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Sample records for greenhouse gases observation

  1. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future ... effects. More about how greenhouse gases affect the climate » Also on Energy Explained Energy and the Environment ...

  2. Observations of greenhouse gases at Sodankyl during 2009-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivi, Rigel; Chen, Huilin; Hatakka, Juha; Heikkinen, Pauli; Laurila, Tuomas

    2015-04-01

    A Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) was installed at the Sodankyl research station in February 2009. The system is recording direct solar spectra in the near-infrared spectral region in the spectral range between 0.7 and 2.5 ?m. From the spectra column-averaged abundance of CO2, CH4, N2O and other gases are retrieved. The FTS instrument is based on Bruker 125 HR and participates in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON); the instrument has been optimized for greenhouse gas measurements. Here we first present analysis of the reprocessed data set over a six year period from 2009 until 2014. We find statistically significant increase of column amounts of carbon dioxide by 2.4 +/- 0.3 ppm per year and methane increase by 6 +/- 1 ppb per year. In addition to the FTS measurements we have started with year around AirCore measurements at Sodankyl in September 2013. AirCore is an atmospheric sampling system that is directly related to the World Meteorological Organization in situ trace gas measurement scales. AirCore provides profile information of CO2, CH4 and CO from troposphere and lower stratosphere. The AirCore measurements have allowed us to evaluate the accuracy of FTS retrievals. Of special interest has been the quality of the FTS retrievals of CH4 under polar vortex conditions. Finally we present comparisons with space borne measurements by GOSAT (the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) mission. We find a good agreement between the GOSAT and ground based observations. In case of CO2 the relative difference between the two instruments has been -0.03 +/- 0.02 % and in case of CH4 the relative difference has been -0.08 +/- 0.03 %.

  3. Fourier transform spectrometer for Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  4. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to its gaseous state, thereby increasing atmospheric concentrations. Water Vapor Water Vapor is the most abundant greenhouse ... human processes. The exhaust emissions from automobiles and pollution from factories (as well as burning vegetation) leads ...

  5. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Edward; Montzka, Stephen A.; Butler, James H.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations. These requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 17th meeting was held in Beijing, China, on 10 - 14 June 2013 (http://ggmt-2013.cma.gov.cn/dct/page/1). Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 9 represents an update of the results for the year 2012 (extended version is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/ghg9-en-online.html). The cover story of this bulletin presents the attribution of methane sources in the context of the renewed growth of the global average methane mole fraction in 2007. The bulletin is prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/CBS/Lists_WorkGroups/CAS/opag-epac/gaw%20sag%20ghg) in collaboration with the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) derived from this network reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.10.1 ppm, CH4 at 18191 ppb and N2O at 325.10.1 ppb. These values constitute 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2011 to 2012 amounted to 2.2 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm yr-1) and for the past decade (~2.0 ppm yr-1). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 6 ppb from 2011 to 2012. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~13 ppb yr-1 during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~5 ppb yr-1. The growth rate of N2O in 2012 was 0.9 ppb yr-1, which is greater than the average growth rate over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb yr-1). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2012 was 1.32 (corresponding to 2.87 W m-2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 32% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2011 to 2012, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2012 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 475.6 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

  6. Hyper-spectral observations of greenhouse gases in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding Yi; Zhang, Chun-ming; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiang-hong; Li, Hong-qun; Yang, Fu-Mo; Chen, Gang-Cai; Wang, Shu-peng; Zhang, Xing-ying; Zhang, Peng

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the most ambitious hydroelectric and flood control project in human history. Its riparian zone has areas of ~300 km2 with water levels fluctuating between 175m above the sea in winter and 145m in summer, and is a special type of wetlands at the low water levels. These wetlands may release CO2 and CH4 with significantly spatial and temporal variations, and have been misleadingly described as a “methane menace” and caused a worldwide concern. A joint research program for TGR greenhouse gases monitoring is operated by several institutions and based at Yangtze Normal Univ. in Fuling of Chongqing. It is characterized by the combined satellite, airship, and ground-based hyper-spectral observations, which serve to simultaneously measure various eco-environmental parameters in a large area with high spatial and spectral resolutions, and to model the status and key dynamic processes of the TGR greenhouse gases. In this talk, the retrieval algorithm of the gas species from satellite near-infrared observations is discussed with special attentions paid to the mountainous and foggy TGR region. The distributions and variations of TGR greenhouse gases are studied by using the AIRS and SCIAMACHY monthly means of multiple years. The airship and ground-based observation system is outlined and expected to provide unique data needed to address the TGR environmental issues, and to evolve towards operational service.

  7. Retrieval of CFC concentrations from thermal infrared spectrum observed by Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagoya, A.; Imasu, R.; Hayashi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Chemical substances emitted by the anthropological activities cause serious environmental problems. Among them, CFCs have been depleting ozone layer in the stratosphere. Also, it is reported that their radiative forcing is 0.268 W/m2 and they could largely account for global warming. To mitigate these problems, it is important to estimate their distribution and amount globally with good accuracy. Though on site measurements provide considerably precise data, the observation sites are quite limited. In contrast, results retrieved from data obtained by remote sensing may contain more errors, but its wide spatial coverage is great advantage to monitor atmosphere globally and continuously for long term. The purpose of this study is to retrieve concentrations of CFC-11 and CFC-12, and replacements for CFCs from thermal infrared spectrum data obtained by Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT). We use spectrum data taken from its main sensor, Fourier transform spectrometer TANSO-FTS, particularly its band 4 (5.5 - 14.3?m). The sub-sensor called TANSO-CAI is used for cloud screening. To calculate simulated spectrum using a radiative transfer model, LBLRTM, the meteorological reanalysis data including atmospheric information at each point such as surface temperature and atmospheric composition are prepared. As the first step, we focus on CFC-11 and CFC-12 which have strong absorption band near 850 cm-1 and 920 cm-1 respectably. For retrieving the gases, the baselines of the observed and calculated spectrum need to be matched. However, it is not always true due to the uncertainty of information in the reanalysis data. To match baselines, we first set the constant emissivity and estimate the surface temperature. Even after the procedure, spectral residue still remained particularly on the peaks of water vapor absorption lines. We will retrieve more precise surface temperature and the amount of water vapor from observed each spectrum so that we could get better a priori for gas retrieval. We will also discuss how accurately CFC-11 and CFC-12 can be retrieved by GOSAT data.

  8. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Ed; Montzka, Stephen A.; Griffith, David; Brunke, Ernst; Scheel, Hans-Eckhart; Laurila, Tuomas; Weller, Rolf; Butler, James H.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations, and these requirements are evaluated every two years. Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 8 represents the results for the year 2011. This bulletin highlights the importance of carbon sinks (ocean and terrestrial biosphere) for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2011, with CO2 at 390.9 0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1813 2 ppb and N2O at 324.2 0.1 ppb. These values constitute 140%, 259% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2010 to 2011 amounted to 2.0 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~ 1.5 ppm/yr) and is equal to the average for the past decade (~ 2.0 ppm/yr). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 5 ppb from 2010 to 2011. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~ 13 ppb/yr during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~ 5 ppb/yr. The growth rate of N2O in 2011 was 1.0 ppb/yr, which is substantially greater than the average over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb/yr). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2011 was 1.30 (corresponding to 2.84 W-m2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 30% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2010 to 2011, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2011 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 473 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

  9. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana A.; Braathen, Geir O.; Barrie, Leonard A.; Suda, Kazuto; Dlugokencky, Ed

    2010-05-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization is the only existing long-term international global programme providing a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to greenhouse gases and climate change. The WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), integrates the observations from different platforms (surface-based, aircraft and satellite). Surface observations are made at about 180 stations for CO2. The latest analysis shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2008 with CO2 at 385.2 ppm, CH4 at 1797 ppb and N2O at 321.8 ppb: higher than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 38%, 157% and 19%, respectively. Atmospheric growth rates of CO2 and N2O in 2008 are consistent with recent years. The increase in atmospheric CH4 was 7 ppb from 2007 to 2008, similar to the increase of the year before. These are the largest increases since 1998. From the existing data it is not clear if this 14 ppb increase over two years represents the beginning of a new upward trend in CH4. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2008 the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases has increased by 26.2%. The combined radiative forcing by halocarbons is nearly double that of N2O. Some halocarbons are decreasing slowly as a result of emission reductions under the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, whereas others are increasing rapidly. GAW is supporting the atmospheric component of the Integrated Global Carbon Observation System that assesses routinely the state of the global carbon budget and is aimed at better understanding atmospheric carbon sources and sinks through top-down inverse modelling.

  10. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, O. A.; Koide, H.; Dlugokencky, E.; Hall, B.; Montzka, S. A.; Krummel, P.; Brunke, E.; Scheel, H.-E.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations; these requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 16th meeting was held in Wellington, New Zealand, on 25 - 28 October 2011 (http://www.niwa.co.nz/our-science/atmosphere/ggmt-2011). Surface observations are made at more than 100 stations worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of stations for many other greenhouse gases. Results of the latest global analysis were published in the WMO/GAW Greenhouse Gas Bulletin in November 2011. It highlights the importance of N2O, the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2010, with CO2 at 389.0 ppm, CH4 at 1808 ppb and N2O at 323.2 ppb. These values are greater than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 39%, 158% and 20%, respectively. An increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2009 to 2010 amounted to 2.3 ppm, which is higher than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~ 1.5 ppm/yr) and the one for the past decade (~ 2.0 ppm/yr). The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~ 13 ppb/yr during the early 1980s to near zero from 1999 to 2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again. The 19 ppb rise from 2006 to 2009 was followed by a 5 ppb rise in 2010. The growth rate of N2O in 2010 was 0.8 ppb/yr which is comparable to the average over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb/yr). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2010, radiative forcing from nearly all long-lived greenhouse gases increased by 29% and reached 2.81W/m2, with CO2 accounting for nearly 80% of this increase. This radiative forcing corresponds to a CO2-eq mole fraction of 469.7 ppm, which falls in the middle of the IPCC AR4 category I scenario with CO2-eq in the range 445-490 ppm (corresponding to the projected global average temperature rise above pre-industrial level at equilibrium in the range of 2-2.4 degree C). The radiative forcing of N2O now exceeds that of CFC-12.

  11. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Ed; Montzka, Stephen A.; Keeling, Ralph; Tanhua, Toste; Lorenzoni, Laura

    2015-04-01

    We present results from the tenth annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ ghg/GHGbulletin.html) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The results are based on research and observations performed by laboratories contributing to the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme (www.wmo.int/gaw). The Bulletin presents results of global analyses of observational data collected according to GAW recommended practices and submitted to the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), and for the first time, it includes a summary of ocean acidification. Bulletins are prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ScientificAdvisoryGroups.html) in collaboration with WDCGG. The summary of ocean acidification and trends in ocean pCO2 was jointly produced by the International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO), the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), and the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre (OA-ICC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The tenth Bulletin included a special edition published prior to the United Nations Climate Summit in September 2014. The scope of this edition was to demonstrate the level of emission reduction necessary to stabilize radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases. It shows in particular that a reduction in radiative forcing from its current level (2.92 W m-2 in 2013) requires significant reductions in anthropogenic emissions of all major greenhouse gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide derived from this network reached new highs in 2013, with CO2 at 396.0 ± 0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1824 ± 2 ppb and N2O at 325.9 ± 0.1 ppb. These values constitute 142%, 253% and 121% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The atmospheric increase of CO2 from 2012 to 2013 was 2.9 ppm, which is the largest year to year change from 1984 to 2013. The rise of CO2 concentration has been only about a half of what is expected if all the excess CO2 from the burning of fossil-fuel stayed in the air. The other half has been absorbed by the land biosphere and the oceans, but the split between land and oceans is not easily resolved from CO2 data alone. As described in the Bulletin, O2 measurements have been used to estimate the magnitude of the terrestrial biosphere sink. For N2O the increase from 2012 to 2013 is smaller than the one observed from 2011 to 2012 but comparable to the average growth rate over the past 10 years. Atmospheric CH4 continued to increase at a rate similar to the mean rate over the past 5 years. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Annual Greenhouse Gas Index shows that from 1990 to 2013 radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases increased by 34%, with CO2 accounting for about 80% of this increase. The radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2013 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 479 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi). Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean results in increased CO2 concentrations and increased acidity levels in sea-water. During the last two decades ocean water pH decreased by 0.0011 - 0.0024 per year, and the amount of CO2 dissolved in see water (pCO2) increased by 1.2 - 2.8 μatm per year for time-series from several featured ocean stations.

  12. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, G. O.; Barrie, L. A.; Butler, J. H.; Dlugokencky, E.; Hofmann, D. J.; Tans, P.; Tsutsumi, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The latest analysis of data from the WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2007 with CO2 at 383.1 ppm, CH4 at 1789 ppb and N2O at 320.9 ppb. These values are higher than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 37%, 156% and 19%, respectively. Atmospheric growth rates in 2007 of CO2 and N2O are consistent with recent years. The mixing ratio of CH4 shows the largest increase since 1998. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2007 the atmospheric radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases has increased by 24.2%. The combined radiative forcing by the most abundant ozone depleting substances, CFC-11 and CFC-12, exceeds that of N2O. They are decreasing very slowly as a result of emission reductions under the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer.

  13. Global CO2 Distributions over Land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; O'Dell, Christopher; Kawa, Randolph S.

    2012-01-01

    January 2009 saw the successful launch of the first space-based mission specifically designed for measuring greenhouse gases, the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We present global land maps (Level 3 data) of column-averaged CO2 concentrations (X(sub CO2)) derived using observations from the GOSAT ACOS retrieval algorithm, for July through December 2009. The applied geostatistical mapping approach makes it possible to generate maps at high spatial and temporal resolutions that include uncertainty measures and that are derived directly from the Level 2 observations, without invoking an atmospheric transport model or estimates of CO2 uptake and emissions. As such, they are particularly well suited for comparison studies. Results show that the Level 3 maps for July to December 2009 on a lO x 1.250 grid, at six-day resolution capture much of the synoptic scale and regional variability of X(sub CO2), in addition to its overall seasonality. The uncertainty estimates, which reflect local data coverage, X(sub CO2) variability, and retrieval errors, indicate that the Southern latitudes are relatively well-constrained, while the Sahara Desert and the high Northern latitudes are weakly-constrained. A probabilistic comparison to the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA-GFED model reveals that the most statistically significant discrepancies occur in South America in July and August, and central Asia in September to December. While still preliminary, these results illustrate the usefulness of a high spatiotemporal resolution, data-driven Level 3 data product for direct interpretation and comparison of satellite observations of highly dynamic parameters such as atmospheric CO2.

  14. Opportunities for Coordinated Observations of CO2 with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2008-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are the first two satellites designed to make global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision and sampling needed identify and monitor surface sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. Because the operational phases of the OCO and GOSAT missions overlap in time, there are numerous opportunities for comparing and combining the data from these two satellites to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that control the atmospheric CO2 and it variability over time. Opportunities for cross-calibration, cross-validation, and coordinated observations that are currently under consideration are summarized here.

  15. Airborne Observations of Greenhouse Gases during the Asian Summer Monsoon 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Zahn, A.

    2009-04-01

    The new CARIBIC system (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is operational since December 2004. The fully automated instrument package is deployed monthly aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600. The measurement results are representative for the extra-tropical UT/LS and for tropical free-troposphere air masses. Besides in-situ measurements, air is sampled into glass flasks for laboratory analyses (greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, CO2 and H2 isotopes). The main greenhouse gas analysis comprises CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6, isotope analyses include 13C(CO2), 18O(CO2), D(H2) and 13C(CH4). In 2008 the emphasis was on flights between Germany and India in order to study the influence of the Asian summer monsoon on the upper troposphere. During the summer months a distinctive monsoon plume was observed. Higher levels of CH4, N2O and SF6 were found in air masses influenced by the monsoon. While the increase of the purely anthropogenic SF6 is due to increased convective transport during the summer months, the enhancement of CH4 and to a lesser extent also of N2O is caused by increasing emissions from rice paddies, wetlands and landfills during the rainy season. In contrast, CO2 is depleted in the monsoon plume due to an increase in photosynthesis in the regions affected by the monsoon rains. The observations made in 2008 will be compared to data from the phase I of the CARIBIC project.

  16. Greenhouse gases observation from space -initial operation and calibration results of TANSO on GOSAT- (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center and placed in a 666 km sun-synchronous orbit of 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. There are two instruments: the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects gas absorption spectra of Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2?m) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 ?m) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to detect cloud and aerosol interference. TANSO-FTS and CAI acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The presentation includes instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan, onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances. The data processing on the ground is also presented.

  17. CO II retrieval performance of TANSO-FTS (TIR) sensor aboard greenhouse gases observing satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imasu, Ryoichi; Saitoh, Naoko; Ota, Yoshifumi; Taguchi, Shoichi

    2006-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a Japanese satellite that is intended to observe CO II concentration from space and to contribute to advancement of research of the source/sink estimation of CO II. The GOSAT main sensor is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) named "TANSO-FTS", which covers a wide terrestrial radiation spectrum including CO II absorption bands at 1.6 ?m, 2.0 ?m, and 15 ?m. The former two bands are used to estimate columnar concentration of CO II; the latter is used to retrieve the vertical profile of CO II in the upper atmosphere above about 700 hPa pressure level. In addition, another installed on the satellite is an imaging sensor that will be used to detect clouds and aerosols: Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAT). The Center for Climate System Research (CCSR) has contracted with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to develop an algorithm to retrieve CO II concentration profiles from data measured by the thermal infrared (TIR) band of the TANSO-FTS sensor. We adopt the maximum a posteriori method (MAP) to retrieve the vertical profile of atmospheric parameters from thermal infrared spectra. Key techniques for retrieving CO II concentrations are 1) reduction of temperature estimation error through channel selection, 2) optimization of the initial guess for CO II profile based on the output from a chemical transport model (CTM), and 3) usage of data from the 1.6 ?m band of TANSO-FTS as an additional constraint in retrieval of vertical profiles of CO II. Although thermal infrared spectrum data have poor vertical resolving power for CO II concentration in the lower atmosphere, particularly in the boundary layer, we expect that CO II amount in the lower atmosphere can be deduced by substituting the upper level concentration from the columnar concentration estimated from the 1 .6 ?m band data.

  18. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  19. Methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite: Comparison to ground-based TCCON data and model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Robert; Boesch, Hartmut; Cogan, Austin; Fraser, Annemarie; Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Messerschmidt, Janina; Deutscher, Nicholas; Griffith, David W. T.; Notholt, Justus; Wennberg, Paul O.; Wunch, Debra

    2011-08-01

    We report new short-wave infrared (SWIR) column retrievals of atmospheric methane (XCH4) from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and compare observed spatial and temporal variations with correlative ground-based measurements from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and with the global 3-D GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. GOSAT XCH4 retrievals are compared with daily TCCON observations at six sites between April 2009 and July 2010 (Bialystok, Park Falls, Lamont, Orleans, Darwin and Wollongong). GOSAT reproduces the site-dependent seasonal cycles as observed by TCCON with correlations typically between 0.5 and 0.7 with an estimated single-sounding precision between 0.4-0.8%. We find a latitudinal-dependent difference between the XCH4 retrievals from GOSAT and TCCON which ranges from 17.9 ppb at the most northerly site (Bialystok) to -14.6 ppb at the site with the lowest latitude (Darwin). We estimate that the mean smoothing error difference included in the GOSAT to TCCON comparisons can account for 15.7 to 17.4 ppb for the northerly sites and for 1.1 ppb at the lowest latitude site. The GOSAT XCH4 retrievals agree well with the GEOS-Chem model on annual (August 2009 - July 2010) and monthly timescales, capturing over 80% of the zonal variability. Differences between model and observed XCH4 are found over key source regions such as Southeast Asia and central Africa which will be further investigated using a formal inverse model analysis.

  20. Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in atmospheric concentrations of several greenhouse gases (GHGs) over geological time and in recent years. Changes in atmospheric GHGs, in part caused by human activities, affect the amount of energy held in the Earth-atmosphere system and thus a...

  1. Quantifying urban/industrial emissions of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases based on atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Diana Hart

    2000-11-01

    Background and pollution trends and cycles of fourteen trace gases over the Northeastern U.S. are inferred from continuous atmospheric observations at the Harvard Forest research station located in Petersham, Massachusetts. This site receives background `clean' air from the northwest (Canada) and `dirty' polluted air from the southwest (New York City-Washington, D.C. corridor). Mixing ratios of gases regulated by the Montreal Protocol or other policies (CO, PCE, CFC11, CFC12, CFC113, CH 3CCl3, CCl4, and Halon-1211) and of those not subject to restrictions (H2, CH4, CHCl3, TCE, N2O, and SF6) were measured over the three-year period, 1996 to 1998, every 24 minutes by a fully automated gas chromatographic instrument with electron capture detectors. Evidence for polar vortex venting is found consistently in the month of June of the background seasonal cycles. The ratio of CO and PCE enhancements borne on southwesterly winds are in excellent agreement with county-level EPA and sales-based inventories for the New York City-Washington, D.C. region. From this firm footing, we use CO and PCE as reference compounds to determine the urban/industrial source strengths for the other species. A broad historical and geographic study of emissions reveals that the international treaty has by and large been a success. Locally, despite the passing of the 1996 Montreal Protocol ban, only emissions of CFC12 and CH3CCl3 are abating. Though source strengths are waning, the sources are not spent and continued releases to the atmosphere may be expected for some years to come. For CH3CCl3, whose rate of decline is central to our understanding of atmospheric processes, we estimate that absolute concentrations may persist until around the year 2010. The long-term high frequency time series of hydrogen provided here represents the first such data set of its kind. The H2 diurnal cycle is established and explained in terms of its sources and sinks. The ratio of H2 to CO in pollution plumes is found to be a seasonal and unchanged since early automobile exhaust studies of the 1960s, despite the many restrictions placed on car emissions and fuels since that time. Based on this result, a spatial inventory of H2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion is developed at the county level for the entire Northeastern U.S.

  2. Coupled Interface Atmosphere - Ocean (CIAO) code to account for polarization effects in space- based observations of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budak, V. P.; Klyuykov, D. A.; Oshchepkov, S.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past two centuries, anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases have increased to an alarming situation. The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), which is in orbit since 23 January 2009, has considerable promise to improve surface flux inverse modeling. Algorithms for the operational satellite data processing must accurately account for atmospheric light scattering caused by aerosols and thin upper tropospheric clouds. Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) in short wavelength infrared (SWIR) region measures two polarized components spectra for both P- and S- polarization states. The current versions of the operational algorithms for GOSAT data processing utilize scalar radiance that is produced from combination of the polarized signals. To process both polarization states within the full physics algorithms, that utilized the solution of vectorial radiative transfer calculations, is still time consuming when utilizing the radiative transfer codes such as DISORT, P-star, RT3, SCIATRAN. In this paper we report an improved rapid code for spectral radiative transfer calculations that is refereed to as Coupled Interface Atmosphere - Ocean (CIAO). This program could be utilized in further versions of full physics algorithm for direct processing of both polarized states. Another application of this method for space-based observations of greenhouse gases resides in testing of photon path length probability density function (PPDF) method that effectively accounts of atmospheric light scattering. The CIAO code is based on the solution of the vectorial radiative transfer equation (VRTE) with elimination of the anisotropic part of the radiance angular distribution that allows finding the solution of the discretized VRTE in the closed matrix form. There are no any limitations of the media parameters in this code. The comparison of this algorithm with known ones such as DISORT, P-star, RT3, and SCIATRAN showed that similar accuracy could be accessed under significantly lower time consuming. The difference in computation time reaches one order of magnitude and even higher with increasing the degree of scattering anisotropy the total atmospheric optical depth

  3. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  4. CARIBIC observations of greenhouse gases and non-methane hydrocarbons on flights between Germany and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; van Velthoven, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since May 2005 the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) has made near-monthly deployments of an atmospheric observatory making measurements from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 during routine passenger flights. Flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany and serve a large number of destinations, among them Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. On these flights, which took place primarily during northern hemisphere winter 2010/2011, a near-meridional profile was obtained over Europe and Africa, in similar fashion to HIPPO flight tracks over the Pacific, be it without vertical profiles. Over Central Africa, deep convection transports boundary layer air to the free troposphere, linking observations at cruise altitude to surface emissions and allowing for the investigation of emissions and sources of atmospherically relevant species in Africa. Mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (methane, carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide) and a suite of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude during flight. Several tracers, for example methane, carbon monoxide, and various NMHC, exhibit enhanced mixing ratios over tropical Africa. Using tracer-tracer correlations to characterize methane emissions from Africa, we find that biomass burning made a major contribution to the methane burden, but that also biogenic sources, such as wetlands, play a significant role. We also compare these measurements to those conducted earlier over India, which were used to investigate sources and emissions of greenhouse gases during the South Asian summer monsoon.

  5. Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric CO2 and light path modification from space-based spectroscopic observations of greenhouse gases: methodology and application to GOSAT measurements over TCCON sites.

    PubMed

    Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Yokota, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Yukio; Blumenstock, Thomas; Deutscher, Nicholas M; Dohe, Susanne; Macatangay, Ronald; Morino, Isamu; Notholt, Justus; Rettinger, Markus; Petri, Christof; Schneider, Matthias; Sussman, Ralf; Uchino, Osamu; Velazco, Voltaire; Wunch, Debra; Belikov, Dmitry

    2013-02-20

    This paper presents an improved photon path length probability density function method that permits simultaneous retrievals of column-average greenhouse gas mole fractions and light path modifications through the atmosphere when processing high-resolution radiance spectra acquired from space. We primarily describe the methodology and retrieval setup and then apply them to the processing of spectra measured by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We have demonstrated substantial improvements of the data processing with simultaneous carbon dioxide and light path retrievals and reasonable agreement of the satellite-based retrievals against ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer measurements provided by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). PMID:23435008

  6. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region. PMID:26729101

  7. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region. PMID:26729101

  8. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  9. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  10. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  11. Reporting emissions of greenhouse gases in Canada.

    PubMed

    Finlay, P; Stobbs, R

    1994-05-01

    Non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases are considered in "Canada's National Report on Climate Change: Actions to Meet Commitments Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". By including all major greenhouse gases and their anthropogenic sources and sinks using best available science, the Report provides a practical illustration of the "comprehensive approach" policy to implementing the Convention's requirements. In addition to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion, the Report includes information on other sources and sinks for carbon dioxide, and for methane and nitrous oxide. Other gases considered include polyflourocarbons, hydroflourocarbons, and the primary tropospheric ozone precursors, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Current Global Warming Potential indices are used to compare and integrate the best estimates of climate change impacts of the major greenhouse gases. The presentation of emission data is intended to be transparent and comparable. The relative quality of the data for various gases and sources is indicated. The existence of environmental, economic, and other benefits to limiting emissions of all greenhouse gases, in addition to carbon dioxide, should be recognized. Continuing assessments and actions on non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions, both nationally and internationally, are suggested. PMID:24213890

  12. Development and evaluation of the interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases: a high-throughput fourier-transform infrared radiometer for nadir earth observation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Shimota, A; Kondo, K; Okumura, E; Kameda, Y; Shimoda, H; Ogawa, T

    1999-11-20

    The interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases (IMG) was the precursor of the high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared radiometer (FTIR) onboard a satellite for observation of the Earth. The IMG endured the stress of a rocket launch, demonstrating that the high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer is indeed feasible for use onboard a satellite. The IMG adopted a newly developed lubricant-free magnetic suspension mechanism and a dynamic alignment system for the moving mirror with a maximum traveling distance of 10 cm. We present the instrumentation of the IMG, characteristics of the movable mirror drive system, and the evaluation results of sensor specifications during space operation. PMID:18324219

  13. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and their roles in determining current continental-scale budgets and future trends in biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) for North America. Understanding the current magnitude and forecasting future trajectories of atmospheric GHG concent...

  14. Greenhouse gases in the stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wenyi Zhong; Haigh, J.D. ); Pyle, J.A. )

    1993-02-20

    The potential radiative forcing in the stratosphere of changing concentrations of ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12 is assessed. Significant changes in heating rate in the lower stratosphere are found. The response of a fully interactive radiative-photochemical-dynamical two-dimensional model to such changes in gaseous concentrations is investigated. The inclusion of CH[sub 4], N[sub 2]O and the CFC in the radiation scheme causes a small (1 K) decrease in temperature throughout the stratosphere after 50 model years with a resulting increase in ozone column up to 1% in summer high latitudes. An experiment in which lower stratospheric ozone concentrations were forcibly reduced in line with recent satellite observations results in significant (several degrees) temperature decrease in this region. Such decreases may be very significant in maintaining polar ozone loss. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Space-Based Measurements of CO2 from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2011-01-01

    Space-based remote sensing observations hold substantial promise for future long-term monitoring of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. The principal advantages of space based measurements include: (1) Spatial coverage (especially over oceans and tropical land) (2) Sampling density (needed to resolve CO2 weather). The principal challenge is the need for high precision To reach their full potential, space based CO2 measurements must be validated against surface measurements to ensure their accuracy. The TCCON network is providing the transfer standard There is a need for a long-term vision to establish and address community priorities (1) Must incorporate ground, air, space-based assets and models (2) Must balance calls for new observations with need to maintain climate data records.

  16. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  17. Retrieval of greenhouse gases from space-based spectroscopic measurements with the photon pathlength probability density function method: application to GOSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshchepkov, Sergey; Morino, Isamu; Yoshida, Yukio; Yokota, Tatsuya; Bril, Andrey

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite IBUKI (GOSAT) is the worlds first satellite to observe concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) through the atmosphere. The spacecraft is in orbit since 23rd January, 2009. A large number of high-resolution spectroscopic observational data of reflected sunlight measured with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) are available from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). The major source of error in retrieving gas amounts from space-based measurements of reflected sunlight is atmospheric light scattering. Several algorithms have been developed in different groups throughout the world to process the GOSAT data for retrieving global and temporal distributions of the gas amounts. These algorithms mainly differ in how they account for atmospheric light scattering. This presentation describes application of the photon Path length Probability Density Function (PPDF) method to process GOSAT observations from three TANSO-FTS Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) bands (centered at 0.76 m, 1.6 m, and 2.0 m). The retrieval procedure includes constrained minimization of the residual between the modeled and observed GOSAT spectra. We retrieve the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the greenhouse gases (XCO2 and XCH4) simultaneously with PPDF parameters from each GOSAT single sounding. PPDF parameters characterize light path shortening and light path lengthening that could take place depending on the amount and location of thin clouds and aerosols as well as depending on surface properties. As a part of validation study, we compared PPDF-based gas retrievals with those derived from FTS ground-based measurements over twelve sites included in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The sites are located in both the Southern (3 sites) and the Northern (9 sites) Hemispheres. TCCON is a reliable reference source of greenhouse gas measurements due to the direct solar-viewing geometry, which virtually eliminates the impact of atmospheric light scattering on the measurements. Both seasonal trends and pairwise GOSAT-TCCON statistical comparisons have been considered. We also evaluated XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals globally using atmospheric transport model.

  18. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  19. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  20. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  1. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  2. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  3. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is on the press the year 2000, both published by the National Institute of Ecology of the SEMARNAT. There is not an emissions inventory of Veracruz, the few measurements campaigns that have been done in urban centers, it has not been possible to have access data, neither it has been designed a public politic that suggests the necessity of counting on information on the matter. In spite of it, because of the geographic conditions of Veracruz, the potential impact will transform Veracruz in a short period of time, thats why the Veracruz University must leadership studies around it, where the social distribution of the obtained results will make possible the creation of politics, strategies directed to a sustainable development, economically viable, socially fair and environmentally respectful.

  4. 76 FR 73885 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    .... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program... November 29, 2011 Part IV Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse... Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The EPA...

  5. Minerals, metal production and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Themelis, N.J.; Wernick, I.

    1997-12-31

    The construction minerals, industrial minerals, and metals used in the U.S. annually amount to about 2.3 billion tons or 72% of all materials produced by industry, agriculture and forestry, excluding the bulk of the fossil fuel production (about 1.9 billion tons) which is used for electricity, heating and transportation. On a global scale, the consumption of minerals and metals has increased by a factor of ten in the 20th century and is an important contributor to the generation of greenhouse gases. As the grades of mined ores diminish, the energy units required to produce minerals and metals, and the corresponding emissions to the atmosphere, will increase substantially. The current emissions of the dominant production technologies and the prospects for reducing emissions, by means of recycling and technological advances, will be discussed.

  6. Remote Sensing Observations of Greenhouse Gases from space based and airborne platforms: from SCIAMACHY and MaMap to CarbonSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, John P.; Schneising, Oliver; Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Heymann, Jens; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Krautwurst, Sven; Dickerson, Russ

    2015-04-01

    Methane, CH4, e and carbon dioxide, CO2, play an important role in the earth carbon cycle. They are the two most important long lived greenhouse gases produced by anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion. In order to assess accurately the surface fluxes of CH4 or CO2. The Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY, SCIAMACHY, was a national contribution to the ESA Envisat platform: the latter being launched on the 28th February 2002 and operating successfully until April 2012. The SCIAMACHY measurements of the up-welling radiation have been used to retrieve the dry mole fraction of XCH4 and XCO2, providing a unique 10 year record at the spatial resolution of 60 kmx30 km. This data has been used to observe the changing CH4 abundance in the atmosphere and identify anthropogenic such as Fracking and natural sources such as wetlands. The Methane and carbon dioxide Mapper, MaMap, was developed as an aircraft demonstration instrument for our CarbonSat and CarbonSat Constellation concepts. CarbonSat is in Phase A B1 studies as one of two candidate missions for ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Mission. Selected results from SCIAMACHY and Mamap will be presented with a focus on methane and the perspective for CarbonSat.

  7. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) Mission and Experience Gained from the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, A.; Gunson, M.; Crisp, D.; Miller, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) will make space-based measurements of atmospheric CO2 with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales and quantify their variability over the seasonal cycle. The OCO-2 mission will be a 'carbon copy' of the OCO mission, to minimize schedule and cost risks. The OCO-2 instrument has been built and is undergoing testing and characterization. OCO-2 will carry a single instrument that incorporates 3 high resolution grating spectrometers that will make bore-sighted measurements of reflected sunlight in near-infrared CO2 and molecular oxygen (O2) absorption bands. These measurements will be combined to provide spatially resolved estimates of the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2. The instrument collects 12 to 24 XCO2 soundings/second over the sunlit portion of the orbit, yielding 200 to 400 soundings per degree of latitude, or 0.5 to 1 million soundings every day. Thick clouds and aerosols will reduce the number of soundings available for XCO2 retrievals by 80-90%, but the remaining data is expected to yield XCO2 estimates with accuracies of ~0.3 to 0.5% (1 to 2 ppm) on regional scales every month. To verify the accuracy of the space-based XCO2 data, the OCO-2 validation program will use ground-based, solar-viewing Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) to tie the space-based XCO2 with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standard for atmospheric CO2, which is based on in situ observations of CO2 from flask measurements, tall towers, and aircraft. In preparation for the OCO-2 mission, we are using the OCO-2 algorithm to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT measurements. We now retrieved XCO2 from GOSAT data from April 2009 to present. These retrievals are being validated with the TCCON network. This presentation will provide an overview of OCO-2 mission, including science objectives, instrument, algorithm, and validation plans as well as recent results from the GOSAT retrievals.

  8. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  9. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration

  10. 75 FR 57669 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... FR 18455, April 12, 2010) and the following memoranda ``Review of Non-Federal Existing Greenhouse Gas... FR 18455) and the following memoranda ``Review of Non-Federal Existing Greenhouse Gas Reporting... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ02 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY:...

  11. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. ); Wuebbles, D. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change.

    PubMed

    Montzka, S A; Dlugokencky, E J; Butler, J H

    2011-08-01

    Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO(2) greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO(2), so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. Although it is clear that sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with substantial cuts in emissions of CO(2), reducing non-CO(2) greenhouse gas emissions would be a relatively quick way of contributing to this goal. PMID:21814274

  13. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. PMID:25236841

  14. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  15. GLOBAL MITIGATION OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report will provide mitigation abatement costs for reductions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, by source category and region. The principal technologies for reducing emissions will be thoroughly described and technical and economic assumptions documented.

  16. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  17. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  18. Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2007-12-01

    The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the continents. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

  19. GLOBAL MITIGATION OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitigation of noncarbon dioxide (non-CO2) greenhouse gas emissions can be a relatively inexpensive supplement to CO2-only mitigation strategies. The non-CO2 gases include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and a number of high global warming potential (high- GWP) or fluorinated gases. These ga...

  20. Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases - An assessment of their relative roles in global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    1990-01-01

    Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

  1. Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    1990-08-01

    Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

  2. Synthetic greenhouse gases to decline if Montreal Protocol amended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    The Montreal Protocol, an international treaty designed to reduce the release into the atmosphere of ozone-depleting gases such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons, has been successful since its implementation in the late 1980s. However, related greenhouse gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), have increased in concentration in the atmosphere since then. HFCs, along with other synthetic greenhouse gases (SGHGs), account for a radiative forcing almost 20% as large as that due to the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) since the preindustrial era.

  3. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  6. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  7. From the First Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During the IGY to the Global Annual Greenhouse Gas Index in 2006: The Evolution of the Global Observing Network for Greenhouse Gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Butler, J. H.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masarie, K.; Montzka, S. A.; Tans, P. P.

    2006-05-01

    During the International Geophysical Year, Dr. Charles "Dave" Keeling instituted both air sample collections at the South Pole in Antarctica and continuous carbon dioxide measurements with an infrared analyzer at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. Both of these locations were later to become Observatories of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), following its formation in 1970, and the pioneering measurements of Dave Keeling continued to be supported by NOAA at these sites until this day. In addition to instituting Observatories at key background locations (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; American Samoa; and more recently Trinidad Head, California, in addition to the Hawaii and Antarctic sites) the forerunners of NOAA/ESRL also began a global cooperative air sampling network in the late 1960's. The air samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide and other gases in the Boulder, Colorado laboratories. With the help of many people in many nations, this network has grown to the largest such effort in the world, numbering about 90 sites, including three ship routes, at present. In 1996, data from this network and from other networks around the world formed the basis of GLOBALVIEW, a web-based collection of carbon dioxide and methane data used extensively with transport models to determine global carbon dioxide sources and sinks. This data set is available at http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/globalview/index.html . In 2004, the global measurements of all the long-lived greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, the chlorofluorocarbons, and ten minor halogen gases were condensed into a simple index, the "Annual Greenhouse Gas Index" (AGGI) by summing their radiative climate forcing since the pre-industrial era (taken as 1750). The NOAA AGGI is designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The contribution of long-lived greenhouse gases to climate forcing is well understood by scientists and has been reported through a range of national and international assessments. Nevertheless, the language of scientists (for example, watts per square meter per year) often eludes policy makers, educators, and the general public. This index is designed to help bridge that gap.

  8. Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases and Their Sources and Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Andre; Babenhauserheide, Arne; Bertleff, Marco; Checa-Garcia, Ramiro; Hahne, Philipp; Hase, Frank; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto; Landgraf, Jochen; Galli, Andre; Basu, Sourish

    2014-06-01

    The man-made emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are considered the main drivers of anthropogenically induced climate change. Major uncertainties persist when it comes to quantifying regional scale surface fluxes of these gases or predicting the evolution of the relevant source/sink processes in a changing climate. Remote sensing of the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from space-borne and ground-based platforms offers the opportunity to significantly advance our knowledge on spatial and temporal scales that are suitable for process attribution and mitigation actions. Overall, the most promising remote-sensing strategy exploits the rotational-vibrational absorption of CO2 and CH4 in sunlight penetrating the Earth's atmosphere. Typically, satellite sounders such as GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite), OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), and S5P (Sentinel-5 precursor) as well as the ground-based spectrometers of the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) cover various CO2, CH4, and O2 absorption bands in the near and shortwave infrared spectral range between 0.75 micron (13400cm-1) and 2.5 micron (4000cm-1). Accuracy of the inferred gas concentrations is contingent on the accuracy of the adopted spectroscopic parameters and spectroscopic models available in these spectral regions. Here, I will report on recent achievements and challenges within our greenhouse-gas remote-sensing activities mainly focusing on the GOSAT observational record. Since its launch in early 2009, the Fourier Transform Spectrometer onboard GOSAT delivers solar absorption spectra with good spectral resolution and high signal-to-noise. It has been shown that the CO2 and CH4 retrievals from these observations can achieve an accuracy on the order of fractions of a percent which makes them suitable for tracking regional scale source/sink processes and their response to climate events. In order to achieve the required accuracy, it is crucial to develop highly accurate radiative-transfer algorithms and to validate the satellite soundings by ground-based observations. I will illustrate some cases where the excellent quality of the absorption spectra collected by GOSAT reveals spectroscopic deficiencies and inconsistencies among the various absorption bands covered. As such, lessons learned from GOSAT can be used as a feedback to the spectroscopy community. Beyond GOSAT, future satellite missions such as S5P or the planned S5 (Sentinel-5, launch ˜2020) will cover spectral ranges which have not yet been spectroscopically optimized for remote-sensing purposes. In that case, simulations and studies based on ground-based observations show that spectroscopic uncertainties constitute a dominant contribution to the error budget of the retrieved gas concentrations. Therefore, further improvements of spectroscopic parameters and line-shape models is of paramount interest for remote sensing of greenhouse gases.

  9. Greenhouse gases dissolved in soil solution - often ignored, but important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, Daniel; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Puetz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Flux measurements of climate-relevant trace gases from soils are frequently undertaken in contemporary ecosystem studies and substantially contribute to our understanding of greenhouse gas balances of the biosphere. While the great majority of such investigations builds on closed chamber and eddy covariance measurements, where upward gas fluxes to the atmosphere are measured, fewest concurrently consider greenhouse gas dissolution in the seepage and leaching of dissolved gases via the vadose zone to the groundwater. Here we present annual leaching losses of dissolved N2O and CO2 from arable, grassland, and forest lysimeter soils from three sites differing in altitude and climate. We aim to assess their importance in comparison to direct N2O emission, soil respiration, and further leaching parameters of the C- and N cycle. The lysimeters are part of the Germany-wide lysimeter network initiative TERENO-SoilCan, which investigates feedbacks of climate change to the pedosphere on a long-term scale. Soil water samples were collected weekly from different depths of the profiles by means of suction cups. A laboratory pre-experiment proved that no degassing occurred under those sampling conditions. We applied the headspace equilibration technique to determine dissolved gas concentrations by gas chromatography. The seepage water of all lysimeters was consistently supersaturated with N2O and CO2 compared to water equilibrated ambient air. In terms of N2O, leaching losses increased in the ascending order forest, grassland, and arable soils, respectively. In case of the latter soils, we observed a strong variability of N2O, with dissolved concentrations up to 23 ?g N L-1. However, since seepage discharge of the arable lysimeters was comparatively small and mostly limited to the hydrological winter season, leached N2O appeared to be less important than direct N2O emissions. In terms of dissolved CO2,our measurements revealed considerable leaching losses from the mountainous forest and grassland soils, based on concentrations up to 24 mg C L-1 and high seepage discharge. Such losses turned out to be similarly important like soil respiration, particularly during winter when temperature-dependent soil respiration declined. In conclusion, the results of the first year of our measurements provide evidence that dissolved greenhouse gases should be considered in studies which aim to assess full greenhouse gas balances, particularly in ecosystems where hydrological conditions favour microbial activity and high leaching losses.

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  11. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  12. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  13. Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2 , essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  14. Production of Greenhouse Gases in The Atmosphere of Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kress, Monika E.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Mars was much warmer and wetter 3.5 to 4 billion years ago than it is today, suggesting that its climate was able to support life in the distant past. Carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases which may have kept Mars warm during this time. We explore the possibility that these gases were produced via grain-catalyzed reactions in the warm, dusty aftermath of large comet and/or asteroid impacts which delivered Mars, volatile inventory.

  15. Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which regulates the lifetime of almost every atmospheric gas. Following biomass burning, biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane are significantly enhanced. It is hypothesized that enhanced postburn biogenic emissions of these gases are related to fire-induced changes in soil chemistry and/or microbial ecology. Biomass burning, once believed to be a tropical phenomenon, has been demonstrated by satellite imagery to also be a regular feature of the world's boreal forests. One example of biomass burning is the extensive 1987 fire that destroyed more than 12 million acres of boreal forest in the People's Republic of China and across its border in the Soviet Union. Recent estimates indicate that almost all biomass burning is human-initiated and that it is increasing with time. With the formation of greenhouse and chemically active gases as direct combustion products and a longer-term enhancement of biogenic emissions of gases, biomass burning may be a significant driver for global change.

