Sample records for greenhouse gases observation

  1. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CFCs CO Additional Information Introduction What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds present in Earth's atmosphere behave ... a greenhouse gas. Carbon Monoxide and other reactive gases Carbon monoxide (CO) is not considered a direct ...

  2. Greenhouse Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson where learners engage in a radiating heat activity and an activity that measures temperature in models with and without greenhouse gases. Learners will draw conclusions about the effect of greenhouse gases on temperature and on human life and kinesthetically model the absorbing and re-radiation of heat. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 3 in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase students’ awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

  3. On surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols: models and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.F.B.; Davis, R.A.; Ingram, W.J.; Senior, C.A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)] [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight by sulphate aerosols is represented by appropriately enhancing the surface albedo. On doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, the global mean temperature increases by 5.2 K. An integration with a 39% increase in CO{sub 2}, giving the estimated change in radiative heating due to increases in greenhouse gases since 1900, produced an equilibrium warming of 2.3 K, which, even allowing for oceanic inertia, is significantly higher than the observed warming over the same period. Furthermore, the simulation suggests a substantial warming everywhere, whereas the observations indicate isolated regions of cooling, including parts of the northern midlatitude continents. The addition of an estimate of the effect of scattering by current industrial aerosols (uncertain by a factor of at least 3) leads to improved agreement with the observed pattern of changes over the northern continents and reduces the global mean warming by about 30%. Doubling the aerosol forcing produces patterns that are still compatible with the observations, but further increase leads to unrealistically extensive cooling in the midlatitudes. The diurnal range of surface temperature decreases over most of the northern extratropics on increasing CO{sub 2}, in agreement with recent observations. The addition of the current industrial aerosol had little detectable effect on the diurnal range in the model because the direct effect of reduced solar heating at the surface is approximately balanced by the indirect effects of cooling. Thus, the ratio of the reduction in diurnal range to the mean warming is increased, in closer agreement with observations. Results from further sensitivity experiments with larger increases in aerosol and CO{sub 2} are presented.

  4. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the indirect human effects on water vapor concentrations. Ozone is technically a greenhouse gas because it has ... in the atmosphere (stratosphere), where it occurs naturally, ozone is needed to block harmful ultraviolet (UV) light. ...

  5. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Edward; Montzka, Stephen A.; Butler, James H.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations. These requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 17th meeting was held in Beijing, China, on 10 - 14 June 2013 (http://ggmt-2013.cma.gov.cn/dct/page/1). Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 9 represents an update of the results for the year 2012 (extended version is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/ghg9-en-online.html). The cover story of this bulletin presents the attribution of methane sources in the context of the renewed growth of the global average methane mole fraction in 2007. The bulletin is prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/CBS/Lists_WorkGroups/CAS/opag-epac/gaw%20sag%20ghg) in collaboration with the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) derived from this network reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.1±0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1819±1 ppb and N2O at 325.1±0.1 ppb. These values constitute 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2011 to 2012 amounted to 2.2 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm yr-1) and for the past decade (~2.0 ppm yr-1). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 6 ppb from 2011 to 2012. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~13 ppb yr-1 during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~5 ppb yr-1. The growth rate of N2O in 2012 was 0.9 ppb yr-1, which is greater than the average growth rate over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb yr-1). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2012 was 1.32 (corresponding to 2.87 W m-2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 32% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2011 to 2012, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2012 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 475.6 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

  6. Regulating Greenhouse Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KQED

    This video highlights the work of climate scientists in the Amazon who research the relationship between deforestation, construction of new dams, and increased amounts of greenhouse gases being exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  7. Hyper-spectral observations of greenhouse gases in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding Yi; Zhang, Chun-ming; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiang-hong; Li, Hong-qun; Yang, Fu-Mo; Chen, Gang-Cai; Wang, Shu-peng; Zhang, Xing-ying; Zhang, Peng

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the most ambitious hydroelectric and flood control project in human history. Its riparian zone has areas of ~300 km2 with water levels fluctuating between 175m above the sea in winter and 145m in summer, and is a special type of wetlands at the low water levels. These wetlands may release CO2 and CH4 with significantly spatial and temporal variations, and have been misleadingly described as a “methane menace” and caused a worldwide concern. A joint research program for TGR greenhouse gases monitoring is operated by several institutions and based at Yangtze Normal Univ. in Fuling of Chongqing. It is characterized by the combined satellite, airship, and ground-based hyper-spectral observations, which serve to simultaneously measure various eco-environmental parameters in a large area with high spatial and spectral resolutions, and to model the status and key dynamic processes of the TGR greenhouse gases. In this talk, the retrieval algorithm of the gas species from satellite near-infrared observations is discussed with special attentions paid to the mountainous and foggy TGR region. The distributions and variations of TGR greenhouse gases are studied by using the AIRS and SCIAMACHY monthly means of multiple years. The airship and ground-based observation system is outlined and expected to provide unique data needed to address the TGR environmental issues, and to evolve towards operational service.

  8. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Ed; Montzka, Stephen A.; Griffith, David; Brunke, Ernst; Scheel, Hans-Eckhart; Laurila, Tuomas; Weller, Rolf; Butler, James H.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations, and these requirements are evaluated every two years. Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 8 represents the results for the year 2011. This bulletin highlights the importance of carbon sinks (ocean and terrestrial biosphere) for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2011, with CO2 at 390.9 ± 0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1813 ± 2 ppb and N2O at 324.2 ± 0.1 ppb. These values constitute 140%, 259% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2010 to 2011 amounted to 2.0 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~ 1.5 ppm/yr) and is equal to the average for the past decade (~ 2.0 ppm/yr). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 5 ppb from 2010 to 2011. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~ 13 ppb/yr during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~ 5 ppb/yr. The growth rate of N2O in 2011 was 1.0 ppb/yr, which is substantially greater than the average over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb/yr). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2011 was 1.30 (corresponding to 2.84 W-m2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 30% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2010 to 2011, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2011 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 473 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

  9. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, O. A.; Koide, H.; Dlugokencky, E.; Hall, B.; Montzka, S. A.; Krummel, P.; Brunke, E.; Scheel, H.-E.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations; these requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 16th meeting was held in Wellington, New Zealand, on 25 - 28 October 2011 (http://www.niwa.co.nz/our-science/atmosphere/ggmt-2011). Surface observations are made at more than 100 stations worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of stations for many other greenhouse gases. Results of the latest global analysis were published in the WMO/GAW Greenhouse Gas Bulletin in November 2011. It highlights the importance of N2O, the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2010, with CO2 at 389.0 ppm, CH4 at 1808 ppb and N2O at 323.2 ppb. These values are greater than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 39%, 158% and 20%, respectively. An increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2009 to 2010 amounted to 2.3 ppm, which is higher than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~ 1.5 ppm/yr) and the one for the past decade (~ 2.0 ppm/yr). The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~ 13 ppb/yr during the early 1980s to near zero from 1999 to 2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again. The 19 ppb rise from 2006 to 2009 was followed by a 5 ppb rise in 2010. The growth rate of N2O in 2010 was 0.8 ppb/yr which is comparable to the average over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb/yr). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2010, radiative forcing from nearly all long-lived greenhouse gases increased by 29% and reached 2.81W/m2, with CO2 accounting for nearly 80% of this increase. This radiative forcing corresponds to a CO2-eq mole fraction of 469.7 ppm, which falls in the middle of the IPCC AR4 category I scenario with CO2-eq in the range 445-490 ppm (corresponding to the projected global average temperature rise above pre-industrial level at equilibrium in the range of 2-2.4 degree C). The radiative forcing of N2O now exceeds that of CFC-12.

  10. Greenhouse Gases Exposed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Victoria Babcock

    In this activity, students learn about the relationship between greenhouse gases and global warming through a simple teacher demo or hands-on lab activity. Everyday materials are used: beakers, baking soda, vinegar, candle, thermometers, heat source such as a goose-necked lamp, etc. Students shine a light onto three thermometers: a control, an upside down beaker w/ a thermometer and air, and a beaker in which CO2 had been poured.

  11. Global CO2 Distributions over Land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; O'Dell, Christopher; Kawa, Randolph S.

    2012-01-01

    January 2009 saw the successful launch of the first space-based mission specifically designed for measuring greenhouse gases, the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We present global land maps (Level 3 data) of column-averaged CO2 concentrations (X(sub CO2)) derived using observations from the GOSAT ACOS retrieval algorithm, for July through December 2009. The applied geostatistical mapping approach makes it possible to generate maps at high spatial and temporal resolutions that include uncertainty measures and that are derived directly from the Level 2 observations, without invoking an atmospheric transport model or estimates of CO2 uptake and emissions. As such, they are particularly well suited for comparison studies. Results show that the Level 3 maps for July to December 2009 on a lO x 1.250 grid, at six-day resolution capture much of the synoptic scale and regional variability of X(sub CO2), in addition to its overall seasonality. The uncertainty estimates, which reflect local data coverage, X(sub CO2) variability, and retrieval errors, indicate that the Southern latitudes are relatively well-constrained, while the Sahara Desert and the high Northern latitudes are weakly-constrained. A probabilistic comparison to the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA-GFED model reveals that the most statistically significant discrepancies occur in South America in July and August, and central Asia in September to December. While still preliminary, these results illustrate the usefulness of a high spatiotemporal resolution, data-driven Level 3 data product for direct interpretation and comparison of satellite observations of highly dynamic parameters such as atmospheric CO2.

  12. Greenhouse Gases: A Closer Look

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    King's Centre for Visualization in Science

    This lesson covers different aspects of the major greenhouse gases - water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides and CFCs - including some of the ways in which human activities are affecting the atmospheric concentrations of these key greenhouse gases. This is lesson six in a nine-lesson module about climate change.

  13. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  14. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schimel; D. Glover; J. Melack; R. Beer; R. Myneni

    Contents4.1 Earth Observing System (EOS) program objectives 1674.2 Introduction 1684.2.1 Science questions 1684.2.1.1 How does changing land\\/land use affect fluxes of greenhouse gases such asCO 2 , methane, and nitrous oxide? How does it affect O 3 precursors fromsoil (e.g., NO), plant (e.g., biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons), emissions,and biomass-burning plumes? 1684.2.1.2 How does interannual variability in climate affect interannual variability inbiogeochemistry?

  15. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  16. Greenhouse gases thinning the thermosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Emmert et al.

    Orbital decay rates of satellites and other objects that have flown continually for more than 30 years were analyzed to determine the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the thermosphere. A decrease of 25 percent per decade was found in the thermosphere's density since 1966. Implications are discussed.

  17. Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

  18. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 The enhancedThe enhanced greenhouse effectgreenhouse effect #12;HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 The enhanced greenhouse effect: sourcesThe enhanced greenhouse effectHELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and ozone

  19. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  20. Quantifying urban/industrial emissions of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases based on atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Diana Hart

    2000-11-01

    Background and pollution trends and cycles of fourteen trace gases over the Northeastern U.S. are inferred from continuous atmospheric observations at the Harvard Forest research station located in Petersham, Massachusetts. This site receives background `clean' air from the northwest (Canada) and `dirty' polluted air from the southwest (New York City-Washington, D.C. corridor). Mixing ratios of gases regulated by the Montreal Protocol or other policies (CO, PCE, CFC11, CFC12, CFC113, CH 3CCl3, CCl4, and Halon-1211) and of those not subject to restrictions (H2, CH4, CHCl3, TCE, N2O, and SF6) were measured over the three-year period, 1996 to 1998, every 24 minutes by a fully automated gas chromatographic instrument with electron capture detectors. Evidence for polar vortex venting is found consistently in the month of June of the background seasonal cycles. The ratio of CO and PCE enhancements borne on southwesterly winds are in excellent agreement with county-level EPA and sales-based inventories for the New York City-Washington, D.C. region. From this firm footing, we use CO and PCE as reference compounds to determine the urban/industrial source strengths for the other species. A broad historical and geographic study of emissions reveals that the international treaty has by and large been a success. Locally, despite the passing of the 1996 Montreal Protocol ban, only emissions of CFC12 and CH3CCl3 are abating. Though source strengths are waning, the sources are not spent and continued releases to the atmosphere may be expected for some years to come. For CH3CCl3, whose rate of decline is central to our understanding of atmospheric processes, we estimate that absolute concentrations may persist until around the year 2010. The long-term high frequency time series of hydrogen provided here represents the first such data set of its kind. The H2 diurnal cycle is established and explained in terms of its sources and sinks. The ratio of H2 to CO in pollution plumes is found to be a seasonal and unchanged since early automobile exhaust studies of the 1960s, despite the many restrictions placed on car emissions and fuels since that time. Based on this result, a spatial inventory of H2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion is developed at the county level for the entire Northeastern U.S.

  1. CARIBIC observations of greenhouse gases and non-methane hydrocarbons on flights between Germany and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; van Velthoven, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since May 2005 the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) has made near-monthly deployments of an atmospheric observatory making measurements from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 during routine passenger flights. Flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany and serve a large number of destinations, among them Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. On these flights, which took place primarily during northern hemisphere winter 2010/2011, a near-meridional profile was obtained over Europe and Africa, in similar fashion to HIPPO flight tracks over the Pacific, be it without vertical profiles. Over Central Africa, deep convection transports boundary layer air to the free troposphere, linking observations at cruise altitude to surface emissions and allowing for the investigation of emissions and sources of atmospherically relevant species in Africa. Mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (methane, carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide) and a suite of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude during flight. Several tracers, for example methane, carbon monoxide, and various NMHC, exhibit enhanced mixing ratios over tropical Africa. Using tracer-tracer correlations to characterize methane emissions from Africa, we find that biomass burning made a major contribution to the methane burden, but that also biogenic sources, such as wetlands, play a significant role. We also compare these measurements to those conducted earlier over India, which were used to investigate sources and emissions of greenhouse gases during the South Asian summer monsoon.

  2. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  3. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  4. Curbing Greenhouse Gases: Agriculture's Role

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    be changed by the presence of a market or other means to mitigate greenhouse gas? The Kyoto Protocol called Kyoto Protocol after the Japanese conference place. Developing countries negotiated emission and nitrous oxide. Agriculture, emissions and sinks - Treatment in the Kyoto Protocol The Protocol mentions

  5. Thermal efficiency of the principal greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y. Galashev, A.; R. Rakhmanova, O.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric gases are ranked according to the efficiency with which they absorb and radiate longwave radiation. The open international HITRAN database of gaseous absorption lines of high resolution together with inverse Fourier transform were used. The autocorrelation functions of the total dipole moment of the basic greenhouse gases molecules such as H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, and CH4 were obtained. Absorption coefficient spectra and emission power spectra of infrared radiation of these gases were calculated. Analysis of the emissive ability of all gases under consideration was carried out. Compared to CO2, all the gases under investigation have more effective emission except ozone. An efficiency criterion of IR absorption and emission is defined and is calculated for each studied gas, and the gases are ranked accordingly as follows (from strong to weak): H2O, CH4, CO2, N2O, and O3.

  6. Decomposition of greenhouse gases by plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonius Indarto; Jae-Wook Choi; Hwaung Lee; Hyung Keun Song

    2008-01-01

    The topic of decomposition and reduction of greenhouse gases is becoming an important issue in tackling the global warming\\u000a effect since several years ago. Several technologies, including plasma-utilized process, were proposed to improve the treatment\\u000a ability for the destruction of green house gases usually emitted by industrial activities. In this review paper, the application\\u000a of plasma to reduce the emission

  7. 16 Rangelands educing concentrations of greenhouse gases

    E-print Network

    sequestration or decrease carbon loss will be especially important. The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Prior the current amount of carbon being stored in an area. In the terrestrial carbon cycle (Supplemental Material and the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is one of the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Reductions

  8. The HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) study of the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases measured meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol constituents along transects from approximately pole-to-pole

    E-print Network

    The HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) study of the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases measured meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol constituents along transects from approximately of a comprehensive suite of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols pertinent to understanding the carbon cycle

  9. Are recent Arctic ozone losses caused by increasing greenhouse gases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    2013-08-01

    has been suggested that the Arctic ozone losses observed in recent years might be a manifestation of climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases. We here offer evidence to the contrary, by focusing on the volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC), a convenient proxy for polar ozone loss whose simplicity allows for easily reproducible results. First, we analyze the time series of VPSC in three reanalysis data sets and find no statistically significant trends in VPSC-nor changes in their probability density functions-over the period 1979-2011. Second, we analyze VPSC in a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model forced uniquely with increasing greenhouse gases following the A1B scenario: here too, we find no significant changes in VPSC over the entire 21st century. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the sporadic high ozone losses in recent years have not been caused by increasing greenhouse gases.

  10. Are recent Arctic ozone losses caused by increasing greenhouse gases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H.; Polvani, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    It has been suggested that the Arctic ozone losses observed in recent years might be a manifestation of climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases. We here offer evidence to the contrary, by focusing on the volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC), a convenient proxy for polar ozone loss whose simplicity allows for easily reproducible results. First, we analyze the time series of VPSC in three reanalysis datasets and find no statistically significant trends in VPSC - nor changes in their probability density functions - over the period 1979-2011. Second, we analyze VPSC in a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model forced uniquely with increasing greenhouse gases following the A1B scenario: here too, we find no significant changes in VPSC over the entire 21st century. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the sporadic high ozone losses in recent years have not been caused by increasing greenhouse gases.

  11. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Venterea, Rodney [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Soil and Water

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  12. How Greenhouse Gases Absorb Heat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum of Natural History

    In this experiment, students will observe two model atmospheres: one with normal atmospheric composition and another with an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide. These two contained atmospheres will be exposed to light energy from a sunny window or from a lamp. The carbon dioxide is produced by a simple reaction and tested using bromothymol blue (BTB).

  13. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  14. Critical UN Conference on Greenhouse Gases Begins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charbonneau, David D.

    Yesterday at the Hague, delegates from over 160 nations began meeting to try to hammer out details of the 1997 Kyoto agreement which mandated that nations reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to pre-1990 levels by the year 2012. This sixth session of the UN's Framework Convention on Climate Change will have to overcome significant obstacles if delegates are to emerge with an agreement within the conference's scheduled two weeks. To begin with, there is disagreement between the European Union and the United States on the use of "clean development mechanisms" (CDMs), which give states a number of ways of reaching the treaty's targets without actually reducing emissions. Among these is a proposal to allow for the trading of emissions credits -- disparagingly viewed by most environmentalists as licenses to pollute -- and the possibility of states with high emissions investing in reforestation projects in developing countries that would serve as "Carbon sinks" to absorb these emissions. Naturally, the US, responsible for 24 percent of the world's greenhouse gases, favors such measures, while the EU -- believing its recent coastal flood to be greenhouse-related -- opposes them in favor of across-the-board reductions and tough sanctions for noncompliance. The US is also concerned that the current draft allows developing nations, including China and India, to pledge to reach emissions limits in the future, but does not hold them to any legal obligation for failure to do so. The United Kingdom has stated that an effective agreement can be reached with or without US support. However, given that the US is the main producer of greenhouse gases, most analysts feel that an agreement without US cooperation is liable to have little long-term consequence.

  15. Transport of Greenhouse Gases in Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, E.; Khalil, A. K.; Shearer, M.; Rosenstiel, T.

    2009-12-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured in cultivated and natural regions, quantifying overall emissions for croplands, wetlands, and forests. However, segregation between soil and plant emissions is less clear, and the dynamics behind each respective emission type differs. Better defined plant transport mechanisms will yield more accurate determination of greenhouse gas flux, contributing to a comprehensive theory quantifying greenhouse gas emissions globally. While the mechanisms of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice have not been fully identified, for trees these mechanisms are virtually unknown. CH4 and N2O emissions from several species of tree (Alnus rubra, Populus trichocarpa, Thuja plicata, Fraxinus latifolia) native to the Pacific Northwest have been measured. To identify mechanisms of gas transport, correlation of emissions and stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis has been tested. A synthesis between plant physiological data and emissions is sought to elucidate the role plant physiology plays in the production and transport of CH4 and N2O. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER64515.

  16. Comparisons of aircraft measurements of greenhouse gases with GOSAT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.; Tadic, J.; Lopez, J. P.; Shiomi, K.; Kawakami, S.; kuze, A.; Yokota, T.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical profiles of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX). Airborne instruments measuring GHGs (Picarro Inc. G2301-m) and ozone (2B Technologies Inc., model 205) are installed in a wing pod and operated from NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, CA (37.415°N, 120.050°W). The in situ measurement instruments mounted on the aircraft yield precise and accurate vertical profiles of atmospheric GHGs and ozone. The purpose of this work is to validate GOSAT data and estimate from Alpha Jet measurements the contribution of GHGs from urban areas. We show the result of comparison of GOSAT and Alpha Jet measurements over Railroad Valley, NV and urban areas in Northern California. The Alpha Jet aircraft performs a measurement over the Railroad Valley (RRV) desert playa, Nevada (38.497°N, 115.691°W, 1437m above mean sea level) once a month for the comparison with Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) measurements from 2011. The GOSAT was developed to measure concentrations of CO2 and CH4 from space and has been in operation from 2009. The instruments onboard GOSAT are the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) (Kuze et al., 2009). The RRV playa is a flat, high altitude desert site and an area where local sources and sinks of carbon-species are expected to be minimal. The playa has virtually no vegetation and an overall size of 15 km× 15 km, which includes GOSAT's field of view. Reference Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Masakatsu Nakajima, and Takashi Hamazaki. Thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite for greenhouse gases monitoring. App. Opt., 48, 6716-6733, 2009.

  17. Measuring the Heat Capacity of Greenhouse Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This quantitative experiment involves lab teams in comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and measuring their heat capacity. The activity requires an infrared heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2L beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probe, volumetric flasks, a graduated cylinder, and tubing. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and becomes CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. A worksheet guides student calculations of heat capacity of the different samples. The investigation s is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  18. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  19. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    EIA's annual report on human-caused greenhouse gases in the US shows an annual average increase of 1.1 percent over the past ten years. In 1999, the total emission of greenhouse gases in the US is estimated at 1,833 million metric tons of carbon equivalent, 0.8 percent higher than the estimated level in 1998.

  20. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wuebbles, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) Mission and Experience Gained from the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, A.; Gunson, M.; Crisp, D.; Miller, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) will make space-based measurements of atmospheric CO2 with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales and quantify their variability over the seasonal cycle. The OCO-2 mission will be a 'carbon copy' of the OCO mission, to minimize schedule and cost risks. The OCO-2 instrument has been built and is undergoing testing and characterization. OCO-2 will carry a single instrument that incorporates 3 high resolution grating spectrometers that will make bore-sighted measurements of reflected sunlight in near-infrared CO2 and molecular oxygen (O2) absorption bands. These measurements will be combined to provide spatially resolved estimates of the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2. The instrument collects 12 to 24 XCO2 soundings/second over the sunlit portion of the orbit, yielding 200 to 400 soundings per degree of latitude, or 0.5 to 1 million soundings every day. Thick clouds and aerosols will reduce the number of soundings available for XCO2 retrievals by 80-90%, but the remaining data is expected to yield XCO2 estimates with accuracies of ~0.3 to 0.5% (1 to 2 ppm) on regional scales every month. To verify the accuracy of the space-based XCO2 data, the OCO-2 validation program will use ground-based, solar-viewing Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) to tie the space-based XCO2 with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standard for atmospheric CO2, which is based on in situ observations of CO2 from flask measurements, tall towers, and aircraft. In preparation for the OCO-2 mission, we are using the OCO-2 algorithm to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT measurements. We now retrieved XCO2 from GOSAT data from April 2009 to present. These retrievals are being validated with the TCCON network. This presentation will provide an overview of OCO-2 mission, including science objectives, instrument, algorithm, and validation plans as well as recent results from the GOSAT retrievals.

  2. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. PMID:25236841

  3. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  4. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  5. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997 publication was prepared under the guidance of Mary Hutzler, Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration. This report "presents the latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases." The paper states that 82% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are caused by coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Gases such as hydroflourocarbons (HFCs), perflourocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, methane, and other carbon dioxide gases comprise the other 18% of U.S. emissions. The paper provides an in-depth analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Methane Emissions, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Halocarbons and Other Gases, and Land Use Issues, among others.

  6. Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Hansen; Andrew A. Lacis

    1990-01-01

    Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

  7. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Andrew Lacis; Michael Prather

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had

  8. GLOBAL MITIGATION OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitigation of noncarbon dioxide (non-CO2) greenhouse gas emissions can be a relatively inexpensive supplement to CO2-only mitigation strategies. The non-CO2 gases include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and a number of high global warming potential (high- GWP) or fluorinated gases. These ga...

  9. Synthetic greenhouse gases to decline if Montreal Protocol amended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    The Montreal Protocol, an international treaty designed to reduce the release into the atmosphere of ozone-depleting gases such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons, has been successful since its implementation in the late 1980s. However, related greenhouse gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), have increased in concentration in the atmosphere since then. HFCs, along with other synthetic greenhouse gases (SGHGs), account for a radiative forcing almost 20% as large as that due to the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) since the preindustrial era.

  10. Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases and Their Sources and Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Andre; Babenhauserheide, Arne; Bertleff, Marco; Checa-Garcia, Ramiro; Hahne, Philipp; Hase, Frank; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto; Landgraf, Jochen; Galli, Andre; Basu, Sourish

    2014-06-01

    The man-made emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are considered the main drivers of anthropogenically induced climate change. Major uncertainties persist when it comes to quantifying regional scale surface fluxes of these gases or predicting the evolution of the relevant source/sink processes in a changing climate. Remote sensing of the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from space-borne and ground-based platforms offers the opportunity to significantly advance our knowledge on spatial and temporal scales that are suitable for process attribution and mitigation actions. Overall, the most promising remote-sensing strategy exploits the rotational-vibrational absorption of CO2 and CH4 in sunlight penetrating the Earth's atmosphere. Typically, satellite sounders such as GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite), OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), and S5P (Sentinel-5 precursor) as well as the ground-based spectrometers of the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) cover various CO2, CH4, and O2 absorption bands in the near and shortwave infrared spectral range between 0.75 micron (13400cm-1) and 2.5 micron (4000cm-1). Accuracy of the inferred gas concentrations is contingent on the accuracy of the adopted spectroscopic parameters and spectroscopic models available in these spectral regions. Here, I will report on recent achievements and challenges within our greenhouse-gas remote-sensing activities mainly focusing on the GOSAT observational record. Since its launch in early 2009, the Fourier Transform Spectrometer onboard GOSAT delivers solar absorption spectra with good spectral resolution and high signal-to-noise. It has been shown that the CO2 and CH4 retrievals from these observations can achieve an accuracy on the order of fractions of a percent which makes them suitable for tracking regional scale source/sink processes and their response to climate events. In order to achieve the required accuracy, it is crucial to develop highly accurate radiative-transfer algorithms and to validate the satellite soundings by ground-based observations. I will illustrate some cases where the excellent quality of the absorption spectra collected by GOSAT reveals spectroscopic deficiencies and inconsistencies among the various absorption bands covered. As such, lessons learned from GOSAT can be used as a feedback to the spectroscopy community. Beyond GOSAT, future satellite missions such as S5P or the planned S5 (Sentinel-5, launch ˜2020) will cover spectral ranges which have not yet been spectroscopically optimized for remote-sensing purposes. In that case, simulations and studies based on ground-based observations show that spectroscopic uncertainties constitute a dominant contribution to the error budget of the retrieved gas concentrations. Therefore, further improvements of spectroscopic parameters and line-shape models is of paramount interest for remote sensing of greenhouse gases.

  11. Greenhouse gases dissolved in soil solution - often ignored, but important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, Daniel; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Puetz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Flux measurements of climate-relevant trace gases from soils are frequently undertaken in contemporary ecosystem studies and substantially contribute to our understanding of greenhouse gas balances of the biosphere. While the great majority of such investigations builds on closed chamber and eddy covariance measurements, where upward gas fluxes to the atmosphere are measured, fewest concurrently consider greenhouse gas dissolution in the seepage and leaching of dissolved gases via the vadose zone to the groundwater. Here we present annual leaching losses of dissolved N2O and CO2 from arable, grassland, and forest lysimeter soils from three sites differing in altitude and climate. We aim to assess their importance in comparison to direct N2O emission, soil respiration, and further leaching parameters of the C- and N cycle. The lysimeters are part of the Germany-wide lysimeter network initiative TERENO-SoilCan, which investigates feedbacks of climate change to the pedosphere on a long-term scale. Soil water samples were collected weekly from different depths of the profiles by means of suction cups. A laboratory pre-experiment proved that no degassing occurred under those sampling conditions. We applied the headspace equilibration technique to determine dissolved gas concentrations by gas chromatography. The seepage water of all lysimeters was consistently supersaturated with N2O and CO2 compared to water equilibrated ambient air. In terms of N2O, leaching losses increased in the ascending order forest, grassland, and arable soils, respectively. In case of the latter soils, we observed a strong variability of N2O, with dissolved concentrations up to 23 ?g N L-1. However, since seepage discharge of the arable lysimeters was comparatively small and mostly limited to the hydrological winter season, leached N2O appeared to be less important than direct N2O emissions. In terms of dissolved CO2,our measurements revealed considerable leaching losses from the mountainous forest and grassland soils, based on concentrations up to 24 mg C L-1 and high seepage discharge. Such losses turned out to be similarly important like soil respiration, particularly during winter when temperature-dependent soil respiration declined. In conclusion, the results of the first year of our measurements provide evidence that dissolved greenhouse gases should be considered in studies which aim to assess full greenhouse gas balances, particularly in ecosystems where hydrological conditions favour microbial activity and high leaching losses.

  12. From the First Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During the IGY to the Global Annual Greenhouse Gas Index in 2006: The Evolution of the Global Observing Network for Greenhouse Gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Butler, J. H.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masarie, K.; Montzka, S. A.; Tans, P. P.

    2006-05-01

    During the International Geophysical Year, Dr. Charles "Dave" Keeling instituted both air sample collections at the South Pole in Antarctica and continuous carbon dioxide measurements with an infrared analyzer at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. Both of these locations were later to become Observatories of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), following its formation in 1970, and the pioneering measurements of Dave Keeling continued to be supported by NOAA at these sites until this day. In addition to instituting Observatories at key background locations (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; American Samoa; and more recently Trinidad Head, California, in addition to the Hawaii and Antarctic sites) the forerunners of NOAA/ESRL also began a global cooperative air sampling network in the late 1960's. The air samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide and other gases in the Boulder, Colorado laboratories. With the help of many people in many nations, this network has grown to the largest such effort in the world, numbering about 90 sites, including three ship routes, at present. In 1996, data from this network and from other networks around the world formed the basis of GLOBALVIEW, a web-based collection of carbon dioxide and methane data used extensively with transport models to determine global carbon dioxide sources and sinks. This data set is available at http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/globalview/index.html . In 2004, the global measurements of all the long-lived greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, the chlorofluorocarbons, and ten minor halogen gases were condensed into a simple index, the "Annual Greenhouse Gas Index" (AGGI) by summing their radiative climate forcing since the pre-industrial era (taken as 1750). The NOAA AGGI is designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The contribution of long-lived greenhouse gases to climate forcing is well understood by scientists and has been reported through a range of national and international assessments. Nevertheless, the language of scientists (for example, watts per square meter per year) often eludes policy makers, educators, and the general public. This index is designed to help bridge that gap.

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  14. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  15. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  16. Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lacis; J. Hansen; P. Lee; S. Lebedeff; T. Mitchell

    1981-01-01

    Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature

  17. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Raval; V. Ramanathan

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback

  18. Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which regulates the lifetime of almost every atmospheric gas. Following biomass burning, biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane are significantly enhanced. It is hypothesized that enhanced postburn biogenic emissions of these gases are related to fire-induced changes in soil chemistry and/or microbial ecology. Biomass burning, once believed to be a tropical phenomenon, has been demonstrated by satellite imagery to also be a regular feature of the world's boreal forests. One example of biomass burning is the extensive 1987 fire that destroyed more than 12 million acres of boreal forest in the People's Republic of China and across its border in the Soviet Union. Recent estimates indicate that almost all biomass burning is human-initiated and that it is increasing with time. With the formation of greenhouse and chemically active gases as direct combustion products and a longer-term enhancement of biogenic emissions of gases, biomass burning may be a significant driver for global change.

  19. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-print Network

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  20. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  1. Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Caldeira

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to

  2. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  3. Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, B.; Goldblatt, C.

    2014-10-01

    Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a~warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called faint young sun problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4, and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone at 2.8 Gyr BP (80% of present solar luminosity), 0.32 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric N2, 0.20 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric N2, or 0.11 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric N2. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 W m-2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1, or 2 bar, likely limiting the utility of CH4 for warming the Archean. For the other 26 HITRAN gases, radiative forcings of up to a few to 10 W m-2 are obtained from concentrations of 0.1-1 ppmv for many gases. For the 20 strongest gases, we calculate the reduction in radiative forcing due to overlap. We also tabulate the modern sources, sinks, concentrations, and lifetimes of these gases and summaries the literature on Archean sources and concentrations. We recommend the forcings provided here be used both as a first reference for which gases are likely good greenhouse gases, and as a standard set of calculations for validation of radiative forcing calculations for the Archean.

  4. A Strategy for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Personal Travel in Britain

    E-print Network

    Peter Samuel; Hughes Bsc

    and other research outputs A strategy for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from personal travel in Britain Thesis How to cite: Hughes, Peter Samuel (1992). A strategy for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from personal

  5. Greenhouse Gases and the Kyoto Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme UNEP/ GRID Arendal Website (described in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) summarizes greenhouse gas emissions for 1998 and provides projections for 2010. The maps and statistics presented here are based on data collected by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the international summit in The Hague, November 2000. Units for totals are "thousands of metric tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) equivalent units," and for emissions per capita, the units are "tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) equivalent per person." In every case, emissions from industrialized nations are what the viewer might expect. Nevertheless, the comparison of 1998 and projected future levels is certainly instructive. A series of links provides access to additional related information.

  6. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  7. A review of research on human activity induced climate change I. Greenhouse gases and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingxing; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Xin

    2004-06-01

    Extensive research on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, carbon cycle modeling, and the characterization of atmospheric aerosols has been carried out in China during the last 10 years or so. This paper presents the major achievements in the fields of emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural lands, carbon cycle modeling, the characterization of Asian mineral dust, source identification of the precursors of the tropospheric ozone, and observations of the concentrations of atmospheric organic compounds. Special, more detailed information on the emissions of methane from rice fields and the physical and chemical characteristics of mineral aerosols are presented.

  8. 76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental...30, 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse...calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source...

  9. Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

    1981-01-01

    Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

  10. Sensitivity of the hydrological cycle to increasing amounts of greenhouse gases and aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Douville; F. Chauvin; S. Planton; J.-F. Royer; D. Salas-Mélia; S. Tyteca

    2002-01-01

    The coupled atmosphere–ocean Climate Model of the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM) has been used to run a time-dependent climate change experiment to study the impact of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases and aerosols on the simulated water cycle. This simulation has been initialised with the oceanic temperature and salinity profiles and the atmospheric trace gas concentrations observed in

  11. Greenhouse gases and recovery of the Earth's ozone layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor G. Dyominov; Alexander M. Zadorozhny

    2005-01-01

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. A weakness in efficiencies of all catalytic cycles of the ozone

  12. Mitigation of greenhouse gases by adoption of improved biomass cookstoves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. L. Panwar; A. K. Kurchania; N. S. Rathore

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gases especially CO2 can be reduced with the help of improved biomass cookstoves. This paper deals with the design and development of biomass\\u000a stoves (single pot and double pot) with better efficiency for meeting household cooking energy requirement. Thermal performance,\\u000a flue gas emission of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) have been investigated. It was seen from the

  13. Keeping Mars warm with new super greenhouse gases

    PubMed Central

    Gerstell, M. F.; Francisco, J. S.; Yung, Y. L.; Boxe, C.; Aaltonee, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Our selection of new super greenhouse gases to fill a putative “window” in a future Martian atmosphere relies on quantum-mechanical calculations. Our study indicates that if Mars could somehow acquire an Earth-like atmospheric composition and surface pressure, then an Earth-like temperature could be sustained by a mixture of five to seven fluorine compounds. Martian mining requirements for replenishing the fluorine could be comparable to current terrestrial extraction. PMID:11226208

  14. Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Harold A.; Baker, D. James, Jr.; Bretherton, Francis P.; Burke, Kevin C.; Clark, William C.; Davis, Margaret B.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Imbrie, John; Malone, Thomas F.; Mcelroy, Michael B.

    1989-01-01

    This symposium was organized to study the unusual convergence of a number of observations, both short and long term that defy an integrated explanation. Of particular importance are surface temperature observations and observations of upper atmospheric temperatures, which have declined significantly in parts of the stratosphere. There has also been a dramatic decline in ozone concentration over Antarctica that was not predicted. Significant changes in precipitation that seem to be latitude dependent have occurred. There has been a threefold increase in methane in the last 100 years; this is a problem because a source does not appear to exist for methane of the right isotopic composition to explain the increase. These and other meteorological global climate changes are examined in detail.

  15. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  16. Greenhouse Gases in Intensive Agriculture: Contributions of Individual Gases to the Radiative Forcing of the Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Philip Robertson; Eldor A. Paul; Richard R. Harwood

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture plays a major role in the global fluxes of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane. From 1991 to 1999, we measured gas fluxes and other sources of global warming potential (GWP) in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems. Net GWP (grams of carbon dioxide equivalents per square meter per year) ranged from 110 in our conventional tillage

  17. Modern inhalation anesthetics: Potent greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Rhee, Tae Siek; Rigby, Matt; Hofstetter, Doris; Hill, Matthias; Schoenenberger, Fabian; Reimann, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Modern halogenated inhalation anesthetics undergo little metabolization during clinical application and evaporate almost completely to the atmosphere. Based on their first measurements in a range of environments, from urban areas to the pristine Antarctic environment, we detect a rapid accumulation and ubiquitous presence of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane in the global atmosphere. Over the past decade, their abundances in the atmosphere have increased to global mean mole fractions in 2014 of 0.097ppt, 0.30ppt, and 0.13ppt (parts per trillion, 10-12, in dry air), respectively. Emissions of these long-lived greenhouse gases inferred from the observations suggest a global combined release to the atmosphere of 3.1 ± 0.6 million t CO2 equivalent in 2014 of which ?80% stems from desflurane. We also report on halothane, a previously widely used anesthetic. Its global mean mole fraction has declined to 9.2ppq (parts per quadrillion, 10-15) by 2014. However, the inferred present usage is still 280 ±120t yr-1.

