Addendum to Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Effect of 1992 revision of global warming potential (GWP) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This addendum contains 2 important messages. (1) This document supersedes all previous versions of this work. Please do not use any older versions any more. (2) The atmospheric-science community now believes that it cannot estimate confidently the ''Global Warming Potentials'' (GWPs) of the indirect effects of greenhouse gases. A GWP is a number that converts a mass-unit emission of a

DeLuchi

1992-01-01

213

Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

214

Comparison of gas-solid chromatography and MM2 force field molecular binding energies for greenhouse gases on a carbonaceous surface.  

PubMed

Gas-solid chromatography was used to determine B(2s) (gas-solid virial coefficient) values for eight molecular adsorbates interacting with a carbon powder (Carbopack B, Supelco). B(2s) values were determined by multiple size variant injections within the temperature range of 313-553 K. The molecular adsorbates included: carbon dioxide (CO(2)); tetrafluoromethane (CF(4)); hexafluoroethane (C(2)F(6)); 1,1-difluoroethane (C(2)H(4)F(2)); 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (C(2)H(3)ClF(2)); dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl(2)F(2)); trichlorofluoromethane (CCl(3)F); and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (C(2)H(3)Cl(3)). Two of these molecules are of special interest because they are "super greenhouse gases". The global warming potential, GWP, for CF(4) is 6500 and for C(2)F(6) is 9200 relative to the reference value of 1 for CO(2). The GWP index considers both radiative blocking and molecular lifetime. For these and other industrial greenhouse gases, adsorptive trapping on a carbonaceous solid, which depends on molecule-surface binding energy, could avoid atmospheric release. The temperature variations of the gas-solid virial coefficients in conjunction with van't Hoff plots were used to find the experimental adsorption energy or binding energy values (E(*)) for each adsorbate. A molecular mechanics based, rough-surface model was used to calculate the molecule-surface binding energy (Ecal(*)) using augmented MM2 parameters. The surface model consisted of parallel graphene layers with two separated nanostructures each containing 17 benzene rings arranged in linear strips. The separation of the parallel nanostructures had been optimized in a prior study to appropriately represent molecule-surface interactions for Carbopack B. Linear regressions of E(*) versus Ecal(*) for the current data set of eight molecules and the same surface model gave E(*)=0.926 Ecal(*) and r(2)=0.956. A combined set of the current and prior Carbopack B adsorbates studied (linear alkanes, branched alkanes, cyclic alkanes, ethers, and halogenated hydrocarbons) gave a data set with 33 molecules and a regression of E(*)=0.991 Ecal(*) and r(2)=0.968. These results indicated a good correlation between the experimental and the MM2 computed molecule-surface binding energies. PMID:19560156

Rybolt, Thomas R; Bivona, Kevin T; Thomas, Howard E; O'Dell, Casey M

2009-10-01

215

The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung") accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC) analyzer capable of measuring greenhouse gas emissive fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar® bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three flux chambers, multiplexed to a single GC. The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times) where a greater number of sampling points are required.

Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Harvey, M. J.; Moss, R. C.; Pattey, E.; Dow, D.

2011-03-01

216

The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung") accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC) analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC. The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times) where a greater number of sampling points are required.

Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Harvey, M. J.; Moss, R. C.; Pattey, E.; Dow, D.

2011-10-01

217

Radiative Forcing by Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases: Estimates from Climate Models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiative effects from increased concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs) represent the most significant and best understood anthropogenic forcing of the climate system. The most comprehensive tools for simulating past and future climates influenced by WMGHGs are fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). Because of the importance of WMGHGs as forcing agents it is essential that AOGCMs compute the radiative forcing by these gases as accurately as possible. We present the results of a radiative transfer model intercomparison between the forcings computed by the radiative parameterizations of AOGCMs and by benchmark line-by-line (LBL) codes. The comparison is focused on forcing by CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, and the increased H2O expected in warmer climates. The models included in the intercomparison include several LBL codes and most of the global models submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). In general, the LBL models are in excellent agreement with each other. However, in many cases, there are substantial discrepancies among the AOGCMs and between the AOGCMs and LBL codes. In some cases this is because the AOGCMs neglect particular absorbers, in particular the near-infrared effects of CH4 and N2O, while in others it is due to the methods for modeling the radiative processes. The biases in the AOGCM forcings are generally largest at the surface level. We quantify these differences and discuss the implications for interpreting variations in forcing and response across the multimodel ensemble of AOGCM simulations assembled for the IPCC AR4.

Collins, W. D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Sun, Y.; Portmann, R. W.; Fu, Q.; Casanova, S. E. B.; Dufresne, J.-L.; Fillmore, D. W.; Forster, P. M. D.; Galin, V. Y.; Gohar, L. K.; Ingram, W. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Lefebvre, M.-P.; Li, J.; Marquet, P.; Oinas, V.; Tsushima, Y.; Uchiyama, T.; Zhong, W. Y.

2006-01-01

218

How ground-based observations can support satellite greenhouse gas retrievals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global society will eventually accelerate efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a variety of ways. These would likely involve international treaties, national policies, and regional strategies that will affect a number of economic, social, and environmental sectors. Some strategies will work better than others and some will not work at all. Because trillions of dollars will be involved in pursuing greenhouse gas emission reductions - through realignment of energy production, improvement of efficiencies, institution of taxes, implementation of carbon trading markets, and use of offsets - it is imperative that society be given all the tools at its disposal to ensure the ultimate success of these efforts. Providing independent, globally coherent information on the success of these efforts will give considerable strength to treaties, policies, and strategies. Doing this will require greenhouse gas observations greatly expanded from what we have today. Satellite measurements may ultimately be indispensable in achieving global coverage, but the requirements for accuracy and continuity of measurements over time are demanding if the data are to be relevant. Issues such as those associated with sensor drift, aging electronics, and retrieval artifacts present challenges that can be addressed in part by close coordination with ground-based and in situ systems. This presentation identifies the information that ground-based systems provide very well, but it also looks at what would be deficient even in a greatly expanded surface system, where satellites can fill these gaps, and how on-going, ground and in situ measurements can aid in addressing issues associated with accuracy, long-term continuity, and retrieval artifacts.

Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.

2012-04-01

219

Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program  

SciTech Connect

A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing; Stacy VanDeveer [World Resources Institute, Washington, DC (United States). Sustainable Enterprise Program

2005-07-01

220

The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Public Data Archive at CDIAC: Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gas Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) project is investigating the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases throughout various altitudes in the atmosphere over the Pacific Basin through the annual cycle (Wofsy and the HIPPO Science Team 2011, this session). Aircraft-based data collection occurred during 2009-2011. Data analyses, comparisons, and integration are ongoing. A permanent public archive of HIPPO data has been established at the U. S. DOE Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Datasets are provided primarily by the Lead Principal Investigator (PI), who draws on a comprehensive set of aircraft navigation information, meteorological measurements, and research instrument and sampling system results from multiple co-investigators to compile integrated and generate value-added products. A website/ftp site has been developed for HIPPO data and metadata (http://hippo.ornl.gov), in coordination with the UCAR website that presents field catalogs and other detailed information about HIPPO missions (http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/hippo/dm/). A data policy was adopted that balances the needs of the project investigators with the interests of the scientific user community. A data dictionary was developed to capture the basic characteristics of the hundreds of measurements. Instrument descriptions were compiled. A user's guide is presented for each dataset that also contains data file information enabling users to know when data have been updated. Data are received and provided as space-delimited ASCII files. Metadata records are compiled into a searchable CDIAC index and will be submitted to climate change research data clearinghouses. Each dataset is given a persistent identifier (DOI) to facilitate attribution. We expect that data will continue to be added to the archive for the next year or more. In the future we anticipate creating a database for HIPPO data, with a web interface to facilitate searching and customized data extraction.

Christensen, S. W.; Hook, L. A.

2011-12-01

221

Potential of in-service aircraft based greenhouse gas observations within IAGOS for constraining regional carbon budgets.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 contain information about carbon sources and sinks and the characteristics of the CO2 exchange processes between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. Within the recently established European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System), highly accurate and precise in-situ observation of greenhouse gases is foreseen in the near future. The objective of this study is to quantify the reduction in uncertainty in estimates of carbon sources, sinks, and exchange processes brought about by the use of this newly developed data stream. Anticipating the deployment of five GHG observing systems within IAGOS, the flight tracks from five in-service aircraft within MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by AIrbus in-service airCraft), a predecessor of IAGOS, are used in an inversion system to assess the constraint on the carbon budget and quantify the potential for reduction in posterior CO2 flux uncertainties. These measurement locations are used to evaluate the impact of data from aircraft on the reduction of flux uncertainties compared to that based on the existing global observation network, and furthermore to identify areas where the addition of these measurements would be of greatest impact. We use the Jena Inversion System that employs the Global Atmospheric Tracer Model TM3 for atmospheric transport, focussing on the period 1996-2004. The vertical aircraft profiles are input into the inversion as two partial-column averages instead of point measurements, the lower partial column completely containing (and exceeding) the boundary layer. Thus the error due to imperfect model representation of the boundary layer height and hence the vertical tracer transport near the surface can be diminished, and results in the reduction of the overall model-data mismatch error. The experimental design is such that in each simulation the existing measurement network is augmented by pseudo-observations from up to five simulated IAGOS aircraft. Uncertainty reduction from each of these simulations is compared to the uncertainty reduction from simulations employing only IAGOS or only the existing observation network. Additional constraint on regional carbon budgets is expected from the reduced model-data mismatch error when using vertical profiles as compared to using point measurements within the atmospheric boundary layer only.

Verma, Shreeya; Gerbig, Christoph; Marshall, Julia; Roedenbeck, Christian

2014-05-01

222

MAX-DOAS observations of trace gases over Mainz: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report on levels of trace gases in ambient atmosphere in Mainz, Germany. We measured the differential Slant Column Density (dSCD) of NO2, HCHO and O4 in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument. The MAX-DOAS observations were taken at Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, from January to March 2014, at different elevation angles. The main aim of the study is to compare the results of the Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument with those from a 'scientific' MAX-DOAS instrument operated simultaneously at the same location. We quantify systematic differences and random and errors of both data sets for different measurement conditions. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas DSCDs will be discussed in this work.

Alberti, Carlos; Gu, Myojeong; Remmers, Julia; Wagner, Thomas

2014-05-01

223

Global warming potentials; Part 7 of 7 supporting documents. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the general guidelines for voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Public review draft  

SciTech Connect

This document provides methods to account for the different effects of different gases on the atmosphere. It discusses the rationale and uses for simplified measures to represent human-related effects on climate and provides a brief introduction to a major index, the global warming potential (GWP) index. Appendix 7.A analyzes the science underlying the development of indices for concerns about climate, which is still evolving, evaluates the usefulness of currently available indices, and presents the state of the art for numerical indices and their uncertainties. For concerns about climate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been instrumental in examining relative indices for comparing the radiative influences of greenhouse gases. The IPCC developed the concept of GWPs to provide a simple representation of the relative effects on climate resulting from a unit mass emission of a greenhouse gas. Alternative measures and variations on the definition of GWPs have also been considered and reported.

Not Available

1994-05-31

224

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.  

PubMed

Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an effective means for evaluating some aspects of the current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential to improve the robustness of the next generation inventory system. PMID:22827140

Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

2012-06-01

225

Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John

2012-07-01

226

Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

227

Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3  

PubMed Central

A laser flash photolysis–resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O(1D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO2F2(k1), NF3(k2), and SF5CF3(k3). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k1(T) = 9.0 × 10-11 exp(+98/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k1b = (5.8 ± 2.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 independent of temperature. We find that k2(T) = 2.0 × 10-11 exp(+52/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with reaction proceeding almost entirely (?99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O(1D) by NF3 is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF3. Deactivation of O(1D) by SF5CF3 is slow enough (k3 < 2.0 × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K) that reaction with O(1D) is unimportant as an atmospheric removal mechanism for SF5CF3. The kinetics of O(1D) reactions with SO2 (k4) and CS2 (k5) have also been investigated at 298 K. We find that k4 = (2.2 ± 0.3) × 10-10 and k5 = (4.6 ± 0.6) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1; branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.76 ± 0.12 and 0.94 ± 0.06 for the SO2 and CS2 reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2?) and rate coefficients ki(T) (i = 1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of ± 15% (2?). PMID:20133693

Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L.; Nicovich, J. Michael; Wine, Paul H.

2010-01-01

228

CO2, CO and CH4 measurements from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary layer trace gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures and flow rates that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. These algorithms provide detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates for all of the gases and could be adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off the shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; de Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

2013-02-01

229

5, 213242, 2008 Greenhouse gases  

E-print Network

Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract In Central from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe

R. Salve; M. S. Torn

2011-01-01

231

A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-print Network

With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

232

[Short-term effects of fire disturbance on greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China].  

PubMed

By the methods of static chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the effects of fire disturbance on the seasonal dynamics and source/sink functions of CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland as well as their relations with environmental factors in Xiaoxing' an Mountains of China. In growth season, slight fire disturbance on the wetland induced an increase of air temperature and ground surface temperature by 1.8-3.9 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 6.3 cm; while heavy fire disturbance led to an increase of air temperature and 0-40 cm soil temperature by 1.4-3.8 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 33.9 cm. Under slight or no fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed by the wetland soil in spring but emitted in summer and autumn; under heavy fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed in spring and summer but emitted in autumn. The CO2 flux had a seasonal variation of summer > spring = autumn under no fire disturbance, but of summer > autumn > spring under fire disturbance; and the N2O flux varied in the order of spring > summer > autumn under no fire disturbance, but of autumn > spring > summer under slight fire disturbance, and of summer > spring = autumn under heavy fire disturbance. At unburned site, the CO2 flux was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and ground surface temperature; at slightly burned site, the CO2 flux had significant positive correlations with air temperature, 5-10 cm soil temperature, and water table; at heavily burned sites, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 flux and 5-40 cm soil temperature. Fire disturbance made the CH4 emission increased by 169.5% at lightly burned site or turned into weak CH4 sink at heavily burned site, and made the CO2 and N2O emissions and the global warming potential (GWP) at burned sites decreased by 21.2% -34.7%, 65.6% -95.8%, and 22.9% -36.6% respectively, compared with those at unburned site. Therefore, fire disturbance could decrease the greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland, and planned firing could be properly implemented in wetland management. PMID:21774304

Mu, Chang-cheng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Li-dong; Yu, Li-li; Gu, Han

2011-04-01

233

Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25 × 0.25° resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.7 Pg (+59%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulfurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25 × 0.25° for the major sectors are available from the following url: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/ .

Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.; Morikawa, T.; Hanayama, S.; Greet, J.-M.; Fukui, T.; Kawashima, K.; Akimoto, H.

2013-04-01

234

SAFT-? force field for the simulation of molecular fluids: 2. Coarse-grained models of greenhouse gases, refrigerants, and long alkanes.  

PubMed

In the first paper of this series [C. Avendaño, T. Lafitte, A. Galindo, C. S. Adjiman, G. Jackson, and E. A. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B2011, 115, 11154] we introduced the SAFT-? force field for molecular simulation of fluids. In our approach, a molecular-based equation of state (EoS) is used to obtain coarse-grained (CG) intermolecular potentials that can then be employed in molecular simulation over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions of the fluid. The macroscopic experimental data for the vapor-liquid equilibria (saturated liquid density and vapor pressure) of a given system are represented with the SAFT-VR Mie EoS and used to estimate effective intermolecular parameters that provide a good description of the thermodynamic properties by exploring a wide parameter space for models based on the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jones) potential. This methodology was first used to develop a simple single-segment CG Mie model of carbon dioxide (CO2) which allows for a reliable representation of the fluid-phase equilibria (for which the model was parametrized), as well as an accurate prediction of other properties such as the enthalpy of vaporization, interfacial tension, supercritical density, and second-derivative thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound). In our current paper, the methodology is further applied and extended to develop effective SAFT-? CG Mie force fields for some important greenhouse gases including carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), modeled as simple spherical molecules, and for long linear alkanes including n-decane (n-C10H22) and n-eicosane (n-C20H42), modeled as homonuclear chains of spherical Mie segments. We also apply the SAFT-? methodology to obtain a CG homonuclear two-segment Mie intermolecular potential for the more challenging polar and asymmetric compound 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf), a novel replacement refrigerant with promising properties. The description of the fluid-phase behavior and the prediction of the other thermophysical properties obtained by molecular simulation using our SAFT-? CG Mie force fields are found to be of comparable quality (and sometimes superior) to that obtained using the more sophisticated all-atom (AA) and united-atom (UA) models commonly employed in the field. We should emphasize that though the focus of our current work is on simple homonuclear models, the SAFT-? methodology is based on a group contribution methodology which is naturally suited to the development of more sophisticated heteronuclear models. PMID:23311931

Avendaño, Carlos; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S; Galindo, Amparo; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

2013-03-01

235

Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25° × 0.25° resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.0 Pg (+57%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulphurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° for the major sectors are available from the following URL: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/.

Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.; Morikawa, T.; Hanayama, S.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Fukui, T.; Kawashima, K.; Akimoto, H.

2013-11-01

236

Observations of Reactive Gases in the Central Siberia in 2007-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a considerable shortage of direct observations of atmospheric trace gases in low-populated regions of Siberia. Since March, 2007 till now continuous measurements of O3, NOx, NO and NO2 concentrations have been performed at ZOTTO station in the middle of Krasnoyarsky Krai (60 N, 90 E) with 10 sec timing. Observations are completely automated and are part of scientific program on atmospheric chemistry measurements of ZOTTO Consortium headed by Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena. Variations of ozone concentration reveal vivid seasonal and daily features which have been analyzed and compared to other mid-latitude background stations as well as to data of TROICA train-based observations. These variations are likely to be typical for the Northern Eurasia boreal zone. Seasonal spring maximum (40-50 ppbv) is caused by stratospheric ozone intrusions that are only considerable ozone source. Smaller variations can be induced both by local factors and long-range transport of ozone precursors from pollution sources. The largest ozone formation rate has been observed in summer time from 9 a.m. till 3 p.m. of local time and made up 1-2 ppbv/hour. Such value points out on quite low photochemical activity and ambient air oxidizing ability. NOx concentration does not exceed 1 ppb that is typical for background areas but may vary by order and some more in few hours. Higher surface NOx(=NO+NO2) concentrations during day time generally correspond to higher ozone when NO/NO2 ratio indicates on clean or slightly polluted conditions. Analysis on base of Lagrangian model for evaluation of air parcel trajectories basing on NCEP final analysis meteorological fields and Russian Federation Hydrometeocenter reanalysis fields and residence time statistics has shown that most probable sources of man-made emissions influencing the Central Siberia air are located on south of Siberia (Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tomsk, Novosibirsk). These results have been verified by CO data provided Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, and agreement was very good. Data of TROICA-11, 12, 13 campaigns which occurred correspondingly in summer of 2007, 2008 and 2009 have been used to analyze pollution sources located along the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Measurements of volatile organic compounds by proton mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) in 2008 and 2009 have been also considered to assess concentrations of biogenic VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) for dark-coniferous forests zone. Some of man-made VOCs (aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde) were measured at ZOTTO in 2008 and in 2009 and are also presented in this study. The work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project # 08-05-13589).

Skorokhod, Andrey; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Pankratova, Natalia; Shumsky, Roman; Vivchar, Anastasia; Timkovsky, Joseph; Berezina, Elena

2010-05-01

237

Aerosols and gases concentrations observed at Stelvio National Park (Italian Alps) during summer conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three summer fields campaigns were carried out during 2009, 2010 and 2011 in two sites in the area of Stelvio National Park (SNP), Central Italian Alps. Those activities were performed in the frame of the SHARE - Stelvio project (Station at High Altitude for Research on the Environment). SNP includes an extensive impervious territory of valleys and high mountains, up to 3900 m asl. Two high altitude sampling sites, Rifugio Guasti (3285 m asl) and Forni glacier ( 2700 m asl), have been picked out for collecting the main atmospheric parameters: the first site hosted the field campaign in 2009 and 2010 and was located at Cevedale pass, at the border between Lombardia and Trentino-Alto Adige regions, while in 2011 the measurements were carried out on Forni glacier surface, in a N-S oriented valley, through SHARE-box, a portable and autonomous unit for atmospheric measurements developed in the framework of SHARE project. Because of different location Rifugio Guasti is an ideal site to monitor long range transport on Southern slope of Alpine range, while Forni glacier is more affected by local influence of valley and glacier breezes. Monitored parameters concerned (i) meteorology, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, air pressure, (ii) chemical and physical properties of the aerosols (number concentrations, size distribution and chemical composition) and (iii) , gases concentration (CO2, O3). This work is aimed at describing the behaviour of these compounds, in terms of concentration observed over different time scales, such hourly and daily, in order to investigate the impact of transport processes (i.e. air masses transports arisen from both "thermal" breezes or synoptic circulation) on aerosols and gases variability at SNP. The Alps face the Po Valley, one of the more populated and industrialized region in Europe. This is one of the most probable source of polluted air masses which spread towards high altitude sites, such as Alps and Apennines, according to the dominant wind direction and the planetary boundary layer depth. In fact during summer-time, when the convective boundary layer is well developed, the measurement could be affected by air masses travelling along Tellina Valley and from the urbanized Po Valley and vegetated belt, spreading towards the high elevation of Alpine Southern slope, strongly affecting the tropospheric conditions and resulting in a typical diurnal cycle. On the other hand, as will be shown in this work, the long-range transport related with synoptic circulation may affect air-mass composition at the SNP. In fact several episodes of mineral dust transport coming from Northern Africa and air-masses descending from the upper troposphere or the low stratosphere has been observed. Long range transport of polluted air masses from continental Europe may also affect the pristine air conditions at SNP.

Landi, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; Cristofanelli, P.; Bonafè, U.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Laj, P.; Villani, P.; Bonasoni, P.

2012-04-01

238

Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region  

PubMed Central

International agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require verification to ensure that they are effective and fair. Verification based on direct observation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will be necessary to demonstrate that estimated emission reductions have been actualized in the atmosphere. Here we assess the capability of ground-based observations and a high-resolution (1.3 km) mesoscale atmospheric transport model to determine a change in greenhouse gas emissions over time from a metropolitan region. We test the method with observations from a network of CO2 surface monitors in Salt Lake City. Many features of the CO2 data were simulated with excellent fidelity, although data-model mismatches occurred on hourly timescales due to inadequate simulation of shallow circulations and the precise timing of boundary-layer stratification and destratification. Using two optimization procedures, monthly regional fluxes were constrained to sufficient precision to detect an increase or decrease in emissions of approximately 15% at the 95% confidence level. We argue that integrated column measurements of the urban dome of CO2 from the ground and/or space are less sensitive than surface point measurements to the redistribution of emitted CO2 by small-scale processes and thus may allow for more precise trend detection of emissions from urban regions. PMID:22611187

McKain, Kathryn; Wofsy, Steven C.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ehleringer, James R.; Stephens, Britton B.

2012-01-01

239

Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region.  

PubMed

International agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require verification to ensure that they are effective and fair. Verification based on direct observation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will be necessary to demonstrate that estimated emission reductions have been actualized in the atmosphere. Here we assess the capability of ground-based observations and a high-resolution (1.3 km) mesoscale atmospheric transport model to determine a change in greenhouse gas emissions over time from a metropolitan region. We test the method with observations from a network of CO(2) surface monitors in Salt Lake City. Many features of the CO(2) data were simulated with excellent fidelity, although data-model mismatches occurred on hourly timescales due to inadequate simulation of shallow circulations and the precise timing of boundary-layer stratification and destratification. Using two optimization procedures, monthly regional fluxes were constrained to sufficient precision to detect an increase or decrease in emissions of approximately 15% at the 95% confidence level. We argue that integrated column measurements of the urban dome of CO(2) from the ground and/or space are less sensitive than surface point measurements to the redistribution of emitted CO(2) by small-scale processes and thus may allow for more precise trend detection of emissions from urban regions. PMID:22611187

McKain, Kathryn; Wofsy, Steven C; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ehleringer, James R; Stephens, Britton B

2012-05-29

240

Survey Observation of S-bearing Species toward Neptune's Atmosphere to Constrain the Origin of Abundant Volatile Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our recent sub-mm waveband observation result of CS, CO and HCN gases on Neptune's atmosphere. Obtained abundance of both CO and HCN were comparable to previous observations. In turn, CS gas, which was produced largely after the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter in 1994 was not detected. Obtained [CS]/[CO] value was at least 300 times more lower than the case of SL9 event while the calculated lifetime of CS gas by thermo-chemical simulation is quite longer than other S-bearing species. The interpretation of the absence of CS bring the new mystery of the origin of trace gases on Neptune's atmosphere.

Iino, T.; Mizuno, A.; Nagahama, T.; Nakajima, T.

2013-09-01

241

Field Observations of the Processing of Organic Aerosol Particles and Trace Gases by Fogs and Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many environments, organic compounds account for a significant fraction of fine particle mass. Because the lifetimes of accumulation mode aerosol particles are governed largely by interactions with clouds, it is important to understand how organic aerosol particles are processed by clouds and fogs. Recently we have examined the organic composition of clouds and fogs in a variety of environments as well as how these fogs and clouds process organic aerosol particles and soluble organic trace gases. The investigations, conducted in Europe, North America, Central America, and the Pacific region, have included studies of polluted radiation fogs, orographic clouds in clean and polluted environments, and marine stratocumulus. Our results show that organic matter is a significant component of fog and cloud droplets. In polluted California radiation fogs, we observed concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) ranging from 2 to 40 ppmC, with significantly lower concentrations measured in marine and continental clouds. An average of approximately 80 percent of organic matter was found in solution, while the remainder appears to be suspended material inside cloud and fog drops. Ultrafiltration measurements indicate that as much as half of the dissolved organic carbon is present in very large molecules with molecular weights in excess of 500 Daltons. Field measurements made using a two-stage cloud water collector reveal that organic matter tends to be enriched in smaller cloud or fog droplets. Consequently, removal of organic compounds by precipitating clouds or by direct cloud/fog drop deposition will be slowed due to the fact that small drops are incorporated less efficiently into precipitation and removed less efficiently by sedimentation or inertial impaction. Despite this trend, we have observed that sedimentation of droplets from long-lived radiation fogs provides a very effective mechanism for cleansing the atmosphere of carbonaceous aerosol particles, with organic carbon removed more efficiently than elemental carbon. Efforts to characterize organic matter in clouds and fogs reveal that the most abundant species are typically low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes. These species have been observed collectively to account for roughly 20-30 percent of the total organic carbon in some fogs and clouds. Dicarboxylic acids, frequently used as model compounds for organic CCN, typically account for only about 1 percent of the organic carbon, with oxalic acid the most important contributor. Measurements by GC/MS, HPLC, and H-NMR reveal that many other organic compounds are present, including aerosol source markers and compound families frequently detected in aerosol particles including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These latter compounds were detected in both dissolved and undissolved forms in droplets, with dissolved concentrations often higher than their solubilities in pure aqueous solutions, suggesting a possible role of surface organic films. Although more than 100 organic species have been quantified in many samples, the majority of the organic carbon mass remains unspeciated. Given the importance of high molecular weight material, future efforts will focus in part on further characterization of these compounds, including possible contributions from humic like substances.

Collett, J. L.; Herckes, P.

2003-12-01

242

Retrieval of vertical profiles of multiple trace gases from MAX-DOAS observations during the MADCAT Campaign in Mainz, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to promote the development of passive DOAS technique and solve some critical problems including e.g. accurate retrievals of trace gas slant column densities (SCD), profile retrievals of trace gases and aerosol, and the effects of cloud, the Multi Axis DOAS-Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) was held at the Max-Planck institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany from June to August 2013. Within this campaign, spectra of scattered sun light were taken by our two-dimensional scanning MAX-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) instrument and a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument from the Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this presentation, firstly we show the retrieved differential SCDs of O4, NO2, HCHO, HONO and CHOCHO based on the observations of the 2D-MAX-DOAS. Based on these dSCDs we acquired the vertical profiles of these trace gases and aerosol extinction using optimal estimation method. We compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MAX-DOAS with simultaneous observations from an AERONET instrument as well as the near surface volume mixing ratio (VMR) of NO2 from MAX-DOAS with those from a CE-DOAS instrument from the IUP Heidelberg group and found in general good agreement. In addition we apply a cloud classification scheme based on our MAX-DOAS observations to identify different kinds of weather during the MAD-CAT campaign.

Wang, Yang; Xie, Pinhua; Wagner, Thomas; Li, Ang; Luo, Yuhan; Remmers, Julia; Horbanski, Martin; Friess, Udo

2014-05-01

243

Spatial variability of greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir flooding primary forest (Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Petit Saut Reservoir (PSR, French Guiana, South America), vertical profiles were performed at 5 stations in the open waters (OW) and 6 stations in two shallow flooded forest (FF) areas between April 2012 and September 2013. Measurements included physico-chemical parameters, ammonium, nitrate and dissolved greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) and nitrogen (PN), ?13C-POC and ?15N-PN . The diffusive fluxes were calculated from surface concentrations. The aim of this study was to estimate the spatial variations of greenhouse gas emissions at a dentrical hydroelectric reservoir located in the tropics and flooding primary forest. Twenty years after impoundment, the water column of the PSR is permanently and tightly stratified thermally in the FF whereas in the OW, the thermal gradients are not as stable. The different hydrodynamical behaviours between the two different zones have significant consequences on the biogeochemistry: oxygen barely diffuses down to the hypolimnion in the FF whereas destratification occurs sporadically during the rainy season in the OW. Although we found the same range of POC in the FF and the OW (2.5-29 ?mol L-1) and 20% more DOC at the bottom of OW than in the FF (229-878 ?mol L-1), CO2 and CH4 concentrations were always significantly higher in the FF (CO2: 11-1412 ?mol L-1, CH4: 0.001-1015 ?mol L-1) than in the OW. On average, the CO2 concentrations were 30-40% higher in the FF than in the OW and the CH4 concentrations were three times higher in the FF than in the OW. The ?13C-POC and C:N values did not suggest substantial differences in the sources of OM between the FF and OW. At all stations, POC at the bottom has an isotopic signature slightly lighter than the terrestrial OM in the surrounding forest whereas the isotopic signature of surface POM would result from phytoplankton and methanotrophs. The vertical profiles of nitrogen compounds reveal that the main source of nitrogen in the water column of the PSR is the NH4+ produced during the mineralisation of the OM at the bottom of the reservoir. In OW, the production of NO3- and N2O is enhanced compared to the FF. As a result, N2O concentrations are three times higher at the bottom of OW but surface concentrations are similar in the FF and OW. CO2 diffusive fluxes are 40% higher and CH4 diffusive fluxes are three times higher in FF (CO2: 42±20 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.7±1.4 mmol m-2 d-1) than in OW (CO2: 27±17 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.2±0.3 mmol m-2 d-1). In shallow FF, average CH4 ebullition is 3±10 mmol m-2 d-1 whereas ebullition was never observed in OW. N2O emissions did not exhibit any spatial variability (9±4 ?mol m-2 d-1). At the PSR, FF which represents one third of the surface area, is responsible of half of the GHG emissions from the reservoir. This implies that the emissions from most of the tropical reservoirs flooding primary forest need to be reassessed since FF environments are usually overlooked.

Cailleaud, Emilie; Guérin, Frédéric; Bouillon, Steven; Sarrazin, Max; Serça, Dominique

2014-05-01

244

Comparison of the observed and calculated clear sky greenhouse effect - Implications for climate studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The clear sky greenhouse effect is defined in terms of the outgoing longwave clear sky flux at the top of the atmosphere. Recently, interest in the magnitude of the clear sky greenhouse effect has increased due to the archiving of the clear sky flux quantity through the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The present study investigates to what degree of accuracy this flux can be analyzed by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. The conclusion from this comparison is that for most regions over oceans the analyzed fluxes agree to within the accuracy of the ERBE-retrieved fluxes (+/- 5 W/sq m). However, in regions where deep convective activity occurs, the ERBE fluxes are significantly higher (10-15 W/sq m) than the calculated fluxes. This bias can arise from either cloud contamination problems or variability in water vapor amount. It is argued that the use of analyzed fluxes may provide a more consistent clear sky flux data set for general circulation modeling validation. Climate implications from the analyzed fluxes are explored. Finally, results for obtaining longwave surface fluxes over the oceans are presented.

Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

1992-01-01

245

An approach for retrieval of atmospheric trace gases CO2, CH4 and CO from the future Canadian micro earth observation satellite (MEOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among all trace gases, the carbon dioxide and methane provide the largest contribution to the climate radiative forcing and together with carbon monoxide also to the global atmospheric carbon budget. New Micro Earth Observation Satellite (MEOS) mission is proposed to obtain information about these gases along with some other mission's objectives related to studying cloud and aerosol interactions. The miniature

Alexander P. Trishchenko; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov; Shusen Wang; Yi Luo; Roman V. Kruzelecky; Wes Jamroz; Guennadi Kroupnik

2007-01-01

246

Estimation of greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from no-till cropland under increased temperature and altered precipitation regime: a DAYCENT model approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play an important role in regulating the Earth surface temperature. GHG emissions from soils are sensitive to climate change and land management practices. According to general circulation model (GCM) predictions, the Earth will experience a combination of increased temperature and altered precipitation regimes which may result in an increase or a decrease of GHG exchange. The effect of climate change on GHG emissions can be examined through both experiments and by applying process-based models, which have become more popular. The performance of those models can be improved significantly by appropriate calibration procedures. The objectives of this study are to: (i) calibrate the DAYCENT model using advance parameter estimation (PEST) software and to (ii) examine simulated GHG dynamics at daily and seasonal time-scales under a climate change scenario of increased temperature (2 °C) and a precipitation regime change where 40% of precipitation during the dry season was redistributed to the wet season. The algorithmic calibration improved the model performance by reducing the sum of weighted squared residual differences by up to 223% (decreased from 1635 to 505 g N2O-N ha- 1 d- 1) for N2O and 22% (decreased from 623 to 507% WFPS) for water filled pore space (WFPS) simulation results. In the altered climate scenario, total N2O and CO2 fluxes decreased by 9% (from 2.31 to 2.10 kg N2O-N ha- 1 yr- 1) and 38% (from 1134.08 to 699.56 kg CO2 ha- 1 yr- 1) respectively, whereas CH4 fluxes increased by 10% (from 1.62 to 1.80 kg CH4 ha- 1 yr- 1). Our results show a larger impact of altered climate on CO2 as compared to N2O and CH4 emissions. The main difference in all GHG emissions was observed in summer period due to drought conditions created by reduced precipitation and increased temperatures. However, the GHG dynamics can also be attributed to no-till practices which play an important role in changing the soil moisture conditions for aerobic and anaerobic microsites. These results are based on a process-based model, therefore, we suggest performing experimental studies to examine the GHG emissions under increased temperature and especially under altered precipitation regimes.

Rafique, Rashad; Kumar, Sandeep; Luo, Yiqi; Xu, Xianli; Li, Dejun; Zhang, Wei; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman

2014-07-01

247

Stratospheric Trace Gases Observed By The Airborne Submillimeter Radiometer Asur During The Arctic Winter 1999/2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Airborne Submillimeter Radiometer ASUR is a passive microwave receiver ap- plying the heterodyne principle. It is operated on board an aircraft to avoid water vapor absorption. With its freqency range from 604 to 662 GHz it is capable to measure ro- tational lines of important stratospheric trace gases like Ozone, N2O, HCl, ClO and HNO3, among others. By analyzing the shape of the pressure broadened lines, vertical profiles of these species can be retrieved over an altitude range of about 15-55 km with a vertical resolution of 5-10 km in the lower stratosphere. During the THESEO 2000 / SOLVE campaign ASUR was operated on board the NASA research aircraft DC-8, performing 23 flights between late November 1999 and mid-March 2000. Vertical profiles of the trace gases stated above were retrieved and allow to determine the variability of these trace gases inside the Arctic vortex and their evolution during the winter. Scientific results include diabatic descent of vortex airmasses derived from N2O observations, stratospheric ozone loss, chlorine activa- tion derived from HCl and ClO measurements as well as denitrification derived from HNO3. Key measurements and conclusions will be presented.

Kleinboehl, A.; Bremer, H.; von Koenig, M.; Kuellmann, H.; Kuenzi, K. F.; Goede, A. P. H.

248

POSTING: Technician 5 Heat and Greenhouse gas Exchange The Centre for Earth Observation Science (CEOS) within the Faculty of Environment,  

E-print Network

POSTING: Technician 5 ­ Heat and Greenhouse gas Exchange technician in support of multidisciplinary research on heat and greenhouse gas exchange within marine and estuarine environments of the Arctic and sub

249

The earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology. I - Observations of the clear sky greenhouse effect. II - Observations of cloud effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The clear-sky components of the earth's radiation budget (ERB), the relationship of these components to the sea surface temperature (SST), and microwave-derived water-vapor amount are analyzed in an observational study along with the relationship between the cloudy-sky components of ERB and space/time coincident observations of SST, microwave-derived cloud liquid water, and cloud cover. The purpose of the study is to use these observations for establishing an understanding of the couplings between radiation and the atmosphere that are important to understanding climate feedback. A strategy for studying the greenhouse effect of earth by analyzing the emitted clear-sky longwave flux over the ocean is proposed. It is concluded that the largest observed influence of clouds on ERB is more consistent with macrophysical properties of clouds as opposed to microphysical properties. The analysis for clouds and the greenhouse effect of clouds is compared quantitatively with the clear sky results. Land-ocean differences and tropical-midlatitude differences are shown and explained in terms of the cloud macrostructure.

Stephens, Graeme L.; Greenwald, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

250

Cytokine patterns in greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to ?-cypermethrin: an observational study.  

PubMed

The immunotoxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid ?-cypermethrin (?CYP) was assessed in 30 occupationally exposed greenhouse workers and 30 non-exposed controls by comparing plasma levels of IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-?, TNF-? and INF-?. Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as an exposure biomarker. Exposed workers showed neither clinical signs of immunosuppression nor alterations in total leukocytes or leukocyte subpopulations, whereas significant differences (p<0.05) were found for IL-12p70 and highly significant differences (p<0.001) for INF-?, IL-2 and IL-8, which are involved in antitumor immunity and response to infection. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-8, IL-12p70 and IFN-? play a significant role against infection and cancer. We report the first data on the ability of ?CYP to reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels in an exposed healthy human population. Findings support the hypothesis that pyrethroid exposure may reduce host defenses against infection and cancer, particularly in subjects with impaired immune capacity. PMID:23958972

Costa, Chiara; Rapisarda, Venerando; Catania, Stefania; Di Nola, Carmelina; Ledda, Caterina; Fenga, Concettina

2013-11-01

251

Space Place: Have a Greenhouse Gas Attack!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, players help rid Earth of excess greenhouse gases with the goal of getting atmospheric temperature to the "normal" range. A link is included which provides directions on making greenhouse gases out of gumdrops. The article/game is targeted to children ages 10-12.

252

GreenHouse Gas Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GreenHouse Gas Online catalogues greenhouse gas related articles published in over 100 peer-reviewed journals from around the world. Only journal articles with freely available abstracts are included. The latest general news and journal articles can be found listed by title, while links to archived material is available by topic. Pages devoted to background information on the various greenhouse gases, current scientific understanding and the potential for control of emissions are also available.

2002-08-01

253

Greenhouse Gas Molecules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of an interactive table with a comprehensive list of 29 Greenhouse Gases, their molecular structures, a chart showing a time series of their atmospheric concentrations (at several sampling sites), their global warming potential (GWP) and their atmospheric lifetimes. References are given to the data sets that range from the mid-1990s to 2008.

Lisensky, George; College, Beloit

254

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into  

E-print Network

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

Verifying the observer dependence of quasiparticle counts in the analogue gravity of dilute ultracold quantum gases  

E-print Network

The quasiparticle content of a quantum field depends on the observer, in particular on its motional state, on the way the observer's detector couples to the quantum field, and on the frequency standard in which the detector carried by the observer measures the quanta to be detected. I review a procedure of making this fundamental property of quantum field theory experimentally manifest using quantum-optical means in Bose-Einstein condensates.

Uwe R. Fischer

2012-05-24

256

First Results of Atmospheric Trace Gases in and around New Delhi using mobile MAX-DOAS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Megacities are localized, heterogeneous and variable sources of air pollutants, greatly influence air quality and have direct influence on climate. Within the European project MEGAPOLI, in month of April 2010, we carried out mobile MAX-DOAS measurements in and around Delhi and made comparison with satellite data. The MAX-DOAS was mounted on a car. The aim of the project was to characterize and quantify pollutants. The mobile observations were conducted in and around New Delhi along circles of different radii. The analysis of MAX-DOAS, satellite observations and meteorological data, is used to quantify the total emissions of trace gases like NO2, HCHO or Glyoxal. The results obtained from the detailed analysis are first time compared with the satellite data. The ground and satellite data show a good correlation over Delhi, capital of India.

Shaiganfar, R.; Beirle, S.; Marbach, T.; Wagner, T.; Sharma, M.; Chauhan, A.; Singh, R.

2010-12-01

257

Development of inexpensive continuous emission monitors for feedback control of combustion devices that minimize greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, and ozone damaging products  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combustion is the major cause of poor urban air quality, of depletion of the ozone layer, and a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Careful control of combustor conditions is important for minimizing the effects of combustion on the environment. The authors have developed sensitive, inexpensive continuous emission monitors that will assist in direct feedback of turbine power systems and provide assurance to the public and the operators of the facilities that their facility emissions lie within the accepted bounds. These include a robust solid-state Fourier transform spectrometer for rapid gas analysis, based on the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal technology, and an infrared helium-neon probe for real time measurement of combustor air-to-fuel ratios.

Funk, D.J.; Moore, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Mongia, R.K.; Tomita, E.; Hsu, F.K.; Talbot, L.; Dibble, R.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US); Lovett, J. [Pratt and Whitney (US); Yamazaki, Akira [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan)

1998-11-01

258

Quantum gases. Observation of Fermi surface deformation in a dipolar quantum gas.  

PubMed

In the presence of isotropic interactions, the Fermi surface of an ultracold Fermi gas is spherical. Introducing anisotropic interactions can deform the Fermi surface, but the effect is subtle and challenging to observe experimentally. Here, we report on the observation of a Fermi surface deformation in a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. The deformation is caused by the interplay between strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and the Pauli exclusion principle. We demonstrate the many-body nature of the effect and its tunability with the Fermi energy. Our observation provides a basis for future studies on anisotropic many-body phenomena in normal and superfluid phases. PMID:25237096

Aikawa, K; Baier, S; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Ravensbergen, C; Ferlaino, F

2014-09-19

259

The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

260

Overview of an aircraft expedition into the Brazilian cerrado for the observation of atmospheric trace gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric trace gases were measured from an aircraft platform. The flights were organized to sample air masses from the geographic area of central Brazil, where the vegetation, a savanna-type environment with the local name of "cerrado", is subject to burning every year, especially through August, September, and October. These measurements were made as a Brazilian local contribution to the international field campaign organized by NASA, the Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) mission, and the Southern African Fire Atmospheric Research Initiative (SAFARI). The major NASA TRACE A mission used the NASA DC 8 aircraft, with most flights over the South Atlantic Ocean region. In Brazil, missions using small aircraft measured ozone and carbon dioxide continuously, and carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, and methane using grab sampling. In addition, ground-based measurements were made continuously over most of the dry months of 1992, and ozonesondes were launched at three different sites. Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite-East (GOES E) images and a special network of radio soundings provided meteorological information, and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images indicated the distribution of fire pixels in the region of interest. Most of the biomass burning in 1992 occurred in the state of Tocantins, with about 22% of all the burning in Brazil. The state of Mato Grosso was second, with 19% of all burning. The Brazilian aircraft was used mostly in these two states, near the cities of Porto Nacional and Cuiabá, for in situ sampling; 31 vertical profiles were made in air masses considered to be well mixed, that is, not in fresh plumes. Although the major interest was the dry season, sampling was also made during the previous wet season period in April 1992 for comparison; 10 vertical profiles were obtained using the same aircraft and measurement techniques. There is a clear difference between these two opposite seasonal periods, most evident in the O3 and CO data. Both Cuiabá and Porto Nacional show some 30-60 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) larger methane concentrations, for example, during the dry season, in comparison to the wet season, the difference at Cuiabá being larger. The methane data for the wet season show no significant differences between Cuiabá and Porto Nacional mixing ratios, which seems to exclude the existence of significant sources or sinks at these sites during this wet season. The ozone mixing ratios vary around 15 ± 5 ppbv in the wet season, and from a minimum of 35 to a maximum of 70 ± 10 ppbv, depending on height, in the dry season. The largest variability is seen in the carbon monoxide mixing ratios which vary from 90-100 ppbv in the wet season to maxima of 300 at 3.3 km and 600 ppbv at 1.2 km height in the dry season.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Alvalá, P. C.

1996-10-01

261

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document, provided by the US Energy Information Agency, summarizes emission data reported for 1995 as part of the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. Global warming is caused by increasing quantities of greenhouse gases being emitted into the atmosphere. Such gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and toxic pollutants. Estimates of temperature increase range from 2-6.5 degrees Fahrenheit in the next 100 years.

1997-01-01

262

Observation of low-field Fano-Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases of dysprosium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the observation of resonancelike loss in the trap population of ultracold dysprosium as a function of magnetic field, which we attribute to anisotropy-induced Fano-Feshbach resonances arising from Dy's large magnetic dipole moment and nonzero electronic orbital angular momentum. We recorded these resonances for four different isotopes, three bosonic and one fermionic, over a field range of 0-6 G and show that the number of resonances changes significantly as a function of temperature, even in the nK regime. Most of the observed resonances are of very narrow width. The fermionic isotope, unlike its bosonic counterparts, possesses nonzero nuclear spin and exhibits a much higher density of resonances.

Baumann, Kristian; Burdick, Nathaniel Q.; Lu, Mingwu; Lev, Benjamin L.

2014-02-01

263

Global Warming Observations  

E-print Network

Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

Schofield, Jeremy

264

2013 Update of NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indexes are becoming increasingly important in communicating messages about climate change to a diverse public. Indexes exist for a number of climate-related phenomena including heat, precipitation, and extreme events. These help communicate complex phenomena to the public and, at times, policy makers, to aid in understanding or making decisions. Several years ago, NOAA introduced a unique index for expressing the influence of human-emitted, long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (DJ Hofmann et al., Tellus, 2006, S8B 614-619). Essentially a condensation and normalization of radiative forcing from long-lived gases, the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a standard that could be easily understood and followed. The index each year is calculated from high quality, long-term observations by NOAA's Global Monitoring Division, which includes real-time measurements extending over the past five decades, as well as published ice core record that go back to 1750. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. At the end of 2011, the AGGI was 1.30, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 30% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In addition to presenting the AGGI for 2012, increases in radiative forcing will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

Butler, James H.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Elkins, James W.; Masari, Kenneth A.; Schnell, Russell C.; Tans, Pieter P.

2013-04-01

265

Odin/SMR limb observations of stratospheric trace gases: Validation of N2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (Odin/SMR) on board the Odin satellite, launched on 20 February 2001, performs regular measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) using spectral observations of the J = 20 ? 19 rotational transition centered at 502.296 GHz. We present a quality assessment for the retrieved N2O profiles (level 2 product) by comparison with independent balloonborne and aircraftborne validation measurements as well as by cross-comparing with preliminary results from other satellite instruments. An agreement with the airborne validation experiments within 28 ppbv in terms of the root mean square (RMS) deviation is found for all SMR data versions (v222, v223, and v1.2) under investigation. More precisely, the agreement is within 19 ppbv for N2O volume mixing ratios (VMR) lower than 200 ppbv and within 10% for mixing ratios larger than 150 ppbv. Given the uncertainties due to atmospheric variability inherent to such comparisons, these values should be interpreted as upper limits for the systematic error of the Odin/SMR N2O measurements. Odin/SMR N2O mixing ratios are systematically slightly higher than nonvalidated data obtained from the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II). Root mean square deviations are generally within 23 ppbv (or 20% for VMR-N2O > 100 ppbv) for versions 222 and 223. The comparison with data obtained from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the Envisat satellite yields a good agreement within 9-17 ppbv (or 10% for VMR-N2O > 100 ppbv) for the same data versions. Odin/SMR version 1.2 data show somewhat larger RMS deviations and a higher positive bias.

Urban, J.; Lautié, N.; Le FlochmoëN, E.; JiméNez, C.; Eriksson, P.; de La Noë, J.; Dupuy, E.; El Amraoui, L.; Frisk, U.; JéGou, F.; Murtagh, D.; Olberg, M.; Ricaud, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Dufour, G.; Payan, S.; Huret, N.; Pirre, M.; Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; Bremer, H.; KleinböHl, A.; Küllmann, K.; Künzi, K.; Kuttippurath, J.; Ejiri, M. K.; Nakajima, H.; Sasano, Y.; Sugita, T.; Yokota, T.; Piccolo, C.; Raspollini, P.; Ridolfi, M.

2005-05-01

266

Measuring fluxes of trace gases at regional scales by Lagrangian observations: Application to the CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne (COBRA) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general framework for designing and analyzing Lagrangian-type aircraft observations in order to measure surface fluxes of trace gases on regional scales. Lagrangian experiments minimize uncertainties due to advection by measuring tracer concentrations upstream and downstream of the study region, assuring that observed concentration changes represent fluxes within the region. The framework includes (1) a receptor-oriented model of

J. C. Lin; C. Gerbig; S. C. Wofsy; A. E. Andrews; B. C. Daube; C. A. Grainger; B. B. Stephens; P. S. Bakwin; D. Y. Hollinger

2004-01-01

267

The greenhouse trap  

SciTech Connect

This book describes evidence of global warming and the contributions of man's activities to the process. The impacts of greenhouse gases on climate and health are discussed and recommendations are made for mitigation of these effects. Changes in fuel use, expansion of carbon sinks through planting of trees, and personal commitments to energy conservation are among these recommendations. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base.