  16. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  17. The Global Research Alliance on agricultural greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases was proposed by New Zealand at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP) in Copenhagen in 2009 and developed in partnership with the United States. This alliance now includes 32 member count...

  18. Iatrogenic greenhouse gases: the role of anaesthetic agents.

    PubMed

    Uzoigwe, Chika E; Franco, Luis C Sanchez; Forrest, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of health-care activity to climate change is not negligible and is increasing. Anaesthetic greenhouse gases, in particular the fluranes, have a much more potent global warming capacity, volume for volume, than carbon dioxide, but their emissions remain completely unregulated. PMID:26903451

  19. The changing role of non co2 greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, M. A. K.

    During the last century, the concentrations of several greenhouse gases have increased considerably - most notably, methane and nitrous oxide. In addition, new, entirely man - made gases have been put into the atmosphere that also cause the greenhouse effect; these include the chlorofluorocarbons. Calculations have shown that the during the last century the non - CO2 greenhouse gases could together be almost as effective as the increase of carbon dioxide in causing global warming. These and similar gases were therefore included in the Kyoto Protocol to develop a comprehensive plan for controlling global warming. New studies show however that the other gases, with few exceptions, are likely to play a smaller than expected role in future global warming. The most significant non - CO2 man made greenhouse gases are methane and nitrous oxide. Methane rose from 800 ppbv about 200 years ago to about 1700 ppbv in recent times, while nitrous oxide rose from about 285 ppbv to 310 ppbv over the same time. These trends made methane the most important gas for global warming next to carbon dioxide. But now, the trends of methane have declined considerably. Budget analyses suggest that we may not see major changes of concentrations in the future comparable to the trends of the last century. Thus the role of methane in future global warming may be less than expected earlier. Nitrous oxide on the other hand, has increased slowly during the last century, but now there is an indication that it may be increasing faster. The increase of nitrous oxide is still slow, but in time it is likely to become more important than previously thought. While other greenhouse gases such as the perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are included in the Kyoto Protocol, these are present in such minute concentrations that it is unlikely that they will have an important role in future global warming. Recent studies on the perfluorocarbons show that the trend of the major gas, carbon tetrafluoride, is slowing down as a response to industry controls designed for energy savings. These considerations suggest that while there may be many non - CO2 man made greenhouse gases, and whatever their collective role is, it is will be dominated in the future by nitrous oxide and to a lesser extent by methane.

  20. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  1. Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Harold A.; Baker, D. James, Jr.; Bretherton, Francis P.; Burke, Kevin C.; Clark, William C.; Davis, Margaret B.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Imbrie, John; Malone, Thomas F.; Mcelroy, Michael B.

    1989-01-01

    This symposium was organized to study the unusual convergence of a number of observations, both short and long term that defy an integrated explanation. Of particular importance are surface temperature observations and observations of upper atmospheric temperatures, which have declined significantly in parts of the stratosphere. There has also been a dramatic decline in ozone concentration over Antarctica that was not predicted. Significant changes in precipitation that seem to be latitude dependent have occurred. There has been a threefold increase in methane in the last 100 years; this is a problem because a source does not appear to exist for methane of the right isotopic composition to explain the increase. These and other meteorological global climate changes are examined in detail.

  2. Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

    1981-01-01

    Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

  3. 75 FR 26904 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default Emission Factors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs (75 FR 18652) which included proposed... proposed rule (Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs (75 FR 18652... Greenhouse Gases (74 FR 16448). In its proposal, EPA requested comment on the nine process categories...

  4. 75 FR 39735 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases From Magnesium Production, Underground Coal Mines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Natural Gas Systems (75 FR 18608, April 12, 2010) and Proposed Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases From Magnesium Production... PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ03 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases From...

  5. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  6. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  7. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  8. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  9. 40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 71.13 Section 71.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter...

  10. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... PLANS General Provisions 52.22 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined...

  11. Keeping Mars warm with new super greenhouse gases

    PubMed Central

    Gerstell, M. F.; Francisco, J. S.; Yung, Y. L.; Boxe, C.; Aaltonee, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Our selection of new super greenhouse gases to fill a putative window in a future Martian atmosphere relies on quantum-mechanical calculations. Our study indicates that if Mars could somehow acquire an Earth-like atmospheric composition and surface pressure, then an Earth-like temperature could be sustained by a mixture of five to seven fluorine compounds. Martian mining requirements for replenishing the fluorine could be comparable to current terrestrial extraction. PMID:11226208

  12. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  13. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy to fuel cellular functions. "We think this chemical process did not exist when life first formed on Earth," he says, "because it is based on oxygen being available, and there was little oxygen available on the early Earth." It is possible that there are anaerobic regions beneath the sea floor in which life forms like those early non-Krebs Cycle microbes may yet exist. To detect and potentially collect samples of life emerging from hydrothermal vents, Flynn and his colleagues created Medusa, a multi-sensor instrument designed for long-term observation of diked vents on the ocean floor. When the vents erupt, Medusa assesses indicators of life within the expelled water. If the results are positive, the observatory collects samples and detaches from the ocean floor, making the long journey to the surface for retrieval by scientists. One of the indicators Medusa measures is the ratio of carbon isotopes in the water, namely carbon-12 and carbon-13. Living organisms preferentially take up carbon-12, Flynn says, so examining the ratio of these isotopes can help to determine the source of carbon in an environment as either biological or non-biological. "On Mars, there is evidence of localized methane in the atmosphere, and that methane could come from biological sources or from geochemical ones," Flynn says. "Determining the background planetary carbon isotope ratios and then evaluating the specific carbon ratios in this methane would help to determine how it was formed." A long-duration observatory similar to Medusa could one day provide essential evidence for or against the presence of life on the Red Planet or beneath the ice-crusted oceans of Europa.

  14. Modern inhalation anesthetics: Potent greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Rhee, Tae Siek; Rigby, Matt; Hofstetter, Doris; Hill, Matthias; Schoenenberger, Fabian; Reimann, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Modern halogenated inhalation anesthetics undergo little metabolization during clinical application and evaporate almost completely to the atmosphere. Based on their first measurements in a range of environments, from urban areas to the pristine Antarctic environment, we detect a rapid accumulation and ubiquitous presence of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane in the global atmosphere. Over the past decade, their abundances in the atmosphere have increased to global mean mole fractions in 2014 of 0.097ppt, 0.30ppt, and 0.13ppt (parts per trillion, 10-12, in dry air), respectively. Emissions of these long-lived greenhouse gases inferred from the observations suggest a global combined release to the atmosphere of 3.1 ± 0.6 million t CO2 equivalent in 2014 of which ≈80% stems from desflurane. We also report on halothane, a previously widely used anesthetic. Its global mean mole fraction has declined to 9.2ppq (parts per quadrillion, 10-15) by 2014. However, the inferred present usage is still 280 ±120t yr-1.

  15. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  16. Greenhouse gases in the Earth system: a palaeoclimate perspective.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Eric W

    2011-05-28

    While the trends in greenhouse gas concentrations in recent decades are clear, their significance is only revealed when viewed in the context of a longer time period. Fortunately, the air bubbles in polar ice cores provide an unusually direct method of determining the concentrations of stable gases over a period of (so far) 800,000 years. Measurements on different cores with varying characteristics, as well as an overlap of ice-core and atmospheric measurements covering the same time period, show that the ice-core record provides a faithful record of changing atmospheric composition. The mixing ratio of CO(2) is now 30 per cent higher than any value observed in the ice-core record, while methane is more than double any observed value; the rate of change also appears extraordinary compared with natural changes. Before the period when anthropogenic changes have dominated, there are very interesting natural changes in concentration, particularly across glacial/interglacial cycles, and these can be used to understand feedbacks in the Earth system. The phasing of changes in temperature and CO(2) across glacial/interglacial transitions is consistent with the idea that CO(2) acts as an important amplifier of climate changes in the natural system. Even larger changes are inferred to have occurred in periods earlier than the ice cores cover, and these events might be used to constrain assessments of the way the Earth could respond to higher than present concentrations of CO(2), and to a large release of carbon: however, more certainty about CO(2) concentrations beyond the time period covered by ice cores is needed before such constraints can be fully realized. PMID:21502180

  17. 75 FR 75059 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 72, 78, and 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic... 2060-AP88 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon... regulation to require greenhouse gas monitoring and reporting from facilities that conduct...

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  19. Fluorinated greenhouse gases in the troposphere and stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, Johannes C.; Gallacher, Eileen; Oram, David E.; Bönisch, Harald; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Fraser, Paul J.; Röckmann, Thomas; Sturges, William T.

    2015-04-01

    Fluorinated organic trace gases in the atmosphere are almost exclusively thought to be of anthropogenic origin. In the case of fully fluorinated alkane and cycloalkane-derivatives their IR absorption features and very long atmospheric lifetimes (on the order of thousands of years) make them very strong greenhouse gases. We here present measurements of 10 of these perfluorocarbons in the UT/LS and stratosphere as derived from deployments of regular passenger aircraft (CARIBIC project, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com/) and the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica. In combination with long-term tropospheric records obtained from the Cape Grim observatory, Tasmania, we estimate their impact on radiative forcing expressed as CO2-equivalents. As these gases have no significant sinks in the stratosphere they could also be suitable to derive an important transport diagnostic: the so-called mean age-of-air i.e. the average stratospheric transit time of an air parcel. We evaluate this possibility for all above-mentioned species and compare their characteristics with other inert species such as SF6, SF5CF3, and long-lived chlorofluorocarbons.

  20. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value. PMID:26827362

  1. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value.

  2. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India

    SciTech Connect

    Auffhammer, M.; Ramanathan, V.; Vincent, J.R.

    2007-12-26

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate change due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

  3. 77 FR 10434 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule: Confidentiality Determinations and Best Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of ] Fluorinated GHGs'' rule (75 FR 74774, hereinafter... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ70 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule: Confidentiality... elements in subpart I, Electronics Manufacturing source category, of the Mandatory Reporting of...

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 and agricultural management on flux of greenhouse gases from soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the contribution of agriculture to climate change, flux of greenhouse gases from different cropping systems must be assessed. Measurement of soil efflux of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, and CH4) from conservation and conventional tillage systems that have been under the influence of eleva...

  5. 76 FR 36472 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas m\\2\\ square meters mm... Manufacturing of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on December 1, 2011 (40 CFR part 98, subpart I) (75 FR 74774... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN A2060 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions...

  6. 76 FR 36339 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs: Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Regulations EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas mm millimeters...: Electronics Manufacturing of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on December 1, 2010 (75 FR 74774). This subpart... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN A2060 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources...

  7. Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in the absence of threats from climate change and ocean acidification. Therefore, these measures represent “no regrets” policy options for the marine environment. Nevertheless, even with adaptive policies in place, continued greenhouse gas emissions increasingly risk damaging marine ecosystems and the human communities that depend on them.

  8. Greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment - A review of modelling tools.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Ekama, George; Caniani, Donatella; Cosenza, Alida; Esposito, Giovanni; Gori, Riccardo; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Rosso, Diego; Olsson, Gustaf

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from wastewater treatment that contribute to its carbon footprint. As a result of the increasing awareness of GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), new modelling, design, and operational tools have been developed to address and reduce GHG emissions at the plant-wide scale and beyond. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the recently developed tools used to understand and manage GHG emissions from WWTPs, and discusses open problems and research gaps. The literature review reveals that knowledge on the processes related to N2O formation, especially due to autotrophic biomass, is still incomplete. The literature review shows also that a plant-wide modelling approach that includes GHG is the best option for the understanding how to reduce the carbon footprint of WWTPs. Indeed, several studies have confirmed that a wide vision of the WWPTs has to be considered in order to make them more sustainable as possible. Mechanistic dynamic models were demonstrated as the most comprehensive and reliable tools for GHG assessment. Very few plant-wide GHG modelling studies have been applied to real WWTPs due to the huge difficulties related to data availability and the model complexity. For further improvement in GHG plant-wide modelling and to favour its use at large real scale, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in GHG formation and release, and data acquisition must be enhanced. PMID:26878638

  9. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  10. Passive and Active Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases in the GOSAT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morino, I.; Inoue, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Kikuchi, N.; Yokota, T.; Matsunaga, T.; Uchino, O.; Tanaka, T.; Sakaizawa, D.; Kawakami, S.; Ishii, S.; Mizutani, K.; Shibata, Y.; Abo, M.; Nagasawa, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), launched on 23 Jan. 2009, is the world's first satellite dedicated to measuring concentrations of the two major greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), from space. Column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) are retrieved from the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral data observed with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard GOSAT. The present NIES full physics SWIR retrieval algorithm (ver. 02.xx) showed smaller biases and standard deviations (-1.48 ppm and 2.09 ppm for XCO2 and -5.9 ppb and 12.6 ppb for XCH4, respectively) than those of the ver. 01.xx by comparing with data of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). GOSAT retrievals from the GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR spectra for more than five years are now ready for scientific research, but may be still influenced by thin aerosols and clouds. Under GOSAT validation activities, we made aircraft observation campaigns to validate the GOSAT products and calibrate TCCON FTSs installed in Japan. In their campaigns, we also made partial column measurements of CO2 with an airborne laser absorption spectrometer, and comparison of ground-based CO2Differential Absorption Lidars with aircraft measurement data. Their active remote sensing experiments are for development of new validation methodology for passive space-based mission and fundamental development for future active space-based mission. The Ministry of the Environment, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and the National Institute for Environmental Studies also started the development of the follow-on satellite, GOSAT-2 in 2013. GOSAT-2 will be launched in 2017 - 2018. Instruments onboard GOSAT-2 are similar to current GOSAT. The SWIR passive remote sensing of greenhouse gases would be more or less affected by aerosols and thin cirrus clouds. Therefore, active remote sensing is expected to solve it and extend observations during nighttime and to be complementary with passive remote sensing which is adequate to wider observations. In this presentation, we will show results on GOSAT observations, validation activities, and lessons learnt from passive remote sensing of greenhouse gases for next-generation remote sensing.

  11. Long term changes in the ionosphere over Indian low latitudes: Impact of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Som; Chandra, H.; Beig, G.

    2015-06-01

    Increased concentration of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities warm the troposphere and have a cooling effect in the middle and upper atmosphere. Ionospheric densities and heights are affected due to cooling. Carbon dioxide is one of the most dominant gases for the cause of long term ionospheric trends along with other radiatively active greenhouse gases. Regular ionospheric soundings are made over Ahmedabad (23.1°N, 72.7°E), since 1953. Long term changes in the ionosphere as a consequence of the cooling of the mesosphere and thermosphere due to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases have been studied. Ionospheric observations over Ahmedabad, a low latitude station in the anomaly crest region, for the years 1955-2003 are examined to study the long term changes in the critical frequencies of the various ionospheric layers and the height of the maximum ionization as characterized by hPF2. A decrease in foF2 (1.9 MHz for midday, 1.4 MHz for midnight) and hPF2 (18 km for midday, 17 km for midnight) during about five decades are noted. An increase is noted in foF1 (0.4 MHz). The foF2 data are also examined over an equatorial station Kodaikanal (10.2°N, 77.5°E), situated near the magnetic equator for the years 1960-1995 and a decrease of 0.5 MHz for midday and 0.7 MHz for midnight are noted in ~35 years.

  12. Evolution of the global inequality in greenhouse gases emissions using multidimensional generalized entropy measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remuzgo, Lorena; Trueba, Carmen; Sarabia, José María

    2016-02-01

    Given the cumulative consequences of climate change, global concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) must be reduced; being inequality in per-capita emissions levels a problem to achieve a commitment by all countries. Thus, the evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inequality has received special attention because CO2 is the most abundant GHG in the atmosphere. However, it is necessary to consider other gases to provide a real illustration of our starting point to achieve a multilateral agreement. In this paper, we study the evolution of global inequality in GHGs emissions during the period 1990-2011, considering the four main gases: CO2, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gases (F-gases). The data used in this analysis is taken from the World Resources Institute (2014) and the groups of countries are constructed according to the quantity of emissions that each country released into the atmosphere in the first year of study. For this purpose we use the multidimensional generalized entropy measures proposed by Maasoumi (1986) that can be decomposable into the between- and within-group inequality components. The biggest fall in inequality is observed when we attach more weight to the emissions transfers between the most polluting countries and assume a low substitution degree among pollutants. Finally, some economic policy implications are commented.

  13. Measurements of Greenhouse Gases around the Sacramento Area: The Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Fischer, M. L.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Faloona, I. C.; Zagorac, N.; Guilderson, T. P.; Saripalli, S.; Sherwood, T.

    2009-12-01

    The state of California is leading the United States by enacting legislation (AB-32) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The success of reduction efforts can be gauged with accurate emissions inventories and potentially verified with atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) over time. Measurements of multiple GHGs and associated trace gas species in a specific region also provide information on emissions ratios for source apportionment. We conducted the Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) campaign to determine emissions signature ratios for the sources that exist in the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento Valley areas. Specifically, we attempt to determine the emissions signatures of sources that influence ongoing measurements made at a tall-tower measurement site near Walnut Grove, CA. For two weeks in February and March of 2009, a Cessna 210 was flown throughout the Sacramento region, making continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO while also sampling discrete flasks for a variety of additional tracers, including SF6, N2O, and 14C in CO2 (?14CO2). Flight paths were planned using wind predictions for each day to maximize sampling of sources whose emissions would also be sampled contemporaneously by the instrumentation at the Walnut Grove tower (WGC), part of the ongoing California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project between NOAA/ESRLs Carbon Cycle group and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Flights were performed in two distinct patterns: 1) flying across a plume upwind and downwind of the Sacramento urban area, and 2) flying across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from Richmond to Walnut Grove, a region consisting of natural wetlands as well as several power plants and refineries. Results show a variety of well-correlated mixing ratio signals downwind of Sacramento, documenting the urban signature emission ratios, while emissions ratios in the Delta region were more variable, likely due to the both natural and anthropogenic sources in that region. Periodic flask measurements of ?14CO2 provide additional insight regarding the partitioning of CO2 emissions due to fossil fuel (deficient in 14C) from those of biospheric sources. A strong correlation between fossil-fuel CO2 and CO was measured downwind of Sacramento, suggesting that the continuous measurements of CO can be used to estimate a continuous profile of fossil-fuel CO2 enhancement in this region.

  14. Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the United States: Quantifying the Responses to Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascioli, N. R.; Fiore, A. M.; Previdi, M. J.; Correa, G. J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in extreme temperatures, heat waves, heavy rainfall events, and precipitation frequency can have adverse impacts on human health, air quality, agricultural productivity, and water resources. Using the aerosol only (AER) and greenhouse gas only (GHG) "single forcing" simulations (3 ensemble members each) from the GFDL CM3 chemistry-climate model, we investigate aerosol- versus greenhouse gas-induced changes in high temperature and precipitation extremes over the United States. We identify changes in these events from 1860 to 2005 and the associated large-scale dynamical conditions. Small changes in these extremes in the "all forcing" simulations reflect cancellations between the individual, opposite-signed effects of increasing anthropogenic aerosols and greenhouse gases. In AER, aerosols lead to lower extreme high temperatures and fewer warm spells over the western US (-2.1 K regional average; -20 days/year) and over the central and northeast US (-1.5 K; -12 days/year). In GHG, a similar but opposite-signed response pattern occurs (+2.7 K and +14 days/year over the western US; +2.5 K and +10 days/year in the central and northeast US). The similar spatial response patterns in AER versus GHG suggest a preferred regional mode of response that is largely independent of the regional distribution of the forcing agent. The influence of both greenhouse gases and aerosols on extreme high temperature is weakest in the southeast US, collocated with the observed "warming hole". No statistically significant change occurs in AER, and a warming of only +1.8 K occurs in GHG. Warming in this region continues to be muted over the 21st century under the RCP 8.5 scenario, with increases in extreme temperatures more than 1 K smaller than elsewhere. Aerosols induce decreases in the number of days per year with at least 10mm of precipitation (R10mm) over the eastern US in summer and winter and over the southern US in spring of roughly 1 day/year. In contrast, greenhouse gases induce increases in R10mm over the eastern US in winter (+0.8 days/year), the northern and central US during spring (+1 day/year), and the southeast US during summer (+0.5 days/year), but decreases over the northeast US in summer (-0.2 days/year). In RCP 8.5, the patterns of extreme temperature and precipitation associated with greenhouse gas forcing dominate.

  15. Use of 222Rn for estimation of greenhouse gases emissions at Russian territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezina, E. V.; Elansky, N. F.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that 222Rn is widely used as a tracer for studying different atmospheric processes including estimations of greenhouse gases emissions. Calculation of 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere allows quantitative estimation of greenhouse gases emissions having the soil origin or sources of which are located near the surface. For accurate estimation of 222Rn fluxes detailed investigations of spatial and temporal variations of its concentrations are necessary. 222Rn concentrations data in the atmospheric surface layer over continental Russia from Moscow to Vladivostok obtained during the six TROICA (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) expeditions of the mobile laboratory along the Trans-Siberian railroad are analyzed. Spatial distribution, diurnal and seasonal variations of surface 222Rn concentrations along the Trans-Siberian railroad are investigated. According to the obtained data surface 222Rn concentration values above continental Russia vary from 0.5 to 75 Bq/m3 depending on meteorological conditions and geological features of the territory with the average value being 8.42 ± 0.10 Bq/m3. The average 222Rn concentration is maximum in the autumn expedition and minimum in the spring one. The factors mostly influencing 222Rn concentration variations are studied: surface temperature inversions, geological features of the territory, precipitations. 222Rn accumulation features in the atmospheric surface layer during night temperature inversions are analyzed. It was noted that during night temperature inversions the surface 222Rn concentration is 7 - 8 times more than the one during the nights without temperature inversions. Since atmospheric stratification determines accumulation and diurnal variations of many atmospheric pollutants as well as greenhouse gases its features are analyzed in detail. Surface temperature inversions were mainly observed from 18:00-19:00 to 06:00-07:00 in the warm season and from 16:00 to 08:00-09:00 in the cold season. During this time 222Rn accumulated in the surface atmospheric layer with its maximum concentration values being observed near sunrise. 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere from Moscow to Vladivostok during surface temperature inversions are estimated taking into account geological factors. 222Rn accumulation layer depth in the lower atmosphere is calculated. Using the data of CO2, CH4 and 222Rn concentrations obtained in the expeditions we analyzed correlations between the greenhouse gases and 222Rn. There are significant positive correlations between CO2, CH4 and 222Rn concentrations during night temperature inversions especially in summer and in autumn. It indicates similar accumulation both 222Rn and the greenhouse gases in the surface layer during atmospheric stability. On the basis of the regressions between 222Rn, CO2 and CH4 concentrations the greenhouse gases night time fluxes in the surface layer from Moscow to Vladivostok are estimated using the calculated values of 222Rn fluxes. Acknowledgments. The work was supported by International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) under contract No. 2770 and by Russian Basic Research Foundation (project No. 08-05-13589, 07-05-12063 and 07-05-00428). The authors thank I. B. Belikov for preparation and carrying out the TROICA experiments.

  16. EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION FROM SOILS AMENDED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in concentration of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming have received considerable research intrest. Agricultural practices, fossil fuel burning, deforestation, industrial emissions, and wetlands have contributed to atmospheric increases of carbo...

  17. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  19. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will be set up. International negotiations have been going on for two years during which the constitutional documents have been processed and adopted. The instrument for the ICOS legal entity is the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) steered by the General Assembly of its Members. ICOS is a highly distributed research infrastructure where three operative levels (ICOS National Networks, ICOS Central Facilities and ICOS ERIC) interact on several fields of research and governance. The governance structure of ICOS RI needs to reflect this complexity while maintaining the common vision, strategy and principles.

  20. Global Mitigation Of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: 2010-2030

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report illustrates the abatement potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, by sector and by region, from 2010-2030. This peer-reviewed update provides economists and policymakers with improved data to better understand the costs and opportunities for reducing non-CO2 greenhouse...

  1. 75 FR 70254 - PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... under the GHG Tailoring Rule at 75 FR 31514 (June 3, 2010). EPA invites public comment on all aspects of... AGENCY PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the EPA has posted its guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse...

  2. 75 FR 12451 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ15 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to.... SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to amend the general provisions for the Mandatory Greenhouse... the public that this rule, or the relevant section of this rule, will not take effect....

  3. 77 FR 5514 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Preliminary Determinations Regarding Requests...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...The EPA is announcing and explaining to the public its preliminary determinations regarding requests to use provisional global warming potentials for eight fluorinated greenhouse gases submitted by DuPont de Nemours, Inc. and Honeywell International for purposes of certain calculations in the Fluorinated Gas Production portion of the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. EPA's preliminary......

  4. The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central Europe. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols contribute a globally averaged annual forcing of -0.3 watt per square meter as compared with +2.1 watts per square meter for greenhouse gases. Sources of the difference in magnitude with the previous estimate of Charlson et al. (1992) are discussed.

  5. The contribution from emissions of different gases to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Wigley, T.M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to compare the different contributions, that mankind has made to perturbing the atmosphere`s radiative balance. We have, and will continue to perturb both the balance of outgoing long-wave radiation and the balance of incoming short-wave radiation. Human activities since preindustrial times have caused a substantial enhancement of the greenhouse effect, a process involving the absorption of outgoing long-wave radiation which leads to a warming of the lower atmosphere. Because the atmosphere`s short-wave radiative balance is affected by the presence of small particles (aerosols) produced by the oxidation of sulphur compounds, anthropogenic emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) have also caused a perturbation of the overall balance. The greenhouse gases we will consider are, in order of importance: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), Methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the halocarbons. We use observed and model-based concentration data together with the most recent information relating concentrations to radiative forcing to estimate the individual contributions of the different gases to the changing radiative balance of the atmosphere. We also estimate the ranges of uncertainty in each of these estimates. We base all results on the 1992 IPCC emissions scenarios IS92a-f. We begin with a summary of 1990 conditions, then consider each gas separately (but lumping the halocarbons into a single group), to compare their relative importance.

  6. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angles Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Dejian; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Sander, Stanley P.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen; Park, Chang Hyoun; Li, Qinbin

    2011-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distributions of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  7. EVERGREEN (envisat for environmental regulation of greenhouse gases)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A.

    The Kyoto Protocol calls for a quantitative reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2010. However global emissions, sources and sinks, are not accurately known. EVERGREEN, a recently selected project of the European Commission 5th Framework Programme for Environment and Sustainable Development, proposes to use the measurements of ENVISAT to produce improved greenhouse gas emission inventories. A combination of measurement and (inverse) modelling will be employed to derive emission estimates. Measurements include (partial) columns of CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, O3, NO2 and H2O. The focus will be on methane and carbon monoxide and on regional and seasonal variations. End-user involvement is arranged through participation of one coal industry and several national/European institutes, with responsibility for greenhouse gas issues. Specific objectives are: -Quality assessment and improvement of geenhouse (CO2,CH4) and related gasr (CO) measurements from ENVISAT instruments SCIAMACHY and MIPAS. -Assessment of the role of constituent parts in the radiative forcing based on ENVISAT measurements and atmospheric radiative transfer modelling -Quantification of greenhouse and related biospheric gas fluxes through inverse modelling constrained by ENVISAT measurements, with focus on CH4 and CO. -Provision of greenhouse gas emission data to National and European institutes as a value added product from ENVIS T .A The paper will present progress of the project achieved to date. The project will run until the end of 2005.

  8. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The difference in the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer at the southern and northern polar latitudes through PCS modification is determined by the difference in temperature regimes of the Polar Regions. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  9. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2010-11-15

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  10. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level. PMID:20646920

  11. Carbon and Conservation: Cropping systems and greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying and predicting soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural systems have been research goals for numerous institutions, especially since the turn of the millennium. Cost, time, and politics are variables that have limited the rapid development of robust quant...

  12. Impact of equatorial and continental airflow on primary greenhouse gases in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Tang-Huang; Wang, Jia-Lin; Schnell, Russell C.; Lang, Patricia M.; Chantara, Somporn; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2015-06-01

    Four-year ground-level measurements of the two primary greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) were conducted at Dongsha Island (DSI), situated in the northern South China Sea (SCS), from March 2010 to February 2014. Their mean mixing ratios are calculated to be 396.3 ± 5.4 ppm and 1863.6 ± 50.5 ppb, with an annual growth rate of +2.19 ± 0.5 ppm yr-1 and +4.70 ± 4.4 ppb yr-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively, over the study period. Our results suggest that the Asian continental outflow driven by the winter northeast monsoon could have brought air pollutants into the northern SCS, as denoted by significantly elevated levels of 6.5 ppm for CO2 and 59.6 ppb for CH4, which are greater than the marine boundary layer references at Cape Kumukahi (KUM) in the tropical northern Pacific in January. By contrast, the summertime CH4 at DSI is shown to be lower than that at KUM by 19.7 ppb, whereas CO2 is shown to have no differences (<0.42 ppm in July) during the same period. Positive biases of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) L4B data against the surface measurements are estimated to be 2.4 ± 3.4 ppm for CO2 and 43.2 ± 36.8 ppb for CH4. The satellite products retrieved from the GOSAT showed the effects of anthropogenic emissions and vegetative sinks on land on a vertical profiling basis. The prevailing southeasterly winds originating from as far south as the equator or Southern Hemisphere pass through the lower troposphere in the northern SCS, forming a tunnel of relatively clean air masses as indicated by the low CH4 mixing ratios observed on the DSI in summer.

  13. Comparison of airborne measurements of greenhouse gases over Railroad Valley, Nevada to satellite and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, M. S.; Lopez, J.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.; Tadic, J.; Kuze, A.; Kawakami, S.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) we have measured vertical profiles of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (i.e., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) over Railroad Valley, NV (RRV) on a monthly basis since 2011. These GHG measurements are conducted to quantify trends of climatically important gases and to validate satellite-based GHG column estimates from Greenhouse Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2).The vertical profiles of GHGs observed over RRV show relatively uniform features below and above the boundary layer, and mixing ratios are increasing every year. Strong enhancements in the free troposphere are seen in these profiles in some instances. To assess possible sources of these enhancements and their effects on the GHG column average, GHG vertical profiles calculated by the 3-D GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (v9-01-03) and back-trajectory analysis from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) are compared with airborne measurements. The main results that we will show are 1) the comparison of vertical GHG distribution calculated from GEOS-Chem and that measured by AJAX, 2) total column GHG values from the model, AJAX, and GOSAT, and 3) demonstrate the source apportionment in GHGs profiles measured at RRV.The RRV playa is a flat high altitude desert site where local sources and sinks of carbon-species are expected to be minimal except for a small oil field. RRV is a radiometrically flat region and has been used to calibrate various satellite radiometers before. These measurements are conducted as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) which regularly measures GHGs, ozone, and 3-D winds over California and Nevada. The Alpha Jet is operated from NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field and airborne instruments are installed in an unpressurized wing pod.

  14. Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R.; Owen, T.

    1973-01-01

    Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

  15. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Dejian; Sander, Stanley P.; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gasses and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warning Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  16. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  17. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromünster tall tower station in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, T. A.; Satar, E.; Schanda, R.; Nyfeler, P.; Moret, H.; Brunner, D.; Oney, B.; Leuenberger, M.

    2015-10-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromünster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CARBOCOUNT-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromünster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6 and 212.5 m a.g.l., and it is equipped with a Picarro CRDS analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4 and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79, 0.05 and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2 and CH4, respectively over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation, which is mainly due to the above mentioned temperature effects.

  18. Greenhouse gases: low methane leakage from gas pipelines.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Lechtenbhmer, S; Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Dienst, C; Fischedick, M; Hanke, T

    2005-04-14

    Using natural gas for fuel releases less carbon dioxide per unit of energy produced than burning oil or coal, but its production and transport are accompanied by emissions of methane, which is a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide in the short term. This calls into question whether climate forcing could be reduced by switching from coal and oil to natural gas. We have made measurements in Russia along the world's largest gas-transport system and find that methane leakage is in the region of 1.4%, which is considerably less than expected and comparable to that from systems in the United States. Our calculations indicate that using natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels could be useful in the short term for mitigating climate change. PMID:15829951

  19. More greenhouse gases needed to explain warm Archean Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Figure 1 During the Archean eon, from 3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago, life on Earth was thriving for the first time, growing in a world with much less land and a faster planetary rotation than today. At the same time, the energy flowing to the early Earth from the Sun was just three quarters of what it is now. Despite the drastically lower levels of solar irradiance, previous research has suggested that the Archean Earth was not a planet encased in ice but instead remained a watery world. To explain this seeming inconsistency, a dilemma known as the "faint young Sun paradox," researchers have suggested that the planetary greenhouse effect must have been much more potent than today. Previous research suggested that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels would need to have had a partial pressure of approximately 0.06 bar, equivalent to an atmospheric concentration 200 times that of the pre-Industrial modern era.

  20. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ..., 2009 and published in the Federal Register on October 30, 2009 (74 FR 209 (October 30, 2009) pp. 56260... the initial proposed rule (74 FR 16448, April 10, 2009), section 114(a)(1) of the CAA authorizes the... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas...

  1. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

  2. Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare an inventory of aggregate U.S. national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987-1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report documents the methodology for the seventeenth annual inventory, covering national emissions over the period 1990-2008.

  3. Emission Potentials and Capacities of Sediments along Lower Savannah River for Greenhouse Gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission of CH4 and other greenhouse gases (CO2, & N2O) is extremely variable in both space and time. It is well known fact that Savannah River receives effluents from variety of anthropogenic activities. These activities could have significant impact on the amount of available C and other chemical ...

  4. Evaluation of Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases originated by various human activities, including agricultural origin, could contribute to climate change. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in ...

  5. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily

  6. 75 FR 18651 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...EPA is revising and supplementing its initial proposed actions to require reporting of fluorinated greenhouse gas (fluorinated GHG) emissions from certain source categories. Specifically, EPA is revising and supplementing its initial proposal to require reporting of fluorinated GHG emissions from electronics manufacturing, production of fluorinated gases, and use of electrical transmission and......

  7. Advances in Data Processing for Open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry of Greenhouse Gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The automated quantification of three greenhouse gases, ammonia, methane and nitrous oxide, in the vicinity of a large dairy farm by open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry at intervals of 5 minutes is demonstrated. Spectral pretreatment, including the detection and correction ...

  8. 75 FR 17331 - Public Hearings for the Mandatory Reporting Rule for Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 2060-AP99, AP88, AQ00 Public Hearings for the Mandatory Reporting Rule for Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Announcement of public hearings. SUMMARY: The EPA is...

  9. 75 FR 14081 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ15 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions Correction In rule document 2010-5695 beginning on page 12451 in the issue...

  10. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection

    SciTech Connect

    Calabro, Paolo S.

    2009-07-15

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  11. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.

    PubMed

    Calabr, Paolo S

    2009-07-01

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management. PMID:19318239

  12. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure. PMID:22988613

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-25

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  14. Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

    1994-01-01

    A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

  15. A 1-D modelling of climatic and chemical effects of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vupputuri, R. K. R.; Higuchi, K.; Hengeveld, H. G.

    1995-09-01

    A coupled 1-D time-dependent radiative-convective-photochemical diffusion model which extends from the surface to 60 km is used to investigate the potential impact of greenhouse trace gas emissions on long-term changes in global climate, atmospheric ozone and surface UV-B radiation, taking into accoont the influence of aerosol loading into the atmosphere from major volcanic eruptions, of thermal inertia of the upper mixed layer of the ocean and of other radiativephotochemical feedback mechanisms. Experiments are carried out under global and annual average insolation and cloudiness conditions. The transient calculations are made for three different growth scenarios for increase in trace gas concentrations. Scenario 1, which begins in 1850, uses the best estimate values for future trace gas concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12 and tropospheric O3, based on current observational trends. Scenarios 2 and 3, which begin in 1990, assume lower and upper ranges, respectively, of observed growth rates to estimate future concentrations. The transient response of the model for Scenario 1 suggests that surface warming of the ocean mixed layer of about 1 K should have taken place between 1850 and 1990 due to a combined increase of atmospheric CO2 and other trace gases. For the three scenarios considered in this study, the cumulative surface warming induced by all major trace gases for the period 1850 to 2080 ranges from 2.7 K to 8.2 K with the best estimate value of 5 K. The results indicate that the direct and the indirect chemistry-climate interactions of non-CO2 trace gases contribute significantly to the cumulative surface warming (up to 65% by the year 2080). The thermal inertia of a mixed layer of the ocean is shown to have the effect of delaying equilibrium surface warming by almost three decades with an e-folding time of about 5 years. The volcanic aerosols which would result from major volcanic eruptions play a significant role by interrupting the long-term greenhouse surface warming trend and replacing it by a temporary cooling on a time scale of a decade or less. Furthermore, depending on the scenario used, a reduction in the net ozone column could result in an increase in the solar UV-B radiation at the surface by as much as 300% towards the end of 21st century.

  16. Estimating Hydro's Contribution to the control of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J; Hadley, Stanton W

    2002-01-01

    One of the environmental effects of hydropower operation that should be evaluated in licensing decisions is the general benefit to air quality. Hydropower's contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is an increasingly important component of these air quality benefits. The Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) computer model is one method that can be used to quantify these benefits. ORCED provides a relatively simple method that is applicable and cost-effective and that has been successfully applied in other GHG studies. ORCED can be used to calculate a region-specific value of the carbon intensity factor (CIF, kg carbon/MWh) that would be associated with likely replacement power (i.e., a regionally representative mix of coal, gas, and other energy sources). The project's plant factor and operational mode (e.g, baseload versus peaking) can also be incorporated in the CIF calculation. The resulting parameter can then be multiplied by the energy output of the hydropower project that is being analyzed to estimate a CO{sub 2} emission value that is avoided by the project's operation.

  17. Greenhouse warming by minor gases on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, M. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.

    1992-01-01

    The early atmospheres of Earth and Mars were non-oxidizing mixtures likely derived from volcanic outgassing of a silicate mantle, with some fraction of the volatiles also contributed by impacting comets and meteorites. Here the authors investigate the potential of minor atmospheric constituents produced by ultraviolet and auroral chemistry to contribute to the thermal opacity of early Earth and Mars atmospheres. Using a very simple two-stream thermal opacity model, the authors show that HCN at 10 parts per million (ppm) and N2O at 100 ppm can each block radiation in thermal infrared windows sufficiently to increase the surface temperature by 7 K separately, or 14 K together. Small quantities of other species are also produced in such experiments. Some of these have especially complex infrared spectra and should be further investigated for their potential to help close windows in the CO2 + H2O infrared transmission. Enhancement of greenhouse warming by minor atmospheric species different from those present in today's atmosphere may have played important roles in the climate of early Earth and Mars.

  18. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-03-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

  19. Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (LHR) for Measurements of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmospheric Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steel, Emily; McLinden, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This passive laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) instrument simultaneously measures multiple trace gases in the atmospheric column including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and resolves their concentrations at different altitudes. This instrument has been designed to operate in tandem with the passive aerosol sensor currently used in AERONET (an established network of more than 450 ground aerosol monitoring instruments worldwide). Because aerosols induce a radiative effect that influences terrestrial carbon exchange, simultaneous detection of aerosols with these key carbon cycle gases offers a uniquely comprehensive measurement approach. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a technique for detecting weak signals that was adapted from radio receiver technology. In a radio receiver, a weak input signal from a radio antenna is mixed with a stronger local oscillator signal. The mixed signal (beat note, or intermediate frequency) has a frequency equal to the difference between the input signal and the local oscillator. The intermediate frequency is amplified and sent to a detector that extracts the audio from the signal. In the LHR instrument described here, sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas is mixed with laser light at a frequency matched to a trace gas absorption feature in the infrared (IR). Mixing results in a beat signal in the RF (radio frequency) region that can be related to the atmospheric concentration. For a one-second integration, the estimated column sensitivities are 0.1 ppmv for CO2, and <1 ppbv for CH4. In addition to producing a standalone ground measurement product, this instrument could be used to calibrate/validate four Earth observing missions: ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons), OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), OCO-3, and GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observational SATellite). The only network that currently measures CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric column is TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network), and only two of its 16 operational sites are in the United States. TCCON data is used for validation of GOSAT data, and will be used for OCO-2 validation. While these Fourier-transform spectrometers (FTS) can measure the largest range of trace gases, the network is severely limited due to the high cost and extreme size of these instruments (these occupy small buildings and require personnel for operation). The LHR/AERONET instrument offers a significantly smaller (carry-on luggage size) autonomous instrument that can be incorporated into AERONET s much larger (450 instruments) global network.

  20. Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, Nathan P.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2010-07-01

    Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ~ 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 × 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

  1. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2016-03-01

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change.

  2. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M; Canadell, Josep G; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gurney, Kevin R; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R; Wofsy, Steven C

    2016-03-10

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change. PMID:26961656

  3. Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S; Sanford, Todd J; Murphy, Daniel M; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2010-10-26

    Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a given greenhouse gas concentration but also on climate system behavior, particularly the timescales of heat transfer linked to the ocean. For carbon dioxide and methane, nonlinear optical absorption effects also play a smaller but significant role in prolonging the warming. In effect, dampening factors that slow temperature increase during periods of increasing concentration also slow the loss of energy from the Earth's climate system if radiative forcing is reduced. Approaches to climate change mitigation options through reduction of greenhouse gas or aerosol emissions therefore should not be expected to decrease climate change impacts as rapidly as the gas or aerosol lifetime, even for short-lived species; such actions can have their greatest effect if undertaken soon enough to avoid transfer of heat to the deep ocean. PMID:20937898

  4. Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.; Sanford, Todd J.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO2 greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a given greenhouse gas concentration but also on climate system behavior, particularly the timescales of heat transfer linked to the ocean. For carbon dioxide and methane, nonlinear optical absorption effects also play a smaller but significant role in prolonging the warming. In effect, dampening factors that slow temperature increase during periods of increasing concentration also slow the loss of energy from the Earth’s climate system if radiative forcing is reduced. Approaches to climate change mitigation options through reduction of greenhouse gas or aerosol emissions therefore should not be expected to decrease climate change impacts as rapidly as the gas or aerosol lifetime, even for short-lived species; such actions can have their greatest effect if undertaken soon enough to avoid transfer of heat to the deep ocean. PMID:20937898

  5. A comparison of the contribution of various gases to the greenhouse effect.

    PubMed

    Rodhe, H

    1990-06-01

    The current concern about an anthropogenic impact on global climate has made it of interest to compare the potential effect of various human activities. A case in point is the comparison between the emission of greenhouse gases from the use of natural gas and that from other fossil fuels. This comparison requires an evaluation of the effect of methane emissions relative to that of carbon dioxide emissions. A rough analysis based on the use of currently accepted values shows that natural gas is preferable to other fossil fuels in consideration of the greenhouse effect as long as its leakage can be limited to 3 to 6 percent. PMID:17809907

  6. Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

  7. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  8. European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases inferred from atmospheric measurements.

    PubMed

    Keller, Christoph A; Hill, Matthias; Vollmer, Martin K; Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Arduini, Jgor; Maione, Michela; Ferenczi, Zita; Haszpra, Laszlo; Manning, Alistair J; Peter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    European emissions of nine representative halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, Halon 1211, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-22, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-152a) are derived for the year 2009 by combining long-term observations in Switzerland, Italy, and Ireland with campaign measurements from Hungary. For the first time, halocarbon emissions over Eastern Europe are assessed by top-down methods, and these results are compared to Western European emissions. The employed inversion method builds on least-squares optimization linking atmospheric observations with calculations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The aggregated halocarbon emissions over the study area are estimated at 125 (106-150) Tg of CO(2) equiv/y, of which the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) make up the most important fraction with 41% (31-52%). We find that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from banks are still significant and account for 35% (27-43%) of total halocarbon emissions in Europe. The regional differences in per capita emissions are only small for the HFCs, while emissions of CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) tend to be higher in Western Europe compared to Eastern Europe. In total, the inferred per capita emissions are similar to estimates for China, but 3.5 (2.3-4.5) times lower than for the United States. Our study demonstrates the large benefits of adding a strategically well placed measurement site to the existing European observation network of halocarbons, as it extends the coverage of the inversion domain toward Eastern Europe and helps to better constrain the emissions over Central Europe. PMID:22192076

  9. Monitoring variation in greenhouse gases concentration in urban environment of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Samraj; Ghosh, Chirashree

    2013-01-01

    Cities across the globe are considered as major anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), yet very few efforts has been made to monitor ambient concentration of GHG in cities, especially in a developing country like India. Here, variations in the ambient concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) in residential, commercial, and industrial areas of Delhi are determined from fortnightly daytime observations from July, 2008 to March, 2009. Results indicate that the average daytime ambient concentration of CO(2) varied from 495 to 554 ppm in authorized residential areas, 503 to 621 ppm in the slums or jhuggies in the unauthorized residential areas, 489 to 582 ppm in commercial areas, and 512 to 568 ppm in industrial areas with an average of 541 27 ppm. CH(4) concentration varied from 652 to 5,356 ppbv in authorized residential areas, 500 to 15,220 ppbv in the unauthorized residential areas, 921 to 11,000 ppbv in the commercial areas, and 250 to 2,550 ppbv in the industrial areas with an average of 3,226 1,090 ppbv. A low mid-afternoon CO(2) concentration was observed at most of the sites, primarily due to strong biospheric photosynthesis coupled with strong vertical mixing. PMID:22362556

  10. Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S-Y; Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

  11. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjrn H.; Shine, Keith P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  12. Integrated Modeling & Development of Emission Scenarios for Methane and Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Atul K.