  18. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy to fuel cellular functions. "We think this chemical process did not exist when life first formed on Earth," he says, "because it is based on oxygen being available, and there was little oxygen available on the early Earth." It is possible that there are anaerobic regions beneath the sea floor in which life forms like those early non-Krebs Cycle microbes may yet exist. To detect and potentially collect samples of life emerging from hydrothermal vents, Flynn and his colleagues created Medusa, a multi-sensor instrument designed for long-term observation of diked vents on the ocean floor. When the vents erupt, Medusa assesses indicators of life within the expelled water. If the results are positive, the observatory collects samples and detaches from the ocean floor, making the long journey to the surface for retrieval by scientists. One of the indicators Medusa measures is the ratio of carbon isotopes in the water, namely carbon-12 and carbon-13. Living organisms preferentially take up carbon-12, Flynn says, so examining the ratio of these isotopes can help to determine the source of carbon in an environment as either biological or non-biological. "On Mars, there is evidence of localized methane in the atmosphere, and that methane could come from biological sources or from geochemical ones," Flynn says. "Determining the background planetary carbon isotope ratios and then evaluating the specific carbon ratios in this methane would help to determine how it was formed." A long-duration observatory similar to Medusa could one day provide essential evidence for or against the presence of life on the Red Planet or beneath the ice-crusted oceans of Europa.

  19. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  20. International collaboration on capture, storage and utilization of greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, P. [IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Programme, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)] [IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Programme, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Climate change will have world-wide implications. So it is highly appropriate that there should be international collaboration to investigate technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, the root cause of the problem. Sixteen countries, as well as three industrial sponsors, support the IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Program and, in many cases, industry is also involved indirectly, through the national memberships. This provides a broad range of interest and expertise to guide the management of the Program, as well as ensuring that the results reach a wide audience. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Program has three main activities: (1) evaluation of technologies for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from use of fossil fuels; (2) dissemination of the results of these studies; (3) identification of targets for research, development and demonstration and promotion of these findings. In its first five years of operation, the Program has studied the major greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, and various means of reducing their emissions. The main emphasis has been placed on capture, storage and utilization of CO{sub 2} from power generation. This option is now much better understood and can be compared with more established measures, such as fuel switching, energy efficiency improvements and use of renewable energy. As well as studying abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions, the Program has conducted a series of studies of technologies for reducing CH{sub 4} emissions from man-made sources. The Program`s activities are carried out by the Operating Agent, who develops and manages a series of technical studies to meet members` requirements.

  1. Radiative-convective model of warming Mars with artificial greenhouse gases

    E-print Network

    Kite, Edwin

    and a runaway greenhouse effect would result. Citation: Marinova, M. M., C. P. McKay, and H. Hashimoto (20052 and H2O, the dominant natural greenhouse gases on the Earth, are not effective absorbers artificial green- house gases being thousands of times more effective than CO2 in greenhouse warming

  2. 75 FR 22699 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing...provisions for the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting...Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs (MC-6207J...rule would not take effect and we would publish...practice and procedure, Greenhouse gases,...

  3. 76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best Available...methods in regulations for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting...GHG_Reporting_Rule_Oil_And_Natural_Gas@epa.gov. Include Docket...

  4. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  5. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India

    SciTech Connect

    Auffhammer, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Ramanathan, V. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States); Vincent, J.R. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies

    2007-12-26

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate change due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

  6. Direct and ozone-mediated forcing of the Southern Annular Mode by greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; Zeng, Guang; Dean, Sam M.; Joshi, Manoj; Abraham, N. Luke; Osprey, Annette

    2014-12-01

    We assess the roles of long-lived greenhouse gases and ozone depletion in driving meridional surface pressure gradients in the southern extratropics; these gradients are a defining feature of the Southern Annular Mode. Stratospheric ozone depletion is thought to have caused a strengthening of this mode during summer, with increasing long-lived greenhouse gases playing a secondary role. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we show that there is cancelation between the direct, radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases by the also substantial indirect—chemical and dynamical—feedbacks that greenhouse gases have via their impact on ozone. This sensitivity of the mode to greenhouse gas-induced ozone changes suggests that a consistent implementation of ozone changes due to long-lived greenhouse gases in climate models benefits the simulation of this important aspect of Southern Hemisphere climate.

  7. Future climate change in the Southern Hemisphere: Competing effects of ozone and greenhouse gases

    E-print Network

    Arblaster, Julie

    Future climate change in the Southern Hemisphere: Competing effects of ozone and greenhouse gases J in the Southern Hemisphere: Competing effects of ozone and greenhouse gases, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02701, doi in the Southern Hemisphere is likely to be driven by two opposing effects, stratospheric ozone recovery

  8. On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Petron; A. Hirsch; M. K. Trainer; A. Karion; J. Kofler; C. Sweeney; A. Andrews; W. Kolodzey; B. R. Miller; L. Miller; S. A. Montzka; D. R. Kitzis; L. Patrick; G. J. Frost; T. B. Ryerson; J. M. Robers; P. Tans

    2008-01-01

    The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have

  9. June 1998 GPS WORLD 33 Global warming and greenhouse gases are

    E-print Network

    Businger, Steven

    June 1998 GPS WORLD 33 Global warming and greenhouse gases are familiar terms of late, spurred the earth's surface, counteracting, to an extent, the warming associated with increas- ing greenhouse gases and at the University of Hawaii. In this article, we will discuss the T R A C K I N G evolution of our smart balloon

  10. 75 FR 14081 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...management systems with combined CH4 amd N2O emissions in amounts equivalent to 25...greenhouse gases with annual bulk imports of N2O, fluorinated GHG, and CO2 that in combination...greenhouse gases with annual bulk exports of N2O, fluorinated GHG, and CO2 that in...

  11. Energy Information Administration: Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1996

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Energy Information Agency (EIA) has released a new report, "Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1996. The report shows that in 1996, "U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases increased by 3.4 percent over 1995 emissions, the highest rate of increase in recent years." EIA also released updated Country Analysis Briefs for OPEC, North Sea and Kuwait.

  12. Impacts of greenhouse gases and aerosol direct and indirect effects on clouds and

    E-print Network

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    Impacts of greenhouse gases and aerosol direct and indirect effects on clouds and radiation. Besides the direct impact on radiation through the greenhouse effect and scattering of sunlight decreasing the total greenhouse effect in the longwave spectrum and increasing absorption of solar radiation

  13. Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations 

    E-print Network

    Howie, James Edward

    2014-06-30

    Greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and ...

  14. Lidar development for measuring greenhouse gases in Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, W.; Lu, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ground-based lidars have been widely used for greenhouse gas measurements. The APSOS (Atmospheric Profiling Synthetic Observation System) is currently being developed for measuring the range-resolved concentrations of O3, CO2 and H2O using DIAL and Raman lidar techniques. By combining active laser remote sensing instrumentation with a passive terahertz spectrometer, the APSOS will be taking long-term mesurements over Tibetan Pleateau.

  15. International Journal of Chemistry; 2013[01] ISSN 2306-6415 Reduction of Greenhouse gases emission and effect on environment

    E-print Network

    Somack Zolghadr

    Abstract: : What is called today as Global warming, in fact is increase average of earth temperature around surface, the scientists research present during 100 years ago, the average of temperature near earth surface had increase between 0/18 to 0/74. International group has announced in report about climate changes (IPCC) that is valid reference in field of climate changes and global warming effects "further of temperature increase that observed in the middle of 20 century, is due to greenhouse gases that human has produced". Models of climate changes that designed by IPCC, present between 1990 to 2100 A.D. The average of earth surface temperature has increase between 1.1 to 6.4 C ??.Scientist believes even if the amount of greenhouse gases of the Earth's atmosphere remain stable, effects of it will be endure until end of third millennium. This study analysis destructive effect of greenhouse gases on environment.

  16. Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in the absence of threats from climate change and ocean acidification. Therefore, these measures represent “no regrets” policy options for the marine environment. Nevertheless, even with adaptive policies in place, continued greenhouse gas emissions increasingly risk damaging marine ecosystems and the human communities that depend on them.

  17. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  18. Increasing greenhouse gases lead to dramatic thinning of the upper atmosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AGU

    Scientists at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) analyzed changes in the orbits of selected objects to derive the yearly average density encountered by each object in different levels of the atmosphere. After adjusting for other factors, the data from every object indicated a long-term decline in the density of the thermosphere. It was found that the observed decrease in density with increased distance in the troposphere depends on height in the same way as predicted by the theoretical simulations, indicating that greenhouse gases are a likely source of the change.

  19. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Auto Classics ShipVehicles

    This page explains concepts related to the interaction between greenhouse gasses, transportation, and government regulations. A list of links is given for three main categories: greenhouse gasses, regulated emissions, and transportation energy use.

  20. 76 FR 61293 - Extension of Public Comment Period: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Categories of...the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Categories of...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems....

  1. Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign

    E-print Network

    Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

  2. EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION FROM SOILS AMENDED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in concentration of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming have received considerable research intrest. Agricultural practices, fossil fuel burning, deforestation, industrial emissions, and wetlands have contributed to atmospheric increases of carbo...

  3. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  4. Radiative-convective model of warming Mars with artificial greenhouse gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita M. Marinova; Christopher P. McKay; Hirofumi Hashimoto

    2005-01-01

    Artificial greenhouse gases could be used to warm Mars in order to make it habitable. Here we present new laboratory measurements of the thermal infrared absorption spectra of seven artificial greenhouse gases (CF4, C2F6, C3F8, SF6, CF3Cl, CF3Br, CF2Cl2) at concentrations from 10-7 up to unity. We used a radiative-convective multilayer model to compute the warming caused by a mixture

  5. Radiative-convective model of warming Mars with artificial greenhouse gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita M. Marinova; Christopher P. McKay; Hirofumi Hashimoto

    2005-01-01

    Artificial greenhouse gases could be used to warm Mars in order to make it habitable. Here we present new laboratory measurements of the thermal infrared absorption spectra of seven artificial greenhouse gases (CF4, C2F6, C3F8, SF6, CF3Cl, CF3Br, CF2Cl2) at concentrations from 10?7 up to unity. We used a radiative-convective multilayer model to compute the warming caused by a mixture

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  7. The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Kiehl; B. P. Briegleb

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central

  8. Global Mitigation Of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: 2010-2030

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report illustrates the abatement potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, by sector and by region, from 2010-2030. This peer-reviewed update provides economists and policymakers with improved data to better understand the costs and opportunities for reducing non-CO2 greenhouse...

  9. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will be set up. International negotiations have been going on for two years during which the constitutional documents have been processed and adopted. The instrument for the ICOS legal entity is the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) steered by the General Assembly of its Members. ICOS is a highly distributed research infrastructure where three operative levels (ICOS National Networks, ICOS Central Facilities and ICOS ERIC) interact on several fields of research and governance. The governance structure of ICOS RI needs to reflect this complexity while maintaining the common vision, strategy and principles.

  10. The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central Europe. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols contribute a globally averaged annual forcing of -0.3 watt per square meter as compared with +2.1 watts per square meter for greenhouse gases. Sources of the difference in magnitude with the previous estimate of Charlson et al. (1992) are discussed.

  11. Managing agricultural greenhouse gases: The basis of GRACEnet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, USDA Agricultural Research Service has been engaged in a national project called GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network). Goals of the project are to (1) evaluate soil organic carbon status and change, (2) assess net greenhouse gas emissions (...

  12. The contribution from emissions of different gases to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Wigley, T.M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to compare the different contributions, that mankind has made to perturbing the atmosphere`s radiative balance. We have, and will continue to perturb both the balance of outgoing long-wave radiation and the balance of incoming short-wave radiation. Human activities since preindustrial times have caused a substantial enhancement of the greenhouse effect, a process involving the absorption of outgoing long-wave radiation which leads to a warming of the lower atmosphere. Because the atmosphere`s short-wave radiative balance is affected by the presence of small particles (aerosols) produced by the oxidation of sulphur compounds, anthropogenic emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) have also caused a perturbation of the overall balance. The greenhouse gases we will consider are, in order of importance: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), Methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the halocarbons. We use observed and model-based concentration data together with the most recent information relating concentrations to radiative forcing to estimate the individual contributions of the different gases to the changing radiative balance of the atmosphere. We also estimate the ranges of uncertainty in each of these estimates. We base all results on the 1992 IPCC emissions scenarios IS92a-f. We begin with a summary of 1990 conditions, then consider each gas separately (but lumping the halocarbons into a single group), to compare their relative importance.

  13. NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. K. Khalil

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Although global warming is generally linked to increasing levels of carbon dioxide, there are many other gases produced from industrial, agricultural, and energy-generating sources that can also cause the Earth's temperature to rise. Individually these gases are not likely to make a significant contribution, but, taken together, it is believed that they can rival the effects of carbon dioxide.

  14. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The difference in the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer at the southern and northern polar latitudes through PCS modification is determined by the difference in temperature regimes of the Polar Regions. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  15. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level. PMID:20646920

  16. 75 FR 66433 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...and various metals. (iii) Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. (iv) Petroleum products that are received or produced at a refinery and subsequently injected into a crude...

  17. 75 FR 33949 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...and various metals. (3) Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is refined to produce a wide...

  18. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, A. T.; Hensen, A.; Popa, M. E.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.

    2010-09-01

    Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, -0.7 m a.s.l.). Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentrations gradient with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations. The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500-700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the global values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000-2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr-1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr-1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr-1; for CO no significant trend could be detected. The strong local sources and sinks reflect in the amplitude of mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25-30 ppm (higher value for lower levels). CH4 seasonal amplitude observed is 50-110 ppb. All gases except N2O show highest concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer, N2O observations show two additional concentrations maxima in early summer and in autumn. Seasonal cycles of the day-time mean concentrations show that surface concentrations or high elevation concentrations alone do not give a representative value for the boundary layer concentrations, especially in winter time, but that the vertical profile data along the mast can be used to construct a useful boundary layer mean value. The variability at Cabauw in the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 on time scales of minutes to hours is several ppm and is much larger than the precision of the measurements (0.1 ppm). The diurnal and synoptical variability of the concentrations at Cabauw carry information on the sources and sinks in the footprint area of the mast, that is and will be used in combination with inverse atmospheric transport model to verify emission estimates and improve ecosystem models. For this purpose a network of tall tower stations like Cabauw is a very useful addition to the existing global observing network for greenhouse gases.

  19. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, A. T.; Hensen, A.; Popa, M. E.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.

    2011-03-01

    Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, -0.7 m a.s.l.). Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO, for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentration gradients with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations. The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500-700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000-2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr-1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr-1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr-1; for CO no significant trend could be detected. The influences of strong local sources and sinks are reflected in the amplitude of the mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25-30 ppm (higher value for lower sampling levels). The observed CH4 seasonal amplitude is 50-110 ppb. All gases except N2O show highest concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer, N2O observations show two additional concentration maxima in early summer and in autumn. Seasonal cycles of the day-time mean concentrations show that surface concentrations or high elevation concentrations alone do not give a representative value for the boundary layer concentrations, especially in winter time, but that the vertical profile data along the mast can be used to construct a useful boundary layer mean value. The variability at Cabauw in the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 on time scales of minutes to hours is several ppm and is much larger than the precision of the measurements (0.1 ppm). The diurnal and synoptical variability of the concentrations at Cabauw carry information on the sources and sinks in the footprint area of the mast, that will be useful in combination with inverse atmospheric transport model to verify emission estimates and improve ecosystem models. For this purpose a network of tall tower stations like Cabauw forms a very useful addition to the existing global observing network for greenhouse gases.

  20. Carbon and Conservation: Cropping systems and greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying and predicting soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural systems have been research goals for numerous institutions, especially since the turn of the millennium. Cost, time, and politics are variables that have limited the rapid development of robust quant...

  1. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Sander, S. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Cheung, R.; Stutz, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases and pollutants including CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. The existing database in the Los Angeles area is extremely sparse, and new methods are required that provide high spatial and temporal resolution. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. A new Fourier Transform Spectrometer called CLARS-FTS has been deployed at Mt. Wilson, California at JPL’s California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing for automated long-term measurements of greenhouse gases. The CLARS-FTS points at ground sites in the Los Angeles basin from its location at an altitude of 1.7 km, and records atmospheric absorption spectra over a broad spectral range (4000 - 14000 cm-1) in reflected sunlight. These spectra contain the absorption features of major greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4, CO) together with O2, which is used to quantify the atmospheric path. From these rotationally resolved spectra, the column densities of greenhouse gases along the light path are retrieved. The CLARS-FTS participated in the 2010 CalNex field campaign and measured the spatial and temporal distribution of greenhouse gases in the LA basin during 33 measurement days in May and June. The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions [XGAS] of these traces gases are computed using measured column densities. The CLARS-FTS measurements during CalNex will be discussed, and compared with other correlative data sources including aircraft and ground-based instruments and a co-located UV-visible MAX DOAS spectrometer.

  2. Radiative-convective model of warming Mars with artificial greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, Margarita M.; McKay, Christopher P.; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2005-03-01

    Artificial greenhouse gases could be used to warm Mars in order to make it habitable. Here we present new laboratory measurements of the thermal infrared absorption spectra of seven artificial greenhouse gases (CF4, C2F6, C3F8, SF6, CF3Cl, CF3Br, CF2Cl2) at concentrations from 10-7 up to unity. We used a radiative-convective multilayer model to compute the warming caused by a mixture of the four fluorine-based greenhouse gases. The results show that for current Mars, C3F8 produces the largest warming: 0.56 K and 33.5 K for partial pressures of 10-3 Pa and 1 Pa, respectively. Averaged over partial pressures from 0.01 to 1 Pa, the range of most interest for planetary ecosynthesis, CF4, C2F6, and SF6 were 17%, 49%, and 48% as effective as C3F8, respectively. The optimal mixture of the four fluorine-based greenhouse gases, taking into account the overlapping of their absorption bands, was 16% more effective than pure C3F8, averaged over the range 0.01 Pa to 1 Pa. Energy balance calculations suggest that the addition of ~0.2 Pa of the best greenhouse gases mixture or ~0.4 Pa of C3F8 would shift the equilibrium to the extent that CO2 would no longer be stable at the Martian poles and a runaway greenhouse effect would result.

  3. Evaluation of Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases originated by various human activities, including agricultural origin, could contribute to climate change. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in ...

  4. Advances in Data Processing for Open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry of Greenhouse Gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The automated quantification of three greenhouse gases, ammonia, methane and nitrous oxide, in the vicinity of a large dairy farm by open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry at intervals of 5 minutes is demonstrated. Spectral pretreatment, including the detection and correction ...

  5. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and

    E-print Network

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  6. A Comparison of the Contribution of Various Gases to the Greenhouse Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henning Rodhe

    1990-01-01

    The current concern about an anthropogenic impact on global climate has made it of interest to compare the potential effect of various human activities. A case in point is the comparison between the emission of greenhouse gases from the use of natural gas and that from other fossil fuels. This comparison requires an evaluation of the effect of methane emissions

  7. Greenhouse Effects due to Man-Made Perturbations of Trace Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Wang; Y. L. Yung; A. A. Lacis; T. Mo; J. E. Hansen

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral region 7 to 14 ..mu..m and contribute to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. The concentrations of these trace gases may undergo substantial changes because of man's activities. Extensive use of chemical fertilizers and combustion of fossil fuels may perturb

  8. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection

    SciTech Connect

    Calabro, Paolo S. [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, via Graziella - loc. Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.calabro@unirc.it

    2009-07-15

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  9. Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. S MITH; F. C ONEN; K. E. D OBBIE; A. R EY

    2003-01-01

    Summary This review examines the interactions between soil physical factors and the biological processes respon- sible for the production and consumption in soils of greenhouse gases. The release of CO2 by aerobic respiration is a non-linear function of temperature over a wide range of soil water contents, but becomes a function of water content as a soil dries out. Some

  10. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

  11. Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R.; Owen, T.

    1973-01-01

    Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

  12. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-25

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  13. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  14. More greenhouse gases needed to explain warm Archean Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Figure 1 During the Archean eon, from 3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago, life on Earth was thriving for the first time, growing in a world with much less land and a faster planetary rotation than today. At the same time, the energy flowing to the early Earth from the Sun was just three quarters of what it is now. Despite the drastically lower levels of solar irradiance, previous research has suggested that the Archean Earth was not a planet encased in ice but instead remained a watery world. To explain this seeming inconsistency, a dilemma known as the "faint young Sun paradox," researchers have suggested that the planetary greenhouse effect must have been much more potent than today. Previous research suggested that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels would need to have had a partial pressure of approximately 0.06 bar, equivalent to an atmospheric concentration 200 times that of the pre-Industrial modern era.

  15. Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (LHR) for Measurements of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmospheric Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steel, Emily; McLinden, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This passive laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) instrument simultaneously measures multiple trace gases in the atmospheric column including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and resolves their concentrations at different altitudes. This instrument has been designed to operate in tandem with the passive aerosol sensor currently used in AERONET (an established network of more than 450 ground aerosol monitoring instruments worldwide). Because aerosols induce a radiative effect that influences terrestrial carbon exchange, simultaneous detection of aerosols with these key carbon cycle gases offers a uniquely comprehensive measurement approach. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a technique for detecting weak signals that was adapted from radio receiver technology. In a radio receiver, a weak input signal from a radio antenna is mixed with a stronger local oscillator signal. The mixed signal (beat note, or intermediate frequency) has a frequency equal to the difference between the input signal and the local oscillator. The intermediate frequency is amplified and sent to a detector that extracts the audio from the signal. In the LHR instrument described here, sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas is mixed with laser light at a frequency matched to a trace gas absorption feature in the infrared (IR). Mixing results in a beat signal in the RF (radio frequency) region that can be related to the atmospheric concentration. For a one-second integration, the estimated column sensitivities are 0.1 ppmv for CO2, and <1 ppbv for CH4. In addition to producing a standalone ground measurement product, this instrument could be used to calibrate/validate four Earth observing missions: ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons), OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), OCO-3, and GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observational SATellite). The only network that currently measures CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric column is TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network), and only two of its 16 operational sites are in the United States. TCCON data is used for validation of GOSAT data, and will be used for OCO-2 validation. While these Fourier-transform spectrometers (FTS) can measure the largest range of trace gases, the network is severely limited due to the high cost and extreme size of these instruments (these occupy small buildings and require personnel for operation). The LHR/AERONET instrument offers a significantly smaller (carry-on luggage size) autonomous instrument that can be incorporated into AERONET s much larger (450 instruments) global network.

  16. Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

    1994-01-01

    A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

  17. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-01-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

  18. Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.; Sanford, Todd J.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO2 greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a given greenhouse gas concentration but also on climate system behavior, particularly the timescales of heat transfer linked to the ocean. For carbon dioxide and methane, nonlinear optical absorption effects also play a smaller but significant role in prolonging the warming. In effect, dampening factors that slow temperature increase during periods of increasing concentration also slow the loss of energy from the Earth’s climate system if radiative forcing is reduced. Approaches to climate change mitigation options through reduction of greenhouse gas or aerosol emissions therefore should not be expected to decrease climate change impacts as rapidly as the gas or aerosol lifetime, even for short-lived species; such actions can have their greatest effect if undertaken soon enough to avoid transfer of heat to the deep ocean. PMID:20937898

  19. Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

  20. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  1. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjørn H.; Shine, Keith P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  2. Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release.

    PubMed

    Guibelin, E

    2004-01-01

    Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best ways to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. PMID:15259957

  3. Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, Process Studies and Modelling (MAMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, John; Cain, Michelle; Warwick, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The Arctic is a major source of atmospheric methane and other greenhouse gases, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Arctic greenhouse gas sources need to be quantified, by strength, geographic location, character (e.g. wetlands, gas fields, hydrates), and by temporal variation (daily, seasonally and annually), and their vulnerability to change assessed. To this end, the MAMM project was commissioned as part of the NERC Arctic Research Programme. It involves an integrated series of measurement and modelling activities. Analysis of atmospheric gas concentrations, isotopic character, and source fluxes, are being made from both the ground and from the FAAM aircraft. The measurements (historic and new) are being interpreted using a suite of models (trajectory, forward and inverse) to improve the understanding of the local/regional scale, placing the role of Arctic emissions in the context of large-scale global atmospheric change. The first measurement campaign was held in August 2012. Surface flux measurements were made at the Sodankylä research station in Finland, together with in-situ surface and aircraft measurements over a wider area. In addition to flights over the Sodankylä wetlands, the aircraft also flew out to Svalbard to investigate marine sources of methane. Further campaigns are taking place in Sweden in August and September 2013. The initial measurements have been used to infer wetland emission fluxes and confirm that Scandinavian wetlands are a major source of methane in this region. The aircraft also measured a high-CH4 plume over the sea between Norway and Svalbard, which was likely advected from mainland wetland sources. An overview of results from the field campaign will be presented, alongside results from the NAME model (the UK Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) to help understand the air mass histories of the observations.

  4. Methane and Other Greenhouse Gases in the Arctic - Measurements, Process Studies and Modelling (MAMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. A.; Warwick, N. J.; Cain, M.; Hayman, G.; Skiba, U.; Drewer, J.; Dinsmore, K.; George, C.; Nisbet, E. G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoiselle, M.; Brownlow, R. B.; Allen, G.; Bower, K.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C.; Illingworth, S. M.; Jones, B.; Muller, J.; O'Shea, S.; Manning, A. C.; Kozlova, E.; Manning, A. J.; Smith, M.; Anderson, D.; Bauguitte, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic is a major source of atmospheric methane and other greenhouse gases, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Arctic greenhouse gas sources need to be quantified, by strength, geographic location, character (e.g. wetlands, gas fields, hydrates), and by temporal variation (daily, seasonally and annually), and their vulnerability to change assessed. To this end, the MAMM project was commissioned as part of the UK NERC Arctic Research Programme. It involves an integrated series of measurement and modelling activities. Analysis of atmospheric gas concentrations, isotopic character, and source fluxes, are being made from both the ground and from the NERC FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) aircraft. The measurements (historic and new) are being interpreted using a suite of models (trajectory, forward and inverse) to improve the understanding of the local/regional scale, placing the role of Arctic emissions in the context of large-scale global atmospheric change. The first measurement campaign was held in August 2012. Surface flux measurements were made at the Sodankylä research station in Finland, together with in-situ surface and aircraft measurements over a wider area. In addition to flights over the Sodankylä wetlands, the aircraft also flew out to Svalbard, Norway to investigate marine sources of methane. Further campaigns are taking place in Sweden in August and September 2013. The initial measurements have been used to infer wetland emission fluxes and confirm that Scandinavian wetlands are a major source of methane in this region (see posters by Fisher et al, O'Shea et al). The aircraft also measured a high-methane plume over the sea between mainland Norway and Svalbard, which was likely advected from mainland wetland sources (see poster by France et al). Results from the field campaigns will be presented, alongside results from the NAME model (the UK Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) to help understand the air mass histories of the observations.

  5. Model of the internal gravity waves excited by lithospheric greenhouse effect gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E. Gotynyan; V. N. Ivchenko; Yu. G. Rapoport

    2001-01-01

    The satellite and near-ground study demonstrated IR temperature anomalies associated with fault system of the crust in the seismic region of the Earth. The amplitude of anomalies is about DeltaT = 3K. Such change of temperature needs about 100% increase of CO2 concentration. Internal gravity waves (IGW) excited by greenhouse effect gases could cause some ionospheric disturbances including density irregularities.

  6. Integrated Modeling & Development of Emission Scenarios for Methane and Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Atul K.

    2005-09-30

    This report outlines main accomplishments on the development of Emission inventories and Scenarios for Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases (CO, VOCs, NOx) and methane supported by Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy. This research produced 3 journal articles, 1 book chapter, and 4 research articles/abstracts in conference proceedings. In addition, this grant supported two PhD students and one undergraduate student at UIUC.

  7. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Zadorozhny; Igor Dyominov

    2010-01-01

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model

  8. Possible future scenarios for atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases: A simplified thermodynamic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Angulo-Brown; N. Sánchez-Salas; M. A. Barranco-Jiménez; M. A. Rosales

    2009-01-01

    Most of the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This is particularly significant in the case of CO2. The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has systematically increased since the Industrial Revolution (260ppm), with a remarkable raise after the 1970s until the present day (380ppm). If this increasing tendency is maintained, the

  9. Greenhouse gases emission from soil contaminated with automobile industry residue in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Corrêa Nogueirol; Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni; Felipe José Cury Fracetto; Dilmar Baretta; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    2010-01-01

    Solid waste of the automobile industry containing large amounts of heavy metals might affect the emission of greenhouse gases\\u000a (GHG) when applied to the soil. Accumulation of inorganic chemical elements in the environment generally occurs due to human\\u000a activity (industry, agriculture, mining and waste landfills). Residues from human activities may release heavy metals to the\\u000a soil solution, causing toxicity to

  10. Agricultural mitigation of greenhouse gases: science and policy options’, Council on Agricultural Science and

    E-print Network

    Keith Paustian; Bruce Babcock; Cathy Kling; Jerry Hatfield; Rattan Lal; Bruce Mccarl; Wilfred M. Post; Arvin Mosier; Charles Rice; G. Philip Robertson; David Zilberman

    2004-01-01

    With the adoption of the U.S. Framework Convention on Climate Change, calling for actions to decrease the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, interest has grown about agriculture’s role in mitigating GHG increases. Three of the major GHGs — carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) — are emitted to and/or removed from the

  11. Exchanges of Greenhouse Gases, Water Vapor, and Heat at the Earth's Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report provides an overview of the exchange of greenhouse gases, their influences on climate, viability of ecosystems, distribution of biomes, quantities of surface- and ground-water, and some research projects in place to investigate these influences. Topics include lake-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange, sequestering and exchange of atmospheric carbon dioxide in boreal and subalpine forests, volcanic carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of the eddy covariance method to measure these exchanges.

  12. Peatlands, carbon storage, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocol: Prospects and significance for Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel T. Roulet

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol accepts terrestrial sinks for greenhouse gases (GHGs) as offsets for fossil fuel emissions. Only carbon\\u000a sequestered in living biomass from re- and afforestation is presently considered, but the Protocol contains a provision for\\u000a the possible future inclusion of other land uses and soils. As a result, the possibility of sequestration of carbon in wetlands,\\u000a and particularly peatlands,

  13. Investigating high concentrations of three greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpes, R.; Blake, D. R.; Marrero, J.

    2013-12-01

    Following the Montreal Protocol of 1987 calling for the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances, HCFCs and HFCs were introduced as alternatives despite still being greenhouse gases with high global warming potentials. In this study, whole air samples were collected during four research flights over Southern California aboard the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory as part of the NASA Student Airborne Science Program. These samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a suite of detectors for many compounds, including HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a. HCFC-22 is primarily used as a refrigerant, while HFC-134a and HFC-152a are also used as aerosol propellants and foam blowing agents. High concentrations of these three compounds were observed for samples taken at low altitudes over urban areas around Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Exceptionally high concentrations were seen for all three compounds in samples taken near the Ontario and San Bernardino airports. Concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a were enhanced above background levels near other airports sampled in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley. It is clear that concentrations of these three gases are higher in the San Bernardino Valley than in the Los Angeles Basin, and locations with exceptionally high concentrations were investigated to identify potential point sources. Concentrations of these three compounds were also compared to data from past SARP missions and data collected at Trinidad Head, California since 2005 as part of the AGAGE network. Comparison of the average values for each of these campaigns reveal that the background concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a are all increasing with a strong linear trend in Southern California.

  14. Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, Richard

    2014-12-08

    Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

  15. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Urban Xi'an, China - Direct Measurements by Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanReken, T. M.; Mwaniki, G. R.; VanderSchelden, G.; O'Keeffe, P.; Waldo, S.; Erickson, M. H.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.; Tie, X.; Cao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout the world and especially in Asia, rapid urbanization is resulting in an increasing number of very large cities. In these areas, the rate of development can outpace the perceived need for environmental regulation, and frequently there are inadequate resources available to monitor pollution or enforce compliance with those environmental regulations that do exist. These limitations obviously impact air quality on a local scale, but cities also have significant environmental impacts on regional and even global scales. In order to understand and mitigate these impacts on the surrounding environment, it is first necessary to robustly characterize the pollutant emissions themselves. This can be a significant challenge. Major discrepancies arise when comparing emissions inventories based on bottom-up compilations of source types, number, and activity levels to estimates inferred from satellite observations and other large-scale techniques. Direct measurements of neighborhood-scale emission fluxes via micrometeorological approaches provide a means to resolve these differences. Such measurements can be used to quantify the integrated vertical exchange for a wide variety of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, typically with spatial footprints of tens of square kilometers and with temporal resolutions of ~30 minutes. Here we present the results of an urban flux study conducted in Xi'an, China in August 2011. For the study a 23 m tower was erected atop the ~100 m tall administration building at Xi'an Jiaotong University. From the tower, we employed an eddy covariance approach to measure concentrations and fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we present an analysis of the air-surface exchange of these gases. Results indicate that while our study site in Xi'an was a net source of these species, the greenhouse gas fluxes were significantly smaller than at other sites around the world and exhibited a different diurnal pattern. We attribute these results to two factors: 1) the relatively low traffic density at the Xi'an study site relative to other urban flux sites; and 2) the presence of a large urban park in the northerly sector of the study footprint, where the vegetative sink for CO2 was often greater than anthropogenic sources. Overall the analysis suggests that even in heavily urbanized regions land use and activity profiles can have significant impacts on air pollutant emissions.

  16. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  17. A Synopsis on the Effects of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Power Generation and Energy Consumption

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    Abstract- Despite the looming difficult energy context in the majority of countries in the world, global change in environmental dignity resulting from power generation and energy consumption scenario is rapidly becoming a globally disturbing phenomenon. Stakeholders and environmental activists alike have been clamouring for adoption of reduction procedures using sustainable means because ignominious environmental practices have associated disastrous consequences. Increasing essential strategies are needed to fortify the pursuit for the reduction in the emissions from power generation and energy consumption. Therefore, this article presents an overview of the effects of anthropogenic energy generation and consumption practices capable of ejecting emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It also endeavors to identify some greenhouse gas emission reduction and control measures. Index Terms- Emissions, energy consumption, greenhouse gas, power generation

  18. Greenhouse gases, climate change and the transition from coal to low-carbon electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, N. P.; Caldeira, K.

    2012-03-01

    A transition from the global system of coal-based electricity generation to low-greenhouse-gas-emission energy technologies is required to mitigate climate change in the long term. The use of current infrastructure to build this new low-emission system necessitates additional emissions of greenhouse gases, and the coal-based infrastructure will continue to emit substantial amounts of greenhouse gases as it is phased out. Furthermore, ocean thermal inertia delays the climate benefits of emissions reductions. By constructing a quantitative model of energy system transitions that includes life-cycle emissions and the central physics of greenhouse warming, we estimate the global warming expected to occur as a result of build-outs of new energy technologies ranging from 100 GWe to 10 TWe in size and 1-100 yr in duration. We show that rapid deployment of low-emission energy systems can do little to diminish the climate impacts in the first half of this century. Conservation, wind, solar, nuclear power, and possibly carbon capture and storage appear to be able to achieve substantial climate benefits in the second half of this century; however, natural gas cannot.

  19. Emissions of greenhouse gases from a North American megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Toon, G. C.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Yavin, Y. G.

    2009-08-01

    Atmospheric column abundances of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured above the South Coast air basin (SCB), a densely populated urban region of Southern California, USA, which includes Los Angeles and the surrounding suburbs. Large diurnal variations in CO and CH4 are observed which correlate well with those in CO2. Weaker correlations are seen between N2O and CO2, with large uncertainties. We compute yearly SCB emissions of CO and CH4 to be 1.4 ± 0.3 Tg CO and 0.6 ± 0.1 Tg CH4. We compare our calculated emissions to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) estimates. Our measurements confirm that urban emissions are a significant source of CH4 and in fact may be substantially higher than currently estimated. If our emissions are typical of other urban centers, these findings suggest that urban emissions could contribute 7-15% to the global anthropogenic budget of methane.

  20. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-10-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  1. Greenhouse Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    Explore how the Earth's atmosphere affects the energy balance between incoming and outgoing radiation. Using an interactive model, adjust realistic parameters such as how many clouds are present or how much carbon dioxide is in the air, and watch how these factors affect the global temperature.