Lyman, F.; Mintzer, I.; Courrier, K.; MacKenzie, J.

1990-01-01

268

Impact of western Siberia heat wave 2012 on greenhouse gases and trace metal concentration in thaw lakes of discontinuous permafrost zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the anomalously hot summer in 2012, surface air temperatures in Western Siberia were 5 to 15 °C higher than those observed during the previous period of > 30 yr. This unusual climate phenomenon provided an opportunity to examine the effects of short-term natural heating of water in thermokarst ponds and lakes in discontinuous permafrost zones and compare these observations to previous field results obtained when the temperature was normal during the summer of 2010 in the same region. In 2012, thermokarst bodies of water shrank significantly, water levels dropped approximately 50 cm in large lakes and small (< 10-100 m2) ponds, and shallow soil depressions disappeared. Based on samples from ~ 40 bodies of water collected previously and in 2012, first-order features of changes in chemical composition in response to increased water temperatures (from 14.1 ± 2.2 to 23.8 ± 2.3 °C in 2010 and 2012, respectively) were established. In these thermokarst bodies of water that covered a full range of surface areas, the average conductivity and pH were almost unchanged, whereas dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Cl- and SO42- concentrations were higher by a factor of ~ 2 during summer 2012 compared to periods with normal temperatures. Similarly, most divalent metals and insoluble trivalent and tetravalent elements were more concentrated by a factor of 1.7-2.4 in the summer of 2012 than normal periods. The average concentrations of dissolved CO2 and CH4 during the hot summer of 2012 increased by factors of 1.4 and 4.9, respectively. For most of the trace elements bound to colloids, the degree of colloidal binding decreased by a factor of 1.44 ± 0.33 (for an average of 40 elements) during the hot summer of 2012 compared to normal periods. Increases in CO2 and CH4 concentrations with the decreasing size of the body of water were well-pronounced during the hot summer of 2012. The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 rose by factors of 5 and 150, respectively, in small (? 102 m2) compared to large (? 104 m2) thermokarst (thaw) lakes. Taken together, these trends suggest that, for a conservative scenario of lake size distribution, lake water warming at high latitudes will produce (1) a significant increase in methane emission capacity from thaw lake surfaces; (2) decreased molecular sizes of trace element complexes and potential bioavailability of metal micronutrients in water columns; and (3) relatively conservative responses by CO2, DOC and trace element concentrations.

Pokrovsky, O. S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Kulizhsky, S. P.; Vorobiev, S. N.

2013-08-01

269

Importance of methane and nitrous oxide for Europe's terrestrial greenhouse-gas balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change negotiations aim to reduce net greenhouse-gas emissions by encouraging direct reductions of emissions and crediting countries for their terrestrial greenhouse-gas sinks. Ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake has offset nearly 10% of Europe's fossil fuel emissions, but not all of this may be creditable under the rules of the Kyoto Protocol. Although this treaty recognizes the importance of methane and nitrous oxide emissions, scientific research has largely focused on carbon dioxide. Here we review recent estimates of European carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes between 2000 and 2005, using both top-down estimates based on atmospheric observations and bottom-up estimates derived from ground-based measurements. Both methods yield similar fluxes of greenhouse gases, suggesting that methane emissions from feedstock and nitrous oxide emissions from arable agriculture are fully compensated for by the carbon dioxide sink provided by forests and grasslands. As a result, the balance for all greenhouse gases across Europe's terrestrial biosphere is near neutral, despite carbon sequestration in forests and grasslands. The trend towards more intensive agriculture and logging is likely to make Europe's land surface a significant source of greenhouse gases. The development of land management policies which aim to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions should be a priority.

2009-12-01

270

Gas-water-rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO2 injection: Implications for the storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional brine and oil reservoir in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before CO2 injection showed a Na-Ca-Cl-type brine with 93,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) at near saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions. Following CO2 breakthrough, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5-5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100-3000 mg/L as HCO3) and Fe (30-1100 mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and CH4. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower but for the buffering by dissolution of carbonate and iron oxyhydroxides. This rapid dissolution of carbonate and other minerals could ultimately create pathways in the rock seals or well cements for CO2 and brine leakage. Dissolution of minerals, especially iron oxyhydroxides, could mobilize toxic trace metals and, where residual oil or suitable organics are present, the injected CO2 could also mobilize toxic organic compounds. Environmental impacts could be major if large brine volumes with mobilized toxic metals and organics migrated into potable groundwater. The ??18O values for brine and CO2 samples indicate that supercritical CO2 comprises ???50% of pore-fluid volume ???6 mo after the end of injection. Postinjection sampling, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicates that the brine gradually will return to its preinjection composition. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

Kharaka, Y. K.; Cole, D. R.; Hovorka, S. D.; Gunter, W. D.; Knauss, K. G.; Freifeld, B. M.

2006-01-01

271

Modeling non-CO? greenhouse gases  

E-print Network

Although emissions of CO? are the largest anthropogenic contributor to the risks of climate change, other substances are important in the formulation of a cost-effective response. To provide improved facilities for addressing ...

Hyman, Robert C.

272

Climate Sensitivity to Increasing Greenhouse Gases  

E-print Network

Climate changes occur on all time scales, as illustrated in Figure 2-1 by the trend of global mean surface air temperature in the past century, the past millennium, and the past 30,000 years. The range of global mean temperature in the past 30,000 years and indeed the past million years has been of the order of 5 o C. At the peak of the last glacial period, the Wisconsin ice age approximately 18,000 years ago, the mean

James E. Hansen; Andrew A. Lacis; David H. Rind; Gary L. Russell

273

IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IEA Greenhouse Gas Programme is an international collaboration that evaluates technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, disseminates the results of these studies and identifies targets for research, development and demonstration. The program operates under the auspices of the International Energy Agency. The key areas of study for the IEA GGP include climate change, emission reduction and carbon dioxide capture and storage.

2008-01-22

274

Observation of intermixing at the buried CdS\\/Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film solar cell heterojunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using high brightness synchrotron radiation has been employed to investigate the electronic and chemical structure of the buried CdS\\/Cu(In, Ga)Se2 interface, which is the active interface in highly efficient thin film solar cells. In contrast to the conventional model of an abrupt interface, intermixing processes involving the elements S, Se,

C. Heske; D. Eich; R. Fink; E. Umbach; T. van Buuren; C. Bostedt; L. J. Terminello; S. Kakar; M. M. Grush; T. A. Callcott; F. J. Himpsel; D. L. Ederer; R. C. C. Perera; W. Riedl; F. Karg

1999-01-01

275

Relative and absolute emissions of anthropogenic trace gases around the US based on paired atmospheric observations of fossil fuel CO2 from 14C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small radiocarbon fraction of atmospheric CO2 (~1:10^12 14C:C) has proven to be an ideal tracer for the fossil fuel derived component of observed CO2 (Cff) over large industrialized land areas. A growing number of 14CO2 measurements are now being made in air sampled from a network of tall towers and airborne profiling sites around the US alongside measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, and a large suite of halo- and hydro-carbons. Cff paired with boundary-layer enhancements of more than 20 other anthropogenic gases measured in the same samples allow us to determine apparent emissions ratios for each gas with respect to Cff (where apparent ratios refer to those at the time of observation rather than at the time of emission). Here we compare seasonal and spatial variability of apparent emissions ratios for regions of significant urban and industrial emissions around the US, including sites in California, Texas, the mid-west, south-east and north-east . Statistically significant and coherent spatial and seasonal patterns in apparent emissions ratios are determined for many gases over multiple years. These can in turn be combined with appropriate spatial footprints over which the emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2 has been independently determined based on inventories and process models in order to estimate absolute emissions of the correlate gases in different regions, following simple scaling methods we have outlined previously [Miller et al. 2012, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JD017048]. This approach provides some of the first reliable "top down", observationally-based emissions estimates for these gases, many of which influence climate, air quality and stratospheric ozone. Unlike most "bottom up" inventories, our estimates of absolute trace gas emissions are accompanied by quantifiable estimates of uncertainty.

Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S.; Montzka, S. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, B. R.; Wolak, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Southon, J. R.; Turnbull, J. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Fischer, M. L.; Tans, P. P.

2012-12-01

276

Composition and Trends of Short-Lived Trace Gases in the UT/LS over Europe Observed by the CARIBIC Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from aboard a commercial airliner, and has operated since 2005 from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus 340-600 . Measurements from the container include in-situ trace gas and aerosol analyses and the collection of aerosol and whole air samples for post-flight laboratory analysis. Measurements made from the sampling flasks include greenhouse gas (GHG), halocarbon and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis. CARIBIC flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany with routes to India, East Asia, South America, North America and Africa, and typical aircraft cruising altitudes of 10-12km allow for the monitoring of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) along these routes. Data collected during the aircraft’s departure from and return to Frankfurt provide a 4 year time series of near-monthly measurements of the composition of the UT/LS above Europe. Here we present a discussion of the composition of short-lived trace gases in the whole air samples collected above Europe during CARIBIC flights. Over 150 air samples were collected between May 2005 and July 2009, or about 4 samples per month. Of the whole air samples collected, about 45% showed influence by stratospheric air (i.e. very low values of GHG, NMHC and halocarbons, elevated O3, high potential vorticity). The remaining samples were representative of the upper troposphere; back trajectories for these samples indicate that a little over half were collected in air masses that had been in the boundary layer within the previous 8 days. The predominant source regions for these samples were the Gulf of Mexico and continental North America. Owing to their wide range of chemical lifetimes and the varying composition of emissions, short-lived trace gases transported to the UT/LS can be useful indicators of source region, photochemical processing and transport timescales of an air mass. Seasonal and longer-term trends in trace gases and trace gas composition are discussed, as well as composition of air masses having different origins. Additionally, we apply relationships between the different species, particularly the NMHC, to gain a qualitative understanding of photochemical processes occurring during transport from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere over Europe.

Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Oram, D. E.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Slemr, F.; Schuck, T. J.

2009-12-01

277

Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today.\\u000aIn order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof,\\u000athe emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane\\u000a(CH4 ) should be reduced.\\u000aMuch greenhouse gases are emitted due

Marko Peter Hekkert

2000-01-01

278

Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Hence, it remains highly controversial whether earthworms predominantly affect soils to act as a net source or sink of greenhouse gases. Here, we provide a quantitative review of the overall effect of earthworms on the soil greenhouse-gas balance. Our results suggest that although earthworms are largely beneficial to soil fertility, they increase net soil greenhouse-gas emissions.

Lubbers, Ingrid M.; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Fonte, Steven J.; Six, Johan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

2013-03-01

279

Overview of global greenhouse effects  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

Reck, R.A.

1993-09-01

280

Conducting a greenhouse gas emission inventory  

SciTech Connect

Although not yet mandatory, the author recommends that US electric utilities that have not already done so should conduct an inventory of greenhouse gases, in accordance with ANSI/ISO/NSF E 14064-1-2006. The World Resources Institute 'Greenhouse gas protocol - a corporate accounting and reporting standard' provides more detailed explanation and examples of ISO 14064 but does not provide much detail on making calculations. The inventory should address all six greenhouse gases. The article gives an example of how emissions are converted to CO{sub 2} equivalents and tabulates helpful CO{sub 2} combustion emissions factors. Advice is offered on establishing 'organisational boundaries', tracking emissions over time, identifying and calculating greenhouse has emissions, accounting for greenhouse gas removals and reporting on carbon intensity ratios. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Bauer, J. [Burns and McDonnell Engineering (United States)

2007-11-15

281

CD Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners plant seeds and watch them sprout and grow inside a CD case. This is a creative way to introduce learners to the process of germination as well as plant anatomy and elements of habitat. Learners will be surprised that they can construct a functioning greenhouse inside a simple CD case.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

282

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01

283

Atmospheric gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which gases make up the atmosphere? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the gaseous components of the atmosphere. Students explore the main gases of the atmosphere using a pop-up pie chart. Descriptions of the gases and their percentages in the atmosphere are provided. Students read about water vapor in the atmosphere, and an animation shows a simplified process of precipitation. A pop-up window explains the effects of dust on the atmosphere, and a photograph shows how large amounts of dust in the atmosphere create the reds and oranges displayed in sunsets. Finally, ozone is introduced to students as a necessary component of human life on Earth. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

284

Urban greenhouse gas mole fraction in-situ measurements: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was designed to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban environments. Determination of greenhouse gas fluxes and uncertainty bounds is essential for the evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. The current INFLUX observation network includes twelve in-situ tower-based, continuous measurements of CO2, CO, and CH4, flask sampling of 14CO2 and other trace gases, and periodic aircraft sampling of greenhouse gases and meteorological conditions. Eddy covariance and radiative flux are measured at four of the tower sites, and a scanning Doppler lidar was installed in April 2013; both are used to quantify key boundary layer meteorological properties and evaluate model performance. Additionally, a total carbon column observing network (TCCON) column remote sensing station was deployed August - December 2012. The data from the towers, TCCON, and aircraft measurements are being used in an inverse-modeling approach to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. Very high space/time resolution estimates of fossil fuel carbon emissions (Hestia project) offer state-of-the-art "bottom up" emissions estimates for the city and its surroundings. Here we present an overview of the progress from INFLUX, with a focus on tower-based results. With this high density of urban tower-based greenhouse gas measurements, we will quantify horizontal and vertical spatial patterns in atmospheric mole fractions of CO2, CO, and CH4 in Indianapolis. The consistency of the observed horizontal gradients with that expected based on differences in land-cover contributions according to footprint analysis will be evaluated. The ability to correctly model transport and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer, responsible for carrying greenhouse gases from their source to the point of measurement, is essential. Thus we investigate differences between the modeled and observed sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, air temperature, and wind speed.

Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Davis, Kenneth; Richardson, Scott; Sarmiento, Daniel; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Hardesty, Robert Michael; Turnbull, Jocelyn; Iraci, Laura; Gurney, Kevin; Razlivanov, Igor; Obiminda Cambaliza, Maria; Shepson, Paul; Whetstone, James

2014-05-01

285

Construct-a-Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shed some light on the physics supporting plant growth in a controlled environment. Greenhouses provide the differential energy needs of plants during their growth cycle. Students design structures that convert light to heat during germination and reconfigure those structures to promote photosynthesis. By comparing the effects of design characteristics on plant growth, students observe the connections between plant biology and thermodynamics and energy transfer.

Lee, Felicia; Press, Nsta; Terc

2000-01-01

286

Direct electrical observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-based two-dimensional electron gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, signatures of plasma waves in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors were observed by direct electrical measurement at room temperature. Periodic grating-gate device structures were fabricated and characterized by on-wafer G-band (140-220 GHz) s-parameter measurements as a function of gate bias voltage and device geometry. A physics-based equivalent circuit model was used to assist in interpreting the measured s-parameters. The kinetic inductance extracted from the measurement data matches well with theoretical predictions, consistent with direct observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-channel devices at room temperature. This observation of electrically significant room-temperature plasma-wave effects in GaN-channel devices may have implications for future millimeter-wave and THz device concepts and designs.

Zhao, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, W.; Zhu, M.; Yue, Y.; Song, B.; Encomendero, J.; Sensale-Rodriguez, B.; Xing, H.; Fay, P.

2014-10-01

287

What is a Greenhouse?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to familiarize students with how a greenhouse retains heat by building simple models. As a result of this activity, students will come to understand that greenhouses are useful because they both allow sunlight to enter and prevent heat from escaping. The transparent covering of the greenhouse allows visible light to enter unhindered, where it warms the interior as it is absorbed by the material within. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

288

Energy Efficiency and Emerging Markets for Greenhouse Gas Trading  

E-print Network

an important economic input into the generation of electricity in the United States. The commoditization of the Greenhouse Gases will likely develop in a similar fashion but on a global scale, becoming another economic input into electricity generation...

Ferguson, M.

289

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-print Network

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01

290

What do near-term observations tell us about long-term developments in greenhouse gas emissions?  

SciTech Connect

Long-term scenarios developed by integrated assessment models are used in climate research to provide an indication of plausible long-term developments in the global energy system and land-use patterns and the associated emissions. The phenomena that determine these longterm developments (several decades or even centuries) are very different than those that operate on a shorter time-scales (a few years). Nevertheless, in the literature, we still often find direct comparisons between short-term observations and long-term developments that do not take into account the differing dynamics over these time scales. In this letter, we discuss some of differences between the factors that operate on in the short and long term and use long-term historical emissions trends to show that short-term observations are very poor indicators of long-term future emissions developments. Based on this, we conclude that the performance of long-term scenarios should be evaluated against the appropriate, corresponding long-term variables and trends. The research community may facilitate this by developing appropriate data sets and protocols that can be used to test the performance of long-term scenarios and the models that produce them.