    2005-09-30

    This report outlines main accomplishments on the development of Emission inventories and Scenarios for Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases (CO, VOCs, NOx) and methane supported by Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy. This research produced 3 journal articles, 1 book chapter, and 4 research articles/abstracts in conference proceedings. In addition, this grant supported two PhD students and one undergraduate student at UIUC.

  13. Investigating high concentrations of three greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpes, R.; Blake, D. R.; Marrero, J.

    2013-12-01

    Following the Montreal Protocol of 1987 calling for the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances, HCFCs and HFCs were introduced as alternatives despite still being greenhouse gases with high global warming potentials. In this study, whole air samples were collected during four research flights over Southern California aboard the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory as part of the NASA Student Airborne Science Program. These samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a suite of detectors for many compounds, including HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a. HCFC-22 is primarily used as a refrigerant, while HFC-134a and HFC-152a are also used as aerosol propellants and foam blowing agents. High concentrations of these three compounds were observed for samples taken at low altitudes over urban areas around Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Exceptionally high concentrations were seen for all three compounds in samples taken near the Ontario and San Bernardino airports. Concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a were enhanced above background levels near other airports sampled in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley. It is clear that concentrations of these three gases are higher in the San Bernardino Valley than in the Los Angeles Basin, and locations with exceptionally high concentrations were investigated to identify potential point sources. Concentrations of these three compounds were also compared to data from past SARP missions and data collected at Trinidad Head, California since 2005 as part of the AGAGE network. Comparison of the average values for each of these campaigns reveal that the background concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a are all increasing with a strong linear trend in Southern California.

  14. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Urban Xi'an, China - Direct Measurements by Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanReken, T. M.; Mwaniki, G. R.; VanderSchelden, G.; O'Keeffe, P.; Waldo, S.; Erickson, M. H.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.; Tie, X.; Cao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout the world and especially in Asia, rapid urbanization is resulting in an increasing number of very large cities. In these areas, the rate of development can outpace the perceived need for environmental regulation, and frequently there are inadequate resources available to monitor pollution or enforce compliance with those environmental regulations that do exist. These limitations obviously impact air quality on a local scale, but cities also have significant environmental impacts on regional and even global scales. In order to understand and mitigate these impacts on the surrounding environment, it is first necessary to robustly characterize the pollutant emissions themselves. This can be a significant challenge. Major discrepancies arise when comparing emissions inventories based on bottom-up compilations of source types, number, and activity levels to estimates inferred from satellite observations and other large-scale techniques. Direct measurements of neighborhood-scale emission fluxes via micrometeorological approaches provide a means to resolve these differences. Such measurements can be used to quantify the integrated vertical exchange for a wide variety of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, typically with spatial footprints of tens of square kilometers and with temporal resolutions of ~30 minutes. Here we present the results of an urban flux study conducted in Xi'an, China in August 2011. For the study a 23 m tower was erected atop the ~100 m tall administration building at Xi'an Jiaotong University. From the tower, we employed an eddy covariance approach to measure concentrations and fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we present an analysis of the air-surface exchange of these gases. Results indicate that while our study site in Xi'an was a net source of these species, the greenhouse gas fluxes were significantly smaller than at other sites around the world and exhibited a different diurnal pattern. We attribute these results to two factors: 1) the relatively low traffic density at the Xi'an study site relative to other urban flux sites; and 2) the presence of a large urban park in the northerly sector of the study footprint, where the vegetative sink for CO2 was often greater than anthropogenic sources. Overall the analysis suggests that even in heavily urbanized regions land use and activity profiles can have significant impacts on air pollutant emissions.

  15. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  16. Anaerobic digestion: impact of future greenhouse gases mitigation policies on methane generation and usage.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, P F; Batstone, D J

    2005-01-01

    The debate as to whether carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions will become subject to increasing regulation, increased restrictions, and probably to some form of carbon tax, has moved from a simple "yes" or "no" to "when". Wastewater treatment plants will be significantly impacted by increased energy costs and by specific regulations and/or penalties associated with emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, the greenhouse gases emissions of different wastewater process options are estimated. The paper outlines the increasing need for wastewater treatment plants to factor greenhouse gas mitigation issues into their medium- as and long-term strategies, and identifies anaerobic enhouse as processes as being at the core of such strategies. Further, the paper identifies a number of key research challenges to be addressed if such strategies are to play a larger role in attenuating the likely impacts of GHG mitigation requirements on wastewater treatment plant design and operation. PMID:16180407

  17. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E. Jr.; Vernet, J.E. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    DOE is developing guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and their reductions, under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The establishment of this voluntary program should encourage the reduction of greenhouse gases while providing the opportunity to share innovative approaches to achieving such reductions. This social learning aspect is an important element of the program. In addition to greenhouse gas reductions achieved during a given year, reporters are encouraged to also report their actual emissions of such gases for 1987 through 1990. Due to the voluntary nature of this program, and the myriad differences among the potential reporting entities and possible uses for the data reported, the guidelines will need to be structured so as to maximize participation without compromising the usefulness of the data collected. Through a broad notice of inquiry, published in the Federal Register on July 27, 1993, the Department began seeking input into development of the guidelines. Subsequently, to gain a better understanding of the various sectors of the economy, six public workshops were held during the 1993. One workshop addressed institutional issues of potential interest to all sectors of the economy, with the other five workshops focusing more on matters of concern to specific sectors. These meetings were structured so as to provide broad representation from potential reporting entities along with public interest organizations. It is clear that there are significant variations among those reporting greenhouse information. Presently voluntary, the program will need flexibility to encourage broad participation.

  18. Is recent climate change across the United States related to rising levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Plantico, M.S.; Karl, T.R. ); Kukla, G.; Gavin, J. )

    1990-09-20

    During the period 1948-1987, the concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases increased by more than 30%, and the mean annual temperature of the northern hemisphere increased by about 0.15{degree}C. To gain a better understanding of why the US temperature record does not reflect the anticipated greenhouse warming, the authors studied the inter-relationships between trends of temperature, cloudiness, sunshine and precipitation. Both the seasonal and annual trends for 23 geographic regions covering the US were analyzed using Monte Carlo field significance tests. While winters and autumns cooled, springs and summers warmed. Annually, cooling has occurred across the eastern half of the country, while warming dominates in the West. The largest changes in maximum temperature, daily temperature range, cloud amount, percent of possible sunshine and precipitation occur during autumn. They found that the recent decrease of the maximum temperature and daily temperature range in autumn is statistically associated with increasing cloud amount and precipitation, and with decreasing sunshine. Cloud amount increased over most of the country during all seasons except spring. Interestingly, no significant correlation was found between trends of mean temperature and cloud amount. Either the recent changes of temperature, cloud amount, sunshine and precipitation over the US are as yet unrelated to the increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, or that the transient response of regional climates to the greenhouse effect is not proportional to the modeled difference between the 1 {times} CO{sub 2} and 2 {times} CO{sub 2} equilibrium climates.

  19. Greenhouse gases, climate change and the transition from coal to low-carbon electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, N. P.; Caldeira, K.

    2012-03-01

    A transition from the global system of coal-based electricity generation to low-greenhouse-gas-emission energy technologies is required to mitigate climate change in the long term. The use of current infrastructure to build this new low-emission system necessitates additional emissions of greenhouse gases, and the coal-based infrastructure will continue to emit substantial amounts of greenhouse gases as it is phased out. Furthermore, ocean thermal inertia delays the climate benefits of emissions reductions. By constructing a quantitative model of energy system transitions that includes life-cycle emissions and the central physics of greenhouse warming, we estimate the global warming expected to occur as a result of build-outs of new energy technologies ranging from 100 GWe to 10 TWe in size and 1-100 yr in duration. We show that rapid deployment of low-emission energy systems can do little to diminish the climate impacts in the first half of this century. Conservation, wind, solar, nuclear power, and possibly carbon capture and storage appear to be able to achieve substantial climate benefits in the second half of this century; however, natural gas cannot.

  20. Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, Richard

    2014-12-08

    Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

  1. Greenhouse Gases and Gas-Water-Rock Interactions at the Surface of Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, W. M.; Bass, D. S.

    1998-09-01

    Consideration of multiphase equilibria is required to make realistic speculations of conditions on early Mars and can provide indications of modern exploration targets to aid characterization of that remote environment. Greenhouse gases are proposed to sustain elevated surface temperatures compatible with geomorphologic evidence for the stability of liquid water on early Mars. CO2 is commonly invoked as a greenhouse gas at pressures up to 5 bars or more, e.g., [1]. However, solid-gas equilibria show that CO2 pressure is limited by formation of CO2 ice in the upper atmosphere for surface pressure of 2 bars [2]. Recently, SO2 at 10-7 bar in a 2 bar CO2 atmosphere (0.1 ppmv SO2) has been postulated to augment warming in the upper atmosphere on early Mars [3], which could inhibit CO2 precipitation. However, oxidation of SO2 would produce sulfuric acid which dissolves in liquid water and attacks rock components, producing metal sulfate solutions and precipitating gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O). Occurrence of gypsum in SNC meteorites demonstrates conditions permitting oxidation of SO2 on Mars [4]. Equilibrium aqueous speciation calculations show that at low O2 pressure, 10-11 bar of SO2 (i.e., 4 orders of magnitude less than proposed) at equilibrium with water generates sulfuric acid of pH 0.5. Reaction path calculations indicate that silicate minerals would dissolve rapidly in this solution with precipitation of a silica phase, clay minerals, and gypsum. Precipitation of gypsum would deplete atmospheric SO2. These multiphase interactions demonstrate that greenhouse stabilization of liquid water due to an SO2 pressure of 10-7 bar is incompatible with a realistic water-rock system. In the absence of elevated concentrations of atmospheric SO2, at elevated CO2 pressure, and at near neutral pH, geochemical equilibrium models predict that the mineral nahcolite (NaHCO3) may precipitate as a consequence of gas-water-rock interactions. If observed, this mineral could be used together with other constraints as a paleo-CO2 barometer for Mars. 1. Pollack et al., 1987 Icarus 71, p. 203-224. 2. Kasting, 1991 Icarus 94, p. 1-13. 3. Yung et al., 1997. Icarus 130, p. 222-224. 4. Gooding et al., 1991. Meteoritics 26, p. 135-143.

  2. The impact of greenhouse gases on past changes in tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, C.; Waugh, D. W.; Olsen, M. A.; Douglass, A. R.; Liang, Q.; Nielsen, J. E.; Oman, L. D.; Pawson, S.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of changes in the abundance of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the evolution of tropospheric ozone (O3) between 1960 and 2005 is examined using a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOS CCM) with a combined troposphere-stratosphere chemical mechanism. Simulations are performed to isolate the relative role of increases in methane (CH4) and stratospheric ozone depleting substances (ODSs) on tropospheric O3. The 1960 to 2005 increases in GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4, and ODSs) cause increases of around 1-8% in zonal-mean tropospheric O3 in the tropics and northern extratropics, but decreases of 2-4% in most of the southern extratropics. These O3 changes are due primarily to increases in CH4 and ODSs, which cause changes of comparable magnitude but opposite sign. The CH4-related increases in O3are similar in each hemisphere (6%), but the ODS-related decreases in the southern extratropics are much larger than in northern extratropics (10% compared to 2%). This results in an interhemispheric difference in the sign of past O3 change. Increases in the other GHGs (CO2 and N2O) and SSTs have only a small impact on the total burden over this period, but do cause zonal variations in the sign of changes in tropical O3 that are coupled to changes in vertical velocities and water vapor.

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2012-12-01

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 103, 1.76 10-2, -1.85 10-3 and 3.84 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 10-1 and 3.37 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

  4. Metrology for laser spectroscopic concentration and isotope ratio measurements of atmospheric greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaboh, Javis; Manninen, Albert; Mohn, Joachim; Petersen, Jan C.; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2015-04-01

    Continuous, accurate and precise measurements of greenhouse gases (GHG) and their isotopic composition are required to understand the global cycle as well as source and sink processes of these environmentally harmful substances. Part of the EMRP project HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases) [1] focuses on spectroscopic methods for GHG isotopic composition measurements and optical transfer standards. Harmonization of terminologies and concepts used in the GHG measurement communities and the metrology community are in focus, especially for isotope ratio measurements by laser spectroscopy, where gas metrology is still at an early stage. The focus of the HIGHGAS project here is on 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in CO2, 15N/14N ratios in N2O and 13C/12C and 2H/1H ratios in CH4. As an alternative and complement of gas mixture standards, optical spectroscopic transfer standards for CO2 and CO shall be developed providing concentration results that are directly traceable to the international system of units (SI). Optical transfer standards offer an alternative in situ calibration route for other GHG measurement devices operating in the field. An optical transfer standard becomes particularly interesting when measuring sticky or reactive gases where cylinder-based reference gas mixtures may not be feasible. We present an approach to perform IR-spectrometry on gases with results directly traceable to the SI. This is crucial for the development of optical spectroscopic transfer standards providing SI-traceability to field measurements. Ideas for spectroscopic isotope ratio measurements aiming at SI-traceability will be discussed. Finally, we demonstrate the current performance and limitations of our measurement approaches and project possible solutions. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] EMRP project ENV52-HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases), available at: http://www.euramet.org/

  5. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  6. Vertical profiles of trapped greenhouse gases in Alaskan permafrost active layers before the spring thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Eunji; Yang, Ji-woong; Kim, Yongwon; Ahn, Jinho

    2015-04-01

    Seasonally frozen ground over permafrost is important in controlling annual greenhouse gas exchange between permafrost and atmosphere. Soil microbes decompose soil carbon and generate carbon dioxide and methane when they become activated. However, the actual greenhouse gas emission follows various efflux pathways. For example, seasonal freezing of the top soil layers can either restrain or press the gas emission from deeper layers. It has been reported that abrupt release of methane during spring is attributable to the emission of trapped gases that had failed to be released instantly after formation (1, 2). In order to examine the seasonally trapped greenhouse gases, we drilled five Alaskan permafrost cores before spring thaw; one from coastal tundra, two from typical boreal forests, one from area where fire occurred, and one from peat accumulated sites. Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were obtained with 5-10 cm depth intervals. We found methane peaks from two cores, indicating inhibition of methane efflux. We also analyzed organic carbon, nitrogen and water contents and compared them with the greenhouse gas profiles. We are continuing analysis for the soil temperature profiles of the sampling boreholes because the detailed temperature information might be related to microbial activity, and can be used as indirect indicators of soil water freezing and latent heat influences at some active layer depth (zero curtain effects). All the high-resolution analyses for subsurface environments may help to improve understanding greenhouse gas emission from permafrost regions. 1. Mastepanov M, et al. (2008) Large tundra methane burst during onset of freezing. Nature 456(7222):628-630. 2. Song C, et al. (2012) Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region. Environmental Research Letters 7(3):034009.

  7. Global warming: Experimental study about the effect of accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molto, Carlos; Mas, Miquel

    2010-05-01

    The project presented here was developed by fifteen year old students of the Institut Sabadell (Sabadell Secondary School. Spain). The objective of this project was to raise the students awareness' about the problem of climate change, mainly caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also intended that students use the scientific method as an effective system of troubleshooting and that they use the ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to elicit data and process information. To develop this project, four lessons of sixty minutes each were needed. The first lesson sets out the role of the atmosphere as an Earth's temperature regulator, highlighting the importance of keeping the levels of carbon dioxide, methane and water steam in balance. The second lesson is focused on the experimental activity that students will develop in the following lesson. In lesson two, students will present and justify their hypothesis about the experiment. Some theoretical concepts, necessary to carry out the experiment, will also be explained. The third lesson involves the core of the project, that is the experiment in the laboratory. The experiment consists on performing the atmosphere heating on a little scale. Four different atmospheres are created inside four plastic boxes heated by an infrared lamp. Students work in groups (one group for each atmosphere) and have to monitor the evolution of temperature by means of a temperature sensor (Multilog software). The first group has to observe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase, mainly caused by the widespread practice of burning fossil fuels by growing human populations. The task of this group is to measure simultaneously the temperature of an empty box (without CO2) and the temperature of a box with high carbon dioxide concentration. The carbon dioxide concentration is the result of the chemical reaction when sodium carbonate mixes with hydrochloric acid. The second group's task is similar to the first. Students have to study how the concentration of methane affects the temperature of their atmosphere box. Similarly, the third group monitors the influence of the water steam (generated by evaporation) on the temperature of their atmosphere box. Results must be carefully analyzed because of possible interferences from water steam. And finally, the forth and last group explores the long term effects that the accumulation of greenhouse gases have on the Earth's temperature. As temperature rises, evaporation increases and more water steam accumulates in the atmosphere. As a greenhouse gas, water absorbs heat, therefore the air gets warmer and, again, more water is evaporated. To develop this project, a previous experiment is needed so that the concentration of carbon dioxide remains constant and water steam levels increase gradually. Thus, the consequences of an uncontrolled increase of temperature can be simulated. Students' aim is to examine the data elicited from the last step of the scientific method experiment. They have to decide either if the experiment supported their hypothesis and, therefore, they can be regarded as true, or the experiment disproved them and, therefore, they are false. Finally, in the last lesson, students perform an oral presentation about their experimental results, establishing relationships amongst the different experiments. All together emphasizes the must of humankind to promote renewable energies.

  8. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, E. J.; Lavri?, J. V.; Seifert, T.; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J.; Logan, R.; Sack, J.; Shuuya, T.; Uushona, E. G.; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U.; Brunke, E.-G.; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R. L.; Schmidt, S.; Manning, A. C.; Heimann, M.

    2015-02-01

    A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated, continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the Namib Sand Sea. Atmospheric oxygen is measured with a differential fuel cell analyzer (DFCA). Carbon dioxide and methane are measured with an early-model cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS); nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide are measured with an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS). Instrument-specific water corrections are employed for both the CRDS and OA-ICOS instruments in lieu of drying. The performance and measurement uncertainties are discussed in detail. As the station is located in a remote desert environment, there are some particular challenges, namely fine dust, high diurnal temperature variability, and minimal infrastructure. The gas handling system and calibration scheme were tailored to best fit the conditions of the site. The CRDS and DFCA provide data of acceptable quality when base requirements for operation are met, specifically adequate temperature control in the laboratory and regular supply of electricity. In the case of the OA-ICOS instrument, performance is significantly improved through the implementation of a drift correction through frequent measurements of a working tank.

  9. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, E. J.; Lavrič, J. V.; Seifert, T.; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J.; Logan, R.; Sack, J.; Shuuya, T.; Uushona, E. G.; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U.; Brunke, E.-G.; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R. L.; Schmidt, S.; Manning, A. C.; Heimann, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the Namib Sand Sea. Atmospheric oxygen is measured with a differential fuel cell analyzer (DFCA). Carbon dioxide and methane are measured with an early-model cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS); nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide are measured with an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS). Instrument-specific water corrections are employed for both the CRDS and OA-ICOS instruments in lieu of drying. The performance and measurement uncertainties are discussed in detail. As the station is located in a remote desert environment, there are some particular challenges, namely fine dust, high diurnal temperature variability, and minimal infrastructure. The gas handling system and calibration scheme were tailored to best fit the conditions of the site. The CRDS and DFCA provide data of acceptable quality when base requirements for operation are met, specifically adequate temperature control in the laboratory and regular supply of electricity. In the case of the OA-ICOS instrument, performance is significantly improved through the implementation of a drift correction through frequent measurements of a reference cylinder.

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  11. A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  13. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  14. [Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-hua; Jiang, Jing-yan; Zong, Liang-gang

    2011-05-01

    Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period. PMID:21780575

  15. Emission inventory for greenhouse gases in the City of Barcelona, 1987-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasano, Jos M.; Soriano, Cecilia; Boada, Llus.

    Emissions of greenhouse gases for the City of Barcelona are estimated for the period 1987-1994. The sources considered are: public and private transportation; industrial, commercial and domestic activities; and municipal solid waste disposal. The results show that the main source of CO 2 emissions in Barcelona is private vehicle transportation, which accounts, as an average for the period studied, for 35% of total emissions. The second most important source is the municipal solid waste landfill facility of the city (24% of total emissions). The percentages for the remaining sources under consideration were: 14% electricity, 12% natural gas, 5% incineration, and 3% liquefied petroleum gases. However, the values for CO 2 emissions per inhabitant over the period studied are lower than those for any other industrialized city available for comparison. This is closely related to the high percentage of electricity generation from nuclear power stations and hydro power facilities, and also to the extensive use of natural gas for domestic uses.

  16. Renewable energies in electricity generation for reduction of greenhouse gases in Mexico 2025.

    PubMed

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Martnez, Manuel

    2002-02-01

    This study presents 4 scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the historic path of Mexico's energy policy. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The fourth scenario takes into account the present- and medium-term use of natural-gas technologies that the energy reform has produced, but after 2007 a high and feasible participation of renewable sources of energy is considered. The 4 scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). PMID:11928356

  17. Laboratory technique for the measurement of thermal-emission spectra of greenhouse gases: CFC-12.

    PubMed

    Evans, W F; Puckrin, E

    1996-03-20

    A new technique has been developed to make possible the laboratory study of the infrared-emission spectra of gases of atmospheric interest. The thermal-emission spectra are in local thermodynamic equilibrium, just as they are in the atmosphere, and are not chemiluminescent. Demonstration results obtained by the use of this new technique are presented for dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) at a pressure of 0.5 Torr in a cell with a path length of 5 cm. The measured cell spectra have been compared with simulations with the FASCD3P radiation code. The measurements of the emission spectra of radiatively active gases may be important for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and global warming. PMID:21085268

  18. Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

    2008-04-01

    A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

  19. Investigation of the relationship between atmospheric mercury and concentrations of key greenhouse gases at a mountainous monitoring site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Brown, Richard J C; Sheu, Guey Rong; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Jung, Kweon; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2015-03-01

    The concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) was monitored, together with some key greenhouse gases (GHGs: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water (H2O) vapor) at hourly intervals at a mountainous monitoring site close to the highly industrialized city of Seoul, Korea. Correlations between the concentrations of Hg and those of the greenhouse gases were examined to assess their source characteristics and responses to changes in meteorological conditions. The mean Hg levels in this study (3.58 2.13 ng m(-3)) were considerably lower (by, e.g., 24.3%) than those measured previously in other comparable sites during 1999-2006 (4.73 1.34 ng m(-3)). Accordingly, such a reduction in Hg levels suggests the effectiveness of the regulatory measures enforced over the years. The mean Hg level observed in this study is also lower (by approximately 5%) than those in other Asian locations. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the two most important GHGs (CO2 and CH4) were moderately higher than those of other locations across the world (by approximately 4-9%). The results of our analysis indicate that the behavior of Hg is strongly correlated with water vapor and CH4 in terms of their source characteristics, despite notable differences in their diurnal patterns. PMID:25639653

  20. Shipboard monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Asia and Oceania using commercially cargo vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Hashimoto, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been performing a long-term program for monitoring trace gases of atmospheric importance over the Pacific Ocean since 1995. The NIES Voluntary Observing Ships (NIES-VOS) program currently makes use of commercial cargo vessels because they operate regularly over fixed routes for long periods and sail over a wide area between various ports (e.g., between Japan and the United States, between Japan and Australia/New Zealand, and between Japan and southeast Asia). This program allows systematic and continuous measurements of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, providing long-term datasets for background air over the Pacific Ocean and regionally polluted air around east Asia. We observe both long-lived greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived air pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide) on a continuous basis. Flask samples are collected for later laboratory analysis of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide by using gas chromatographic techniques. In addition, we recently installed cavity ringdown spectrometers for high-resolution measurement of methane and carbon dioxide to capture their highly variable features in regionally polluted air around southeast Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippine), which is now thought to be a large source due to expanding socioeconomic activities as well as biomass burnings. Contrasting the Japan-Australia/New Zealand and Japan-southeast Asia cruises revealed regional characteristics of sources and sinks of these atmospherically important species, suggesting the existence of additional sources for methane, nitrous oxides, and carbon monoxide in this tropical Asian region.

  1. Sensor system for Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2004-11-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is design to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from orbit. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  2. Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, Michael J.; Hsu, Juno; Nicolau, Alex; Veidenbaum, Alex; Smith, Philip Cameron; Bergmann, Dan

    2014-11-07

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  3. Photoacoustic Experimental System To Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masaaki; Kasai, Toshio

    2010-01-12

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily available components and is suitable for small-group experiments. The PA signal from a greenhouse gas (GHG), such as CO(2), H(2)O, and CH(4), can be detected down to a concentration of 0.1%. Since the basic theory of the PA effect in gases due to IR absorption is straightforward, the experiments with this PA system are accessible to students. It can be shown that there is a significant difference in IR absorption between GHGs and the major components of the atmosphere, N(2), O(2), and Ar, which helps students understand that the minor components, that is, the GHGs, determine the IR absorptivity of the atmosphere. PMID:20084177

  4. Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate temperatures and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to temperature change are separated by a time-series analysis using a linear trend term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The temperature changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in temperature induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the temperature change near both poles with a negative temperature change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on temperature. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to temperature change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected temperature change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a crossover between lower atmospheric heating and upper atmospheric cooling that is located at about 90 hPa in the tropics and 30-40 hPa in the polar regions. This results from the combination of continuing increases in greehouse gases and recovery from ozone depletion.

  5. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-25

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779–1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50–1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist largemore » or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.« less

  6. Influence of biochar amendment on greenhouse gases emission and rice production in paddy field, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Pan, G. X.; Li, L. Q.; Zhou, T.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar incorporating into agricultural soils as a strategy to increase soil carbon content and mitigate climate change received great attention. We present a field study about biochar amendment into paddy field in Sichuan province 2010, China. The objective was to evaluate the impacts of biochar incorporation on rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw at temperature 350-550C. Biochar incorporated into paddy field before rice transplanting. Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured in situ using closed chamber method during whole rice growing season. Flux of greenhouse gases was monitored at about 7 day's interval. Two rates of N fertilizer (0 and 240 kg N/ha) were applied as urea in combination with 3 biochar rates (0, 20 and 40 t/ha). Amendment of biochar had no influence on rice yield even at the hightest rate of 40 t/ha. However, rice production was greatly relying on chemical N fertilization input. No interact effect was detected between biochar and N fertilizer. Amendment of biochar suppressed N2O emission. During the whole rice growing season, the total N2O emission from chemical fertilizer was reduce by 29% and 53% under biochar amendment rates of 20t/ha and 40t/ha respectively. Total amounts of CO2 and CH4 emitted from paddy fields during whole rice growing season were not greatly increased despite of much carbon brought into soil with biochar. However, biochar amendment slightly increased CO2 emission in the absence of N fertilizer. Our results showed that biochar amendment into paddy field did not increase the global warming potential (GPW) and greenhouse gases emission intensity (GHGI).

  7. [Effects of urea and coated urea on harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Zeng, Qingru; Mao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Litian; Liao, Bohan; Tie, Baiqing; Liao, Zongwen

    2006-09-01

    With simulation test and plastic greenhouse experiment, this paper studied the effects of urea and minerals- coated urea on the soil pH and harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse. The results showed that under simulated condition, the application of these'two N fertilizers led to an initial increase of soil pH, which reached the maximum (an increment of > 50%) within the first week and dropped to the initial level by the end of the fifth week. In plastic greenhouse, applying urea and coated urea resulted in the increase of NH3, NO2 and O3 concentrations. The daily volatilization amount of NH3 and NO2 was higher in urea treatment than in coated urea treatment, and the highest value in urea treatment was 42.36 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NH3, 41.95 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NO2, and 86.00 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for O3. The volatilization intensity of NH3 and NO2 was influenced by temperature and sunlight, while the O3 concentration was influenced by sunlight. PMID:17147165

  8. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-Chun; Rong, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Yi-Min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  9. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996–2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  10. On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases - the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, C.; Johansson, D. J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the integrated temperature change potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that the global warming potential (GWP) and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity when standard assumptions about a constant background atmosphere are used. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization governing the rate of ocean heat uptake. It is found that GWP and IGTP differ by some 10% for CH4 (for a time horizon of less than 500 yr), and that the relative difference between GWP and IGTP is less for gases with a longer atmospheric life time. Further, it is found that the relative difference between IGTP and GWP increases with increasing rates of ocean heat uptake and increasing climate sensitivity since these changes increase the inertia of the climate system. Furthermore, it is shown that IGTP is equivalent to the sustained global temperature change potential (SGTP) under standard assumptions when estimating GWPs. We conclude that while it matters little for abatement policy whether IGTP, SGTP or GWP is used when making trade-offs, it is more important to decide whether society should use a metric based on time integrated effects such as GWP, a "snapshot metric" as GTP, or metrics where both economics and physical considerations are taken into account. Of equal importance is the question of how to choose the time horizon, regardless of the chosen metric. For both these overall questions, value judgments are needed.

  11. Observations of tropospheric trace gases from GOSAT thermal infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Hirofumi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Maki, Takashi; Deushi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS), which is one of the sensors onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), measures the sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface and atmosphere as well as the thermal radiance emitted from the Earth. Atmospheric trace gases such as ozone (O3), water vapor (H2O and HDO), methanol (CH3OH) and ammonia (NH3) are derived from the thermal infrared spectral radiance recorded with the TANSO-FTS by an optimal estimation retrieval approach. TANSO-FTS total ozone columns are compared with Dobson spectrophotometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data. The TANSO-FTS total ozone retrievals exhibit a positive bias of 3-4% with a root-mean-square difference of 2-6% compared to the Dobson and OMI measurements. We compare TANSO-FTS tropospheric ozone columns to those from ozonesonde data as well as from a three-dimensional chemical-climate model (MRI-CCM2). The TANSO-FTS data have high correlations with the ozonesonde data. The seasonal trends of the retrieved tropospheric ozone are consistent with those of the ozonesonde data. The spatial distribution of the tropospheric ozone from the TANSO-FTS and MRI-CCM2 shows good agreement, especially in the high-level tropospheric ozone regions. We also retrieve tropospheric H2O and HDO profiles simultaneously, accounting for the cross correlations between the water isotopes. The joint retrieval results in precise estimation of the isotope ratio by partial cancellation of systematic errors common to both H2O and HDO. The retrieved profiles and columns are compared with radiosonde, GPS, and ground-based high-resolution FTS data. The temporal and spatial variations of the precipitable water and the isotope ratio are consistent with those of the validation data. Finally, air pollutants such as CH3OH and NH3 are retrieved using the retrieved ozone and water vapor. We present the latitudinal and seasonal variations of CH3OH related to plant growth and biomass burning, and the high-level NH3 in the hot spot areas.

  12. A new UK Greenhouse Gas measurement network providing ultra high-frequency measurements of key radiatively active trace gases taken from a network of tall towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Moncrieff, J. B.; Sturges, W. T.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric concentrations of gases is important in assessing the impact of international policies related to the atmospheric environment. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocols. For over 15 years the UK Government have funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These continuous, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate regional (country-scale) emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using an inversion methodology (NAME-Inversion) that links the Met Office atmospheric dispersion model (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment - NAME) with the Mace Head observations. This unique inversion method acts to independently verify bottom up emission estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases. In 2011 the UK government (DECC) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to provide enhanced resolution emission maps and decrease uncertainty of regional emission estimates produced using the NAME-Inversion. One station included in this new UK network was already established in Scotland and was used in collaboration with Edinburgh University. The two other new stations are in England and were set-up early in 2012, they contain brand new instrumentation for measurements of greenhouse gases. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (20 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new tall tower UK measurement network in detail. Using high-frequency measurements at new operational sites, including Mace Head, we will present the latest inversion results from the new network highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government periodically and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. These results also inform policy makers on the accuracy of inventory emissions estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases.

  13. Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, A.; Guerlet, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.

    2013-05-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2) A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm-1 (1565 nm) and 4800 cm-1 (2100 nm) and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

  14. Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, A.; Guerlet, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.

    2013-09-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface, which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2) A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm-1 (1565 nm) and 4800 cm-1 (2100 nm) and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

  15. MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    MAMM consortium (led by JA Pyle, Univ. Cambridge, with partners from Univ. East Anglia; Univ. Manchester; Royal Holloway, Univ. of London; NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology). The UK MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) is designed to improve quantitative knowledge of Arctic methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources (e.g. wetlands, natural gas, clathrates), to determine magnitudes and spatial distributions, and to develop process understanding (e.g. dependence of fluxes on temperature). In Arctic Finland, Sweden, Norway and Spitsbergen, intensive low-level aircraft campaigns (flights in spring, summer, autumn 2012 and 2013, with the UK FAAM BAe146 aircraft) are designed to measure concentrations of CH4 and other gases across the Arctic by time and location, with in situ sampling for δ13CCH4 at selected sites on land (Zeppelin, Pallas, Alert) and Keeling-plot diel determination of wetland source signatures. High altitude flights sampled stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the Arctic to assess the impact of the polar vortex on methane isotope budgets. Methane column profiles are measured by combining ground based eddy covariance and chamber measurements with aircraft measurements, using a landscape-scale box model approach and flying up and downwind of source regions. Airborne remote sensing is being used to retrieve CH4 columns for comparison with in-situ profiles and testing of hyperspectral retrieval methods from satellite platforms. Longer-term time series measurements are also being established in Kjølnes, northern Norway, for a range of greenhouse and related species via continuous or flask/bag sampling. Modelling studies are in progress to assess the overall Arctic influence on the global methane budget, including detailed back-trajectory analysis of the measurements, especially the isotopic data, to identify sources of methane by location, type (e.g. gasfield, wetland, biomass fire, clathrate), and seasonality / event, and also regional source analysis using the NAME particle dispersion model. Chemistry/climate modelling is used to assess the role of the Arctic in recent changes in atmospheric methane and to perform projections for future change.

  16. High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during BARCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balano Atmosfrico Regional de Carbono na Amaznia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.220.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.050.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.230.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

  17. O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Fleming, Eric L; Jackman, Charles H; Burkholder, James B

    2013-03-28

    A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ? -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included in this study. PMID:23441917

  18. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

  19. European trends in greenhouse gases emissions from integrated solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Calabr, Paolo S; Gori, Manuela; Lubello, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has 28 member states, each with very different characteristics (e.g. surface, population density, per capita gross domestic product, per capita municipal solid waste (MSW) production, MSW composition, MSW management options). In this paper several integrated waste management scenarios representative of the European situation have been generated and analysed in order to evaluate possible trends in the net emission of greenhouse gases and in the required landfill volume. The results demonstrate that an integrated system with a high level of separate collection, efficient energy recovery in waste-to-energy plants and very limited landfill disposal is the most effective according to the indices adopted. Moreover, it is evident that a fully integrated system can make MSW management a carbon sink with a potentiality of up to approximately 40 Mt CO2eq year(-1). PMID:25704238

  20. Using STELLA System Dynamic Model to Analyze Greenhouse Gases' Emission From Solid Waste Management in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, Jao-Jia; Lee, R.F.; Liao, K.Y.

    2004-03-31

    Using a system dynamic model (SDM), such as STELLA, to analyze the waste management policy is a new trial for Taiwan's research communities. We have developed an easy and relatively accurate model for analyzing the greenhouse gases emission for the wastes from animal farming and municipalities. With the local research data of the past decade, we extract the most prominent factors and assemble the SDM. The results and scenarios were compared with the national inventory. By comparing to the past data, we found these models reasonably represent the situation in Taiwan. However, SDM can program many scenarios and produce a lot of prediction data. With the development of many program control tools on STELLA, we believe the models could be further used by researchers or policy-makers to find the needed research topics, to set the future scenarios and to determine the management tools.

  1. Interhemispherical delay of the current warming gives a first evidence of the greenhouse gases signal

    SciTech Connect

    Sonechkin, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    The most accurate TRENDS`93 time series of the hemispherical surface air temperatures and the corresponding greenhouse gases concentrations were processed by means of the technique of wavelet transform. The technique easily admits splitting the time series of interest to statistically stationary oscillations and a trend. Such temperature oscillations of interannual-interdecadal scales were extracted which include differences between both hemispherical temperature series. In particular, these oscillations depict an increasing of the temperature during 1900--1930s in both hemispheres. A relative cooling in the Northern Hemisphere (a temperature stabilization in the Southern one) during 1940--1970s, and a strong warming in both hemispheres are depicted in the latest decades. One can assume that the contributions of these oscillations to global warming will be negative during the next decade.

  2. On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.; Trainer, M. K.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.; Kolodzey, W.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Kitzis, D. R.; Patrick, L.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Robers, J. M.; Tans, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have built the 'Hybrid Lab'. A continuous CO2 and CH4 cavity ring down spectroscopic analyzer (Picarro, Inc.), a CO gas-filter correlation instrument (Thermo Environmental, Inc.) and a continuous UV absorption ozone monitor (2B Technologies, Inc., model 202SC) have been installed securely onboard a 2006 Toyota Prius Hybrid vehicle with an inlet bringing in outside air from a few meters above the ground. To better characterize point and distributed sources, air samples were taken with a Portable Flask Package (PFP) for later multiple species analysis in the lab. A GPS unit hooked up to the ozone analyzer and another one installed on the PFP kept track of our location allowing us to map measured concentrations on the driving route using Google Earth. The Hybrid Lab went out for several drives in the vicinity of the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall tower located in Erie, CO and covering areas from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Fort Collins and Greeley. Enhancements in CO2, CO and destruction of ozone mainly reflect emissions from traffic. Methane enhancements however are clearly correlated with nearby point sources (landfill, feedlot, natural gas compressor ...) or with larger scale air masses advected from the NE Colorado, where oil and gas drilling operations are widespread. The multiple species analysis (hydrocarbons, CFCs, HFCs) of the air samples collected along the way bring insightful information about the methane sources at play. We will present results of the analysis and interpretation of the Hybrid Lab Front Range Study and conclude with perspectives on how we will adapt the measurement strategy to study CO2 anthropogenic emissions in Denver Basin.

  3. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W.; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2011-07-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N2O and CH4 from soil under increased atmospheric CO2 have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO2 (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N2O emissions from upland soils and CH4 emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated.

  4. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-07-14

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from soil under increased atmospheric CO(2) have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO(2) (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N(2)O emissions from upland soils and CH(4) emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated. PMID:21753852

  5. Tracing origin and fate of dissolved greenhouse gases in Malaysian peat-draining rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Denise; Warneke, Thorsten; Rixen, Tim; Denis, Nastassia; Mller, Moritz; Notholt, Justus

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands are known to store large amounts of organic carbon. Peat-draining rivers in these regions receive considerable amounts of carbon from these soils, yet, its fate remains poorly studied. Although a number of recent studies investigated greenhouse gas production and emission from inland waters, only a small number focused on tropical freshwaters, and data from tropical peat-draining rivers are particularly lacking. We investigated rivers in a peat-dominated catchment in Sarawak, Malaysia. Dissolved greenhouse gases (GHG) were measured with Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy. It allows for the simultaneous and continuous measurement of major GHG (CO2 and ?13C in CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO) with high accuracy and precision. We found that concentrations of dissolved CO, CO2 and CH4 were higher than the respective atmospheric equilibrium concentration, suggesting that those rivers are a source of these GHG to the atmosphere. Enhanced N2O concentrations were only found around some cultivated areas. In order to trace the origin of the GHG, we quantified dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), inorganic nutrients and different parameters that describe water chemistry. Stable carbon isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) yielded indications of a terrestrial source of inorganic carbon in the river, suggesting that in-situ respiration of organic matter might play an important role.

  6. Greenhouse Effects due to Man-Mad Perturbations of Trace Gases.

    PubMed

    Wang, W C; Yung, Y L; Lacis, A A; Mo, T; Hansen, J E

    1976-11-12

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral region 7 to 14 microm and contribute to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. The concentrations of these trace gases may undergo substantial changes because of man's activities. Extensive use of chemical fertilizers and combustion of fossil fuels may perturb the nitrogen cycle, leading to increases in atmospheric N(2)O, and the same perturbing processes may increase the amounts of atmospheric CH(4) and NH(3). We use a one-dimensional radiative-convective model for the atmospheric thermal structure to compute the change in the surface temperature of the earth for large assumed increases in the trace gas concentrations; doubling the N(2)O, CH(4), and NH(3) concentrations is found to cause additive increases in the surface temperature of 0.7 degrees , 0.3 degrees , and 0.1 degrees K, respectively. These systematic effects on the earth's radiation budget would have substantial climatic significance. It is therefore important that the abundances of these trace gases be accurately monitored to determine the actual trends of their concentrations. PMID:17832523

  7. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-25

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779–1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50–1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist large or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.

  8. Greenhouse gases measurements in road tunnel in São Paulo Megacity, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Galichio, W.; Astolfo, R.; Miranda, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is the richest area in Brazil and is one of the largest megacities in the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants. The fleet, with more than 7 million vehicles, is unique in that most are fueled by ethanol or by a gasoline-ethanol (flex-fuel vehicles) mixture containing 75-78% gasoline (by volume) and 22-25% ethanol (a blend referred to as gasohol). Nowadays, approximately 50% of the fuel burned by the fleet is ethanol. The vehicular emissions are responsible for approximately 98, 97, and 96%, respectively, of all emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, the fleet is the largest source of CO2 emissions in the MASP. The goal is to evaluate of the vehicles emissions of the pollutants and greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) in the MASP. The gases carbon dioxide and methane were carried out by Picarro G2301 Analyzer for CO2/CH4/H2O in air. Field measurements were carried out in two road tunnels within the MASP: May 2 to 13, 2011 in the Janio Quadros (JQ) tunnel and from July 04 to 19, 2011 in the Rodoanel (RA) tunnel. The JQ tunnel is located in the southwest portion of São Paulo. It is a two-lane tunnel that is 1900 m in length, and the traffic in both lanes flows in the same directions. The in-tunnel emissions are mainly from gasohol- and ethanol-powered vehicles. The RA tunnel is located in the West portion of the city and different from JQ tunnel. It is 1700m in length and carries gasohol, ethanol and diesel powered vehicles, being that approximately 40% of the heavy-duty (burning diesel) in its four-lane. The results showed that the effects of the number and velocity of the vehicles in the variability of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The carbon dioxide reaching the hourly maximum value of 550 ppm in-inside the JQ tunnel, and 900 ppm in-side the RA tunnel.

  9. Greenhouse Gases Emission from Land Application of Swine Waste Water: A Comparison of Three Different Swine Slurry Application Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities (including land application of animal manures) account for about 20% of the total human induced global warming budget due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Recently, there has been an increasing emphasis on controlling these emissions from livestock operations. One of...

  10. Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change.