  2. Global warming: Experimental study about the effect of accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molto, Carlos; Mas, Miquel

    2010-05-01

    The project presented here was developed by fifteen year old students of the Institut Sabadell (Sabadell Secondary School. Spain). The objective of this project was to raise the students awareness' about the problem of climate change, mainly caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also intended that students use the scientific method as an effective system of troubleshooting and that they use the ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to elicit data and process information. To develop this project, four lessons of sixty minutes each were needed. The first lesson sets out the role of the atmosphere as an Earth's temperature regulator, highlighting the importance of keeping the levels of carbon dioxide, methane and water steam in balance. The second lesson is focused on the experimental activity that students will develop in the following lesson. In lesson two, students will present and justify their hypothesis about the experiment. Some theoretical concepts, necessary to carry out the experiment, will also be explained. The third lesson involves the core of the project, that is the experiment in the laboratory. The experiment consists on performing the atmosphere heating on a little scale. Four different atmospheres are created inside four plastic boxes heated by an infrared lamp. Students work in groups (one group for each atmosphere) and have to monitor the evolution of temperature by means of a temperature sensor (Multilog software). The first group has to observe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase, mainly caused by the widespread practice of burning fossil fuels by growing human populations. The task of this group is to measure simultaneously the temperature of an empty box (without CO2) and the temperature of a box with high carbon dioxide concentration. The carbon dioxide concentration is the result of the chemical reaction when sodium carbonate mixes with hydrochloric acid. The second group's task is similar to the first. Students have to study how the concentration of methane affects the temperature of their atmosphere box. Similarly, the third group monitors the influence of the water steam (generated by evaporation) on the temperature of their atmosphere box. Results must be carefully analyzed because of possible interferences from water steam. And finally, the forth and last group explores the long term effects that the accumulation of greenhouse gases have on the Earth's temperature. As temperature rises, evaporation increases and more water steam accumulates in the atmosphere. As a greenhouse gas, water absorbs heat, therefore the air gets warmer and, again, more water is evaporated. To develop this project, a previous experiment is needed so that the concentration of carbon dioxide remains constant and water steam levels increase gradually. Thus, the consequences of an uncontrolled increase of temperature can be simulated. Students' aim is to examine the data elicited from the last step of the scientific method experiment. They have to decide either if the experiment supported their hypothesis and, therefore, they can be regarded as true, or the experiment disproved them and, therefore, they are false. Finally, in the last lesson, students perform an oral presentation about their experimental results, establishing relationships amongst the different experiments. All together emphasizes the must of humankind to promote renewable energies.

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  4. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, E. J.; Lavri?, J. V.; Seifert, T.; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J.; Logan, R.; Sack, J.; Shuuya, T.; Uushona, E. G.; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U.; Brunke, E.-G.; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R. L.; Schmidt, S.; Manning, A. C.; Heimann, M.

    2015-02-01

    A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated, continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the Namib Sand Sea. Atmospheric oxygen is measured with a differential fuel cell analyzer (DFCA). Carbon dioxide and methane are measured with an early-model cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS); nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide are measured with an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS). Instrument-specific water corrections are employed for both the CRDS and OA-ICOS instruments in lieu of drying. The performance and measurement uncertainties are discussed in detail. As the station is located in a remote desert environment, there are some particular challenges, namely fine dust, high diurnal temperature variability, and minimal infrastructure. The gas handling system and calibration scheme were tailored to best fit the conditions of the site. The CRDS and DFCA provide data of acceptable quality when base requirements for operation are met, specifically adequate temperature control in the laboratory and regular supply of electricity. In the case of the OA-ICOS instrument, performance is significantly improved through the implementation of a drift correction through frequent measurements of a working tank.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  6. A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

  7. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  8. [Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-hua; Jiang, Jing-yan; Zong, Liang-gang

    2011-05-01

    Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period. PMID:21780575

  9. Investigation of the relationship between atmospheric mercury and concentrations of key greenhouse gases at a mountainous monitoring site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Brown, Richard J C; Sheu, Guey Rong; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Jung, Kweon; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2015-03-11

    The concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) was monitored, together with some key greenhouse gases (GHGs: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water (H2O) vapor) at hourly intervals at a mountainous monitoring site close to the highly industrialized city of Seoul, Korea. Correlations between the concentrations of Hg and those of the greenhouse gases were examined to assess their source characteristics and responses to changes in meteorological conditions. The mean Hg levels in this study (3.58 ± 2.13 ng m(-3)) were considerably lower (by, e.g., 24.3%) than those measured previously in other comparable sites during 1999-2006 (4.73 ± 1.34 ng m(-3)). Accordingly, such a reduction in Hg levels suggests the effectiveness of the regulatory measures enforced over the years. The mean Hg level observed in this study is also lower (by approximately 5%) than those in other Asian locations. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the two most important GHGs (CO2 and CH4) were moderately higher than those of other locations across the world (by approximately 4-9%). The results of our analysis indicate that the behavior of Hg is strongly correlated with water vapor and CH4 in terms of their source characteristics, despite notable differences in their diurnal patterns. PMID:25639653

  10. Renewable energies in electricity generation for reduction of greenhouse gases in Mexico 2025.

    PubMed

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Martínez, Manuel

    2002-02-01

    This study presents 4 scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the historic path of Mexico's energy policy. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The fourth scenario takes into account the present- and medium-term use of natural-gas technologies that the energy reform has produced, but after 2007 a high and feasible participation of renewable sources of energy is considered. The 4 scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). PMID:11928356

  11. Laboratory technique for the measurement of thermal-emission spectra of greenhouse gases: CFC-12.

    PubMed

    Evans, W F; Puckrin, E

    1996-03-20

    A new technique has been developed to make possible the laboratory study of the infrared-emission spectra of gases of atmospheric interest. The thermal-emission spectra are in local thermodynamic equilibrium, just as they are in the atmosphere, and are not chemiluminescent. Demonstration results obtained by the use of this new technique are presented for dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) at a pressure of 0.5 Torr in a cell with a path length of 5 cm. The measured cell spectra have been compared with simulations with the FASCD3P radiation code. The measurements of the emission spectra of radiatively active gases may be important for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and global warming. PMID:21085268

  12. Lagrangian transport and inverse emission modeling of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Reimann, Stefan; Hiller, Rebecca; Manning, Alistair; Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Lagrangian models, which track the movement of fluid parcels in their moving frame of reference, have gained in popularity and sophistication over the past few decades. More recently, Lagrangian models, in particular the class of Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models (LPDMs), have demonstrated their great potential in the context of inverse emission estimation as the Lagrangian framework provides a simple means to establish the relationship between receptor (measurement) locations and upstream sources. We will first briefly summarize the basic concepts of LPDMs, their application in forward and backward mode, and their use in inverse modeling. We will then present several examples of inverse emission estimation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances. The main transport modeling tool is the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART which was driven either with meteorological fields of the global IFS model of ECWMF or, in an adapted and augmented version, with high-resolution fields of the mesoscale weather forecast model COSMO. Using ECMWF meteorology, FLEXPART was applied to quantify European halocarbon emissions based on measurements at Jungfraujoch, Mace Head and a few other sites in Europe. While for some compounds our estimates were in good agreement with officially reported numbers, we also identified important examples of large discrepancies. FLEXPART was also applied at smaller scales to study anthropogenic and semi-natural methane emissions in Switzerland. For this purpose, it was driven by high-resolution fields of the COSMO model and combined with observations from a small aircraft and from a new measurement network recently established in Switzerland. We will compare our independently estimated methane emissions with the numbers presented in the Swiss National Inventory Report.

  13. Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

    2008-04-01

    A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

  14. Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate temperatures and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to temperature change are separated by a time-series analysis using a linear trend term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The temperature changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in temperature induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the temperature change near both poles with a negative temperature change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on temperature. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to temperature change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected temperature change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a crossover between lower atmospheric heating and upper atmospheric cooling that is located at about 90 hPa in the tropics and 30-40 hPa in the polar regions. This results from the combination of continuing increases in greehouse gases and recovery from ozone depletion.

  15. A new UK Greenhouse Gas measurement network providing ultra high-frequency measurements of key radiatively active trace gases taken from a network of tall towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Moncrieff, J. B.; Sturges, W. T.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric concentrations of gases is important in assessing the impact of international policies related to the atmospheric environment. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocols. For over 15 years the UK Government have funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These continuous, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate regional (country-scale) emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using an inversion methodology (NAME-Inversion) that links the Met Office atmospheric dispersion model (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment - NAME) with the Mace Head observations. This unique inversion method acts to independently verify bottom up emission estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases. In 2011 the UK government (DECC) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to provide enhanced resolution emission maps and decrease uncertainty of regional emission estimates produced using the NAME-Inversion. One station included in this new UK network was already established in Scotland and was used in collaboration with Edinburgh University. The two other new stations are in England and were set-up early in 2012, they contain brand new instrumentation for measurements of greenhouse gases. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (20 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new tall tower UK measurement network in detail. Using high-frequency measurements at new operational sites, including Mace Head, we will present the latest inversion results from the new network highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government periodically and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. These results also inform policy makers on the accuracy of inventory emissions estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases.

  16. Model of the internal gravity waves excited by lithospheric greenhouse effect gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotynyan, O. E.; Ivchenko, V. N.; Rapoport, Yu. G.

    The satellite and near-ground study demonstrated IR temperature anomalies associated with fault system of the crust in the seismic region of the Earth. The amplitude of anomalies is about ?T = 3K. Such change of temperature needs about 100% increase of CO2 concentration. Internal gravity waves (IGW) excited by greenhouse effect gases could cause some ionospheric disturbances including density irregularities. The accurate numerical model of 2D <greenhouse effect gas antenna>> with heat, mass and concentration sources of IGW in the atmosphere is built in the present work. The system of hydrodynamics equations for IGW excitation in the atmosphere by the source in the form of near-ground layer of lithospheric greenhouse effect gases is reduced to the system of two equations for pressure and vertical velocity component. Corresponding effective boundary conditions are obtained by means of limit pass to the case of very thin layer and absolutely rigid lithosphere. Periodical boundary conditions in the horizontal directions are used to avoid computations with continuous spectrum and numerical convergence of the model is checked carefully. It is shown that at the altitude Z = 200 km the value of vertical velocity of IGW with period 1 hour could reach the value of order 4 m/s what is enough for plasma bubbles formation in accordance with previously published data. In distinction to the qualitative model of Gohberg et al., reactive modes in the IGW spectrum are taken into account. It is shown that, although these modes are non-propagating, they influence significantly the IGW excitation and, as a result, the charactersitics of propagating modes. In particular, non-taking into account reactive modes could cause under definite conditions overestimating of energy flow by at least two orders of value. This result is analogous to the well known in microwave technique effect of the influence of reactive modes on scattering of electromagnetic waves on inhomogeneities in microwave waveguides.

  17. On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases - the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, C.; Johansson, D. J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the integrated temperature change potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that the global warming potential (GWP) and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity when standard assumptions about a constant background atmosphere are used. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization governing the rate of ocean heat uptake. It is found that GWP and IGTP differ by some 10% for CH4 (for a time horizon of less than 500 yr), and that the relative difference between GWP and IGTP is less for gases with a longer atmospheric life time. Further, it is found that the relative difference between IGTP and GWP increases with increasing rates of ocean heat uptake and increasing climate sensitivity since these changes increase the inertia of the climate system. Furthermore, it is shown that IGTP is equivalent to the sustained global temperature change potential (SGTP) under standard assumptions when estimating GWPs. We conclude that while it matters little for abatement policy whether IGTP, SGTP or GWP is used when making trade-offs, it is more important to decide whether society should use a metric based on time integrated effects such as GWP, a "snapshot metric" as GTP, or metrics where both economics and physical considerations are taken into account. Of equal importance is the question of how to choose the time horizon, regardless of the chosen metric. For both these overall questions, value judgments are needed.

  18. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

  19. MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    MAMM consortium (led by JA Pyle, Univ. Cambridge, with partners from Univ. East Anglia; Univ. Manchester; Royal Holloway, Univ. of London; NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology). The UK MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) is designed to improve quantitative knowledge of Arctic methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources (e.g. wetlands, natural gas, clathrates), to determine magnitudes and spatial distributions, and to develop process understanding (e.g. dependence of fluxes on temperature). In Arctic Finland, Sweden, Norway and Spitsbergen, intensive low-level aircraft campaigns (flights in spring, summer, autumn 2012 and 2013, with the UK FAAM BAe146 aircraft) are designed to measure concentrations of CH4 and other gases across the Arctic by time and location, with in situ sampling for ?13CCH4 at selected sites on land (Zeppelin, Pallas, Alert) and Keeling-plot diel determination of wetland source signatures. High altitude flights sampled stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the Arctic to assess the impact of the polar vortex on methane isotope budgets. Methane column profiles are measured by combining ground based eddy covariance and chamber measurements with aircraft measurements, using a landscape-scale box model approach and flying up and downwind of source regions. Airborne remote sensing is being used to retrieve CH4 columns for comparison with in-situ profiles and testing of hyperspectral retrieval methods from satellite platforms. Longer-term time series measurements are also being established in Kjølnes, northern Norway, for a range of greenhouse and related species via continuous or flask/bag sampling. Modelling studies are in progress to assess the overall Arctic influence on the global methane budget, including detailed back-trajectory analysis of the measurements, especially the isotopic data, to identify sources of methane by location, type (e.g. gasfield, wetland, biomass fire, clathrate), and seasonality / event, and also regional source analysis using the NAME particle dispersion model. Chemistry/climate modelling is used to assess the role of the Arctic in recent changes in atmospheric methane and to perform projections for future change.

  20. Recent Trends in Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases, and their Implications for Emissions and Lifetime Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Simmonds, P. G.; Muhle, J.; Salameh, P.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    We examine trends in non-CO2 greenhouse gases measured by the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) over the last decade. During this time, the concentrations of all the major chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) declined significantly. In contrast, a large number of replacement gases that have high global warming potentials, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), have grown rapidly. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) levels have continued to increase, but with rates that change inter-annually. Concentrations of very long lived, potent greenhouse gases such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) have also grown significantly. Using a model of atmospheric chemistry and transport, and a multi-species inverse method, we make use of the measured trends to infer global lifetimes of CFCs and global emissions of HFCs, HCFCs, CH4, N2O and other gases. We determine lifetimes of 52 (45-61) years for CFC-11 and 106 (85-138) years for CFC-113 that are somewhat higher than current `best' estimates, and a lifetime for CFC-12 in line with current estimates. Emissions estimates reveal substantial emissions growth over the last decade for most of the major long-lived, non-CO2, non-CFC greenhouse gases, highlighting the need for effective measures towards global emission reductions.

  1. O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Fleming, Eric L; Jackman, Charles H; Burkholder, James B

    2013-03-28

    A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ? -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included in this study. PMID:23441917

  2. Tittel: An Alternative to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Title: An Alternative to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith P. Shine; Jan S. Fuglestvedt; Nicola Stuber

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design

  3. Wavelength stabilization using a frequency comb for differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, A.; Ehret, G.; Quatrevalet, M.; Fix, A.; Wirth, M.

    2009-12-01

    Many studies recently have investigated the active remote sensing of atmospheric greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4, by means of differential absorption lidar systems. According to them, the accuracy of the laser wavelengths used is one of the most important issues of this technique in terms of conformance to the high measurement sensitivity requirements defined. The most common method to stabilize the wavelength of the lidar transmitter is the use of an absorption cell, filled with the respective trace gas or another gas with appropriate absorption lines. However, the performance of this method is limited. Here, we present the application of a frequency comb. It is a powerful tool for high precision wavelength stabilization purposes providing the knowledge of the absolute wavelength. By this means the online and offline radiations of a DIAL system can be stabilized to any wavelengths needed with highest accuracy and precision.

  4. Using STELLA System Dynamic Model to Analyze Greenhouse Gases' Emission From Solid Waste Management in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, Jao-Jia; Lee, R.F.; Liao, K.Y.

    2004-03-31

    Using a system dynamic model (SDM), such as STELLA, to analyze the waste management policy is a new trial for Taiwan's research communities. We have developed an easy and relatively accurate model for analyzing the greenhouse gases emission for the wastes from animal farming and municipalities. With the local research data of the past decade, we extract the most prominent factors and assemble the SDM. The results and scenarios were compared with the national inventory. By comparing to the past data, we found these models reasonably represent the situation in Taiwan. However, SDM can program many scenarios and produce a lot of prediction data. With the development of many program control tools on STELLA, we believe the models could be further used by researchers or policy-makers to find the needed research topics, to set the future scenarios and to determine the management tools.

  5. Biomass fuel burning and its implications: deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tahir, S N A; Rafique, M; Alaamer, A S

    2010-07-01

    Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO(2)-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y(-1). PMID:20398986

  6. On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.; Trainer, M. K.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.; Kolodzey, W.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Kitzis, D. R.; Patrick, L.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Robers, J. M.; Tans, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have built the 'Hybrid Lab'. A continuous CO2 and CH4 cavity ring down spectroscopic analyzer (Picarro, Inc.), a CO gas-filter correlation instrument (Thermo Environmental, Inc.) and a continuous UV absorption ozone monitor (2B Technologies, Inc., model 202SC) have been installed securely onboard a 2006 Toyota Prius Hybrid vehicle with an inlet bringing in outside air from a few meters above the ground. To better characterize point and distributed sources, air samples were taken with a Portable Flask Package (PFP) for later multiple species analysis in the lab. A GPS unit hooked up to the ozone analyzer and another one installed on the PFP kept track of our location allowing us to map measured concentrations on the driving route using Google Earth. The Hybrid Lab went out for several drives in the vicinity of the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall tower located in Erie, CO and covering areas from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Fort Collins and Greeley. Enhancements in CO2, CO and destruction of ozone mainly reflect emissions from traffic. Methane enhancements however are clearly correlated with nearby point sources (landfill, feedlot, natural gas compressor ...) or with larger scale air masses advected from the NE Colorado, where oil and gas drilling operations are widespread. The multiple species analysis (hydrocarbons, CFCs, HFCs) of the air samples collected along the way bring insightful information about the methane sources at play. We will present results of the analysis and interpretation of the Hybrid Lab Front Range Study and conclude with perspectives on how we will adapt the measurement strategy to study CO2 anthropogenic emissions in Denver Basin.

  7. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W.; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2011-07-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N2O and CH4 from soil under increased atmospheric CO2 have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO2 (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N2O emissions from upland soils and CH4 emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated.

  8. Abstract--Limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases from power generation will depend, among other things, on the

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Gareth

    other things, on the continuing and increased use of hydroelectric power. However, climate change itself provision of hydropower. Index Terms-- hydroelectric power generation, hydrology, meteorology, finance, risk1 Abstract-- Limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases from power generation will depend, among

  9. Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Searchinger; Ralph Heimlich; R. A. Houghton; Fengxia Dong; Amani Elobeid; Jacinto F. Fabiosa; Simla Tokgoz; Dermot J. Hayes; Tun-Hsiang Yu

    2008-01-01

    Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By

  10. Comparative evaluation of the contribution of residential water heating systems to the variation of greenhouse gases stock in the atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Montoro Taborianski; Racine T. A. Prado

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the contribution of the several household water heating systems to global warming using the life cycle analysis. The systems studied were the electric showerhead, the passage gas heater and the solar heater. The water heating systems can pollute the environment through the emission of greenhouse gases which occurs during the generation of

  11. Observations of tropospheric trace gases from GOSAT thermal infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Hirofumi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Maki, Takashi; Deushi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS), which is one of the sensors onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), measures the sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface and atmosphere as well as the thermal radiance emitted from the Earth. Atmospheric trace gases such as ozone (O3), water vapor (H2O and HDO), methanol (CH3OH) and ammonia (NH3) are derived from the thermal infrared spectral radiance recorded with the TANSO-FTS by an optimal estimation retrieval approach. TANSO-FTS total ozone columns are compared with Dobson spectrophotometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data. The TANSO-FTS total ozone retrievals exhibit a positive bias of 3-4% with a root-mean-square difference of 2-6% compared to the Dobson and OMI measurements. We compare TANSO-FTS tropospheric ozone columns to those from ozonesonde data as well as from a three-dimensional chemical-climate model (MRI-CCM2). The TANSO-FTS data have high correlations with the ozonesonde data. The seasonal trends of the retrieved tropospheric ozone are consistent with those of the ozonesonde data. The spatial distribution of the tropospheric ozone from the TANSO-FTS and MRI-CCM2 shows good agreement, especially in the high-level tropospheric ozone regions. We also retrieve tropospheric H2O and HDO profiles simultaneously, accounting for the cross correlations between the water isotopes. The joint retrieval results in precise estimation of the isotope ratio by partial cancellation of systematic errors common to both H2O and HDO. The retrieved profiles and columns are compared with radiosonde, GPS, and ground-based high-resolution FTS data. The temporal and spatial variations of the precipitable water and the isotope ratio are consistent with those of the validation data. Finally, air pollutants such as CH3OH and NH3 are retrieved using the retrieved ozone and water vapor. We present the latitudinal and seasonal variations of CH3OH related to plant growth and biomass burning, and the high-level NH3 in the hot spot areas.

  12. Global warming potential, global warming commitment and other indexes as characteristics of the effects of greenhouse gases on Earth’s climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor A Frolkis; Igor L Karol; Andrey A Kiselev

    2002-01-01

    Radiative forcing (RF) is widely used for evaluation of separate radiative active substance effects on climate. For photochemically active greenhouse gases, this effect detachment for the definite radiative active substance content change poses the problem of filtering out of all other chemically connected greenhouse gas effects. Two schemes of RF calculation for such greenhouse gas are proposed and analyzed: the

  13. Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NO x, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and its climate effects linked chemistry and climate strongly. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins due to fast long-range transport, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e., aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols may nucleate more cloud droplets, which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. The dimming has a surface cooling effect and decreases evaporation of moisture from the surface, thus slows down the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, absorption of solar radiation by black carbon and some organics increase atmospheric heating and tend to amplify greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. ABCs are concentrated in regional and mega-city hot spots. Long-range transport from these hot spots causes widespread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by widespread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. In S. Asia and N. Africa, the large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered both the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures and land-ocean contrast in surface temperatures, which in turn slow down the monsoon circulation and decrease rainfall over the continents. On the other hand, heating by black carbon warms the atmosphere at elevated levels from 2 to 6 km, where most tropical glaciers are located, thus strengthening the effect of GHGs on retreat of snow packs and glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya-Tibetan glaciers. Globally, the surface cooling effect of ABCs may have masked as much 47% of the global warming by greenhouse gases, with an uncertainty range of 20-80%. This presents a dilemma since efforts to curb air pollution may unmask the ABC cooling effect and enhance the surface warming. Thus efforts to reduce GHGs and air pollution should be done under one common framework. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

  14. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  15. A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2013-08-01

    It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 ± 54,700 ± 200 and 1.3 ± 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

  16. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution.

    PubMed

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO(2)-equivalent (kg CO(2)-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, and travel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways. PMID:19808734

  17. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  19. Investigation of the ground reflectance for spaceborne IPDA lidar measurements of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, A.; Fix, A.; Ehret, G.; Caron, J.; Durand, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Active remote sensing using lidar shows high potential for the measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide or methane from spaceborne platforms. Due to the weak atmospheric backscatter in the near IR the IPDA lidar (Integrating Path Differential Absorption Lidar) technique is preferred over the range resolving DIAL method. IPDA shows much better performance with respect to systems of comparable size. Sensitivity studies reveal, that this technique promises to match the stringent sensitivity requirements. The earth's surface reflectance becomes an important issue, since an IPDA lidar uses the laser return of the ground. Gradients of the ground reflectance could introduce noticeable retrieval errors in the column content of the measured gas. Therefore airborne lidar measurements at 1.6 µm wavelength were performed to investigate this type of error source. A lidar system was deployed on the DLR research aircraft Cessna Caravan to measure the variations of the ground return. Data from different regions and various terrains across Europe were collected including sea surfaces. In order to simulate a satellite system the data were upscaled to a larger ground spot corresponding to a conceivable spaceborne setup. The focus of the analyses was on the small-scale reflectance variability as well as the overall dynamic range. Comparisons to MODIS reflectances are performed additionally. It is shown that the impact of this error source is on the order of 0.3 ppm.

  20. Effect of the greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, SO2) on Martian paleoclimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    There is general agreement that certain surface features on Mars are indicative of the presence of liquid water at various times in the geologic past. In particular, the valley networks are difficult to explain by a mechanism other than the flow of liquid water. It has been suggested in several studies that a thick CO2 atmosphere on Mars early in its history could have provided a greenhouse warming that would have allowed the flow of water either on the surface or just below the surface. However, this effect was examined with a detailed radiation model, and it was found that if reduced solar luminosity early in the history of the solar system is taken into account, even three bars of CO2 will not provide sufficient greeenhouse warming. The addition of water vapor and sulflur dioxide (both plausible gases that may have been emitted by Martian volcanoes) to the atmosphere also fail to warm the surface above 273 K for reduced solar luminosity conditions. The increase in temperature may be large enough, however, for the formation of these features by brines.

  1. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management--an introduction.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-11-01

    Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO(2)-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies. PMID:19748948

  2. Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsao-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2008-06-30

    When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions. PMID:18164811

  3. 76 FR 36339 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs: Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. Consequently...assurance/quality control RFA Regulatory Flexibility...the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on December 1...procedures, Air pollution control, Monitoring, Reporting and...

  4. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

    1997-07-01

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

  5. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases. Initial studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The current objective of the project ``Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases`` is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  6. AIRS: Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahine, Moustafa T.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Atlas, Robert; Barnet, Christopher; Blaisdell, John; Chen, Luke; Divakarla, Murty; Fetzer, Eric J.; Goldberg, Mitch; Gautier, Catherine; Granger, Stephanie; Hannon, Scott; Irion, Fredrick W.; Kakar, Ramesh; Kalnay, Eugenia; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Le Marshall, John; McMillan, W. Wallace; McMillin, Larry; Olsen, Edward T.; Revercomb, Henry; Rosenkranz, Philip; Smith, William L.; Staelin, David; Larrabee Strow, L.; Susskind, Joel; Tobin, David; Wolf, Walter; Zhou, Lihang

    2006-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its two companion microwave sounders, AMSU and HSB were launched into polar orbit onboard the NASA Aqua Satellite in May 2002. NASA required the sounding system to provide high-quality research data for climate studies and to meet NOAA's requirements for improving operational weather forecasting. The NOAA requirement translated into global retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles with accuracies approaching those of radiosondes. AIRS also provides new measurements of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CO, CH4, O3, SO2, and aerosols.The assimilation of AIRS data into operational weather forecasting has already demonstrated significant improvements in global forecast skill. At NOAA/NCEP, the improvement in the forecast skill achieved at 6 days is equivalent to gaining an extension of forecast capability of six hours. This improvement is quite significant when compared to other forecast improvements over the last decade. In addition to NCEP, ECMWF and the Met Office have also reported positive forecast impacts due AIRS.AIRS is a hyperspectral sounder with 2,378 infrared channels between 3.7 and 15.4 µm. NOAA/NESDIS routinely distributes AIRS data within 3 hours to NWP centers around the world. The AIRS design represents a breakthrough in infrared space instrumentation with measurement stability and accuracies far surpassing any current research or operational sounder. The results we describe in this paper are “work in progress,” and although significant accomplishments have already been made much more work remains in order to realize the full potential of this suite of instruments.

  7. Factors Promoting a Cool Cambrian Climate: Role of Land Surface Conditions and Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellito, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    In light of recent work suggesting episodic cooling during the Late Cambrian (~500 Ma), an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity is utilized to evaluate the roles of Late Cambrian continental configuration, mountain height, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on Earth's climate. The Planetary Simulator (PLASIM), developed at the Meteorological Institute of the University of Hamburg, is utilized at T21 spectral resolution (5.6° latitude x 5.6° longitude) with a 50 m deep slab ocean in four experiments. The first three experiments are run with a Late Cambrian continental configuration. Two experiments are run with an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 10 x pre-industrial (2800 ppm). This is in the range estimated for the Late Cambrian by carbon cycle modeling studies. One of these experiments utilizes a flat topography (CAMB_FLAT), and the other, includes mountains (CAMB_MTN). A third experiment is identical to CAMB_MTN, but CO2 is set to 280 ppm (CAMB_COLD). All Cambrian experiments are integrated without any vegetation, and with solar luminosity reduced by 6%. The Cambrian experiments also utilize a uniform land surface boundary condition consisting of sand with an albedo of 0.37. A fourth scenario was run with pre-industrial boundary conditions (modern geography and vegetation and 280 ppm CO2) as a control experiment (CONTROL). Despite the high level of CO2, global average temperatures in CAMB_FLAT and CAMB_MTN are cooler than that of CONTROL. In CAMB_COLD, the oceans freeze over completely and 'snowball Earth' conditions are present. These results highlight the importance of vegetation, land surface albedo, and continental position in maintaining an equable climate in modern times. They also suggest that a drop in greenhouse gases during the Cambrian, whether due to reduced natural emissions from biologic or volcanic sources, or an increase in biologic activity in the oceans, could have been responsible for the initiation of cooler climatic conditions.

  8. Urban greenhouse gases monitoring with the QualAir Fourier transform spectrometer in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Té, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Payan, S.; Pépin, I.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large cities is becoming like air quality one of the priority environmental research areas for scientists and public health authorities. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey GHGs and urban air quality. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, the ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS, IFS 125HR model) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third European megacity. The continous monitoring of GHGs and atmospheric pollutants are essential to improve the estimate of sources and sinks of GHGs and the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many pollutants and GHGs, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. A description of the QualAir FTS will be given. Concentrations of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, ...) are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. Located in the centre of Paris, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary urban measurements as compared to unpolluted ground-based stations of existing networks (NDACC and TCCON). We will show some first CO2 measurements acquired with our instrument in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project, the main goal of which is to quantify CO2 emissions from Paris megacity. Such ground-based information will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to contribute to the characterization of regional GHGs fluxes, especially regarding anthropogenic emissions and trends.

  9. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:24835490

  10. Climatic consequences of observed ozone loss in the 1980s: Relevance to the greenhouse problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, G. I.; Ko, M. K. W.; Zhou, S.; Sze, N. D.

    1994-01-01

    Recently published findings using satellite and ground-based observations indicate a large winter and summertime decrease in the column abundance of ozone at high and middle latitudes during the last decade. Using a simple ozone depletion profile reflecting the observed decrease in ozone column abundance, Ramaswamy et al. (1992) showed that the negative radiative forcing that results from the ozone decrease between 1979 and 1990 approximately balanced the greenhouse climate forcing due to the chlorofluorocarbons emitted during the same period. Here, we extend the forcing analyses by calculating the equilibrium surface temperature response explicitly, using an updated version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research two-dimensional radiative-dynamical seasonal model. The calculated steady state responses suggest that the surface cooling due to the ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere offsets about 30% of the surface warming due to greenhouse gases emitted during the same decade. The temperature offset is roughly a factor of 2 larger than the corresponding offset obtained from forcing intercomparisons. This result appears to be related to the climate feedback mechanisms operating in the model troposphere, most notably that associated with atmospheric meridional heat transport. Thus a comprehensive assessment of ozone change effects on the predicted greenhouse warming cannot be accomplished based on forcing evaluations alone. Our results also show that calculations adopting a seasonally and latitudinally dependent ozone depletion profile produce a negative forcing about 50% smaller than that calculated for the depletion profile used by Ramaswamy et al. (1992).

  11. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases

    E-print Network

    Fridlind, Ann

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases JAMESHANSEN,ANDREW LACIS,AND MICHAEL PRATHER NASA GoddardSpaceFlightCenter,Institutefor SpaceStudies,New York We comparetheradiative(greenhouse

  12. Economic feasibility study for intensive and extensive wastewater treatment considering greenhouse gases emissions.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Sala-Garrido, R; Cirelli, G

    2013-07-15

    Economic feasibility assessments represent a key issue for selecting which wastewater treatment processes should be implemented. The few applications that exist focus on the positive economic value of externalities, overlooking the existence of negative externalities. However, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) consume a significant amount of energy, contributing to climate change. In this context, as a pioneering approach, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have been incorporated as a negative externality of wastewater treatment. Within this framework, this study aims to compare the economic feasibility of five technologies, both intensive and extensive, for small communities. The results show that both the investment and operation costs are higher for intensive than for extensive technologies. Moreover, significant differences in the value of negative externalities were observed. This study demonstrates that from an economic perspective, constructed wetland is the most suitable option for treating wastewater in small agglomerations. PMID:23583870

  13. Ionic composition and greenhouse gases evaluation in Tietê River sediment and mud landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La-Scalea, M. A.; Fornaro, A.; Abreu, E. L.; Mendonça, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    There are 39 cities composing the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) which has grown seven times during the last sixty years, reaching, in 2011, 19.3 million inhabitants. This fact associated with a strong industrial development provoked, among other consequences, a disordered urbanization along the most important river of the region: Tietê. About 100 Km of its 1,150 Km full extension crosses MASP and, during the 60's, Marginal Tietê roadway was constructed, occupying the river banks as access routes. Tietê River was straightened and several landfills were created with its deposit (sediment and mud). EACH-USP (46.50 W, 23.48 S) lies nowadays in one of these areas, where this work has been developed. Therefore, the goal is to evaluate the chemical composition (ionic and gases) and its variability in function of the depth levels using three wells, from 0.60 to 9.0 m of depth. The wells were perforated in September 2011, end of the dry weather. Each well owns a homemade multiport sampling device (HMSD), being possible to push gas and/or water up from 15 available ports. The gases measurements were carried out using a GEM-2000 plus (Landtec) portable analyzer. Aqueous samples containing solid material were taken at each level depth from ports of the HMSD. However, no water was found in some levels. All samples were kept cooled until analysis procedures. After decantation of the solid material, the supernatant liquid was divided in two portions, being its conductivity (Micronal conductimeter) and pH (pH-meter Metrohm 654 with combined glass electrode) measured with the former and ionic analysis with the latter, in which all samples were filtered (Millex 0.22 micrometer pores) before each ionic chromatographic analysis, using Metrohm 850 System, for the ions: sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. The first sampling stage was carried out during November and December 2011 in the beginning of rainy season in the mid Spring. From all the analysis performed, a large variability of the results may be observed for both gases and ionic composition not only among the wells, but also among the different depth levels. Vertically, one of the wells (W2) showed the same percentage of gases, methane 55% and carbon dioxide 45%, at all depth levels, while the other two wells (W1 and W3) presented these gases percentages only under 5.0 m deep. Concerning oxygen, 25% of this gas was detected at 1.0 m under the surface in W1 and W3. In relation to aqueous samples, the most acidity was observed near the surface (0.60 m deep, W1), pH 4.65, while pH 7.88 was obtained under 5.0 m deep (W3). For ionic concentrations a large range was observed considering all wells, being the lowest values for sulfate, from 0.60 to 20 mg/l, and the highest values for ammonium, between 14 and 53 mg/l. These results variability can be associated to the different soil composition layers, as well as to the biodegradation process and the time confinement of the river material deposit.

  14. Ground-based demonstration of imaging SWIR-FTS for space-based detection of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Tadashi; Murooka, Jumpei; Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryota

    2013-10-01

    Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) has many advantages, especially for greenhouse gases and air pollution detection in the atmosphere, because a single instrument can provide wide spectral coverage and high spectral resolution with highly stabilized instrumental line function for all wavenumbers. Several channels are usually required to derive the column amount or vertical profile of a target species. Near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions are very attractive for remote sensing applications. The GHG and CO of precursors of air pollution have absorption lines in the SWIR region, and the sensitivity against change in the amounts in the boundary layer is high enough to measure mole fractions near the Earth surface. One disadvantage of conventional space-based FTS is the spatial density of effective observation. To improve the effective numbers of observations, an imaging FTS coupled with a two-dimensional (2D)-camera was considered. At first, a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT)-based imaging FTS was considered. However, an MCT-based system requires a calibration source (black body and deep-space view) and a highly accurate and super-low temperature control system for the MCT detector. As a result, size, weight, and power consumption are increased and the cost of the instrument becomes too high. To reduce the size, weight, power consumption, and cost, a commercial 2D indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera can be used to detect SWIR light. To demonstrate a small imaging SWIR-FTS (IS-FTS), an imaging FTS coupled with a commercial 2D InGaAs camera was developed. In the demonstration, the CH4 gas cell was equipped with an IS-FTS for the absorber to make the spectra in the SWIR region. The spectra of CH4 of the IS-FTS demonstration model were then compared with those of traditional FTS. The spectral agreement between the traditional and IS-FTS instruments was very good.

  15. The effect of water oxygen content on the production of greenhouse gases from shallow pond sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Shallow lakes and ponds, including those commonly found in agricultural landscapes are often only a few metres deep, with surface areas <1ha. Despite this, landscapes may contain a high number of these ponds, amounting to a considerable cumulative surface area. Many of these features, both naturally formed and man-made, receive and trap runoff with high nutrient and sediment loadings. As such, the potential for the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through biogeochemical cycling in the pond sediments may be significant. Furthermore, the abundance of available nutrients coupled with the shallow physical characteristics of these systems, mean that short, irregular eutrophic episodes during the summer are common, causing large fluctuations in the oxygen content of the overlying water column. The oxygen content of the water column is often cited as key factor in the production of GHGs in large lake and reservoir systems. Given the limited research focusing on shallow ponds/lakes, and potential for these systems to be important sources of GHGs, the impacts of variable water oxygen content should be investigated. Here we present the results from a sediment microcosm experiment utilising sediment cores from an agricultural pond system in Cumbria, UK. Intact sediment cores were incubated in the dark at in-situ temperature and continuously fed with filtered pond water for 2 weeks. During this time the oxygen content of the water was manipulated between fully oxygenated and anaerobic. Measurements of GHG release were based on calculated dissolved gas concentrations present in the water columns of these cores. Results indicated that during times of water column anoxia, production of methane and carbon dioxide increased significantly, despite the presence of substantial quantities of nitrate in the water columns. No change in N2O production was detected. These results indicate that while representing a significant cumulative carbon store in agricultural landscapes, shallow pond and lake systems can contribute to emission of GHGs. Furthermore, the physical and ecological characteristics of these systems have the potential to significantly increase the quantity of gas produced. This understanding will be valuable when constraining both freshwater and agricultural GHG budgets.