Van Vuuren, Detlef; Edmonds, James A.; Smith, Steven J.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Karas, Joseph F.; Kainuma, M.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Riahi, Keywan; van Ruijven, Bas; Swart, Robert; Thomson, Allison M.

2010-10-26

291

Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the Earth and the rest of the inner solar were made by collecting the solids, to the rather efficient exclusion of the gases. In this grand separation the noble gases, because they are noble, were partitioned strongly into the gas phase. The resultant generalization is that the noble gases are very scarce in the materials of the inner solar system, whence their common synonym "rare gases."This scarcity is probably the most important single feature to remember about noble-gas cosmochemistry. As illustration of the absolute quantities, for example, a meteorite that contains xenon at a concentration of order 10 -10 cm3STP g -1 (4×10-15 mol g-1) would be considered relatively rich in xenon. Yet this is only 0.6 ppt (part per trillion, fractional abundance 10-12) by mass. In most circumstances, an element would be considered efficiently excluded from some sample if its abundance, relative to cosmic proportions to some convenient reference element, were depleted by "several" orders of magnitude. But a noble gas would be considered to be present in quite high concentration if it were depleted by only four or five orders of magnitude (in the example above, 10-10 cm3STP g-1 of xenon corresponds to depletion by seven orders of magnitude), and one not uncommonly encounters noble-gas depletion of more than 10 orders of magnitude.The second most important feature to note about noble-gas cosmochemistry is that while a good deal of the attention given to noble gases really is about chemistry, traditionally a good deal of attention is also devoted to nuclear phenomena, much more so than for most other elements. This feature is a corollary of the first feature noted above, namely scarcity. A variety of nuclear transmutation processes - decay of natural radionuclides and energetic particle reactions - lead to the production of new nuclei that are often new elements. Most commonly, the quantity of new nuclei originating in nuclear transmutation is very small compared to the quantity already present in the sample in question,

Podosek, F. A.

2003-12-01

292

Sulfuric acid vapor and other cloud-related gases in the Venus atmosphere - Abundances inferred from observed radio opacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that the absorbing characteristics of sulfuric acid vapor appear to reconcile what had been thought to be an inconsistency among measurements and deductions regarding the constituents of the Venus atmosphere and radio occultation, radar reflection, and radio emission measurements of its opacity. Laboratory measurements of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, water vapor, and carbon dioxide are used to model relative contributions to opacity as a function of height in a way that is consistent with observations of the constituents and absorbing properties of the atmosphere. It is concluded that sulfuric acid vapor is likely to be the principal microwave absorber in the 30-50 km altitude range of the middle atmosphere of Venus.

Steffes, P. G.; Eshleman, V. R.

1982-01-01

293

Characterizing Boundary Layer Properties for Estimating Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to develop, evaluate and improve methodologies for quantification of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban areas through a multi-year modeling and observational study. The study incorporates measurements of greenhouse gases from periodic aircraft observations as well as from a surface-based network of towers in the area. Recently, we installed a scanning Doppler lidar east of downtown Indianapolis to characterize boundary layer properties important for the aircraft and modeling studies. A scan sequence, including conical scans, vertical scans along two orthogonal directions, and zenith staring is repeated every 20 minutes. The lidar measurements of the radial velocity and backscatter intensity are processed to estimate boundary layer depth, turbulent mixing, aerosol distribution, and wind speed and direction. These lidar-derived boundary layer parameters are used in conjunction with the aircraft greenhouse gas concentration measurements in mass-balance studies and for investigating model performance. The lidar wind profile measurements can also be ingested into models to improve inverse flux estimates. We present here an overview of the first several months of lidar observations from Indianapolis, including performance evaluation, comparison with model estimates, diurnal and seasonal variability of the measurements, and use of the data for model ingest. We also discuss different techniques for estimating boundary layer depth from the observations and the application for mass-balance studies, and introduce plans for deploying a second instrument to study horizontal variability of the measured boundary layer properties.

Hardesty, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Shepson, P. B.; Lauvaux, T.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Miles, N. L.; Whetstone, J. R.

2013-12-01

294

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will research solids, liquids, and gases. By the end of this project you will be able to answer the question: Can you tell what is alike and different between solids, liquids, and gases? Read the song about matter. song with music about matter Record your observations on the organizer provided by the teacher. On the diagram write the word solid in one of the circles. Write liquid in one of the circles and write gas in the last circle. As you collect your information write your information under ...

Sibley, Ms.

2009-10-22

295

TES observations of tropospheric ozone as a greenhouse gas (Climate Related Observations of TES) Helen Worden2, Annmarie Eldering1, Kevin Bowman1, John Worden 1  

E-print Network

) Helen Worden2, Annmarie Eldering1, Kevin Bowman1, John Worden 1 1 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California from 0.25 to 0.65 W/m2 for the radiative forcing due to anthropogenic tropospheric ozone. Much observations binned by SST. We find an annual average OLR sensitivity to upper trop. ozone of 0.055 W/m2/DU

296

Middle-School Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect using a NetLogo Computer Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effectiveness of a freely available agent based, modeling program as a learning tool for seventh and eighth grade students to explore the greenhouse effect without added curriculum. The investigation was conducted at two Maine middle-schools with 136 seventh-grade students and 11 eighth-grade students in eight classes. Students were given a pre-test that consisted of a concept map, a free-response question, and multiple-choice questions about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature. The computer model simulates the greenhouse effect and allows students to manipulate atmospheric and surface conditions to observe the effects on the Earth’s temperature. Students explored the Greenhouse Effect model for approximately twenty minutes with only two focus questions for guidance. After the exploration period, students were given a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. Parametric post-test analysis of the assessments indicated middle-school students gained in their understanding about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature after exploring the computer model for approximately twenty minutes. The magnitude of the changes in pre- and post-test concept map and free-response scores were small (average free-response post-test score of 7.0) compared to an expert's score (48), indicating that students understood only a few of the system relationships. While students gained in their understanding about the greenhouse effect, there was evidence that students held onto their misconceptions that (1) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere deteriorates the ozone layer, (2) the greenhouse effect is a result of humans burning fossil fuels, and (3) infrared and visible light have similar behaviors with greenhouse gases. We recommend using the Greenhouse Effect computer model with guided inquiry to focus students’ investigations on the system relationships in the model.

Schultz, L.; Koons, P. O.; Schauffler, M.

2009-12-01

297

GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-THERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-thermal electricity generation contributes to climate change because it incurs the emission of greenhouse gases during the provision of services and the production of materials needed for the construction and operation of solar power plants. These greenhouse gas costs (GGC) can be determined using either material inventories in physical units or monetary cost breakdowns. Solar-only plants employing parabolic troughs, central

M. LENZEN

1999-01-01

298

Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX). Selected data sets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This CD-ROM contains selected data sets compiled by the participants of the Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX) workshop on atmospheric temperature. The data sets include surface, upper air, and/or satellite-derived measurements of temperature, solar irradiance, clouds, greenhouse gases, fluxes, albedo, aerosols, ozone, and water vapor, along with Southern Oscillation Indices and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation statistics.

Olsen, Lola M.; Warnock, Archibald, III

1992-01-01

299

Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn  

SciTech Connect

This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Marland, G.

1994-04-01

300

Design issues in a mandatory greenhouse gas emissions registry for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 10, 2009, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a new rule, Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases. When final, the rule would compel most large sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to report their emissions to EPA as well as fossil fuel suppliers and vehicle engine manufacturers to report their fuel sales and engine emissions rates, respectively. We suggest

Joshuah K. Stolaroff; Christopher L. Weber; H. Scott Matthews

2009-01-01

301

Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect (PAGE)  

EPA Science Inventory

PAGE09 is a spreadsheet probabilistic model written in Microsoft Office Excel. The model calculates regional and global impacts of climate change, and social costs of different greenhouse gases. It also calculates the costs of abatement and adaptation. It is an Integrated Assessm...

302

Gases: Characteristics and Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to ideal gas, called Ideal and Real Gas Laws, is maintained by Liina Ladon of Townsen University (1). Visitors can read about the properties of ideal gases, what the ideal gas law is, how to use it, and much more. The next site, titled Gas Laws, (2) is offered by the Ohio State University Department of Chemistry. This interactive site contains Shockwave movies of animations and audio files that describe what a gas is, the Ideal Gas Law equation, mixtures of gases, and problems using the ideal gas law. The University of Oregon site, Virtual Laboratory, teaches about the ideal gas law on the Welcome to the Pressure Chamber page (3). Those who enjoy online interaction will enjoy being able to control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber to see how the gases inside react. The fourth site includes another fun multimedia activity related to ideal gases provided by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Washington University. The Air Filled Balloon in Liquid Nitrogen (4) movie shows an actual experiment of the effects on a balloon that's covered with liquid nitrogen. The page contains some additional information on the science behind the observations. The next site, called Ideal Gas Equations (5) is an online calculator that's part of Kean University's Department of Geology and Meteorology Web site. Users can calculate the pressure, volume, or temperature of a gas by inputting known variables into the various forms. Several methods and variations of calculating the values are provided as well as brief instructions. The next page from North Carolina State University's Basic Concepts in Environmental Science Web site is called Characteristics of Gases (6). Part of a larger learning module, the lesson plans objective is to use the ideal gas law to determine gas volumes at different absolute temperatures and absolute pressures. Everything needed to conduct the activity is provided including links to a volume calculator and practice problems. The seventh site is another animation that illustrates how gases react, called Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (7). By changing the number of molecules in the chamber, their velocity, and the pressure and width of the container, users get to see how the molecules react to the conditions. The last site, Gases and Their Properties, is maintained by the Electronic Teaching Assistance Program(8). Students learn about the history of gas science, how gas laws describe ideal gases, what Dalton's Law and Graham's Law are, and much more.

Brieske, Joel A.

303

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

304

Ten years of continuous observations of stratospheric ozone depleting gases at Monte Cimone (Italy)--comments on the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective.  

PubMed

Halogenated gases potentially harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer are monitored worldwide in order to assess compliance with the Montreal Protocol requiring a phase out of these compounds on a global scale. We present the results of long term (2002-2011) continuous observation conducted at the Mt. Cimone GAW Global Station located on the highest peak of the Italian Northern Apennines, at the border of two important regions: the Po Valley (and the Alps) to the North and the Mediterranean Basin to the South. Bi-hourly air samples of CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HCFC-124 and methyl bromide are collected and analysed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, providing multi annual time series. In order to appreciate the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective, trends and annual growth rates of halogenated species have been calculated after identification of their baseline values. A comparison with results from other international observation programmes is also presented. Our data show that the peak in the atmospheric mixing ratios of four chlorofluorocarbons, two halons and two chlorocarbons has been reached and all these species now show a negative atmospheric trend. Pollution episodes are still occurring for species like halon-1211, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, indicating fresh emissions from the site domain which could be ascribed both to fugitive un-reported uses of the compounds and/or emissions from banks. For the hydrofluorocarbons changes in the baseline are affected by emissions from fast developing Countries in East Asia. Fresh emissions from the site domain are clearly declining. Methyl bromide, for which the Mediterranean area is an important source region, shows, in a generally decreasing trend, an emission pattern that is not consistent with the phase-out schedule of this compound, with a renewed increase in the last two years of pollution episodes. PMID:23333511

Maione, M; Giostra, U; Arduini, J; Furlani, F; Graziosi, F; Lo Vullo, E; Bonasoni, P

2013-02-15

305

The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS): measurement of the carbon gases from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases remain highly uncertain [IPCC1] making quantitative predictions of atmospheric composition and their impacts. The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) is a multi-purpose instrument designed to reduce uncertainty associated with atmospheric radiative forcing. GRIPS will measure will measure greenhouse gases and aerosols - two of the most important elements in the earth's radiation budget. GRIPS will observe carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), - the carbon gases, nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapor and aerosols with unprecedented precision through the atmosphere. The GRIPS instrument uses gas filter correlation radiometry (GFCR) to detect reflected and thermal IR radiation to detect the gases and the reflected solar radiation in the visible and short-wave infrared bands for aerosols. GRIPS is designed to have sensitivity down to the Earth's surface at ~2-8km nadir resolution. GRIPS can resolve CO2, CO, and CH4 anomalies in the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere to quantify lofting, diurnal variations and longrange transport. With repeated measurements throughout the day GRIPS can maximize the number of cloud free measurements determining biogenic and anthropogenic sources, sinks, and fluxes. GRIPS is highly complementary to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory, OCO-2, the geostationary Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and other existing and planned missions.

Schoeberl, M.; Dickerson, R.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M.; Fish, C.; Bloom, H.

2013-09-01

306

Opportunities for market-based programs worldwide that reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Initial Observations from Missions to the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Globally, governments and industries are implementing innovative voluntary programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Often these programs encourage groups to use cost effective technologies that capture market-based forces. These programs are successful because they capitalize on existing opportunities where both the environment and the participants can benefit (i.e., win-win opportunities). This paper documents efforts to investigate these kinds of win-win opportunities in three developing countries: the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico. Initial observations are provided as fresh information from the field, drawing on six missions during the last nine months. Utility costs, interest rates, and overall economic health appear to critically affect opportunities in each country. By contrast, details of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) design and local climate were often important differences between countries. These affect opportunities, for example, to achieve significant savings from cooling systems or not. Looking at the success of ESCOs was somewhat surprising. One might expect to see the most successful ESCO activity where utility costs are high and upgrade opportunities are plentiful (such as in the Philippines). This was not the case, however, as research in the Philippines did not reveal even one active ESCO contract yet. Design practices for new construction were in need of the same thing that helps US design teams do a better job of energy-efficient design, better communications between design team members. Finally, industrial firms were doing a variety of EE upgrades in each country, but this level of activity was relatively small compared to what should be cost effective.

Stanton-Hoyle, D.R.

1998-07-01

307

Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated functionally into future greenhouse constructions in space.

Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

2014-03-01

308

Gardening with Greenhouses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

Keeler, Rusty

2010-01-01

309

Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

Garcia, N.

1996-04-01

310

Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

2013-12-01

311

Association between permafrost degradation and soil greenhouse gas fluxes in the Alaskan Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is projected to warm at nearly twice the rate of the global average in the coming century. Climate change can generate both negative and positive feedbacks with Arctic ecosystems: As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, plants grow more quickly, thus absorbing more carbon. As temperatures rise however, Arctic permafrost thaw could make more soil carbon susceptible to microbial degradation, leading to the release of more greenhouse gases (positive feedback) or more nitrogen for plant growth (negative feedback). Therefore, to accurately predict the effects of climate change, we must understand how the amount of greenhouse gas flux from the soil surface changes with soil temperature, soil moisture, depth to frozen ground, microtopography and permafrost degradation. ` We conducted fieldwork in the Alaskan Arctic, at the Barrow Environmental Observatory as part of the U.S. DOE Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE-Arctic). We sampled from areas that are representative of three levels of permafrost degradation: low-centered, transitional, and high-centered. Each sampling area may be further decomposed into three microtopographic components: troughs, edges, and centers. We measured the soil greenhouse gas fluxes and flux variability of each treatment over the growing season (using static chambers), soil moisture, soil temperature, and depth to frozen ground. As permafrost thaws during the growing season, we observe how greenhouse gas fluxes change as depth to permafrost increases. This may allow us to extrapolate how greenhouse gas fluxes would change due to a climate-change-induced temperature increase.

Hahn, M. S.; Curtis, J. B.; Sloan, V. L.; Torn, M. S.

2012-12-01

312

Northern Hemisphere Winter Climate Response to Greenhouse Gas, Ozone, Solar and Volcanic Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate/middle atmosphere model has been used to study the impacts of increasing greenhouse gases, polar ozone depletion, volcanic eruptions, and solar cycle variability. We focus on the projection of the induced responses onto Northern Hemisphere winter surface climate. Changes in the model's surface climate take place largely through enhancement of existing variability patterns, with greenhouse gases, polar ozone depletion and volcanic eruptions primarily affecting the Arctic Oscillation (AO) pattern. Perturbations descend from the stratosphere to the surface in the model by altering the propagation of planetary waves coming up from the surface, in accord with observational evidence. Models lacking realistic stratospheric dynamics fail to capture these wave flux changes. The results support the conclusion that the stratosphere plays a crucial role in recent AO trends. We show that in our climate model, while ozone depletion has a significant effect, greenhouse gas forcing is the only one capable of causing the large, sustained increase in the AO observed over recent decades. This suggests that the AO trend, and a concurrent strengthening of the stratospheric vortex over the Arctic, are very likely anthropogenic in origin.