    PubMed

    Searchinger, Timothy; Heimlich, Ralph; Houghton, R A; Dong, Fengxia; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto; Tokgoz, Simla; Hayes, Dermot; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

    2008-02-29

    Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products. PMID:18258860

  11. Definition of yearly emission factor of dust and greenhouse gases through continuous measurements in swine husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Annamaria; Guarino, Marcella

    The object of this study was to develop an accurate estimation method to evaluate the contribution of the various compartments of swine husbandry to dust and GHG (greenhouse gases, CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O) emission into the atmosphere during one year of observation. A weaning, a gestation, a farrowing and a fattening room in an intensive pig house were observed in three different periods (Autumn-Winter, Springtime and Summer, monitoring at least 60% of each period (20% at the beginning, in the middle and at the end) of each cycle). During monitoring, live weight, average live weight gain, number of animals and its variation, type of feed and feeding time were taken into account to evaluate their influence on PM 10, or the fraction of suspended particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm [Emission Inventory Guidebook, 2007. B1100 Particle Emissions from Animal Husbandry Activities. Available from: (accessed October 2008)] and to define GHG emission. The selected piggery had a ventilation control system using a free running impeller to monitor continuously real-time environmental and management parameters with an accuracy of 5%. PM 10 concentration was monitored by a sampler (Haz Dust EPAM 5000), either continuously or through traditional gravimetric technique, and the mean value of dust amount collected on the membranes was utilized as a correction factor to be applied to continuously collected data. PM 10 concentration amount incoming from inlets was removed from PM 10 emission calculation, to estimate the real contribution of pig house dust pollution into atmosphere. Mean yearly emission factor of PM 10 was measured in 2 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.09 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 2.59 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 1.23 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. The highest PM 10 concentration and emission per LU was recorded in the fattening compartment while the lowest value was recorded in the farrowing room. CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O concentrations were continuously measured in the exhaust ducts using an infrared photoacoustic detector IPD (Brüel & Kjaer, Multi-gas Monitor Type 1302, Multipoint Sampler and Doser Type 1303) sampling data every 15 min, for the 60% of the cycles. Yearly emission factor for CO 2 was measured in 5997 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 1278 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 13,636 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 8851 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for CH 4 was measured in 24.57 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 4.68 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 189.82 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 132.12 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for N 2O was measured in 3.62 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.66 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 3.26 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 2.72 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room.

  12. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  13. Spatial mapping of greenhouse gases using laser absorption spectrometers at local scales of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. S.; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Botos, Chris; Pernini, Timothy G.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two years a new system capable of measuring the 2-D spatial distribution of atmospheric CO2 over areas on the order of 1 km2 and time scales of a few minutes, has been developed and demonstrated. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) - developed under a cooperative agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - attempts to improve monitoring capabilities of Ground Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. GreenLITE sensors are based on an intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) approach developed at ITT (now part of Harris Corp.) in 2004. The GreenLITE system recently completed a remote deployment of nearly 4,000 hours at a GCS site in Illinois. It provided continuous, real-time spatial distribution maps of CO2 via an open web-based interface from February to August 2015. In early 2015 we began work on a new implementation of GreenLITE capable of providing similar measurements over a 25 km2 area and are planning to test the system over a 5 km range late summer 2015. If successful the system will be deployed in an urban environment late 2015, demonstrating the utility of real-time 2-D spatial mapping of CO2 concentrations at this scale. This paper will review the concept for this new measurement capability, including results from the 1 km system. Ultimately, the measurement concept can be adapted to other greenhouse gases such as CH4 and NO2.

  14. Response of different Earth System Models to ramp-up/ramp-down greenhouse gases concentration trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier

    2013-04-01

    It has been relatively well established that, in the past, large abrupt and irreversible changes in the climate have consistently occurred when the climate system crossed certain thresholds. Given the massive amount of greenhouse gases released by human activities, which will further increase in the coming decades, it is crucial to evaluate the reversibility and inertia of the climate system in response to such an anthropogenic perturbation. Indeed, a few model projections have shown that the human contribution to greenhouse gases emission is likely to force the climate system towards potentially risky thresholds, which could dramatically alter the Earth's climate. In order to evaluate the robustness of such a scenario, we compare model results from 4 different state-of-the-art European EMSs (EC-EARTH, HadGEM2, IPSL-CM5-LR, MPI-ESM) in response to the same increase and decrease of anthropogenic forcing. More specifically, 95 years of ramp-up simulations based on the CMIP5 RCP8.5 scenario (where the radiative forcing value is gradually increased up to 8.5 W/m2) are followed by 95 years of ramp-down simulations (where the radiative value is reduced at the same rate down to its initial value). The response and the inertia of the climate system are investigated and the possibility of abrupt and/or (ir)reversible climatic changes are analysed in the different models. In particular, the behaviour of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) under the ramp-up/ramp-down is addressed and its relation to the evolution of other physical parameters is pointed out. Indeed, the stability of the AMOC, which is believed to lay in a monostable or bistable regime depending on the mean climate state, is controlled by different feedback mechanisms. A classical diagnostic for determining the transition between the single and multiple equilibria regime of the AMOC is the sign of the meridional freshwater transport at 30°S in the Atlantic. We therefore outline the response of advective salt feedback under radiative forcing and we evaluate the potential existence of multiple equilibria of the AMOC for the different models considered, a key issue in evaluating the possible proximity of a critical climatic threshold.

  15. A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2013-08-01

    It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 ± 54,700 ± 200 and 1.3 ± 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

  16. Thermal infrared nadir observations of 24 atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarisse, Lieven; R'Honi, Yasmina; Coheur, Pierre-Franois; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2011-05-01

    Thermal infrared nadir sounders are ideal for observing total columns or vertical profiles of atmospheric gases such as water, carbon dioxide and ozone. High resolution sounders with a spectral resolution below 5 cm-1 can distinguish fine spectral features of trace gases. Forty years after the launch of the first hyperspectral sounder IRIS, we have now several state of the art instruments in orbit, with improved instrumental specifications. In this letter we give an overview of the trace gases which have been observed by infrared nadir sounders, focusing on new observations of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). We present typical observations of 14 rare reactive trace gas species. Several species are reported here for the first time in nadir view, including nitrous acid, furan, acetylene, propylene, acetic acid, formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, observations which were made in a pyrocumulus cloud from the Australian bush fires of February 2009. Being able to observe this large number of reactive trace gases will likely improve our knowledge of source emissions and their impact on the environment and climate.

  17. Influence of nuclear power unit on decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, Wojciech; Szargut, Jan; Kolenda, Zygmunt; Czarnowska, Lucyna

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a comparison of selected power technologies from the point of view of emissions of greenhouse gases. Such evaluation is most often based only on analysis of direct emissions from combustion. However, the direct analysis does not show full picture of the problem as significant emissions of GHG appear also in the process of mining and transportation of fuel. It is demonstrated in the paper that comparison of power technologies from the GHG point of view has to be done using the cumulative calculus covering the whole cycle of fuel mining, processing, transportation and end-use. From this point of view coal technologies are in comparable level as gas technologies while nuclear power units are characterised with lowest GHG emissions. Mentioned technologies are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions in full cycle. Specific GHG cumulative emission factors per unit of generated electricity are determined. These factors have been applied to simulation of the influence of introduction of nuclear power units on decrease of GHG emissions in domestic scale. Within the presented simulations the prognosis of domestic power sector development according to the Polish energy policy till 2030 has been taken into account. The profitability of introduction of nuclear power units from the point of view of decreasing GHG emissions has been proved.

  18. Effect of the greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, SO2) on Martian paleoclimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    There is general agreement that certain surface features on Mars are indicative of the presence of liquid water at various times in the geologic past. In particular, the valley networks are difficult to explain by a mechanism other than the flow of liquid water. It has been suggested in several studies that a thick CO2 atmosphere on Mars early in its history could have provided a greenhouse warming that would have allowed the flow of water either on the surface or just below the surface. However, this effect was examined with a detailed radiation model, and it was found that if reduced solar luminosity early in the history of the solar system is taken into account, even three bars of CO2 will not provide sufficient greeenhouse warming. The addition of water vapor and sulflur dioxide (both plausible gases that may have been emitted by Martian volcanoes) to the atmosphere also fail to warm the surface above 273 K for reduced solar luminosity conditions. The increase in temperature may be large enough, however, for the formation of these features by brines.

  19. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management--an introduction.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-11-01

    Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO(2)-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies. PMID:19748948

  20. Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsao-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2008-06-30

    When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions. PMID:18164811

  1. Comparing solubility algorithms of greenhouse gases in Earth-System modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, V. M. N. C. S.; Sahle, E.; Jurus, P.; Clementi, E.; Pettersson, H.; Mateus, M.

    2015-09-01

    Accurate solubility estimates are fundamental for (i) Earth-System models forecasting the climate change taking into consideration the atmosphere-ocean balances and trades of greenhouse gases, and (ii) using field data to calibrate and validate the algorithms simulating those trades. We found important differences between the formulation generally accepted and a recently proposed alternative relying on a different chemistry background. First, we tested with field data from the Baltic Sea, which also enabled finding differences between using water temperatures measured at 0.5 or 4 m depths. Then, we used data simulated by atmospheric (Meteodata application of WRF) and oceanographic (WW3-NEMO) models of the European Coastal Ocean and Mediterranean to compare the use of the two solubility algorithms in Earth-System modelling. The mismatches between both formulations lead to a difference of millions of tons of CO2, and hundreds of tons of CH4 and N2O, dissolved in the first meter below the sea surface of the whole modelled region.

  2. Effect of increasing greenhouse gases on Indian monsoon rainfall as downscaled from the ECHAM coupled model

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.V.; Storch, H.V.

    1994-12-31

    It is more or less accepted that the increasing anthropogenic gases will result in global warming through the greenhouse effect. The major influence of this will be felt in the form of ice melts and rising sea levels. The influence on regional climates like monsoons is not very clear. Since the monsoons arise due to surface heating, one would expect that global warming will lead to more vigorous monsoons. The expected change in a climate parameter can be studied by analyzing the historical data and then extrapolating in time. Alternatively, one can use the state-of-the-art coupled GCMs which are able to simulate the earth`s climate with reasonable accuracy. Both methods have some limitations. The first method cannot adequately consider the nonlinearity, and the second method may not be efficient for regional scales. So that the projections can be trusted, the regional features should be well simulated. None of the current models are able to simulate the Indian monsoon satisfactorily. Therefore it is desirable to infer the expected change in monsoons from other large and near global scale features which are better simulated. This approach, which depends on the concurrent association between a large-scale modeled feature and a regional scale, is known as downscaling, after Storch et al., and is adopted here to project the Indian monsoon rainfall for the next 100 years from the ECHAM T21 coupled model.

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A. )

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  4. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  5. Global what emdash control possibilities of CO sub 2 and other greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, K.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The principal greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}, is joined by methane, N{sub 2}O, and other trace gases in absorbing infrared radiation, which would otherwise escape into space, a process thought to be responsible for gradual increase in temperature that will melt ice caps and raise ocean levels. This paper discusses control possibilities that could be considered once there is agreement that CO{sub 2} must be controlled. Many of the responses to the energy crisis of 1974 are applicable for CO{sub 2} control. A variety of technologies, energy sources, and ideas are offered that, in combination, could be the basis for a global energy policy. Conversion and replacement of coal, oil, and eventually natural gas fired electric power plants with other energy sources such as nuclear, solar, wind, tidal, and geothermal, could significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. There are, however, no good alternatives to fossil fuels used in transportation that significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all the fossil fuels, natural gas has the least CO{sub 2} production.

  6. POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

    Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

  7. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, B. H.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Shine, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. How could global society prepare for, and react to, such emergencies? One possibility is deliberate, coordinated emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, along a pathway designed to match the climate responses to the eruption. We estimate such an emission pathway, countering a hypothetical eruption three times the size of Mt Pinatubo in 1991. Using a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counter emissions, we show that it may be possible to counteract its climate effects, significantly dampening the abrupt impact of the eruption. We then raise practical, financial and ethical aspects related to such a strategy. Designed emissions to counter temporary global cooling would not have the disadvantages associated with more commonly discussed geoengineering to avoid long-term warming. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  8. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution.

    PubMed

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO(2)-equivalent (kg CO(2)-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, and travel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways. PMID:19808734

  9. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. ); Tie, X. )

    1991-11-01

    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  10. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E.; Tie, X.

    1991-11-01

    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth`s radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  11. The increase of Southern Ocean winds and SAM: is it caused by the ozone hole or by increased greenhouse gases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    The amplitude of the Southern Annular Mode of variability in sea level pressure has increased significantly since station records began in the late 1950s. As expected, this has led to an increase in surface winds over the Southern Ocean in meteorological analyses. Roscoe & Haigh (2007), using data to 2006, showed that the increase in SAM correlated at high significance with both the ozone hole and the increase in greenhouse gases, but the correlation with the ozone hole was more significant. However, it was difficult to quantify the meaning of this greater significance because of the then similarity between the trends in greenhouse gases and the ozone hole - the esoteric statistical concepts associated with the Akaike Information Criterion had to be used. Now the trends have diverged significantly, so the update presented here allows us to quantify the greater degree of significance of the ozone hole, using the more familiar statistical method of Students t-test.

  12. Evaluating Changes in Organic C and Emission of Greenhouse Gases in a California Agricultural Landscape.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolston, D. E.; Hopmans, J. W.; van Kessel, C.; Six, J.; Paw U, K.; Plant, R. E.; Hsiao, T. C.; Poch, R. M.; Shaver, G.; Ideris, A. J.; Lee, J.; Louie, D. T.; MacIntyre, J. L.; Matista, T. A.; Evatt, K. J.; King, A. P.

    2005-12-01

    A major question in CA agriculture is how much C may be sequestered in soil of irrigated, minimum tillage systems. Our main research goals are to identify and quantify the underlying mechanisms and processes controlling the rate of CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions versus soil C stabilization as affected by tillage operations. A landscape research approach is used to increase our mechanistic understanding of the biotic and abiotic processes that govern C dynamics under standard and minimum tillage practices. We have selected an irrigated, laser leveled agricultural site in the CA Central Valley for this study. The 70-acre site, located approximately 10 miles northwest of Davis, has been split into two fields. Beginning in the fall of 2003, one field has been managed under standard tillage (ST) and the other under minimum tillage (MT). Each field is instrumented with 1) an eddy-covariance mast to measure field-scale CO2 fluxes, 2) with a 0.62-m2 automated chamber to assess the temporal pattern of CO2 and N2O fluxes, 3) with 36 506-cm2 portable PVC chambers to evaluate the spatial characteristics of CO2, N2O and NO fluxes, 4) with 4 subsurface soil gas probes to measure CO2 and N2O concentrations with depth and 5) with multiple piezometers and tensiometers to monitor the movement of soil water throughout the growing season. Round-up Ready corn was planted in both fields in April 2004. Results from this growing season indicate that the various methods of CO2 measurement compare well with one another. There was no notable difference in soil CO2 flux between tillage treatments, but the eddy-covariance towers measured differences in net CO2 flux between treatments based on differential crop growth patterns. The MT treatment had slightly higher N2O emissions than ST, but N2O and NO emissions were primarily restricted to areas and time periods of fertilizer application. Preliminary results from the 2005 growing season (sunflower crop) indicate similar results. MT corn yield was 73% of that in the ST treatment. Patterns of soil texture, ground water movement, and treatment effects are being explored to help explain the yield gap and other spatial patterns in the data. Upcoming years of the project include continued monitoring of greenhouse gases and soil C dynamics in the two tillage systems, comparison of field data with DNDC and Daycent models, and economic evaluation of the two systems. These results will help provide a realistic assessment of the role CA agriculture can play in C sequestration when land is converted from standard to minimum tillage.

  13. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye , Jayant; Makundi , Willy; Goldberg ,Beth; Andrasko , Ken; Sanchez , Arturo

    1997-07-01

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

  14. Geologic Storage of Greenhouse Gases: Multiphase andNon-isothermal Effects, and Implications for Leakage Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2005-08-05

    Storage of greenhouse gases, primarily CO2, in geologic formations has been proposed as a means by which atmospheric emissions of such gases may be reduced (Bachu et al., 1994; Orr, 2004). Possible storage reservoirs currently under consideration include saline aquifers, depleted or depleting oil and gas fields, and unmineable coal seams (Baines and Worden, 2004). The amount of CO2 emitted from fossil-fueled power plants is very large, of the order of 30,000 tons per day (10 million tons per year) for a large 1,000 MW coal-fired plant (Hitchon,1996). In order to make a significant impact on reducing emissions, very large amounts of CO2 would have to be injected into subsurface formations, resulting in CO2 disposal plumes with an areal extent of order 100 km2 or more (Pruess et al., 2003). It appears inevitable, then, that such plumes will encounter imperfections in caprocks, such as fracture zones or faults, that would allow CO2 to leak from the primary storage reservoir. At typical subsurface conditions of temperature and pressure, CO2 is always less dense than aqueous fluids; thus buoyancy forces will tend to drive CO2 upward, towards the land surface, whenever adequate (sub-)vertical permeability is available. Upward migration of CO2 could also occur along wells, including pre-existing wells in sedimentary basins where oil and gas exploration and production may have been conducted (Celia et al., 2004), or along wells drilled as part of a CO2 storage operation. Concerns with leakage of CO2 from a geologic storage reservoir include (1) keeping the CO2 contained and out of the atmosphere, (2) avoiding CO2 entering groundwater aquifers, (3)asphyxiation hazard if CO2 is released at the land surface, and (4) the possibility of a self-enhancing runaway discharge, that may culminate in a ''pneumatic eruption'' (Giggenbach et al., 1991). The manner in which CO2 may leak from storage reservoirs must be understood in order to avoid hazards and design monitoring systems.

  15. Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable Al3+ and higher available P regarding the condition of the original soil.

  16. Climate-active Trace Gases from ACE Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Brown, A.; Harrison, J.; Chipperfield, M.; Boone, C.; Wilson, C.; Walker, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of more than 30 trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Launched by NASA in August 2003 for a nominal two-year mission, ACE performance remains excellent after 8 years in orbit. Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of sixteen halogenated trace gases are routinely retrieved from ACE-FTS atmospheric spectra: CCl4, CF4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), C2Cl3F3 (CFC-113), CH3Cl, ClONO2, COF2, COCl2, COClF, CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CCl2F (HCFC-141b), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), HCl, HF and SF6. ACE also provides VMR profiles for CH4, N2O and OCS; HCFC-23 (CHF3) is a recent research product. ACE-FTS measurements were compared to surface measurements made by the AGAGE network and output from the SLIMCAT three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model, which is constrained by similar surface data. ACE-FTS measurements of CFCs (and HCl) show declining trends which agree with both AGAGE and SLIMCAT values. The concentrations of HCFCs are increasing with ACE-FTS, SLIMCAT and AGAGE all showing positive trends. These results illustrate the success of the Montreal Protocol in reducing ozone depleting substances. The replacement of CFCs with HCFCs has led to an increase in the VMR of HF in the stratosphere. As chlorine containing compounds continue to be phased out and replaced by fluorine-containing molecules, it is likely that total atmospheric fluorine will continue increasing in the near future. These species are all powerful greenhouse gases. ACE provides near global VMR distributions and stratospheric lifetimes from tracer-tracer correlations. ACE trends, global distributions and lifetimes are all experimental inputs used by inverse models to determine top down emissions estimates.

  17. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases. Initial studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The current objective of the project ``Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases`` is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  18. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:24835490

  19. A robust optical parametric oscillator and receiver telescope for differential absorption lidar of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Iain; Jack, James W.; Rae, Cameron F.; Moncrieff, John B.

    2015-10-01

    We report the development of a differential absorption lidar instrument (DIAL) designed and built specifically for the measurement of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The DIAL is integrated into a commercial astronomical telescope to provide high-quality receiver optics and enable automated scanning for three-dimensional lidar acquisition. The instrument is portable and can be set up within a few hours in the field. The laser source is a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) which outputs light at a wavelength tunable near 1.6 μm. This wavelength region, which is also used in telecommunications devices, provides access to absorption lines in both carbon dioxide at 1573 nm and methane at 1646 nm. To achieve the critical temperature stability required for a laserbased field instrument the four-mirror OPO cavity is machined from a single aluminium block. A piezoactuator adjusts the cavity length to achieve resonance and this is maintained over temperature changes through the use of a feedback loop. The laser output is continuously monitored with pyroelectric detectors and a custom-built wavemeter. The OPO is injection seeded by a temperature-stabilized distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with a wavelength locked to the absorption line centre (on-line) using a gas cell containing pure carbon dioxide. A second DFB-LD is tuned to a nearby wavelength (off-line) to provide the reference required for differential absorption measurements. A similar system has been designed and built to provide the injection seeding wavelengths for methane. The system integrates the DFB-LDs, drivers, locking electronics, gas cell and balanced photodetectors. The results of test measurements of carbon dioxide are presented and the development of the system is discussed, including the adaptation required for the measurement of methane.

  20. [Effects of antiseptic on the analysis of greenhouse gases concentrations in lake water].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qi-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hu; James, Deng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Shou-Dong; Li, Xu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into antiseptic effects on the concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O in lake water, antisepetic (CuSO4 and HgCl2) were added into water sample, and concentrations of greenhouse gases were measured by the gas chromatography based on water equilibrium method. Experiments were conducted as following: the control group without antisepetic (CK), the treatment group with 1 mL CuSO4 solution (T1), the treatment group with 5 mL CuSO4 solution (T2), and the treatment group with 0.5 mL HgCl2 solution (T3). All groups were divided into two batches: immediately analysis (I), and after 2 days analysis (II). Results showed that CuSO4 and HgCl2 significantly increased CO2 concentration, the mean CO2 concentration (Mco2) of CK (I) and CK (II) were (11.5 +/- 1.47) micromol x L(-1) and (14.38 +/- 1.59) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T1 (I) and T1 (II) were (376 +/- 70) micromol x L(-1) and (448 +/- 246.83) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T2 (I) and T2 (II) were (885 +/- 51.53) micromol x L(-1) and (988.83 +/- 101.96) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T3 (I) and T3 (II) were (287.19 +/- 30.01) micromol x L(-1) and (331.33 +/- 22.06) micromol x L(-1), respectively. The results also showed that there was no difference in CH4 and N2O concentrations among treatments. Water samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after pretreatment. Our findings suggest that adding antiseptic may lead an increase in CO2 concentration. PMID:24720227

  1. Greenhouse gases emission from soils under major crops in Northwest India.

    PubMed

    Jain, N; Arora, P; Tomer, R; Mishra, Shashi Vind; Bhatia, A; Pathak, H; Chakraborty, D; Kumar, Vinod; Dubey, D S; Harit, R C; Singh, J P

    2016-01-15

    Quantification of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from agriculture is necessary to prepare the national inventories and to develop the mitigation strategies. Field experiments were conducted during 2008-2010 at the experimental farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils under cereals, pulses, millets, and oilseed crops. Total cumulative N2O emissions were significantly different (P>0.05) among the crop types. Emission of N2O as percentage of applied N was the highest in pulses (0.67%) followed by oilseeds (0.55%), millets (0.43%) and cereals (0.40%). The emission increased with increasing rate of N application (r(2)=0.74, P<0.05). The cumulative flux of CH4 from the rice crop was 28.64±4.40 kg ha(-1), while the mean seasonal integrated flux of CO2 from soils ranged from 3058±236 to 3616±157 kg CO2 ha(-1) under different crops. The global warming potential (GWP) of crops varied between 3053 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) (pigeon pea) and 3968 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) (wheat). The carbon equivalent emission (CEE) was least in pigeon pea (833 kg C ha(-1)) and largest in wheat (1042 kg C ha(-1)). The GWP per unit of economic yield was the highest in pulses and the lowest in cereal crops. The uncertainties in emission values varied from 4.6 to 22.0%. These emission values will be useful in updating the GHGs emission inventory of Indian agriculture. PMID:26540602

  2. Impact of Historical Changes in Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases on Tropospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Ramos-Garces, F.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Fang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGGs), including ozone depleting substances (ODSs), have increased dramatically since the preindustrial times. Increases in WMGGs affect tropospheric chemistry either directly by acting as precursors for tropospheric constituents (e.g., methane (CH4) is a precursor to tropospheric ozone), or indirectly by changing climate (e.g., temperature, humidity), atmospheric dynamics and stratospheric ozone. Here, we investigate the relative contributions of combined and individual increases in carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O) and ODSs on tropospheric chemistry over the historical period (1860-2005) by applying transient sensitivity simulations of the GFDL coupled chemistry-climate model (CM3) with combined stratospheric-tropospheric chemistry. We examine changes in tropospheric ozone and its budget, tropospheric oxidizing capacity, tropopause height, and age of air resulting from changes in chemistry and dynamics induced by WMGGs. Preliminary results indicate that preindustrial to present day increases in CH4 and CO2 lead to increases in total ozone column (TOC) while N2O and ODS increases cause TOC to decrease - qualitatively consistent with previous studies. The zonal mean vertical structure of preindustrial to present day ozone changes from increases in WMGGs individually differs markedly. CO2 increases lead to tropospheric ozone decrease in the tropics with maximum decrease in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause and a uniform stratospheric ozone increase. CH4 increases cause uniform tropospheric ozone increase and lower to mid stratospheric ozone increase. Increases in N2O and ODSs, on the other hand, lead to stratospheric ozone loss with small reductions in tropospheric ozone. By examining changes in a suite of diagnostics, including tropospheric ozone budget terms, tropopause height, stratospheric chemical species, and age of air, we will elucidate the roles of chemistry and atmospheric dynamics in driving tropospheric composition changes from WMGG increases.

  3. Mobile MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T.; Ibrahim, O.; Shaiganfar, R.; Platt, U.

    2009-11-01

    From Multi-Axis- (MAX-) DOAS observations information on tropospheric trace gases close to the surface and up to the free troposphere can be obtained. Usually MAX-DOAS observations are performed at fixed locations, which allows to retrieve the diurnal variation of tropospheric species at that location. Alternatively, MAX-DOAS observations can also be made on mobile platforms like cars, ships or aircrafts. Then, in addition to the vertical (and temporal) distribution, also the horizontal variation of tropospheric trace gases can be measured. Such information is important for the quantitative comparison with model simulations, study of transport processes, and for the validation of tropospheric trace gas products from satellite observations. However, for MAX-DOAS observations from mobile platforms, the standard analysis techniques for MAX-DOAS observations can usually not be applied, because the probed airmasses can change rapidly between successive measurements. In this study we introduce a new technique which overcomes these problems and allows the exploitation of the full information content of mobile MAX-DOAS observations. Our method can also be applied to MAX-DOAS observations made at fixed locations in order to improve the accuracy especially in cases of strong winds. We apply the new technique to MAX-DOAS observations made during an automobile trip from Brussels to Heidelberg.

  4. Mobile MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T.; Ibrahim, O.; Shaiganfar, R.; Platt, U.

    2010-02-01

    From Multi-Axis- (MAX-) DOAS observations, information on tropospheric trace gases close to the surface and up to the free troposphere can be obtained. Usually MAX-DOAS observations are performed at fixed locations, which allows to retrieve the diurnal variation of tropospheric species at that location. Alternatively, MAX-DOAS observations can also be made on mobile platforms like cars, ships or aircrafts. Then, in addition to the vertical (and temporal) distribution, also the horizontal variation of tropospheric trace gases can be measured. Such information is important for the quantitative comparison with model simulations, study of transport processes, and for the validation of tropospheric trace gas products from satellite observations. However, for MAX-DOAS observations from mobile platforms, the standard analysis techniques for MAX-DOAS observations can usually not be applied, because the probed airmasses can change rapidly between successive measurements. In this study we introduce a new technique which overcomes these problems and allows the exploitation of the full information content of mobile MAX-DOAS observations. Our method can also be applied to MAX-DOAS observations made at fixed locations in order to improve the accuracy especially in cases of strong winds. We apply the new technique to MAX-DOAS observations made during an automobile trip from Brussels to Heidelberg.

  5. Ionic composition and greenhouse gases evaluation in Tiet River sediment and mud landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La-Scalea, M. A.; Fornaro, A.; Abreu, E. L.; Mendona, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    There are 39 cities composing the Metropolitan Area of So Paulo (MASP) which has grown seven times during the last sixty years, reaching, in 2011, 19.3 million inhabitants. This fact associated with a strong industrial development provoked, among other consequences, a disordered urbanization along the most important river of the region: Tiet. About 100 Km of its 1,150 Km full extension crosses MASP and, during the 60's, Marginal Tiet roadway was constructed, occupying the river banks as access routes. Tiet River was straightened and several landfills were created with its deposit (sediment and mud). EACH-USP (46.50 W, 23.48 S) lies nowadays in one of these areas, where this work has been developed. Therefore, the goal is to evaluate the chemical composition (ionic and gases) and its variability in function of the depth levels using three wells, from 0.60 to 9.0 m of depth. The wells were perforated in September 2011, end of the dry weather. Each well owns a homemade multiport sampling device (HMSD), being possible to push gas and/or water up from 15 available ports. The gases measurements were carried out using a GEM-2000 plus (Landtec) portable analyzer. Aqueous samples containing solid material were taken at each level depth from ports of the HMSD. However, no water was found in some levels. All samples were kept cooled until analysis procedures. After decantation of the solid material, the supernatant liquid was divided in two portions, being its conductivity (Micronal conductimeter) and pH (pH-meter Metrohm 654 with combined glass electrode) measured with the former and ionic analysis with the latter, in which all samples were filtered (Millex 0.22 micrometer pores) before each ionic chromatographic analysis, using Metrohm 850 System, for the ions: sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. The first sampling stage was carried out during November and December 2011 in the beginning of rainy season in the mid Spring. From all the analysis performed, a large variability of the results may be observed for both gases and ionic composition not only among the wells, but also among the different depth levels. Vertically, one of the wells (W2) showed the same percentage of gases, methane 55% and carbon dioxide 45%, at all depth levels, while the other two wells (W1 and W3) presented these gases percentages only under 5.0 m deep. Concerning oxygen, 25% of this gas was detected at 1.0 m under the surface in W1 and W3. In relation to aqueous samples, the most acidity was observed near the surface (0.60 m deep, W1), pH 4.65, while pH 7.88 was obtained under 5.0 m deep (W3). For ionic concentrations a large range was observed considering all wells, being the lowest values for sulfate, from 0.60 to 20 mg/l, and the highest values for ammonium, between 14 and 53 mg/l. These results variability can be associated to the different soil composition layers, as well as to the biodegradation process and the time confinement of the river material deposit.

  6. Economic feasibility study for intensive and extensive wastewater treatment considering greenhouse gases emissions.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, M; Hernndez-Sancho, F; Sala-Garrido, R; Cirelli, G

    2013-07-15

    Economic feasibility assessments represent a key issue for selecting which wastewater treatment processes should be implemented. The few applications that exist focus on the positive economic value of externalities, overlooking the existence of negative externalities. However, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) consume a significant amount of energy, contributing to climate change. In this context, as a pioneering approach, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have been incorporated as a negative externality of wastewater treatment. Within this framework, this study aims to compare the economic feasibility of five technologies, both intensive and extensive, for small communities. The results show that both the investment and operation costs are higher for intensive than for extensive technologies. Moreover, significant differences in the value of negative externalities were observed. This study demonstrates that from an economic perspective, constructed wetland is the most suitable option for treating wastewater in small agglomerations. PMID:23583870

  7. Climatic consequences of observed ozone loss in the 1980s: Relevance to the greenhouse problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, G. I.; Ko, M. K. W.; Zhou, S.; Sze, N. D.

    1994-01-01

    Recently published findings using satellite and ground-based observations indicate a large winter and summertime decrease in the column abundance of ozone at high and middle latitudes during the last decade. Using a simple ozone depletion profile reflecting the observed decrease in ozone column abundance, Ramaswamy et al. (1992) showed that the negative radiative forcing that results from the ozone decrease between 1979 and 1990 approximately balanced the greenhouse climate forcing due to the chlorofluorocarbons emitted during the same period. Here, we extend the forcing analyses by calculating the equilibrium surface temperature response explicitly, using an updated version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research two-dimensional radiative-dynamical seasonal model. The calculated steady state responses suggest that the surface cooling due to the ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere offsets about 30% of the surface warming due to greenhouse gases emitted during the same decade. The temperature offset is roughly a factor of 2 larger than the corresponding offset obtained from forcing intercomparisons. This result appears to be related to the climate feedback mechanisms operating in the model troposphere, most notably that associated with atmospheric meridional heat transport. Thus a comprehensive assessment of ozone change effects on the predicted greenhouse warming cannot be accomplished based on forcing evaluations alone. Our results also show that calculations adopting a seasonally and latitudinally dependent ozone depletion profile produce a negative forcing about 50% smaller than that calculated for the depletion profile used by Ramaswamy et al. (1992).

  8. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. • NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup −1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup −1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup −1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  9. The GHG-CCI Project to Deliver the Essential Climate Variable Greenhouse Gases: Current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Boesch, H.; Reuter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are bing further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  10. Ecosystem Metabolism and Air-Water Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in High Arctic Wetland Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnherr, I.; Venkiteswaran, J.; St. Louis, V. L.; Emmerton, C.; Schiff, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater lakes and wetlands can be very productive systems on the Arctic landscape compared to terrestrial tundra ecosystems and provide valuable resources to many organisms, including waterfowl, fish and humans. Rates of ecosystem productivity dictate how much energy flows through food webs, impacting the abundance of higher-level organisms (e.g., fish), as well as the net carbon balance, which determines whether a particular ecosystem is a source or sink of carbon. Climate change is predicted to result in warmer temperatures, increased precipitation and permafrost melting in the Arctic and is already altering northern ecosystems at unprecedented rates; however, it is not known how freshwater systems are responding to these changes. To predict how freshwater systems will respond to complex environmental changes, it is necessary to understand the key processes, such as primary production and ecosystem respiration, that are driving these systems. We sampled wetland ponds (n=8) and lakes (n=2) on northern Ellesmere Island (81° N, Nunavut, Canada) during the open water season for a suite of biogeochemical parameters, including concentrations of dissolved gases (O2, CO2, CH4, N2O) as well as stable-isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC), dissolved oxygen (δ18O-DO), and water (δ18O-H2O). We will present rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, modeled from the concentration and stable isotope ratios of DIC and DO, as well as air-water gas exchange of greenhouse gases in these high Arctic ponds and lakes. Preliminary results demonstrate that ecosystem metabolism in these ponds was high enough to result in significant deviations in the isotope ratios of DIC and DO from atmospheric equilibrium conditions. In other words ecosystem rates of primary production and respiration were faster than gas exchange even in these small, shallow, well-mixed ponds. Furthermore, primary production was elevated enough at all sites except Lake Hazen, a large cold ultra-oligotrophic lake, to result in a shift in the δ18O of DO towards more depleted values. Two of the ponds also exhibited enriched δ13C-DIC indicative of high rates of DIC uptake and primary production. However most sites appear to be net heterotrophic systems, with the exception of a few net autotrophic ponds. Interestingly, due to the high DIC concentrations in pond waters, δ13C-DIC values are reflective of ecosystem metabolism on a somewhat longer time scale than δ18O-DO values, which might be useful for examining temporal changes in production and respiration. Finally, most ponds were sources of both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, but were surprisingly under-saturated with respect to N2O, demonstrating that they are sinks for atmospheric N2O. Rates of N2O consumption (denitrification) were modeled from concentration-time data and ranged from <0.1 to 1.1 nmol L-1 h-1.

  11. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

    2012-08-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance. PMID:23011297

  12. 76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    .... Currently, according to the provisions in 76 FR 22825 (April 25, 2011), owners and operators subject to 40.... Environmental Protection Agency. FR Federal Register. GHG greenhouse gas. ICR Information Collection Request... Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on November 30, 2010, 40 CFR part 98, subpart W (75 FR...

  13. 76 FR 56009 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... List FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GPA Gas... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) on December 1, 2010 (75 FR 74774) subpart I of the GHGRP requires..., 2010(75 FR 74458). Subpart W of the GHGRP, which applies to facilities in specific segments of...

  14. Influence of meteorology and interrelationship with greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at a sub-urban site of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivas, G.; Mahesh, P.; Subin, J.; Kanchana, A. L.; Rao, P. V. N.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impact on the climate system. The present study brings out first continuous measurements of atmospheric GHG's using high precision Los Gatos Research's-greenhouse gas analyser (LGR-GGA) over Shadnagar, a suburban site of Central India during the period 2014. The annual mean of CO2 and CH4 over the study region is found to be 394 2.92 and 1.92 0.07 ppm (mean, ? 1 SD, ?) respectively. CO2 and CH4 showed a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum (minimum) CO2 observed during Pre-monsoon (Monsoon), while CH4 recorded maximum during post-monsoon and minimum in monsoon. A consistent diurnal mixing ratio of these gases is observed with high (low) during night (afternoon) hours throughout the study period. Influences of prevailing meteorology (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity) on GHG's have also been investigated. CO2 and CH4 showed a strong positive correlation during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon with R equal to 0.80, 0.80, 0.61 and 0.72 respectively. It implies the seasonal variations in source-sink mechanisms of CO2 and CH4. Present study also confirms implicitly the presence OH radicals as a major sink of CH4 over the study region.

  15. Sensitivity of radiative forcing, ocean heat uptake, and climate feedback to changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paynter, D.; Frölicher, T. L.

    2015-10-01

    We use both prescribed sea surface temperature and fully coupled versions of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled climate model (CM3) to analyze the sensitivity of radiative forcing, ocean heat uptake, and climate feedback to changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols considered separately over the 1870 to 2005 period. The global anthropogenic aerosol climate feedback parameter (- α) of -1.13 ± 0.33 Wm-2 K-1 is indistinguishable from the greenhouse gas - α of -1.28 ± 0.23 Wm-2 K-1. However, this greenhouse gas climate feedback parameter is about 50% larger than that obtained for CM3 from a widely used linear extrapolation method of regressing Earth's top of atmosphere imbalance against surface air temperature change in idealized CO2 radiative forcing experiments. This implies that the global mean surface temperature change due to forcing over the 1870-2005 period is 50% smaller than that predicted using the climate feedback parameter obtained from idealized experiments. This difference results from time dependence in α, which makes the radiative forcing obtained by the fixed sea surface temperature method incompatible with that obtained by the linear extrapolation method fitted over the first 150 years after CO2 is quadrupled. On a regional scale, α varies greatly between the greenhouse gas and aerosol case. This suggests that the relationship between transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities obtained from idealized CO2 simulations, using techniques such as regional feedback analysis and heat uptake efficacy, may not hold for other forcing scenarios.

  16. Modeling the Impact of Changing Climate and Permafrost on Emission of Greenhouse Gases From the Arctic Wetlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, O.; Reneva, S.

    2004-12-01

    There is growing evidence that climatic warming and changes in permafrost may enhance the emission of the greenhouse gases from the Arctic wetlands. Arctic soils contain approximately 455 Gt C, or 14% of the global soil carbon of which about 50Gt C are accumulated in the Arctic wetlands. Deeper seasonal thawing may lead to enhanced decomposition of the organic material and release of soil carbon to the atmosphere in the form of either CO2 (typical for dry soils with high ventilation), or CH4 (typical for wetlands where decomposition takes place under anaerobic conditions). We used the digital contours of 112,520 Siberian wetlands, permafrost and soil carbon models, and GCM-based scenarios of future climate to calculate the changes in the volume of seasonally thawing organic-rich soil and emission of greenhouse gases from the wetlands in the Russian Arctic. By 2050 the overall volume of seasonally thawing carbon-rich soils is likely to increase on average by 20% - 30%. The largest relative increase, up to 50%, will be in the northernmost permafrost locations while in the southern zone of sporadic permafrost increase in the volume of seasonally thawing organic material will be relatively small, within 10%-15%. Such changes of permafrost, higher soil temperature and longer warm period may lead to enhanced emission of greenhouse gases. It may increase by 80% at selected locations along the arctic coast, by 30%-50% over the discontinuous permafrost region, and up to 20% in the southern permafrost zone. Better drainage conditions and enhanced evapotranspiration under warmer climate may lower the water table and improve soil ventilation, ultimately shifting the currently existing balance in favor of CO2 rather than CH4 production.

  17. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in the Second Generation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Allen A.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2006-12-29

    The Second Generation Model (SGM) was developed for the purpose of analyzing policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper documents how greenhouse gas emissions are calculated in the SGM, an application to several Energy Modeling Forum scenarios that stabilize radiative forcing by using policies that either exclusively limit CO2 emissions or include both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gasses, and an extension including advanced fossil generating technologies with CO2 capture and storage in the USA region of the SGM.

  18. GREENHOUSE GASES (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected for various scenarios and the most appropriate approaches and technologies for mitigation are identified by NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB). These methods contribute to reduct...

  19. Optimization Model for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Automobiles (OMEGA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (VGHG) model is used to apply various technologies to a defined set of vehicles in order to meet a specified GHG emission target, and to then calculate the costs and benefits of doing so.

  20. An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manne, A S; Richels, R G

    2001-04-01

    The Kyoto Protocol permits countries to meet part of their emission reduction obligations by cutting back on gases other than CO2 (ref. 1). This approach requires a definition of trade-offs among the radiatively active gases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has suggested global warming potentials for this purpose, which use the accumulated radiative forcing of each gas by a set time horizon to establish emission equivalence. But it has been suggested that this approach has serious shortcomings: damages or abatement costs are not considered and the choice of time horizon for calculating cumulative radiative force is critical, but arbitrary. Here we describe an alternative framework for determining emission equivalence between radiatively active gases that addresses these weaknesses. We focus on limiting temperature change and rate of temperature change, but our framework is also applicable to other objectives. For a proposed ceiling, we calculate how much one should be willing to pay for emitting an additional unit of each gas. The relative prices then determine the trade-off between gases at each point in time, taking into account economical as well as physical considerations. Our analysis shows that the relative prices are sensitive to the lifetime of the gases, the choice of target and the proximity of the target, making short-lived gases more expensive to emit as we approach the prescribed ceiling. PMID:11287950

  1. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Environment and Urbanization, 21,185. [2] Arikan Y., Desaim R., Bhatia P. and W. K. Fong, 2012 Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC), C40 Cities Climate Leadership group, available at: http://www.c40.org [3] Vogel, F. R., Ishizawa, M., Chan, E., Chan, D., Hammer, S., Levin, I., & Worthy, D. E. J. (2012). Regional non-CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes inferred from atmospheric measurements in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 9(1), 41-55. *The term 'sister sites' refers to sites that share a common background signal (i.e. common large scale influence), while significantly differing sensitivities to urban GHG emissions. In our case: Egbert, Ontario and Downsview, Toronto, Ontario.

  2. Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Sik; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    The effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and soil prokaryotic communities were investigated in an experimental rice field. The water layer was kept at 1-2 cm in the water-saving (WS) irrigation treatment and at 6 cm in the continuous flooding (CF) irrigation treatment. WS irrigation decreased CH(4) emissions by 78 % and increased N(2)O emissions by 533 %, resulting in 78 % reduction of global warming potential compared to the CF irrigation. WS irrigation did not affect the abundance or phylogenetic distribution of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the abundance of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNAs. The transcript abundance of CH(4) emission-related genes generally followed CH(4) emission patterns, but the difference in abundance between mcrA transcripts and amoA/pmoA transcripts best described the differences in CH(4) emissions between the two irrigation practices. WS irrigation increased the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs and functional gene transcripts associated with Anaeromyxobacter and Methylocystis spp., suggesting that their activities might be important in emissions of the greenhouse gases. The N(2)O emission patterns were not reflected in the abundance of N(2)O emission-related genes and transcripts. We showed that the alternative irrigation practice was effective for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and that it did not affect the overall size and structure of the soil prokaryotic community but did affect the activity of some groups. PMID:24682309

  3. Greenhouse gases in the South Atlantic Ocean: recent trends and anomalies from continuous island and shipboard measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca; Lanoisellé, Mathias; France, James; Nisbet, Euan

    2013-04-01

    In-situ observation of tropical and southern Atlantic greenhouse gases is still limited. Continuous high-precision greenhouse gas measurement by CRDS in the South Atlantic started in 2010 on Ascension Is. (8° S) and near Stanley on East Falkland Is. (52° S), and in 2012 on the British Antarctic Survey ship RRS James Clark Ross, which sails annually from the UK to Antarctica and back. Both the Ascension and Falklands records show sustained inter-annual growth in both CO2 and CH4. NOAA data from a small number of stations indicate that Southern Tropical Methane has been increasing since 2007 but that growth is now slowing. This is confirmed by our new data. Strong CH4 growth of 11 ppb was observed on Ascension between July 2010 and July 2011 (winter to winter), of 7 ppb/yr from Jan 2011 to Jan 2012 (summer-to-summer) and decreased further to 4 ppb from July 2011 to July 2012. This compares with a fairly constant growth of 4-5 ppb/yr for the Falklands site. Isotopic evidence for the causes of the 2010-11 southern hemisphere sub-tropical methane anomaly is inconclusive. A slight depletion in 13C on Ascension during the period of growth might indicate that wetland emissions are the dominant cause of the anomaly, fitting with much higher than average sub-tropical rainfall during recent years, but a much longer data set is required to isolate the anomaly from the long-term trend. On 23 April 2011, Ascension experienced a 20-year event when the ITCZ moved far south of its normal position. In very clean marine air, in the space of 3 minutes the methane jumped from a normal autumn southern hemisphere level of 1763 ppb to 1795 ppb, closer to the concentrations of northern hemisphere spring, settling near to 1800 ppb for six hours, after which it rapidly fell back to 1760 ppb. Simultaneously CO2 rose from 389 to about 392 ppm, then to 396 ppm before falling back to 388 ppm. During this period there was very heavy rainfall, with nearly 300 mm on the slopes of Green Mountain and more than 200 mm in surrounding desert areas. The 35 ppb magnitude of this methane switch compares with a magnitude of 55 ppb (1825 to 1770 ppb) observed by continuous measurement on-board the James Clark Ross when crossing the ITCZ from 8° N to 8° S in October 2010. In this event, high altitude Northern hemisphere air was moving SE over NW moving trade winds until the storm brought high level air to ground level. The observations highlight the usefulness of continuous measurement at such a site and demonstrate that the meteorological boundary between the hemispheres can on occasion be very sharp.