  16. Subsurface concentrations and surface emissions of greenhouse gases from a seasonally waterlogged peatland in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Cardenas, Laura; Chadwick, David; Verhoef, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Northern peatlands are globally valuable carbon stocks that can act as either sinks or sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs); carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). We present the results of a year-long field study of subsurface concentrations and surface emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a seasonally flooded, managed lowland fen in the UK. This study aimed to determine the extent to which water status and temperature varies at the site throughout the year and how this affects both the subsurface production and surface emission of GHGs. Measured GHG fluxes were compared to estimations using measured subsurface concentrations with Fick's Law (gradient method). Fick's Law was parameterised with either a measured or a modelled value for the diffusion coefficient for gas transport through soil. Water-table depth was shown to be a more significant control on surface GHG emissions and subsurface concentrations than ambient temperature. CO2 emissions increased as the water-table lowered from the surface until 35cm, wherein CO2 emissions began to decrease once more. This break in the relationship was attributed to low available water for respiration due to drying and competition with plants, and to reduced substrate availability as a result of prolonged optimal respiration conditions. Subsurface CO2 concentrations showed the opposite relationship with water-table depth, increasing as the water-table moved toward the surface. Both CH4 emissions and subsurface concentrations showed an exponential relationship with water-table depth, increasing dramatically as the soil entered a flooded condition. N2O fluxes were primarily small and negative throughout the course of the year. N2O concentrations below the surface in the field under ungrazed conditions were shown to be low, decreasing even further under flooded conditions, suggesting full denitrification to N2. The gradient method overestimated emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O by up to 500, 200 and 15x respectively. The divergence between subsurface and surface CO2 became unworkable when combined with an artifact of overestimation discovered when using silicone rubber soil atmosphere collectors in saturated or near saturated soils. Further studies into improved methods for accurate subsurface GHG measurement in waterlogged peat soils are needed.

  17. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Shepherd, T. G.; Reader, M. C.; Jonsson, A. I.

    2010-09-01

    A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950-2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs). The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the residual circulation of the atmosphere and chemical effects from CO2 cooling more than halve the increase in reactive nitrogen in the mid to upper stratosphere that results from the specified increase in N2O between 1950 and 2100.

  18. The GHG-CCI Project to Deliver the Essential Climate Variable Greenhouse Gases: Current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Boesch, H.; Reuter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are bing further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  19. Ecosystem Metabolism and Air-Water Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in High Arctic Wetland Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnherr, I.; Venkiteswaran, J.; St. Louis, V. L.; Emmerton, C.; Schiff, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater lakes and wetlands can be very productive systems on the Arctic landscape compared to terrestrial tundra ecosystems and provide valuable resources to many organisms, including waterfowl, fish and humans. Rates of ecosystem productivity dictate how much energy flows through food webs, impacting the abundance of higher-level organisms (e.g., fish), as well as the net carbon balance, which determines whether a particular ecosystem is a source or sink of carbon. Climate change is predicted to result in warmer temperatures, increased precipitation and permafrost melting in the Arctic and is already altering northern ecosystems at unprecedented rates; however, it is not known how freshwater systems are responding to these changes. To predict how freshwater systems will respond to complex environmental changes, it is necessary to understand the key processes, such as primary production and ecosystem respiration, that are driving these systems. We sampled wetland ponds (n=8) and lakes (n=2) on northern Ellesmere Island (81° N, Nunavut, Canada) during the open water season for a suite of biogeochemical parameters, including concentrations of dissolved gases (O2, CO2, CH4, N2O) as well as stable-isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (?13C-DIC), dissolved oxygen (?18O-DO), and water (?18O-H2O). We will present rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, modeled from the concentration and stable isotope ratios of DIC and DO, as well as air-water gas exchange of greenhouse gases in these high Arctic ponds and lakes. Preliminary results demonstrate that ecosystem metabolism in these ponds was high enough to result in significant deviations in the isotope ratios of DIC and DO from atmospheric equilibrium conditions. In other words ecosystem rates of primary production and respiration were faster than gas exchange even in these small, shallow, well-mixed ponds. Furthermore, primary production was elevated enough at all sites except Lake Hazen, a large cold ultra-oligotrophic lake, to result in a shift in the ?18O of DO towards more depleted values. Two of the ponds also exhibited enriched ?13C-DIC indicative of high rates of DIC uptake and primary production. However most sites appear to be net heterotrophic systems, with the exception of a few net autotrophic ponds. Interestingly, due to the high DIC concentrations in pond waters, ?13C-DIC values are reflective of ecosystem metabolism on a somewhat longer time scale than ?18O-DO values, which might be useful for examining temporal changes in production and respiration. Finally, most ponds were sources of both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, but were surprisingly under-saturated with respect to N2O, demonstrating that they are sinks for atmospheric N2O. Rates of N2O consumption (denitrification) were modeled from concentration-time data and ranged from <0.1 to 1.1 nmol L-1 h-1.

  20. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Using Clear vs Cloudy Sky Diurnal Temperature Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Tayor

    2006-01-01

    Standard meteorological observations from local airports can provide a tangible example of how the greenhouse effect is a part of everyday life. In the exercise outlined here, students plot diurnal temperature observations to compare the relative magnitude of the greenhouse effect under clear and cloudy-sky conditions, gaining insight into the strength of the greenhouse effect. Contemplation of the relation of

  1. 75 FR 18651 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...greenhouse gas reporting rule MS mass spectrometry N 2 O nitrous oxide NACAA National...this proposal, such as in the basic mass-balance methodology for subpart... 2 O emissions using a simple mass-balance method. This method...

  2. 75 FR 74773 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...greenhouse gas reporting rule MS mass spectrometry MVAC motor vehicle air conditioner...chromatographs, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gas chromatograph-electron...resonance (NMR) devices, and all mass...

  3. GREENHOUSE GASES (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected for various scenarios and the most appropriate approaches and technologies for mitigation are identified by NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB). These methods contribute to reduct...

  4. Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model as a Link between Local-Scale Measurements of Greenhouse Gases and Larger-Scale Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uliasz, M.; Lu, L.; Denning, S.

    2008-12-01

    In order to represent small-scale variability in greenhouse gases we are considering a chain of nested models. First, a regional scale meteorological and transport is nested within a global transport model. In our studies SiB-RAMS (CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System coupled with Simple Biosphere model) is using CO2 fields from PCTM (Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model) with the aid nudging approach. SiB-RAMS is capable to realistically represent regional and mesoscale transport over complex terrain. However, the simulated tracer fields are still available as grid cell averages which are difficult to compare directly to point observations from a tower network To overcame this problem, we run Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) backward in time from each tower to derive influence functions (footprints) for both concentration and flux measurements. In turn, the observation can be expressed as a sum of contribution from surface fluxes, advection fluxes across lateral boundaries and from initial concentration field. LPDM can be used over arbitrary subdomain ( rectangular or cylindrical) and any time period. The LPDM subdomain can be as large as the RAMS domain as in our regional CO2 inversion studies or just to cover a few grid cells of RAMS to provide a subgrid scale transport parameterization. The advantages of the LPDM in this application include: - accurate representation of a point observation which is not possible in a grid transport model - implementing additional transport/mixing process which are not represented in RAMS but may significantly affect the tower measurements. We implemented a parameterization of non-Gaussian (skewed) turbulence within the convective boundary layer and are considering a parameterization of intermittent turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer in the same framework. - including surface fluxes with resolution finer (if available) than provided by a grid transport model near the tower. We will illustrate this modeling approach using the results from our CO2 studies in meso to regional scales (~10km - Tapajos River region in the Amazon, ~100km - 2004 ring of towers in Wisconsin, ~1000km - USA continental domain). The proposed modeling approach involving the backward in time LPDM is capable of represent any observational system including integrated column measurements. Reactive species with first order chemistry can be easily included. Currently, we are implementing tracing water vapor in term of the influence functions.

  5. Imbalance of Nature due to Greenhouse Gases from Land-Use Change and Forestry in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman Galindo, T. D.; Plata Rocha, W. D.; Aguilar-Villegas, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    The imbalance of nature in recent years has been highlighted throughout the world due to the consequences of population and economic growth and changes land use in general. These changes are the result of complex processes between the human and natural environment. This is a very important phenomenon, especially from the point of view of sustainability, as these changes have been considered as one of the most important components of global change (Plata et al., 2009). In the same way the process of deforestation and forest degradation as a result of human activities are a major source of emissions of greenhouse gases in Mexico (Masera et al., 1997). However, forests in Mexico have great potential to become carbon sinks by adopting appropriate support policies, and implementation of sustainable forestry management techniques to improve their production. From this perspective, forest management and reforestation of forests are presented as options for short and medium term climate change mitigation (Sheinbaum and Masera, 2000). Based on the foregoing, the research updates emissions from the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) for the period 2000 to 2005 for the State of Sinaloa, Mexico, from activity data and national emission factors, reliable and updated to improve certainty and to determine the emissions of greenhouse gases for the sector. This paper examines the updated statewide LCLUC inventory using the gradation level 2 of the IPCC and recommends climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.t;

  6. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ?FFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (?CO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ?FFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Environment and Urbanization, 21,185. [2] Arikan Y., Desaim R., Bhatia P. and W. K. Fong, 2012 Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC), C40 Cities Climate Leadership group, available at: http://www.c40.org [3] Vogel, F. R., Ishizawa, M., Chan, E., Chan, D., Hammer, S., Levin, I., & Worthy, D. E. J. (2012). Regional non-CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes inferred from atmospheric measurements in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 9(1), 41-55. *The term 'sister sites' refers to sites that share a common background signal (i.e. common large scale influence), while significantly differing sensitivities to urban GHG emissions. In our case: Egbert, Ontario and Downsview, Toronto, Ontario.

  7. Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Sik; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    The effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and soil prokaryotic communities were investigated in an experimental rice field. The water layer was kept at 1-2 cm in the water-saving (WS) irrigation treatment and at 6 cm in the continuous flooding (CF) irrigation treatment. WS irrigation decreased CH(4) emissions by 78 % and increased N(2)O emissions by 533 %, resulting in 78 % reduction of global warming potential compared to the CF irrigation. WS irrigation did not affect the abundance or phylogenetic distribution of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the abundance of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNAs. The transcript abundance of CH(4) emission-related genes generally followed CH(4) emission patterns, but the difference in abundance between mcrA transcripts and amoA/pmoA transcripts best described the differences in CH(4) emissions between the two irrigation practices. WS irrigation increased the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs and functional gene transcripts associated with Anaeromyxobacter and Methylocystis spp., suggesting that their activities might be important in emissions of the greenhouse gases. The N(2)O emission patterns were not reflected in the abundance of N(2)O emission-related genes and transcripts. We showed that the alternative irrigation practice was effective for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and that it did not affect the overall size and structure of the soil prokaryotic community but did affect the activity of some groups. PMID:24682309

  8. What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as

    E-print Network

    in the atmosphere, water vapor is not counted in the United States or international greenhouse gas inventories3 activities such as irrigation and deforestation can directly affect temperatures at the Earth's surface2, Michigan State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet

  9. MANAGING FOR MITIGATION OF GREENHOUSE GASES AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE MIDWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The central USA contains some of the most productive agricultural land in the world. Due to the high proportion of land area committed to crops and pasture in this region, the carbon (C) stored and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions represent a large percentage of the total for US agriculture. Our objec...

  10. Behind the green facade. [Car makers fight greenhouse gases regulation in Congress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stetson

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that behind the facade of environmentally friendly advertizing, car companies are working to derail legislation that aims to improve efficiency and reduce carbon emissions from new cars. At the same time car makes have plenty of allies in their fight against greenhouse gas legislation: electric utilities, chemical and plastic makers and energy suppliers. Some indications are

  11. Life-cycle analysis of dryland greenhouse gases affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available about management practices effect on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) under dryland cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of cropping sequences (conventional till malt barley-fallow [CTB-F], no-till malt barley-pea [NTB-P], a...

  12. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

  13. The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sagan; C. Chyba

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of â¼10{sup -5 {+-}1} for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state

  14. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  15. The GreenHouse gas Observations in the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesch, H.; Palmer, P. I.; Parr-Burman, P.; Vick, A.

    2012-12-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is determined by surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Atmospheric transport errors adversely affect surface fluxes inferred from GHG concentration measurements from surface, airborne or satellite instruments using an inverse model: uncharacterised transport model errors can result in significant bias of surface flux estimates. In the framework of the UK NERC project Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST), we will develop and fly a novel, compact short-wave IR (SWIR) spectrometer for the Global Hawk to collect observations of tropospheric CO2, CO, CH4, H2O columns and the HDO/H2O ratio over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely-resolved measurements of key species. These gases have a range of lifetimes and diverse source processes and their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of vertical and horizontal transport. We will adopt an instrument concept similar to the OCO-2 and GOSAT space-borne missions to maximize science capabilities and to minimize risk. In this paper, we will discuss the GHOST project and its objectives and we will give an overview over the instrument development.

  16. Effects of 17?-estradiol on emissions of greenhouse gases in simulative natural water body.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Aidong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Chenxiao; Zong, Fengjiao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-05-01

    Environmental estrogens are widely spread across the world and are increasingly thought of as serious contaminators. The present study looks at the influence of different concentrations of 17?-estradiol on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O) in simulated systems to explore the relationship between environmental estrogen-pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in natural water bodies. The present study finds that 17?-estradiol pollution in simulated systems has significant promoting effects on the emissions of CH4 and CO2 , although no significant effects on N2 O emissions. The present study indicates that 17?-estradiol has different effects on the different elements cycles; the mechanism of microbial ecology is under review. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:977-982. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25639264

  17. Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 ?mol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 ?mol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

  18. Changes of Pacific decadal variability in the twentieth century driven by internal variability, greenhouse gases, and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lu; Zhou, Tianjun; Chen, Xiaolong

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the contributions of internal variability, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) in driving the magnitude and evolution of Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) during the twentieth century by analyzing 129 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model realizations. Evidence shows that PDV phase transition is dominated by internal variability, but it is also significantly affected by external forcing agents such as GHGs and aerosols. The combined effects of GHGs and AAs favor the positive phase of PDV with stronger ocean warming in the tropics than the extratropical Pacific. The GHG forcing induces the increased surface downward longwave radiation, especially over the tropical Pacific, and results in stronger warming in that area. The AA forcing results in a stronger cooling in the North Pacific region, due to the reduced surface downward shortwave radiation via cloud-aerosol interaction: this offsets the substantial warming caused by GHG forcing.

  19. On the role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in the expected long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer caused by greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    It is well known that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere produce a global warming of the troposphere and a global cooling of the stratosphere. The expected stratospheric cooling essentially influences the ozone layer via increased polar stratospheric cloud formation and via temperature dependences of the gas phase reaction rates. One more mechanism of how greenhouse gases influences the ozone layer is enhanced water evaporation from the oceans into the atmosphere because of increasing temperatures of the ocean surface due to greenhouse effect. The subject of this paper is a study of the influence of anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds on the expected long-term changes of the ozone layer with taking into account an increase of water vapour content in the atmosphere due to greenhouse effect. The study based on 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the troposphere and stratosphere. The model allows to self-consistently calculating diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of two types. It was supposed in the model that an increase of the ocean surface temperature caused by greenhouse effect is similar to calculated increase of atmospheric surface temperature. Evaporation rate from the ocean surface was computed in dependence of latitude. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2100 using two IPCC scenarios depicting maximum and average expected increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The model calculations show that anthropogenic increasing of water vapour abundance in the atmosphere due to heating of the ocean surface caused by greenhouse effect gives a sensible contribution to the expected ozone changes. The enhanced evaporation from the ocean increases noticeably a water vapour abundance in the stratosphere that decreases global total ozone and retards the expected recovery of the ozone layer. In polar latitudes, additional stratospheric water vapour increase due to greenhouse effect noticeably strengthens the impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on ozone through modification of polar stratospheric clouds and retards the expected recovery of the ozone, too. In the Northern hemisphere, the delay of the ozone recovery is about 5 years, in the Southern hemisphere the delay is about 2 years.

  20. Results from the ICOS Fall 2008 intensive campaign for boundary layer height detection and greenhouse gases vertical distribution study at Orleans forest, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Loaec, S.; Feist, D.; Lavric, J.-V.; Roininen, R.; Romanini, D.; Delmotte, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Ciais, P.

    2009-04-01

    An intensive field campaign of three weeks has been carried out in October 2008 in Orléans Forest, France, dedicated 1/ to the assessment of different instrument types for retrieval of the continental boundary layer (CBL) height and 2/ to the study of vertical distribution and diurnal cycle of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG). This campaign occured in the framework of ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observing System) which is one of the infrastructures selected in the ESFRI roadmap. ICOS aims at getting a homogeneous and dense network for greenhouse gases monitoring in Europe operating for the next 25 years. Launched in 2008, ICOS is currently in its preliminary phase (until 2012). One current mandatory step is to identify the instrumentation that will be deployed in the stations of the network. All stations will be equiped with GHG analysers, as well as CBL probes to allow calculation of GHG budget in the CBL. During the campaign, one Lidar, one ceilometer and one cloud telemeter have been intercompared for CBL height detection. Radiosoundings have been carried out simultaneously to serve as a reference for this intercomparison. In parallel, GHG (and especially CO2) in-situ measurements have been recorded at four altitude levels on a tall tower (5m, 50m, 100m and 180m), between 100m and 3000m using in-situ and flask sampling instruments onboard a small aircraft, and between the surface and 200m using a probe attached to a captive balloon deployed by Meteo France. We will hereby present ICOS, the test site, the instrumentation and selected results from the intensive campaign.

  1. Atmospheric science is a fascinating area of study. From sunny spells and scattered showers, to climate change and greenhouse gases, a wide range of meteorological

    E-print Network

    , to climate change and greenhouse gases, a wide range of meteorological and climate topics are examined during. Alongside the taught modules, there are a variety of other activities. In the first semster, dynamical and synoptic meteorology, climate dynamics and numerical weather prediction. It supplies

  2. The early faint sun paradox: organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Chyba, C.

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of approximately 10(-5 +/- 1) for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing.

  3. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2014-12-01

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototype network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.

  4. On the cause of the relative greenhouse strength of gases such as the halocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, K.P. (Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom))

    1991-06-15

    This note examines some of the factors important in determining the large radiative impact, relative to carbon dioxide, of increased concentrations of gases in the optically thin limit (such as the halocarbons at their present day concentrations). A narrow-band radiative transfer model is used to show that an absorber with the same integrated band strength as CFC-12, but with almost the same spectral variation of tropopause net flux change as occurs for small variations in carbon dioxide concentration, is 400 times more effective than carbon dioxide, on a molecule-per-molecule basis; this can be compared with the relative strength of 20,000 for CFC-12. This illustrates that the dominant reason for the relative strength of such gases is not their position in the 8-13 [mu]m window. It is not possible to unambiguously separate the possible reasons (spectral position, preexisting amounts and spectroscopic strength) for the variations in relative strength, as they are all related. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

    2014-06-01

    Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of -34.9 to -66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as -19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

  6. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone-Depleting Gases 19.6.2001 9-1 Figure 9.1 Increasing world population

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    in the atmosphere is water causing ~ 2 /3 of the greenhouse effect. The result of increasing concentrations of GHGs that cause the other ~ 1 /3 is referred to as the "enhanced greenhouse effect", or, since it is primarily the result of human activities, the "anthropogenic greenhouse effect" (IPCC 1990, Firor and Jacobsen 1993

  7. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly revise the estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions for Midwest agroecology.

  8. Observations of atmospheric trace gases by MAX-DOAS in the coastal boundary layer over Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianxin; Wang, Zhangjun; Meng, Xiangqian; Zhou, Haijin; Du, Libin; Qu, Junle; Chen, Chao; An, Quan; Wu, Chengxuan; Wang, Xiufen

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric trace gases exist in the atmosphere of the earth rarely. But the atmospheric trace gases play an important role in the global atmospheric environment and ecological balance by participating in the global atmospheric cycle. And many environmental problems are caused by the atmospheric trace gases such as photochemical smog, acid rain, greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, etc. So observations of atmospheric trace gases become very important. Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) developed recently is a kind of promising passive remote sensing technology which can utilize scattered sunlight received from multiple viewing directions to derive vertical column density of lower tropospheric trace gases like ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It has advantages of simple structure, stable running, passive remote sensing and real-time online monitoring automatically. A MAX-DOAS has been developed at Shandong Academy of Sciences Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation (SDIOI) for remote measurements of lower tropospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, and O3). In this paper, we mainly introduce the stucture of the instrument, calibration and results. Detailed performance analysis and calibration of the instrument were made at Qingdao. We present the results of NO2, SO2 and O3 vertical column density measured in the coastal boundary layer over Jiaozhou Bay. The diurnal variation and the daily average value comparison of vertical column density during a long-trem observation are presented. The vertical column density of NO2 and SO2 measured during Qingdao oil pipeline explosion on November 22, 2013 by MAX-DOAS is also presented. The vertical column density of NO2 reached to a high value after the explosion. Finally, the following job and the outlook for future possible improvements are given. Experimental calibration and results show that the developed MAX-DOAS system is reliable and credible.

  9. Development of Metrology Tools for Quantification of Greenhouse Gases from Distributed Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, K. O.; Plusquellic, D.; Fraser, G. T.; Hodges, J. T.; van Zee, R. D.; Possolo, A.; Samarov, D. V.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Our goal is to develop the optical measurement technology, standards, and a test facility to enable accurate quantification of greenhouse-gas emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks to meet the requirements for local, national, and international mitigation efforts. The initial steps toward this goal are aimed at utilizing a 100 meter long indoor facility for testing a differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system operating near 1.6 micron for the measurement of carbon dioxide under well characterized conditions. The OPO used for the DIAL system is based on the Rotated Image Singly-Resonant Twisted RectAngle (RISTRA)[1] design which will enable high per pulse laser energy at high repetition rates with excellent beam quality. The prototype DIAL system implements heterodyne detection and takes advantage of acoustic-optical-modulator (AOM) and electro-optic-modulator (EOM) technology to recover multiple points across the absorption lineshape for each backscatter return signal using a single seed laser and a 400 MHz InGaAs APD receiver. Initial results of the OPO performance, laser development, and detection methodology will be presented. 1. A. V. Smith and D. J. Armstrong, “Nanosecond optical parametric oscillator with 90° image rotation: design and performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1801-1814 (2002).

  10. Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.

    PubMed

    Schwietzke, Stefan; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-10-01

    Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified. PMID:21866889

  11. Radiative forcing at high concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, B.; Goldblatt, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present new calculations of radiative forcing at very high concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O, relevant to extreme anthropogenic climate change and paleoclimate studies. CO2 forcing is calculated over the range 100 ppmv to 50,000 ppmv, and the maximum forcing is 38.1 W m-2. CH4 and N2O forcings are calculated over the range 100 ppbv to 100 ppmv and give maximum forcings of 6.66 W m-2 and 22.3 W m-2. The sensitivity of our calculations to spatial averaging and tropopause definition is examined. We compare our results with the "simplified expressions" reported by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and find significant differences at high greenhouse gas concentrations. We provide new simplified expressions which agree much better with the calculated forcings and suggest that these expressions be used in place of the IPCC expressions. Additionally, we provide meridionally resolved forcings which may be used to force simple and intermediate complexity climate models.

  12. Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hassberger, J.A., Schock, R.N.; Isaacs, T.H.

    1997-10-23

    The world`s population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today`s risks.

  13. Quantified estimates of total GWPs for greenhouse gases taking into account tropospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to give interim account of the progress being made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in developing an improved capability for assessing the direct and indirect effects on Global Warming Potentials. Much of our current efforts are being devoted to improving the capability for modeling of global tropospheric processes in our state-of-the-art zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. These efforts are in preparation for an improved evaluation and better quantification of the indirect GWPs resulting from effects on tropospheric ozone from ethane and other gases with significant human-related emissions. There are three major findings that should result from this project that should have significant impacts on EPA and its programs. First, the current and ongoing studies of the direct and indirect GWPs should have a significant influence on the continuing national and international assessments of climate change. Second, the improved capability for modeling of chemical and physical processes should lead to enhanced understanding of the controlling factors influencing ozone, hydroxyl and other key tropospheric constituents. Third, the enhanced modeling capability should be important to future studies of human-related influences on tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes.

  14. Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO(2)-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. GHG accounting for a generic AD facility with either biogas utilization at the facility or upgrading of the gas for vehicle fuel resulted in a GWF from -375 (a saving) to 111 (a load) kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) wet waste. In both cases the digestate was used for fertilizer substitution. This large range was a result of the variation found for a number of key parameters: energy substitution by biogas, N(2)O-emission from digestate in soil, fugitive emission of CH( 4), unburned CH(4), carbon bound in soil and fertilizer substitution. GWF for a specific type of AD facility was in the range -95 to -4 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) wet waste. The ranges of uncertainty, especially of fugitive losses of CH(4) and carbon sequestration highly influenced the result. In comparison with the few published GWFs for AD, the range of our data was much larger demonstrating the need to use a consistent and robust approach to GHG accounting and simultaneously accept that some key parameters are highly uncertain. PMID:19748957

  15. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gases emissions in constructed wetlands: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, M. M. R.; Fenton, O.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Richards, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and does not alone explain if the removed species are reduced by physical attenuation or if they are transformed to other reactive forms (pollution swapping). There are many pathways for the removed N to remain in the system: accumulation in the sediments, leaching to groundwater (nitrate-NO3- and ammonium-NH4+), emission to atmosphere via nitrous oxide- N2O and ammonia and/or conversion to N2 gas and adsorption to sediments. The kinetics of these pathways/processes varies with CWs management and therefore needs to be studied quantitatively for the sustainable use of CWs. For example, the quality of groundwater underlying CWs with regards to the reactive N (Nr) species is largely unknown. Equally, there is a dearth of information on the extent of Nr accumulation in soils and discharge to surface waters and air. Moreover, CWs are rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and produce substantial amounts of CO2 and CH4. These dissolved carbon (C) species drain out to ground and surface waters and emit to the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved N2O, CO2 and CH4 in CWs is a key "missing piece" in our understanding of global greenhouse gas budgets. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge and discussion about the dynamics of C and N in CWs and their likely impacts on aquatic and atmospheric environments. We suggest that the fate of various N species in CWs and their surface emissions and subsurface drainage fluxes need to be evaluated in a holistic way to better understand their potential for pollution swapping. Research on the process based N removal and balancing the end products into reactive and benign forms are critical to assess environmental impacts of CWs. Thus we strongly suggest that in situ N transformation and fate of the transformation products with regards to pollution swapping requires further detailed examination.

  16. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  17. Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstream activities and the MRF causes negligible GHG emissions (12.8 to 52.6 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) recovered metal) compared to the reprocessing of the metal itself (360-1260 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of recovered aluminium and 400- 1020 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) of recovered steel).The reprocessing is however counterbalanced by large savings of avoided virgin production of steel and aluminium. The net downstream savings were found to be 5040-19 340 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated aluminium and 560-2360 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the technology and data choices. Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. The range of avoided impact shows that recovery of metals will always be beneficial over primary production, due to the high energy savings, and that the GHG emissions associated with the sorting of metals are negligible. PMID:19767324

  18. Attribution of Ozone Changes in the Near Future: Nonlinear Feedbacks between Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meul, Stefanie; Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    In the first half of the 21st century the stratospheric burden of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) is predicted to decrease due to the regulations in the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Concomitantly, the concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to rise. As the removal of the ODSs from the stratosphere is also affected by changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation, the decrease of halogens will also depend on the rate of the GHG increase. Furthermore, the increasing concentrations of the GHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can modify the halogen-ozone chemistry. Therefore, a non-linear contribution has to be included in the attribution analysis of the ozone changes to ODS and GHG changes. In this study we detect and analyze this non-linear term in a set of appropriately defined timeslice simulations for the year 2045 with the Chemistry-Climate-Model EMAC. The causal processes of the non-linear interactions are studied in more detail by separating the relative ozone changes in the contribution from chemistry (production and loss) and transport. This allows us to identify not only feedbacks between chemistry and temperature but also between chemistry and dynamics, i.e. ozone transport.

  19. An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in Taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.

    PubMed

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2014-03-01

    Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

  20. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  1. An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A.; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

  2. Anthropogenic effects on the subtropical jet in the Southern Hemisphere: aerosols versus long-lived greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Kidston, J.; Syktus, J. I.; Wong, K. K.

    2013-03-01

    We use single-forcing historical simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model to compare the effects of anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) and increasing long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) on simulated winter circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Our primary focus is on the subtropical jet, which is an important source of baroclinic instability, especially in the Australasian region, where the speed of the jet is largest. For the period 1950 to 2005, our simulations suggest that AAs weaken the jet, whereas increasing LLGHGs strengthen the jet. The different responses are explained in terms of thermal wind balance: increasing LLGHGs preferentially warm the tropical mid-troposphere and upper troposphere, whereas AAs have a similar effect of opposite sign. In the mid-troposphere, the warming (cooling) effect of LLGHGs (AAs) is maximal between 20S and 30S; this coincides with the descending branch of the Hadley circulation, which may advect temperature changes from the tropical upper troposphere to the subtropics of the SH. It follows that LLGHGs (AAs) increase (decrease) the mid-tropospheric temperature gradient between low latitudes and the SH mid-latitudes. The strongest effects are seen at longitudes where the southward branches of the Hadley cell in the upper troposphere are strongest, notably at those that correspond to Asia and the western Pacific warm pool.

  3. Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Lei; Sun, Kang; Miller, David J.; Pan, Dan; Golston, Levi M.; Zondlo, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    A low-power mobile sensing platform has been developed with multiple open-path gas sensors to measure the ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases and air pollutants with high temporal and spatial resolutions over extensive spatial domains. The sensing system consists of four trace gas sensors including two custom quantum cascade laser-based open-path sensors and two LICOR open-path sensors to measure CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, and H2O mixing ratios simultaneously at 10 Hz. In addition, sensors for meteorological and geolocation data are incorporated into the system. The system is powered by car batteries with a low total power consumption (~200 W) and is easily transportable due to its low total mass (35 kg). Multiple measures have been taken to ensure robust performance of the custom, open-path sensors located on top of the vehicle where the optics are exposed to the harsh on-road environment. The mobile sensing system has been integrated and installed on top of common passenger vehicles and participated in extensive field campaigns (>400 h on-road time with >18,000 km total distance) in both the USA and China. The simultaneous detection of multiple trace gas species makes the mobile sensing platform a unique and powerful tool to identify and quantify different emission sources through mobile mapping.

  4. Do Agricultural Soils of California have the Potential to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate Greenhouse Gases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suddick, E. C.; Scow, K. M.; Six, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Agricultural ecosystems play a major role in the global carbon cycle and can be both sources of carbon emissions to the atmosphere and also carbon sinks which may be used to offset any future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In California, climate change predictions indicate major impacts and substantial alterations of agricultural systems over the next decades. In 2006, California passed the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) that requires reduction of the three major GHG's (CO2, N2O and CH4) to 1990 levels by 2020. We surveyed and synthesized available data from recent studies describing the potential to sequester carbon and reduce other GHG emissions in California agricultural soils. The studies evaluated various management practices in both annual row and perennial cropping systems, with other studies focusing upon biogeochemical model predictions for carbon sequestration and GHG mitigation calibrated towards California agriculture. Management practices considered included minimum or no tillage, cover cropping, organic residue (low and high inputs) and nitrogen fertilizer management. Though practices involving inputs of carbon, such as cover cropping and organic amendments, were often associated with increases in soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top soil layer (0-20 cm), results were not consistent across farming systems. Several studies indicated that conservation tillage, alone, increased above-ground biomass, especially when used with a cover crop. However, the reduced soil disturbance from conservation tillage merely resulted in a redistribution of the soil carbon rather than an overall accumulation, when compared with standard tillage and cover cropping practices together. Predictions from biogeochemical models indicated that increased inputs of manure and increased organic residues led to substantial carbon sequestration but did not consistently reduce non-CO2 related GHG emissions. The most effective way to reduce non-CO2 GHG emissions, and simultaneously add organic matter to soil, was to employ reduced tillage techniques and low input farming which is based upon the reduction of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides without their complete elimination and to also add carbon to the soils through the addition and incorporation of organic amendments and cover crops.

  5. Airborne observations of greenhouse gas emissions from the European Arctic wetlands during the MAMM field project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S.; Allen, G.; Gallagher, M. W.; Illingworth, S. M.; Muller, J.; Jones, B.; Percival, C.; Bauguitte, S.; Cain, M.; Pyle, J. A.; Skiba, U.; Drewer, J.; Dinsmore, K.; Nisbet, E. G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Aurela, M.; Lohila, A.; George, C.; Hayman, G.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents high-accuracy in-situ airborne observations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and other trace species made on board the FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) BAe 146 research aircraft during the summers of 2012 and 2013, as part of the MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - measurements, process studies and modelling) field campaign, based out of Kiruna, Sweden. From these measurements, we derive regional scale surface fluxes from a broadly homogeneous area of Arctic wetland near the Sweden-Finland border by employing an advective box model to measurements made whilst sampling along the prevailing wind vector. Due to its well-characterised background and well-mixed boundary layer, as well as a lack of other local sources in the area, this region provides a unique and pristine natural laboratory within which to employ such an approach. For the July 2012 flights, net fluxes for this region are found to be 1.3 × 0.4 mg CH4 hr-1 m-2 and -380 × 120 mg CO2 hr-1 m-2. We compare these derived fluxes to those produced from inverse modelling techniques using the NAME Lagrangian particle dispersion model, and investigate the efficacy of up-scaling ground-based flux measurements by comparing with simultaneous eddy covariance and chamber flux measurements that were made within the aircraft's sampling footprint. Finally, we will use this study to constrain uncertainties in the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model.

  6. Observations of seasonal variations in atmospheric greenhouse trapping and its enhancement at high sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallberg, Robert; Inamdar, Anand K.

    1993-01-01

    Greenhouse trapping is examined theoretically using a version of the radiative transfer equations that demonstrates how atmospheric greenhouse trapping can vary. Satellite observations of atmospheric greenhouse trapping are examined for four months representing the various seasons. The cause of the super greenhouse effect at the highest SSTs is examined, and four processes are found to contribute. The middle and upper troposphere must be particularly moist and the temperature lapse rate must be increasingly unstable over the warmest regions to explain the observed distribution of atmospheric greenhouse trapping. Since the highest SSTs are generally associated with deep convection, this suggests that deep convection acts to moisten the middle and upper troposphere in regions of the highest SSTs relative to other regions. The tropical atmospheric circulation acts to both increase the temperature lapse rate and greatly increase the atmospheric water vapor concentration with spatially increasing SST.

  7. Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ?CH4 / ?CO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence the ambient levels of CH4 locally. ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios during peak traffic hours are 40 to 50 times higher than FTP vehicle dynamometer tests confirming the presence and dominance of non-vehicular CH4 emissions sources. ?N2O /?CO2 ratios during morning commute hours ( NW winds) are similar to fleet emissions ratios from literature. CH4 correlates moderately with C3-C6 straight chain alkanes (also found in raw natural gas). The correlation slopes are similar to those measured downwind from Wattenberg oil field in Colorado and obtained natural gas samples (Petron et al., 2010) suggesting fugitive emissions is a likely source. CH4 or the C3-C6 alkanes do not correlate with any of the gasoline or diesel fuel specific tracers (isooctane and toluene) confirming vehicular combustion is not a major source of CH4. Partial analysis of ethanethiol (CH3-CH2-SH) which is a natural gas odorant indicates strong correlation with CH4. CH4 correlates fairly well with acetone that is also emitted from dairies. Further analysis of VOC measurements and meteorological data will lead to better source attribution and emission factors that will be compared to previously reported data from ground measurements and inventory calculations.

  8. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases Vol. 80, No. 39, September 28, 1999, p. 453.

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    and nitric acid production [Schimel et al., 1996]. Chlorofluorocarbons CFC-12 and CFC-11 are manmade are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2) [Hansen et al., 1998; Schimel et al., 1996]. The observed increase of CO2

  9. Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Stainforth; T. Aina; C. Christensen; M. Collins; N. Faull; D. J. Frame; J. A. Kettleborough; S. Knight; A. Martin; J. M. Murphy; C. Piani; D. Sexton; L. A. Smith; R. A. Spicer; A. J. Thorpe; M. R. Allen

    2005-01-01

    The range of possibilities for future climate evolution needs to be taken into account when planning climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This requires ensembles of multi-decadal simulations to assess both chaotic climate variability and model response uncertainty. Statistical estimates of model response uncertainty, based on observations of recent climate change, admit climate sensitivities-defined as the equilibrium response of global

  10. Non-linear response of South-WPWP SST to greenhouse gases forcing changes during the past 360,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, L.; Chang, S.; Wei, K.; Lee, S.; Chen, Y.; Chuang, C.; Mii, H.; Burr, G. S.; Chen, M.; Tung, Y.; Shen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical Pacific temperature plays a pivotal role in heat and moisture budget in the Earth's climate systems; its responds to greenhouse forcing is a key question in global warming research. Here we present a 360,000 years (0-360 kyrs) sea surface temperature (SST) record from the western equatorial Pacific to demonstrate the non-linear responses and threshold behavior to greenhouse gases level over the past four deglaciations. The SSTs rose drastically when equivalent CO2 (pCO2eqv.) exceeded a threshold value at 220 × 10 ppmv and lead to ultimate termination of glacial states. We speculate that the southern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) has responded as an non-linear amplifier to both of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water formation and greenhouse gases concentration and sequentially accelerated a series of positive feedback processes in the climate system to deliver the Earth from glacial to full interglacial condition once the atmospheric CO2 concentration passes the critical thresholds. The non-linearity in the relationship between South-WPWP SST and greenhouse gas concentration is a key feature shown by the past tropical climate changes related to the Southern Hemisphere. Such non-linearity and its mechanism should be bear in mind when we deal with future global warming.