Shindell, Drew T.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Miller, Ron L.; Rind, David; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

313

Chemical gradient of selected organic trace gases in the Tropical Tropopause Layer observed during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment 2013 (ATTREX-2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbons and short-lived organic halogen gases play an important role in the chemistry of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region. The characterization of these gases not only provides information on air mass sources and transport time scales, but also defines the reactive halogen budget and the conditions for the stratospheric chemistry that affects ozone depletion rates. As part of the transition between troposphere and stratosphere, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halocarbons reach the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) where chemical and physical processes determine their fate. However, very limited data are available regarding composition, seasonality and variability of these gases, since only high altitude aircraft can reach this region of the atmosphere (>13-14 Km). A new whole air sampler (GWAS) was developed to study the trace gas chemistry in this region of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The sampler collects up to 90 samples per flight for measurement of a wide range of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, organic nitrates and solvents. During the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) field project, carried out during February-March 2013, we flew the GWAS system on 5 research flights. A total of 388 samples were collected during flights of approximately 24 hours, which sampled air over the tropical Pacific Ocean at altitudes from 9 to 19 km. The sample collection focused on obtaining measurements across the TTL region. Approximately 45 vertical profiles of the TTL were sampled with our instrument during this mission. Measurements of trace gases were carried out at Dryden Flight Research Center using a combination of gas chromatography with mass spectrometric, flame ionization, and electron capture detectors. Supporting measurements were done at the University of Miami (UM) laboratory. The distribution, vertical structure, and variability of selected hydrocarbon and organic halogen trace gases in the TTL region will be presented here.

Navarro, M. A.; Atlas, E. L.; Lueb, R.; Hendershot, R.; Gabbard, S.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.

2013-12-01

314

The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index - 2012 Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past several decades, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to databases, analyses, and various relevant products, including national and international climate assessments. To make these data more useful and available, NOAA several years ago released its Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The long-lived gases capture most of the radiative forcing, and uncertainty in their measurement is very small. This allows us to provide a robust measure and assessment of the long-term, radiative influence of these gases. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 60 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. In 2010, the AGGI was 1.29, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 29% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In this presentation, preliminary values for 2011 will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4,nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

Butler, J. H.; Montzka, S. A.; Conway, T. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masari, K. A.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

2012-04-01

315

Greenhouse effect and the global climate. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning terrestrial climatic changes known as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is an accumulation of carbon dioxide and other gases that retain solar-induced heat, thereby increasing the average global temperature. Modeling studies, measurements of atmospheric gases, pollutants and temperatures, studies of climatic records for occurrence of similar changes (paleoclimatology), prediction of environmental changes due to the greenhouse effect, government energy policy as a result of possible climate change, and the contributions of manmade and natural pollutants to the greenhouse effect are among the topics discussed. (Contains a minimum of 52 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

316

NASA's mission to planet Earth: Earth observing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: global climate change; radiation, clouds, and atmospheric water; the ocean; the troposphere - greenhouse gases; land cover and the water cycle; polar ice sheets and sea level; the stratosphere - ozone chemistry; volcanoes; the Earth Observing System (EOS) - how NASA will support studies of global climate change?; research and assessment - EOS Science Investigations; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); EOS observations - instruments and spacecraft; a national international effort; and understanding the Earth System.

1993-01-01

317

Climate Change: Methane and Other Greenhouse Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "addresses methane's contribution to global warming; trends in emission of methane, nitrous oxide, and fully fluorinated compounds; and economic analyses related to stabilization of these greenhouse gases." The site offers several information-rich sections (Topics in Brief, Reports, Questions & Answers) and descriptive links to further resources (Voluntary Programs, Resources, Calendar). The information provided here is user-friendly without sacrificing detail, making this a worthwhile stop on the Internet.

318

Climate model simulation of anthropogenic influence on greenhouse-induced climate change (early agriculture to modern): the role of ocean feedbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present further steps in our analysis of the early anthropogenic hypothesis (Ruddiman, Clim Change 61:261–293, 2003) that increased levels of greenhouse gases in the current interglacial, compared to lower levels in previous interglacials,\\u000a were initiated by early agricultural activities, and that these increases caused a warming of climate long before the industrial\\u000a era (?1750). These steps include updating observations

John E. Kutzbach; W. F. Ruddiman; S. J. Vavrus; G. Philippon

2010-01-01

319

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has tracked the national trend in greenhouse gas emissions and removals since 1990. This website provides access to the reports they have created since then, and the reports represent the collaborative efforts of hundreds of experts from academic institutions, consultants, and other government agencies. Visitors can download the reports, or take a look at their respective executive summary. Each summary contains "an overview of recent trends, anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and an explanation of the relative importance of emissions and removals from each source category." Users of the website are also encouraged to look over the overviews for different emissions, such as carbon dioxide and methane. The site is rounded out by a list of greenhouse gas inventories from other countries and global emission projections.

320

The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

Roman, Harry T.

2010-01-01

321

Build a Solar Greenhouse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attached solar greenhouses are relatively inexpensive and easy to build; they can provide additional heat to homes all winter as well as fresh vegetables and flowers. This bulletin: (1) describes the characteristics of a solar greenhouse; (2) provides a checklist of five items to consider before building a solar greenhouse; (3) describes the four…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

322

The ice-core record - Climate sensitivity and future greenhouse warming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of future greenhouse-gas-warming depends critically on the sensitivity of earth's climate to increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases. Data from cores drilled in polar ice sheets show a remarkable correlation between past glacial-interglacial temperature changes and the inferred atmospheric concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These and other palaeoclimate data are used to assess the role of greenhouse gases in explaining past global climate change, and the validity of models predicting the effect of increasing concentrations of such gases in the atmosphere.

Lorius, C.; Raynaud, D.; Jouzel, J.; Hansen, J.; Le Treut, H.

1990-01-01

323

The ice-core record - Climate sensitivity and future greenhouse warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of future greenhouse-gas-warming depends critically on the sensitivity of earth's climate to increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases. Data from cores drilled in polar ice sheets show a remarkable correlation between past glacial-interglacial temperature changes and the inferred atmospheric concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These and other palaeoclimate data are used to assess the role of greenhouse gases in explaining past global climate change, and the validity of models predicting the effect of increasing concentrations of such gases in the atmosphere.

Lorius, C.; Raynaud, D.; Jouzel, J.; Hansen, J.; Le Treut, H.

1990-09-01

324

Hydrodynamics of unitary Fermi gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unitary fermi gases have been widely studied as they provide a tabletop archetype for re- search on strongly coupled many body systems and perfect fluids. Research into unitary fermi gases can provide insight into may other strongly interacting systems including high temperature superconductor, quark-gluon plasmas, and neutron stars. Within the unitary regime, the equilib- rium transport coefficients and thermodynamic properties are universal functions of density and temperature. Thus, unitary fermi gases provide a archetype to study nonperturbative many-body physics, which is of fundamental significance and crosses several fields. This thesis reports on two topics regarding unitary fermi gases. A recent string theory conjecture gives a lower bound for the dimensionless ratio of shear viscosity of entropy, ?/s ? 4pi /kb . Unitary fermi gases are a candidate for prefect fluids, yet ?/s is well above the string theory bound. Using a stochastic formulation of hydrodynamics, we calculate a lower bound for this ratio accounting for the momentum dissipation from fluctuations. This lower bound is in good agreement with both theoretical and experimental results. The second question addressed is the simulation of elliptic flow. Elliptic flow, first observed in 2002, is a characteristic of strongly coupled systems and has been studied in both quark-gluon plasmas and unitary fermi gases. As such, simulations of these systems are of interest. We test a variety of lattice Boltzmann models and compare the simulation results to the theoretical and experimental findings.

Young, Ryan E.

325

6. We used the same observed data as IPCC, updated (P. D. Jones, personal communication). For sources, see: N.  

E-print Network

-gas effects were modeled us- ing observed CO2 changes inflated to account for non- CO2 greenhouse gases. Raper, Nature 357, 293 (1992); S. C. B. Raper, T. M. L. Wigley, R. A. Warrick, in Sea-Level Rise unforced simulations with coupled ocean/atmosphere general circulation models: the Geophysical Fluid

Fan, Shanhui

326

Greenhouse gas budgets of managed European grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands are directly and indirectly related to the respective carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budget. Within the framework of the NitroEurope project we investigated the greenhouse gas, carbon, and nitrogen budgets of four European grassland systems over several years: Easter Bush (UK), Oensingen intensive and extensive (CH), and Bugac (HU). They span contrasting climatic conditions, management types (grazing, cutting) and intensity. While Easter Bush (pasture) and Oensingen int. (meadow) were intensively managed and received a considerable amount of fertiliser, the unfertilised sites Bugac (pasture) and Oensingen ext. (meadow) depended on atmospheric N input (wet and dry deposition) and biological N fixation. The experimental results of the four sites were also compared to published GHG fluxes of other European grasslands. While the ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured on the field scale with the eddy covariance method, the soil fluxes of the other greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O have been detected generally by means of static chambers (only occasional application of eddy covariance). The emission of CH4 by grazing ruminant resulting from enteric fermentation was estimated by animal type specific emission factors. For characterizing the total GHG effect of the grassland sites, the contributions of the different GHGs were normalised to CO2-equivalents. Except for Oensingen ext., all sites showed positive C budgets (sequestration). The observed positive correlation between C and N sequestration (with a ratio between 10 and 20) agrees with studies reported in the literature. The magnitude of N2O emission depended mainly on management intensity (fertiliser input) and on the soil moisture conditions. Whereas for the Oensingen and the Bugac sites, the total GHG budget was dominated by the carbon budget, for Easter Bush the combined effect of N2O and CH4 emission (including animal enteric fermentation) was in the same order of magnitude as the carbon sequestration leading to a strong compensation of the GHG effects. However, if digestion of harvested biomass is also attributed to the GHG budget of the non-grazed meadows, they become dominated by CH4 emission from enteric fermentation. The results show that the comparison of GHG budgets of grazed and non-grazed grasslands is difficult and needs clearly defined system boundaries.

Ammann, C.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.

2012-04-01

327

Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

Kimberly Frerichs

2013-03-01

328

Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

Kimberly Frerichs

2012-03-01

329

Modeling & learning from the design recommendations for California's Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade System  

E-print Network

Climate Change has become a Major issue beginning with our generation. Governments the world over are now recognizing that industry cannot continue to pollute in a business-as-usual manner. Emitting Greenhouse gases has a ...

Fernandes, Chester, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

330

Estimating the benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction from agricultural policy reform  

SciTech Connect

Land use and agricultural activities contribute directly to the increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Economic support in industrialized countries generally increases agriculture's contribution to global greenhouse gas concentrations through fluxes associated with land use change and other sources. Changes in economic support offers opportunities to reduce net emissions, through this so far has gone unaccounted. Estimates are presented here of emissions of methane from livestock in the UK and show that, in monetary terms, when compared to the costs of reducing support, greenhouse gases are a significant factor. As signatory parties to the Climate Change Convection are required to stabilize emissions of all greenhouse gases, options for reduction of emissions of methane and other trace gases from the agricultural sector should form part of these strategies.

Adger, W.N. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment); Moran, D.C. (Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment)

1993-09-01

331

Human Influence on the Atmospheric Vertical Temperature Structure: Detection and Observations  

PubMed

Recent work suggests a discernible human influence on climate. This finding is supported, with less restrictive assumptions than those used in earlier studies, by a 1961 through 1995 data set of radiosonde observations and by ensembles of coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations forced with changes in greenhouse gases, tropospheric sulfate aerosols, and stratospheric ozone. On balance, agreement between the simulations and observations is best for a combination of greenhouse gas, aerosol, and ozone forcing. The uncertainties remaining are due to imperfect knowledge of radiative forcing, natural climate variability, and errors in observations and model response. PMID:8895461

Tett; Mitchell; Parker; Allen

1996-11-15

332

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01

333

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26

334

75 FR 57669 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...facilities. 221320 Sewage treatment facilities. Industrial...562212 Solid waste Treatment. landfills. 322110 Pulp mills. 322121 Paper...facilities. 221320 Sewage treatment facilities. 325193...13045: Protection of Children From...

2010-09-22

335

Earth is warm because of "greenhouse gases" in atmosphere  

E-print Network

slight rise of temperature around the world from the 1880s to the mid 1930s. · Quarterly J. Royal;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;The "Perfect Storm" of Ethical/Social Issues #12;1.With overpopulation and other factors, society

Callender, Craig

336

75 FR 66433 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectrometry'' for...of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectrometry...of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission...

2010-10-28

337

75 FR 33949 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectrometry'' for...of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectrometry...of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission...

2010-06-15

338

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-print Network

Protection Agency will, when opportunity offers, publish reports and contributions relating to environmental of the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Danish EPA), the consulting firm PlanMiljø ApS carried out og Ida Bode PlanMiljø Environmental Project No. 1284 2009 Miljøprojekt #12;The Danish Environmental

339

Natural sources of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide plays an important role in keeping the atmosphere-ocean portion of the carbon geochemical cycle in balance. The atmosphere-ocean carbon deficit requires replenishment of 6??1012 mol CO2/yr, and places an upper limit on the output of carbon dioxide from volcanoes. The CO2 output of the global mid-oceanic ridge system is ca. 0.7??1012 mol/yr, thus supplying only a fraction of the amount needed to balance the carbon deficit. The carbon dioxide flux from subaerial volcanoes is poorly known, but it appears to be at least as large as the mid-oceanic ridge flux. Much (perhaps most) of the CO2 emitted from volcanoes is degassed noneruptively. This mode of degassing may lead to impacts on the environment and biosphere that are fundamentally different in character from those envisioned in published scenarios, which are based on the assumption that CO2 degassing occurs predominantly by eruptive processes. Although the flux of carbon dioxide from volcanoes is poorly constrained at present, it is clearly two orders of magnitude lower than the anthropogenic output of CO2.

Gerlach, Terrence

1990-01-01

340

Breaking News Fertilizers Incease Greenhouse Gases in Air  

E-print Network

· Electronics · Technology · Spintronics Reference · Skin grafting · Artificial heart · Liposuction · Scar, electrocardiograms and electromyograms to check the health of their brains, hearts or muscles. The procedures

Rogers, John A.

341

Bioproducts and environmental quality: Biofuels, greenhouse gases, and water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Promoting bio-based products is one oft-proposed solution to reduce GHG emissions because the feedstocks capture carbon, offsetting at least partially the carbon discharges resulting from use of the products. However, several life cycle analyses point out that while biofuels may emit less life cycle net carbon emissions than fossil fuels, they may exacerbate other parts of biogeochemical cycles, notably nutrient loads in the aquatic environment. In three essays, this dissertation explores the tradeoff between GHG emissions and nitrogen leaching associated with biofuel production using general equilibrium models. The first essay develops a theoretical general equilibrium model to calculate the second-best GHG tax with the existence of a nitrogen leaching distortion. The results indicate that the second-best GHG tax could be higher or lower than the first-best tax rates depending largely on the elasticity of substitution between fossil fuel and biofuel. The second and third essays employ computable general equilibrium models to further explore the tradeoff between GHG emissions and nitrogen leaching. The computable general equilibrium models also incorporate multiple biofuel pathways, i.e., biofuels made from different feedstocks using different processes, to identify the cost-effective combinations of biofuel pathways under different policies, and the corresponding economic and environmental impacts.

Ren, Xiaolin

342

75 FR 79091 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Generation......... 221112 Fossil-fuel fired electric generating units...as certain suppliers (e.g., fossil fuel, petroleum products, industrial...liquid Distillate fuel oil Fossil fuel Fuel gas Municipal solid...

2010-12-17

343

75 FR 18455 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Generation........... 221112 Fossil-fuel fired electric generating units...about half do not combust any fossil fuel (e.g., they utilize hydro...example, a federally-owned, fossil-fuel fired electrical power plant...

2010-04-12

344

76 FR 73885 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...changes in fuel or raw material use, addition...W). (v) Use of Electric Transmission and Distribution...ix) Manufacture of Electric...the following waste characterization and modeling information...including the types of materials in each waste...

2011-11-29

345

76 FR 47391 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...following waste characterization information...following waste characterization and modeling information...following waste characterization and modeling information...including the types of materials in each waste...

2011-08-04

346

75 FR 48743 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...process of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other methods at lease separators...definition (absorption, condensation, adsorption) is not exhaustive, and other...process of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other methods....

2010-08-11

347

The greenhouse of Titan.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

Sagan, C.

1973-01-01

348

Spin Transport in Bose Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Thesis, we show that in a rotating two-component Bose mixture, the spin drag between the two different spin species shows a Hall effect. This spin drag Hall effect can be observed experimentally by studying the out-of-phase dipole mode of the mixture. We determine the damping of this mode due to spin drag as a function of temperature. We find that due to Bose stimulation there is a strong enhancement of the damping for temperatures close to the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation. We also show the difference between spin drag in Bose gases, Fermi gases and Bose-Fermi mixtures. Furthermore, we investigate coupled spin and heat transport in Bose gases, and calculate the associated coefficients. Finally, we calculate the power spectrum resulting from spin current fluctuations in a Bose gas.

van Driel, H. J.