  4. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51° 31' 17.4' N 0° 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent with the weaker seasonality of CH4 fluxes compared with CO and CO2. Annual estimates of CO2 emissions (41 kt km-2) obtained by EC were consistent with data upscaled from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI; 46 kt km-2). Good agreement between measurements and inventory data was also found for CO (measured 156 t km-2; LAEI 145 t km-2) and for N2O (measured 0.36 t km-2; LAEI 0.42 t km-2), although based on a much shorter measurement period. By contrast, a two-fold difference was found between inventory and measured CH4 fluxes (measured 75 t km-2; LAEI 34 t km-2), which could indicate an underestimation by the inventory of CH4 emissions from anthropogenic sources or the existence of unaccounted biogenic sources. Measurements of isotopic CH4 taken 2 km SE of the tower near the banks of the river Thames reveal multiple episodes of 13C-depleted morning peaks consistent with biogenic sources. We speculate that the Thames can act as an additional significant source of biogenic methane especially at low tide and after heavy rainfall, which could explain the large emissions observed in the S-SE sector.

  5. 76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas IBR incorporation by reference ICR information... CFR part 98, subpart W (75 FR 74458) (subpart W). Included in the final rule were new provisions that... preamble to the 2009 final rule (74 FR 56260), CAA section 114 provides EPA broad authority to require...

  6. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

  7. Effect of cover crop in mitigation of greenhouse gases emission from plots amended with swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas emissions nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane (N2O, CO2 and CH4,) were measured from corn-soybean plots amended with different rates of liquid swine manure, and in the presence or absence of a rye winter cover crop. Emission measurements include two periods: 1) from October 20...

  8. 76 FR 59542 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Removal Efficiency. EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. FR Federal Register. GHG greenhouse gas. ICR...) (75 FR 74774) (subpart I). In that rule, among other provisions, EPA finalized two different methods... BAMM, from June 30, 2011 to September 30, 2011 (76 FR 36339). Second, also on June 22, 2011,...

  9. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas

  10. 76 FR 61293 - Extension of Public Comment Period: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... period on the action published on September 9, 2011 (76 FR 56010), Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse... is (202) 566-1742. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office of... docket, to Carole Cook, U.S. EPA, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Climate Change Division, Mail Code...

  11. 75 FR 74457 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... assisting in the development of emissions reduction regulations in the petroleum and natural gas industry... air pollution, including GHGs. As discussed in the petroleum and natural gas systems proposal (75 FR... Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GOR gas to oil ratio GRI Gas Research Institute GWP global...

  12. Life-cycle analysis of dryland greenhouse gases affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available about management practices effect on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) under dryland cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of cropping sequences (conventional till malt barley-fallow [CTB-F], no-till malt barley-pea [NTB-P], a...

  13. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  14. Sugarcane field renovation: influence of tillage and no-tillage in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Ana Paula; Degaspari, Iracema A. M.; Ramos, Nilza Patricia; Vilela, Viviane A. A.; do Carmo, Janaina B.; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Rossi, Paulo; de Andrade, Cristiano A.

    2015-04-01

    The management of agricultural soils can play an important role in the greenhouse gases (GHG) balance, depending on the adopted practices. In the agricultural system, current GHG emissions generated by anthropogenic activities include land use, land use change and management practices, which have contributed to disrupt the C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. The GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions from agricultural soils depend on the biophysical processes, and the incorporation/decomposition of organic residues. Agricultural soils preparation requires a combination of several implements, which can produce great soil disturbance as is the case of conventional tillage or minimum soil mobilization in the reduced tillage or no-tillage. Tillage breaks soil aggregates leading to enhanced organic matter decomposition and reduced C and N concentrations and no-tillage increases the stability of soil macroaggregates, reducing the emissions of CO2. In this study, we evaluated the CO2 emissions from different management practices widely used in the renewal of sugarcane fields previously planted with soybean, in an Acric Oxisol plantation in the southeast region of Brazil. The conventional tillage (CT) operation consisted of an offset disk harrowing using a tool with 36 disks x 26" and a subsoiling with an implement reaching nearly 50 cm depth. The reduced tillage (RT) was carried out with subsoiling operation in the row planting and in the no-tillage (NT), the soybean trash from the last harvest was left on the soil. The soil preparation and the establishment of four experimental plots (30 m x 30 m each) occurred within two days. During the studied period, two CO2 and N2O emission peaks were observed after the soil preparation, the first one on day 4 and the second on day 35 after a 55 mm rain. The cumulative emissions were measured during 40 days after soil preparation. We observed higher emissions in the conventional tillage (CT), and lower values in the reduced tillage (approximately 10%) and non-tillage (approximately 20%) areas. Considering the expansion of sugarcane area in 320,000 hectares during the next sugarcane season (2014/2015), the NT management practice compared to the CT could reduce the emissions of CO2 and N2O in approximately 0.2 - 0.6 T g of CO2 eq.

  15. Greenhouse gas relationships in the Indian summer monsoon plume observed by CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P. F.; Zahn, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Indian summer monsoon provides an important pathway for transport of pollutants into the upper troposphere and also into the lowermost stratosphere. In summer 2008, the impact of the monsoon circulation on the trace gas composition of the upper troposphere was investigated during regular monthly CARIBIC flights between Europe and India. CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) uses a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 passenger aircraft equipped with a dedicated air inlet system. In 2008, most flights went to India in order to study the influence of the Indian summer monsoon. During the summer months a distinctive monsoon plume was observed to develop from June to September at latitudes between 35N and 25N jointly with the formation of the easterly jet over northern India. Higher levels of CH4, N2O and SF6 were found in air masses influenced by the monsoon. While the increase of the purely anthropogenic SF6 is entirely due to increased convective transport during the summer months, an additional enhancement of CH4 and to a lesser extent also of N2O is caused by increasing emissions from rice paddies, wetlands and landfills during the rainy season. Besides these greenhouse gases, other tracers such as CO and various hydrocarbons and halocarbons showed enhanced mixing ratios. In contrast, CO2 is depleted in the monsoon plume due to an increase in photosynthesis in the regions affected by the monsoon rains. Based on the CARIBIC data we get a consistent picture of the systematic evolution of the plume, reflecting the progression of the Indian summer monsoon. Using tracer-tracer correlations we estimate the emission changes of the above greenhouse gases during the summer monsoon season.

  16. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES -- A PILOT STUDY IN MANILA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of sampling of combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. n a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested, fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Five ambient sample...

  17. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

  18. The response of soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gases emission to global warming and nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, H.; Choi, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases has caused noticeable climate change. The increased temperature by climate change could dramatically change in the decomposition rate and greater losses of carbon from soil organic matter. Decomposition of organic carbon regulates both the amount of organic material which is stored in soils, as well as the amount of mineralized carbon that can be released into the atmosphere as greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). In addition, the largest increase in the N-deposition was expected in Asia due to the dramatic increase in anthropogenic activities. Previous results from N-deposition experiments led to apparently contradictory hypotheses regarding the decomposition of organic carbon in soil. N-deposition has been found to decrease the decomposition of chemically complex carbon compounds, while increasing decomposition rates of labile carbon pools. Combined changes in temperature increase and N-deposition have considerable potential to affect soil carbon sequestration/loss and soil nutrient cycling. This study investigated how the combined changes of temperature increase and N-deposition influence mineralization processes and C dynamics of two soil systems (wetlands and forest). For this objective, we conducted a growth chamber experiment to examine the effects of combined changes in temperature increase and N-deposition on the decomposition of organic carbon and emission of greenhouse gases from two different soil systems. The samples were collected in wetland and forest around Gyeongan stream of South Korea. Incubator experiment was conducted under the enhanced air temperature (controlled 20 ℃, 25 ℃ and 30 ℃) and nitrogen addition (low and high condition by using ammonium nitrate). GHGs (CO2, N2O, and CH4) were measured gas chromatograph. Results of experiment show that CO2 flux decrease with time at forest soil and increase at wetland. Moreover high temperature (25 ℃, 30 ℃) and high concentration of nitrogen cause emission more than 20 ℃. As time goes on, N2O flux decrease at low concentration of nitrogen, increase at high concentration in both of the soils. But cases of N2O flux have a lot of fluctuation. While CH4 flux was not detected at all of temperatures and soils.

  19. Effects of 17?-estradiol on emissions of greenhouse gases in simulative natural water body.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Aidong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Chenxiao; Zong, Fengjiao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-05-01

    Environmental estrogens are widely spread across the world and are increasingly thought of as serious contaminators. The present study looks at the influence of different concentrations of 17?-estradiol on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O) in simulated systems to explore the relationship between environmental estrogen-pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in natural water bodies. The present study finds that 17?-estradiol pollution in simulated systems has significant promoting effects on the emissions of CH4 and CO2 , although no significant effects on N2 O emissions. The present study indicates that 17?-estradiol has different effects on the different elements cycles; the mechanism of microbial ecology is under review. PMID:25639264

  20. Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jess

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 ?mol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 ?mol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

  1. The GreenHouse gas Observations in the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesch, H.; Palmer, P. I.; Parr-Burman, P.; Vick, A.

    2012-12-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is determined by surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Atmospheric transport errors adversely affect surface fluxes inferred from GHG concentration measurements from surface, airborne or satellite instruments using an inverse model: uncharacterised transport model errors can result in significant bias of surface flux estimates. In the framework of the UK NERC project Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST), we will develop and fly a novel, compact short-wave IR (SWIR) spectrometer for the Global Hawk to collect observations of tropospheric CO2, CO, CH4, H2O columns and the HDO/H2O ratio over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely-resolved measurements of key species. These gases have a range of lifetimes and diverse source processes and their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of vertical and horizontal transport. We will adopt an instrument concept similar to the OCO-2 and GOSAT space-borne missions to maximize science capabilities and to minimize risk. In this paper, we will discuss the GHOST project and its objectives and we will give an overview over the instrument development.

  2. Supporting Greenhouse Gas Management Strategies with Observations and Analysis - Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change challenges facing society in the 21st century require an improved understanding of the global carbon-cycle and of the impacts and feedbacks of past, present, and future emissions of carbon-cycle gases. Global society faces a major challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to virtually zero, most notably those of CO2, while at the same time facing variable and potentially overwhelming Earth System feedbacks. How it goes about this will depend upon the nature of impending international agreements, national laws, regional strategies, and social and economic forces. The challenge to those making observations to support, inform, or verify these reduction efforts, or to address potential Earth System feedbacks, lies in harmonizing a diverse array of observations and observing systems. Doing so is not trivial. Providing coherent, regional-scale information from these observations also requires improved modelling and ensemble reanalysis, but in the end such information must be relevant and reasonably certain. The challenge to us is to ensure a globally coherent observing and analysis system to supply the information that society will need to succeed. Policy-makers, scientists, government agencies, and businesses will need the best information available for decision-making and any observing and analysis system ultimately must be able to provide a coherent story over decades.

  3. Airborne measurements and emission estimates of greenhouse gases and other trace constituents from the 2013 California Yosemite Rim wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Singh, H. B.; Tanaka, T.; Roby, M. C.; Hamill, P.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Contezac, J.; Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Diskin, G. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Choi, Y.; Ryerson, T. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents airborne measurements of multiple atmospheric trace constituents including greenhouse gases (such as CO2, CH4, O3) and biomass burning tracers (such as CO, CH3CN) downwind of an exceptionally large wildfire. In summer 2013, the Rim wildfire, ignited just west of the Yosemite National Park, California, and burned over 250,000 acres of the forest during the 2-month period (17 August to 24 October) before it was extinguished. The Rim wildfire plume was intercepted by flights carried out by the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) on 29 August and the NASA DC-8, as part of SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys), on 26 and 27 August during its intense, primary burning period. AJAX revisited the wildfire on 10 September when the conditions were increasingly smoldering, with slower growth. The more extensive payload of the DC-8 helped to bridge key measurements that were not available as part of AJAX (e. g. CO). Data analyses are presented in terms of emission ratios (ER), emission factors (EF) and combustion efficiency and are compared with previous wildfire studies. ERs were 8.0 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 on 26 August, 6.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 on 29 August and 18.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 on 10 September 2013. The increase in CH4 ER from 6.5 to 8.0 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 during the primary burning period to 18.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 during the fire's slower growth period likely indicates enhanced CH4 emissions from increased smoldering combustion relative to flaming combustion. Given the magnitude of the Rim wildfire, the impacts it had on regional air quality and the limited sampling of wildfire emissions in the western United States to date, this study provides a valuable dataset to support forestry and regional air quality management, including observations of ERs of a wide number of species from the Rim wildfire.

  4. The forcing of anthropogenic aerosols and greenhouse gases on sub-thermocline temperature trends in the southern subtropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, T.; Purich, A.; Cai, W.; Rotstayn, L. D.; England, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the late twentieth century, the sub-thermocline waters of the southern tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean (IO) experienced a sharp cooling. This cooling has been previously attributed to an anthropogenic aerosol-induced strengthening of the global ocean conveyor, which transfers heat from the subtropical gyre latitudes toward the North Atlantic. From the mid-1990s the sub-thermocline IO experienced a rapid temperature trend reversal. In the context of understanding the causes of the sub-thermocline temperature changes, we use a suite of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models forced with natural and anthropogenic radiative forcings and as well as individual forcing runs. We use these to: (i) examine whether the sub-thermocline cooling and/or rapid warming of the tropical/subtropical IO is anthropogenic or naturally forced; and (ii) assess future projections of the sub-thermocline temperatures in the mid twenty-first century from available model output. Results suggest that the late twentieth century sub-thermocline cooling of the southern IO was primarily driven by increasing anthropogenic aerosols and greenhouse gases. The models simulate a slow-down in the sub-thermocline cooling followed by a rapid warming towards the middle of the twenty-first century. The timing of the commencement of this warming appears dependent on the total change in anthropogenic aerosol levels, with models exhibiting a strong (weak) decline in future aerosols simulating a greater (weaker) magnitude of warming after the occurrence of peak aerosols. The role of greenhouse gases in forcing sub-thermocline temperature trends in the IO in the future remains to be determined. Despite this, it is clear is that as human generated aerosols continue to decline over the coming century, the subsurface ocean circulation will respond accordingly through an acceleration in the warming.

  5. The early faint sun paradox: organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Chyba, C.

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of approximately 10(-5 +/- 1) for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing.

  6. The early faint sun paradox: organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases

    PubMed

    Sagan, C; Chyba, C

    1997-05-23

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of approximately 10(-5 +/- 1) for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing. PMID:11536805

  7. The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sagan, C.; Chyba, C.

    1997-05-23

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of {approximately}10{sup -5 {+-}1} for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing. 78 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. On the role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in the expected long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer caused by greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    It is well known that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere produce a global warming of the troposphere and a global cooling of the stratosphere. The expected stratospheric cooling essentially influences the ozone layer via increased polar stratospheric cloud formation and via temperature dependences of the gas phase reaction rates. One more mechanism of how greenhouse gases influences the ozone layer is enhanced water evaporation from the oceans into the atmosphere because of increasing temperatures of the ocean surface due to greenhouse effect. The subject of this paper is a study of the influence of anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds on the expected long-term changes of the ozone layer with taking into account an increase of water vapour content in the atmosphere due to greenhouse effect. The study based on 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the troposphere and stratosphere. The model allows to self-consistently calculating diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of two types. It was supposed in the model that an increase of the ocean surface temperature caused by greenhouse effect is similar to calculated increase of atmospheric surface temperature. Evaporation rate from the ocean surface was computed in dependence of latitude. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2100 using two IPCC scenarios depicting maximum and average expected increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The model calculations show that anthropogenic increasing of water vapour abundance in the atmosphere due to heating of the ocean surface caused by greenhouse effect gives a sensible contribution to the expected ozone changes. The enhanced evaporation from the ocean increases noticeably a water vapour abundance in the stratosphere that decreases global total ozone and retards the expected recovery of the ozone layer. In polar latitudes, additional stratospheric water vapour increase due to greenhouse effect noticeably strengthens the impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on ozone through modification of polar stratospheric clouds and retards the expected recovery of the ozone, too. In the Northern hemisphere, the delay of the ozone recovery is about 5 years, in the Southern hemisphere the delay is about 2 years.

  9. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2015-06-01

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototype network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.

  10. Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisell, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Qur, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are 0.03 per mil and 0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a separate airline and can be switched between inlets that are within 1m of grass lawn at ground level or within 5 m of a large oak tree at canopy level. Flow rates vary between the internal pumps of the CRDS instruments, but within the range 260-300 cc/min when inlet valves are fully opened. Controlling flows below 200 cc/min significantly increases stabilisation time for cylinder gases. Likewise setting outlet pressures for NOAA and target gases at 4 psi and allowing the instrument pumps to control flow speeds up stabilization. Currently the instruments are measuring CO2, CH4 and H2O at 5-second intervals. Precisions (1 SD) of NOAA tanks, based on the final 10 minutes of a 30-minute analysis period are better than 0.03 ppm for CO2 and 0.3 ppb for CH4. Automated inlets and automated data retrieval will be tested during spring, for deployment on the South Atlantic islands later in 2009. Fisher, R., Lowry, D., Wilkin, O., Sriskantharajah S. & Nisbet. E.G. (2006) High-precision, automated stable isotope analysis of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Comm. Mass. Spec. 20, 200-208. Le Qur, C., C. Rdenbeck, E. T. Buitenhuis, T. J. Conway, R. Langenfelds, A. Gomez, C. Labuschagne, M. Ramonet, T. Nakazawa, N. Metzl, N. Gillett, and M. Heimann, Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change, Science, 316, 1735-1738, 2007.

  11. The relative contribution of orbital forcing and greenhouse gases to the North American deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoire, Lauren J.; Valdes, Paul J.; Payne, Antony J.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding what drove Northern Hemisphere ice sheet melt during the last deglaciation (21-7 ka) can help constrain how sensitive contemporary ice sheets are to greenhouse gas (GHGs) changes. The roles of orbital forcing and GHGs in the deglaciation have previously been modeled but not yet quantified. Here for the first time we calculate the relative effect of these forcings on the North American deglaciation by driving a dynamical ice sheet model (GLIMMER-CISM) with a set of unaccelerated transient deglacial simulations with a full primitive equation-based ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (FAMOUS). We find that by 9 ka, orbital forcing has caused 50% of the deglaciation, GHG 30%, and the interaction between the two 20%. Orbital forcing starts affecting the ice volume at 19 ka, 2000 years before CO2 starts increasing in our experiments, a delay which partly controls their relative effect.

  12. The Role of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols in Climate Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.; Wigley, Tom M.; de la Chesnaye, Francisco; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-11-17

    Forcing agents other than carbon dioxide, such as methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and perhaps aerosol particles, may play a major role in mitigating climate change. Of these agents, methane is the most important greenhouse gas and has substantial mitigation potential. The role of black and organic carbon aerosols has attracted increasing interest and we explicitly include these carbonaceous aerosols in our calculations. This paper analyzes the potential role of different forcing agents in reducing future climate forcing in a multi-gas, integrated assessment model in which mitigation options compete and interact. Our framework includes all of the important atmospheric forcing agents: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols along with an array of potential mitigation options. Through an integrated analysis of all available options we present a realistic portrait of the potential role of these forcing agents in limiting future climate change.

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine growers are increasingly supplementing animal diets with dried distillers grains soluble (DDGS) to offset cost of a typical corn-soybean meal diet. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of DDGS diets on both on manure composition and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), ammoni...

  14. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (-560 to -120 kg CO(2)equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (-665 to -125 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (-1.9 to -1.3 tonnes CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to. PMID:19837704

  15. Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Na, U.

    2010-12-01

    It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and significantly higher than those (negative value) during January (winter) when sub soil have low temperature and relatively high moisture due to snow during the winter measurement period. Averages of soil temperature and moisture during these months were 17.5±1.2oC, 45.7±8.2%WFPS for October; and 1.4±1.3oC, 89.9±8.8%WFPS for January. It may indicate that soil temperature and moisture have significant role in determining whether the CO2 and CH4 emission or uptake take place. Low temperature and high moisture above a certain optimum level during winter could weaken microbial activity and the gas diffusion in soil matrix, and then make soil GHG emission to the atmosphere decrease. Other soil parameters were also correlated with GHG emissions and discussed. Both positive and negative gas fluxes in CH4 and CO2 were observed during these measurements, but not for N2O. CH4 and CO2 gases seem to be emitted from soil surface or up taken by the soil depending on other factors such as background concentrations and physicochemical soil conditions. However, still there are many uncertainties and large scarcities in both their determination methods and soil GHG flux data. Improvement of measurement techniques and well-understanding of relationships between gas emission and controlling factors in such environments need to be required.

  16. Observations of halogenated trace gases in Taiwan and Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, Lauren J.; Laube, Johannes C.; Sturges, William T.; Oram, David E.; Wang, Jia-Lin; Ou-Yang, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Mead, Iq; Rigby, Matt; White, Emily

    2015-04-01

    There are a large variety of halocarbons present in the atmosphere that significantly impact on stratospheric ozone depletion and/or global warming. Though the use of some of these compounds has been phased out and replaced under global control measures, relatively long atmospheric lifetimes, imperfect substitutes and incomplete reductions in usage mean that global concentrations of halocarbons still require regular monitoring. This is especially true for the rapidly developing East Asian region, where high emissions have been repeatedly reported in recent years. We here present results from an air sampling activity in Taiwan and Malaysia during the spring months of 2013 and 2014. A large range of halocarbons, including a number of novel gases, were investigated via high sensitivity gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We find periods of relatively clean air as well as episodes that appear to be impacted by urban and/or industrial emissions and examine correlations between individual species. Observed mixing ratios are compared in context with both global background data and other regional studies. Enhancements in the abundances of many halocarbons are detected with examples including the Halons 1211 and 1202 as well as the very long-lived perfluorocarbons c-C4F8, C5F12 and C7F16. We also show and evaluate unusually high mixing ratios of other globally growing halocarbons such as sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl), and CFC-113a (CF3CCl3). Finally, we use NAME analysis to produce back-trajectories in order to assess possible regional emission sources.

  17. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically significant increases in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions for 50% or higher biodiesel blends. The 20% blends of the biodiesels showed no statistically significant effect on NOx emissions on any cycle. In contrast, renewable diesel slightly decreased NOx emissions and the degree of reduction was statistically significant for 50% or higher blends over the UDDS cycle, but not at the 20% blends. The highway cruise cycles did not show a statistically strong NOx emission trend with increasing blend level of renewable diesel. Biodiesel and renewable fuel impacts on two greenhouse gases, CO2 and N2O emissions were of lower magnitude when compared to other regulated pollutants emissions, showing a change in their emissions within approximately ±3% from the CARB ULSD.

  18. Observations of atmospheric trace gases by MAX-DOAS in the coastal boundary layer over Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianxin; Wang, Zhangjun; Meng, Xiangqian; Zhou, Haijin; Du, Libin; Qu, Junle; Chen, Chao; An, Quan; Wu, Chengxuan; Wang, Xiufen

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric trace gases exist in the atmosphere of the earth rarely. But the atmospheric trace gases play an important role in the global atmospheric environment and ecological balance by participating in the global atmospheric cycle. And many environmental problems are caused by the atmospheric trace gases such as photochemical smog, acid rain, greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, etc. So observations of atmospheric trace gases become very important. Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) developed recently is a kind of promising passive remote sensing technology which can utilize scattered sunlight received from multiple viewing directions to derive vertical column density of lower tropospheric trace gases like ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It has advantages of simple structure, stable running, passive remote sensing and real-time online monitoring automatically. A MAX-DOAS has been developed at Shandong Academy of Sciences Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation (SDIOI) for remote measurements of lower tropospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, and O3). In this paper, we mainly introduce the stucture of the instrument, calibration and results. Detailed performance analysis and calibration of the instrument were made at Qingdao. We present the results of NO2, SO2 and O3 vertical column density measured in the coastal boundary layer over Jiaozhou Bay. The diurnal variation and the daily average value comparison of vertical column density during a long-trem observation are presented. The vertical column density of NO2 and SO2 measured during Qingdao oil pipeline explosion on November 22, 2013 by MAX-DOAS is also presented. The vertical column density of NO2 reached to a high value after the explosion. Finally, the following job and the outlook for future possible improvements are given. Experimental calibration and results show that the developed MAX-DOAS system is reliable and credible.

  19. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly revise the estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions for Midwest agroecology.

  20. TREATMENT PERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM AND ITS GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K. Q.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be classified into three typical types: Vertical flow (VF), Free-water Surface (FWS) and Subsurface Flow (SF) CWs according to their structures and directions of water flow. A combined FWS-VF-SFS CW system was designed and built to promote its treatment performance for actual domestic wastewater and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results from the pilot-scale combined system indicated that comparatively good performance for pollutant removal, which was 98.5%, 95.9%, 93.2% and 90.7% for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6-day HRT, respectively. It was also found that the N2O emission was mainly from the VF unit of the system, which accounted for more than 80% of the total emission, whereas N2O emission from the FWS unit was nearly zero. On the other hand, the CH4 emission was not so high as N2O in the combined CW system, which mainly emitted from the FWS and SF units.

  1. Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.

    PubMed

    Schwietzke, Stefan; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-10-01

    Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified. PMID:21866889

  2. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available. PMID:19748950

  3. The seasonal variation of emission of greenhouse gases from a full-scale sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shuhei; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Sano, Itsumi; Li, Yu-You; Nishimura, Osamu

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variety of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions and the main emission source in a sewage treatment plant were investigated. The emission coefficient to treated wastewater was 291gCO2m(-3). The main source of GHGs was CO2 from the consumption of electricity, nitrous oxide from the sludge incineration process, and methane from the water treatment process. They accounted for 43.4%, 41.7% and 8.3% of the total amount of GHGs emissions, respectively. The amount of methane was plotted as a function of water temperature ranging between 13.3 and 27.3C. An aeration tank was the main source of methane emission from all the units. Almost all the methane was emitted from the aeration tank, which accounted for 86.4% of the total gaseous methane emission. However, 18.4% of the methane was produced in sewage lines, 15.4% in the primary sedimentation tank, and 60.0% in the aeration tank. PMID:25439128

  4. Greenhouse gases emissions and energy use of wheat grain-based bioethanol fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Scacchi, C C O; Gonzlez-Garca, S; Caserini, S; Rigamonti, L

    2010-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential energetic and environmental impacts associated with the production of wheat grain-based bioethanol in Lombardia (Italy), with a "seed-to-wheel" approach (i.e. taking into account the production and use phase). Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) were estimated through the CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology counting the CO(2) equivalent emissions, while the energy flow indicator was estimated using the Ecoindicator 95 methodology. The impact of the different phases involved in the production and use of bioethanol have been analysed: the agricultural production of wheat grain, its transformation into bioethanol, the production of gasoline and the use of 5 different blends (from pure gasoline to pure ethanol). The results show that ethanol fuel, used in the form of blends in gasoline, can help reduce energy use and GHGs. In particular, the use of pure ethanol was found to be the best alternative presenting the lowest GHGs (saving about 32% of CO(2)eq emissions in comparison to gasoline) and the minor energy use (63% saving). Differences between low-ethanol blends and gasoline are minimal and dependent on the specific fuel consumption of the vehicle. The sensitivity analysis performed to test the robustness of results through the change of some basic assumptions (specific fuel consumption, N(2)O emissions from agricultural phase, allocation method) shows the sensitivity of GHGs saving to the adopted allocation method. PMID:20692687

  5. Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

    2014-06-01

    Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of -34.9 to -66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as -19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

  6. Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

    2014-01-01

    Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of –34.9 to –66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as –19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

  7. Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation fuel-cyl

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-06-20

    The GREET model estimates the full fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehile technologies applied to motor vehicles. GREET 1.5 includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; corn, woody biomass, andmore » herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and dimethyl ether; and landfill gases to methanol. For a given fuel/transportation technology combination, GREET 1.5 calculates (1) the fuel-cycle consumption of total energy (all energy sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), and petroleum; (2) the fuel-cycle emissions of GHGs -- primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20); and (3) the fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (C0), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur oxides (S0x), and particulate matter with a diameter measuring 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The model is designed to readily allow researchers to input their own assumptions and generate fuel-cycle energy and emission results for specified fuel/technology combinations.« less

  8. Quantified estimates of total GWPs for greenhouse gases taking into account tropospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to give interim account of the progress being made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in developing an improved capability for assessing the direct and indirect effects on Global Warming Potentials. Much of our current efforts are being devoted to improving the capability for modeling of global tropospheric processes in our state-of-the-art zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. These efforts are in preparation for an improved evaluation and better quantification of the indirect GWPs resulting from effects on tropospheric ozone from ethane and other gases with significant human-related emissions. There are three major findings that should result from this project that should have significant impacts on EPA and its programs. First, the current and ongoing studies of the direct and indirect GWPs should have a significant influence on the continuing national and international assessments of climate change. Second, the improved capability for modeling of chemical and physical processes should lead to enhanced understanding of the controlling factors influencing ozone, hydroxyl and other key tropospheric constituents. Third, the enhanced modeling capability should be important to future studies of human-related influences on tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes.

  9. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from freshwater ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Laurion, I.; Preskienis, V.; Fortier, D.; Xu, X.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local specific conditions rather than general environmental setting. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems on Bylot Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes overlying unfrozen soils (talik). The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, one or two orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (<550 yr BP) GHG, even if trough ponds could contain much older carbon (>2000 yr BP) derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP) sampled from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on the variable role of permafrost aquatic systems as a positive feedback mechanism on climate.

  10. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  11. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60- 1600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming. PMID:19748943

  12. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gases emissions in constructed wetlands: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, M. M. R.; Fenton, O.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Richards, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and does not alone explain if the removed species are reduced by physical attenuation or if they are transformed to other reactive forms (pollution swapping). There are many pathways for the removed N to remain in the system: accumulation in the sediments, leaching to groundwater (nitrate-NO3- and ammonium-NH4+), emission to atmosphere via nitrous oxide- N2O and ammonia and/or conversion to N2 gas and adsorption to sediments. The kinetics of these pathways/processes varies with CWs management and therefore needs to be studied quantitatively for the sustainable use of CWs. For example, the quality of groundwater underlying CWs with regards to the reactive N (Nr) species is largely unknown. Equally, there is a dearth of information on the extent of Nr accumulation in soils and discharge to surface waters and air. Moreover, CWs are rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and produce substantial amounts of CO2 and CH4. These dissolved carbon (C) species drain out to ground and surface waters and emit to the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved N2O, CO2 and CH4 in CWs is a key "missing piece" in our understanding of global greenhouse gas budgets. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge and discussion about the dynamics of C and N in CWs and their likely impacts on aquatic and atmospheric environments. We suggest that the fate of various N species in CWs and their surface emissions and subsurface drainage fluxes need to be evaluated in a holistic way to better understand their potential for pollution swapping. Research on the process based N removal and balancing the end products into reactive and benign forms are critical to assess environmental impacts of CWs. Thus we strongly suggest that in situ N transformation and fate of the transformation products with regards to pollution swapping requires further detailed examination.

  13. Greenhouse gases in non-oxygenated and artificially oxygenated eutrophied lakes during winter stratification.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, J T; Hammar, T; Alm, J; Silvola, J; Martikainen, P J

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in the water columns of non-oxygenated and artificially oxygenated, ice-covered eutrophied lakes in the mid-boreal zone in Finland during late winter 1997 and 1999. Sampling was conducted during winter stratification, the critical period for oxygen (O2) deficiency in seasonally ice-covered, thermally stratified lakes. Oxygen concentrations were maintained at least at a moderate level throughout the oxygenated water columns, whereas the non-oxygenated columns suffered anoxic hypolimnia. The mean concentrations of dissolved CH4 exceeding the atmospheric equilibrium were greater in the non-oxygenated water columns (20.6-154 microM) than in the oxygenated ones (0.01-1.41 microM). In contrast, the mean excess CO2 concentrations varied less between the non-oxygenated and oxygenated sites (0.28-0.47 and 0.25-0.31 mM, respectively). Oxygenated water columns had greater mean excess concentrations of N2O (0.018-0.032 microM) than the non-oxygenated ones (0.005-0.024 microM). If the accumulated greenhouse gas stores in the water columns during winter are assumed to be released to the atmosphere during the spring overturn, the global warming potentials (GWP, time horizon 100 yr) of these potential emissions at the non-oxygenated, eutrophic study sites ranged from 177 to 654 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-e) m-2 compared with 144 to 173 g CO2-e m-2 at the oxygenated sites. The increase in the accumulation of CH4 was the main reason for the higher GWP of the non-oxygenated sites. Anthropogenic eutrophication of lake ecosystems can generate increased CH4 emissions due to associated O2 depletion of their sediment and water column. PMID:11285898

  14. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the tropical hydroelectric reservoir of Petit Saut (French Guiana) compared with emissions from thermal alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmas, Robert; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Richard, Sandrine

    2001-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CH4 and CO2, resulting from decomposition of flooded organic matter from the hydroelectric reservoir of Petit Saut in the tropical rain forest of French Guiana have been monitored since reservoir impoundment in January 1994. This data set along with complementary data taken from older reservoirs in forested regions of the southern Ivory Coast provides an estimate of long-term GHG emission trends from a tropical reservoir. The trends are used to calculate the contribution of this reservoir to global warming on a 100 year timescale, assumed to be consistent with the life cycle of the reservoir. Calculations are based on the concept of global warming potential (GWP). Natural emission of greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) from soils of the reservoir before impoundment is estimated through field measurements and literature data. Then net GHG emissions from the reservoir on a 100 hundred year timescale (30 million tons of equivalent CO2, with an uncertainty range of 7-54 Mt CO2eq) are compared with predicted emissions from thermal power plants of equivalent power (115 MW). The final comparison takes into account the actual energy production of the dam power station at only 50% of the installed capacity. Emission from this reservoir, whose power density is low (0.315 MW km-2 flooded), would be similar to emissions from a gas power plant (33 Mt CO2eq) producing the same energy amount and less than emissions from other thermal alternatives, among which the most polluting are coal plants. Such a result, however, strongly depends on the choice of the integration time.

  15. Quantifying the Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases: What Does It Take to Satisfy Scientific and Decision-Making Needs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Keller, K.; Ogle, S. M.; Smith, S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are key drivers of anthropogenic climate change. It is hence not surprising that current and emerging U.S. governmental science priorities and programs focused on climate change (e.g. a U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan; the U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Executive Order 13653 'Preparing the U.S. for the Impacts of Climate Change') all call for an improved understanding of these sources and sinks.. Measurements of the total atmospheric burden of these gases are well established, but measurements of their sources and sinks are difficult to make over spatial and temporal scales that are relevant for scientific and decisionmaking needs. Quantifying the uncertainty in these measurements is particularly challenging. This talk reviews the intersection of the state of knowledge of GHG sources and sinks, focusing in particular on CO2 and CH4, and science and decision-making needs for this information. Different science and decision-making needs require differing levels of uncertainty. A number of high-priority needs (early detection of changes in the Earth system, projections of future climate, support of markets or regulations) often require a high degree of accuracy and/or precision. We will critically evaluate current U.S. planning to documents to infer current perceived needs for GHG source/sink quantification, attempting to translate these needs into quantitative uncertainty metrics. We will compare these perceived needs with the current state of the art of GHG source/sink quantification, including the apparent pattern of systematic differences between so-called "top down" and "bottom-up" flux estimates. This comparison will enable us to identify where needs can be readily satisfied, and where gaps in technology exist. Finally, we will examine what steps could be taken to close existing gaps.

  16. Why the developing nations like India need strong capacity building efforts in greenhouse gases mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishal, V.; Sudhakaran, A.; Singh, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Today, India rubs shoulders with nations like USA and China for being the major shareholders in global greenhouse emissions and has more emissions than Russia! Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) has been proven as a reliable method to counter global warming and keep the 2C per year policy in check and is currently in the pilot stage in many developed nations. The three major requirements for CCUS are: manpower in diverse fields, implementation potential and capital. Keeping other social problems aside, India still has sufficient mankind in all spheres of research ranging from earth science, engineering, basic sciences, economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. to successfully work on such challenges. India has leading academic institutions, research labs and universities in science and engineering. They also have a working power force in aspects like economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. in various management institutes of repute. India, however, lacks in sufficient funding for advanced research and capacity building schemes to support projects of such scale. Deployment of facts and concepts on climate change need an approach of much greater scope than what is anticipated. The above workforces can put forth a clear picture about the various entities surrounding CCUS and provide sensible planning and implementation information through scientific research. CCUS is only possible when the direct anthropogenic emitters like fossil fuel plants modify their features to incorporate the methods associated with it. The rural population has to be educated in context to the safety of the storage sites. Above all, the Indian government must holistically divert funds for such programs and provide economic incentives to the industries for the industries. The bottom line is that India has been working in lots of aspects with not very clear cuts objectives. There are CO2 capture technologies like amine scrubbing and membrane separation that is available and immense storage potential is also seen in the Gondwana coal fields and basalt rocks of the Deccan plateau. For successful working of such ideas, the confidence of a big section of public comprising of academicians, researchers, industrialists, sustainable energy workers, politicians etc. is required apart from the key workforce.

  17. Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

    2014-09-15

    In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3 days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system. PMID:24954560

  18. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  19. Low-power, open-path mobile sensing platform for high-resolution measurements of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Lei; Sun, Kang; Miller, David J.; Pan, Dan; Golston, Levi M.; Zondlo, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    A low-power mobile sensing platform has been developed with multiple open-path gas sensors to measure the ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases and air pollutants with high temporal and spatial resolutions over extensive spatial domains. The sensing system consists of four trace gas sensors including two custom quantum cascade laser-based open-path sensors and two LICOR open-path sensors to measure CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, and H2O mixing ratios simultaneously at 10 Hz. In addition, sensors for meteorological and geolocation data are incorporated into the system. The system is powered by car batteries with a low total power consumption (~200 W) and is easily transportable due to its low total mass (35 kg). Multiple measures have been taken to ensure robust performance of the custom, open-path sensors located on top of the vehicle where the optics are exposed to the harsh on-road environment. The mobile sensing system has been integrated and installed on top of common passenger vehicles and participated in extensive field campaigns (>400 h on-road time with >18,000 km total distance) in both the USA and China. The simultaneous detection of multiple trace gas species makes the mobile sensing platform a unique and powerful tool to identify and quantify different emission sources through mobile mapping.

  20. Attribution of Ozone Changes in the Near Future: Nonlinear Feedbacks between Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meul, Stefanie; Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    In the first half of the 21st century the stratospheric burden of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) is predicted to decrease due to the regulations in the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Concomitantly, the concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to rise. As the removal of the ODSs from the stratosphere is also affected by changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation, the decrease of halogens will also depend on the rate of the GHG increase. Furthermore, the increasing concentrations of the GHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can modify the halogen-ozone chemistry. Therefore, a non-linear contribution has to be included in the attribution analysis of the ozone changes to ODS and GHG changes. In this study we detect and analyze this non-linear term in a set of appropriately defined timeslice simulations for the year 2045 with the Chemistry-Climate-Model EMAC. The causal processes of the non-linear interactions are studied in more detail by separating the relative ozone changes in the contribution from chemistry (production and loss) and transport. This allows us to identify not only feedbacks between chemistry and temperature but also between chemistry and dynamics, i.e. ozone transport.

  1. An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in Taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.

    PubMed

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2014-03-01

    Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

  2. An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A.; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

  3. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. PMID:20560308

  4. Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ΔCH4 / ΔCO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ΔCH4 / ΔCO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence the ambient levels of CH4 locally. ΔCH4 / ΔCO2 ratios during peak traffic hours are 40 to 50 times higher than FTP vehicle dynamometer tests confirming the presence and dominance of non-vehicular CH4 emissions sources. ΔN2O /ΔCO2 ratios during morning commute hours ( NW winds) are similar to fleet emissions ratios from literature. CH4 correlates moderately with C3-C6 straight chain alkanes (also found in raw natural gas). The correlation slopes are similar to those measured downwind from Wattenberg oil field in Colorado and obtained natural gas samples (Petron et al., 2010) suggesting fugitive emissions is a likely source. CH4 or the C3-C6 alkanes do not correlate with any of the gasoline or diesel fuel specific tracers (isooctane and toluene) confirming vehicular combustion is not a major source of CH4. Partial analysis of ethanethiol (CH3-CH2-SH) which is a natural gas odorant indicates strong correlation with CH4. CH4 correlates fairly well with acetone that is also emitted from dairies. Further analysis of VOC measurements and meteorological data will lead to better source attribution and emission factors that will be compared to previously reported data from ground measurements and inventory calculations.

  5. Laser-based sensors on UAVs for quantifying local emissions of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zondlo, Mark; Tao, Lei; O'Brien, Anthony; Ross, Kevin; Khan, Amir; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; DiGangi, Josh

    2015-04-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide an ideal platform to sample both locally near an emission source as well as within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, small UAS (those with wingspans or rotors on the order of a meter) place severe constraints on sensor size (~ liter volume), mass (~ kg), and power (10s W). Laser-based sensors employing absorption techniques are ideally suited for such platforms due to their high sensitivity, high selectivity, and compact footprint. We have developed and flown compact sensors for water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane using new advances in open-path, laser-based spectroscopy on a variety of platforms ranging from remote control helicopters to long-duration UAS. Open-path spectroscopy allows for high frequency sampling (10-25 Hz) while avoiding the size/mass/power of sample delays, inlet lines, and pumps. To address the challenges of in-flight stability in changing environmental conditions and any associated flight artifacts on the measurement itself (e.g. vibrations), we use an in-line reference cell at a reduced pressure (10 hPa) to account for systematic drift continuously while in flight. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy is used at different harmonics to isolate the narrow linewidth of the in-line reference signal from the ambient, pressure-broadened absorption lineshape of the trace gas of interest. As a result, a metric of in-flight performance is achieved in real-time on the same optical pathlength as the ambient signal. To demonstrate the great potential of laser-based sensors on UAS, we deployed a 1.65 micron-based methane sensor (4 kg, 50 W, 100 ppbv precision at 10 Hz) on a UT-Dallas remote control aircraft for two weeks around gas/oil extraction activities as part of the EDF Barnett Coordinated Campaign in October 2013. We conducted thirty-four flights around a compressor station to examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of its emissions. Leaks of methane were typically lofted to altitudes well above the surface (up to 100 m). In addition, plumes were very narrow horizontally (10-30 m width) within 200 m of the emission origin. By using a mass balance approach of upwind versus downwind CH4 concentrations, coupled to meteorological wind data, the CH4 emission rate from the compressor station averaged 13 ± 5 g CH4 s-1, consistent with individual, leak surveys measured within the compressor station itself. More recently, we developed a mid-infrared version of the same sensor using an antimonide laser at 3.3 microns. This sensor has a precision of 2 ppbv CH4 at 10 Hz, a mass of 1.3 kg, and consumes 10 W of power. Flight tests show the improved precision is capable of detecting methane leaks from landfills and cattle feedlots at higher altitudes (500 m) and greater distances downwind (several km) than the near infrared CH4 sensor. Sampling strategy is particularly important for not only UAS-based flight patterns but also sensor design. Many tradeoffs exist between the sampling density of the flight pattern, sensor precision, accuracy of wind data, and geographic isolation of the source of interest, and these will be discussed in the context of airborne-based CH4 measurements in the field. The development of compact yet robust trace gas sensors to be deployed on small UAS opens new capabilities for atmospheric sensing such as quantifying local source emissions (e.g. farms, well pads), vertical profiling of trace gases in a forest canopy, and trace gas distributions in complex areas (mountains, urban canyons).