  11. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Fine Particles (PM2.5) from Wildland Fires in the United States from 2003 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Larkin, N. K.; Raffuse, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Wildland fires not only affect adjacent communities, but also produce smoke that can travel long distances and significantly impact downwind communities, alter weather patterns, and contribute to global climate change. As air quality standards have tightened, smoke from wildland fires has faced greater scrutiny from the air quality management community. Wildland fire emissions in the United States from 2003 to 2011 were estimated using the SmartFire2 system and the BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. Based on various sources of observational fire activity data, including ground-based incident reports and satellite-derived fire perimeters, fire information was reconciled and passed through a chain of models that estimate fuel loading, fuel consumption, and smoke emissions. While the spatial and temporal distributions of prescribed fires follow a stable pattern, wildfires are difficult to predict and their effects vary greatly from fire to fire. We analyzed the area burned and the emissions of select greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) and fine particles (PM2.5) from the model outputs to characterize long-term temporal and spatial variations. We will present these results, discuss factors that cause variability and uncertainty, and make comparisons to typical global modeling methods.

  12. Space-borne remote sensing with active optical instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, ozone and the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.

    Lidar Light Detection and Ranging is regarded as an innovative component of the global observing system It offers the possibility to directly sample the four-dimensional variability of the atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution In Europe space-borne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations since mid 1970 s resulting in mission and instrument concepts such as ATLID a backscatter lidar for aerosol and clouds for the EarthCARE mission or ALADIN a Doppler wind lidar considered for the ADM Aeolus mission Major advances particularly in humidity profiling are expected from the space-borne Differential Absorption Lidar DIAL being the Core instrument of the WALES Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space mission which was studied up to a level of Phase A In this presentation we report on the background definition of a future lidar system capable of monitoring the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide CO 2 methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2 O stratospheric and tropospheric ozone O 3 and the meteorological parameter pressure p and temperature T The idea of this study which was initiated by the European Space Agency ESA was to select one or two candidate instruments for follow-on activities on sensor and mission level For each parameter appropriate performance models of active optical instruments either for range-resolved or for total column measurements were defined and implemented as computer codes for parametric analysis The sampling strategy and error characteristics for the

  13. Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. Methods In this paper the EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management methods comprised in seven scenarios. Results The amount of GHG which was generated from Iran’s waste sector estimated about 17836079 Metric Tons of Carbon dioxide Equivalents (MT CO2e) in this study. The lowest amount of GHG was generated by LFG capture system with energy recovery (557635 MT CO2e), while Incineration of materials being sent to landfill (1756823 MT CO2e), Landfill Gas (LFG) capture system with flaring (2929150 MT CO2e) and Improved source reduction and recycling (4780278 MT CO2e) emitted fewer GHG than the other scenarios. Lowest levels of gross energy consumption occur in source reduction with recycling and composting (-89356240 Mega British Thermal Unit, M BTU), recycling and composting (-86772060 M BTU) as well as Improved source reduction with recycling and composting (-54794888 M BTU). Conclusions It appears that recycling and composting each offer significant GHG emissions and energy consumption reductions (scenarios 4, 5 and 6). Upon of the GHG emission and energy consumption results concluded that improved source reduction and recycling scenario has been the Balanced and appropriate technology for handling the solid waste streams in municipalities. PMID:24910776

  14. [Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-bo; Li, Wei

    2013-05-01

    It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved. PMID:23914568

  15. Dissolved greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and methane) associated with the natural iron-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS 2 cruise) in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, L.; Florez-Leiva, L.; Besoain, V.; Fernández, C.

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) were measured in the Kerguelen Plateau Region (KPR), an area with annual microalgal bloom caused by natural Fe fertilization, which may stimulate microbes involved in GHG cycling. This study was carried out during the KEOPS 2 cruise during the austral spring of 2011. Two transects were sampled along and across the KRP, the north-south (N-S) transect (46-51° S, 72° E meridian) and the west-east (W-E) transect (66-75° E, 48.3° S latitude), both associated with the presence of a plateau, polar fronts and other mesoscale features. The W-E transect had N2O levels ranging from equilibrium (105%) to light supersaturation (120%) with respect to the atmosphere. CH4 levels fluctuated dramatically, with intense supersaturations (120-970%) in areas close to the coastal waters of Kerguelen Island and in the polar front (PF). There, Fe and nutrient fertilization seem to promote high total chlorophyll a (TChl a) levels. The distribution of both gases was more homogenous in the N-S transect, but CH4 peaked at southeastern stations of the KPR (A3 stations), where phytoplankton bloom was observed. Both gases responded significantly to the patchy distribution of particulate matter as Chl a, stimulated by Fe supply by complex mesoscale circulation. While CH4 appears to be produced mainly at the pycnoclines, N2O seems to be consumed superficially. Air-sea fluxes for N2O (from -10.5 to 8.65, mean 1.71 ?mol m-2d-1), and for CH4 (from 0.32 to 38.1, mean 10.07 ?mol m-2d-1) reflected sink and source behavior for N2O and source behavior for CH4, with considerable variability associated with a highly fluctuating wind regime and, in the case of CH4, due to its high superficial levels that had not been reported before in the Southern Ocean and may be caused by an intense microbial CH4 cycling.

  16. Bad Greenhouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alistair Fraser

    This site is designed to belie the statement that the greenhouse effect is caused when gases in the atmosphere behave as a blanket and trap radiation which is then reradiated to the Earth. Students will learn that the atmosphere does not act like a blanket, trap radiation, reradiate heat, trap heat, or behave like a greenhouse. In addition, the analogy of a closed automobile in the sun to a greenhouse is reasonable but neither has to do with the atmosphere.

  17. Assessment of Ground-based Atmospheric Observations for Tracking Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKain, K.; Wofsy, S. C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The fairness and effectiveness of agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions depends on our ability to verify reported changes in emissions using direct atmospheric observations. The goal of this work was to test whether ground-based measurements of greenhouse gases from urban regions can be used to quantify changes in emissions. We performed an atmospheric inversion for Salt Lake City, Utah using an existing dataset of CO2 measurements, prior estimates of emissions, and a high-resolution Lagrangian atmospheric transport model. By comparing simulated and observed CO2 for Salt Lake City, we were able to constrain emissions to within 15%. Substantial improvements in our ability to estimate emissions using urban surface observations are not expected because of limitations imposed by the character of the data, namely the dominance of the stochastic component of the signal and the inverse relationship between the daily cycle of emissions and CO2 concentration enhancements. Based on these results, we believe ground- and space-based measurements of column enhancements in the urban dome offer a superior route for verification purposes.

  18. Control of greenhouse gases emission by radiation-induced formation of useful products. Utilization of CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getoff, Nikola

    2006-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is produced in enormous quantities by combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and heavy industries. It is strongly influencing the environment and the climate. However, it can be separated from the exhaust gases and utilized as row material for making value-added products by irradiation. Results of experiments in laboratory scale showed, e.g. that amino acids and short chain proteins can be produced by carboxylation of amines, whereas salicylic acid results from phenol and malonic acid formation is observed from acetic acid. The yield dependence from various experimental factors as well as the reaction mechanisms of the studied systems are discussed and an outlook of future developments is given.

  19. Calibration and validation of an activated sludge model for greenhouse gases no. 1 (ASMG1): prediction of temperature-dependent N?O emission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lisha; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    An activated sludge model for greenhouse gases no. 1 was calibrated with data from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without control systems and validated with data from three similar plants equipped with control systems. Special about the calibration/validation approach adopted in this paper is that the data are obtained from simulations with a mathematical model that is widely accepted to describe effluent quality and operating costs of actual WWTPs, the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2). The calibration also aimed at fitting the model to typical observed nitrous oxide (N?O) emission data, i.e., a yearly average of 0.5% of the influent total nitrogen load emitted as N?O-N. Model validation was performed by challenging the model in configurations with different control strategies. The kinetic term describing the dissolved oxygen effect on the denitrification by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was modified into a Haldane term. Both original and Haldane-modified models passed calibration and validation. Even though their yearly averaged values were similar, the two models presented different dynamic N?O emissions under cold temperature conditions and control. Therefore, data collected in such situations can potentially permit model discrimination. Observed seasonal trends in N?O emissions are simulated well with both original and Haldane-modified models. A mechanistic explanation based on the temperature-dependent interaction between heterotrophic and autotrophic N?O pathways was provided. Finally, while adding the AOB denitrification pathway to a model with only heterotrophic N?O production showed little impact on effluent quality and operating cost criteria, it clearly affected N2O emission productions. PMID:23728837

  20. Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the Tropics and high latitudes, are consistent with predictions of a number of previous GCM studies. Finally, direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is predicted to induce strong regional cooling over East and South Asia. Wintertime rainfall over southeastern China and the Indian subcontinent is predicted to decrease because of the increased atmospheric stability and decreased surface evaporation, while the geographic distribution of precipitation is also predicted to be altered as a result of aerosol-induced changes in wind flow.

  1. Profiling Wind and Greenhouse Gases by Infrared-laser Occultation: Algorithm and Results from Simulations in Windy Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, Andreas; Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2014-05-01

    We employ the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO) microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method to derive a full set of thermodynamic state variables from microwave signals and climate benchmark profiling of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind using infrared-laser signals. The focus lies on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS - 5 km to 35 km). The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. In this study we focus on the infrared-laser part of LMIO, where we introduce a new, advanced wind retrieval algorithm to derive accurate l.o.s. wind profiles. The wind retrieval uses the reasonable assumption of the wind blowing along spherical shells (horizontal winds) and therefore the l.o.s. wind speed can be retrieved by using an Abel integral transform. A 'delta-differential transmission' principle is applied to two thoroughly selected infrared-laser signals placed at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line (nominally ±0.004 cm-1 from the line center near 4767 cm-1) plus a related 'off-line' reference signal. The delta-differential transmission obtained by differencing these signals is clear from atmospheric broadband effects and is proportional to the wind-induced Doppler shift; it serves as the integrand of the Abel transform. The Doppler frequency shift calculated along with the wind retrieval is in turn also used in the GHG retrieval to correct the frequency of GHG-sensitive infrared-laser signals for the wind-induced Doppler shift, which enables improved GHG estimation. This step therefore provides the capability to correct potential wind-induced residual errors of the GHG retrieval in case of strong winds. We performed end-to-end simulations to test the performance of the new retrieval in windy air. The simulations used realistic atmospheric conditions (thermodynamic state variables and wind profiles) from an analysis field of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). GHG profiles were taken from the Fast Atmospheric Signature Code (FASCODE) model. Three geographic regions were investigated, representing three different atmospheric conditions: Tropics (TRO) - a warm and moist atmosphere, Standard (STD) - an intermediate atmosphere at mid-latitudes, and Sub-Arctic Winter (SAW) - a cold and dry atmosphere. We will discuss the results in windy air, which show an encouraging performance both for the wind retrieval throughout the stratosphere (essentially unbiased l.o.s. winds with rms errors within 2 m/s over about 15 to 35 km) and for the GHG estimation.

  2. Measurements and modeling of greenhouse gases and the planetary boundary layer for the Boston metro area and the Northeastern Megalopolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCola, Philip; Jones, Taylor; Wofsy, Steven; McKain, Kathryn; Chen, Jia; Bererra, Yanina; Gottlieb, Elaine; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Hegarty, Jennifer; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Henderson, John; Mountain, Marikate; Hutyra, Lucy; Callahan, William

    2014-05-01

    The accuracy of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and air quality simulations reflects the fidelity of the atmospheric transport model employed that in turn is highly dependent on the accuracy of the meteorological input data. We begin by describing a multi-scale measurement network and model-data analysis framework for the Boston Metro region, with extension to the mid-Atlantic urban corridor. Observations include a network of automated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 inside and outside the urban domain, near the surface, on towers and tall buildings, total column measurements using the sun as a source, aerosol LiDAR data defining atmospheric structure, and meteorological data. The model-data analysis framework includes a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT), driven by meteorological fields from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and an inversion framework. We show examples of data and discuss the observational network's sampling design and a plan for extension to the NE urban corridor of the US. These urban studies are demonstrating the feasibility and value of incorporating advanced instrumentation such as the Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR to evaluate and improve the fidelity of the WRF simulations of atmospheric transport and structure in the planetary boundary layer. We also present examples of inverse analyses assessing anthropogenic emission rates for CH4 and CO2 in the urban region of metro Boston and along the urban-rural gradient.

  3. A game of climate chicken : can EPA regulate greenhouse gases before the U.S. Senate ratifies the Kyoto Protocol?

    E-print Network

    Bugnion, Véronique.; Reiner, David M.

    EPA's legal authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act is reviewed. While EPA clearly does not have the authority to implement the precise terms of the Kyoto Protocol, arguments could be put ...

  4. Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langebroek, P. M.; Nisancioglu, K. H.

    2014-07-01

    The last interglacial (LIG, ~130-116 ka, ka = 1000 yr ago) is characterized by high-latitude warming and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for future warming. However, in contrast to predicted future greenhouse warming, the LIG climate is largely governed by variations in insolation. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations were relatively stable and similar to pre-industrial values, with the exception of the early LIG when, on average, GHGs were slightly lower. We performed six time-slice simulations with the low-resolution version of the Norwegian Earth System Model covering the LIG. In four simulations only the orbital forcing was changed. In two other simulations, representing the early LIG, additionally the GHG forcing was reduced. With these simulations we investigate (1) the different effects of GHG versus insolation forcing on the temperatures during the LIG; (2) whether reduced GHGs can explain the low temperatures reconstructed for the North Atlantic; and (3) the timing of the observed LIG peak warmth. Our simulations show that the insolation forcing results in seasonal and hemispheric differences in temperature. In contrast, a reduction in the GHG forcing causes a global and seasonal-independent cooling. Furthermore, we compare modelled temperatures with proxy-based LIG sea-surface temperatures along a transect in the North Atlantic. The modelled North Atlantic summer sea-surface temperatures capture the general trend of the reconstructed summer temperatures, with low values in the early LIG, a peak around 125 ka, and a steady decrease towards the end of the LIG. Simulations with reduced GHG forcing improve the model-data fit as they show lower temperatures in the early LIG. Furthermore we show that the timing of maximum summer and winter surface temperatures is in line with the local summer and winter insolation maximum at most latitudes. Two regions where the maximum local insolation and temperature do not occur at the same time are Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. The austral summer insolation has a late maximum at ~115 ka. In contrast the austral summer temperatures in Antarctica show maxima at both ~130 ka and ~115 ka, and the Southern Ocean temperatures peak only at ~130 ka. This is probably due to the integrating effect of the ocean, storing heat from other seasons and resulting in relatively warm austral summer temperatures. Reducing the GHG concentrations in the early LIG (125 and 130 ka) results in a similar timing of peak warmth, except over Antarctica. There, the lower austral summer temperatures at 130 ka shift the maximum warmth to a single peak at 115 ka.

  5. Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant “Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, Michael J. [UCI

    2014-11-07

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  6. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  7. Influence of water table level and soil properties on emissions of greenhouse gases from cultivated peat soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

    2011-01-01

    A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic

  8. ENVIRON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ROMANIA--ESTROM PROJECT Sources and emission of greenhouse gases in Danube

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    biodiversity and productivity of most aquatic and wetland systems in the Environ Sci Pollut Res (2009) 16 for greenhouse gas production and export of carbon dioxide and methane to the Blac # Springer-Verlag 2009 Abstract Production of methane and carbon dioxide as well as methane concentrations

  9. Beyond mitigation : potential options for counter-balancing the climatic and environmental consequences of the rising concentrations of greenhouse gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike MacCracken

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is occurring at an accelerating pace, and the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are forcing climate change continue to increase. Given the present pace of international actions, it seems unlikely that atmospheric composition can be stabilized at a level that will avoid\\

  10. PhET Simulation: The Greenhouse Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-11-15

    This simulation explores how greenhouse gases affect Earth's climate. Students can view levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases present during Earth's last Ice Age, in the year 1750, today, or some time in the future.....and observe how the Earth's temperature changes. Levels of 4 greenhouse gases are displayed: water, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Add cloud cover to the simulation and observe the resulting temperature changes. Choose the tab "Glass Layers" to see what happens in an ideal greenhouse model. In the third simulation, students can adjust levels of atmospheric gases, then shoot infrared and visible photons from a photon emitter. How do the gases influence photon absorption? See Related Materials for a comprehensive student guide that explains how to use the "Greenhouse Effect" simulation to conduct a lab experiment. The experimental question: Which atmospheric gas is the best absorber of infrared photons? This item is part of a growing collection of simulations by the Physics Education Technology Project (PhET). Simulations were designed using principles from physics education research and refined based on student interviews and classroom observations.

  11. Observing Organic Molecules in Interstellar Gases: Non Equilibrium Excitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Faure, Alexandre; Remijan, Anthony; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-06-01

    In order to observe quantitatively organic molecules in interstellar gas, it is necessary to understand the relative importance of photonic and collisional excitations. In order to do so, collisional excitation transfer rates have to be computed. We undertook several such studies, in particular for H_2CO and HCOOCH_3. Both species are observed in many astrochemical environments, including star-forming regions. We found that those two molecules behave in their low-lying rotational levels in an opposite way. For cis methyl-formate, a non-equilibrium radiative transfer treatment of rotational lines is performed, using a new set of theoretical collisional rate coefficients. These coefficients have been computed in the temperature range 5 to 30 K by combining coupled-channel scattering calculations with a high accuracy potential energy surface for HCOOCH_3 -- He. The results are compared to observations toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud. A total of 2080 low-lying transitions of methyl formate, with upper levels below 25 K, were treated. These lines are found to probe a cold (30 K), moderately dense (n ˜ 104 cm-3) interstellar gas. In addition, our calculations indicate that all detected emission lines with a frequency below 30 GHz are collisionally pumped weak masers amplifying the background of Sgr B2(N). This result demonstrates the generality of the inversion mechanism for the low-lying transitions of methyl formate. For formaldehyde, we performed a similar non-equilibrium treatment, with H_2 as the collisional partner, thanks to the accurate H_2CO - H_2 potential energy surface . We found very different energy transfer rates for collisions with para-H_2 (J=0) and ortho-H_2 (J=1). The well-known absorption against the cosmological background of the 111? 101 line is shown to depend critically on the difference of behaviour between para and ortho-H_2, for a wide range of H_2 density. We thank the CNRS-PCMI French national program for continuous support and the CHESS Herschel KP program for travel supports. Discussions with C. Ceccarelli, P. Hily-Blant and S. Maret are acknowledged.

  12. Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A.; Baer, D. S.; Owano, T. G.; Provencal, R. A.; Gupta, M.; Parsotam, V.; Graves, P.; Goldstein, A.; Guha, A.

    2010-12-01

    Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants A. Gardner(1), D. Baer (1), T. Owano (1), R. Provencal (1), V. Parsotam (1), P. Graves (1), M. Gupta (1), Allen Goldstein (2), Abhinav Guha (2) (1) Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, CA 94041-1529 (2) Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California at Berkeley Quantifying the Urban Fossil Fuel Plume: Convergence of top-down and bottom-up approaches (Session A54). We report on the design, development and deployment of a novel Mobile Emissions Laboratory, consisting of innovative laser-based gas analyzers, for rapid measurements of multiple greenhouse gases and pollutants. Designed for real-time mobile and stationery emissions monitoring, the Mobile Emissions Laboratory was deployed at several locations during 2010, including CalNEX 2010, Caldecott Tunnel (Oakland, CA), and Altamont Landfill (Livermore, CA), to record real-time continuous measurements of isotopic CO2 (?13C, CO2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and isotopic water vapor (H2O; ?18O, ?2H). The commercial gas analyzers are based on novel cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The portable analyzers provide measurements in real time, require about 150 watts (each) of power and do not need liquid nitrogen to operate. These instruments have been applied in the field for applications that require high data rates (for eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., for chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that can be 10-1000 times higher than typical ambient levels) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Mobile Emissions Laboratory, which contains onboard batteries for long-term unattended measurements without access to mains power, can provide regulatory agencies, monitoring stations, scientists and researchers with temporally and spatially resolved data (including measurements of important greenhouse gases, isotopes and pollutants) necessary for compliance monitoring, hot-spot detection, as well as cap and trade, at any location. Details of extended measurement campaigns (including lessons learned) at the various field sites (urban and rural environments) will be presented.

  13. How will greenhouse gas observations meet changing requirements, laws, and demands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, J. B.; Montzka, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent efforts to develop a global greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS) have been driven by an anticipated need to support future national emission reduction policies or international treaties with observations. Such an effort would be similar to that done in support of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone, but more complex. However, greenhouse gas emissions are much more difficult to manage and may not be controlled by international agreement. The Kyoto Protocol has been fraught with political and practical difficulties, not the least of which is the absence of an independent observation and analysis requirement. Nevertheless, no unifying agreement was reached at the much heralded 2009 Conference of Parties (COP-15) in Copenhagen. Thus, it is quite possible (likely?) that greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced owing to other, uncoordinated policies that have their own merits, e.g., energy efficiency, alternative energy development, air quality improvement, forest development, agricultural practices, etc. If this is the future, then what observations and observation system design are needed and to what end? This presentation will discuss those needs in light of critical observations, analytical approaches, and evolving, disparate policies.

  14. Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of total emissions of greenhouse gases from biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.

    1997-12-31

    One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG emissions.

  15. The enhancement of clear sky greenhouse effect in HIRS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Gastineau; Brian Soden; Darren Jackson; Chris O'Dell; Graeme Stephens

    2010-01-01

    The High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) observations are used to understand the atmospheric response at the top of the atmosphere, induced by the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. The HIRS brightness temperature channels are used to regress the Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), and the greenhouse effect, in clear sky conditions, over the period 1981-2004. Here, we find that since 1981,

  16. Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langebroek, P. M.; Nisancioglu, K. H.

    2013-08-01

    The last interglacial (LIG) is characterized by high latitude warming and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for future warming. However, in contrast to predicted future greenhouse warming, the last interglacial climate is largely governed by variations in insolation. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations were relatively stable and similar to pre-industrial values, with the exception of the early last interglacial where GHGs were slightly lower. We performed six time-slice simulations with the low resolution version of the Norwegian Earth System Model covering the last interglacial. In four simulations only orbital forcing was changed, and in two simulations additionally GHG forcing was reduced to values appropriate for the early last interglacial. Our simulations show that insolation forcing results in seasonal and hemispheric differences in temperature. In contrast, a reduction in greenhouse gas forcing causes a global and seasonal-independent cooling. We also compare our modelled results to proxy data extracted from four marine sediment cores covering the entire last interglacial along a northeast-southwest transect in the North Atlantic. Our modelled North Atlantic summer sea surface temperatures capture the general trend of the proxy summer temperatures, with low values in the early last interglacial, a peak around 125 ka, and a steady decrease towards the end of the last interglacial. Temperatures computed by the simulations with reduced GHG forcing improve the fit as they show lower temperatures in the early last interglacial. Furthermore we show that the timing of maximum surface temperatures follows the local insolation maximum. Two exceptions are the temperatures on Antarctica that show maxima at both ~ 130 ka and ~ 115 ka, and the Southern Ocean austral summer temperatures that peak early at ~ 130 ka. This is probably due to the integrating effect of the ocean, storing summer heat and resulting in relatively warm winter temperatures.

  17. The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks

    E-print Network

    The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks #12;Three Pillars Behind Climate Change! #12;1. Global. Greenhouse Gases have been on the increase. #12;3. The Greenhouse effect is a powerful theory that explains! natural greenhouse effect! · an empirical introduction #12;Moral of the story: The doubling of CO2 causes

  18. Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

  19. Summer fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 from mangrove soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, G C; Tam, N F Y; Ye, Y

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheric fluxes of N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) from the soil in four mangrove swamps in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, South China were investigated in the summer of 2008. The fluxes ranged from 0.14 to 23.83 micromol m(-2)h(-1), 11.9 to 5168.6 micromol m(-2)h(-1) and 0.69 to 20.56 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2), respectively. Futian mangrove swamp in Shenzhen had the highest greenhouse gas fluxes, followed by Mai Po mangrove in Hong Kong. Sha Kong Tsuen and Yung Shue O mangroves in Hong Kong had similar, low fluxes. The differences in both N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes among different tidal positions, the landward, seaward and bare mudflat, in each swamp were insignificant. The N(2)O and CO(2) fluxes were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphate, total iron and NH(4)(+)-N contents, as well as the soil porosity. However, only soil NH(4)(+)-N concentration had significant effects on CH(4) fluxes. PMID:20381125

  20. Radiative Forcing by Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases: Estimates from Climate Models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Sun, Y.; Portmann, R. W.; Fu, Q.; Casanova, S. E. B.; Dufresne, J.-L.; Fillmore, D. W.; Forster, P. M. D.; Galin, V. Y.; Gohar, L. K.; Ingram, W. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Lefebvre, M.-P.; Li, J.; Marquet, P.; Oinas, V.; Tsushima, Y.; Uchiyama, T.; Zhong, W. Y.

    2006-01-01

    The radiative effects from increased concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs) represent the most significant and best understood anthropogenic forcing of the climate system. The most comprehensive tools for simulating past and future climates influenced by WMGHGs are fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). Because of the importance of WMGHGs as forcing agents it is essential that AOGCMs compute the radiative forcing by these gases as accurately as possible. We present the results of a radiative transfer model intercomparison between the forcings computed by the radiative parameterizations of AOGCMs and by benchmark line-by-line (LBL) codes. The comparison is focused on forcing by CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, and the increased H2O expected in warmer climates. The models included in the intercomparison include several LBL codes and most of the global models submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). In general, the LBL models are in excellent agreement with each other. However, in many cases, there are substantial discrepancies among the AOGCMs and between the AOGCMs and LBL codes. In some cases this is because the AOGCMs neglect particular absorbers, in particular the near-infrared effects of CH4 and N2O, while in others it is due to the methods for modeling the radiative processes. The biases in the AOGCM forcings are generally largest at the surface level. We quantify these differences and discuss the implications for interpreting variations in forcing and response across the multimodel ensemble of AOGCM simulations assembled for the IPCC AR4.

  1. The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Harvey, M. J.; Moss, R. C.; Pattey, E.; Dow, D.

    2011-03-01

    We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung") accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC) analyzer capable of measuring greenhouse gas emissive fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar® bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three flux chambers, multiplexed to a single GC. The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times) where a greater number of sampling points are required.

  2. The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Harvey, M. J.; Moss, R. C.; Pattey, E.; Dow, D.

    2011-10-01

    We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung") accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC) analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC. The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times) where a greater number of sampling points are required.

  3. Observational constraints on U.S. emissions of climate-active and ozone-depleting trace gases from a tall-tower and aircraft sampling network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; Siso, C.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Karion, A.; Neff, D.; Fischer, M. L.; Higgs, J.

    2010-12-01

    Air samples have been regularly collected at a number of tall tower sites and from aircraft profiling locations across the U.S. and Canada during the past 4 to 5 years. Measurements of approximately 50 trace gases in these samples provide a rich dataset of chemical markers related to urban, industrial, oceanic, biomass burning, fossil-fuel burning, atmospheric mixing, photosynthesis, and soil influences. Anthropogenic emission signals are readily apparent in the halocarbon and hydrocarbon data, upon which this talk will focus. Measured correlations between different halocarbons (especially hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)) show variations as a function of season that are qualitatively consistent with the expected regional and seasonal patterns of use and emission of these industrially-produced chemicals. In some instances, annual mean correlation slopes between different trace gases are well described by the U.S. EPA Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories, but for others, large differences are observed. Furthermore, interannual changes in correlation slopes are expected for gases that are being phased out (i.e., HCFCs) compared to those for which emissions may be increasing (i.e., HFCs) in the US. This presentation will focus on the regional, seasonal, and interannual variations in trace gas emissions implied from a straightforward analysis of this extensive measurement record.

  4. Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit. PMID:17574843

  5. Scientific basis for the greenhouse effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon J. Macdonald

    1987-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and a wide variety of other industrial gases, including methane, ozone, and feron, trap a portion of the earth's thermal radiation that would otherwise escape into space. This radiative trapping of energy produces the heating of the atmosphere popularly labeled the greenhouse effect. Detailed observations from remote stations show that the carbon dioxide concentration of the atmosphere has

  6. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, S.M., E-mail: saulo@lima.coppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rovere, E.L.L., E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, C.F., E-mail: mahler0503@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68506, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  7. How ground-based observations can support satellite greenhouse gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    Global society will eventually accelerate efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a variety of ways. These would likely involve international treaties, national policies, and regional strategies that will affect a number of economic, social, and environmental sectors. Some strategies will work better than others and some will not work at all. Because trillions of dollars will be involved in pursuing greenhouse gas emission reductions - through realignment of energy production, improvement of efficiencies, institution of taxes, implementation of carbon trading markets, and use of offsets - it is imperative that society be given all the tools at its disposal to ensure the ultimate success of these efforts. Providing independent, globally coherent information on the success of these efforts will give considerable strength to treaties, policies, and strategies. Doing this will require greenhouse gas observations greatly expanded from what we have today. Satellite measurements may ultimately be indispensable in achieving global coverage, but the requirements for accuracy and continuity of measurements over time are demanding if the data are to be relevant. Issues such as those associated with sensor drift, aging electronics, and retrieval artifacts present challenges that can be addressed in part by close coordination with ground-based and in situ systems. This presentation identifies the information that ground-based systems provide very well, but it also looks at what would be deficient even in a greatly expanded surface system, where satellites can fill these gaps, and how on-going, ground and in situ measurements can aid in addressing issues associated with accuracy, long-term continuity, and retrieval artifacts.

  8. Global and regional emissions of HFC-125 (CHF[subscript 2]CF[subscript 3]) from in situ and air archive atmospheric observations at AGAGE and SOGE observatories

    E-print Network

    O'Doherty, S.

    High-frequency, in situ observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe (SOGE) networks for the period 1998 to 2008, combined ...

  9. Detecting ozone- and greenhouse gas-driven wind trends with observational data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyoung; Feldstein, Steven B

    2013-02-01

    Modeling studies suggest that Antarctic ozone depletion and, to a lesser degree, greenhouse gas (GHG) increase have caused the observed poleward shift in the westerly jet during the austral summer. Similar studies have not been performed previously with observational data because of difficulties in separating the two contributions. By applying a cluster analysis to daily ERA-Interim data, we found two 7- to 11-day wind clusters, one resembling the models' responses to GHG forcing and the other resembling ozone depletion. The trends in the clusters' frequency of occurrence indicate that the ozone contributed about 50% more than GHG toward the jet shift, supporting the modeling results. Moreover, tropical convection apparently plays an important role for the GHG-driven trend. PMID:23372010

  10. 74 FR 18886 - Proposed Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-04-24

    ...The effects of climate change observed...and intense heat waves, more wildfires...and intense heat waves. Food production...vulnerable to climate change in poorer...drought, or heat wave) to elevated...anthropogenic climate change has...

  11. Potential of in-service aircraft based greenhouse gas observations within IAGOS for constraining regional carbon budgets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Shreeya; Gerbig, Christoph; Marshall, Julia; Roedenbeck, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 contain information about carbon sources and sinks and the characteristics of the CO2 exchange processes between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. Within the recently established European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System), highly accurate and precise in-situ observation of greenhouse gases is foreseen in the near future. The objective of this study is to quantify the reduction in uncertainty in estimates of carbon sources, sinks, and exchange processes brought about by the use of this newly developed data stream. Anticipating the deployment of five GHG observing systems within IAGOS, the flight tracks from five in-service aircraft within MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by AIrbus in-service airCraft), a predecessor of IAGOS, are used in an inversion system to assess the constraint on the carbon budget and quantify the potential for reduction in posterior CO2 flux uncertainties. These measurement locations are used to evaluate the impact of data from aircraft on the reduction of flux uncertainties compared to that based on the existing global observation network, and furthermore to identify areas where the addition of these measurements would be of greatest impact. We use the Jena Inversion System that employs the Global Atmospheric Tracer Model TM3 for atmospheric transport, focussing on the period 1996-2004. The vertical aircraft profiles are input into the inversion as two partial-column averages instead of point measurements, the lower partial column completely containing (and exceeding) the boundary layer. Thus the error due to imperfect model representation of the boundary layer height and hence the vertical tracer transport near the surface can be diminished, and results in the reduction of the overall model-data mismatch error. The experimental design is such that in each simulation the existing measurement network is augmented by pseudo-observations from up to five simulated IAGOS aircraft. Uncertainty reduction from each of these simulations is compared to the uncertainty reduction from simulations employing only IAGOS or only the existing observation network. Additional constraint on regional carbon budgets is expected from the reduced model-data mismatch error when using vertical profiles as compared to using point measurements within the atmospheric boundary layer only.

  12. Airborne observations of trace gases over boreal Canada during BORTAS: campaign climatology, airmass analysis and enhancement ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S. J.; Allen, G.; Gallagher, M. W.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Illingworth, S. M.; Le Breton, M.; Muller, J. B. A.; Percival, C. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Oram, D. E.; Parrington, M.; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.

    2013-05-01

    In situ airborne measurements were made over Eastern Canada in summer 2011 as part of the BORTAS experiment (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and~Satellites). In this paper we present observations of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) and other biomass burning tracers and related trace gases, both climatologically and through case studies, as recorded on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Vertical profiles of CO2 were generally characterised by depleted boundary layer concentrations relative to the free troposphere, consistent with terrestrial biospheric uptake. In contrast, CH4 concentrations were found to rise with decreasing altitude due to strong local and regional surface sources. We use coincident tracer-tracer correlations and a Lagrangian trajectory model to characterise and differentiate air mass history of intercepted plumes. In particular, CO, HCN and CH3CN were used to identify air masses that have been recently influenced by biomass burning. Concentrations of CO2 were found to have a mean tropospheric, campaign-average concentration of 384.8 ppm (ranging between 371.5 and 397.1 ppm), whilst CH4 concentrations had a mean value of 1859 ppb (ranging between 1797 and 1968 ppb), representing the episodic sampling of local fire plumes. CH4 and CO2 concentrations during BORTAS were found to be broadly comparable to previous measurements in the region during the regional burning season and with reanalysed composition fields from the EU Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Change (MACC) project. By examining individual case studies we were able to quantify emissions from biomass burning. Using both near-field (<1 day) and far-field (>1 day) sampling, boreal forest fire plumes were identified throughout the troposphere. Fresh plumes from fires in Northwest Ontario yield emission factors for CH4 and CO2 of 8.5 ± 0.9 g (kg dry matter)-1 and 1512 g ± 185 g (kg dry matter)-1, respectively. We have also investigated the efficacy of calculating emission factors from far-field sampling, in which there might be expected to be limited mixing with background and other characteristic air masses and we provide guidance on best practice and limitations in such analysis. We have found that for measurements within plumes that originated from fires in Northwest Ontario 2-4 days upwind, emission factors can be calculated that range between 1618 ± 216 and 1702 ± 173 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CO2 and 1.8 ± 0.2 and 6.1± 1 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CH4.

  13. Reported emissions of organic gases are not consistent with?observations

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Ronald C.; Spiegelman, Clifford H.; Collins, John F.; Park, EunSug

    1997-01-01

    Regulatory agencies and photochemical models of ozone rely on self-reported industrial emission rates of organic gases. Incorrect self-reported emissions can severely impact on air quality models and regulatory decisions. We compared self-reported emissions of organic gases in Houston, Texas, to measurements at a receptor site near the Houston ship channel, a major petrochemical complex. We analyzed hourly observations of total nonmethane organic carbon and 54 hydrocarbon compounds from C-2 to C-9 for the period June through November, 1993. We were able to demonstrate severe inconsistencies between reported emissions and major sources as derived from the data using a multivariate receptor model. The composition and the location of the sources as deduced from the data are not consistent with the reported industrial emissions. On the other hand, our observationally based methods did correctly identify the location and composition of a relatively small nearby chemical plant. This paper provides strong empirical evidence that regulatory agencies and photochemical models are making predictions based on inaccurate industrial emissions. PMID:11038551

  14. Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

  15. Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L.; Nicovich, J. Michael; Wine, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    A laser flash photolysis–resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O(1D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO2F2(k1), NF3(k2), and SF5CF3(k3). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k1(T) = 9.0 × 10-11 exp(+98/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k1b = (5.8 ± 2.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 independent of temperature. We find that k2(T) = 2.0 × 10-11 exp(+52/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with reaction proceeding almost entirely (?99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O(1D) by NF3 is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF3. Deactivation of O(1D) by SF5CF3 is slow enough (k3 < 2.0 × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K) that reaction with O(1D) is unimportant as an atmospheric removal mechanism for SF5CF3. The kinetics of O(1D) reactions with SO2 (k4) and CS2 (k5) have also been investigated at 298 K. We find that k4 = (2.2 ± 0.3) × 10-10 and k5 = (4.6 ± 0.6) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1; branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.76 ± 0.12 and 0.94 ± 0.06 for the SO2 and CS2 reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2?) and rate coefficients ki(T) (i = 1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of ± 15% (2?). PMID:20133693

  16. Multi-Model CIMP5 projected impacts of increased greenhouse gases on the Niger basin and implications for hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Climate change could potentially have large impacts on water availability in West Africa and the predictions are accrued with high uncertainties in this region. Countries in the Niger River basin (West Africa) plan the investment of 200 million in the installation of an additional 400MW of hydropower in the nearest future, adding to the existing 685MW. With the impacts of climate change in the basin already occurring, there is a need for comprehending the influence of future hydro-climatic changes on water resources and hydro-power generation in the basin. This study uses a hydrological model to simulate river flow under present and future conditions and evaluates the impacts of potential changes on electricity production of the largest hydroelectric dam (Kainji) in the Niger Basin. The Kainji reservoir produces 25 per cent of the current energy needs of Nigeria and was subject to large fluctuations in energy production as a result of variable inflow and operational reasons. Inflow into the reservoir was simulated using hydroclimatic data from a set of 7 regional climate models (RCM) with two emission scenarios from the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiment, driven with CMIP5 data. Based on observations of inflow, water level in the reservoir, and energy production we developed a simple hydroelectricity production model to simulate future energy production for the reservoir. Results suggest increases in river flow for the majority of RCM data as a result of increases in precipitation in the headwaters of the basin around 2050 and slightly decreasing trends for low emission scenarios by the end of the century. Despite this consistent increase, shifts in timing of river flow can challenge the reliable production of energy. This analysis could help assess the planning of hydropower schemes in the basin for a sustainable production of hydroelectricity in the future.