2012-12-01

349

Policy options to manage greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector: an Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between policy and science provides rich opportunity to frame both the policy and science agendas for the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture. The current Greenhouse Gas in Animal Agriculture Conference (2007) provides a valuable forum for the development and integration of the two. Compared with the level of investments worldwide into technologies to reduce emissions

David Ugalde; Jane van Vliet; Anthony McGregor; Bill Slattery

2008-01-01

350

Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs: A global perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Since the potential of reservoirs to be net emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG) was suggested 12 years ago (Rudd et al. 1993), this aspect has become a standard argument against the construction of new dams. However, research on carbon and nitrogen cycling in natural lakes and reservoirs has been intense and today there is enough knowledge to discriminate between

Björn Svensson

351

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undisturbed grasslands can sequester significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in soils. Irrigation and fertilization enhance CO2 sequestration in managed turfgrass ecosystems but can also increase emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). To better understand the GHG balance of urban turf, we measured OC sequestration rates and emission of N2O (a GHG ? 300 times more effective than

Amy Townsend-Small; Claudia I. Czimczik

2010-01-01

352

A New Connection Between Greenhouse Warming and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct radiative effects of the build-up of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have led to a gradual cooling of the stratosphere with largest changes in temperature occurring in the upper stratosphere, well above the region of peak ozone concentration.

Salawitch, R.

1998-01-01

353

Energy 4: Fossil Fuels and the Greenhouse Gas Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video describes in detail the greenhouse effect and how recovery from energy from fossile fuels results in green house gases. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

354

Enhanced chemistry-climate feedbacks in past greenhouse worlds.  

PubMed

Trace greenhouse gases are a fundamentally important component of Earth's global climate system sensitive to global change. However, their concentration in the pre-Pleistocene atmosphere during past warm greenhouse climates is highly uncertain because we lack suitable geochemical or biological proxies. This long-standing issue hinders assessment of their contribution to past global warmth and the equilibrium climate sensitivity of the Earth system (E(ss)) to CO(2). Here we report results from a series of three-dimensional Earth system modeling simulations indicating that the greenhouse worlds of the early Eocene (55 Ma) and late Cretaceous (90 Ma) maintained high concentrations of methane, tropospheric ozone, and nitrous oxide. Modeled methane concentrations were four- to fivefold higher than the preindustrial value typically adopted in modeling investigations of these intervals, even after accounting for the possible high CO(2)-suppression of biogenic isoprene emissions on hydroxyl radical abundance. Higher concentrations of trace greenhouse gases exerted marked planetary heating (> 2 K), amplified in the high latitudes (> 6 K) by lower surface albedo feedbacks, and increased E(ss) in the Eocene by 1 K. Our analyses indicate the requirement for including non-CO(2) greenhouse gases in model-based E(ss) estimates for comparison with empirical paleoclimate assessments, and point to chemistry-climate feedbacks as possible amplifiers of climate sensitivity in the Anthropocene. PMID:21628580

Beerling, David J; Fox, Andrew; Stevenson, David S; Valdes, Paul J

2011-06-14

355

Thoughts from the Greenhouse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author compares the functions of a graduate adult education program and a greenhouse. A graduate adult education program is a place where, like in a greenhouse, exciting new hybrids can be developed--working with people outside the school of education, in different disciplines and beyond the university's walls, sharing what…

Sonstrom, Wendy Jean

2006-01-01

356

Characteristics of trace gases and aerosols at top of urban canopy layer in Nanjing of China from one year observational study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the physical and chemical processes of air pollution formation in urban and their linkage with climate change in Yangtze River Delta(YRD), the fast developing area in China, a monitoring site was built on the top of a high building in the center of Nanjing. The site was set up to investigate the long term variations of trace gases and aerosols, which may play important roles in air pollution and climate change in regional scale. From one year measurement records, the annual average concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, total reactive nitrogen, water vapor are reported as 161.9±19.4 ppb, 93.8±8.9 ppb, 3856.7±412.1 ppb, 565.1±20.0 ppm, 173.6±15.6 ppb, 230.8±24.9 ppb, 34.76±7.2x10-3, respectively. PM10, PM2.5, visibility, black carbon, back scattering of particles(BSP), single scattering albedo(SSA), aerosol optical depth(AOD) and Angstrom wavelength exponent (AWE) are 115±113.1 ?g/m3, 54±46.1 ?g/m3, 9780±5594 m, 3055.9±2102.3 ng/m3, 66.3±97.5 Mm-1, 0.5±2.4, 0.7±0.38 and 1.22±0.28, respectively. Measurement show that the levels of air pollutants in YRD in East China are high compared to Pearl River Delta(PRD) in South China and Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ) in North China, suggesting a possible stronger effect on atmospheric environment, climate change and human health in this region, which should be further addressed in the future study.

Wang, Tijian

2013-04-01

357

On network design for the detection of urban greenhouse gas emissions: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was designed to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban environments. Determination of greenhouse gas fluxes and uncertainty bounds is essential for the evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. The current INFLUX observation network includes twelve in-situ tower-based, continuous measurements of CO2, CO, and CH4, flask sampling of 14CO2 and other trace gases, and periodic aircraft sampling of greenhouse gases and meteorological conditions. A total carbon column observing network (TCCON) column remote sensing station was deployed Aug - Dec 2012. The network will soon be enhanced to include an array of eddy covariance and radiative flux measurements, and a scanning Doppler lidar was installed in April 2013; both are used to quantify key boundary layer meteorological properties and evaluate model performance. The data from the towers, TCCON, and aircraft measurements are being used in an inverse-modeling approach to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. Additionally, very high space/time resolution estimates of fossil fuel carbon emissions (Hestia project) offer state-of-the-art "bottom up" emissions estimates for the city and its surroundings. Here we present an overview of the progress from INFLUX, with a focus on tower-based results. With the unprecedented density of urban tower-based greenhouse gas measurements, we will quantify horizontal and vertical spatial patterns in atmospheric mole fractions of CO2, CO, and CH4 in Indianapolis. The consistency of the observed horizontal gradients with that expected based on differences in land-cover contributions according to footprint analysis will be evaluated. To address the optimal spatial density of tower-based measurements within the city, we will evaluate the spatial coverage of the model footprints. Using observations at several heights on the towers, we will investigate the performance of the forward model, thus addressing the question of the required height for these types of measurements. The ability to correctly model transport and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer, responsible for carrying greenhouse gases from their source to the point of measurement, is essential. Thus we investigate differences between the modeled and observed sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, air temperature, and wind speed. Finally, we will present initial results of the emissions estimates from the inversion model.

Miles, N. L.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Richardson, S.; McGowan, L. E.; Sarmiento, D.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Turnbull, J. C.; Iraci, L. T.; Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Shepson, P. B.; Whetstone, J. R.

2013-12-01

358

Comparison of Model and Observed Regional Temperature Changes During the Past 40 Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for six simulations of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global atmosphere-ocean model for the years 1950 to 2099. There are two control simulations with constant 1950 atmospheric composition from different initial states, two GHG experiments with observed greenhouse gases up to 1990 and compounded .5% CO2 annual increases thereafter, and two GHG+SO4 experiments with the same varying greenhouse gases plus varying tropospheric sulfate aerosols. Surface air temperature trends in the two GHG experiments are compared between themselves and with the observed temperature record from 1960 and 1998. All comparisons show high positive spatial correlation in the northern hemisphere except in summer when the greenhouse signal is weakest. The GHG+SO4 experiments show weaker correlations. In the southern hemisphere, correlations are either weak or negative which in part are due to the model's unrealistic interannual variability of southern sea ice cover. The model results imply that temperature changes due to forcing by increased greenhouse gases have risen above the level of regional interannual temperature variability in the northern hemisphere over the past 40 years. This period is thus an important test of reliability of coupled climate models.

Russell, Gary L.; Miller, James R.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto A.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Sheth, Sukeshi

1999-01-01

359

ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOL GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1992, EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory initiated a nationwide QA program on the suppliers of EPA Protocol Gases. he program has three goals: to increase the acceptance and use of Protocol Gases by the air monitoring community, to provide a QA check...

360

Biomass - Investigating Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity students generate their own biomass gases by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best by their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

Benson, Eric E.; Highfill, Melissa; Development, Us D.

361

Freshwater greenhouse gas emissions and their implications on landscape level carbon balances in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from global freshwaters are important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. It has been estimated that about 0.65 Pg of C (CO2 equiv.) yr-1 in the form of CH4 and 1.4 Pg C yr -1 in the form of CO2 is being emitted from global freshwaters. Therefore, including freshwater emissions in the greenhouse gas budgets in the national or global levels could significantly reduce the estimated land carbon sink, but present estimates suffer from lack of data, in particular from tropical freshwaters. Hence, we attempted to test the validity of the land carbon sink estimate in India, a tropical country with a large number of natural and man-made water bodies. We measured the CH4 and CO2 fluxes and surface water concentrations from a wide variety of inland freshwaters like lakes, ponds, rivers, reservoirs, open wells, canals and springs in three South Indian states, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. We observed that almost all of these freshwater systems emitted varied amounts of CH4 and a majority of them emitted CO2, similar to other tropical locations in South America. We extrapolated the measured fluxes for the whole of Indian inland waters by using the total area of different categories of inland waters in the national wetland atlas of India. By comparing our estimates of aquatic fluxes with the national greenhouse gas budget, we show that the land carbon sink of India is substantially overestimated. Thus, freshwater emissions are important components of greenhouse gas budgets on a landscape level and it is necessary to incorporate them in national and global greenhouse gas budgets to accurately quantify the land carbon sink.

Panneer Selvam, B.; Natchimuthu, S.; Arunachalam, L.; Bastviken, D.

2012-04-01

362

Global Climate Change: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about ways in which scientists study past climate change. These studies involve investigations of ice cores taken from the vast ice sheet that covers Greenland and fossil evidence that parts of the Sahara Desert were once lush and filled with animal species more often associated with the African savanna far to the south. With the help of multimedia interactives and video, they will understand what global climate change is and that it has fluctuated many times during the history of the planet. They will also understand how changing climate affects our lives, learn about greenhouse gases, and consider the events that are causing an increase in the amount of these gases in the atmosphere.

2005-01-01

363

Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the eastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to conduct a comprehensive national assessment of storage and flux (flow) of carbon and the fluxes of other greenhouse gases in ecosystems of the Eastern United States. These carbon and greenhouse gas variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (forests, grasslands/shrublands, agricultural lands, and wetlands) and aquatic ecosystems (rivers, streams, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) in the Eastern United States in two time periods: baseline (from 2001 through 2005) and future (projections from the end of the baseline through 2050). The Great Lakes were not included in this assessment due to a lack of input data. The assessment was based on measured and observed data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and many other agencies and organizations and used remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models.

Edited by Zhu, Zhiliang; Reed, Bradley C.

2014-01-01

364

Isotopic Analysis and Evolved Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise measurements of the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary surface material and gases, and observed variations in these compositions, can contribute significantly to our knowledge of the source(s), ages, and evolution of solar system materials. The analyses discussed in this paper are mostly made by mass spectrometers or some other type of mass analyzer, and address three broad areas of interest: (1) atmospheric composition - isotopic, elemental, and molecular, (2) gases evolved from solids, and (3) solids. Current isotopic data on nine elements, mostly from in situ analysis, but also from meteorites and telescopic observations are summarized. Potential instruments for isotopic analysis of lunar, Martian, Venusian, Mercury, and Pluto surfaces, along with asteroid, cometary and icy satellites, surfaces are discussed.

Swindle, Timothy D.; Boynton, William V.; Chutjian, Ara; Hoffman, John H.; Jordan, Jim L.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; McEntire, Richard W.; Nyquist, Larry

1996-01-01

365

Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

1992-07-15

366

'Home made' model to study the greenhouse effect and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a simplified two-parameter model of the greenhouse effect on the Earth is developed, starting from the well known two-layer model. It allows both the analysis of the temperatures of the inner planets, by focusing on the role of the greenhouse effect, and a comparison between the temperatures the planets should have in the absence of greenhouse effect and their actual ones. It may also be used to predict the average temperature of the Earth surface in the future, depending on the variations of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activities. This model can promote an elementary understanding of global warming since it allows a simple formalization of the energy balance for the Earth in the stationary condition, in the presence of greenhouse gases. For these reasons it can be introduced in courses for undergraduate physics students and for teacher preparation.

Onorato, P.; Mascheretti, P.; DeAmbrosis, A.

2011-03-01

367

Floor heating of greenhouses  

SciTech Connect

The flooded floor system developed for solar heating of greenhouses has provided a convenient system for warming the soil for many greenhouse crops. An alternative system utilizing plastic pipes on 0.3-m spacing covered with 7 cm of porous concrete has been developed and is being utilized commercially. This system transfers heat to the greenhouse aerial environment at about two-thirds the rate of the flooded floor system. When potted plants are set on the floor, there is a significant contribution to the greenhouse heat requirement. Warm water can be provided by fossil-fuel-fired boilers, solar collectors or waste heat sources. Research results on varies pipe spacings are presented and the performance of commercial installations is discussed.

Roberts, W.J.; Mears, D.R.; James, M.F.

1981-01-01

368

Spring Greenhouse Bedding Plants  

E-print Network

debris off floors and benches. Keep the greenhouse algae- and weed-free. Hang hoses so nozzles do healthy plants. Adjust pH and fertility levels for optimum plant growth. Do not over- fertilize. Maintain

369

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects  

MedlinePLUS

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects Magma contains dissolved gases that are released into the atmosphere during eruptions. Gases are also released from magma that either remains below ground (for example, as ...

370

Operating and Maintaining the Greenhouse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning guide is designed to assist vocational agriculture students in mastering 20 tasks involved in the operation and maintenance of a greenhouse. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: identification of greenhouse designs, greenhouse construction, basic greenhouse maintenance to conserve energy,…

Gresser, Priscilla A.

371

Necessarily Hypocritical: The Legal Viability of EPA's Regulation of Stationary Source Greenhouse Gas Emissions Under the Clean Air Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Supreme Court’s ruling in Massachusetts v. EPA made clear that greenhouse gases fall within the realm of air pollutants the Clean Air Act was designed to regulate. The Court’s decision sparked a chain reaction forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases under different provisions of the Act. The EPA’s decision to regulate drew fierce criticism, especially from industries that

Nathan D. Riccardi

2012-01-01

372

How do improved injection heights and trace gas emission factors from biomass burning affect the performance of a global model against satellite and ground-based observations of trace gases?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation fires are major contributors of trace gases and aerosols in the atmosphere affecting its composition and chemistry at different scales. The accurate quantification of fire emissions and their potential atmospheric impact is hampered by the strong spatiotemporal variability of this source, despite significant progress achieved over the last years in the development of fire emission inventories using fire detection and burned area mapping from satellite, as well as new constraints from inverse modelling studies of atmospheric trace gases. This study is motivated by recent developments regarding (i) the derivation of vertical profile of smoke released by wildland fires, and (ii) the spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning emission factors, both representing important sources of uncertainty in biomass burning emissions. More specifically, monthly 3D global maps of the injected smoke fraction in the atmosphere, deduced from records of active fires from the MODIS instrument combined with a plume-top height parameterization (Sofiev et al. 2013), exhibit strong seasonal variations which are expected to be more representative of real atmospheric conditions than a unique injection profile as currently used in global models. Furthermore, accounting for the variability in space and time of trace gas emission factors from biomass burning (van Leeuwen et al. 2011, 2013), rather than static emission factors as in most studies, is a more physically plausible hypothesis owing to the strong spatiotemporal variability in different environmental parameters influencing the emission factors. Here, we use the IMAGES global atmospheric model to evaluate the impact of improved injection heights and trace gas emission factors from biomass burning. To this purpose, different scenarios are designed with pyrogenic emissions emitted either at the surface, or according to the static latitude-dependent AEROCOM profile (Dentener et al. 2006), or using the injection heights of Sofiev et al. (2013), whereas either static or dynamic emission factors are used to convert biomass burnt into emitted trace gases. The surface mixing ratios and total columns of key compounds over biomass burning regions in each of these sensitivity cases are confronted with satellite and ground-based observations. Finally, the relevance of these parameters in the context of inverse modelling of emissions is assessed through source inversion experiments using the IMAGES model constrained by HCHO columns retrieved from the GOME-2 sounder.

Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Müller, Jean-Francois; Bauwens, Maite; Sofiev, Mikhail; van Leeuwen, Thijs; van der Werf, Guido; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; George, Maya; Clerbaux, Cathy

2014-05-01

373

Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer for the Earth Observing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of polar-orbiting platforms is described. TES is aimed at studying tropospheric chemistry, in particular, the exchange of gases between the surface and the atmosphere, urban and regional pollution, acid rain precursors, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and the interchange of gases between the troposphere and the stratosphere. TES is a high-resolution (0.025/cm) infrared Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the passive thermal-emission mode in a very wide spectral range (600 to 4350/cm; 2.3 to 16.7 microns). TES has 32 spatial pixels in each of four optically conjugated linear detector arrays, each optimized for a different spectral region.

Glavich, Thomas A.; Beer, Reinhard

1991-01-01

374

Comparing greenhouse gasses  

E-print Network

Controlling multiple substances that jointly contribute to climate warming requires some method to compare the effects of the different gases because the physical properties (radiative effects, and persistence in the ...

Reilly, John M.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Mayer, Monika.

375

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans  

E-print Network

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

376

Climate-chemical interactions and effects of changing atmospheric trace gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper considers trace gas-climate effects including the greenhouse effect of polyatomic trace gases, the nature of the radiative-chemical interactions, and radiative-dynamical interactions in the stratosphere, and the role of these effects in governing stratospheric climate change. Special consideration is given to recent developments in the investigations of the role of oceans in governing the transient climate responses, and a time-dependent estimate of the potential trace gas warming from the preindustrial era to the early 21st century. The importance of interacting modeling and observational efforts is emphasized. One of the problems remaining on the observational front is the lack of certainty in current estimates of the rate of growth of CO, O3, and NOx; the primary challenge is the design of a strategy that will minimize the sampling errors.

Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L.; Cess, R.; Hansen, J.; Isaksen, I.

1987-01-01

377

Geothermal greenhouse project begun  

SciTech Connect

On February 18, 1988, local officials broke ground near Kelseyville at the site of a greenhouse to be heated by geothermal energy. The greenhouse will provide vocational training and research opportunities for construction crews and interested students, and will offer a site for a geothermally-heated agricultural park - the Geo-Ag Heat Center - that could attract commercial growers in the future. Using the heated groundwater instead of propane (currently the cheapest heat source available) can save thousands of gallons of fuel each year for commercial agricultural businesses. The college district will oversee construction of the 7000 square foot agricultural greenhouse. The 3.5-acre agricultural park site is near the S-Bar-S Quarry on Highway 29 south of Kelseyville. Construction should be completed by June 30, 1988.

Not Available

1987-06-01

378

Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities – A comparative review focusing on Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to

Elena Friedrich; Cristina Trois

2011-01-01

379

Removal of volatile organic compounds from air streams and industrial flue gases by non-thermal plasma technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NOx , SOx, etc.), volatile organic compounds (VOC), greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substance (ODS), etc., have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, non-thermal plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges become significant due to advantages such as lower cost, higher removal efficiency, smaller space volume, etc.

Kuniko Urashima; Jen-Shih Chang

2000-01-01

380

Modeling Greenhouse Gas Energy Technology Responses to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Models of the global energy system can help shed light on the competition and complementarities among technologies and energy systems both in the presence and absence of actions to affect the concentration of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the role of modeling in the analysis of technology deployment in addressing climate change. It examines the competition among technologies in a variety of markets, and explores conditions under which new markets, such as for hydrogen and carbon disposal, or modern commercial biomass, could emerge. Carbon capture and disposal technologies are shown have the potential to play a central role in controlling the cost of stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases, the goal of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, John F.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.

2004-07-01

381

Greenhouse Illumination System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to improved methods and apparatus for use in greenhouse nursery techniques. It relates to improvements in forestry, as in the raising of seedlings, and to horticulture, as in the raising of floral and all sorts of other plants. The i...

R. W. Tinus

1991-01-01

382

MIT's Greenhouse Gas Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of a suite of online climate interactive simulations, this Greenhouse Gas Simulator uses the bathtub model to demonstrate how atmospheric concentrations of CO2 will continue to rise unless they are lowered to match the amount of CO2 that can be removed through natural processes.

Sherman, John; Mit

383

Gauging the biological impacts of the greenhouse effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years some climatologists have warned that greenhouse gases, by preventing excess solar energy from radiating back into space, could raise average global temperatures 3\\/degree\\/ to 5\\/degree\\/C within the next century, change rainfall patterns, melt some glaciers and polar ice, raise sea levels, flood low-lying coasts, and otherwise alter climate and environment. Only recently, however, have biologists begun to ask

Cohn

1988-01-01

384

Using Coupled Harmonic Oscillators to Model Some Greenhouse Gas Molecules  

SciTech Connect

Common greenhouse gas molecules SF{sub 6}, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} are modeled as harmonic oscillators whose potential and kinetic energies are derived. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation, their equations of motion are derived and their phase portraits are plotted. The authors use these data to attempt to explain the lifespan of these gases in the atmosphere.

Go, Clark Kendrick C.; Maquiling, Joel T. [Department of Physics, Ateneo de Manila University, Katipunan Avenue, Quezon City (Philippines)

2010-07-28

385

Composting as a Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure,

John W. Paul; Claudia Wagner-Riddle; Andrew Thompson; Ron Fleming; Malcolm MacAlpine

386

Binary adsorption behaviour of methane and nitrogen gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of methane and nitrogen gases is critical in the upgrading of LFG (Landfill gas), natural gas and coal bed gas\\u000a in order to have a commercial heating value for methane. From an environmental point of view, methane capture from landfill\\u000a gas is essential to prevent greenhouse gas emissions. Adsorption could be a beneficial process to capture low purity methane

V. P. Mulgundmath; F. H. Tezel; F. Hou; T. C. Golden

387

Integrated Belowground Greenhouse Gas Flux Modeling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play a significant role as biotic feedbacks to climate change. However, these complex processes, involving C, N, and O2 substrates and inhibitors, interactions with plant processes, and environmental influences of temperature, moisture, and gas transport, remain challenging to simulate in process models. Because CO2, CH4, and N2O production and consumption processes are inter-linked through common substrates and the contrasting effects of O2 as either an essential substrate or a potential inhibitor, the simulation of fluxes of any one gas must be consistent with mechanistic simulations and observations of fluxes of the other gases. Simulating the fluxes of one gas alone is a simpler task, but simulating all three gases simultaneously would provide multiple constraints and would afford greater confidence that the most important mechanisms are aptly simulated. A case in point is the challenge of resolving the apparent paradox of observed simultaneous CO2 production by aerobic respiration, CH4 uptake (oxidation), CH4 production, and N2O uptake (reduction) in the same soil profile. Consumption of atmospheric N2O should occur only under reducing conditions, and yet we have observed uptake of atmospheric CH4 (oxidation) and N2O (reduction) simultaneously. One of the great challenges of numerical modeling is determining the appropriate level of complexity when representing the most important environmental controllers. Ignoring complexity, such as simulating microbial processes with only simple Q10 functions, often results in poor model performance, because soil moisture and substrate supply can also be important factors. On the other hand, too much complexity, while perhaps mechanistically compelling, may result in too many poorly constrained parameters. Here we explore a parsimonious modeling framework for consistently integrated mechanistic and mathematical representation of the biophysical processes of belowground GHG production and consumption. The Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten (DAMM) model simulates soil enzymatic processes using Michaelis-Menten (M-M), Arrhenius, and diffusion equations to account for both temperature and substrate supply controls of trace gas emissions. This parsimonious simplification is somewhat analogous to early 'big leaf' canopy process models, because it simulates soil reactions as a 'big microsite' in the soil. By combining M-M and Arrhenius kinetics, DAMM mechanistically demonstrates that the temperature dependency inherent in the Arrhenius function for Vmax is not always an important controller of the reaction rate when limited substrate concentrations are near their respective Km's. The role of soil water content in DAMM is to control rates of diffusion of O2 and soluble carbon substrates. When applied to methanogenesis and denitrification, O2 must be simulated as an inhibitor of rather than a substrate, either through either classical M-M equations for noncompetitive inhibition or by simulating the inhibitory effect of O2 by decreasing in the enzymatic capacity, which is numerically represented by the pre-exponential ?-value in the Arrhenius equation for calculating Vmax. With the advent of new laser technology for fast response measurements of CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes by eddy covariance and soil chambers, it will be possible soon to test this multiple constraint modeling approach for soil GHGs.

Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K. E.

2013-12-01

388

The Greenhouse Culture Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Jared Scholz and Kalah Sipp conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 26, 2013. Jared Scholz is the founder and Senior Pastor of The Greenhouse Culture; Kalah Sipp is The Greenhouse ...

Scholz, Jared; Sipp, Kalah; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-26

389

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

Not Available

2011-11-01

390

4, 23292384, 2007 Greenhouse gas  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 2329­2384, 2007 Greenhouse gas balance of NE Siberian tundra M. K. van der Molen et al The seasonal cycle of the greenhouse gas balance of a continental tundra site in the Indigirka lowlands, NE, 2329­2384, 2007 Greenhouse gas balance of NE Siberian tundra M. K. van der Molen et al. Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

391

A revised, hazy methane greenhouse for the Archean Earth.  

PubMed

Geological and biological evidence suggests that Earth was warm during most of its early history, despite the fainter young Sun. Upper bounds on the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Late Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.8-2.2 Ga) from paleosol data suggest that additional greenhouse gases must have been present. Methanogenic bacteria, which were arguably extant at that time, may have contributed to a high concentration of atmospheric CH4, and previous calculations had indicated that a CH4-CO2-H2O greenhouse could have produced warm Late Archean surface temperatures while still satisfying the paleosol constraints on pCO2. Here, we revisit this conclusion. Correction of an error in the CH4 absorption coefficients, combined with the predicted early onset of climatically cooling organic haze, suggest that the amount of greenhouse warming by CH4 was more limited and that pCO2 must therefore have been 0.03 bar, at or above the upper bound of the value obtained from paleosols. Enough warming from CH4 remained in the Archean, however, to explain why Earth's climate cooled and became glacial when atmospheric O2 levels rose in the Paleoproterozoic. Our new model also shows that greenhouse warming by higher hydrocarbon gases, especially ethane (C2H6), may have helped to keep the Late Archean Earth warm. PMID:19093801

Haqq-Misra, Jacob D; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Kasting, Patrick J; Kasting, James F

2008-12-01

392

Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in European conventional and organic dairy farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy farming is the largest agricultural source of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in Europe. A whole-farm modeling approach was used to investigate promising mitigation measures. The effects of potential mitigation measures were modeled to obtain estimates of net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from representative dairy model farms in five European regions. The potential to reduce

A. Weiske; A. Vabitsch; J. E. Olesen; K. Schelde; J. Michel; R. Friedrich; M. Kaltschmitt

2006-01-01

393

Monitoring soil greenhouse gas emissions from managed grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grasslands in Central Europe are of enormous social, ecological and economical importance. They are intensively managed, but the influence of different common practices (i.e. fertilization, harvesting) on the total greenhouse gas budget of grasslands is not fully understood, yet. In addition, it is unknown how these ecosystems will react due to climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing precipitation will likely have an effect on productivity of grasslands and on bio-geo-chemical processes responsible for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the frame of the TERENO Project (www.tereno.net), a long-term observatory has been implemented in the Ammer catchment, southern Germany. Acting as an in situ global change experiment, 36 big lysimeters (1 m2 section, 150 cm height) have been translocated along an altitudinal gradient, including three sites ranging from 600 to 860 meters above sea level. In addition, two treatments have been considered, corresponding to different management intensities. The overall aim of the pre-alpine TERENO observatory is improving our understanding of the consequences of climate change and management on productivity, greenhouse gas balance, soil nutritional status, nutrient leaching and hydrology of grasslands. Two of the sites are equipped with a fully automated measurement system in order to continuously and accurately monitor the soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange. Thus, a stainless steel chamber (1 m2 section, 80 cm height) is controlled by a robotized system. The chamber is hanging on a metal structure which can move both vertically and horizontally, so that the chamber is able to be set onto each of the lysimeters placed on the field. Furthermore, the headspace of the chamber is connected with a gas tube to a Quantum Cascade Laser, which continuously measures CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O mixing ratios. The chamber acts as a static chamber and sets for 15 minutes onto each lysimeter; changes with time in the mixing ratios of the targeted gases are used to calculate exchange rates of the different molecules. The system allows for precise calculation of soil greenhouse gas fluxes at sub-daily resolution. Here, we will show the importance of high temporal frequency measurements for unbiased estimations of annual greenhouse gas emission budgets. Extremely high pulses of CH4 and N2O emissions after fertilizer application were observed, but in some occasions lasted for a couple of hours, only, before returning to baseline levels. Pulse response after fertilization was not always immediate. Especially for CO2, a clear diel pattern was observed, with emission rates varying by more than 100 % between early morning and midday. In summary, implications of the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions will be discussed and recommendations for avoiding under- and/or overestimation of exchange rates will be given.

Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

2014-05-01

394

Global Reactive Gases in the MACC project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the planned atmospheric service component of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative, the EU FP7 project Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) developed a preoperational data assimilation and modelling system for monitoring and forecasting of reactive gases, greenhouse gases and aerosols. The project is coordinated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the system is built on ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) which has been coupled to the chemistry transport models MOZART-3 and TM5. In order to provide daily forecasts of up to 96 hours for global reactive gases, various satellite retrieval products for ozone (total column and profile data), CO, NO2, CH2O and SO2 are either actively assimilated or passively monitored. The MACC system is routinely evaluated with in-situ data from ground-based stations, ozone sondes and aircraft measurements, and with independent satellite retrievals. Global MACC reactive gases forecasts are used in the planning and analysis of large international field campaigns and to provide dynamical chemical boundary conditions to regional air quality models worldwide. Several case studies of outstanding air pollution events have been performed, and they demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of chemical data assimilation based on current satellite data products. Besides the regular analyses and forecasts of the tropospheric chemical composition, the MACC system is also used to monitor the evolution of stratospheric ozone. A comprehensive reanalysis simulation from 2003 to 2010 provides new insights into the interannual variability of the atmospheric chemical composition.

Schultz, M. G.

2012-04-01

395

The Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama. The goal of the site is to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. In this unit students learn about what the greenhouse effect is and what causes it. By looking at greenhouse gas rates and amounts, students can propose reasons for trends and solutions to global warming. Parts of the unit include gathering information from other websites, applying the data gathered, and performing enrichment exercises. This site contains a downloadable teachers guide, student guide, and all activity sheets to make the unit complete.

396

Exploiting Quartz Spectral Signature for the Detection of Cloud-Affected Satellite Infrared Observations over African Desert Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that IMG (interferometric monitoring of greenhouse gases) spectra recorded over African and Arabian deserts clearly contain the fingerprint of quartz-rich soils. We illustrate how this spectral signature can be exploited to devise a suitable cloud-detection scheme to identify which infrared observations are affected by clouds. As a by-product, the scheme also allows one to identify the most

Guido Masiello; Carmine Serio; Vincenzo Cuomo

2004-01-01

397

Life in the Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With two simple classroom experiments and easy-to-read text, this original story is designed to introduce young learners to the greenhouse effect. The author provides different versions of the story for grades K-2 and 3-5, as well as different formats for differentiated instruction. The free online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle focuses on principles of climate literacy that are appropriate for young learners.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-12-01

398

Could plants help tame the greenhouse  

SciTech Connect

It's easy to see how climate change might affect the globe's vegetation, driving hardwood forests into regions now covered with evergreens and causing deserts to shift. It's less easy to picture the other side of the coin: biology's impact on the atmosphere. So mathematician Berrien Moore III of the University of New Hampshire, who heads the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program task force on global analysis, interpretation, and modeling, staged a simple demonstration. He modeled the effects of a biosphere fertilized by increased CO[sub 2] - and found that it could first help, then hinder, human efforts to slow the buildup of greenhouse gases. To simulate such a biotic carbon sink, Moore combined a simple model of CO[sub 2] uptake by the ocean with an equally simple model of its uptake by photosynthesis on land and its release by deforestation and plant decay. He then forced this simple ocean-atmosphere-vegetation model with fossil fuel CO[sub 2] emissions from 1860 to the present. As expected, his model ended up with too much carbon in the atmosphere. So he turned up photosynthesis, fertilizing plant growth in his model, until the rate of CO[sub 2] buildup just matched the observed increase. Moore then explored how this terrestrial carbon sink would respond if the CO[sub 2] buildup slowed. The result: If you were to cap the rate of CO[sub 2] emissions from fossil fuel burning, [this terrestrial] sink would reduce the atmospheric lifetime of CO[sub 2] by a factor of four or five. This cleansing effect would operate on timescales of years or decades, compared with centuries for the ocean, says Moore - fast enough to aid human efforts to slow the CO[sub 2] buildup. However, it doesn't do it fo