  6. High Resolution Simulation of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases Variability with a Largangian Particle Dispersion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Y.; Maksyutov, S.; Tohjima, Y.; Mukai, H.; Machida, T.

    2007-12-01

    Our study focuses on evaluating the merit of using the Lagrangian particle dispersion models for resolving the atmospheric composition variability at time scale of several hours and spatial scales of tenth of kilometers, which is necessary in analysis of continuous ground based monitoring and upcoming space based observation data. Using LPDM is an attractive way to increase the horizontal resolution of fluxes, and has been tested on atmospheric chemistry studies. The backward plume transport approach is more efficient for precalculation of transport matrixes for limited number of observations. Once backward plume transport is calculated, one can carry out forward calculation for any neutral tracer. As part of the effort, we simulate daytime CO2 concentration variations with FLEXPART model at five West-Siberian stations for year 2005 and 3-hourly CO2 and CH4 concentration variations at Hateruma, Japan, from year 2000 to year 2006. Concentration variations calculated by FLEXPART are compared with those calculated by NIES global atmospheric tracer transport model, and with observations. In West-Siberia, seasonal CO2 variations are reproduced in both model results, but FLEXPART shows better agreement with observations than NIES model at synoptic scale, especially in autumn to spring period, when the PBL height is shallower. However, several peaks in observations are not reproduced by both models. Summer time simulations show good resemblance between both models and observations, with LPDM showing better time resolution. In simulation of Hateruma data, we focus attention on CO2 and CH4 concentration variations during winter (late December to early April). Contrary to simulations over Siberia in summer, the observed short-term (synoptic scale) CO2/CH4 concentrations variations appear much stronger in observation than in the NIES model simulation. On the other hand synoptic scale variations of CO2 and CH4 are fairly well reproduced in LPDM simulation, while still there are numerous problems with timing and amplitude of spikes. Nevertheless the results demonstrated feasibility of using LPDM for analyzing continuous observations and showed advantage over using the Eulerian-type models.

  7. Observations of seasonal variations in atmospheric greenhouse trapping and its enhancement at high sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallberg, Robert; Inamdar, Anand K.

    1993-01-01

    Greenhouse trapping is examined theoretically using a version of the radiative transfer equations that demonstrates how atmospheric greenhouse trapping can vary. Satellite observations of atmospheric greenhouse trapping are examined for four months representing the various seasons. The cause of the super greenhouse effect at the highest SSTs is examined, and four processes are found to contribute. The middle and upper troposphere must be particularly moist and the temperature lapse rate must be increasingly unstable over the warmest regions to explain the observed distribution of atmospheric greenhouse trapping. Since the highest SSTs are generally associated with deep convection, this suggests that deep convection acts to moisten the middle and upper troposphere in regions of the highest SSTs relative to other regions. The tropical atmospheric circulation acts to both increase the temperature lapse rate and greatly increase the atmospheric water vapor concentration with spatially increasing SST.

  8. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2014-12-23

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototypemore » network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.« less

  9. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2015-06-16

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototypemore » network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.« less

  10. AIRS: Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa T.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Atlas, Robert; Barnet, Christopher; Blaisdell, John; Chen, Luke; Divakarla, Murty; Fetzer, Eric J.; Goldberg, Mitch; Gautier, Catherine; Granger, Stephanie; Hannon, Scott; Irion, Fredrick W; Kakar, Ramesh; Kalnay, Eugenia; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Marshall, John Le; McMillan, W. Wallace; McMillin, Larry; Olsen, Edward T.; Revercomb, Henry; Rosenkranz, Philip; Smith, William L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of AIRS and examines how it is meeting its operational and research objectives based on the experience of more than 2 yr with AIRS data. We describe the science background and the performance of AIRS in terms of the accuracy and stability of its observed spectral radiances. We examine the validation of the retrieved temperature and water vapor profiles against collocated operational radiosondes, and then we assess the impact thereof on numerical weather forecasting of the assimilation of the AIRS spectra and the retrieved temperature. We close the paper with a discussion on the retrieval of several minor tropospheric constituents from AIRS spectra.

  11. Regional air pollution brightening reverses the greenhouse gases induced warming-elevation relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhenzhong; Chen, Anping; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Yue; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Vautard, Robert; Zhou, Liming; Yang, Hui; Huang, Mengtian; Piao, Shilong

    2015-06-01

    Mountain waters, glaciers, hazards, and biodiversity are vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. Warming is projected to amplify over mountains by global climate models, yet meteorological records do not show a uniform acceleration of warming with elevation. Here we explore warming-elevation relationships using records from 2660 meteorological stations and determine that the vertical gradient of warming rate varies with location. The warming is faster at higher altitudes in Asia and western North America, but the opposite is observed over Central Europe and eastern North America which have received more short-wave radiation (brightening) associated with a decrease of aerosols and clouds since the 1980s. We found that altitudinal differences in air pollution (brightening), with observations showing more short-wave radiation received at low altitudes than at mountains, modulate the warming-elevation relationships. The advance in understanding of the drivers of regional climate change will contribute to the formulation of strategies for climate change mitigation at high elevations.

  12. Emission of greenhouse gases from geographically isolated wetlands of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatskaya, E.; Dyukarev, E.; Veretennikova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are integral components of landscapes with specific nutrient dynamics and carbon sequestration potentials, which frequently differ, based on hydroperiod and seasonal hydropattern, as well as the constituent concentration of inputs, site-specific storages and vegetation structures. Human modifications have the potential to significantly alter controls on carbon dynamics. This study focused on determining carbon emissions (CO2 and CH4) from geographically isolated peatlands within the Ob-Tom River Interfluve area of Western Siberia affected by water diversion for municipal use by the city of Tomsk, Russia. Two oligotrophic wetlands within the study area were selected for site-specific CO2 studies, the Timiryazevskoe (16 ha) and Kirsanovskoe wetlands (29 ha), both affected by the Tomsk water intake (177 water wells 250 000 m3 water daily). Measurements of СО2 and CH4 emissions from peat surfaces were carried out bi-monthly in growing periods from 2008-2013 in two dominate vegetation zones, pine- shrub-sphagnum phytocenosis (ryam) and sedge-sphagnum fens. СО2 emissions were measured using OPTOGAS-500.4 infrared gas analyzer and dark chamber. Methane emissions were measured using static chamber method. Air samples were collected by syringes and analyzed at gas chromatograph Shimadzu-GC14B. Observations were accompanied by measurement of air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, peat temperature at various depths and the water table level. CО2 emission over the vegetative growing period had clearly pronounced seasonal dynamics with maximum values in the middle of the growing season (mid-July) and minimum values in spring and autumn. The average total flux over the studied period is 123±55 gС/m2 at sedge-sphagnum fen of Kirsanovskoe wetland and 323±66 gС/m2 at fen of Timiryazevskoe wetland. Total СО2 flux for the snow-free period at ryam sites of Timiryazevskoe and Kirsanovskoe wetlands is 238±84 and 260±47 gС/m2 accordingly. Methane emission from the surface of isolated wetlands for the snow-free period varies from 0.3±1.1 to 2.9±2.3 gC/m2 on ryam sites of Kirsanovskoe and Timiryazevskoe wetlands respectively. The total CH4 flux on sedge-sphagnum fen varies from 2.5±3.0 at Kirsanovskoe wetlands to 31.6±26.3 gC/m2 at Timiryazevskoe wetland.

  13. Non-linear response of South-WPWP SST to greenhouse gases forcing changes during the past 360,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, L.; Chang, S.; Wei, K.; Lee, S.; Chen, Y.; Chuang, C.; Mii, H.; Burr, G. S.; Chen, M.; Tung, Y.; Shen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical Pacific temperature plays a pivotal role in heat and moisture budget in the Earth's climate systems; its responds to greenhouse forcing is a key question in global warming research. Here we present a 360,000 years (0-360 kyrs) sea surface temperature (SST) record from the western equatorial Pacific to demonstrate the non-linear responses and threshold behavior to greenhouse gases level over the past four deglaciations. The SSTs rose drastically when equivalent CO2 (pCO2eqv.) exceeded a threshold value at 220 × 10 ppmv and lead to ultimate termination of glacial states. We speculate that the southern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) has responded as an non-linear amplifier to both of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water formation and greenhouse gases concentration and sequentially accelerated a series of positive feedback processes in the climate system to deliver the Earth from glacial to full interglacial condition once the atmospheric CO2 concentration passes the critical thresholds. The non-linearity in the relationship between South-WPWP SST and greenhouse gas concentration is a key feature shown by the past tropical climate changes related to the Southern Hemisphere. Such non-linearity and its mechanism should be bear in mind when we deal with future global warming.

  14. Spatial variations in immediate greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions and resulting radiative forcing from wildfires in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Li, Shuang; Liu, Shuguang

    2016-02-01

    Boreal fires can cool the climate; however, this conclusion came from individual fires and may not represent the whole story. We hypothesize that the climatic impact of boreal fires depends on local landscape heterogeneity such as burn severity, prefire vegetation type, and soil properties. To test this hypothesis, spatially explicit emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and their resulting radiative forcing are required as an important and necessary component towards a full assessment. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (Landsat and MODIS) and models (carbon consumption model, emission factors model, and radiative forcing model) to calculate the carbon consumption, GHGs and aerosol emissions, and their radiative forcing of 2001-2010 fires at 30 m resolution in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska. Total carbon consumption showed significant spatial variation, with a mean of 2,615 g C m-2 and a standard deviation of 2,589 g C m-2. The carbon consumption led to different amounts of GHGs and aerosol emissions, ranging from 593.26 Tg (CO2) to 0.16 Tg (N2O). When converted to equivalent CO2 based on global warming potential metric, the maximum 20 years equivalent CO2 was black carbon (713.77 Tg), and the lowest 20 years equivalent CO2 was organic carbon (-583.13 Tg). The resulting radiative forcing also showed significant spatial variation: CO2, CH4, and N2O can cause a 20-year mean radiative forcing of 7.41 W m-2 with a standard deviation of 2.87 W m-2. This emission forcing heterogeneity indicates that different boreal fires have different climatic impacts. When considering the spatial variation of other forcings, such as surface shortwave forcing, we may conclude that some boreal fires, especially boreal deciduous fires, can warm the climate.

  15. An extensive study of O(1D) reaction rate coefficients for key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Baasandorj, M.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is their gas-phase reaction with electronically excited oxygen atoms, O(1D). Although numerous O(1D) reactions have been studied in the past, large uncertainties in the recommended rate coefficients and reactive yields, i.e., loss of ODS or GHG, for use in atmospheric modeling still exist for a number of key compounds. Our understanding of the coupling of atmospheric chemistry and climate-change requires the most accurate reaction rate coefficient data to be used in climate-change model calculations. In this presentation, results from an extensive laboratory study of the total reaction rate coefficient, corresponding to loss of O(1D), and reactive rate coefficients, corresponding to the loss of the reactant compound, will be presented for the ODSs: CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115), HClCF2 (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); GHGs: CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CF3CHCF3 (HFC-227ea), and CF3CH3 (HFC-143a); and the persistent (long-lived) GHGs: NF3, SF5CF3, C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14. The results from this work will be compared with results from previous studies and discrepancies discussed along with the atmospheric implications of the improved kinetic dataset on the atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds.

  16. Spatial variations in immediate greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions and resulting radiative forcing from wildfires in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Li, Shuang; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Boreal fires can cool the climate; however, this conclusion came from individual fires and may not represent the whole story. We hypothesize that the climatic impact of boreal fires depends on local landscape heterogeneity such as burn severity, prefire vegetation type, and soil properties. To test this hypothesis, spatially explicit emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and their resulting radiative forcing are required as an important and necessary component towards a full assessment. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (Landsat and MODIS) and models (carbon consumption model, emission factors model, and radiative forcing model) to calculate the carbon consumption, GHGs and aerosol emissions, and their radiative forcing of 2001-2010 fires at 30 m resolution in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska. Total carbon consumption showed significant spatial variation, with a mean of 2,615 g C m-2 and a standard deviation of 2,589 g C m-2. The carbon consumption led to different amounts of GHGs and aerosol emissions, ranging from 593.26 Tg (CO2) to 0.16 Tg (N2O). When converted to equivalent CO2 based on global warming potential metric, the maximum 20 years equivalent CO2 was black carbon (713.77 Tg), and the lowest 20 years equivalent CO2 was organic carbon (-583.13 Tg). The resulting radiative forcing also showed significant spatial variation: CO2, CH4, and N2O can cause a 20-year mean radiative forcing of 7.41 W m-2 with a standard deviation of 2.87 W m-2. This emission forcing heterogeneity indicates that different boreal fires have different climatic impacts. When considering the spatial variation of other forcings, such as surface shortwave forcing, we may conclude that some boreal fires, especially boreal deciduous fires, can warm the climate.

  17. The effect of land-use change on the net exchange rates of greenhouse gases: a meta-analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-G.; Kirschbaum, M. U. F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the environmental impacts of land-use change (LUC) is a change in the net exchange of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we summarize findings based on a new global database containing data sets of changes in soil organic carbon stocks and soil CH4 and N2O fluxes. We combine that with estimates of biomass carbon stock changes and enteric CH4 emissions following LUC. Data were expressed in common units by converting net CH4 and N2O fluxes to CO2 equivalents (CO2 eq) using established global warming potentials, and carbon-stock changes were converted to annual net fluxes by averaging stock changes over 100 yr. Conversion from natural forest to cropland resulted in the greatest increase in net GHG fluxes, while conversion of cropland to secondary forest resulted in the greatest reduction in net GHG emissions. Specifically, LUC from natural forest to crop and grasslands led to net fluxes of 6.2 1.6 (Mean 95% confidence intervals) and 4.8 1.6 t CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1 to the atmosphere, respectively. Conversely, conversion from crop and grasslands to secondary forest reduced net emissions by 6.1 4.1 and 3.9 1.2 t CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Land-use change impacts were generally dominated by changes in biomass carbon. A retrospective analysis indicated that LUC from natural forests to agricultural lands contributed a cumulative 1326 449 Gt CO2 eq between 1765 and 2005, which is equivalent to average emissions of 5.5 1.6 Gt CO2 eq yr-1. This study demonstrates how specific LUCs can positively or negatively affect net GHG fluxes to the atmosphere.

  18. Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. Methods In this paper the EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management methods comprised in seven scenarios. Results The amount of GHG which was generated from Iran’s waste sector estimated about 17836079 Metric Tons of Carbon dioxide Equivalents (MT CO2e) in this study. The lowest amount of GHG was generated by LFG capture system with energy recovery (557635 MT CO2e), while Incineration of materials being sent to landfill (1756823 MT CO2e), Landfill Gas (LFG) capture system with flaring (2929150 MT CO2e) and Improved source reduction and recycling (4780278 MT CO2e) emitted fewer GHG than the other scenarios. Lowest levels of gross energy consumption occur in source reduction with recycling and composting (-89356240 Mega British Thermal Unit, M BTU), recycling and composting (-86772060 M BTU) as well as Improved source reduction with recycling and composting (-54794888 M BTU). Conclusions It appears that recycling and composting each offer significant GHG emissions and energy consumption reductions (scenarios 4, 5 and 6). Upon of the GHG emission and energy consumption results concluded that improved source reduction and recycling scenario has been the Balanced and appropriate technology for handling the solid waste streams in municipalities. PMID:24910776

  19. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Fine Particles (PM2.5) from Wildland Fires in the United States from 2003 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Larkin, N. K.; Raffuse, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Wildland fires not only affect adjacent communities, but also produce smoke that can travel long distances and significantly impact downwind communities, alter weather patterns, and contribute to global climate change. As air quality standards have tightened, smoke from wildland fires has faced greater scrutiny from the air quality management community. Wildland fire emissions in the United States from 2003 to 2011 were estimated using the SmartFire2 system and the BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. Based on various sources of observational fire activity data, including ground-based incident reports and satellite-derived fire perimeters, fire information was reconciled and passed through a chain of models that estimate fuel loading, fuel consumption, and smoke emissions. While the spatial and temporal distributions of prescribed fires follow a stable pattern, wildfires are difficult to predict and their effects vary greatly from fire to fire. We analyzed the area burned and the emissions of select greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) and fine particles (PM2.5) from the model outputs to characterize long-term temporal and spatial variations. We will present these results, discuss factors that cause variability and uncertainty, and make comparisons to typical global modeling methods.

  20. Atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova, Czech Republic - a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Sedlák, P.; Schwarz, J.; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, V.; Vodička, P.; Trusina, J.

    2015-05-01

    Long-lasting research infrastructures covering the research areas of atmospheric chemistry, meteorology and climatology are of highest importance. The Atmospheric Station (AS) Křešín u Pacova, central Czech Republic, is focused on monitoring of the occurence and long-range transport of greenhouse gases, atmospheric aerosols, selected gaseous atmospheric pollutants and basic meteorological characteristics. The AS and its 250 m tall tower was built according to the recommendations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) and cooperates with numerous national and international projects and monitoring programmes. First measurements conducted at ground started in 2012, vertical profile measurements were added in 2013. A seasonal variability with slightly higher autumn and winter concentrations of elemental and organic carbon was revealed. The suitability of the doubly left-censored Weibull distribution for modelling and interpretation of elemental carbon concentrations, which are often lower than instrumental quantification limits, was verified. Initial data analysis also suggests that in summer, the tower top at 250 m is frequently above the nocturnal surface inversions, thus being decoupled from local influences.

  1. Attribution of Regional and Global Climate Change: Relative Effects of Fossil-Fuel Soot, Methane, Other Greenhouse Gases and Particles, and Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2006-12-01

    Black carbon, the main component of fossil-fuel soot (FFS), warms the air first by absorbing sunlight. Its absorption is enhanced by optical focusing when it becomes coated during vapor condensation or aerosol- aerosol coagulation, when it enters cloud drops or ice crystals during nucleation scavenging or aerosol- hydrometeor coagulation, and when it is surrounded by sea ice or snow following its precipitation or dry deposition. Its absorption over snow, sea ice, desert, fog, and cloud surfaces is further enhanced by the high reflectivity of these surfaces, which increases the number of photons hitting a soot particle. Although soot has a short lifetime, the air that it warms persists to larger scales. Soot's effective lifetime is also extended when it deposits to snow and sea ice. Since the organic material emitted with FFS is mostly hydrophobic, soot's effects on cloud activation are delayed thus weaker than sulfate's effects. Here new results for the climate response of fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, organic matter, sulfate), accounting for the factors listed above and for size resolution of aerosol particles and clouds and the aging of soot through the treatment of two size distributions, are presented. The results are compared with the climate responses of all anthropogenic aerosol particles, anthropogenic methane, all anthropogenic greenhouse gases, all anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosol particles, and urbanization. Fossil-fuel sources of black carbon treated include land-based, shipping, and aircraft. The study finds that fossil-fuel soot appears to have a stronger effect on global near- surface temperatures than either methane or urbanization, thus it may be the second-leading cause of historic near-surface global warming after carbon dioxide. Methane is found to have a stronger effect on near-surface temperatures than urbanization. FFS exacerbates warming due to greenhouse gases in Russia and over the Arctic sea ice. FFS causes little regional cooling in contrast to all aerosol particles, which, on their own, cause strong cooling in the southeast U.S., Europe, and China. The combination of all anthropogenic aerosol particles and greenhouse gases explains much of the difference between current and historic regional temperatures on a global scale. Whereas methane and other greenhouse gases cool the stratosphere, neither FFS nor urbanization do so significantly. The results here apply only to fossil-fuel soot. Biomass-burning particles, which contain black carbon, have a different composition from FFS and a different climate effect.

  2. Dissolved greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and methane) associated with the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS 2 cruise) in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faras, L.; Florez-Leiva, L.; Besoain, V.; Sarthou, G.; Fernndez, C.

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), were measured in the Kerguelen Plateau region (KPR). The KPR is affected by an annual microalgal bloom caused by natural iron fertilization, and this may stimulate the microbes involved in GHG cycling. This study was carried out during the KEOPS 2 cruise during the austral spring of 2011. Oceanographic variables, including N2O and CH4, were sampled (from the surface to 500 m depth) in two transects along and across the KRP, the north-south (TNS) transect (46-51 S, ~ 72 E) and the east-west (TEW) transect (66-75 E, ~ 48.3 S), both associated with the presence of a plateau, polar front (PF) and other mesoscale features. The TEW presented N2O levels ranging from equilibrium (105%) to slightly supersaturated (120%) with respect to the atmosphere, whereas CH4 levels fluctuated dramatically, being highly supersaturated (120-970%) in areas close to the coastal waters of the Kerguelen Islands and in the PF. The TNS showed a more homogenous distribution for both gases, with N2O and CH4 levels ranging from 88 to 171% and 45 to 666% saturation, respectively. Surface CH4 peaked at southeastern stations of the KPR (A3 stations), where a phytoplankton bloom was observed. Both gases responded significantly, but in contrasting ways (CH4 accumulation and N2O depletion), to the patchy distribution of chlorophyll a. This seems to be associated to the supply of iron from various sources. Air-sea fluxes for N2O (from -10.5 to 8.65, mean 1.25 4.04 ?mol m-2 d-1) and for CH4 (from 0.32 to 38.1, mean 10.01 9.97 ?mol-2 d-1) indicated that the KPR is both a sink and a source for N2O, as well as a considerable and variable source of CH4. This appears to be associated with biological factors, as well as the transport of water masses enriched with Fe and CH4 from the coastal area of the Kerguelen Islands. These previously unreported results for the Southern Ocean suggest an intense microbial CH4 production in the study area.

  3. Dissolved greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and methane) associated with the natural iron-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS 2 cruise) in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faras, L.; Florez-Leiva, L.; Besoain, V.; Fernndez, C.

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) were measured in the Kerguelen Plateau Region (KPR), an area with annual microalgal bloom caused by natural Fe fertilization, which may stimulate microbes involved in GHG cycling. This study was carried out during the KEOPS 2 cruise during the austral spring of 2011. Two transects were sampled along and across the KRP, the north-south (N-S) transect (46-51 S, 72 E meridian) and the west-east (W-E) transect (66-75 E, 48.3 S latitude), both associated with the presence of a plateau, polar fronts and other mesoscale features. The W-E transect had N2O levels ranging from equilibrium (105%) to light supersaturation (120%) with respect to the atmosphere. CH4 levels fluctuated dramatically, with intense supersaturations (120-970%) in areas close to the coastal waters of Kerguelen Island and in the polar front (PF). There, Fe and nutrient fertilization seem to promote high total chlorophyll a (TChl a) levels. The distribution of both gases was more homogenous in the N-S transect, but CH4 peaked at southeastern stations of the KPR (A3 stations), where phytoplankton bloom was observed. Both gases responded significantly to the patchy distribution of particulate matter as Chl a, stimulated by Fe supply by complex mesoscale circulation. While CH4 appears to be produced mainly at the pycnoclines, N2O seems to be consumed superficially. Air-sea fluxes for N2O (from -10.5 to 8.65, mean 1.71 ?mol m-2d-1), and for CH4 (from 0.32 to 38.1, mean 10.07 ?mol m-2d-1) reflected sink and source behavior for N2O and source behavior for CH4, with considerable variability associated with a highly fluctuating wind regime and, in the case of CH4, due to its high superficial levels that had not been reported before in the Southern Ocean and may be caused by an intense microbial CH4 cycling.

  4. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, A.; Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.

    2015-07-01

    The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO) is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting. Here we use a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both stand-alone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm-1 and exploits transmission differences from a wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s. wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s-1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to the decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s-1 but is found to benefit in the case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and implementation of a LMIO mission.

  5. Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the Tropics and high latitudes, are consistent with predictions of a number of previous GCM studies. Finally, direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is predicted to induce strong regional cooling over East and South Asia. Wintertime rainfall over southeastern China and the Indian subcontinent is predicted to decrease because of the increased atmospheric stability and decreased surface evaporation, while the geographic distribution of precipitation is also predicted to be altered as a result of aerosol-induced changes in wind flow.

  6. Nonlinear response of modelled stratospheric ozone to changes in greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances in the recent past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meul, S.; Oberlnder-Hayn, S.; Abalichin, J.; Langematz, U.

    2015-06-01

    In the recent past, the evolution of stratospheric ozone (O3) was affected by both increasing ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The impact of the single forcings on O3 is well known. Interactions between the simultaneously increased GHG and ODS concentrations, however, can occur and lead to nonlinear O3 changes. In this study, we investigate if nonlinear processes have affected O3 changes between 1960 and 2000. This is done with an idealised set of time slice simulations with the chemistry-climate model EMAC. Due to nonlinearity the past ozone loss is diminished throughout the stratosphere, with a maximum reduction of 1.2 % at 3 hPa. The total ozone column loss between 1960 and 2000 that is mainly attributed to the ODS increase is mitigated in the extra-polar regions by up to 1.1 % due to nonlinear processes. A separation of the O3 changes into the contribution from chemistry and transport shows that nonlinear interactions occur in both. In the upper stratosphere a reduced efficiency of the ClOx-catalysed O3 loss chiefly causes the nonlinear O3 increase. An enhanced formation of halogen reservoir species through the reaction with methane (CH4) reduces the abundance of halogen radicals significantly. The temperature-induced deceleration of the O3 loss reaction rate in the Chapman cycle is reduced, which leads to a nonlinear O3 decrease and counteracts the increase due to ClOx. Nonlinear effects on the NOx abundance cause hemispheric asymmetric nonlinear changes of the O3 loss. Nonlinear changes in O3 transport occur in particular in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) during the months September to November. Here, the residual circulation is weakened in the lower stratosphere, which goes along with a reduced O3 transport from the tropics to high latitudes. Thus, O3 decreases in the SH polar region but increases in the SH midlatitudes. The existence of nonlinearities implies that future ozone change due to ODS decline slightly depends on the prevailing GHG concentrations. Therefore the future ozone evolution will not simply be a reversal of the past.

  7. Response of the midlatitude jets and of their variability to increased greenhouse gases in the CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Elizabeth; Polvani, Lorenzo

    2013-04-01

    This work documents how the midlatitude, eddy-driven jets respond to climate change using output from 72 model integrations run for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5). We consider separately the North Atlantic, the North Pacific and the Southern Hemisphere jets. Unlike previous studies, we do not limit our analysis to annual mean changes in the latitude and speed of the jets only, but also explore how the daily variability of each jet changes with increased greenhouse gases. Given the direct connection between synoptic activity and the location of the eddy-driven jet, changes in jet variability directly relate to the changes in the future storm tracks. We find that all jets migrate poleward with climate change: the Southern Hemisphere jet shifts poleward by 2 degrees of latitude between the Historical period and the end of the 21st century in the RCP8.5 scenario, whereas the Northern Hemisphere jets shift by only 1 degree. The speed of the Southern Hemisphere jet also increases markedly (by 1.2 m/s between 850-700 hPa), while the speed remains nearly constant for both jets in the Northern Hemisphere. The seasonality of the jet shifts will also be addressed, whereby the largest poleward jet shift occurs in the autumn of each hemisphere (i.e. MAM for the Southern Hemisphere jet, and SON for the North Atlantic and North Pacific jets). We find that the structure of the daily jet variability is a strong function of the jet position in all three sectors of the globe. For the Southern Hemisphere and the North Atlantic jets, the variability becomes less of a north-south wobbling (i.e. an `annular mode') with a poleward shift of the jet. In contrast, for the North Pacific jet, the variability becomes less of a pulsing and more of a north-south wobbling. In spite of these differences, we are able find a mechanism (based on Rossby wave breaking) that is able to explain many of the changes in jet variability within a single theoretical framework.

  8. Profiling Wind and Greenhouse Gases by Infrared-laser Occultation: Algorithm and Results from Simulations in Windy Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, Andreas; Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2014-05-01

    We employ the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO) microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method to derive a full set of thermodynamic state variables from microwave signals and climate benchmark profiling of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind using infrared-laser signals. The focus lies on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS - 5 km to 35 km). The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. In this study we focus on the infrared-laser part of LMIO, where we introduce a new, advanced wind retrieval algorithm to derive accurate l.o.s. wind profiles. The wind retrieval uses the reasonable assumption of the wind blowing along spherical shells (horizontal winds) and therefore the l.o.s. wind speed can be retrieved by using an Abel integral transform. A 'delta-differential transmission' principle is applied to two thoroughly selected infrared-laser signals placed at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line (nominally ±0.004 cm-1 from the line center near 4767 cm-1) plus a related 'off-line' reference signal. The delta-differential transmission obtained by differencing these signals is clear from atmospheric broadband effects and is proportional to the wind-induced Doppler shift; it serves as the integrand of the Abel transform. The Doppler frequency shift calculated along with the wind retrieval is in turn also used in the GHG retrieval to correct the frequency of GHG-sensitive infrared-laser signals for the wind-induced Doppler shift, which enables improved GHG estimation. This step therefore provides the capability to correct potential wind-induced residual errors of the GHG retrieval in case of strong winds. We performed end-to-end simulations to test the performance of the new retrieval in windy air. The simulations used realistic atmospheric conditions (thermodynamic state variables and wind profiles) from an analysis field of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). GHG profiles were taken from the Fast Atmospheric Signature Code (FASCODE) model. Three geographic regions were investigated, representing three different atmospheric conditions: Tropics (TRO) - a warm and moist atmosphere, Standard (STD) - an intermediate atmosphere at mid-latitudes, and Sub-Arctic Winter (SAW) - a cold and dry atmosphere. We will discuss the results in windy air, which show an encouraging performance both for the wind retrieval throughout the stratosphere (essentially unbiased l.o.s. winds with rms errors within 2 m/s over about 15 to 35 km) and for the GHG estimation.

  9. Variability of atmospheric greenhouse gases as a biogeochemical processing signal at regional scale in a karstic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borràs, Sílvia; Vazquez, Eusebi; Morguí, Josep-Anton; Àgueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Cañas, Lídia; Curcoll, Roger; Grossi, Claudia; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The South-eastern area of the Iberian Peninsula is an area where climatic conditions reach extreme climatic conditions during the year, and is also heavily affected by the ENSO and NAO. The Natural Park of Cazorla, Segura de la Sierra and Las Villas is located in this region, and it is the largest protected natural area in Spain (209920 Ha). This area is characterized by important climatic and hydrologic contrasts: although the mean annual precipitation is 770 nm, the karstic soils are the main cause for water scarcity during the summer months, while on the other hand it is in this area where the two main rivers of Southern Spain, the Segura and the Guadalquivir, are born. The protected area comprises many forested landscapes, karstic areas and reservoirs like Tranco de Beas. The temperatures during summer are high, with over 40°C heatwaves occurring each year. But during the winter months, the land surface can be covered by snow for periods of time up until 30 days. The ENSO and NAO influences cause also an important inter annual climatic variability in this area. Under the ENSO, autumnal periods are more humid while the following spring is drier. In this area vegetal Mediterranean communities are dominant. But there are also a high number of endemic species and derelict species typical of temperate climate. Therefore it is a protected area with high specific diversity. Additionally, there is an important agricultural activity in the fringe areas of the Natural Park, mainly for olive production, while inside the Park this activity is focused on mountain wheat production. Therefore the diverse vegetal communities and landscapes can easily be under extreme climatic pressures, affecting in turn the biogeochemical processes at the regional scale. The constant, high-frequency monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) (CO2 and CH4) integrates the biogeochemical signal of changes in this area related to the carbon cycle at the regional scale, capturing the high diversity of landscapes and climatic variability. The monitoring is carried out in one of the stations of the ClimaDat network, which consists of eight GHG monitoring stations in highly preserved ecosystems which are very sensitive to climate change in Spain. This constant monitoring will allow relating changes in terrestrial ecosystems, hydrological processes and atmospheric transport of GHG. The goal of the presentation is to show the results obtained since September 2013 through continuous monitoring, focusing on the seasonal changes in precipitation, temperature, and CO2 and CH4 changes in atmospheric concentrations.

  10. Comparative Climate Responses of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases, All Major Aerosol Components, Black Carbon, and Methane, Accounting for the Evolution of the Aerosol Mixing State and of Clouds/Precipitation from Multiple Aerosol Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2005-12-01

    Several modeling studies to date have simulated the global climate response of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and bulk (non-size-resolved) sulfate or generic aerosol particles together, but no study has examined the climate response of greenhouse gases simultaneously with all major size- and composition resolved aerosol particle components. Such a study is important for improving our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on climate. Here, the GATOR-GCMOM model is used to study the global climate response of (a) all major greenhouse gases and size-resolved aerosol components, (b) all major greenhouse gases alone, (c) fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, primary organic matter, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate), and (d) methane. Aerosol components treated in all simulations included water, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, hydrogen ion, soil dust, and pollen/spores. Fossil-fuel soot (FFS) was emitted into its own size distribution. All other components, including biofuel and biomass soot, sea-spray, soil dust, etc., were emitted into a second distribution (MIX). The FFS distribution grew by condensation of secondary organic matter and sulfuric acid, hydration of water, and dissolution of nitric acid, ammonia, and hydrochloric acid. It self-coagulated and heterocoagulated with the MIX distribution, which also grew by condensation, hydration, and dissolution. Treatment of separate distributions for FFS allowed FFS to evolve from an external mixture to an internal mixture. In both distributions, black carbon was treated as a core component for optical calculations. Both aerosol distributions served as CCN during explicit size-resolved cloud formation. The resulting clouds grew by coagulation and condensation, coagulated with interstitial aerosol particles, and fell to the surface as rain and snow, carrying aerosol constituents with them. Thus, cloud evolution accounted for the first and second indirect effects and the mixing state of aerosol particles. The optical properties of clouds were found by treating black carbon inclusions surrounded by a shell of water. The albedos of snow, sea ice, and water were calculated with radiative transfer solutions, assuming black carbon inclusions in the case of snow and sea ice. The simulations accounted for 3-D energy diffusion to the deep ocean and 2-D ocean circulation. Major conclusions are (a) the most important constituents of global warming, in terms of climate response, appear to be, in order, carbon dioxide, black carbon, and methane, (b) aerosol particles (all together) appear to act on top of greenhouse gases to enhance extremes in both regional cooling and regional warming, (b) the combination of important greenhouse gases and aerosol particles can explain observed major regions of historic warming and cooling, and (d) eliminating all anthropogenic aerosol emission could more than double current global warming but would have less of an effect than independently doubling carbon dioxide.

  11. Microscopic Observation of Pauli Blocking in Degenerate Fermionic Lattice Gases.

    PubMed

    Omran, Ahmed; Boll, Martin; Hilker, Timon A; Kleinlein, Katharina; Salomon, Guillaume; Bloch, Immanuel; Gross, Christian

    2015-12-31

    The Pauli exclusion principle is one of the most fundamental manifestations of quantum statistics. Here, we report on its local observation in a spin-polarized degenerate gas of fermions in an optical lattice. We probe the gas with single-site resolution using a new generation quantum gas microscope avoiding the common problem of light induced losses. In the band insulating regime, we measure a strong local suppression of particle number fluctuations and a low local entropy per atom. Our work opens a new avenue for studying quantum correlations in fermionic quantum matter both in and out of equilibrium. PMID:26764988

  12. Microscopic Observation of Pauli Blocking in Degenerate Fermionic Lattice Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omran, Ahmed; Boll, Martin; Hilker, Timon A.; Kleinlein, Katharina; Salomon, Guillaume; Bloch, Immanuel; Gross, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle is one of the most fundamental manifestations of quantum statistics. Here, we report on its local observation in a spin-polarized degenerate gas of fermions in an optical lattice. We probe the gas with single-site resolution using a new generation quantum gas microscope avoiding the common problem of light induced losses. In the band insulating regime, we measure a strong local suppression of particle number fluctuations and a low local entropy per atom. Our work opens a new avenue for studying quantum correlations in fermionic quantum matter both in and out of equilibrium.

  13. Measurements and modeling of greenhouse gases and the planetary boundary layer for the Boston metro area and the Northeastern Megalopolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCola, Philip; Jones, Taylor; Wofsy, Steven; McKain, Kathryn; Chen, Jia; Bererra, Yanina; Gottlieb, Elaine; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Hegarty, Jennifer; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Henderson, John; Mountain, Marikate; Hutyra, Lucy; Callahan, William

    2014-05-01

    The accuracy of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and air quality simulations reflects the fidelity of the atmospheric transport model employed that in turn is highly dependent on the accuracy of the meteorological input data. We begin by describing a multi-scale measurement network and model-data analysis framework for the Boston Metro region, with extension to the mid-Atlantic urban corridor. Observations include a network of automated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 inside and outside the urban domain, near the surface, on towers and tall buildings, total column measurements using the sun as a source, aerosol LiDAR data defining atmospheric structure, and meteorological data. The model-data analysis framework includes a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT), driven by meteorological fields from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and an inversion framework. We show examples of data and discuss the observational network's sampling design and a plan for extension to the NE urban corridor of the US. These urban studies are demonstrating the feasibility and value of incorporating advanced instrumentation such as the Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR to evaluate and improve the fidelity of the WRF simulations of atmospheric transport and structure in the planetary boundary layer. We also present examples of inverse analyses assessing anthropogenic emission rates for CH4 and CO2 in the urban region of metro Boston and along the urban-rural gradient.

  14. Observing Organic Molecules in Interstellar Gases: Non Equilibrium Excitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Faure, Alexandre; Remijan, Anthony; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-06-01

    In order to observe quantitatively organic molecules in interstellar gas, it is necessary to understand the relative importance of photonic and collisional excitations. In order to do so, collisional excitation transfer rates have to be computed. We undertook several such studies, in particular for H_2CO and HCOOCH_3. Both species are observed in many astrochemical environments, including star-forming regions. We found that those two molecules behave in their low-lying rotational levels in an opposite way. For cis methyl-formate, a non-equilibrium radiative transfer treatment of rotational lines is performed, using a new set of theoretical collisional rate coefficients. These coefficients have been computed in the temperature range 5 to 30 K by combining coupled-channel scattering calculations with a high accuracy potential energy surface for HCOOCH_3 -- He. The results are compared to observations toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud. A total of 2080 low-lying transitions of methyl formate, with upper levels below 25 K, were treated. These lines are found to probe a cold (30 K), moderately dense (n ˜ 104 cm-3) interstellar gas. In addition, our calculations indicate that all detected emission lines with a frequency below 30 GHz are collisionally pumped weak masers amplifying the background of Sgr B2(N). This result demonstrates the generality of the inversion mechanism for the low-lying transitions of methyl formate. For formaldehyde, we performed a similar non-equilibrium treatment, with H_2 as the collisional partner, thanks to the accurate H_2CO - H_2 potential energy surface . We found very different energy transfer rates for collisions with para-H_2 (J=0) and ortho-H_2 (J=1). The well-known absorption against the cosmological background of the 111→ 101 line is shown to depend critically on the difference of behaviour between para and ortho-H_2, for a wide range of H_2 density. We thank the CNRS-PCMI French national program for continuous support and the CHESS Herschel KP program for travel supports. Discussions with C. Ceccarelli, P. Hily-Blant and S. Maret are acknowledged.

  15. Quantum gases. Observation of isolated monopoles in a quantum field.

    PubMed

    Ray, M W; Ruokokoski, E; Tiurev, K; Mttnen, M; Hall, D S

    2015-05-01

    Topological defects play important roles throughout nature, appearing in contexts as diverse as cosmology, particle physics, superfluidity, liquid crystals, and metallurgy. Point defects can arise naturally as magnetic monopoles resulting from symmetry breaking in grand unified theories. We devised an experiment to create and detect quantum mechanical analogs of such monopoles in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate. The defects, which were stable on the time scale of our experiments, were identified from spin-resolved images of the condensate density profile that exhibit a characteristic dependence on the choice of quantization axis. Our observations lay the foundation for experimental studies of the dynamics and stability of topological point defects in quantum systems. PMID:25931553

  16. The OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases methodology for deriving a sea surface climatology of CO2 fugacity in support of air-sea gas flux studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Donlon, C.

    2015-07-01

    Climatologies, or long-term averages, of essential climate variables are useful for evaluating models and providing a baseline for studying anomalies. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, fCO2. As fCO2 is highly sensitive to temperature, the measurements are only valid for the instantaneous sea surface temperature (SST) that is measured concurrently with the in-water CO2 measurement. To create a climatology of fCO2 data suitable for calculating air-sea CO2 fluxes, it is therefore desirable to calculate fCO2 valid for a more consistent and averaged SST. This paper presents the OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases methodology for creating such a climatology. We recomputed SOCAT's fCO2 values for their respective measurement month and year using monthly composite SST data on a 1 1 grid from satellite Earth observation and then extrapolated the resulting fCO2 values to reference year 2010. The data were then spatially interpolated onto a 1 1 grid of the global oceans to produce 12 monthly fCO2 distributions for 2010, including the prediction errors of fCO2 produced by the spatial interpolation technique. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is also provided for those who prefer to use pCO2. The CO2 concentration difference between ocean and atmosphere is the thermodynamic driving force of the air-sea CO2 flux, and hence the presented fCO2 distributions can be used in air-sea gas flux calculations together with climatologies of other climate variables.

  17. Laser Atmospheric Transmitter Receiver-Network (LAnTeRN): A new approach for active measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, J. T.; Braun, M.; Zaccheo, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Laser Atmospheric Transmitter Receiver-Network (LAnTeRN) is a new measurement concept that will enable local, regional and continental determination of key greenhouse gases, with unparalleled accuracy and precision. This new approach will offer the ability to make low bias, high precision, quasi-continuous, measurements to the accuracies required for separating anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. In 2004 ITT Exelis developed an airborne demonstration unit, based on an intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) lidar approach, for actively measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2. The multi-functional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) system relies on low peak power, high reliability, and efficient telecom laser components to implement this unique measurement approach. While evaluating methods for discriminating against thin clouds for the MFLL instrument, a new measurement concept was conceived. LAnTeRN has several fundamental characteristics in common with the MFLL instrument, but is a fundamentally different implementation and capability. The key difference is that LAnTeRN operates in transmission rather than in the traditional backscatter lidar configuration, which has several distinct advantages. Operating as a forward scatter, bistatic lidar system, LAnTeRN enables consideration of continuous monitoring from a geostationary orbit to multiple locations on the ground. Having the receivers on the ground significantly lowers cost and risk compared to an all space based mission, and allows the transmitter subsystem to be implemented, near term, as a hosted payload. Furthermore, the LAnTeRN measurement approach is also applicable for ground to ground measurements where high precision measurements over a long open path is required, such as facilities monitoring, or monitoring of passive volcanoes and fault lines. Using narrow linewidth laser sources allows flexibility to select the position on the absorption feature being probed. This feature allows for weighting the absorption toward lower altitudes for the space implementation or to handle large dynamic range measurements as would be required for volcano monitoring. This presentation will discuss results from a detailed instrument performance analyses, retrieval simulations, and from initial testing of a proof of concept demonstration unit being developed by Exelis. Initial analysis indicate that measurements from a transmitter in geostationary orbit to 25 ground receivers in the eastern U.S. can retrieve column integrated CO2 values to a precision of <0.2 ppm on monthly averages and <0.06 ppm on yearly averages, using conservative estimates of cloud cover and aerosol loading. The capability for continuous monitoring over a fixed geometry makes it possible to independently characterize the atmospheric column, using existing capabilities (e.g. aircore, aircraft and in-situ instrumentation), for quantification of bias. Furthermore, the ability to selectively locate the ground receivers can enable focused studies for specific applications.

  18. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    PubMed Central

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  19. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  20. Biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases from the Ogoou River (west central Africa): preliminary results after two years of monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchambeau, Franois; Bouillon, Steven; Mbega, Jean-Daniel; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Ogoou River is the fourth largest river in Africa by discharge. The Ogoou Basin mostly consists of undisturbed rainforest with some savanna grassland. Yet, there is no information on the biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and greenhouse gases in this river. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Lambarn (Gabon) [10.24E 0.69S] between April 2012 and March 2014 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct annual budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Ogoou River.