  17. CO2, CO and CH4 measurements from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; de Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    A robust in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary layer trace gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures and flow rates that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. These algorithms provide detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates for all of the gases and could be adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off the shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  18. Is the additional greenhouse effect already evident in the current climate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Raschke

    2001-01-01

    Several greenhouse gases, which are in part or entirely produced by human activities, have accumulated in the atmosphere since approximately the middle of the 19th century. They are assumed to have an additional greenhouse effect causing a further increase of atmospheric temperatures near the ground and a decrease in the layers above approximately 15 km altitude. The currently observed near-surface

  19. Observation of Threshold Effects in Positron Scattering from the Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. C. L.; Caradonna, P.; Makochekanwa, C.; Slaughter, D. S.; McEachran, R. P.; Machacek, J. R.; Sullivan, J. P.; Buckman, S. J.

    2010-08-01

    Channel coupling is a phenomenon that has been investigated for many scattering processes, and is responsible for the formation of cusps or steps in the cross sections for open scattering channels at, or near, the onset of a new scattering channel. It has long been speculated that the opening of the positronium formation channel may lead to the formation of such cusp features in the elastic positron scattering cross section. In this work, elastic scattering of positrons has been measured in the region of the positronium formation threshold for the noble gases He-Xe. Cusplike behavior is observed and, while the features which are observed appear broad, they represent a magnitude of between 4 and 15% of the total elastic cross section. No evidence is found of any other features in this region, at least within the uncertainty of the present data, discounting the possibility of scattering resonances.

  20. Feasibility of observations of stratospheric trace gases using the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, M.; De Zafra, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The stellar occultation method has been successfully used in the past from orbiting observatories to measure concentrations of certain trace gases in the earth's mesosphere. The greatly improved spectroscopic capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have prompted recent suggestions for its use to measure stratospheric C10. This possibility is examined along with that for other species relevant to the chemistry of the ozone layer. It is concluded that stratospheric (as opposed to mesospheric) observations with HST are not practical, in part because of its orbital and pointing characteristics, but primarily because the high opacity of stratospheric ozone over most of the bandpass of the HST's most suitable spectrometer will obscure observation of other trace species, such as C10, having mixing ratios of less than 0.001.

  1. MAX-DOAS observations of trace gases over Mainz: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Carlos; Gu, Myojeong; Remmers, Julia; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report on levels of trace gases in ambient atmosphere in Mainz, Germany. We measured the differential Slant Column Density (dSCD) of NO2, HCHO and O4 in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument. The MAX-DOAS observations were taken at Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, from January to March 2014, at different elevation angles. The main aim of the study is to compare the results of the Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument with those from a 'scientific' MAX-DOAS instrument operated simultaneously at the same location. We quantify systematic differences and random and errors of both data sets for different measurement conditions. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas DSCDs will be discussed in this work.

  2. GreenHouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Bösch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul I.; Parr-Burman, Phil M.; Vick, Andrew J. A.; Bezawada, Naidu N.; Black, Martin; Born, Andrew J.; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

    2014-10-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) depends on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Accurate and precise atmospheric concentration observations of GHGs can be used to infer surface flux estimates, though their interpretation relies on unbiased atmospheric transport models. GHOST is a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer which will observe tropospheric columns of CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O (along with the HDO/H2O ratio) during deployment on board the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) test atmospheric transport models; 2) evaluate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer observations from other Global Hawk instruments. GHOST comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. Incoming light is then split into four spectral bands, selected to optimise remote observations of GHGs. The design uses a single grating and detector for all four spectral bands. We summarise the GHOST concept and its objectives, and describe the instrument design and proposed deployment aboard the Global Hawk platform.

  3. Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John

    2012-07-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  4. 5, 213242, 2008 Greenhouse gases

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract In Central from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric

  5. The greenhouse effect and climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. B. Mitchell; J. F. B

    1989-01-01

    The physical basis of the projected changes in climate due to enhancement of the greenhouse effect is outlined. Gases important to the greenhouse effect are discussed as well as the expected changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases, potential climatic effects, and the ways of detecting changes in the climate. The potential warming due to man-made changes over the last

  6. Experimental observations of the transport of brine and dissolved gases in sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Ceri A.; Thomas, Carelle; Escala, Darío M.; De Wit, Anne; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2014-05-01

    A detailed knowledge of processes in sea ice is necessary to understand how sea ice behaviour both affects and is affected by our changing climate. As the extent of sea ice cover is modified due to anthropogenic climate change, it is important to understand how these variations will themselves contribute to feedback mechanisms in the climate system, particularly when considering the sources, sinks, and transport of CO2 and other climatically important gases. So that we can understand the effect that changing sea ice cover will have on the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and the oceans, we have to understand how gas transport occurs in sea ice. It is therefore necessary to understand the movement of the brines in which these gases are dissolved. The mechanisms of sea ice formation have been well described previously, however, the processes and mechanisms of transport of brine and fresher sea water through the ice are not yet completely understood. As ice freezes from sea water, it behaves as a mushy layer in which the salts present are expelled into pockets of increasingly saline brine. These pockets link together at certain critical values of brine volume fraction, temperature, and salinity to form channels by which the dense brine can sink into the underlying sea water, so driving convective transport from the ice layer into the sea. To analyse the influence of this convection on the transport of gases in ice, we will experimentally characterise convective patterns and instabilities in an ice-liquid two-layer system. We produce a quasi-2D ice-salt water interface within a Hele-Shaw cell by applying a gradient of temperature to a thin layer of saline water, cooling from the upper boundary. As the system cools, a freezing front develops, so forming a 2D model of the mushy layer. Here we will present the methodology and preliminary results of visualisation of this process using optical imaging techniques. Schlieren and synthetic Schlieren imaging allow gradients of densities to be mapped due to their different refractive indices, and we can therefore potentially observe the downward flow of denser brine and upward movement of fresher water as the freezing front progresses. From these experiments we can provide qualitative observations of the transport mechanisms, and also analyse the onset of convection within these brine channels.

  7. Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.; Morikawa, T.; Hanayama, S.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Fukui, T.; Kawashima, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-11-01

    We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25° × 0.25° resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.0 Pg (+57%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulphurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° for the major sectors are available from the following URL: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/.

  8. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: algorithm and results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, A.; Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.

    2015-01-01

    The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO) is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting so far. Here we describe a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both standalone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm-1 and exploits transmission differences from wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s-1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s-1 but is found to benefit in case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and implementation of a LMIO mission.

  9. Airborne observations of trace gases over boreal Canada during BORTAS: campaign climatology, air mass analysis and enhancement ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S. J.; Allen, G.; Gallagher, M. W.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Illingworth, S. M.; Le Breton, M.; Muller, J. B. A.; Percival, C. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Oram, D. E.; Parrington, M.; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    In situ airborne measurements were made over eastern Canada in summer 2011 as part of the BORTAS experiment (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites). In this paper we present observations of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) and other biomass burning tracers (CO, HCN and CH3CN), both climatologically and through case studies, as recorded on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Vertical profiles of CO2 were generally characterised by depleted boundary layer concentrations relative to the free troposphere, consistent with terrestrial biospheric uptake. In contrast, CH4 concentrations were found to rise with decreasing altitude due to strong local and regional surface sources. BORTAS observations were found to be broadly comparable with both previous measurements in the region during the regional burning season and with reanalysed composition fields from the EU Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Change (MACC) project. We use coincident tracer-tracer correlations and a Lagrangian trajectory model to characterise and differentiate air mass history of intercepted plumes. In particular, CO, HCN and CH3CN were used to identify air masses that have been recently influenced by biomass burning. Examining individual cases we were able to quantify emissions from biomass burning. Using both near-field (< 1 day) and far-field (> 1 day) sampling, boreal forest fire plumes were identified throughout the troposphere. Fresh plumes from fires in northwestern Ontario yield emission factors for CH4 and CO2 of 8.5 ± 0.9 g (kg dry matter)-1 and 1512 ± 185 g (kg dry matter)-1, respectively. We have also investigated the efficacy of calculating emission factors from far-field sampling, in which there might be expected to be limited mixing with background and other characteristic air masses, and we provide guidance on best practice and limitations in such analysis. We have found that for measurements within plumes that originated from fires in northwestern Ontario 2-4 days upwind, emission factors can be calculated that range between 1618 ± 216 and 1702 ± 173 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CO2 and 1.8 ± 0.2 and 6.1 ± 1 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CH4.

  10. A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-print Network

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

  11. The detection of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, Robert A.; Unninayar, Sushel

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is accepted as an undisputed fact from both theoretical and observational considerations. In Earth's atmosphere, the primary greenhouse gas is water vapor. The specific concern today is that increasing concentrations of anthropogenically introduced greenhouse gases will, sooner or later, irreversibly alter the climate of Earth. Detecting climate change has been complicated by uncertainties in historical observations and measurements. Thus, the primary concern for the GEDEX project is how can climate change and enhanced greenhouse effects be unambiguously detected and quantified. Specifically examined are the areas of: Earth surface temperature; the free atmosphere (850 millibars and above); space-based measurements; measurement uncertainties; and modeling the observed temperature record.

  12. The Greenhouse Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carol McLaren

    2000-01-01

    This site provides an overview of the Earth's atmospheric greenhouse effect by briefly exploring the atmospheres of nearby planets and discussing the greenhouse gases of our atmosphere, such as, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and nitrous oxide. Students will learn that the heat-trapping ability of a greenhouse is influenced by a number of factors, including the transparency of the greenhouse cover, and color and texture of the planet's surfaces. This site serves as a resource for and includes links to two classroom activities.

  13. Profile observations of long-lived trace gases in the Arctic vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, U.; Bauer, R.; Khedim, A.; Klein, E.; Kulessa, G.; Schiller, C. (Forschungszentrum Juelich (West Germany))

    1991-04-01

    Five sets of vertical profiles of long-lived trace gases were measured in the stratosphere at high northern latitudes (68{degree}N) during three field campaigns of the CHEOPS-Project. Large whole air samples were collected by means of balloon-borne cryogenic samplers analyzed for their content of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CFCl{sub 3}, CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, C{sub 2}F{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}, CCl{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}Cl and CH{sub 3}CCl{sub 3}. The measured polar profiles well be compared with mean vertical distributions derived from a series of observations at midlatitudes (44{degree}N). The difference indicates a pronounced effect of subsidence in the Arctic winter stratosphere with a net downward shift of the Arctic vertical profile by about 7 km over the time period from November until February. Owing to this efficient downward transport, the abundance of chlorine in the form of reservoir and reactive species, is increased in the lower Arctic stratosphere to about twice that observed at mid-latitudes.

  14. The Warming Trend and the Greenhouse Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-11-12

    This video segment produced by ThinkTV explains the greenhouse effect and its connection to the recent rise in Earth's average temperature. Scientists explore the role of human activity in the increase of greenhouse gases and the warming trend.

  15. Assessment of a multi-species in situ FTIR for precise atmospheric greenhouse gas observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, S.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Konrad, G.; Vardag, S.; Caldow, C.; Levin, I.

    2013-05-01

    We thoroughly evaluate the performance of a multi-species, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyser with respect to high-accuracy needs for greenhouse gas monitoring networks. The in situ FTIR analyser is shown to measure CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O mole fractions continuously, all with better reproducibility than the inter-laboratory compatibility (ILC) goals, requested by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme. Simultaneously determined ?13CO2 reaches reproducibility as good as 0.03‰. Second-order dependencies between the measured components and the thermodynamic properties of the sample, (temperature, pressure and flow rate) and the cross sensitivities among the sample constituents are investigated and quantified. We describe an improved sample delivery and control system that minimises the pressure and flow rate variations, making post-processing corrections for those quantities non-essential. Temperature disequilibrium effects resulting from the evacuation of the sample cell are quantified and improved by the usage of a faster temperature sensor. The instrument has proven to be linear for all measured components in the ambient concentration range. The temporal stability of the instrument is characterised on different time scales. Instrument drifts on a weekly time scale are only observed for CH4 (0.04 nmol mol-1 day-1) and ?13CO2 (0.02‰ day-1). Based on 10 months of continuously collected quality control measures, the long-term reproducibility of the instrument is estimated to ±0.016 ?mol mol-1 CO2, ±0.03‰ ?13CO2, ±0.14 nmol mol-1 CH4, ±0.1 nmol mol-1 CO and ±0.04 nmol mol-1 N2O. We propose a calibration and quality control scheme with weekly calibrations of the instrument that is sufficient to reach WMO-GAW inter-laboratory compatibility goals.

  16. IEEE POWER ENGINEERING SOCIETY ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND POWER GENERATION COMMITTEE International Practices Subcommittee PANEL SESSION: Developments in Implementing Technology to Limit Greenhouse Gases

    E-print Network

    Chairman T. J. Hammons; International Practices; Energy Development

    The Panel Session discussed the latest progress and technology developments to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Reviewed was the status of scientific debate on global warming and climate change, progress in technology on limiting climate change, the California Climate Registry, Ontario Power Generation's Green Response Program, and an IEEE Standard for CO2 Credits. There was also a presentation on whether or not there is an energy crisis, and a discussion on economic growth and greenhouse gas reduction.

  17. Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region

    PubMed Central

    McKain, Kathryn; Wofsy, Steven C.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ehleringer, James R.; Stephens, Britton B.

    2012-01-01

    International agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require verification to ensure that they are effective and fair. Verification based on direct observation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will be necessary to demonstrate that estimated emission reductions have been actualized in the atmosphere. Here we assess the capability of ground-based observations and a high-resolution (1.3 km) mesoscale atmospheric transport model to determine a change in greenhouse gas emissions over time from a metropolitan region. We test the method with observations from a network of CO2 surface monitors in Salt Lake City. Many features of the CO2 data were simulated with excellent fidelity, although data-model mismatches occurred on hourly timescales due to inadequate simulation of shallow circulations and the precise timing of boundary-layer stratification and destratification. Using two optimization procedures, monthly regional fluxes were constrained to sufficient precision to detect an increase or decrease in emissions of approximately 15% at the 95% confidence level. We argue that integrated column measurements of the urban dome of CO2 from the ground and/or space are less sensitive than surface point measurements to the redistribution of emitted CO2 by small-scale processes and thus may allow for more precise trend detection of emissions from urban regions. PMID:22611187

  18. Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region.

    PubMed

    McKain, Kathryn; Wofsy, Steven C; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ehleringer, James R; Stephens, Britton B

    2012-05-29

    International agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require verification to ensure that they are effective and fair. Verification based on direct observation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will be necessary to demonstrate that estimated emission reductions have been actualized in the atmosphere. Here we assess the capability of ground-based observations and a high-resolution (1.3 km) mesoscale atmospheric transport model to determine a change in greenhouse gas emissions over time from a metropolitan region. We test the method with observations from a network of CO(2) surface monitors in Salt Lake City. Many features of the CO(2) data were simulated with excellent fidelity, although data-model mismatches occurred on hourly timescales due to inadequate simulation of shallow circulations and the precise timing of boundary-layer stratification and destratification. Using two optimization procedures, monthly regional fluxes were constrained to sufficient precision to detect an increase or decrease in emissions of approximately 15% at the 95% confidence level. We argue that integrated column measurements of the urban dome of CO(2) from the ground and/or space are less sensitive than surface point measurements to the redistribution of emitted CO(2) by small-scale processes and thus may allow for more precise trend detection of emissions from urban regions. PMID:22611187

  19. Greenhouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Boesch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul; Parr-Burman, Phil; Vick, Andy; Bezawada, Naidu; Black, Martin; Born, Andy; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is dependent on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Errors in assumed atmospheric transport can adversely affect surface flux estimates inferred from surface, aircraft or satellite observations of greenhouse gas concentrations using inverse models. We present a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer (GHOST) for installation on the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to provide tropospheric column observations of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O and HDO over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely resolved measurements of key GHGs. These species cover a range of lifetimes and source processes, and measurements of their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of their vertical and horizontal transport within the troposphere. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) provide observations which can be used to test atmospheric transport models; 2) validate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans, thus filling a critical gap in current validation capabilities; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer tracer observations from other instrumentation on board the Global Hawk to provide a link between upper and lower troposphere concentration measurements. The GHOST spectrometer system comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM design utilises a gimbal behind an optical dome, which is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. The fibre slicer and feed system then splits the light into the four spectral bands using order sorting filters. The fibres corresponding to each band are arranged with a small sideways offset to correctly centre each spectrum on the detector array. The spectrograph design is unique in that a single grating and detector is used for all four spectral bands. The whole instrument is housed within a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat to ensure thermal stability. We summarise the GHOST project and its objectives, and will provide a detailed overview of the instrument concept, development, and proposed deployment on board the Global Hawk.

  20. Aerosols and gases concentrations observed at Stelvio National Park (Italian Alps) during summer conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; Cristofanelli, P.; Bonafè, U.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Laj, P.; Villani, P.; Bonasoni, P.

    2012-04-01

    Three summer fields campaigns were carried out during 2009, 2010 and 2011 in two sites in the area of Stelvio National Park (SNP), Central Italian Alps. Those activities were performed in the frame of the SHARE - Stelvio project (Station at High Altitude for Research on the Environment). SNP includes an extensive impervious territory of valleys and high mountains, up to 3900 m asl. Two high altitude sampling sites, Rifugio Guasti (3285 m asl) and Forni glacier ( 2700 m asl), have been picked out for collecting the main atmospheric parameters: the first site hosted the field campaign in 2009 and 2010 and was located at Cevedale pass, at the border between Lombardia and Trentino-Alto Adige regions, while in 2011 the measurements were carried out on Forni glacier surface, in a N-S oriented valley, through SHARE-box, a portable and autonomous unit for atmospheric measurements developed in the framework of SHARE project. Because of different location Rifugio Guasti is an ideal site to monitor long range transport on Southern slope of Alpine range, while Forni glacier is more affected by local influence of valley and glacier breezes. Monitored parameters concerned (i) meteorology, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, air pressure, (ii) chemical and physical properties of the aerosols (number concentrations, size distribution and chemical composition) and (iii) , gases concentration (CO2, O3). This work is aimed at describing the behaviour of these compounds, in terms of concentration observed over different time scales, such hourly and daily, in order to investigate the impact of transport processes (i.e. air masses transports arisen from both "thermal" breezes or synoptic circulation) on aerosols and gases variability at SNP. The Alps face the Po Valley, one of the more populated and industrialized region in Europe. This is one of the most probable source of polluted air masses which spread towards high altitude sites, such as Alps and Apennines, according to the dominant wind direction and the planetary boundary layer depth. In fact during summer-time, when the convective boundary layer is well developed, the measurement could be affected by air masses travelling along Tellina Valley and from the urbanized Po Valley and vegetated belt, spreading towards the high elevation of Alpine Southern slope, strongly affecting the tropospheric conditions and resulting in a typical diurnal cycle. On the other hand, as will be shown in this work, the long-range transport related with synoptic circulation may affect air-mass composition at the SNP. In fact several episodes of mineral dust transport coming from Northern Africa and air-masses descending from the upper troposphere or the low stratosphere has been observed. Long range transport of polluted air masses from continental Europe may also affect the pristine air conditions at SNP.

  1. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section 600... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... § 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases...

  2. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section 600... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... § 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases...

  3. Spatial variability of greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir flooding primary forest (Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleaud, Emilie; Guérin, Frédéric; Bouillon, Steven; Sarrazin, Max; Serça, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    At the Petit Saut Reservoir (PSR, French Guiana, South America), vertical profiles were performed at 5 stations in the open waters (OW) and 6 stations in two shallow flooded forest (FF) areas between April 2012 and September 2013. Measurements included physico-chemical parameters, ammonium, nitrate and dissolved greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) and nitrogen (PN), ?13C-POC and ?15N-PN . The diffusive fluxes were calculated from surface concentrations. The aim of this study was to estimate the spatial variations of greenhouse gas emissions at a dentrical hydroelectric reservoir located in the tropics and flooding primary forest. Twenty years after impoundment, the water column of the PSR is permanently and tightly stratified thermally in the FF whereas in the OW, the thermal gradients are not as stable. The different hydrodynamical behaviours between the two different zones have significant consequences on the biogeochemistry: oxygen barely diffuses down to the hypolimnion in the FF whereas destratification occurs sporadically during the rainy season in the OW. Although we found the same range of POC in the FF and the OW (2.5-29 ?mol L-1) and 20% more DOC at the bottom of OW than in the FF (229-878 ?mol L-1), CO2 and CH4 concentrations were always significantly higher in the FF (CO2: 11-1412 ?mol L-1, CH4: 0.001-1015 ?mol L-1) than in the OW. On average, the CO2 concentrations were 30-40% higher in the FF than in the OW and the CH4 concentrations were three times higher in the FF than in the OW. The ?13C-POC and C:N values did not suggest substantial differences in the sources of OM between the FF and OW. At all stations, POC at the bottom has an isotopic signature slightly lighter than the terrestrial OM in the surrounding forest whereas the isotopic signature of surface POM would result from phytoplankton and methanotrophs. The vertical profiles of nitrogen compounds reveal that the main source of nitrogen in the water column of the PSR is the NH4+ produced during the mineralisation of the OM at the bottom of the reservoir. In OW, the production of NO3- and N2O is enhanced compared to the FF. As a result, N2O concentrations are three times higher at the bottom of OW but surface concentrations are similar in the FF and OW. CO2 diffusive fluxes are 40% higher and CH4 diffusive fluxes are three times higher in FF (CO2: 42±20 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.7±1.4 mmol m-2 d-1) than in OW (CO2: 27±17 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.2±0.3 mmol m-2 d-1). In shallow FF, average CH4 ebullition is 3±10 mmol m-2 d-1 whereas ebullition was never observed in OW. N2O emissions did not exhibit any spatial variability (9±4 ?mol m-2 d-1). At the PSR, FF which represents one third of the surface area, is responsible of half of the GHG emissions from the reservoir. This implies that the emissions from most of the tropical reservoirs flooding primary forest need to be reassessed since FF environments are usually overlooked.

  4. Ahimsa Media -For Educators -The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Ahimsa Media - For Educators - The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity. Clean up and restore a natural habitat. http://www.ahimsamedia.com/lessonGreenhouseEffect.htm (1 of 5 By Erica Hargreave Extensions Have students brainstorm ways they can reduce greenhouse gases at home, play

  5. Greenhouse Effect in a Greenhouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    Build your own miniature "greenhouse" out of a plastic container and plastic wrap, and fill it with different things such as dirt and sand to observe the effect this has on temperature. Monitor the temperature using temperature probes and digitally plot the data on the graphs provided in the activity.

  6. Experimental observation of a traveling plasma grating formed by two crossing filaments in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, Magali [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); ONERA, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Liu Yi; Forestier, Benjamin; Houard, Aurelien; Mysyrowicz, Andre [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2011-03-21

    The spatial motion and effective duration of a traveling plasma grating formed by two interfering femtosecond laser filaments in gases is characterized by its Doppler effect imparted on a probe pulse. The shift velocity determined experimentally agrees with the theoretical calculations.

  7. Estimation of greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from no-till cropland under increased temperature and altered precipitation regime: a DAYCENT model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Rashad; Kumar, Sandeep; Luo, Yiqi; Xu, Xianli; Li, Dejun; Zhang, Wei; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman

    2014-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play an important role in regulating the Earth surface temperature. GHG emissions from soils are sensitive to climate change and land management practices. According to general circulation model (GCM) predictions, the Earth will experience a combination of increased temperature and altered precipitation regimes which may result in an increase or a decrease of GHG exchange. The effect of climate change on GHG emissions can be examined through both experiments and by applying process-based models, which have become more popular. The performance of those models can be improved significantly by appropriate calibration procedures. The objectives of this study are to: (i) calibrate the DAYCENT model using advance parameter estimation (PEST) software and to (ii) examine simulated GHG dynamics at daily and seasonal time-scales under a climate change scenario of increased temperature (2 °C) and a precipitation regime change where 40% of precipitation during the dry season was redistributed to the wet season. The algorithmic calibration improved the model performance by reducing the sum of weighted squared residual differences by up to 223% (decreased from 1635 to 505 g N2O-N ha- 1 d- 1) for N2O and 22% (decreased from 623 to 507% WFPS) for water filled pore space (WFPS) simulation results. In the altered climate scenario, total N2O and CO2 fluxes decreased by 9% (from 2.31 to 2.10 kg N2O-N ha- 1 yr- 1) and 38% (from 1134.08 to 699.56 kg CO2 ha- 1 yr- 1) respectively, whereas CH4 fluxes increased by 10% (from 1.62 to 1.80 kg CH4 ha- 1 yr- 1). Our results show a larger impact of altered climate on CO2 as compared to N2O and CH4 emissions. The main difference in all GHG emissions was observed in summer period due to drought conditions created by reduced precipitation and increased temperatures. However, the GHG dynamics can also be attributed to no-till practices which play an important role in changing the soil moisture conditions for aerobic and anaerobic microsites. These results are based on a process-based model, therefore, we suggest performing experimental studies to examine the GHG emissions under increased temperature and especially under altered precipitation regimes.

  8. Climate Change Studies Using Space Based Observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranganath R. Navalgund; Raghavendra P. Singh

    Climate change is associated with earth radiation budget that depends upon incoming solar radiation, surface albedo and radiative\\u000a forcing by greenhouse gases. Human activities are contributing to climate change by causing changes in Earth’s atmosphere\\u000a (greenhouse gases, aerosols) and biosphere (deforestation, urbanization, irrigation). Long term and precise measurements from\\u000a calibrated global observation constellation is a vital component in climate system

  9. Observed Trends in Total Vertical Column Abundances of Atmospheric Gases from IR Solar Spectra Recorded at the Jungfraujoch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mahieu; R. Zander; L. Delbouille; P. Demoulin; G. Roland; C. Servais

    1997-01-01

    Since 1984, about 15000 high quality infrared solar spectra have beenrecorded with state-of-the-art grating and Fourier transform spectrometersat the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland.Nonlinear least squares spectral curve fitting of selected microwindowscontaining isolated and well characterized lines of 20 telluric gases haveallowed to retrieve their total vertical column abundances above thestation, leading to observational data bases essential to

  10. Retrieval of vertical profiles of multiple trace gases from MAX-DOAS observations during the MADCAT Campaign in Mainz, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Xie, Pinhua; Wagner, Thomas; Li, Ang; Luo, Yuhan; Remmers, Julia; Horbanski, Martin; Friess, Udo

    2014-05-01

    In order to promote the development of passive DOAS technique and solve some critical problems including e.g. accurate retrievals of trace gas slant column densities (SCD), profile retrievals of trace gases and aerosol, and the effects of cloud, the Multi Axis DOAS-Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) was held at the Max-Planck institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany from June to August 2013. Within this campaign, spectra of scattered sun light were taken by our two-dimensional scanning MAX-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) instrument and a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument from the Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this presentation, firstly we show the retrieved differential SCDs of O4, NO2, HCHO, HONO and CHOCHO based on the observations of the 2D-MAX-DOAS. Based on these dSCDs we acquired the vertical profiles of these trace gases and aerosol extinction using optimal estimation method. We compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MAX-DOAS with simultaneous observations from an AERONET instrument as well as the near surface volume mixing ratio (VMR) of NO2 from MAX-DOAS with those from a CE-DOAS instrument from the IUP Heidelberg group and found in general good agreement. In addition we apply a cloud classification scheme based on our MAX-DOAS observations to identify different kinds of weather during the MAD-CAT campaign.

  11. Comparison of the observed and calculated clear sky greenhouse effect - Implications for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    The clear sky greenhouse effect is defined in terms of the outgoing longwave clear sky flux at the top of the atmosphere. Recently, interest in the magnitude of the clear sky greenhouse effect has increased due to the archiving of the clear sky flux quantity through the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The present study investigates to what degree of accuracy this flux can be analyzed by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. The conclusion from this comparison is that for most regions over oceans the analyzed fluxes agree to within the accuracy of the ERBE-retrieved fluxes (+/- 5 W/sq m). However, in regions where deep convective activity occurs, the ERBE fluxes are significantly higher (10-15 W/sq m) than the calculated fluxes. This bias can arise from either cloud contamination problems or variability in water vapor amount. It is argued that the use of analyzed fluxes may provide a more consistent clear sky flux data set for general circulation modeling validation. Climate implications from the analyzed fluxes are explored. Finally, results for obtaining longwave surface fluxes over the oceans are presented.

  12. What is the Greenhouse Effect?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Rosenberg

    As part of this activity, students will read and discuss information on the greenhouse effect and list important points about global warming. Tables are provided to show the most important greenhouse gases and how much their concentrations have increased since the pre-industrial era.

  13. Greenhouse effect of NO X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Lammel; Hartmut Grafll

    1995-01-01

    Through various processes the nitrogen oxides (NOX) interact with trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere which do absorb in the spectral range relevant to the greenhouse\\u000a effect (infrared wavelengths). The net effect is an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The catalytic role of NOX in the production of tropospheric ozone provides the most prominent contribution. The global waming potential

  14. Field Observations of the Processing of Organic Aerosol Particles and Trace Gases by Fogs and Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, J. L.; Herckes, P.

    2003-12-01

    In many environments, organic compounds account for a significant fraction of fine particle mass. Because the lifetimes of accumulation mode aerosol particles are governed largely by interactions with clouds, it is important to understand how organic aerosol particles are processed by clouds and fogs. Recently we have examined the organic composition of clouds and fogs in a variety of environments as well as how these fogs and clouds process organic aerosol particles and soluble organic trace gases. The investigations, conducted in Europe, North America, Central America, and the Pacific region, have included studies of polluted radiation fogs, orographic clouds in clean and polluted environments, and marine stratocumulus. Our results show that organic matter is a significant component of fog and cloud droplets. In polluted California radiation fogs, we observed concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) ranging from 2 to 40 ppmC, with significantly lower concentrations measured in marine and continental clouds. An average of approximately 80 percent of organic matter was found in solution, while the remainder appears to be suspended material inside cloud and fog drops. Ultrafiltration measurements indicate that as much as half of the dissolved organic carbon is present in very large molecules with molecular weights in excess of 500 Daltons. Field measurements made using a two-stage cloud water collector reveal that organic matter tends to be enriched in smaller cloud or fog droplets. Consequently, removal of organic compounds by precipitating clouds or by direct cloud/fog drop deposition will be slowed due to the fact that small drops are incorporated less efficiently into precipitation and removed less efficiently by sedimentation or inertial impaction. Despite this trend, we have observed that sedimentation of droplets from long-lived radiation fogs provides a very effective mechanism for cleansing the atmosphere of carbonaceous aerosol particles, with organic carbon removed more efficiently than elemental carbon. Efforts to characterize organic matter in clouds and fogs reveal that the most abundant species are typically low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes. These species have been observed collectively to account for roughly 20-30 percent of the total organic carbon in some fogs and clouds. Dicarboxylic acids, frequently used as model compounds for organic CCN, typically account for only about 1 percent of the organic carbon, with oxalic acid the most important contributor. Measurements by GC/MS, HPLC, and H-NMR reveal that many other organic compounds are present, including aerosol source markers and compound families frequently detected in aerosol particles including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These latter compounds were detected in both dissolved and undissolved forms in droplets, with dissolved concentrations often higher than their solubilities in pure aqueous solutions, suggesting a possible role of surface organic films. Although more than 100 organic species have been quantified in many samples, the majority of the organic carbon mass remains unspeciated. Given the importance of high molecular weight material, future efforts will focus in part on further characterization of these compounds, including possible contributions from humic like substances.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

  16. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Ruether

    1998-01-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide,

  17. Space Place: Have a Greenhouse Gas Attack!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this game, players help rid Earth of excess greenhouse gases with the goal of getting atmospheric temperature to the "normal" range. A link is included which provides directions on making greenhouse gases out of gumdrops. The article/game is targeted to children ages 10-12.

  18. GreenHouse Gas Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-01

    GreenHouse Gas Online catalogues greenhouse gas related articles published in over 100 peer-reviewed journals from around the world. Only journal articles with freely available abstracts are included. The latest general news and journal articles can be found listed by title, while links to archived material is available by topic. Pages devoted to background information on the various greenhouse gases, current scientific understanding and the potential for control of emissions are also available.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Molecules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    George Lisensky

    This resource consists of an interactive table with a comprehensive list of 29 Greenhouse Gases, their molecular structures, a chart showing a time series of their atmospheric concentrations (at several sampling sites), their global warming potential (GWP) and their atmospheric lifetimes. References are given to the data sets that range from the mid-1990s to 2008.

  20. POSTING: Technician 5 Heat and Greenhouse gas Exchange The Centre for Earth Observation Science (CEOS) within the Faculty of Environment,

    E-print Network

    POSTING: Technician 5 ­ Heat and Greenhouse gas Exchange technician in support of multidisciplinary research on heat and greenhouse gas exchange within marine and estuarine environments of the Arctic and sub

  1. A Novel Paradigm in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    for the largest percent- age of the greenhouse effect, between 36% and 66% in terms of radiation absorbance. WaterA Novel Paradigm in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Abdul-Majeed Azad, Eric McDaniel, and Sirhan Al CO2 and H2O, two well- known greenhouse gases responsible for contributing considerably to the global

  2. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  3. The earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology. I - Observations of the clear sky greenhouse effect. II - Observations of cloud effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Greenwald, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky components of the earth's radiation budget (ERB), the relationship of these components to the sea surface temperature (SST), and microwave-derived water-vapor amount are analyzed in an observational study along with the relationship between the cloudy-sky components of ERB and space/time coincident observations of SST, microwave-derived cloud liquid water, and cloud cover. The purpose of the study is to use these observations for establishing an understanding of the couplings between radiation and the atmosphere that are important to understanding climate feedback. A strategy for studying the greenhouse effect of earth by analyzing the emitted clear-sky longwave flux over the ocean is proposed. It is concluded that the largest observed influence of clouds on ERB is more consistent with macrophysical properties of clouds as opposed to microphysical properties. The analysis for clouds and the greenhouse effect of clouds is compared quantitatively with the clear sky results. Land-ocean differences and tropical-midlatitude differences are shown and explained in terms of the cloud macrostructure.

  4. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    This document, provided by the US Energy Information Agency, summarizes emission data reported for 1995 as part of the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. Global warming is caused by increasing quantities of greenhouse gases being emitted into the atmosphere. Such gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and toxic pollutants. Estimates of temperature increase range from 2-6.5 degrees Fahrenheit in the next 100 years.

  5. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  6. Mesospheric Removal of Very Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases SF6 and CFC-115 by Metal Reactions, Lyman-? Photolysis, and Electron Attachment.

    PubMed

    Totterdill, Anna; Kovács, Tamás; Gómez Martín, Juan Carlos; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M C

    2015-03-12

    The fluorinated gases SF6 and C2F5Cl (CFC-115) are chemically inert with atmospheric lifetimes of many centuries which, combined with their strong absorption of IR radiation, results in unusually high global warming potentials. Very long lifetimes imply that mesospheric sinks could make important contributions to their atmospheric removal. In order to investigate this, the photolysis cross sections at the prominent solar Lyman-? emission line (121.6 nm), and the reaction kinetics of SF6 and CFC-115 with the neutral meteoric metal atoms Na, K, Mg, and Fe over large temperature ranges, were measured experimentally. The Na and K reactions exhibit significant non-Arrhenius behavior; quantum chemistry calculations of the potential energy surfaces for the SF6 reactions indicate that the Na and K reactions with SF6 are probably activated by vibrational excitation of the F-SF5 (v3) stretching mode. A limited set of kinetic measurements on Na + SF5CF3 are also presented. The atmospheric removal of these long-lived gases by a variety of processes is then evaluated. For SF6, the removal processes in decreasing order of importance are electron attachment, VUV photolysis, and reaction with K, Na, and H. For CFC-115, the removal processes in decreasing order of importance are reaction with O((1)D), VUV photolysis, and reaction with Na, K, and H. PMID:25647411

  7. Development of inexpensive continuous emission monitors for feedback control of combustion devices that minimize greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, and ozone damaging products

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.J.; Moore, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Mongia, R.K.; Tomita, E.; Hsu, F.K.; Talbot, L.; Dibble, R.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US); Lovett, J. [Pratt and Whitney (US); Yamazaki, Akira [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combustion is the major cause of poor urban air quality, of depletion of the ozone layer, and a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Careful control of combustor conditions is important for minimizing the effects of combustion on the environment. The authors have developed sensitive, inexpensive continuous emission monitors that will assist in direct feedback of turbine power systems and provide assurance to the public and the operators of the facilities that their facility emissions lie within the accepted bounds. These include a robust solid-state Fourier transform spectrometer for rapid gas analysis, based on the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal technology, and an infrared helium-neon probe for real time measurement of combustor air-to-fuel ratios.

  8. 2013 Update of NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James H.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Elkins, James W.; Masari, Kenneth A.; Schnell, Russell C.; Tans, Pieter P.