  1. Nitric oxide and greenhouse gases emissions following the application of different cattle slurry particle size fractions to soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, Joo; Cabral, Fernanda; Fidalgo, Paula; Bol, Roland; Trindade, Henrique

    2012-02-01

    The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (>2000 ?m, 2000-500 ?m, 500-100 ?m, <100 ?m) was compared to other experimental treatments, including whole slurry (WS), ammonium sulphate (AS) and an unamended control (CON). The highest value of cumulated NO emissions (6.3 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted (1 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (>2000 ?m) induced significantly higher N 2O emissions (1.8 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil). The >2000 ?m, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N 2O emissions. Hence, for N 2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the >2000 ?m, fraction. Low CH 4 emissions (<200 ?g CH 4-C kg -1 dry soil d -1) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH 4 emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO 2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO 2 emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N 2O contributed 10-30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions have to be used for other purposes as anaerobic digestion rather than applied to soil.

  2. Solar energy collection/storage system for greenhouses: observed and simulated performance

    SciTech Connect

    Willits, D.H.; Chandra, P.; Miller, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data are pesented and some operating characteristics of a solar energy collection/storage system for greenhouses are examined. The system uses an external rock storage connected to a 6.7 x 12.2 m, fiberglass-covered greenhouse to hold excess energy collected with the greenhouse during the day for use in supplementing heating requirements during periods of deficit. Fuel consumption in the test house is compared to that in an identical, unmodified control house for three growing seasons over 1 1/2 years. Tomatoes were grown for two of the three seasons (Fall 78 and Spring 79) and lettuce was grown during the third (Fall 79). The data indicate that a savings of 31.1% was achieved for the Fall 79 season as compared to 16.9% for the same period of the previous year. This improvement is attributed to the reduced operating temperature and evapotranspiration load of the lettuce crop as well as to some improvements made to the system during the summer of 1979. Increased electrical consumption required to pump the air through the rock storage was observed to be a small percentage of the total energy saved. Yield data for the three growing seasons are pesented but no conclusions are drawn. Simulation studies performed in an effort to answer some pertinent questions about the performance of the system indicate that: (1) the uncontrolled release of heat from internal storages can be detrimental during periods when little or no heating is required resulting in higher greenhouse temperatures, and therefore higher plant respiration rates, than houses using external storages; and (2) better performance can be expected with double polyethylene-covered greenhouses than with fiberglass greenhouses owing to reduced nighttime heating load and increased solar energy collection.

  3. EFFECT OF MOISTURE AND MANURE CONTENT ON MICROBIAL PROCESSES IN CATTLE FEEDLOT SOILS: GREENHOUSE GASES, NUTRIENT LOSSES, AND ODORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms play a central role in environmental challenges facing animal agriculture. Aerobic and anaerobic processes in the manure affect greenhouse gas emissions, odors, and nutrient losses, but the controls on these processes are not well understood. Cattle feedlot surface moisture and manu...

  4. Preface to book entitled: Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases: Coordinated Agricultural Research through GRACEnet to Address our Changing Climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range, a natural process that regulates the temperature of the Earth. Long-term changes in GHG emission could negatively or positively affect global surface temperature (USGCRP, 2009). The abatement of climate...

  5. The Role of Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases as Principal LW Control Knob that Governs the Global Surface Temperature for Past and Future Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E.; Russell, Gary L.; Oinas, Valdar; Jonas, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The climate system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non-condensing greenhouse gases (GHGs) that provide the core radiative forcing. Of these, the most important is atmospheric CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapor and clouds that is unique in the solar system, exceeding the core radiative forcing due to the non-condensing GHGs by a factor of three. The significance of the non-condensing GHGs is that once they have been injected into the atmosphere, they remain there virtually indefinitely because they do not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere, their chemical removal time ranging from decades to millennia. Water vapor and clouds have only a short lifespan, with their distribution determined by the locally prevailing meteorological conditions, subject to Clausius-Clapeyron constraint. Although solar irradiance is the ultimate energy source that powers the terrestrial greenhouse effect, there has been no discernible long-term trend in solar irradiance since precise monitoring began in the late 1970s. This leaves atmospheric CO2 as the effective control knob driving the current global warming trend. Over geological time scales, volcanoes are the principal source of atmospheric CO2, and the weathering of rocks is the principal sink, with the biosphere participating as both a source and a sink. The problem at hand is that human industrial activity is causing atmospheric CO2, to increase by 2 ppm per year, whereas the interglacial rate has been 0.005 ppm per year. This is a geologically unprecedented rate to turn the CO2 climate control knob. This is causing the global warming that threatens the global environment.

  6. How will greenhouse gas observations meet changing requirements, laws, and demands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, J. B.; Montzka, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent efforts to develop a global greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS) have been driven by an anticipated need to support future national emission reduction policies or international treaties with observations. Such an effort would be similar to that done in support of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone, but more complex. However, greenhouse gas emissions are much more difficult to manage and may not be controlled by international agreement. The Kyoto Protocol has been fraught with political and practical difficulties, not the least of which is the absence of an independent observation and analysis requirement. Nevertheless, no unifying agreement was reached at the much heralded 2009 Conference of Parties (COP-15) in Copenhagen. Thus, it is quite possible (likely?) that greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced owing to other, uncoordinated policies that have their own merits, e.g., energy efficiency, alternative energy development, air quality improvement, forest development, agricultural practices, etc. If this is the future, then what observations and observation system design are needed and to what end? This presentation will discuss those needs in light of critical observations, analytical approaches, and evolving, disparate policies.

  7. Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A.; Baer, D. S.; Owano, T. G.; Provencal, R. A.; Gupta, M.; Parsotam, V.; Graves, P.; Goldstein, A.; Guha, A.

    2010-12-01

    Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants A. Gardner(1), D. Baer (1), T. Owano (1), R. Provencal (1), V. Parsotam (1), P. Graves (1), M. Gupta (1), Allen Goldstein (2), Abhinav Guha (2) (1) Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, CA 94041-1529 (2) Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California at Berkeley Quantifying the Urban Fossil Fuel Plume: Convergence of top-down and bottom-up approaches (Session A54). We report on the design, development and deployment of a novel Mobile Emissions Laboratory, consisting of innovative laser-based gas analyzers, for rapid measurements of multiple greenhouse gases and pollutants. Designed for real-time mobile and stationery emissions monitoring, the Mobile Emissions Laboratory was deployed at several locations during 2010, including CalNEX 2010, Caldecott Tunnel (Oakland, CA), and Altamont Landfill (Livermore, CA), to record real-time continuous measurements of isotopic CO2 (?13C, CO2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and isotopic water vapor (H2O; ?18O, ?2H). The commercial gas analyzers are based on novel cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The portable analyzers provide measurements in real time, require about 150 watts (each) of power and do not need liquid nitrogen to operate. These instruments have been applied in the field for applications that require high data rates (for eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., for chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that can be 10-1000 times higher than typical ambient levels) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Mobile Emissions Laboratory, which contains onboard batteries for long-term unattended measurements without access to mains power, can provide regulatory agencies, monitoring stations, scientists and researchers with temporally and spatially resolved data (including measurements of important greenhouse gases, isotopes and pollutants) necessary for compliance monitoring, hot-spot detection, as well as cap and trade, at any location. Details of extended measurement campaigns (including lessons learned) at the various field sites (urban and rural environments) will be presented.

  8. High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balano Atmosfrico Regional de Carbono na Amaznia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.220.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.050.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.230.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

  9. Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of total emissions of greenhouse gases from biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.

    1997-12-31

    One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG emissions.

  10. Effects of ploughing on land-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases in a managed temperate grassland in central Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Drewer, Julia; Anderson, Margaret; Scholtes, Bob; Rees, Bob; Skiba, Ute

    2015-04-01

    Grasslands are important ecosystems covering > 20% and > 30% of EU and Scotland's land area respectively. Management practices such as grazing, fertilisation and ploughing can have significant short- and long-term effects on greenhouse gas exchange. Here we report on two separate ploughing events two years apart in adjacent grasslands under common management. The Easter Bush grassland, located 10 km south of Edinburgh (55° 52'N, 3° 2'W), comprises two fields separated by a fence and is used for grazing by sheep and cattle. The vegetation is predominantly Lolium perenne (> 90%) growing on poorly drained clay loam. The fields receive several applications of mineral fertiliser a year in spring and summer. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been monitored continuously by eddy-covariance (EC) since 2002 which has demonstrated that the site is a consistent yet variable sink of atmospheric CO2. The EC system comprises a LI-COR 7000 closed-path analyser and a Gill Instruments Windmaster Pro ultrasonic anemometer mounted atop a 2.5 m mast located along the fence line separating the fields. In addition, fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4)and CO2were measured with static chambers installed along transects in each field. Gas samples collected from the chambers were analysed by gas chromatography and fluxes calculated for each 60-minute sampling period. The ploughing events in 2012 and 2014 exhibited multiple similarities in terms of NEE. The light response (i.e. relationship between CO2 flux, and photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) of the NF and SF during the month preceding each ploughing event was of comparable magnitude in both years. Following ploughing, CO2 uptake ceased in the ploughed field for approximately one month and full recovery of the photosynthetic potential was observed after ca. 2 months. During the month following the 2014 ploughing event, the ploughed NF released on average 333 ± 17 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1. In contrast, the SF net uptake during the same period was -79 ± 19 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1. Ploughing caused a net release of carbon of 183 g CO2-C m-2 during the month following ploughing, thus turning the grassland into a potent CO2 source. Chamber measurements of CH4 and N2O exhibited high spatial variability in 2012 and no statistical difference could be established between fields and treatments. CH4 fluxes were high in both fields after ploughing which was presumably linked to air temperature. N2O fluxes in the ploughed SF reached on average 100 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 29 days after ploughing which corresponded to ca. 20 times the background level recorded at the site. Fluxes of N2O were however considerably larger in 2014, peaking at 2570 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 29 days after ploughing. Contrarily to 2012, substantial and statistically significant CH4 emissions were recorded in 2014 in the ploughed field. Whilst spatial variability was high in both years it can nevertheless be concluded that ploughing had substantial adverse short term effects on emissions and that environmental conditions greatly impacted the magnitude of CH4 and N2O fluxes.

  11. A comparative study of vertical flow and free-water surface constructed wetlands for low C/N ratio domestic wastewater treatment and its greenhouse gases emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of chemical treatment. Therefore, CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countries. However, growing attention has been directed to its greenhouse side-effect and global-warming potential in recent years. In this study, two typical constructed wetlands: Vertical flow (VF) and Free-water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands were used not only to compare the nutrients removal performance for treatment of low C/N ratio loading domestic wastewater, but also to investigate and compare their CH4 and N2O greenhouse gases emission characteristics. The results indicated that the VF CW showed a comparatively good performance for nitrogen and phosphorus removal than FWS constructed wetland, which was 98.5, 95.9, 93.2 and 90.7 percent for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6 days HRT, respectively. It was found that the FWS CW had the higher tendency to emit CH4 than the VF CW during four seasons of one year.

  12. A research proposal on spectroscopy of gases and solids observed in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Giver, L. P.; Goorvitch, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well recognized and accepted that the interpretation and analysis of any type of remote planetary spectroscopic observation requires that basic molecular parameters be available. Furthermore, the newly developed capabilities of air, ground, and space borne spectrometers trained on bodies in the solar system are producing results which are extremely difficult to understand on the basis of available data. This is particularly true in the case of spectral features arising from gases and volatiles condensed as ices. With the objective to continue to extend the understanding of spectroscopic observations of solar system objects (including comets) , laboratory studies of both gas phase molecules and ices and dusts are proposed.

  13. Renewable Energy Production and Urban Remediation: Modeling the biogeochemical cycle at contaminated urban brownfields and the potential for renewable energy production and mitigation of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Brownfields or urban sites that have been contaminated as a result of historic practices are present throughout the world. In the United States alone, the National Research Council has estimated that there are approximately 300,000 to 400,000 sites which have been contaminated by improper use and disposal of chemicals (NRC 1993). The land available at these sites is estimated at several million acres; however, the presence of high levels of contamination in the soil and groundwater makes it difficult to utilize these sites for traditional purposes such as agriculture. Further, the time required to remediate these contaminants to regulated levels is in the order of decades, which often results in long-term economic consequences for the areas near these sites. There has been significant interest in developing these sites as potential sources of renewable energy production in order to increase the economic viability of these sites and to provide alternative land resources for renewable energy production (EPA 2012). Solar energy, wind energy, and bioenergy from lignocellulosic biomass production have been identified as the main sources of renewable energy that can be produced at these locations. However, the environmental impacts of such a policy and the implications for greenhouse gas emissions, particularly resulting from changes in land-use impacting the biogeochemical cycle at these sites, have not been studied extensively to date. This study uses the biogeochemical process-based model DNDC to simulate carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions and methane emissions from typical urban brownfield systems in the United States, when renewable energy systems are deployed. Photovoltaic solar energy and lignocellulosic biomass energy systems are evaluated here. Plants modeled include those most widely used for both bioenergy and remediation such as woody trees. Model sensitivity to soil conditions, contaminant levels and local weather data and the resulting impacts on greenhouse gas emissions are explored. Tradeoffs between renewable energy production,contaminant removal, and mitigation of greenhouse gases are also evaluated. Results indicate that a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions of 29-43% is possible, together with an estimated increase in renewable energy production of 7-22%.

  14. Summer fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 from mangrove soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, G C; Tam, N F Y; Ye, Y

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheric fluxes of N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) from the soil in four mangrove swamps in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, South China were investigated in the summer of 2008. The fluxes ranged from 0.14 to 23.83 micromol m(-2)h(-1), 11.9 to 5168.6 micromol m(-2)h(-1) and 0.69 to 20.56 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2), respectively. Futian mangrove swamp in Shenzhen had the highest greenhouse gas fluxes, followed by Mai Po mangrove in Hong Kong. Sha Kong Tsuen and Yung Shue O mangroves in Hong Kong had similar, low fluxes. The differences in both N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes among different tidal positions, the landward, seaward and bare mudflat, in each swamp were insignificant. The N(2)O and CO(2) fluxes were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphate, total iron and NH(4)(+)-N contents, as well as the soil porosity. However, only soil NH(4)(+)-N concentration had significant effects on CH(4) fluxes. PMID:20381125

  15. [Rules and impact factors of greenhouse gases emission in the saline-alkali paddy fields in different years].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Fang, Tian-Ru; Hou, Ke-Yi; Zhao, Ren-Zhu; Liang, Shuang

    2014-12-01

    With the method of combining field sampling and plot test, we took saline-alkali paddy field of Qianguo county, Jilin province as an investigation object. According to the nature of soil in the area, we monitored CH4 and N2O which released from soil during rice growth period and tested the soil pH and soil organic carbon to analyze the law and reasons of greenhouse gas emission in the paddy fields. The results showed that N2O emission from paddy fields presented three peaks with distinct seasonal patterns. Application of fertilizer provided additional reactive substrate, which affected N2O emission significantly. Under flooding conditions, the main source of N2O is a denitrification process, while after drainage, nitrification was the predominance. CH4 emission showed a single peak at rice tillering stage when rice grew vigorously. That deoxidation condition dominated in the deep water layer in the paddy fields provided suitable conditions for CH4 producing microorganisms, which result in the emergence of CH4 emission peak. The pH doesn't have an obvious influence on CH4 and N2O, while SOC content in soil and pattern of CH4 emission showed a significantly positive correlation. PMID:25826947

  16. The natural flux of greenhouse gases in the case of monitoring the flux of juvenile carbon dioxide in the Hranice Karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geršl, Milan; Stepišnik, Uroš; Mareček, Jan; Geršlová, Eva; Hammerschmiedt, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Located in the Teplice nad Bečvou district 40 km SE of Olomouc (Czech Republic), the hydrothermal Hranice Karst with the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves has been developed in the sequence of Palaeozoic limestones as a result of deep influx of thermal water charged with subcrustal carbon dioxide (CO2). This area of discharge of juvenile carbon dioxide is a unique place where one can study the long-term natural production of a greenhouse gas and confront it with the anthropogenic production. As a result, the continuous measurements of the properties of the cave microclimate with additional seasonal measurements of flux of carbon dioxide give rise to a rare pool of data that cover natural routes of greenhouse gases. Repeated seasonal analysis of the ratio of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide (d13C around -5 ) (Meyberg - Rinne, 1995)has suggested the juvenile (mantle) origin of this gas. Isotopic analyses in the mineral water of dissolved gases (He) show that some part of these gases come from the upper mantle of the Earth. The lower floors of the caves are filled with carbon dioxide producing so-called gas lakes in the area. Concentrations of the gas commonly reach 40 % by volume. In 1999, for example, the average concentration in the Gallas dome was 84.9 % by volume. Flux of CO2 (g.m-2.d-1) was measured on the surface and in the cave. The homogenisation chamber and the pumping test were applied to evaluate the CO2 flux. The average CO2 flux in the soil ranged from 74 to 125 g.m-2.d-1, reflecting the venting of subcrustal CO2 in the Hranice area (Geršl et al., 2012). In the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere fluctuates from 0,X to 85 % with the measured constant flux being 32 894 g.m-2.d-1. Since 2005, the CO2 concentrations in the cave area have been reported by an automatic monitoring system at 10 cave sites. CO2 concentrations are recorded in 5-min intervals. Interpretation can be put into the context of measuring concentrations of Rn, groundwater levels, and influence of the ambient conditions on the cave system and the operation of the visitor trail. The data obtained are an exceptional source of information about the behaviour of natural emissions of a greenhouse gas in the form of juvenile carbon dioxide. The hydrothermal speleothems carry unique information about production of carbon dioxide in the studied area. Based on their dating using the 230Th/234U method it can be deduced indirectly that the carbon dioxide emissions occurred as early as 84-127 thousand years ago in the area. The research was conducted with the support of the project entitled "Postdoc contracts at MENDELU technical and ekonomical research' (CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0031). Geršl, M. - Geršlová, E. - Šimečková, B. (2012): Subcrustal CO2 flux measurement in the Hranice hydrothermal Karst, methodology and first results. - Geoscience research reports for 2011, 45, D, 162-166. Praha. Meyberg, M. - Rinne, B. (1995): Messung des 3He/4He-Isotopenverhältnisses im Hranicka Propast (Tschechische Republik). - Die Höhle. Zeitschrift für Karst- und Höhlenkunde, 46, 1, 5-8. Wien.

  17. Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 μg CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 μg CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was no effect of treatment on subsurface CO2 concentrations. Subsurface N2O peaked at 500ppm 12 days after and 1200ppm 56 days after application. Subsurface NO3- concentration peaked at approximately 300 mg N kg dry soil-112 days after application. Results indicate that denitrification is the key driver for N2O release in peatlands and that production is strongly related to increased soil moisture. N2O production at depth continued long after emissions were detected at the surface. Increased study of the interaction between subsurface gas concentrations, surface emissions and soil hydrological conditions is required to successfully predict greenhouse gas production and emission.

  18. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from ponds and lakes of the Eastern Canadian Arctic (Bylot Island, Nunavut)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Laurion, I.; Prėskienis, V.; Fortier, D.; Xu, X.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission rate of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local conditions, hindering pan-Arctic generalizations. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems located on Bylot Island, in the continuous permafrost zone of the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes. The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, 1 or 2 orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (< 550 yr BP) GHG, even if trough ponds could contain much older carbon (> 2000 yr BP) derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP) from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on GHG emissions by permafrost aquatic systems and their potential positive feedback effect on climate.

  19. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks. PMID:25938939

  20. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.; Jansson, P.-E.; Svensson, M.; Björklund, J.; Tarvainen, L.; Klemedtsson, L.; Kasimir, Å.

    2015-12-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. We discuss some conceptual issues relevant to improving the model in order to better understand peat soil simulations. However, the present model was able to describe the most important ecosystem dynamics such as the plant biomass development and GHG emissions. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m-2 yr-1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m-2 yr-1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m-2 yr-1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m-2 yr-1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha-1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha-1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding CO2 to the atmosphere.

  1. Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

  2. Radiative Forcing by Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases: Estimates from Climate Models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Sun, Y.; Portmann, R. W.; Fu, Q.; Casanova, S. E. B.; Dufresne, J.-L.; Fillmore, D. W.; Forster, P. M. D.; Galin, V. Y.; Gohar, L. K.; Ingram, W. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Lefebvre, M.-P.; Li, J.; Marquet, P.; Oinas, V.; Tsushima, Y.; Uchiyama, T.; Zhong, W. Y.

    2006-01-01

    The radiative effects from increased concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs) represent the most significant and best understood anthropogenic forcing of the climate system. The most comprehensive tools for simulating past and future climates influenced by WMGHGs are fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). Because of the importance of WMGHGs as forcing agents it is essential that AOGCMs compute the radiative forcing by these gases as accurately as possible. We present the results of a radiative transfer model intercomparison between the forcings computed by the radiative parameterizations of AOGCMs and by benchmark line-by-line (LBL) codes. The comparison is focused on forcing by CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, and the increased H2O expected in warmer climates. The models included in the intercomparison include several LBL codes and most of the global models submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). In general, the LBL models are in excellent agreement with each other. However, in many cases, there are substantial discrepancies among the AOGCMs and between the AOGCMs and LBL codes. In some cases this is because the AOGCMs neglect particular absorbers, in particular the near-infrared effects of CH4 and N2O, while in others it is due to the methods for modeling the radiative processes. The biases in the AOGCM forcings are generally largest at the surface level. We quantify these differences and discuss the implications for interpreting variations in forcing and response across the multimodel ensemble of AOGCM simulations assembled for the IPCC AR4.

  3. Estimates of global biomass burning emissions for reactive greenhouse gases (CO, NMHCs, and NOx) and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Atul K.; Tao, Zhining; Yang, Xiaojuan; Gillespie, Conor

    2006-03-01

    Open fire biomass burning and domestic biofuel burning (e.g., cooking, heating, and charcoal making) algorithms have been incorporated into a terrestrial ecosystem model to estimate CO2 and key reactive GHGs (CO, NOx, and NMHCs) emissions for the year 2000. The emissions are calculated over the globe at a 0.5 0.5 spatial resolution using tree density imagery, and two separate sets of data each for global area burned and land clearing for croplands, along with biofuel consumption rate data. The estimated global and annual total dry matter (DM) burned due to open fire biomass burning ranges between 5221 and 7346 Tg DM/yr, whereas the resultant emissions ranges are 6564-9093 Tg CO2/yr, 438-568 Tg CO/yr, 11-16 Tg NOx/yr (as NO), and 29-40 Tg NMHCs/yr. The results indicate that land use changes for cropland is one of the major sources of biomass burning, which amounts to 25-27% (CO2), 25 -28% (CO), 20-23% (NO), and 28-30% (NMHCs) of the total open fire biomass burning emissions of these gases. Estimated DM burned associated with domestic biofuel burning is 3,114 Tg DM/yr, and resultant emissions are 4825 Tg CO2/yr, 243 Tg CO/yr, 3 Tg NOx/yr, and 23 Tg NMHCs/yr. Total emissions from biomass burning are highest in tropical regions (Asia, America, and Africa), where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting for croplands and domestic biofuel burning.

  4. Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit. PMID:17574843

  5. How ground-based observations can support satellite greenhouse gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    Global society will eventually accelerate efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a variety of ways. These would likely involve international treaties, national policies, and regional strategies that will affect a number of economic, social, and environmental sectors. Some strategies will work better than others and some will not work at all. Because trillions of dollars will be involved in pursuing greenhouse gas emission reductions - through realignment of energy production, improvement of efficiencies, institution of taxes, implementation of carbon trading markets, and use of offsets - it is imperative that society be given all the tools at its disposal to ensure the ultimate success of these efforts. Providing independent, globally coherent information on the success of these efforts will give considerable strength to treaties, policies, and strategies. Doing this will require greenhouse gas observations greatly expanded from what we have today. Satellite measurements may ultimately be indispensable in achieving global coverage, but the requirements for accuracy and continuity of measurements over time are demanding if the data are to be relevant. Issues such as those associated with sensor drift, aging electronics, and retrieval artifacts present challenges that can be addressed in part by close coordination with ground-based and in situ systems. This presentation identifies the information that ground-based systems provide very well, but it also looks at what would be deficient even in a greatly expanded surface system, where satellites can fill these gaps, and how on-going, ground and in situ measurements can aid in addressing issues associated with accuracy, long-term continuity, and retrieval artifacts.

  6. Evaluation of the potentialities to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions resulting from various treatments of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in moist tropical climates: application to Yaounde.

    PubMed

    Ngnikam, Emmanuel; Tanawa, Emile; Rousseaux, Patrick; Riedacker, Arthur; Gourdon, Rmy

    2002-12-01

    The authors here analyse the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting from the various treatment of municipal solid waste found in the town of Yaounde. Four management systems have been taken as the basis for analyses. System 1 is the traditional collection and landfill disposal, while in system 2 the hiogas produced in the landfill is recuperated to produce electricity. In systems 3 and 4, in addition to the collection, we have introduced a centralised composting or biogas plant before the landfilling disposal of refuse. A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of the four systems was made; this enable us to quantify the flux of matter and of energy, consumed or produced by the systems. Following this, only the greenhouse effect was taken into account to evaluate the ecological consequences of the MSW management systems. The method used to evaluate this impact takes into consideration on the one hand, GHG emissions or avoided emission following the substitution of fuel with methane recovered from landfills or produced in the digesters, and on the other hand, sequestrated carbon in the soil following the regular deposit of compost. Landfilling without recuperation of methane is the most emitting solution for greenhouse gas: it leads to the emission of 1.7 ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2E) per ton of household waste. Composting and methanisation allow one to have a comparable level of emission reduction, either respectively 1.8 and 2 tCO2E/t of MSW. In order to reduce the emission of GHG in the waste management systems, it is advisable to avoid first of all the emissions of methane coming from the landfills. System 2 seems to be a solution that would reduce the emissions of GHG at low cost (2.2 to 4 $/tCO2E). System 2 is calculated as the most effective at the environmental and economic level in the context of Yaounde. Therefore traditional collection, landfill disposal and biogas recuperation to produce electricity is preferable in moist tropical climates. PMID:12549662

  7. Update on the Development of Optical Remote Sensing Tools for Quantification of Greenhouse Gases from Distributed Area Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, K.; Maxwell, S. E.; Samarov, D. V.; Bienfang, J. C.; Restelli, A.; Liu, X.; Plusquellic, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    Our goal is to develop and validate advanced optical measurement technologies to enable accurate quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) sources and sinks with a well-characterized uncertainty. Our focus is the measurement of distributed-area sources with spatial scales ranging from of 1 km2 to 10 km2. A few examples of distributed sources include landfills, mines, gas and oil production sites, carbon sequestration sites, enhanced oil-recovery sites, etc. The goal is to measure both concentration and wind speed of the emitted gas to determine the emission flux. To achieve our measurement goals we are developing several complementary differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) systems. The systems are designed for the detection of methane and carbon dioxide, but they vary in the type of laser source, the range resolution, the wavelength tuning method, detector type, and expected use. A limiting component of DIAL systems in the short wave infrared is detector technology. There are four detectors currently being tested, three single-photon detectors, and one linear-mode, which include an 8 % quantum-efficiency photomultiplier tube, 300 pixel array of Geiger-mode APDs with an effective area of 200 μm, a 100 MHz linear mode APD with a diameter of 500 μm, and a single-pixel Geiger-mode APD gated at 1.25 GHz whose active-area diameter is < 50 μm. We have also acquired a commercially produced mobile aerosol LIDAR system that has the following measurement capabilities: aerosol to molecular scattering ratio, molecular temperature, density, and line-of-sight wind velocity. The aerosol LIDAR system operates at three wavelengths 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Extinction, backscatter, and depolarization measurements are performed at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The wind velocity and temperature measurements are performed at 355 nm and use direct detection methods. The system is housed in a trailer with scanning capabilities. The presentation will provide an overview of the NIST LIDAR systems, recent results, a discussion of detector technology, and plans for deployment of the DIAL systems.

  8. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ► Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ► We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ► The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ► The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  9. Quantifying sources and sinks of reactive gases in the lower atmosphere using airborne flux observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Arkinson, H. L.; Bui, T. P.; Crounse, J. D.; Dean-Day, J.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A.; Hall, S. R.; Huey, G.; Jacob, D. J.; Karl, T.; Kim, P. S.; Liu, X.; Marvin, M. R.; Mikoviny, T.; Misztal, P. K.; Nguyen, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I.; Ryerson, T.; St. Clair, J. M.; Teng, A.; Travis, K. R.; Ullmann, K.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wisthaler, A.

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric composition is governed by the interplay of emissions, chemistry, deposition, and transport. Substantial questions surround each of these processes, especially in forested environments with strong biogenic emissions. Utilizing aircraft observations acquired over a forest in the southeast U.S., we calculate eddy covariance fluxes for a suite of reactive gases and apply the synergistic information derived from this analysis to quantify emission and deposition fluxes, oxidant concentrations, aerosol uptake coefficients, and other key parameters. Evaluation of results against state-of-the-science models and parameterizations provides insight into our current understanding of this system and frames future observational priorities. As a near-direct measurement of fundamental process rates, airborne fluxes offer a new tool to improve biogenic and anthropogenic emissions inventories, photochemical mechanisms, and deposition parameterizations.

  10. Observation of threshold effects in positron scattering from the noble gases.

    PubMed

    Jones, A C L; Caradonna, P; Makochekanwa, C; Slaughter, D S; McEachran, R P; Machacek, J R; Sullivan, J P; Buckman, S J

    2010-08-13

    Channel coupling is a phenomenon that has been investigated for many scattering processes, and is responsible for the formation of cusps or steps in the cross sections for open scattering channels at, or near, the onset of a new scattering channel. It has long been speculated that the opening of the positronium formation channel may lead to the formation of such cusp features in the elastic positron scattering cross section. In this work, elastic scattering of positrons has been measured in the region of the positronium formation threshold for the noble gases He-Xe. Cusplike behavior is observed and, while the features which are observed appear broad, they represent a magnitude of between 4 and 15% of the total elastic cross section. No evidence is found of any other features in this region, at least within the uncertainty of the present data, discounting the possibility of scattering resonances. PMID:20868040

  11. Quantifying Sources and Sinks of Reactive Gases in the Lower Atmosphere Using Airborne Flux Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Arkinson, H. L.; Bui, T. P.; Crounse, J. D.; Dean-Day, J.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A.; Hall, S. R.; Huey, G.; Jacob, D. J.; Karl, T.; Kim, P. S.; Liu, X.; Marvin, M. R.; Mikoviny, T.; Misztal, P. K.; Nguyen, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I.; Ryerson, T.; St. Clair, J. M.; Teng, A.; Travis, K. R.; Ullmann, K.; Wennberg, P.O.; Wisthaler, A.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric composition is governed by the interplay of emissions, chemistry, deposition, and transport. Substantial questions surround each of these processes, especially in forested environments with strong biogenic emissions. Utilizing aircraft observations acquired over a forest in the southeast U.S., we calculate eddy covariance fluxes for a suite of reactive gases and apply the synergistic information derived from this analysis to quantify emission and deposition fluxes, oxidant concentrations, aerosol uptake coefficients, and other key parameters. Evaluation of results against state-of-the-science models and parameterizations provides insight into our current understanding of this system and frames future observational priorities. As a near-direct measurement of fundamental process rates, airborne fluxes offer a new tool to improve biogenic and anthropogenic emissions inventories, photochemical mechanisms, and deposition parameterizations.

  12. The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Public Data Archive at CDIAC: Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gas Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, S. W.; Hook, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) project is investigating the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases throughout various altitudes in the atmosphere over the Pacific Basin through the annual cycle (Wofsy and the HIPPO Science Team 2011, this session). Aircraft-based data collection occurred during 2009-2011. Data analyses, comparisons, and integration are ongoing. A permanent public archive of HIPPO data has been established at the U. S. DOE Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Datasets are provided primarily by the Lead Principal Investigator (PI), who draws on a comprehensive set of aircraft navigation information, meteorological measurements, and research instrument and sampling system results from multiple co-investigators to compile integrated and generate value-added products. A website/ftp site has been developed for HIPPO data and metadata (http://hippo.ornl.gov), in coordination with the UCAR website that presents field catalogs and other detailed information about HIPPO missions (http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/hippo/dm/). A data policy was adopted that balances the needs of the project investigators with the interests of the scientific user community. A data dictionary was developed to capture the basic characteristics of the hundreds of measurements. Instrument descriptions were compiled. A user's guide is presented for each dataset that also contains data file information enabling users to know when data have been updated. Data are received and provided as space-delimited ASCII files. Metadata records are compiled into a searchable CDIAC index and will be submitted to climate change research data clearinghouses. Each dataset is given a persistent identifier (DOI) to facilitate attribution. We expect that data will continue to be added to the archive for the next year or more. In the future we anticipate creating a database for HIPPO data, with a web interface to facilitate searching and customized data extraction.

  13. Global warming potentials; Part 7 of 7 supporting documents. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the general guidelines for voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Public review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-31

    This document provides methods to account for the different effects of different gases on the atmosphere. It discusses the rationale and uses for simplified measures to represent human-related effects on climate and provides a brief introduction to a major index, the global warming potential (GWP) index. Appendix 7.A analyzes the science underlying the development of indices for concerns about climate, which is still evolving, evaluates the usefulness of currently available indices, and presents the state of the art for numerical indices and their uncertainties. For concerns about climate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been instrumental in examining relative indices for comparing the radiative influences of greenhouse gases. The IPCC developed the concept of GWPs to provide a simple representation of the relative effects on climate resulting from a unit mass emission of a greenhouse gas. Alternative measures and variations on the definition of GWPs have also been considered and reported.

  14. Experimental observations of the transport of brine and dissolved gases in sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Ceri A.; Thomas, Carelle; Escala, Daro M.; De Wit, Anne; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2014-05-01

    A detailed knowledge of processes in sea ice is necessary to understand how sea ice behaviour both affects and is affected by our changing climate. As the extent of sea ice cover is modified due to anthropogenic climate change, it is important to understand how these variations will themselves contribute to feedback mechanisms in the climate system, particularly when considering the sources, sinks, and transport of CO2 and other climatically important gases. So that we can understand the effect that changing sea ice cover will have on the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and the oceans, we have to understand how gas transport occurs in sea ice. It is therefore necessary to understand the movement of the brines in which these gases are dissolved. The mechanisms of sea ice formation have been well described previously, however, the processes and mechanisms of transport of brine and fresher sea water through the ice are not yet completely understood. As ice freezes from sea water, it behaves as a mushy layer in which the salts present are expelled into pockets of increasingly saline brine. These pockets link together at certain critical values of brine volume fraction, temperature, and salinity to form channels by which the dense brine can sink into the underlying sea water, so driving convective transport from the ice layer into the sea. To analyse the influence of this convection on the transport of gases in ice, we will experimentally characterise convective patterns and instabilities in an ice-liquid two-layer system. We produce a quasi-2D ice-salt water interface within a Hele-Shaw cell by applying a gradient of temperature to a thin layer of saline water, cooling from the upper boundary. As the system cools, a freezing front develops, so forming a 2D model of the mushy layer. Here we will present the methodology and preliminary results of visualisation of this process using optical imaging techniques. Schlieren and synthetic Schlieren imaging allow gradients of densities to be mapped due to their different refractive indices, and we can therefore potentially observe the downward flow of denser brine and upward movement of fresher water as the freezing front progresses. From these experiments we can provide qualitative observations of the transport mechanisms, and also analyse the onset of convection within these brine channels.

  15. Multi-Model CIMP5 projected impacts of increased greenhouse gases on the Niger basin and implications for hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Climate change could potentially have large impacts on water availability in West Africa and the predictions are accrued with high uncertainties in this region. Countries in the Niger River basin (West Africa) plan the investment of 200 million in the installation of an additional 400MW of hydropower in the nearest future, adding to the existing 685MW. With the impacts of climate change in the basin already occurring, there is a need for comprehending the influence of future hydro-climatic changes on water resources and hydro-power generation in the basin. This study uses a hydrological model to simulate river flow under present and future conditions and evaluates the impacts of potential changes on electricity production of the largest hydroelectric dam (Kainji) in the Niger Basin. The Kainji reservoir produces 25 per cent of the current energy needs of Nigeria and was subject to large fluctuations in energy production as a result of variable inflow and operational reasons. Inflow into the reservoir was simulated using hydroclimatic data from a set of 7 regional climate models (RCM) with two emission scenarios from the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiment, driven with CMIP5 data. Based on observations of inflow, water level in the reservoir, and energy production we developed a simple hydroelectricity production model to simulate future energy production for the reservoir. Results suggest increases in river flow for the majority of RCM data as a result of increases in precipitation in the headwaters of the basin around 2050 and slightly decreasing trends for low emission scenarios by the end of the century. Despite this consistent increase, shifts in timing of river flow can challenge the reliable production of energy. This analysis could help assess the planning of hydropower schemes in the basin for a sustainable production of hydroelectricity in the future.

  16. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an effective means for evaluating some aspects of the current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential to improve the robustness of the next generation inventory system. PMID:22827140

  17. Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John

    2012-07-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen compounds and emission of greenhouse gases in ancient and modern soils of the Arkaim Reserve in the Steppe Trans-Ural Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inubushi, K.; Prikhodko, V. E.; Nagano, Kh.; Manakhov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen compounds and the emission of CO2, CH4, and N2O were studied in the ancient buried and modern background soils developed from different parent materials in the Arkaim Reserve of Chelyabinsk oblast. The studies were performed after an 18-year-long period of absence of anthropogenic loads on the local ecosystems. Element contents in the humus horizons of the chernozems of the former plowland and pastures and of the forest soil reach 28-45.6 g/kg for Corg, 2.5-4.5 g/kg for Ntot, 140-423 mg/kg for labile carbon (Cl), 32-73 mg/kg for labile nitrogen (Nl), 350-952 mg/kg for carbon of microbial biomass (Cmic), and 38-85 mg/kg for nitrogen of microbial biomass (Nmic). The contents of different forms of C and N depend on the soil type and texture and on the type of land use, including that before reservation of the territory. The emission of greenhouse gases was examined in this area for the first time. The production of CO2 by the soil buried about 4000 years ago is an order of magnitude lower than that by the modern soil. The emission and sink of N2O are small in both modern and ancient soils. The behavior of methane is clearly different in the automorphic and hydromorphic soils: the former serve as methane sinks, whereas the latter act as methane sources. The rate of the CO2 emission from the soils is controlled by many factors, including the soil type, texture, degree of hydromorphism, composition of parent materials, and type of land use.

  19. Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L.; Nicovich, J. Michael; Wine, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    A laser flash photolysisresonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O(1D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO2F2(k1), NF3(k2), and SF5CF3(k3). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k1(T)=9.0נ10-11exp(+98/T)cm3molecule-1s-1 and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k1b=(5.82.3)נ10-11cm3molecule-1s-1 independent of temperature. We find that k2(T)=2.0נ10-11exp(+52/T)cm3molecule-1s-1 with reaction proceeding almost entirely (?99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O(1D) by NF3 is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF3. Deactivation of O(1D) by SF5CF3 is slow enough (k3<2.0נ10-13cm3molecule-1s-1 at 298K) that reaction with O(1D) is unimportant as an atmospheric removal mechanism for SF5CF3. The kinetics of O(1D) reactions with SO2 (k4) and CS2 (k5) have also been investigated at 298K. We find that k4=(2.20.3)נ10-10 and k5=(4.60.6)נ10-10cm3molecule-1s-1; branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.760.12 and 0.940.06 for the SO2 and CS2 reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2?) and rate coefficients ki(T) (i=1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of 15% (2?). PMID:20133693

  20. [Greenhouse gases fluxes of biological soil crusts and soil ecosystem in the artificial sand-fixing vegetation region in Shapotou area].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Gang; Feng, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Bing-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainties still existed for evaluating greenhouse gases fluxes (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) at the regional scale for desert ecosystem because available GHGs data about biological soil crusts (BSCs) was very scarce. In 2011 and 2012, soil ecosystem covered by various types of BSCs and BSCs at different succession stages in an artificial sand-fixing vegetation region established in various periods at southeast of the Shapotou area in Tengger Desert was selected to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O using static chamber and gas chromatography. The results showed that curst type, recovery time and their interactions with sampling date significantly affected CO2 flux. Recovery time and interaction of crust type and sampling date significantly affected CH4 flux. Sampling date significantly affected the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The mean annual flux of CO2 for moss crust (105.1 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) was significantly higher than that of algae crust (37.7 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) at the same succession stage. Annual mean CH4 and N2O consumption was 19.9 and 3.4 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. Mean annual consumption of CH4 and N2O for algae crust was slightly higher than that of moss crust, however, significant difference was not found. Ecosystem respiration (Re) of desert soil covered by BSCs increased with the recovery process of desert ecosystem, in contrast, consumption of CH4 and N2O decreased. Re of moss crust was more sensitive to temperature and moisture variation than algae crust and Re sensitivity of temperature and moisture gradually increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Both soil temperature and moisture were not the main factor to determine CH4 and N2O fluxes of BSCs-soil in desert ecosystem. PMID:24765843

  1. Spatial and seasonal fluxes of the greenhouse gases N2O, CO2 and CH4 in a UK macrotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, J. F.; Carvalho, L.; Dudley, B.; Heal, K. V.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U.

    2015-02-01

    The spatial and seasonal dynamics of surface water fluxes of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O were quantified in the Tay estuary, Scotland, on seven sampling occasions every 3 months during 2009/2010. This estuary is a relatively pristine river-dominated macrotidal estuary system of a type that is sparsely represented in global GHG flux studies. Significant spatial and temporal variability in GHG fluxes were measured, with similar spatial dynamics to that of other European estuaries. Greatest temporal and spatial variability in gas saturations were found for CH4, which was higher in the summer, with peaks in saturation occurring in the freshwater upper estuary and sharply decreasing in the mid-estuary mixing zone. Concentrations of CO2 and N2O were also generally higher in the upper to middle estuary in summer, although seasonality was less pronounced. Estimated air-sea fluxes also displayed significant spatial and temporal variability. Total annual CO2 emissions were greatest in the middle estuary zone (13.8 106 kg C yr-1), and lowest in the upper estuary (1.52 106 kg C yr-1). Seasonally, the highest CO2 emissions integrated across the estuary were in spring and autumn, with the lowest in winter. Total annual CH4 emissions were also highest in the middle estuary (0.05 106 kg C yr-1) and lowest in the upper estuary (0.01 106 kg C yr-1), whereas total N2O emissions, whilst highest in the middle estuary (2344 kg N yr-1), were lowest in the outer estuary (-435 kg N yr-1). Emissions of CH4 and N2O were substantially higher in the summer than any other season and lowest emissions were found in winter. The estimated annual exchange of both CO2 and N2O is substantially lower than those reported in other European macrotidal estuaries.

  2. Spatial Variability of Trace Gases During DISCOVER-AQ: Planning for Geostationary Observations of Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, K.; Crawford, J.; Appel, W.; Diskin, G.; Fried, A.; Loughner, C.; Pfister, G.; Weinheimer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from an in-depth analysis of trace gas variability in MD indicated that the variability in this region was large enough to be observable by a TEMPO-like instrument. The variability observed in MD is relatively similar to the other three campaigns with a few exceptions: CO variability in CA was much higher than in the other regions; HCHO variability in CA and CO was much lower; MD showed the lowest variability in NO2All model simulations do a reasonable job simulating O3 variability. For CO, the CACO simulations largely under over estimate the variability in the observations. The variability in HCHO is underestimated for every campaign. NO2 variability is slightly overestimated in MD, more so in CO. The TX simulation underestimates the variability in each trace gas. This is most likely due to missing emissions sources (C. Loughner, manuscript in preparation).Future Work: Where reasonable, we will use these model outputs to further explore the resolvability from space of these key trace gases using analyses of tropospheric column amounts relative to satellite precision requirements, similar to Follette-Cook et al. (2015).