    2013-04-01

    Indexes are becoming increasingly important in communicating messages about climate change to a diverse public. Indexes exist for a number of climate-related phenomena including heat, precipitation, and extreme events. These help communicate complex phenomena to the public and, at times, policy makers, to aid in understanding or making decisions. Several years ago, NOAA introduced a unique index for expressing the influence of human-emitted, long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (DJ Hofmann et al., Tellus, 2006, S8B 614-619). Essentially a condensation and normalization of radiative forcing from long-lived gases, the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a standard that could be easily understood and followed. The index each year is calculated from high quality, long-term observations by NOAA's Global Monitoring Division, which includes real-time measurements extending over the past five decades, as well as published ice core record that go back to 1750. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. At the end of 2011, the AGGI was 1.30, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 30% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In addition to presenting the AGGI for 2012, increases in radiative forcing will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

  9. Greenhouse effect of NOX.

    PubMed

    Lammel, G; Graßl, H

    1995-07-01

    Through various processes the nitrogen oxides (NOX) interact with trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere which do absorb in the spectral range relevant to the greenhouse effect (infrared wavelengths). The net effect is an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The catalytic role of NOX in the production of tropospheric ozone provides the most prominent contribution. The global waming potential is estimated as GWP (NOX = 30 - 33 and 7 - 10 for the respective time horizons of 20 and 100 years, and is thereby comparable to that of methane. NOX emissions in rural areas of anthropogenically influenced regions, or those in the vicinity of the txopopause caused by air traffic, cause the greenhouse effectivity to be substantially more intense. We estimate an additional 5-23 % for Germany's contribution to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect as a result of the indirect greenhouse effects stemming from NOX. Furthermore, a small and still inaccurately defined amount of the deposited NOX which has primarily been converted into nitrates is again released from the soil into the atmosphere in the form of the long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Thus, anthropogenically induced NOX emissions contribute to enhanced greenhouse effect and to stratospheric ozone depletion in the time scale of more than a century. PMID:24234471

  10. Model Greenhouses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about the advantages and disadvantages of the greenhouse effect. They construct their own miniature greenhouses and explore how their designs take advantage of heat transfer processes to create controlled environments. They record and graph measurements, comparing the greenhouse indoor and outdoor temperatures over time. Students are also introduced to global issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and their relationship to global warming.

  11. Coupling of latent heat flux and the greenhouse effect by large-scale tropical\\/subtropical dynamics diagnosed in a set of observations and model simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gershunov; R. Roca

    2004-01-01

    Coupled variability of the greenhouse effect (GH) and latent heat flux (LHF) over the tropical – subtropical oceans is described, summarized and compared in observations and a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM). Coupled seasonal and interannual modes account for much of the total variability in both GH and LHF. In both observations and model, seasonal coupled variability is locally

  12. Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping the "Greenhouse Effect"

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping ­ the "Greenhouse Effect" Goals ­ to look is the same as a 1.8 degree F change. #12;Last time - Greenhouse effect demo Selective absorption. Greenhouse Constituents in Earth's atmosphere #12;Atmospheric Composition The Greenhouse Gases #12;How molecules interact

  13. Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100?g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Outcome measures Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Results Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18?683 (14?665to 22?889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15?228 (11?245to 19?492) ktCO2e/year. Conclusions Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets. PMID:24154517

  14. Gases, God and the balance of nature: a commentary on Priestley (1772) ‘Observations on different kinds of air’

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Historians of chemistry usually associate the eighteenth century with the Chemical Revolution, but it could just as readily be called ‘the century of gases’ (or ‘airs’, as they were called in the eighteenth century). In the early part of the century, the British pneumatic chemists struggled to replace the traditional notion ‘Air’, understood as an inert chemical element, with the concept of ‘air’, regarded as the third state of matter, encompassing a wide variety of chemical species. These developments constituted a necessary condition for the Chemical Revolution, which occurred in the latter part of the century. In ‘Observations’, Priestley took pneumatic chemistry to a new level, with the discovery of eight simple inorganic gases. Motivated by his belief in a benevolent God and a pious utilitarianism, Priestly explored the role of the atmosphere in the balance of nature and the politics of the state, which he linked to the movement of Rational Dissent. He styled himself an ‘aerial philosopher’ to signal the interdisciplinary nature of his inquiries, which he regarded not as a branch of ordinary chemistry, but as a mode of thought that encompassed physics, chemistry and natural theology. Priestley saw it as a source of principles and secrets of nature more extensive than that of ‘gravity itself’. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750146

  15. Fluxes of the greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) above a short-rotation poplar plantation after conversion from agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Donatella; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2013-04-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy may lead to the conversion of millions of hectares into bioenergy plantations with a possible substantial transitory carbon (C) loss. In this study we report on the greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, and N2O) measured using eddy covariance of a short-rotation bioenergy poplar plantation converted from agricultural fields. During the first six months after the establishment of the plantation (June-Dec 2010) there were substantial CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions (a total of 5.36 ± 0.52 Mg CO2eq ha-1 in terms of CO2 equivalents). Nitrous oxide loss mostly occurred during a week-long peak emission after an unusually large rainfall. This week-long N2O emission represented 52% of the entire N2O loss during one and an half years of measurements. As most of the N2O loss occurred in just this week-long period, accurately capturing these emission events are critical to accurate estimates of the GHG balance of bioenergy. While initial establishment (Jun-Dec 2010) of the plantation resulted in a net CO2 loss into the atmosphere (2.76 ± 0.16 Mg CO2eq ha-1), in the second year (2011) there was substantial net CO2 uptake (-3.51 ± 0.56 Mg CO2eq ha-1). During the entire measurement period, CH4 was a source to the atmosphere (0.63 ± 0.05 Mg CO2eq ha-1 in 2010, and 0.49 ± 0.05 Mg CO2eq ha-1 in 2011), and was controlled by water table depth. Importantly, over the entire measurement period, the sum of the CH4 and N2O losses was much higher (3.51 ± 0.52 Mg CO2eq ha-1) than the net CO2 uptake (-0.76 ± 0.58 Mg CO2eq ha-1). As water availability was an important control on the GHG emission of the plantation, expected climate change and altered rainfall pattern could increase the negative environmental impacts of bioenergy.

  16. Simple model of photo acoustic system for greenhouse effect

    E-print Network

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2010-01-01

    The simple theoretical basis for photo acoustic (PA) system for studying infrared absorption properties of greenhouse gases is constructed. The amplitude of sound observed in PA depends on the modulation frequency of light pulse. Its dependence can be explained by our simple model. According to this model, sound signal has higher harmonics. The theory and experiment are compared in third and fifth harmonics by spectrum analysis. The theory has the analogy with electric circuits. This analogy helps students for understanding the PA system.

  17. EVALUATION OF SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an initial evaluation of significant anthropogenic sources of radiatively important trace gases. missions of greenhouse gases from human activities--including fossil fuel combustion, industrial/agricultural activities, and transportation--contribute to the increasin...

  18. Observed dependence of the water vapor and clear-sky greenhouse effect on sea surface temperature: Comparison with climate warming experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Bony; H. Le Treut; J. P. Duvel

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a comparison of the water vapor and clear-sky greenhouse effect dependence on sea surface temperature for climate variations of different types. Firstly, coincident satellite observations and meteorological analyses are used to examine seasonal and interannual variations and to evaluate the performance of a general circulation model. Then, this model is used to compare the results inferred from

  19. Observed dependence of the water vapor and clear-sky greenhouse effect on sea surface temperature: comparison with climate warming experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Bony; Jean-Philippe Duvel; Hervé Trent

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a comparison of the water vapor and clear-sky greenhouse effect dependence on sea surface temperature for climate variations of different types. Firstly, coincident satellite observations and meteorological analyses are used to examine seasonal and interannual variations and to evaluate the performance of a general circulation model. Then, this model is used to compare the results inferred from

  20. Importance of methane and nitrous oxide for Europe's terrestrial greenhouse-gas balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    Climate change negotiations aim to reduce net greenhouse-gas emissions by encouraging direct reductions of emissions and crediting countries for their terrestrial greenhouse-gas sinks. Ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake has offset nearly 10% of Europe's fossil fuel emissions, but not all of this may be creditable under the rules of the Kyoto Protocol. Although this treaty recognizes the importance of methane and nitrous oxide emissions, scientific research has largely focused on carbon dioxide. Here we review recent estimates of European carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes between 2000 and 2005, using both top-down estimates based on atmospheric observations and bottom-up estimates derived from ground-based measurements. Both methods yield similar fluxes of greenhouse gases, suggesting that methane emissions from feedstock and nitrous oxide emissions from arable agriculture are fully compensated for by the carbon dioxide sink provided by forests and grasslands. As a result, the balance for all greenhouse gases across Europe's terrestrial biosphere is near neutral, despite carbon sequestration in forests and grasslands. The trend towards more intensive agriculture and logging is likely to make Europe's land surface a significant source of greenhouse gases. The development of land management policies which aim to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions should be a priority.

  1. Analysis of air quality with numerical simulation (CMAQ), and observations of trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Patricia

    Ozone, a secondary pollutant, is a strong oxidant that can pose a risk to human health. It is formed from a complex set of photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ambient measurements and air quality modeling of ozone and its precursors are important tools for support of regulatory decisions, and analyzing atmospheric chemical and physical processes. I worked on three methods to improve our understanding of photochemical ozone production in the Eastern U.S.: a new detector for NO2, a numerical experiment to test the sensitivity to the timing to emissions, and comparison of modeled and observed vertical profiles of CO and ozone. A small, commercially available cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) NO2 detector suitable for surface and aircraft monitoring was modified and characterized. The CRDS detector was run in parallel to an ozone chemiluminescence device with photolytic conversion of NO2 to NO. The two instruments measured ambient air in suburban Maryland. A linear least-squares fit to a direct comparison of the data resulted in a slope of 0.960+/-0.002 and R of 0.995, showing agreement between two measurement techniques within experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to the temporal variation of four emissions sectors was investigated to understand the effect of emissions' daily variability on modeled ozone. Decreasing the variability of mobile source emissions changed the 8-hour maximum ozone concentration by +/-7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). Increasing the variability of point source emissions affected ozone concentrations by +/-6 ppbv, but only in areas close to the source. CO is an ideal tracer for analyzing pollutant transport in AQMs because the atmospheric lifetime is longer than the timescale of boundary layer mixing. CO can be used as a tracer if model performance of CO is well understood. An evaluation of CO model performance in CMAQ was carried out using aircraft observations taken for the Regional Atmospheric Measurement, Modeling and Prediction Program (RAMMPP) in the summer of 2002. Comparison of modeled and observed CO total columns were generally in agreement within 5-10%. There is little evidence that the CO emissions inventory is grossly overestimated. CMAQ predicts the same vertical profile shape for all of the observations, i.e. CO is well mixed throughout the boundary layer. However, the majority of observations have poorly mixed air below 500 m, and well mixed air above. CMAQ appears to be transporting CO away from the surface more quickly than what is observed. Turbulent mixing in the model is represented with K-theory. A minimum Kz that scales with fractional urban land use is imposed in order to account for subgrid scale obstacles in urban areas and the urban heat island effect. Micrometeorological observations suggest that the minimum Kz is somewhat high. A sensitivity case where the minimum K z was reduced from 0.5 m2/s to 0.1 m2/s was carried out. Model performance of surface ozone observations at night increased significantly. The model better captures the observed ozone minimum with slower mixing, and increases ozone concentrations in the residual layer. Model performance of CO and ozone morning vertical profiles improves, but the effect is not large enough to bring the model and measurements into agreement. Comparison of modeled CO and O3 vertical profiles shows that turbulent mixing (as represented by eddy diffusivity) appears to be too fast, while convective mixing may be too slow.

  2. Regional Modeling Support for Planning Airborne Campaigns to Observe CO2 and Other Trace Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uliasz, M.; Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A.

    2010-12-01

    Lagrangian particle models (e.g., CSU LPDM, STILT) driven by regional meteorological models (e.g., WRF, SiB-RAMS) are useful tools in regional CO2 research including inversion studies, design of tower network, or testing and supporting flight scenarios. They are typically used in backward in time mode as an adjoint transport model providing, for each data point, influence functions (footprints) for surface fluxes and inflow fluxes across a domain perimeter. The following modeling framework is proposed to support a design of observational networks and field campaigns for measurement of CO2 concentrations in regional and continental scales: (1) atmospheric transport climatology covering several months for selected towers or flight transects, (2) testing specific flight scenarios (shorter time periods, but higher resolution), and (3) using model generated pseudo-data and inversion techniques to optimize observational strategies for specific objectives in terms of uncertainty reduction in estimated CO2 surface fluxes. This framework will be presented using examples from previous regional CO2 studies over North America with the aid of CSU SiB-RAMS and LPDM models. Then, it will be used to explore how column integrated measurements of CO2 from aircraft (active laser sounding) together with airborne sampling can complement the NOAA tall tower network of continuous CO2 measurements for inversion studies. Hypothetical flight scenarios are designed to collect information on both surface fluxes and boundary conditions around US domain perimeter using model simulations for the entire year of 2007. Example of three concentration sampling strategies (WBI tower continuous, and two flights during 4 afternoon hours every day), one month average (July, 2007) for a passive tracer (top), CO2 respiration flux (middle) and CO2 assimilation flux (bottom)

  3. Trapping, chemistry and export of trace gases in the South Asian summer monsoon observed during CARIBIC flights in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2015-03-01

    The CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) passenger aircraft observatory performed in situ measurements at 10-12 km altitude in the South Asian summer monsoon anticyclone between June and September 2008. These measurements enable us to investigate this atmospheric region, which so far has mostly been observed from satellites, using the broad suite of trace gases and aerosols measured by CARIBIC. Elevated levels of a range of atmospheric pollutants were recorded e.g. carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen oxides, aerosol particles and several volatile organic compounds. The measurements provide detailed information about the chemical composition of air in different parts of the monsoon anticyclone, particularly of ozone precursors. While covering a range of 3500 km inside the monsoon anticyclone, CARIBIC observations show remarkable consistency, i.e. with regular latitudinal patterns of trace gases during the entire monsoon period. Trajectory calculations indicate that these air masses originated mainly from South Asia and Mainland Southeast Asia. Using the CARIBIC trace gas and aerosol measurements in combination with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART we investigated the characteristics of monsoon outflow and the chemical evolution of air masses during transport. Estimated photochemical ages of the air were found to agree well with transport times from a source region east of 95° E. The photochemical ages of the air in the southern part of the monsoon anticyclone were consistently younger (less than 7 days) and the air masses mostly in an ozone forming chemical regime. In its northern part the air masses were older (up to 13 days) and had unclear ozone formation or destruction potential. Based on analysis of forward trajectories several receptor regions were identified. In addition to predominantly westward transport, we found evidence for efficient transport (within 10 days) to the Pacific and North America, particularly during June and September, and also of cross-tropopause exchange, which was strongest during June and July. Westward transport to Africa and further to the Mediterranean was the main pathway during July.

  4. Gas-water-rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO2 injection: Implications for the storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Cole, D.R.; Hovorka, S.D.; Gunter, W.D.; Knauss, K.G.; Freifeld, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional brine and oil reservoir in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before CO2 injection showed a Na-Ca-Cl-type brine with 93,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) at near saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions. Following CO2 breakthrough, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5-5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100-3000 mg/L as HCO3) and Fe (30-1100 mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and CH4. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower but for the buffering by dissolution of carbonate and iron oxyhydroxides. This rapid dissolution of carbonate and other minerals could ultimately create pathways in the rock seals or well cements for CO2 and brine leakage. Dissolution of minerals, especially iron oxyhydroxides, could mobilize toxic trace metals and, where residual oil or suitable organics are present, the injected CO2 could also mobilize toxic organic compounds. Environmental impacts could be major if large brine volumes with mobilized toxic metals and organics migrated into potable groundwater. The ??18O values for brine and CO2 samples indicate that supercritical CO2 comprises ???50% of pore-fluid volume ???6 mo after the end of injection. Postinjection sampling, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicates that the brine gradually will return to its preinjection composition. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  5. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The IEA Greenhouse Gas Programme is an international collaboration that evaluates technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, disseminates the results of these studies and identifies targets for research, development and demonstration. The program operates under the auspices of the International Energy Agency. The key areas of study for the IEA GGP include climate change, emission reduction and carbon dioxide capture and storage.

  6. Combining Bayesian methods and aircraft observations to constrain the HO. + NO2 reaction rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Henderson; R. W. Pinder; J. Crooks; R. C. Cohen; A. G. Carlton; H. O. T. Pye; W. Vizuete

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is the third strongest greenhouse gas, and has the highest uncertainty in radiative forcing of the top five greenhouse gases. Throughout the troposphere, ozone is produced by radical oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). In the upper troposphere (8-10 km), current chemical transport models under-estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) observations. Improvements to simulated NOx emissions from

  7. What we learn from updates of NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James H.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dlugokencky, Edward; Elkins, James W.; Masarie, Kenneth; Schnell, Russell C.; Tans, Pieter; Dutton, Geoff; Miller, Ben R.

    2014-05-01

    Several years ago, NOAA introduced a unique index for expressing the influence of human-emitted, long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (D.J. Hofmann et al., Tellus, 2006, S8B, 614-619). Being a condensation and normalization of radiative forcing from long-lived gases, the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a standard that could be easily understood and followed. The index each year is calculated from high quality, long-term observations by NOAA's Global Monitoring Division, which includes real-time measurements extending over the past five decades, as well as published ice core records that go back to 1750. The AGGI is radiative forcing from these long-lived gases, normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. For 2012, the AGGI was 1.32, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 32% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing (and the AGGI) by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 80-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) has increased measurably over the past 6 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing (and the AGGI). This year, in addition to updating the AGGI for 2013, increases in radiative forcing will be evaluated and discussed with respect to time-dependent changes in the contributions from CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  9. Recent trends of inorganic chlorine and halogenated source gases above the Jungfraujoch and Kitt Peak stations derived from high-resolution FTIR solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahieu, Emmanuel; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Gardiner, Tom; Zander, Rodolphe; Demoulin, Philippe; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Ruhnke, Roland; Chiou, Linda S.; de Mazière, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The longest series of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) high spectral resolution solar absorption observations are available from the Jungfraujoch and Kitt Peak stations, located at 46.5°N and 30.9°N, respectively. State-of-the-art interferometers are operated at these sites within the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, visit http://www.ndacc.org). These instruments allow to record spectra on a regular basis, under clear-sky conditions, using a suite of optical filters which altogether cover the 2 to 16 micron spectral range. Numerous absorption features characterized in the HITRAN compilations (e.g. Rothman et al., 2008) are encompassed in this mid-infrared region. Their analyses with either the SFIT-1 or SFIT-2 algorithm allow retrieving total columns of the target gases. Moreover, information on their distribution with altitude can generally be derived when using SFIT-2 which implements the Optimal Estimation Method of Rodgers (1990). Among the two dozen gases of atmospheric interest accessible to the ground-based FTIR technique, we have selected here a suite of long-lived halogenated species: HCl, ClONO2, CCl2F2, CCl3F, CHClF2, CCl4 and SF6. Time series available from the two sites will be presented, compared and critically discussed. In particular, changes in the abundances of theses gases since the peak in inorganic chlorine (Cly, which occurred in 1996-1997) and their intra-annual variability will be characterized with a statistical tool using bootstrap resampling (Gardiner et al., 2008). Trends and their associated uncertainties will be reported and put into perspective with the phase-out regulations of the production of ozone depleting substances adopted and implemented by the Montreal Protocol, its Amendments and Adjustments. For instance, the trends affecting the reservoir species HCl, ClONO2, and their summation which is a good proxy of the total inorganic chlorine, have been calculated using all available daily mean measurements from January 1996 onwards. The following values were obtained for Jungfraujoch, when using 1996 as the reference year: -0.90±0.10%/yr for HCl, -0.92±0.26 %/yr for ClONO2, and -0.96±0.14 %/yr for Cly; in all cases, the uncertainties define the 95% confidence interval around the trend values. For Kitt Peak (covering 1977-2009 but with far fewer measurements than from Jungfraujoch), the corresponding trends are: -0.55±0.34 %/yr for HCl, -1.27±0.84 %/yr for ClONO2 and -0.61±0.51 %/yr for Cly, they are statistically consistent with the Jungfraujoch rates of decrease. Further trend data will be presented at the EGU General Assembly while supplementary information on Jungfraujoch results will be available from communications at the same meeting by Duchatelet et al. (2010), Lejeune et al (2010) and Rinsland et al (2010). Comparisons with model data are also foreseen. Acknowledgments The University of Liège contribution to present work has primarily been supported by the AGACC and SECPEA projects funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO), Brussels. We further acknowledge the support of the GEOMon European project. Work at the NASA Langley Research Center was supported by NASA's Upper Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Program (ACMAP). References Duchatelet et al., Updating hydrogen fluoride (HF) FTIR time series above Jungfraujoch: comparison of two retrieval algorithms and impact of line shape models, this issue, 2010. Gardiner, T., A. Forbes, M. De Mazière et al., Trend analysis of greenhouse gases over Europe measured by a network of ground-based remote FTIR instruments, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6719-6727, 2008. Lejeune et al., Optimized approach to retrieve information on the Tropospheric and Stratospheric Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) vertical distributions above Jungfraujoch from high-resolution FTIR solar spectra, this issue, 2010. Rinsland et al., Long-term trend of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch, this issue, 2010. Rodgers, C.D., Char

  10. NOBLE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Noble Gases symposium, on which this report is based, provided comprehensive coverage of the noble gases. The coverage included, but was not limited to, the properties, biokinetics, bioeffects, production and release to the environment, detection techniques, standards, and ap...

  11. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Peter Hekkert

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today.\\u000aIn order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof,\\u000athe emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane\\u000a(CH4 ) should be reduced.\\u000aMuch greenhouse gases are emitted due

  12. Seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Shepardson; Soyoung Choi; Dev Niyogi; Umarporn Charusombat

    2011-01-01

    This constructivist study investigates 225 student drawings and explanations from three different schools in the midwest in the US, to identify seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect. Five distinct mental models were derived from an inductive analysis of the content of the students' drawings and explanations: Model 1, a ‘greenhouse’ for growing plants; Model 2, greenhouse gases

  13. 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism

    E-print Network

    1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism whereby absorbed solar radiation is converted by longwave (LW) opacity of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) and clouds system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non

  14. Overview of global greenhouse effects

    SciTech Connect

    Reck, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

  15. Attribution of Arctic temperature change to greenhouse-gas and aerosol influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Zwiers, Francis W.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2015-03-01

    The Arctic has warmed significantly more than global mean surface air temperature over recent decades, as expected from amplification mechanisms. Previous studies have attributed the observed Arctic warming to the combined effect of greenhouse gases and other anthropogenic influences. However, given the sensitivity of the Arctic to external forcing and the intense interest in the effects of aerosols on its climate, it is important to examine and quantify the effects of individual groups of anthropogenic forcing agents. Here we quantify the separate contributions to observed Arctic land temperature change from greenhouse gases, other anthropogenic forcing agents (which are dominated by aerosols) and natural forcing agents. We show that although increases in greenhouse-gas concentrations have driven the observed warming over the past century, approximately 60% of the greenhouse-gas-induced warming has been offset by the combined response to other anthropogenic forcings, which is substantially greater than the fraction of global greenhouse-gas-induced warming that has been offset by these forcings. The climate models considered on average simulate the amplitude of response to anthropogenic forcings well, increasing confidence in their projections of profound future Arctic climate change.

  16. Greenhouse Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Connecticut Energy Education

    This activity is a greenhouse-effect-in-a-bottle experiment. The lesson includes readings from NEED.org and an inquiry lab measuring the effect of carbon dioxide and temperature change in an enclosed environment.

  17. Electronegative gases

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined.

  18. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty...Vehicles § 86.1818-12 Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty...as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  19. Relative and absolute emissions of anthropogenic trace gases around the US based on paired atmospheric observations of fossil fuel CO2 from 14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S.; Montzka, S. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, B. R.; Wolak, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Southon, J. R.; Turnbull, J. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Fischer, M. L.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-12-01

    The small radiocarbon fraction of atmospheric CO2 (~1:10^12 14C:C) has proven to be an ideal tracer for the fossil fuel derived component of observed CO2 (Cff) over large industrialized land areas. A growing number of 14CO2 measurements are now being made in air sampled from a network of tall towers and airborne profiling sites around the US alongside measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, and a large suite of halo- and hydro-carbons. Cff paired with boundary-layer enhancements of more than 20 other anthropogenic gases measured in the same samples allow us to determine apparent emissions ratios for each gas with respect to Cff (where apparent ratios refer to those at the time of observation rather than at the time of emission). Here we compare seasonal and spatial variability of apparent emissions ratios for regions of significant urban and industrial emissions around the US, including sites in California, Texas, the mid-west, south-east and north-east . Statistically significant and coherent spatial and seasonal patterns in apparent emissions ratios are determined for many gases over multiple years. These can in turn be combined with appropriate spatial footprints over which the emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2 has been independently determined based on inventories and process models in order to estimate absolute emissions of the correlate gases in different regions, following simple scaling methods we have outlined previously [Miller et al. 2012, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JD017048]. This approach provides some of the first reliable "top down", observationally-based emissions estimates for these gases, many of which influence climate, air quality and stratospheric ozone. Unlike most "bottom up" inventories, our estimates of absolute trace gas emissions are accompanied by quantifiable estimates of uncertainty.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with direct energy inputs for a warmwater low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. These gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases. Some of these gases occur naturally and some are created by human activities which can increase their concentrations. The most comm...

  1. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  2. Urban greenhouse gas mole fraction in-situ measurements: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Davis, Kenneth; Richardson, Scott; Sarmiento, Daniel; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Hardesty, Robert Michael; Turnbull, Jocelyn; Iraci, Laura; Gurney, Kevin; Razlivanov, Igor; Obiminda Cambaliza, Maria; Shepson, Paul; Whetstone, James

    2014-05-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was designed to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban environments. Determination of greenhouse gas fluxes and uncertainty bounds is essential for the evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. The current INFLUX observation network includes twelve in-situ tower-based, continuous measurements of CO2, CO, and CH4, flask sampling of 14CO2 and other trace gases, and periodic aircraft sampling of greenhouse gases and meteorological conditions. Eddy covariance and radiative flux are measured at four of the tower sites, and a scanning Doppler lidar was installed in April 2013; both are used to quantify key boundary layer meteorological properties and evaluate model performance. Additionally, a total carbon column observing network (TCCON) column remote sensing station was deployed August - December 2012. The data from the towers, TCCON, and aircraft measurements are being used in an inverse-modeling approach to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. Very high space/time resolution estimates of fossil fuel carbon emissions (Hestia project) offer state-of-the-art "bottom up" emissions estimates for the city and its surroundings. Here we present an overview of the progress from INFLUX, with a focus on tower-based results. With this high density of urban tower-based greenhouse gas measurements, we will quantify horizontal and vertical spatial patterns in atmospheric mole fractions of CO2, CO, and CH4 in Indianapolis. The consistency of the observed horizontal gradients with that expected based on differences in land-cover contributions according to footprint analysis will be evaluated. The ability to correctly model transport and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer, responsible for carrying greenhouse gases from their source to the point of measurement, is essential. Thus we investigate differences between the modeled and observed sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, air temperature, and wind speed.

  3. CD Greenhouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-12

    In this activity, learners plant seeds and watch them sprout and grow inside a CD case. This is a creative way to introduce learners to the process of germination as well as plant anatomy and elements of habitat. Learners will be surprised that they can construct a functioning greenhouse inside a simple CD case.

  4. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Ebel

    2009-01-01

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper

  5. Blood gases

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood gases are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine ... taking a sample of blood from the wrist area. The health care provider will insert a small ...

  6. Construct-a-Greenhouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Felicia Lee

    2000-01-01

    Shed some light on the physics supporting plant growth in a controlled environment. Greenhouses provide the differential energy needs of plants during their growth cycle. Students design structures that convert light to heat during germination and reconfigure those structures to promote photosynthesis. By comparing the effects of design characteristics on plant growth, students observe the connections between plant biology and thermodynamics and energy transfer.

  7. How are greenhouse gases related to agriculture? Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur

    E-print Network

    States. How will climate change affect Michigan field crop agriculture? Global warming is likely to bring climate change. Soil and fertilizer management Ruminant livestock (enteric fermentation) Manure management State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet Series

  8. What is a Greenhouse?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is designed to familiarize students with how a greenhouse retains heat by building simple models. As a result of this activity, students will come to understand that greenhouses are useful because they both allow sunlight to enter and prevent heat from escaping. The transparent covering of the greenhouse allows visible light to enter unhindered, where it warms the interior as it is absorbed by the material within. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

  9. Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rick

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

  10. Energy Efficiency and Emerging Markets for Greenhouse Gas Trading

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, M.

    an important economic input into the generation of electricity in the United States. The commoditization of the Greenhouse Gases will likely develop in a similar fashion but on a global scale, becoming another economic input into electricity generation...

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from contrasting beef production systems 

    E-print Network

    Ricci, Patricia

    2014-06-30

    Agriculture has been reported to contribute a significant amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere among other anthropogenic activities. With still more than 870 million people in the world suffering from under-nutrition ...

  12. Observation-based assessment of stratospheric fractional release, lifetimes, and Ozone Depletion Potentials of ten important source gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, J. C.; Keil, A.; Bönisch, H.; Engel, A.; Röckmann, T.; Volk, C. M.; Sturges, W. T.

    2012-10-01

    Estimates of the recovery time of stratospheric ozone heavily rely on the exact knowledge of the processes that lead to the decomposition of the relevant halogenated source gases. Crucial parameters in this context are Fractional Release Factors (FRFs) as well as stratospheric lifetimes and Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs). We here present data from the analysis of air samples collected between 2009 and 2011 on board research aircraft flying in the mid- and high latitudinal stratosphere and infer the above-mentioned parameters for ten major source gases:CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CF2ClCFCl2(CFC-113), CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride),CH3CCl3 (methyl chloroform), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b), CH3CF2Cl (HCFC-142b), CF2ClBr (H-1211), and CF3Br (H-1301). The inferred correlations of their FRFs with mean ages of air reveal less decomposition as compared to previous studies for most compounds. When using the calculated set of FRFs to infer equivalent stratospheric chlorine we find a reduction of more than 20% as compared to the values inferred in the most recent Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO, 2011). We also note that FRFs and their correlations with mean age are not generally time-independent as often assumed. The stratospheric lifetimes were calculated relative to that of CFC-11. Within our uncertainties the inferred ratios between lifetimes agree with those between stratospheric lifetimes from recent WMO reports except for CFC-11, CFC-12 and CH3CCl3. Finally we calculate lower ODPs than WMO for six out of ten compounds with changes most pronounced for the three HCFCs. Collectively these newly calculated values may have important implications for the severity and recovery time of stratospheric ozone loss.

  13. Observation-based assessment of stratospheric fractional release, lifetimes, and ozone depletion potentials of ten important source gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, J. C.; Keil, A.; Bönisch, H.; Engel, A.; Röckmann, T.; Volk, C. M.; Sturges, W. T.

    2013-03-01

    Estimates of the recovery time of stratospheric ozone heavily rely on the exact knowledge of the processes that lead to the decomposition of the relevant halogenated source gases. Crucial parameters in this context are fractional release factors (FRFs) as well as stratospheric lifetimes and ozone depletion potentials (ODPs). We here present data from the analysis of air samples collected between 2009 and 2011 on board research aircraft flying in the mid- and high-latitude stratosphere and infer the above-mentioned parameters for ten major source gases: CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CF2ClCFCl2 (CFC-113), CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride), CH3CCl3 (methyl chloroform), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b), CH3CF2Cl (HCFC-142b), CF2ClBr (H-1211), and CF3Br (H-1301). The inferred correlations of their FRFs with mean ages of air reveal less decomposition as compared to previous studies for most compounds. When using the calculated set of FRFs to infer equivalent stratospheric chlorine, we find a reduction of more than 20% as compared to the values inferred in the most recent Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO, 2011). We also note that FRFs and their correlations with mean age are not generally time-independent as often assumed. The stratospheric lifetimes were calculated relative to that of CFC-11. Within our uncertainties the ratios between stratospheric lifetimes inferred here agree with the values in recent WMO reports except for CFC-11, CFC-12 and CH3CCl3. Finally, we calculate lower ODPs than recommended by WMO for six out of ten compounds, with changes most pronounced for the three HCFCs. Collectively these newly calculated values may have important implications for the severity and recovery time of stratospheric ozone loss.

  14. Spring Greenhouse Bedding Plants

    E-print Network

    or signs of disease before bringing them into the greenhouse. Isolate or discard contaminated plants1 Spring Greenhouse Bedding Plants Spring GreenhouseSpring GreenhouseSpring GreenhouseSpring Greenhouse Bedding PlantsBedding PlantsBedding PlantsBedding Plants Purdue University Authors: Raymond A

  15. VARIACIONES MICROCLIMÁTICAS EN INVERNADERO: EFECTO SOBRE LAS RELACIONES HÍDRICAS E INTERCAMBIO DE GASES EN PIMENTÓN (Capsicum annuum) GREENHOUSE MICROCLIMATIC VARIATIONS: EFFECTS ON WATER RELATIONS AND GAS EXCHANGE ON BELL PEPPER (Capsicum annuum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Da-Silva; Andreína D' Aubeterre; Josu Allende; Fermín Rada; Rafael Figueiral; Vivero El Horticultor

    ? ? ? ? ?2 s ? ? ? ? ?1 ) sobre el microclima en invernaderos y las relaciones hídricas e intercambio de gases en tres híbridos de Capsicum annuum. Las mediciones de microclima incluyeron temperatura y humedad relativa a 4, 2.5 y 1.5 m. En ambas condiciones de radiación, la temperatura y humedad relativa entre 1.5 y 4.0

  16. Characterizing Boundary Layer Properties for Estimating Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Shepson, P. B.; Lauvaux, T.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Miles, N. L.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to develop, evaluate and improve methodologies for quantification of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban areas through a multi-year modeling and observational study. The study incorporates measurements of greenhouse gases from periodic aircraft observations as well as from a surface-based network of towers in the area. Recently, we installed a scanning Doppler lidar east of downtown Indianapolis to characterize boundary layer properties important for the aircraft and modeling studies. A scan sequence, including conical scans, vertical scans along two orthogonal directions, and zenith staring is repeated every 20 minutes. The lidar measurements of the radial velocity and backscatter intensity are processed to estimate boundary layer depth, turbulent mixing, aerosol distribution, and wind speed and direction. These lidar-derived boundary layer parameters are used in conjunction with the aircraft greenhouse gas concentration measurements in mass-balance studies and for investigating model performance. The lidar wind profile measurements can also be ingested into models to improve inverse flux estimates. We present here an overview of the first several months of lidar observations from Indianapolis, including performance evaluation, comparison with model estimates, diurnal and seasonal variability of the measurements, and use of the data for model ingest. We also discuss different techniques for estimating boundary layer depth from the observations and the application for mass-balance studies, and introduce plans for deploying a second instrument to study horizontal variability of the measured boundary layer properties.

  17. Atmospheric gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2003-01-01

    Which gases make up the atmosphere? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the gaseous components of the atmosphere. Students explore the main gases of the atmosphere using a pop-up pie chart. Descriptions of the gases and their percentages in the atmosphere are provided. Students read about water vapor in the atmosphere, and an animation shows a simplified process of precipitation. A pop-up window explains the effects of dust on the atmosphere, and a photograph shows how large amounts of dust in the atmosphere create the reds and oranges displayed in sunsets. Finally, ozone is introduced to students as a necessary component of human life on Earth. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  18. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission... The analytical gases for all fuel economy testing must meet the criteria...

  19. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-03-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a passenger aircraft. In addition to real time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitude in the upper troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analysed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The sampling procedure, the GC system used for greenhouse gas analysis and its performance are described. Comparisons with other laboratories have shown good agreement of results as has a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyser that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation. The timeseries of CO2 obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 roundtrips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008 is shown. A timeshift in the seasonal cyle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relations between the four greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 are discussed in more detail. Distinct seasonal changes in the correlation between CH4 and CO2 are observed.

  20. Middle-School Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect using a NetLogo Computer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L.; Koons, P. O.; Schauffler, M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a freely available agent based, modeling program as a learning tool for seventh and eighth grade students to explore the greenhouse effect without added curriculum. The investigation was conducted at two Maine middle-schools with 136 seventh-grade students and 11 eighth-grade students in eight classes. Students were given a pre-test that consisted of a concept map, a free-response question, and multiple-choice questions about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature. The computer model simulates the greenhouse effect and allows students to manipulate atmospheric and surface conditions to observe the effects on the Earth’s temperature. Students explored the Greenhouse Effect model for approximately twenty minutes with only two focus questions for guidance. After the exploration period, students were given a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. Parametric post-test analysis of the assessments indicated middle-school students gained in their understanding about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature after exploring the computer model for approximately twenty minutes. The magnitude of the changes in pre- and post-test concept map and free-response scores were small (average free-response post-test score of 7.0) compared to an expert's score (48), indicating that students understood only a few of the system relationships. While students gained in their understanding about the greenhouse effect, there was evidence that students held onto their misconceptions that (1) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere deteriorates the ozone layer, (2) the greenhouse effect is a result of humans burning fossil fuels, and (3) infrared and visible light have similar behaviors with greenhouse gases. We recommend using the Greenhouse Effect computer model with guided inquiry to focus students’ investigations on the system relationships in the model.

  1. GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-THERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. LENZEN

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal electricity generation contributes to climate change because it incurs the emission of greenhouse gases during the provision of services and the production of materials needed for the construction and operation of solar power plants. These greenhouse gas costs (GGC) can be determined using either material inventories in physical units or monetary cost breakdowns. Solar-only plants employing parabolic troughs, central

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from soil under changing environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is the Guest Editors’ Introduction to a special issue on greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The papers were assembled following presentation at EuroSoil 2012. Exchange of greenhouse gases between soils and the atmosphere is a natural consequence of several ecosystem process...

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1994-04-01

    This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX). Selected data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1992-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains selected data sets compiled by the participants of the Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX) workshop on atmospheric temperature. The data sets include surface, upper air, and/or satellite-derived measurements of temperature, solar irradiance, clouds, greenhouse gases, fluxes, albedo, aerosols, ozone, and water vapor, along with Southern Oscillation Indices and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation statistics.

  5. Minimizing Greenhouse Emissions in Vehicle Routing Gilbert Laporte, Ph.D., frsc

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    2 / 44 #12;Global warming Definition An overall rise in the temperature of the planet · Polar ice;Greenhouse gases (GHGs) Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), cause the average global temperature caps meltdown · Sea-level rises · Land flooding on a global scale · Migration on a global scale · More

  6. Greenhouse Gas Flux From Agricultural Soils: Impacts of 10 Years of Management and Elevated CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An evaluation of the soil efflux of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, and CH4) from a conservation and conventional tillage system that has been under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 for the past 10 years will be presented. Fluxes of all greenhouse gases were significantly (p<0.05) greater unde...

  7. The greenhouse effect: Damages, costs and abatement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert U. Ayres; Jörg Walter

    1991-01-01

    The buildup of so-called “greenhouse gases” in the atmosphere — CO2 in particular-appears to be having an adverse impact on the global climate. This paper briefly reviews current expectations with regard to physical and biological effects, their potential costs to society, and likely costs of abatement. For a “worst case” scenario it is impossible to assess, in economic terms, the

  8. SIMULATION IN COMPLEX LEARNING DOMAIN: GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. KUKKONEN; S. KÄRKKÄINEN; T. KEINONEN; P. VESALA; A. HURRI

    The greenhouse effect is one of the most complex topics in the Finnish national core curriculum, and understanding of it requires knowledge of many science concepts like radiation as well as the role of atmosphere, clouds and gases. Research has indicated that students' misconceptions or alternative conceptions are a formidable challenge in the enactment of instruction for students' understanding of

  9. Greenhouse emission reduction and sustainable development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sathiendrakumar

    2003-01-01

    Society has to find ways and means to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, to prevent global warming when considering inter-generational equity with respect to environmental quality. The aim of the carbon dioxide emission control is to keep the level of carbon dioxide below a certain threshold level. This paper deals with the various policy instruments that

  10. Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect (PAGE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PAGE09 is a spreadsheet probabilistic model written in Microsoft Office Excel. The model calculates regional and global impacts of climate change, and social costs of different greenhouse gases. It also calculates the costs of abatement and adaptation. It is an Integrated Assessm...

  11. Tropical forest fragmentation and greenhouse gas emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Laurance; Susan G. Laurance; Patricia Delamonica

    1998-01-01

    Rainforest fragments in central Amazonia have been found to experience a marked loss of above-ground biomass caused by sharply increased rates of tree mortality and damage near fragment margins. These findings suggest that fragmentation of tropical forests is likely to increase emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases above and beyond that caused by deforestation per se. We estimated committed

  12. Greenhouse gas sources in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California derived from Positive Matrix Factorization of CalNex 2010 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Baer, D. S.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying the contributions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from sources in the southern San Joaquin valley is important for validation of the statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and subsequent AB32 law (California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006) implementation. The state GHG inventory is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for CH4 and N2O have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with large concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources while agricultural soil management and vehicular combustion are known sources of N2O. In summer of 2010, GHG sources in the southern San Joaquin valley were investigated as part of the CalNex (California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) campaign. Measurements of GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and the combustion tracer CO were performed at the Bakersfield super-site over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. We present the results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis applied to the GHGs, CO, and 60 VOCs to define dominant source emission profiles. Seven source factors were identified and used to attribute the contribution of regional sources to enhancements above the background. Dairy operations were found to be the largest CH4 source in the region with approximately 80% of the regional emissions attributed to the 'dairy' factor. Factors dominated by 'vehicular combustion' and 'evaporative emissions' had negligible contributions to regional CH4 or N2O emissions. We identified an 'agricultural emissions' factor as the dominant regional source of N2O. Emission Factors of GHG enhancements with respect to specific source tracers are derived from the PMF analysis and compared to emission factors from prior source-specific and regional field studies (e.g. Shaw et al., 2007; Bon et al., 2006; CABERNET 2011) to gain a better understanding of GHG source contributions in the southern San Joaquin valley.

  13. Cluster mechanism of the anti-greenhouse effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Chukanov; A. E. Galashev

    2008-01-01

    The Earth’s atmosphere is a complex dynamic system, which protects the biosphere. One of the significant factors impacting Earth’s radiation balance is the greenhouse effect. Its enhancement is not only due to an increase in solar activity but also due to an increase in the content of gases with pronounced radiation properties in the atmosphere. Water vapor and atmospheric gases,

  14. Satellite observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect and column longwave cooling rates: Relative roles of the continuum and vibration-rotation to pure rotation bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand K. Inamdar; V. Ramanathan; Norman G. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    region. The window cooling rates are only about 10% to 20% of the above range and approach rapidly to near-zero values for surface temperatures less than 288 K. The nonwindow component of the greenhouse effect and cooling rates are shown to be more sensitive to upper troposphere water vapor, while the window greenhouse effect and cooling rates are shown to

  15. Greenhouse Light and Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    Make your own miniature greenhouse and measure the light levels at different "times of day"--modeled by changing the angle of a lamp on the greenhouse--using a light sensor. Next, investigate the temperature in your greenhouse with and without a cover. Learn how a greenhouse works and how you can regulate the temperature in your model greenhouse.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment

    E-print Network

    Murty, Katta G.

    Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects temperatures have increased much more than can be explained by changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases traffic round the clock and around the globe which is contributing to higher concentrations of greenhouse

  17. An integrated model for the assessment of the greenhouse effect: The Dutch approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Rotmans; HANS DE BOOIS; Robert J. Swart

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation policy model of the combined greenhouse effects of trace gases. With this model, the Integrated Model for the Assessment of the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE) scenarios for the future impact of the greenhouse effect can be made, based on different assumptions for technological and socio-economic developments. The contribution of each trace gas can be estimated separately.

  18. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

  19. What do near-term observations tell us about long-term developments in greenhouse gas emissions?

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Edmonds, James A.; Smith, Steven J.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Karas, Joseph F.; Kainuma, M.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Riahi, Keywan; van Ruijven, Bas; Swart, Robert; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-10-26

    Long-term scenarios developed by integrated assessment models are used in climate research to provide an indication of plausible long-term developments in the global energy system and land-use patterns and the associated emissions. The phenomena that determine these longterm developments (several decades or even centuries) are very different than those that operate on a shorter time-scales (a few years). Nevertheless, in the literature, we still often find direct comparisons between short-term observations and long-term developments that do not take into account the differing dynamics over these time scales. In this letter, we discuss some of differences between the factors that operate on in the short and long term and use long-term historical emissions trends to show that short-term observations are very poor indicators of long-term future emissions developments. Based on this, we conclude that the performance of long-term scenarios should be evaluated against the appropriate, corresponding long-term variables and trends. The research community may facilitate this by developing appropriate data sets and protocols that can be used to test the performance of long-term scenarios and the models that produce them.

  20. Direct electrical observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-based two-dimensional electron gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, W.; Zhu, M.; Yue, Y.; Song, B.; Encomendero, J.; Sensale-Rodriguez, B.; Xing, H.; Fay, P.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, signatures of plasma waves in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors were observed by direct electrical measurement at room temperature. Periodic grating-gate device structures were fabricated and characterized by on-wafer G-band (140-220 GHz) s-parameter measurements as a function of gate bias voltage and device geometry. A physics-based equivalent circuit model was used to assist in interpreting the measured s-parameters. The kinetic inductance extracted from the measurement data matches well with theoretical predictions, consistent with direct observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-channel devices at room temperature. This observation of electrically significant room-temperature plasma-wave effects in GaN-channel devices may have implications for future millimeter-wave and THz device concepts and designs.

  1. What Is the Greenhouse Effect?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this introductory textbook chapter, students learn that life on Earth would not be possible without the atmosphere and its greenhouse effect. The history of research on the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is presented, and the concept of contemporary climate change and global warming are introduced. This is the first chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource includes a textbook chapter, integrated hands-on and inquiry activities, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre and post unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. The resource is part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  2. [Greenhouse gas emission from reservoir and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-jie; Zhao, Tong-qian; Zheng, Hua; Duan, Xiao-nan; Chen, Fa-lin; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2008-08-01

    Reservoirs are significant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases. Discussing greenhouse gas emission from the reservoirs and its influence factors are propitious to evaluate emission of the greenhouse gas accurately, reduce gas emission under hydraulic engineering and hydropower development. This paper expatiates the mechanism of the greenhouse gas production, sums three approaches of the greenhouse gas emission, which are emissions from nature emission of the reservoirs, turbines and spillways and downstream of the dam, respectively. Effects of greenhouse gas emission were discussed from character of the reservoirs, climate, pH of the water, vegetation growing in the reservoirs and so on. Finally, it has analyzed the heterogeneity of the greenhouse gas emission as well as the root of the uncertainty and carried on the forecast with emphasis to the next research. PMID:18839604

  3. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated functionally into future greenhouse constructions in space.

  4. Sulfuric acid vapor and other cloud-related gases in the Venus atmosphere - Abundances inferred from observed radio opacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, P. G.; Eshleman, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that the absorbing characteristics of sulfuric acid vapor appear to reconcile what had been thought to be an inconsistency among measurements and deductions regarding the constituents of the Venus atmosphere and radio occultation, radar reflection, and radio emission measurements of its opacity. Laboratory measurements of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, water vapor, and carbon dioxide are used to model relative contributions to opacity as a function of height in a way that is consistent with observations of the constituents and absorbing properties of the atmosphere. It is concluded that sulfuric acid vapor is likely to be the principal microwave absorber in the 30-50 km altitude range of the middle atmosphere of Venus.

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  6. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012807 (2013) Isothermal absorption of soluble gases by atmospheric nanoaerosols

    E-print Network

    Elperin, Tov

    2013-01-01

    , counteracting the warming effect of greenhouse gases [3]. Scavenging of atmospheric gaseous pollutants by cloudPHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012807 (2013) Isothermal absorption of soluble gases by atmospheric absorption of atmospheric trace soluble gases by a single droplet whose size is comparable to the molecular

  8. Gardening with Greenhouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  9. Gases: Characteristics and Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    The first site related to ideal gas, called Ideal and Real Gas Laws, is maintained by Liina Ladon of Townsen University (1). Visitors can read about the properties of ideal gases, what the ideal gas law is, how to use it, and much more. The next site, titled Gas Laws, (2) is offered by the Ohio State University Department of Chemistry. This interactive site contains Shockwave movies of animations and audio files that describe what a gas is, the Ideal Gas Law equation, mixtures of gases, and problems using the ideal gas law. The University of Oregon site, Virtual Laboratory, teaches about the ideal gas law on the Welcome to the Pressure Chamber page (3). Those who enjoy online interaction will enjoy being able to control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber to see how the gases inside react. The fourth site includes another fun multimedia activity related to ideal gases provided by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Washington University. The Air Filled Balloon in Liquid Nitrogen (4) movie shows an actual experiment of the effects on a balloon that's covered with liquid nitrogen. The page contains some additional information on the science behind the observations. The next site, called Ideal Gas Equations (5) is an online calculator that's part of Kean University's Department of Geology and Meteorology Web site. Users can calculate the pressure, volume, or temperature of a gas by inputting known variables into the various forms. Several methods and variations of calculating the values are provided as well as brief instructions. The next page from North Carolina State University's Basic Concepts in Environmental Science Web site is called Characteristics of Gases (6). Part of a larger learning module, the lesson plans objective is to use the ideal gas law to determine gas volumes at different absolute temperatures and absolute pressures. Everything needed to conduct the activity is provided including links to a volume calculator and practice problems. The seventh site is another animation that illustrates how gases react, called Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (7). By changing the number of molecules in the chamber, their velocity, and the pressure and width of the container, users get to see how the molecules react to the conditions. The last site, Gases and Their Properties, is maintained by the Electronic Teaching Assistance Program(8). Students learn about the history of gas science, how gas laws describe ideal gases, what Dalton's Law and Graham's Law are, and much more.

  10. Opportunities for market-based programs worldwide that reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Initial Observations from Missions to the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton-Hoyle, D.R.

    1998-07-01

    Globally, governments and industries are implementing innovative voluntary programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Often these programs encourage groups to use cost effective technologies that capture market-based forces. These programs are successful because they capitalize on existing opportunities where both the environment and the participants can benefit (i.e., win-win opportunities). This paper documents efforts to investigate these kinds of win-win opportunities in three developing countries: the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico. Initial observations are provided as fresh information from the field, drawing on six missions during the last nine months. Utility costs, interest rates, and overall economic health appear to critically affect opportunities in each country. By contrast, details of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) design and local climate were often important differences between countries. These affect opportunities, for example, to achieve significant savings from cooling systems or not. Looking at the success of ESCOs was somewhat surprising. One might expect to see the most successful ESCO activity where utility costs are high and upgrade opportunities are plentiful (such as in the Philippines). This was not the case, however, as research in the Philippines did not reveal even one active ESCO contract yet. Design practices for new construction were in need of the same thing that helps US design teams do a better job of energy-efficient design, better communications between design team members. Finally, industrial firms were doing a variety of EE upgrades in each country, but this level of activity was relatively small compared to what should be cost effective.

  11. University of Oregon Greenhouse Policy 2014 Overview of Greenhouse Facility

    E-print Network

    ) All greenhouse use must be approved by the greenhouse manager GREENHOUSE USAGE FEES (Effective JulyUniversity of Oregon Greenhouse Policy 2014 Overview of Greenhouse Facility The University of Oregon Greenhouse Facility consists of a small greenhouse on the fourth floor of Onyx Bridge and two

  12. Spatial distributions, sources and sinks of methyl iodide, methyl chloride, methyl bromide, carbonyl sulfide, and other trace gases from observations over North America during INTEX-NA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Blake; D. R. Blake; A. Baker; A. Beyersdorf; L. Doezema; S. Meinardi; B. Novak; B. Barletta; J. Midyett; M. Kamboures; H. E. Fuelberg; S. A. Vay; F. S. Rowland

    2005-01-01

    Whole air sampling aboard the NASA DC-8 in summer 2004 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-NA) provided an excellent opportunity to obtain a picture of the spatial distribution of trace gases over the North American continent. Our nearly 3,000 measurements of a wide range of trace gases are a crucial component in the investigation of the influence

  13. Carbon observation: the Integrated Carbon Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, J.; Ciais, P.; Papale, D.; Rivier, L.; Consortium, I.

    2012-12-01

    A better knowledge of the carbon sinks' underlying processes, and their sustainability, is required to assess current mitigation efforts and to better predict the future ability of the carbon cycle to uptake anthropogenic emissions. To address these needs, carbon observations are required to better estimate the fluxes of carbon greenhouse gases to and from the atmosphere. ICOS is a recently-launched, world-class research infrastructure dedicated to the monitoring and improved understanding of carbon sources and sinks. It consists of complementary, harmonized networks of long-term ecosystem monitoring stations focusing on Europe and adjacent regions. The ICOS networks will comprise 40 operational atmospheric stations (measuring atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases and other core parameters), as many ecosystem stations (measuring fluxes from ecosystems) and about 10 oceanic measurement platforms. The operational status is expected in 2014. The networks will be coordinated through a set of central facilities: three Thematic centres respectively for atmospheric, ecosystem and ocean data and stations performance assessment, and a Central analytical lab. The mission of the thematic centres is to process, validate and distribute data to end-users. ICOS will also set up a Carbon portal dedicated to easy discovery of and access to data and elaborated products such as flux maps by end users. Through its European Commission funded Preparatory phase ICOS has demonstrated its capability to monitor greenhouse gases across Europe at 4 atmospheric sites and 4 ecosystem sites, working in near real time with the Atmospheric and Ecosystem Thematic Centres. At this occasion, the instrumental package, the experimental set up and protocols prepared for the standardized ICOS station are tested. ICOS measurements will allow the estimation of regional fluxes at a typical resolution of 50 km daily from the atmospheric network, with a precision of ~40 gC m-2 yr-1. The ecosystem network informs on the small scale variability of fluxes and its drivers. ICOS needs to be well connected and interoperable with other global and regional networks. When completed, ICOS will contribute to provide the essential long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gases' emissions.

  14. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index - 2012 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Montzka, S. A.; Conway, T. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masari, K. A.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    For the past several decades, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to databases, analyses, and various relevant products, including national and international climate assessments. To make these data more useful and available, NOAA several years ago released its Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The long-lived gases capture most of the radiative forcing, and uncertainty in their measurement is very small. This allows us to provide a robust measure and assessment of the long-term, radiative influence of these gases. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 60 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. In 2010, the AGGI was 1.29, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 29% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In this presentation, preliminary values for 2011 will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4,nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

  15. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index - 2010 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James H.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Conway, Thomas J.; Dlugokencky, Ed; Elkins, James W.; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Schnell, Russell C.; Tans, Pieter P.

    2010-05-01

    For the past several decades, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to databases, analyses, and various relevant products, including national and international climate assessments. To make these data more useful and available, NOAA several years ago released its Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The long-lived gases capture most of the radiative forcing, and uncertainty in their measurement is very small. This allows us to provide a robust measure and assessment of the long-term, radiative influence of these gases. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 70 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. In 2008, the AGGI was 1.26, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 26% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In this presentation, preliminary values for 2009 will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4,nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other evolving greenhouse gases.

  16. Ten years of continuous observations of stratospheric ozone depleting gases at Monte Cimone (Italy)--comments on the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Maione, M; Giostra, U; Arduini, J; Furlani, F; Graziosi, F; Lo Vullo, E; Bonasoni, P

    2013-02-15

    Halogenated gases potentially harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer are monitored worldwide in order to assess compliance with the Montreal Protocol requiring a phase out of these compounds on a global scale. We present the results of long term (2002-2011) continuous observation conducted at the Mt. Cimone GAW Global Station located on the highest peak of the Italian Northern Apennines, at the border of two important regions: the Po Valley (and the Alps) to the North and the Mediterranean Basin to the South. Bi-hourly air samples of CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HCFC-124 and methyl bromide are collected and analysed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, providing multi annual time series. In order to appreciate the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective, trends and annual growth rates of halogenated species have been calculated after identification of their baseline values. A comparison with results from other international observation programmes is also presented. Our data show that the peak in the atmospheric mixing ratios of four chlorofluorocarbons, two halons and two chlorocarbons has been reached and all these species now show a negative atmospheric trend. Pollution episodes are still occurring for species like halon-1211, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, indicating fresh emissions from the site domain which could be ascribed both to fugitive un-reported uses of the compounds and/or emissions from banks. For the hydrofluorocarbons changes in the baseline are affected by emissions from fast developing Countries in East Asia. Fresh emissions from the site domain are clearly declining. Methyl bromide, for which the Mediterranean area is an important source region, shows, in a generally decreasing trend, an emission pattern that is not consistent with the phase-out schedule of this compound, with a renewed increase in the last two years of pollution episodes. PMID:23333511

  17. Solids Liquids and Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Salter

    2009-10-22

    Compare and contrast the three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases. First you will begin by looking at characteristics of each solids, liquids and gasesGases, Liquids and Solids Facts. Then you will look at examples of each stateSolids, Liquids and Gases Video. Demonstrate an understanding of solids, liquids and gases by playing interactive gameSolids, Liquids and Gases Game. Graphic Organizer is here to be filled out as you learn during this lesson. Use the red ...

  18. The 2003 heat wave as an example of summers in a greenhouse climate? Observations and climate model simulations for Basel, Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Beniston; Henry F. Diaz

    2004-01-01

    The heat wave that affected many parts of Europe during the course of summer 2003 may be a harbinger of summers that could occur more regularly in a future climate, under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. Switzerland was not exempt from the 2003 heat wave and, indeed, the previous absolute maximum temperature record dating back to the middle of the 20th

  19. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-08-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a commercial passenger aircraft. In addition to real-time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitudes in the tropical middle troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analyzed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and trace gas isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The air sampling procedure, the GC system and its performance are described. Comparisons with similar systems employed in other laboratories and a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyzer that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation are shown. In addition, the time series of CO2, obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 round trips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008, is presented. A time shift in the seasonal cycle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relationship between the four greenhouse gases is briefly discussed.

  20. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    to use the alkaline liquid-32 solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases altered this46 natural equilibrium and have led to the increase of the greenhouse effectCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions

  1. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 NOVEMBER 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO692 Nitrogen-enhanced greenhouse warming on

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Adrian

    that more N2 in the atmosphere would have increased the warming effect of existing greenhouse gases, if the early Earth was less cloudy) or a means of amplifying the greenhouse effect. Higher atmospheric pressure greenhouse effect or a lower planetary albedo. Here we use a radiative­convective climate model to show

  2. Evidence of a substantial contribution of natural non-ENSO-like multidecadal SST variability to observed tropical SST trends over the last half century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sardeshmukh

    2009-01-01

    Distinguishing anthropogenic signals from natural climate variations is a central concern in global change research. Evidence is accumulating that most of the effects of the changes in greenhouse gases and other radiatively active species will be transmitted globally through changes in the tropical SSTs. Some long-term tropical SST trends are already evident in observations. These observed trends, however, differ substantially

  3. The ice-core record - Climate sensitivity and future greenhouse warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorius, C.; Raynaud, D.; Jouzel, J.; Hansen, J.; Le Treut, H.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future greenhouse-gas-warming depends critically on the sensitivity of earth's climate to increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases. Data from cores drilled in polar ice sheets show a remarkable correlation between past glacial-interglacial temperature changes and the inferred atmospheric concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These and other palaeoclimate data are used to assess the role of greenhouse gases in explaining past global climate change, and the validity of models predicting the effect of increasing concentrations of such gases in the atmosphere.

  4. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has tracked the national trend in greenhouse gas emissions and removals since 1990. This website provides access to the reports they have created since then, and the reports represent the collaborative efforts of hundreds of experts from academic institutions, consultants, and other government agencies. Visitors can download the reports, or take a look at their respective executive summary. Each summary contains "an overview of recent trends, anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and an explanation of the relative importance of emissions and removals from each source category." Users of the website are also encouraged to look over the overviews for different emissions, such as carbon dioxide and methane. The site is rounded out by a list of greenhouse gas inventories from other countries and global emission projections.

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, an overview of the CO 2 capture, storage and future activities of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierce Riemer

    1996-01-01

    The IEA Greenhouse gas R&D programme is an international collaboration supported by 16 countries and several industrial organisations. During the first three years (phase 1) the programme has evaluated technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from power stations. The main types of fossil fuel power plant were investigated and the costs and emissions associated with power generation were calculated.

  6. Greenhouse gas mitigation technology: An overview of the CO 2 capture and sequestration studies and further activities of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Audus

    1997-01-01

    The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme is an international collaboration supported by 16 countries and several industrial organisations. Its purpose is to evaluate technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The following are the findings of the first phase of its work: the most appropriate technology for capture of CO2 depends upon the type of power plant and proven technology

  7. A study of regional-scale variability of in situ and model-generated tropospheric trace gases: Insights into observational requirements for a satellite in geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Jack; Silverman, Morgan L.; Crawford, James H.; Creilson, John K.

    2011-09-01

    We examine the results from a regional-scale chemical-transport model with 4-km resolution to determine the spatial variability of trace gases on this scale. Model-derived variability statistics are generated using 1st-order structure functions and then compared with in situ trace gas measurements from a series of aircraft campaigns. The variability of the observations and the model-derived concentrations are found to be in reasonable agreement for O 3 and CO, but the model underestimates the observed variability of NO 2. Variability statistics are then calculated for model-derived tropospheric column integrals. These integrals are calculated for 0-10 km (representative of the entire tropospheric column), 0-2 km (representative of the planetary boundary layer, PBL) and 2-10 km (representative of the free troposphere, FT). For each of the species examined, the variability of the tropospheric column is generally controlled by the variability in the lowest 2 km. The degree of control for each trace gas, however, is different. Whereas NO 2 is completely dominated by PBL processes, CO variability in the FT contributes appreciably to the variability of the entire tropospheric column, suggesting that two independent pieces of information for CO would be most helpful for describing the variability of the entire tropospheric column. Likewise, the variability of an independent free tropospheric measurement of O 3 would provide additional insight into the observed variability of the entire column, but the amount of additional information provided by a separate FT measurement is not as beneficial to what was found for CO. We provide additional analyses to quantify relationships that can be used to better understand the model-derived structure functions and their dependence on grid size and time of day. Lastly we present a practical example of how this information may be used for guidance in the development of science requirements for future satellite instruments since measurements from these instruments must be able to resolve smaller scale gradients to be used successfully for air quality applications.

  8. Build a Solar Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Attached solar greenhouses are relatively inexpensive and easy to build; they can provide additional heat to homes all winter as well as fresh vegetables and flowers. This bulletin: (1) describes the characteristics of a solar greenhouse; (2) provides a checklist of five items to consider before building a solar greenhouse; (3) describes the four…

  9. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  10. Greenhouse Raspberry Production Guide

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Greenhouse Raspberry Production Guide For winter or year-round production Department.fruit.cornell.edu/berry.html Production Guide Greenhouse Raspberry For winter or year-round production #12;#12;Greenhouse Raspberry and presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School by Kurt Donald Koester, August 2003. The members of his

  11. NASA's mission to planet Earth: Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: global climate change; radiation, clouds, and atmospheric water; the ocean; the troposphere - greenhouse gases; land cover and the water cycle; polar ice sheets and sea level; the stratosphere - ozone chemistry; volcanoes; the Earth Observing System (EOS) - how NASA will support studies of global climate change?; research and assessment - EOS Science Investigations; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); EOS observations - instruments and spacecraft; a national international effort; and understanding the Earth System.

  12. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    E-print Network

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tscheuschner called for this discussion in their paper.

  13. Satellite observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect and column longwave cooling rates: Relative roles of the continuum and vibration-rotation to pure rotation bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand K. Inamdar; V. Ramanathan; Norman G. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite provides, for the first time, a large-scale (40 S to 40 N) data set for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and the column-averaged longwave (LW) radiative cooling rates in the broadband (5-100 microns) and the window (8-12 microns) regions. We demonstrate here

  14. Satellite observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect and column longwave cooling rates: Relative roles of the continuum and vibration-rotation to pure rotation bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand K. Inamdar; V. Ramanathan; Norman G. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite provides, for the first time, a large-scale (40 S to 40 N) data set for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and the column-averaged longwave (LW) radiative cooling rates in the broadband (5–100 microns) and the window (8–12 microns) regions. We demonstrate here

  15. Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2012-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  17. Modeling & learning from the design recommendations for California's Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade System

    E-print Network

    Fernandes, Chester, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Climate Change has become a Major issue beginning with our generation. Governments the world over are now recognizing that industry cannot continue to pollute in a business-as-usual manner. Emitting Greenhouse gases has a ...

  18. SUMMER 2010 67 for temperature but leaving the buildup of greenhouse gas

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    SUMMER 2010 67 for temperature but leaving the buildup of greenhouse gas concentrations unchecked of such gases, posing a threat to people and other animals and to plants. A second factor is the concern

  19. Integrated Carbon Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, J.-D.; Ciais, P.; Rivier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Dolman, H.; Flaud, J.-M.; Garrec, C.; Gerbig, C.; Grace, J.; Huertas, E.; Johannessen, T.; Jordan, A.; Levin, I.; Papale, D.; Valentini, R.; Watson, A.; Vesala, T.; ICOS-PP Consortium

    2012-04-01

    ICOS is a recently-launched, world-class research infrastructure dedicated to the monitoring and improved understanding of carbon sources and sinks. It consists of complementary, harmonized networks of long-term monitoring stations focusing on Europe and adjacent regions. The ICOS networks will comprise about 40 operational atmospheric stations (measuring atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases and other core parameters), ca. 30 ecosystem stations (measuring fluxes to and from ecosystems) and about 25 oceanic measurement platforms (including fixed time series stations, repeat hydrographic sections and voluntary observing ships). The station networks are expected to be operational in 2014. The networks will be coordinated through a set of central facilities: three Thematic Centres respectively for atmospheric, ecosystem and ocean data, and a Central Analytical Laboratory. The mission of the Thematic Centres is to process, validate and distribute data to end-users. ICOS will also set up a Carbon Portal dedicated to easy discovery of and access to data and elaborated products such as flux maps by end users. Through its Preparatory Phase Project (funded by the EU through FP7) ICOS is currently demonstrating its capability to monitor greenhouse gases across Europe at four atmospheric sites and four ecosystem sites, working in near real time with the Atmospheric and Ecosystem Thematic Centres. At this occasion, the instrumental packages, the experimental set up as well as protocols prepared for the standardized ICOS stations are tested. ICOS atmospheric measurements, in combination with a dedicated modelling framework, will allow estimating daily fluxes at a typical resolution of 50 km with a precision of ~40 gC m-2 yr-1. The ecosystem network informs on the small scale variability of fluxes and its drivers. When completed, ICOS will provide the essential long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gases emissions. ICOS will notably provide key data for the monitoring and assessment of the impact of carbon sequestration and/or greenhouse gases emission reduction activities on global atmospheric composition levels.

  20. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  1. Rate coefficients for the reaction of O(1D) with the atmospherically long-lived greenhouse gases NF3, SF3CF3, CHF3, C2F6, c-C3F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasandorj, M.; Hall, B. D.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of atmospherically persistent (long-lived) greenhouse gases to the radiative forcing of Earth has increased over the past several decades. The impact of highly fluorinated saturated compounds, in particular perfluorinated compounds, on climate change is a concern because of their long atmospheric lifetimes, which are primarily determined by stratospheric loss processes, as well as their strong absorption in the infrared "window" region. A potentially key stratospheric loss process for these compounds is their gas-phase reaction with electronically excited oxygen atoms, O(1D). Therefore, accurate reaction rate coefficient data is desired for input to climate change models. In this work, rate coefficients, k, were measured for the reaction of O(1D) with several key long-lived greenhouse gases, namely NF3, SF5CF3, CHF3 (HFC-23), C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14. Room temperature rate coefficients for the total reaction, kTot, corresponding to loss of O(1D), and reactive channel, kR, corresponding to the loss of the reactant compound, were measured for NF3 and SF5CF3 using competitive reaction and relative rate methods, respectively. kR was measured for the CHF3 reaction and improved upper-limits were determined for the perfluorinated compounds included in this study. For NF3, kTot was determined to be (2.55 ± 0.38) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and kR, which was measured using CF3Cl, N2O, CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), and CF3CFCl2 (CFC-114a) as reference compounds, was determined to be (2.21 ± 0.33) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 corresponding to a reactive branching ratio of 0.87 ± 0.13. For SF5CF3, kTot = (3.24 ± 0.50) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and kR < 5.8 × 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were measured, where kR is a factor of three lower than the current recommendation of kTot for use in atmospheric modeling. For CHF3, kR was determined to be (2.35 ± 0.35) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which corresponds to a reactive channel yield of 0.26 ± 0.04, and resolves a large discrepancy among previously reported values. The quoted uncertainties are 2? and include estimated systematic errors. Upper-limits for kR for the C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14 reactions were determined to be 3.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 16 (in units of 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1), respectively. The results from this work are compared with results from previous studies.

  2. Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    AE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean Greenhouses, and their environmental control and corrective maintenance. A good greenhouse manager should observe potential problem areas in the facilities

  3. Chemical gradient of selected organic trace gases in the Tropical Tropopause Layer observed during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment 2013 (ATTREX-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, M. A.; Atlas, E. L.; Lueb, R.; Hendershot, R.; Gabbard, S.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbons and short-lived organic halogen gases play an important role in the chemistry of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region. The characterization of these gases not only provides information on air mass sources and transport time scales, but also defines the reactive halogen budget and the conditions for the stratospheric chemistry that affects ozone depletion rates. As part of the transition between troposphere and stratosphere, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halocarbons reach the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) where chemical and physical processes determine their fate. However, very limited data are available regarding composition, seasonality and variability of these gases, since only high altitude aircraft can reach this region of the atmosphere (>13-14 Km). A new whole air sampler (GWAS) was developed to study the trace gas chemistry in this region of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The sampler collects up to 90 samples per flight for measurement of a wide range of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, organic nitrates and solvents. During the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) field project, carried out during February-March 2013, we flew the GWAS system on 5 research flights. A total of 388 samples were collected during flights of approximately 24 hours, which sampled air over the tropical Pacific Ocean at altitudes from 9 to 19 km. The sample collection focused on obtaining measurements across the TTL region. Approximately 45 vertical profiles of the TTL were sampled with our instrument during this mission. Measurements of trace gases were carried out at Dryden Flight Research Center using a combination of gas chromatography with mass spectrometric, flame ionization, and electron capture detectors. Supporting measurements were done at the University of Miami (UM) laboratory. The distribution, vertical structure, and variability of selected hydrocarbon and organic halogen trace gases in the TTL region will be presented here.

  4. NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) - Update 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Hofmann, D. J.; Conway, T. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masarie, K.; Montzka, S. A.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2009-04-01

    For the past 30 years, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to climate assessments (e.g., the quadrennial IPCC Climate Reports, as well as National Assessments, such as those under the auspices of the US Climate Change Science Program). Recently, efforts to make these data more useful and available have been undertaken through release of the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi . This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 70 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. For the year 2007, the AGGI was 1.24, i.e. global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases has increased 24% since 1990. The increase in the contribution form carbon dioxide (CO2) alone was about 32% over this interval. Reductions in the growth rates of methane and the CFCs have effectively tempered the increase of CO2 since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60%% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 90% of this increase. The contribution from methane (CH4) in 2007 increased for the first time since 1999. Preliminary values for 2008 will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4,nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other evolving greenhouse gases in this presentation.

  5. The greenhouse of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

  6. Impact of Time to First Rainfall Event on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Following Manure Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of inorganic fertilizers and manures are known to result in the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and rainfall events can also increase greenhouse gas emissions from soils. However, little is known about the temporal relationship between fertilizer application and rainfall on greenh...

  7. Radiative Forcing - Measured at Earth's Surface - Corroborate the Increasing Greenhouse Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Philipona; B. Duerr; Christoph Marty; Atsumu Ohmura; Martin Wild

    2004-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases and radiative forcing to increase as a result of human activities. Nevertheless, changes in radiative forcing related to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations could not be detected with instrumental measurements at Earth's surface so far. Here we show that atmospheric longwave downward radiation significantly increased (+5.2 Wm-2) partly

  8. Greenhouse effect and sea level rise: a challenge for this generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Barth; J. G. Titus

    1984-01-01

    These papers elaborate on how to deal with a catastrophic result of the ''greenhouse effect'' -- a global warming that could raise the sea level several feet by the end of the century. Topics of discussion include: physical impact of sea level rise, coastal geomorphic responses, climate sensitivity to increasing greenhouse gases and control of erosion. Inundation and salinity intrusion

  9. The Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect Sensitivity to a Sea Surface Temperature Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ph. Duvel; F. M. Bréon

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky greenhouse effect response to a sea surface temperature (SST or Ts) change is studied using outgoing clear-sky longwave radiation measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Considering geographical distributions for July 1987, the relation between the SST, the greenhouse efect G (defined as the outgoing infrared flux trapped by atmospheric gases), and the precipitable water vapor content

  10. Greenhouse gas fluxes from no-till rotated corn in the Upper Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined soil surface fluxes of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane) from no-till, dryland corn (Zea mays L.) in eastern South Dakota and tested the effect of rotation on greenhouse gas fluxes from corn. The corn was grown within a randomized, complete block study that incl...

  11. The generalized runaway greenhouse and the outer limit of habitable zones (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pierrehumbert

    2009-01-01

    The inner limit of the habitable zone is determined by atmospheric blowoff and the water vapor runaway greenhouse, but it is not immediately apparent that there should be an outer limit to the habitable zone, as one could simply contemplate pumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere until the temperature rises into the habitable range. Silicate\\/carbonate rocky planets offer a nearly

  12. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential with cellulosic and grain bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The land use impacts, such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soil carbon sequestration, are associated with the largest changes in life cycle greenhouse gases from growing bioenergy crops. The biogeochemical model DAYCENT simulates fluxes of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) between the atmosphere, veg...

  13. Energy 4: Fossil Fuels and the Greenhouse Gas Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-19

    This video describes in detail the greenhouse effect and how recovery from energy from fossile fuels results in green house gases. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

  14. Reducing greenhouses and the temperature history of earth and Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARL SAGAN

    1977-01-01

    It has been suggested that NH3 and other reducing gases were present in the earth's primitive atmosphere, enhancing the global greenhouse effect; data obtained through isotopic archeothermometry support this hypothesis. Computations have been applied to the evolution of surface temperatures on Mars, considering various bolometric albedos and compositions. The results are of interest in the study of Martian sinuous channels

  15. High temporal frequency measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling the net exchange of these three GHGs. Although technologies for high-frequency,...

  16. Evaluation of poultry litter fertilization practices on greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere have been increasing since preindustrial times. Integrating poultry litter use into conservation agricultural systems could be a management practice for sequestering atmospheric C in soil. However, consideration for the best method for this...

  17. Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and coastal zone management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Titus

    1986-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases are expected to warm the earth several degrees in the next century by a mechanism known as the greenhouse effect. Such a warming could cause sea level to rise two to five feet by expanding ocean water, melting mountain glaciers, and perhaps eventually causing polar glaciers to melt and slide into the

  18. A New Connection Between Greenhouse Warming and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R.

    1998-01-01

    The direct radiative effects of the build-up of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have led to a gradual cooling of the stratosphere with largest changes in temperature occurring in the upper stratosphere, well above the region of peak ozone concentration.

  19. Northern hemisphere temperature trends: A possible greenhouse gas effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Karoly

    1989-01-01

    Radiosonde temperature data from 147 stations in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1964-85 have been used to investigate recent temperature trends in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Experiments with atmospheric general circulation models indicate that increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will lead to reduced temperatures in the stratosphere as well as increased temperatures in the troposphere.

  20. Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and Coastal Drainage Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Titus; Chin Y. Kuo; Michael J. Gibbs; Tom B. LaRoche; M. Keith Webb; Jesse O. Waddell

    1987-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases are expected to warm the earth several degrees in the next century, which would raise sea level a few feet and alter precipitation patterns. Both of these changes would have major impacts on the operation of coastal drainage systems. However, because sea level rise and climate change resulting from the greenhouse effect