  3. CO2, CO and CH4 measurements from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; de Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    A robust in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary layer trace gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures and flow rates that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. These algorithms provide detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates for all of the gases and could be adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off the shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  4. Detecting ozone- and greenhouse-gas-driven zonal-mean zonal wind trends with observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldstein, S. B.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling studies have found that Antarctic ozone depletion and greenhouse gas (GHG) increase can account for the observed poleward shift in the westerly jet during the austral summer. Similar studies have not been previously performed with observational data because of difficulties in separating the two contributions. By applying a self-organizing map (SOM) analysis to daily ERA-Interim zonal-mean zonal wind data, we found two sets of intraseasonal 4-10 day zonal-mean SOM patterns; one set with a spatial structure that resembles the typical model response to GHG forcing, and the second set with a structure that closely resembles the zonal-mean response to ozone depletion. Linear regression of the winter-mean frequency of occurrence of each SOM pattern reveals that the observed interdecadal poleward zonal-mean jet trend can be interpreted as arising from interdecadal changes in the frequency of occurrence of the intraseasonal zonal-mean SOM patterns. Composites analysis of outgoing longwave radiation shows that that those SOM patterns whose frequency of occurrence trend is linked to GHG driving were preceded by anomalies in convection over the tropical Indian and western Pacific Ocean. This suggests that the GHG impact on the poleward jet trend is manifested though the excitation of increased tropical convection and the subsequent poleward wave activity propagation, in analogy with the so-called TEAM mechanism. The trends in the clusters occurrence frequency also indicate that the ozone contributed about 50% more than GHG toward the jet shift, which supports previous model results. Moreover, our findings suggest that tropical convection may provide a possible pathway for the Antarctic ozone hole to influence the Northern Hemisphere zonal mean circulation.

  5. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: algorithm and results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, A.; Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.

    2015-01-01

    The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO) is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting so far. Here we describe a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both standalone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm-1 and exploits transmission differences from wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s-1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s-1 but is found to benefit in case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and implementation of a LMIO mission.

  6. Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L; Nicovich, J Michael; Wine, Paul H

    2010-04-13

    A laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O((1)D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO(2)F(2)(k(1)), NF(3)(k(2)), and SF(5)CF(3)(k(3)). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k(1)(T) = 9.0 x 10(-11) exp(+98/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k(1b) = (5.8 +/- 2.3) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) independent of temperature. We find that k(2)(T) = 2.0 x 10(-11) exp(+52/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with reaction proceeding almost entirely (approximately 99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O((1)D) by NF(3) is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF(3). Deactivation of O((1)D) by SF(5)CF(3) is slow enough (k(3) < 2.0 x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) that reaction with O((1)D) is unimportant as an atmospheric removal mechanism for SF(5)CF(3). The kinetics of O((1)D) reactions with SO(2) (k(4)) and CS(2) (k(5)) have also been investigated at 298 K. We find that k(4) = (2.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(-10) and k(5) = (4.6 +/- 0.6) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.76 +/- 0.12 and 0.94 +/- 0.06 for the SO(2) and CS(2) reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2sigma) and rate coefficients k(i)(T) (i = 1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of +/- 15% (2sigma). PMID:20133693

  7. Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.; Morikawa, T.; Hanayama, S.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Fukui, T.; Kawashima, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-11-01

    We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25° × 0.25° resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.0 Pg (+57%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulphurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° for the major sectors are available from the following URL: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/.

  8. Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.; Morikawa, T.; Hanayama, S.; Greet, J.-M.; Fukui, T.; Kawashima, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-04-01

    We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25 × 0.25° resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.7 Pg (+59%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulfurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25 × 0.25° for the major sectors are available from the following url: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/ .

  9. [Short-term effects of fire disturbance on greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Mu, Chang-cheng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Li-dong; Yu, Li-li; Gu, Han

    2011-04-01

    By the methods of static chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the effects of fire disturbance on the seasonal dynamics and source/sink functions of CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland as well as their relations with environmental factors in Xiaoxing' an Mountains of China. In growth season, slight fire disturbance on the wetland induced an increase of air temperature and ground surface temperature by 1.8-3.9 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 6.3 cm; while heavy fire disturbance led to an increase of air temperature and 0-40 cm soil temperature by 1.4-3.8 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 33.9 cm. Under slight or no fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed by the wetland soil in spring but emitted in summer and autumn; under heavy fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed in spring and summer but emitted in autumn. The CO2 flux had a seasonal variation of summer > spring = autumn under no fire disturbance, but of summer > autumn > spring under fire disturbance; and the N2O flux varied in the order of spring > summer > autumn under no fire disturbance, but of autumn > spring > summer under slight fire disturbance, and of summer > spring = autumn under heavy fire disturbance. At unburned site, the CO2 flux was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and ground surface temperature; at slightly burned site, the CO2 flux had significant positive correlations with air temperature, 5-10 cm soil temperature, and water table; at heavily burned sites, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 flux and 5-40 cm soil temperature. Fire disturbance made the CH4 emission increased by 169.5% at lightly burned site or turned into weak CH4 sink at heavily burned site, and made the CO2 and N2O emissions and the global warming potential (GWP) at burned sites decreased by 21.2% -34.7%, 65.6% -95.8%, and 22.9% -36.6% respectively, compared with those at unburned site. Therefore, fire disturbance could decrease the greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland, and planned firing could be properly implemented in wetland management. PMID:21774304

  10. Biases in greenhouse gases static chambers measurements in stabilization ponds: Comparison of flux estimation using linear and non-linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Juan P.; Lasso, Ana; Lubberding, Henk J.; Peña, Miguel R.; Gijzen, Hubert J.

    2015-05-01

    The closed static chamber technique is widely used to quantify greenhouse gases (GHG) i.e. CH4, CO2 and N2O from aquatic and wastewater treatment systems. However, chamber-measured fluxes over air-water interfaces appear to be subject to considerable uncertainty, depending on the chamber design, lack of air mixing in the chamber, concentration gradient changes during the deployment, and irregular eruptions of gas accumulated in the sediment. In this study, the closed static chamber technique was tested in an anaerobic pond operating under tropical conditions. The closed static chambers were found to be reliable to measure GHG, but an intrinsic limitation of using closed static chambers is that not all the data for gas concentrations measured within a chamber headspace can be used to estimate the flux due to gradient concentration curves with non-plausible and physical explanations. Based on the total data set, the percentage of curves accepted was 93.6, 87.2, and 73% for CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively. The statistical analyses demonstrated that only considering linear regression was inappropriate (i.e. approximately 40% of the data for CH4, CO2 and N2O were best fitted to a non-linear regression) for the determination of GHG flux from stabilization ponds by the closed static chamber technique. In this work, it is clear that when R2adj-non-lin > R2adj-lin, the application of linear regression models is not recommended, as it leads to an underestimation of GHG fluxes by 10-50%. This suggests that adopting only or mostly linear regression models will affect the GHG inventories obtained by using closed static chambers. According to our results, the misuse of the usual R2 parameter and only the linear regression model to estimate the fluxes will lead to reporting erroneous information on the real contribution of GHG emissions from wastewater. Therefore, the R2adj and non-linear regression model analysis should be used to reduce the biases in flux estimation by the inappropriate application of only linear regression models.

  11. SAFT-? force field for the simulation of molecular fluids: 2. Coarse-grained models of greenhouse gases, refrigerants, and long alkanes.

    PubMed

    Avendao, Carlos; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S; Galindo, Amparo; Mller, Erich A; Jackson, George

    2013-03-01

    In the first paper of this series [C. Avendao, T. Lafitte, A. Galindo, C. S. Adjiman, G. Jackson, and E. A. Mller, J. Phys. Chem. B2011, 115, 11154] we introduced the SAFT-? force field for molecular simulation of fluids. In our approach, a molecular-based equation of state (EoS) is used to obtain coarse-grained (CG) intermolecular potentials that can then be employed in molecular simulation over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions of the fluid. The macroscopic experimental data for the vapor-liquid equilibria (saturated liquid density and vapor pressure) of a given system are represented with the SAFT-VR Mie EoS and used to estimate effective intermolecular parameters that provide a good description of the thermodynamic properties by exploring a wide parameter space for models based on the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jones) potential. This methodology was first used to develop a simple single-segment CG Mie model of carbon dioxide (CO2) which allows for a reliable representation of the fluid-phase equilibria (for which the model was parametrized), as well as an accurate prediction of other properties such as the enthalpy of vaporization, interfacial tension, supercritical density, and second-derivative thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound). In our current paper, the methodology is further applied and extended to develop effective SAFT-? CG Mie force fields for some important greenhouse gases including carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), modeled as simple spherical molecules, and for long linear alkanes including n-decane (n-C10H22) and n-eicosane (n-C20H42), modeled as homonuclear chains of spherical Mie segments. We also apply the SAFT-? methodology to obtain a CG homonuclear two-segment Mie intermolecular potential for the more challenging polar and asymmetric compound 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf), a novel replacement refrigerant with promising properties. The description of the fluid-phase behavior and the prediction of the other thermophysical properties obtained by molecular simulation using our SAFT-? CG Mie force fields are found to be of comparable quality (and sometimes superior) to that obtained using the more sophisticated all-atom (AA) and united-atom (UA) models commonly employed in the field. We should emphasize that though the focus of our current work is on simple homonuclear models, the SAFT-? methodology is based on a group contribution methodology which is naturally suited to the development of more sophisticated heteronuclear models. PMID:23311931

  12. Observations of Reactive Gases in the Central Siberia in 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Pankratova, Natalia; Shumsky, Roman; Vivchar, Anastasia; Timkovsky, Joseph; Berezina, Elena

    2010-05-01

    There is a considerable shortage of direct observations of atmospheric trace gases in low-populated regions of Siberia. Since March, 2007 till now continuous measurements of O3, NOx, NO and NO2 concentrations have been performed at ZOTTO station in the middle of Krasnoyarsky Krai (60 N, 90 E) with 10 sec timing. Observations are completely automated and are part of scientific program on atmospheric chemistry measurements of ZOTTO Consortium headed by Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena. Variations of ozone concentration reveal vivid seasonal and daily features which have been analyzed and compared to other mid-latitude background stations as well as to data of TROICA train-based observations. These variations are likely to be typical for the Northern Eurasia boreal zone. Seasonal spring maximum (40-50 ppbv) is caused by stratospheric ozone intrusions that are only considerable ozone source. Smaller variations can be induced both by local factors and long-range transport of ozone precursors from pollution sources. The largest ozone formation rate has been observed in summer time from 9 a.m. till 3 p.m. of local time and made up 1-2 ppbv/hour. Such value points out on quite low photochemical activity and ambient air oxidizing ability. NOx concentration does not exceed 1 ppb that is typical for background areas but may vary by order and some more in few hours. Higher surface NOx(=NO+NO2) concentrations during day time generally correspond to higher ozone when NO/NO2 ratio indicates on clean or slightly polluted conditions. Analysis on base of Lagrangian model for evaluation of air parcel trajectories basing on NCEP final analysis meteorological fields and Russian Federation Hydrometeocenter reanalysis fields and residence time statistics has shown that most probable sources of man-made emissions influencing the Central Siberia air are located on south of Siberia (Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tomsk, Novosibirsk). These results have been verified by CO data provided Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, and agreement was very good. Data of TROICA-11, 12, 13 campaigns which occurred correspondingly in summer of 2007, 2008 and 2009 have been used to analyze pollution sources located along the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Measurements of volatile organic compounds by proton mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) in 2008 and 2009 have been also considered to assess concentrations of biogenic VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) for dark-coniferous forests zone. Some of man-made VOCs (aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde) were measured at ZOTTO in 2008 and in 2009 and are also presented in this study. The work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project # 08-05-13589).

  13. Aerosols and gases concentrations observed at Stelvio National Park (Italian Alps) during summer conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; Cristofanelli, P.; Bonaf, U.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Laj, P.; Villani, P.; Bonasoni, P.

    2012-04-01

    Three summer fields campaigns were carried out during 2009, 2010 and 2011 in two sites in the area of Stelvio National Park (SNP), Central Italian Alps. Those activities were performed in the frame of the SHARE - Stelvio project (Station at High Altitude for Research on the Environment). SNP includes an extensive impervious territory of valleys and high mountains, up to 3900 m asl. Two high altitude sampling sites, Rifugio Guasti (3285 m asl) and Forni glacier ( 2700 m asl), have been picked out for collecting the main atmospheric parameters: the first site hosted the field campaign in 2009 and 2010 and was located at Cevedale pass, at the border between Lombardia and Trentino-Alto Adige regions, while in 2011 the measurements were carried out on Forni glacier surface, in a N-S oriented valley, through SHARE-box, a portable and autonomous unit for atmospheric measurements developed in the framework of SHARE project. Because of different location Rifugio Guasti is an ideal site to monitor long range transport on Southern slope of Alpine range, while Forni glacier is more affected by local influence of valley and glacier breezes. Monitored parameters concerned (i) meteorology, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, air pressure, (ii) chemical and physical properties of the aerosols (number concentrations, size distribution and chemical composition) and (iii) , gases concentration (CO2, O3). This work is aimed at describing the behaviour of these compounds, in terms of concentration observed over different time scales, such hourly and daily, in order to investigate the impact of transport processes (i.e. air masses transports arisen from both "thermal" breezes or synoptic circulation) on aerosols and gases variability at SNP. The Alps face the Po Valley, one of the more populated and industrialized region in Europe. This is one of the most probable source of polluted air masses which spread towards high altitude sites, such as Alps and Apennines, according to the dominant wind direction and the planetary boundary layer depth. In fact during summer-time, when the convective boundary layer is well developed, the measurement could be affected by air masses travelling along Tellina Valley and from the urbanized Po Valley and vegetated belt, spreading towards the high elevation of Alpine Southern slope, strongly affecting the tropospheric conditions and resulting in a typical diurnal cycle. On the other hand, as will be shown in this work, the long-range transport related with synoptic circulation may affect air-mass composition at the SNP. In fact several episodes of mineral dust transport coming from Northern Africa and air-masses descending from the upper troposphere or the low stratosphere has been observed. Long range transport of polluted air masses from continental Europe may also affect the pristine air conditions at SNP.

  14. Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region

    PubMed Central

    McKain, Kathryn; Wofsy, Steven C.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ehleringer, James R.; Stephens, Britton B.

    2012-01-01

    International agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require verification to ensure that they are effective and fair. Verification based on direct observation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will be necessary to demonstrate that estimated emission reductions have been actualized in the atmosphere. Here we assess the capability of ground-based observations and a high-resolution (1.3 km) mesoscale atmospheric transport model to determine a change in greenhouse gas emissions over time from a metropolitan region. We test the method with observations from a network of CO2 surface monitors in Salt Lake City. Many features of the CO2 data were simulated with excellent fidelity, although data-model mismatches occurred on hourly timescales due to inadequate simulation of shallow circulations and the precise timing of boundary-layer stratification and destratification. Using two optimization procedures, monthly regional fluxes were constrained to sufficient precision to detect an increase or decrease in emissions of approximately 15% at the 95% confidence level. We argue that integrated column measurements of the urban dome of CO2 from the ground and/or space are less sensitive than surface point measurements to the redistribution of emitted CO2 by small-scale processes and thus may allow for more precise trend detection of emissions from urban regions. PMID:22611187

  15. Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region.

    PubMed

    McKain, Kathryn; Wofsy, Steven C; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ehleringer, James R; Stephens, Britton B

    2012-05-29

    International agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require verification to ensure that they are effective and fair. Verification based on direct observation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will be necessary to demonstrate that estimated emission reductions have been actualized in the atmosphere. Here we assess the capability of ground-based observations and a high-resolution (1.3 km) mesoscale atmospheric transport model to determine a change in greenhouse gas emissions over time from a metropolitan region. We test the method with observations from a network of CO(2) surface monitors in Salt Lake City. Many features of the CO(2) data were simulated with excellent fidelity, although data-model mismatches occurred on hourly timescales due to inadequate simulation of shallow circulations and the precise timing of boundary-layer stratification and destratification. Using two optimization procedures, monthly regional fluxes were constrained to sufficient precision to detect an increase or decrease in emissions of approximately 15% at the 95% confidence level. We argue that integrated column measurements of the urban dome of CO(2) from the ground and/or space are less sensitive than surface point measurements to the redistribution of emitted CO(2) by small-scale processes and thus may allow for more precise trend detection of emissions from urban regions. PMID:22611187

  16. In-situ vertical profiles of greenhouse gases: Why we need them and how we are going to get them in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Tans, P. P.; Butler, J. H.; Crosson, E.

    2009-12-01

    For more than five years the NOAA/ESRL aircraft project has been collecting flask samples at as many as 20 sites throughout North America. A compilation of the data demonstrates that vertical profiles are valuable in many ways. In particular, we have demonstrated that it is possible to make continental-scale flux estimates that depend only on well known horizontal re-analysis winds. We also show how these datasets contribute to our understanding of large scale circulation and chemical processes that dominate the seasonal cycle of these gases. Finally, these datasets have been essential for validating satellite observations and GHG forward and inverse models. As the requirements grow for estimating fluxes at smaller scales, so will the need for a higher density of vertical profiles. The NOAA/ESRL aircraft project has taken a lead role in this with the development a new sampling technology called the AirCore, as well as the validation and testing of Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) technology that is suitable for deployment on commercial aircraft. With this technology we expect to increase the density of vertical profiles made each year by two orders of magnitude with only moderate increases in cost. The increase in vertical profile density will not only help us quantify terrestrial fluxes but also help to understand the key mechanisms driving the variability in fluxes.

  17. The detection of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, Robert A.; Unninayar, Sushel

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is accepted as an undisputed fact from both theoretical and observational considerations. In Earth's atmosphere, the primary greenhouse gas is water vapor. The specific concern today is that increasing concentrations of anthropogenically introduced greenhouse gases will, sooner or later, irreversibly alter the climate of Earth. Detecting climate change has been complicated by uncertainties in historical observations and measurements. Thus, the primary concern for the GEDEX project is how can climate change and enhanced greenhouse effects be unambiguously detected and quantified. Specifically examined are the areas of: Earth surface temperature; the free atmosphere (850 millibars and above); space-based measurements; measurement uncertainties; and modeling the observed temperature record.

  18. Retrieval of vertical profiles of multiple trace gases from MAX-DOAS observations during the MADCAT Campaign in Mainz, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Xie, Pinhua; Wagner, Thomas; Li, Ang; Luo, Yuhan; Remmers, Julia; Horbanski, Martin; Friess, Udo

    2014-05-01

    In order to promote the development of passive DOAS technique and solve some critical problems including e.g. accurate retrievals of trace gas slant column densities (SCD), profile retrievals of trace gases and aerosol, and the effects of cloud, the Multi Axis DOAS-Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) was held at the Max-Planck institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany from June to August 2013. Within this campaign, spectra of scattered sun light were taken by our two-dimensional scanning MAX-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) instrument and a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument from the Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this presentation, firstly we show the retrieved differential SCDs of O4, NO2, HCHO, HONO and CHOCHO based on the observations of the 2D-MAX-DOAS. Based on these dSCDs we acquired the vertical profiles of these trace gases and aerosol extinction using optimal estimation method. We compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MAX-DOAS with simultaneous observations from an AERONET instrument as well as the near surface volume mixing ratio (VMR) of NO2 from MAX-DOAS with those from a CE-DOAS instrument from the IUP Heidelberg group and found in general good agreement. In addition we apply a cloud classification scheme based on our MAX-DOAS observations to identify different kinds of weather during the MAD-CAT campaign.

  19. Spatial variability of greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir flooding primary forest (Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleaud, Emilie; Gurin, Frdric; Bouillon, Steven; Sarrazin, Max; Sera, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    At the Petit Saut Reservoir (PSR, French Guiana, South America), vertical profiles were performed at 5 stations in the open waters (OW) and 6 stations in two shallow flooded forest (FF) areas between April 2012 and September 2013. Measurements included physico-chemical parameters, ammonium, nitrate and dissolved greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) and nitrogen (PN), ?13C-POC and ?15N-PN . The diffusive fluxes were calculated from surface concentrations. The aim of this study was to estimate the spatial variations of greenhouse gas emissions at a dentrical hydroelectric reservoir located in the tropics and flooding primary forest. Twenty years after impoundment, the water column of the PSR is permanently and tightly stratified thermally in the FF whereas in the OW, the thermal gradients are not as stable. The different hydrodynamical behaviours between the two different zones have significant consequences on the biogeochemistry: oxygen barely diffuses down to the hypolimnion in the FF whereas destratification occurs sporadically during the rainy season in the OW. Although we found the same range of POC in the FF and the OW (2.5-29 ?mol L-1) and 20% more DOC at the bottom of OW than in the FF (229-878 ?mol L-1), CO2 and CH4 concentrations were always significantly higher in the FF (CO2: 11-1412 ?mol L-1, CH4: 0.001-1015 ?mol L-1) than in the OW. On average, the CO2 concentrations were 30-40% higher in the FF than in the OW and the CH4 concentrations were three times higher in the FF than in the OW. The ?13C-POC and C:N values did not suggest substantial differences in the sources of OM between the FF and OW. At all stations, POC at the bottom has an isotopic signature slightly lighter than the terrestrial OM in the surrounding forest whereas the isotopic signature of surface POM would result from phytoplankton and methanotrophs. The vertical profiles of nitrogen compounds reveal that the main source of nitrogen in the water column of the PSR is the NH4+ produced during the mineralisation of the OM at the bottom of the reservoir. In OW, the production of NO3- and N2O is enhanced compared to the FF. As a result, N2O concentrations are three times higher at the bottom of OW but surface concentrations are similar in the FF and OW. CO2 diffusive fluxes are 40% higher and CH4 diffusive fluxes are three times higher in FF (CO2: 4220 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.71.4 mmol m-2 d-1) than in OW (CO2: 2717 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.20.3 mmol m-2 d-1). In shallow FF, average CH4 ebullition is 310 mmol m-2 d-1 whereas ebullition was never observed in OW. N2O emissions did not exhibit any spatial variability (94 ?mol m-2 d-1). At the PSR, FF which represents one third of the surface area, is responsible of half of the GHG emissions from the reservoir. This implies that the emissions from most of the tropical reservoirs flooding primary forest need to be reassessed since FF environments are usually overlooked.

  20. Comparison of the observed and calculated clear sky greenhouse effect - Implications for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    The clear sky greenhouse effect is defined in terms of the outgoing longwave clear sky flux at the top of the atmosphere. Recently, interest in the magnitude of the clear sky greenhouse effect has increased due to the archiving of the clear sky flux quantity through the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The present study investigates to what degree of accuracy this flux can be analyzed by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. The conclusion from this comparison is that for most regions over oceans the analyzed fluxes agree to within the accuracy of the ERBE-retrieved fluxes (+/- 5 W/sq m). However, in regions where deep convective activity occurs, the ERBE fluxes are significantly higher (10-15 W/sq m) than the calculated fluxes. This bias can arise from either cloud contamination problems or variability in water vapor amount. It is argued that the use of analyzed fluxes may provide a more consistent clear sky flux data set for general circulation modeling validation. Climate implications from the analyzed fluxes are explored. Finally, results for obtaining longwave surface fluxes over the oceans are presented.

  1. Estimation of greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from no-till cropland under increased temperature and altered precipitation regime: a DAYCENT model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Rashad; Kumar, Sandeep; Luo, Yiqi; Xu, Xianli; Li, Dejun; Zhang, Wei; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman

    2014-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play an important role in regulating the Earth surface temperature. GHG emissions from soils are sensitive to climate change and land management practices. According to general circulation model (GCM) predictions, the Earth will experience a combination of increased temperature and altered precipitation regimes which may result in an increase or a decrease of GHG exchange. The effect of climate change on GHG emissions can be examined through both experiments and by applying process-based models, which have become more popular. The performance of those models can be improved significantly by appropriate calibration procedures. The objectives of this study are to: (i) calibrate the DAYCENT model using advance parameter estimation (PEST) software and to (ii) examine simulated GHG dynamics at daily and seasonal time-scales under a climate change scenario of increased temperature (2 C) and a precipitation regime change where 40% of precipitation during the dry season was redistributed to the wet season. The algorithmic calibration improved the model performance by reducing the sum of weighted squared residual differences by up to 223% (decreased from 1635 to 505 g N2O-N ha- 1 d- 1) for N2O and 22% (decreased from 623 to 507% WFPS) for water filled pore space (WFPS) simulation results. In the altered climate scenario, total N2O and CO2 fluxes decreased by 9% (from 2.31 to 2.10 kg N2O-N ha- 1 yr- 1) and 38% (from 1134.08 to 699.56 kg CO2 ha- 1 yr- 1) respectively, whereas CH4 fluxes increased by 10% (from 1.62 to 1.80 kg CH4 ha- 1 yr- 1). Our results show a larger impact of altered climate on CO2 as compared to N2O and CH4 emissions. The main difference in all GHG emissions was observed in summer period due to drought conditions created by reduced precipitation and increased temperatures. However, the GHG dynamics can also be attributed to no-till practices which play an important role in changing the soil moisture conditions for aerobic and anaerobic microsites. These results are based on a process-based model, therefore, we suggest performing experimental studies to examine the GHG emissions under increased temperature and especially under altered precipitation regimes.

  2. Direct observations of reactive atmospheric gases at ZOTTO station in the middle of Siberia as a base for large-scale modeling of atmospheric chemistry over Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Shtabkin, Yury; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Pankratova, Natalia; Vasileva, Anastasia; Rakitin, Vadim; Heimann, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Direct observations of atmospheric air composition are very important for a comprehensive understanding of atmospheric chemistry over Northern Eurasia and its variability and trends driven by abrupt climatic and ecosystem changes and anthropogenic pressure. Atmospheric air composition (including greenhouse gases and aerosols), its trends and variability is still insufficiently known for most of the nearly uninhabited areas of Northern Eurasia. This limits the accuracy of both global and regional models, which simulate climatological and ecosystem changes in this highly important region. From that point of view, the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in the middle of Siberia (near 60N, 90E), launched in 2006 and governed by a scientific international consortium plays an important role providing unique information about concentrations of greenhouse and reactive trace gases, as well as aerosols. Simulations of surface concentrations of O3, NOx and CO performed by global chemical-transport model GEOS-Chem using up-to-date anthropogenic and biogenic emissions databases show very good agreement with values observed at ZOTTO in 2007-2012. Observed concentration of ozone has a pronounced seasonal variation with a clear peak in spring (40-45 ppbv in average and up to 80 ppbv in extreme cases) and minimum in winter. Average ozone level is about 20 ppbv that corresponds to the background conditions. Enhanced concentration in March-July is due to increased stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. In autumn and winter distribution of ozone is close to uniform. NOx concentration does not exceed 1 ppb that is typical for background areas but may vary by order and some more in few hours. Higher surface NOx(=NO+NO2) concentrations during day time generally correspond to higher ozone when NO/NO2 ratio indicates on clean or slightly polluted conditions. CO surface concentration has a vivid seasonal course and varies from about 100 ppb in summer till 150 ppb in winter. But during polluted cases which are quite regular CO may increase till 400 ppb and more. Most uncertainties are due to the wild fires, which are often in different regions of Siberia. Numerical assessment of climatically important natural and anthropogenic emission sources influencing observed CO and O3 concentrations and their seasonal variability was made using GEOS-Chem model. According to the results, during the cold period CO concentrations in the surface layer is largely driven atmospheric transport from anthropogenic sources in Western Europe (up to 20 ppb), south of European Russia (up to 35 ppb) and south-western Siberia (up to 28 ppb). During the warm season they are usually affected by air transport from eastern Siberia, where the main contribution to the CO emissions are biogenic VOC oxidation (up to 15 ppb) and wildfires (up to 12 ppb). Transport of pollutants from south-western Siberia can add about 2,5 ppb to the ozone summer level in Central Siberia. In wintertime this factor leads to a reduced surface ozone level by 2 ppb. The contribution of large remote emission sources (Europe) is estimated within 1 ppb. Generally the simulation results indicate a significant role of long-range air transport in addition to regional natural and anthropogenic sources of air pollution which determine the total balance of surface CO. These processes need to be considered in quantitative analyses of the factors that determine the long-term photochemical system evolution in the lower troposphere over the continental regions of Northern Eurasia. This work was supported by the Russian Scientific Fund under grant 14-47-00049.

  3. The earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology. I - Observations of the clear sky greenhouse effect. II - Observations of cloud effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Greenwald, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky components of the earth's radiation budget (ERB), the relationship of these components to the sea surface temperature (SST), and microwave-derived water-vapor amount are analyzed in an observational study along with the relationship between the cloudy-sky components of ERB and space/time coincident observations of SST, microwave-derived cloud liquid water, and cloud cover. The purpose of the study is to use these observations for establishing an understanding of the couplings between radiation and the atmosphere that are important to understanding climate feedback. A strategy for studying the greenhouse effect of earth by analyzing the emitted clear-sky longwave flux over the ocean is proposed. It is concluded that the largest observed influence of clouds on ERB is more consistent with macrophysical properties of clouds as opposed to microphysical properties. The analysis for clouds and the greenhouse effect of clouds is compared quantitatively with the clear sky results. Land-ocean differences and tropical-midlatitude differences are shown and explained in terms of the cloud macrostructure.

  4. Satellite Observations of Trace Gases and Their Application for Studying Air Quality Near Oil and Gas Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollonige, D. E.; Thompson, A. M.; Nichols, M.; Fasnacht, Z.; Martins, D. K.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in the natural gas component of the energy sector has led many state and local municipalities to begin regulation of emissions from the oil and natural gas operators with air quality (AQ) as a concern. "Top-down" measurements of trace gases in the air above wells complement "bottom-up" inventories, used by EPA and AQ stakeholders, through a more accurate depiction of regional variability of methane and other species near and downwind of oil and gas operations. Satellite observations of methane, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, ozone, and other carbon gases enhance the spatial and temporal coverage of the data needed to demonstrate any long-term impacts from shale gas development. As part of a NASA AQAST (Air Quality Applied Sciences Team) project, we are evaluating satellite measurements of trace gases in regions with oil and gas operations for their application as a "top-down" constraint. For validation of the satellite instruments' sensitivities to emitted gases, we focus on regions where the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaign deployed with ground and aircraft measurements, including, Maryland (2011), California and Texas (2013), and Colorado (2014). We compare vertical distributions of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nearby and downwind of oil and gas wells to locate any regional differences during the campaign time periods. This allows for better characterization of the satellite observations and their limitations for application in air quality studies in similar environments. Taking advantage of current EOS-era satellites' data records, we also analyze methane anomalies and gas correlations in the free troposphere from 2005 to present to identify trends for basins with oil and gas extraction sites and their influence on background concentrations downwind of wells. In most regions with oil and gas activity, we see continually increasing methane concentrations and about a 5-10 percent enhancement above background tropospheric concentrations. With this ongoing effort, we aim to demonstrate the benefits of satellite-derived "top-down" constraints for emissions estimates associated with oil and natural gas operations.

  5. Observation and modelling of dissolved gases as indicators for mass transfer during gas sparging in a contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, S.; Balcke, G.

    2009-04-01

    Degradation of organic contaminants in aquifers is often limited by the availability of electron acceptors, and the attenuation of contaminants could be enhanced by additional supply of oxygen. Gas sparging is a remediation technique that supplies additional oxygen to ground water via injection of air or oxygen gas. For the performance of this method the mass transfer of gases from the gas phase trapped after injection is a key process. Our study investigated kinetic gas-water mass transfer between trapped gas phase in porous media and groundwater by spatially and temporally resolved dissolved gas measurements in an unconfined model aquifer. The aquifer model was built on-site as a 12 m tall underground tank filled with aquifer material and recharged in vertical direction by the local, contaminated groundwater. For the injection of short gas pulses, oxygen and air as injected gas phase were studied in view of interfacial mass transfer, gas transport in the aqueous phase, and accumulation of trapped gas in the porous space. At several locations dissolved nitrogen, methane and oxygen were observed at different stages of gas dissolution. Kinetic gas-water mass transfer in presence of oxygen demanding reactions in the polluted aquifer material and the transport of dissolved gases were simulated numerically for heterogeneous distribution of gas phase as was observed. Partitioning of nitrogen played an important role in the accumulation of trapped gas and contributes additional information on gas transfer processes. While injection of pure oxygen resulted in complete dissolution of trapped gas within a few meters, nitrogen and methane showed distinct patterns of mass transfer into the gas phase and back into aqueous phase. Naturally occurring gases such as methane or nitrogen were demonstrated to be valuable tracers to describe multiple compound gas-water mass transfer and to assist in predicting gas dissolution and oxygen consumption in porous media.

  6. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  7. [Summer Greenhouse Gases Exchange Flux Across Water-air Interface in Three Water Reservoirs Located in Different Geologic Setting in Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-hong; Pu, Jun-bing; Sun, Ping-an; Yuan, Dao-xian; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Mo, Xue

    2015-11-01

    Due to special hydrogeochemical characteristics of calcium-rich, alkaline and DIC-rich ( dissolved inorganic carbon) environment controlled by the weathering products from carbonate rock, the exchange characteristics, processes and controlling factors of greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) across water-air interface in karst water reservoir show obvious differences from those of non-karst water reservoir. Three water reservoirs (Dalongdong reservoir-karst reservoir, Wulixia reservoir--semi karst reservoir, Si'anjiang reservoir-non-karst reservoir) located in different geologic setting in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China were chosen to reveal characteristics and controlling factors of greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface. Two common approaches, floating chamber (FC) and thin boundary layer models (TBL), were employed to research and contrast greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface from three reservoirs. The results showed that: (1) surface-layer water in reservoir area and discharging water under dam in Dalongdong water reservoir were the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in reservoir area in Wulixia water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and the source of atmospheric CH4, while discharging water under dam was the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in Si'anjiang water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and source of atmospheric CH4. (2) CO2 and CH4 effluxes in discharging water under dam were much more than those in surface-layer water in reservoir area regardless of karst reservoir or non karst reservoir. Accordingly, more attention should be paid to the CO2 and CH4 emission from discharging water under dam. (3) In the absence of submerged soil organic matters and plants, the difference of CH4 effluxes between karst groundwater-fed reservoir ( Dalongdong water reservoir) and non-karst area ( Wulixia water reservoir and Si'anjiang water reservoir) was less. However, CO2 efflux in karst groundwater-fed reservoir was much higher than that of reservoir in non-karst area due to groundwater of DIC-rich input from karst aquifer and thermal stratification. PMID:26910987

  8. Policy implications of greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Contents: background; the greenhouse gases and their effects; policy framework; adaptation; mitigation; international considerations; findings and conclusions; recommendations; questions and answers about greenhouse warming; background information on synthesis panel members and professional staff; and membership lists for effects, mitigation, and adaptation panels.

  9. First Results of Atmospheric Trace Gases in and around New Delhi using mobile MAX-DOAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaiganfar, R.; Beirle, S.; Marbach, T.; Wagner, T.; Sharma, M.; Chauhan, A.; Singh, R.

    2010-12-01

    . Megacities are localized, heterogeneous and variable sources of air pollutants, greatly influence air quality and have direct influence on climate. Within the European project MEGAPOLI, in month of April 2010, we carried out mobile MAX-DOAS measurements in and around Delhi and made comparison with satellite data. The MAX-DOAS was mounted on a car. The aim of the project was to characterize and quantify pollutants. The mobile observations were conducted in and around New Delhi along circles of different radii. The analysis of MAX-DOAS, satellite observations and meteorological data, is used to quantify the total emissions of trace gases like NO2, HCHO or Glyoxal. The results obtained from the detailed analysis are first time compared with the satellite data. The ground and satellite data show a good correlation over Delhi, capital of India.

  10. Development of inexpensive continuous emission monitors for feedback control of combustion devices that minimize greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, and ozone damaging products

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.J.; Moore, D.S.; Mongia, R.K.; Tomita, E.; Hsu, F.K.; Talbot, L.; Dibble, R.W.; Lovett, J.; Yamazaki, Akira

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combustion is the major cause of poor urban air quality, of depletion of the ozone layer, and a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Careful control of combustor conditions is important for minimizing the effects of combustion on the environment. The authors have developed sensitive, inexpensive continuous emission monitors that will assist in direct feedback of turbine power systems and provide assurance to the public and the operators of the facilities that their facility emissions lie within the accepted bounds. These include a robust solid-state Fourier transform spectrometer for rapid gas analysis, based on the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal technology, and an infrared helium-neon probe for real time measurement of combustor air-to-fuel ratios.

  11. Quantum gases. Observation of Fermi surface deformation in a dipolar quantum gas.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, K; Baier, S; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Ravensbergen, C; Ferlaino, F

    2014-09-19

    In the presence of isotropic interactions, the Fermi surface of an ultracold Fermi gas is spherical. Introducing anisotropic interactions can deform the Fermi surface, but the effect is subtle and challenging to observe experimentally. Here, we report on the observation of a Fermi surface deformation in a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. The deformation is caused by the interplay between strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and the Pauli exclusion principle. We demonstrate the many-body nature of the effect and its tunability with the Fermi energy. Our observation provides a basis for future studies on anisotropic many-body phenomena in normal and superfluid phases. PMID:25237096

  12. Gases, God and the balance of nature: a commentary on Priestley (1772) 'Observations on different kinds of air'.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John G

    2015-04-13

    Historians of chemistry usually associate the eighteenth century with the Chemical Revolution, but it could just as readily be called 'the century of gases' (or 'airs', as they were called in the eighteenth century). In the early part of the century, the British pneumatic chemists struggled to replace the traditional notion 'Air', understood as an inert chemical element, with the concept of 'air', regarded as the third state of matter, encompassing a wide variety of chemical species. These developments constituted a necessary condition for the Chemical Revolution, which occurred in the latter part of the century. In 'Observations', Priestley took pneumatic chemistry to a new level, with the discovery of eight simple inorganic gases. Motivated by his belief in a benevolent God and a pious utilitarianism, Priestly explored the role of the atmosphere in the balance of nature and the politics of the state, which he linked to the movement of Rational Dissent. He styled himself an 'aerial philosopher' to signal the interdisciplinary nature of his inquiries, which he regarded not as a branch of ordinary chemistry, but as a mode of thought that encompassed physics, chemistry and natural theology. Priestley saw it as a source of principles and secrets of nature more extensive than that of 'gravity itself'. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750146

  13. Analysis of air quality with numerical simulation (CMAQ), and observations of trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Patricia

    Ozone, a secondary pollutant, is a strong oxidant that can pose a risk to human health. It is formed from a complex set of photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ambient measurements and air quality modeling of ozone and its precursors are important tools for support of regulatory decisions, and analyzing atmospheric chemical and physical processes. I worked on three methods to improve our understanding of photochemical ozone production in the Eastern U.S.: a new detector for NO2, a numerical experiment to test the sensitivity to the timing to emissions, and comparison of modeled and observed vertical profiles of CO and ozone. A small, commercially available cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) NO2 detector suitable for surface and aircraft monitoring was modified and characterized. The CRDS detector was run in parallel to an ozone chemiluminescence device with photolytic conversion of NO2 to NO. The two instruments measured ambient air in suburban Maryland. A linear least-squares fit to a direct comparison of the data resulted in a slope of 0.960+/-0.002 and R of 0.995, showing agreement between two measurement techniques within experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to the temporal variation of four emissions sectors was investigated to understand the effect of emissions' daily variability on modeled ozone. Decreasing the variability of mobile source emissions changed the 8-hour maximum ozone concentration by +/-7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). Increasing the variability of point source emissions affected ozone concentrations by +/-6 ppbv, but only in areas close to the source. CO is an ideal tracer for analyzing pollutant transport in AQMs because the atmospheric lifetime is longer than the timescale of boundary layer mixing. CO can be used as a tracer if model performance of CO is well understood. An evaluation of CO model performance in CMAQ was carried out using aircraft observations taken for the Regional Atmospheric Measurement, Modeling and Prediction Program (RAMMPP) in the summer of 2002. Comparison of modeled and observed CO total columns were generally in agreement within 5-10%. There is little evidence that the CO emissions inventory is grossly overestimated. CMAQ predicts the same vertical profile shape for all of the observations, i.e. CO is well mixed throughout the boundary layer. However, the majority of observations have poorly mixed air below 500 m, and well mixed air above. CMAQ appears to be transporting CO away from the surface more quickly than what is observed. Turbulent mixing in the model is represented with K-theory. A minimum Kz that scales with fractional urban land use is imposed in order to account for subgrid scale obstacles in urban areas and the urban heat island effect. Micrometeorological observations suggest that the minimum Kz is somewhat high. A sensitivity case where the minimum K z was reduced from 0.5 m2/s to 0.1 m2/s was carried out. Model performance of surface ozone observations at night increased significantly. The model better captures the observed ozone minimum with slower mixing, and increases ozone concentrations in the residual layer. Model performance of CO and ozone morning vertical profiles improves, but the effect is not large enough to bring the model and measurements into agreement. Comparison of modeled CO and O3 vertical profiles shows that turbulent mixing (as represented by eddy diffusivity) appears to be too fast, while convective mixing may be too slow.

  14. Observation of Nearly Perfect Irrotational Flow in Normal and Superfluid Strongly Interacting Fermi Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, Bason; Luo, Le; Thomas, John E.

    2007-10-05

    We study the hydrodynamic expansion of a rotating strongly interacting Fermi gas by releasing a cigar-shaped cloud with a known angular momentum from an optical trap. As the aspect ratio of the expanding cloud approaches unity, the angular velocity increases, indicating quenching of the moment of inertia I to as low as 0.05 of the rigid body value I{sub rig}. Remarkably, we observe this behavior in both the superfluid and collisional normal fluid regimes, which obey nearly identical zero-viscosity irrotational hydrodynamics. We attribute irrotational flow in the normal fluid to a decay of the rotational part of the stream velocity during expansion, which occurs when the shear viscosity is negligible. Using conservation of angular momentum, we directly observe a fundamental result of irrotational hydrodynamics, I/I{sub rig}={delta}{sup 2}, where {delta} is the deformation parameter of the cloud.

  15. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  16. Predicted versus observed cosmic-ray-produced noble gases in lunar samples - Improved Kr production ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regnier, S.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Marti, K.; Reedy, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    New sets of cross sections for the production of krypton isotopes from targets of Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr have been constructed primarily on the bases of experimental excitation functions for Kr production from Y. These cross sections were used to calculate galactic-cosmic-ray and solar-proton production rates for Kr isotopes in the moon. The paper reports spallation Kr data obtained from ilmenite separates of rocks 10017 and 10047. Production rates and isotopic ratios for cosmogenic Kr observed in ten well-documented lunar samples and in ilmenite separates and bulk samples from several lunar rocks with long but unknown irradiation histories were compared with predicted rates and ratios. The agreements were generally quite good.

  17. Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of 2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100?g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Outcome measures Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Results Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18?683 (14?665to 22?889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is 2.02 (1.98 to 2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15?228 (11?245to 19?492) ktCO2e/year. Conclusions Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets. PMID:24154517

  18. Observing Trace Gases Of The Arctic And Subarctic Stratosphere By TELIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Doicu, Adrian; Vogt, Peter; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg; Trautmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The Terahertz and submillimeter Limb Sounder (TELIS) is a balloon-borne cryogenic heterodyne spectrometer developed by a consortium of European institutes, which was mounted together with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - Balloon (MIPAS- B) and the mini- Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mini-DOAS) instruments on a stratospheric gondola. The TELIS instrument is designed to monitor the vertical distribution of stratospheric state parameters associated with ozone destruction and climate change in Arctic and subarctic areas. The broad spectral coverage of TELIS is achieved by utilizing three frequency channels: a tunable 1.8THz channel based on a solid state local oscillator and a hot electron bolometer as mixer, a 480-650GHz channel with the Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) technology, and a highly compact 500 GHz channel developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON), and the Rutherford Apple- ton Laboratory (RAL), respectively. Furthermore, an ex- tended spectral range is observed by the combination of TELIS and MIPAS-B, which can be employed for cross validation of several gas concentrations. Between 2009 and 2011 three successful scientific flights have been launched in Kiruna, Sweden and all relevant atmospheric gas species were seen by TELIS over an altitude range of 10-32.5 km. For estimation of concentration profiles from TELIS measurements, a constrained nonlinear least squares fitting framework along with var- ious Tikhonov-type regularization methods has been developed. In this work we present recent retrieval results from latest calibrated spectra during the 2010 flight. Emphasis is placed on ozone (O3) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), and error issues pertaining to the main instrumental uncertainty terms including nonlinearity in the calibration procedure, sideband ratio and pointing offset are investigated. The retrieved profiles are validated against other limb sounding instruments, e.g. the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and MIPAS-B.

  19. Impacts of an African Green Revolution on Greenhouse Gases and Pollution Precursors: Nonlinear Trace N Gas Emission Responses to Incremental Increases in Fertilizer Inputs in a Western Kenyan Maize Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several decades, agricultural soils in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa