Note: This page contains sample records for the topic greenhouse gases observation from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Greenhouse Gases Observation from the GOSAT Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a satellite to monitor the carbon dioxide (CO2) and the methane (CH4) globally from orbit. The two instruments are accommodated on GOSAT. The Greenhouse gases Observing Sensor is a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS), which detects gas absorption spectra of the solar short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth_fs surface as well as of the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. The FTS is capable of detecting three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 micron) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 micron) with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution. The cloud and aerosol sensor is an imager of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. The presentation includes the instrument design, pre-launch calibration and onboard calibration schemes; as well as, some test results using the Bread Board Model (BBM).

Kuze, A.; Kondo, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Hamazaki, T.

2005-12-01

2

Greenhouse Gases Observation From TANSO on GOSAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is a satellite to monitor the carbon dioxide (CO2) and the methane (CH4) globally from orbit. Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier- Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects the Short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage, specifically, three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 micron) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 micron) with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution. TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. The paper presents the instrument design and performance ground test results; as well as, pre-launch and onboard calibration schemes.

Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Kaneko, Y.; Hamazaki, T.

2006-12-01

3

Greenhouse Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds present in Earth's atmosphere behave as 'greenhouse gases'. These are gases ... direct sunlight (relative shortwave energy) to reach the Earth's surface unimpeded. As the shortwave energy (that in ...

4

Greenhouse Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... were not for naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the Earth would be too cold to support life as ... the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the Earth would be about -2°F rather than the ...

5

Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners engage in a radiating heat activity and an activity that measures temperature in models with and without greenhouse gases. Learners will draw conclusions about the effect of greenhouse gases on temperature and on human life and kinesthetically model the absorbing and re-radiation of heat. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 3 in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase studentsâ awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

6

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization is the only existing long-term international global programme providing a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to greenhouse gases and climate change. The WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), integrates the observations from

Oksana A. Tarasova; Geir O. Braathen; Leonard A. Barrie; Kazuto Suda; Ed Dlugokencky

2010-01-01

7

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations. These requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 17th meeting was held in Beijing, China, on 10 - 14 June 2013 (http://ggmt-2013.cma.gov.cn/dct/page/1). Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 9 represents an update of the results for the year 2012 (extended version is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/ghg9-en-online.html). The cover story of this bulletin presents the attribution of methane sources in the context of the renewed growth of the global average methane mole fraction in 2007. The bulletin is prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/CBS/Lists_WorkGroups/CAS/opag-epac/gaw%20sag%20ghg) in collaboration with the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) derived from this network reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.1±0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1819±1 ppb and N2O at 325.1±0.1 ppb. These values constitute 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2011 to 2012 amounted to 2.2 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm yr-1) and for the past decade (~2.0 ppm yr-1). The globally averaged CH4 mole fraction increased by 6 ppb from 2011 to 2012. The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~13 ppb yr-1 during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again, averaging ~5 ppb yr-1. The growth rate of N2O in 2012 was 0.9 ppb yr-1, which is greater than the average growth rate over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb yr-1). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of total radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. The AGGI in 2012 was 1.32 (corresponding to 2.87 W m-2 of global radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all long-lived greenhouse gases). The AGGI indicates an increase in radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases of 32% since 1990 and of 1.2% from 2011 to 2012, while the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases in 2012 corresponded to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 475.6 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Edward; Montzka, Stephen A.; Butler, James H.

2014-05-01

8

Greenhouse gases: Sources and emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current interest in the ''greenhouse'' issue stems from the observation that the concentrations of such gases as CO(sub 2), CH(sub 4), N(sub 2)O, CFCl(sub 3) and CF(sub 2)Cl(sub 2) have been increasing. Changes in the concentrations of these gases hol...

J. Edmonds D. J. Wuebbles

1991-01-01

9

Deforestation and Greenhouse Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human activities produce large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), and thus contribute to global warming. The use of fossil fuels is the primary source of CO2 emissions, but the removal of trees from forested land has also ...

2012-01-01

10

Reduction in greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It needs extensive use of new and improved technology, by improvement in energy efficiency, change of fuels, introduction of new energy sources and abatement \\/ sequestration of greenhouse gases in order to achieve reductions in emissions without affecting standards of living. Some of these technologies are widely available now; others are in their research stages. This panel paper looks into

D. Vujatovic; L. L. Lai

2003-01-01

11

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations; these requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 16th meeting was held in Wellington, New Zealand, on 25 - 28 October 2011 (http://www.niwa.co.nz/our-science/atmosphere/ggmt-2011). Surface observations are made at more than 100 stations worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of stations for many other greenhouse gases. Results of the latest global analysis were published in the WMO/GAW Greenhouse Gas Bulletin in November 2011. It highlights the importance of N2O, the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2010, with CO2 at 389.0 ppm, CH4 at 1808 ppb and N2O at 323.2 ppb. These values are greater than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 39%, 158% and 20%, respectively. An increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2009 to 2010 amounted to 2.3 ppm, which is higher than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~ 1.5 ppm/yr) and the one for the past decade (~ 2.0 ppm/yr). The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~ 13 ppb/yr during the early 1980s to near zero from 1999 to 2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again. The 19 ppb rise from 2006 to 2009 was followed by a 5 ppb rise in 2010. The growth rate of N2O in 2010 was 0.8 ppb/yr which is comparable to the average over the last 10 years (0.75 ppb/yr). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2010, radiative forcing from nearly all long-lived greenhouse gases increased by 29% and reached 2.81W/m2, with CO2 accounting for nearly 80% of this increase. This radiative forcing corresponds to a CO2-eq mole fraction of 469.7 ppm, which falls in the middle of the IPCC AR4 category I scenario with CO2-eq in the range 445-490 ppm (corresponding to the projected global average temperature rise above pre-industrial level at equilibrium in the range of 2-2.4 degree C). The radiative forcing of N2O now exceeds that of CFC-12.

Tarasova, O. A.; Koide, H.; Dlugokencky, E.; Hall, B.; Montzka, S. A.; Krummel, P.; Brunke, E.; Scheel, H.-E.

2012-04-01

12

Greenhouse Gases Exposed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the relationship between greenhouse gases and global warming through a simple teacher demo or hands-on lab activity. Everyday materials are used: beakers, baking soda, vinegar, candle, thermometers, heat source such as a goose-necked lamp, etc. Students shine a light onto three thermometers: a control, an upside down beaker w/ a thermometer and air, and a beaker in which CO2 had been poured.

Babcock, Victoria; Collie, Janet; Ecohealth

13

Global CO2 Distributions over Land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

January 2009 saw the successful launch of the first space-based mission specifically designed for measuring greenhouse gases, the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We present global land maps (Level 3 data) of column-averaged CO2 concentrations (X(sub CO2)) derived using observations from the GOSAT ACOS retrieval algorithm, for July through December 2009. The applied geostatistical mapping approach makes it possible to generate maps at high spatial and temporal resolutions that include uncertainty measures and that are derived directly from the Level 2 observations, without invoking an atmospheric transport model or estimates of CO2 uptake and emissions. As such, they are particularly well suited for comparison studies. Results show that the Level 3 maps for July to December 2009 on a lO x 1.250 grid, at six-day resolution capture much of the synoptic scale and regional variability of X(sub CO2), in addition to its overall seasonality. The uncertainty estimates, which reflect local data coverage, X(sub CO2) variability, and retrieval errors, indicate that the Southern latitudes are relatively well-constrained, while the Sahara Desert and the high Northern latitudes are weakly-constrained. A probabilistic comparison to the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA-GFED model reveals that the most statistically significant discrepancies occur in South America in July and August, and central Asia in September to December. While still preliminary, these results illustrate the usefulness of a high spatiotemporal resolution, data-driven Level 3 data product for direct interpretation and comparison of satellite observations of highly dynamic parameters such as atmospheric CO2.

Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; O'Dell, Christopher; Kawa, Randolph S.

2012-01-01

14

Greenhouse Gases: A Closer Look  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers different aspects of the major greenhouse gases - water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides and CFCs - including some of the ways in which human activities are affecting the atmospheric concentrations of these key greenhouse gases. This is lesson six in a nine-lesson module about climate change.

Science, King'S C.

15

Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional theory of global warming states that heating of atmosphere occurs as a result of accumulation of CO2 and CH4 in atmosphere. The writers show that rising concentration of CO2 should result in the cooling of climate. The methane accumulation has no essential effect on the Earth’s climate. Even significant releases of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide into the atmosphere do not change average parameters of the Earth’s heat regime and the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Moreover, CO2 concentration increase in the atmosphere results in rising agricultural productivity and improves the conditions for reforestation. Thus, accumulation of small additional amounts of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere as a result of anthropogenic activities has practically no effect on the Earth’s climate.

Chilingar, G. V.; Sorokhtin, O. G.; Khilyuk, L.; Gorfunkel, M. V.

2009-09-01

16

CO II retrieval performance of TANSO-FTS (TIR) sensor aboard greenhouse gases observing satellite (GOSAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a Japanese satellite that is intended to observe CO II concentration from space and to contribute to advancement of research of the source/sink estimation of CO II. The GOSAT main sensor is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) named "TANSO-FTS", which covers a wide terrestrial radiation spectrum including CO II absorption bands at 1.6 ?m, 2.0 ?m, and 15 ?m. The former two bands are used to estimate columnar concentration of CO II; the latter is used to retrieve the vertical profile of CO II in the upper atmosphere above about 700 hPa pressure level. In addition, another installed on the satellite is an imaging sensor that will be used to detect clouds and aerosols: Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAT). The Center for Climate System Research (CCSR) has contracted with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to develop an algorithm to retrieve CO II concentration profiles from data measured by the thermal infrared (TIR) band of the TANSO-FTS sensor. We adopt the maximum a posteriori method (MAP) to retrieve the vertical profile of atmospheric parameters from thermal infrared spectra. Key techniques for retrieving CO II concentrations are 1) reduction of temperature estimation error through channel selection, 2) optimization of the initial guess for CO II profile based on the output from a chemical transport model (CTM), and 3) usage of data from the 1.6 ?m band of TANSO-FTS as an additional constraint in retrieval of vertical profiles of CO II. Although thermal infrared spectrum data have poor vertical resolving power for CO II concentration in the lower atmosphere, particularly in the boundary layer, we expect that CO II amount in the lower atmosphere can be deduced by substituting the upper level concentration from the columnar concentration estimated from the 1 .6 ?m band data.

Imasu, Ryoichi; Saitoh, Naoko; Ota, Yoshifumi; Taguchi, Shoichi

2006-12-01

17

Different Fuels and Greenhouse gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Peter Hall (a senior scientist in the field of bioenergy research at Crown Research Institute Scion) describes how different products (e.g. coal, wood) produce differing amounts of greenhouse gases.

Waikato, The U.; Hub, Science L.

18

The ice record of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

Gases trapped in polar ice proved our most direct record of the changes in greenhouse gas levels during the past 150,000 years. The best documented trace-gas records are for CO[sub 2] and CH[sub 4]. The measurements corresponding to the industrial period document the recent changes in growth rate. The variability observed over the last 1000 years constrains the possible feedbacks of a climate change on the trace gases under similar conditions as exist today. Changes in the levels of greenhouse gases during the glacial-interglacial cycle overall paralleled, at least at high southern latitudes, changes in temperature; this relation suggests that greenhouse gases play an important role as an amplifier of the initial orbital forcing of Earth's climated and also helps to assess the feedbacks on the biogeochemical cycles in a climate system in which the components are changing at different rates.

Raynaud, D.; Barnola, J.M.; Chappellaz, J.; Delmas, R.J.; Lorius, C. (Cenre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Saint Martin d'Heres Cedex (France)); Jouzel, J. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, Yvette (France))

1993-02-12

19

Methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite: Comparison to ground-based TCCON data and model calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new short-wave infrared (SWIR) column retrievals of atmospheric methane (XCH4) from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and compare observed spatial and temporal variations with correlative ground-based measurements from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and with the global 3-D GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. GOSAT XCH4 retrievals are compared with daily TCCON observations at six sites between April 2009 and July 2010 (Bialystok, Park Falls, Lamont, Orleans, Darwin and Wollongong). GOSAT reproduces the site-dependent seasonal cycles as observed by TCCON with correlations typically between 0.5 and 0.7 with an estimated single-sounding precision between 0.4-0.8%. We find a latitudinal-dependent difference between the XCH4 retrievals from GOSAT and TCCON which ranges from 17.9 ppb at the most northerly site (Bialystok) to -14.6 ppb at the site with the lowest latitude (Darwin). We estimate that the mean smoothing error difference included in the GOSAT to TCCON comparisons can account for 15.7 to 17.4 ppb for the northerly sites and for 1.1 ppb at the lowest latitude site. The GOSAT XCH4 retrievals agree well with the GEOS-Chem model on annual (August 2009 - July 2010) and monthly timescales, capturing over 80% of the zonal variability. Differences between model and observed XCH4 are found over key source regions such as Southeast Asia and central Africa which will be further investigated using a formal inverse model analysis.

Parker, Robert; Boesch, Hartmut; Cogan, Austin; Fraser, Annemarie; Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Messerschmidt, Janina; Deutscher, Nicholas; Griffith, David W. T.; Notholt, Justus; Wennberg, Paul O.; Wunch, Debra

2011-08-01

20

CO2 retrieval algorithm for the thermal infrared spectra of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite: Potential of retrieving CO2 vertical profile from high-resolution FTS sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched in January 2009, with the aim of providing global observations of greenhouse gases. We developed an algorithm to retrieve CO2 vertical profiles from the terrestrial radiation spectra at 700–800 cm?1 and assessed its validity. For this purpose, we first computed GOSAT pseudomeasurement spectra and then performed CO2 retrieval simulations using the

Naoko Saitoh; Ryoichi Imasu; Yoshifumi Ota; Yosuke Niwa

2009-01-01

21

(Seminar on anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traveler participated in an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) expert seminar on anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. The meeting was initiated by OECD in anticipation of the need for national estimating emissions of greenhouse gases which will precede an international convention on greenhouse gases. The meeting which attracted delegates from 44 countries, began the process of developing

Marland

1991-01-01

22

Global distribution of column carbon dioxide and methane retrieved from observations of Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched on January 23, 2009. The main target of the GOSAT observation is to obtain global distribution and variation of carbon dioxide and methane abundances. Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects the signal of reflected solar light on the earth's surface in Short Wavelength Infra-Red (SWIR) regions as well as that of radiance emitted from the surface and the atmosphere in Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) region. TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a CCD radiometer to obtain the information on cloud and aerosols that contaminate the FTS signals. Since June 2009, TANSO-FTS and CAI have made continuous observation. Retrievals of carbon dioxide and methane column abundances from SWIR spectra for cloud-free scenes are retrieved in several processing versions. Optically thick clouds within the field of view of TANSO-FTS (approximately 10 km diameter) are detected using the TANSO-CAI radiances and optically thin cirrus using the solar reflected spectrum in the strong water vapor absorption band in the TANSO-FTS 2.0 m band. We applied an optimal estimation method (maximum a posteriori method) to the selected cloud-free scene data for retrieving column abundances of carbon dioxide and methane. Version 050.050 and version 080.080 of Level 1B products (four band spectra from TANSO-FTS and four band images from TANSO-CAI) have been open to the registered public users from late October 2009. Version 00.50 and 00.80 of Level 2 products (carbon dioxide and methane column abundances from TANSO-FTS SWIR and cloud flag from TANSO-CAI) have been opened to the registered public users from mid February 2010. At present, retrieved column abundances seem to be slightly underestimated, but global column-averaged concentration patterns and seasonal variations agree with the current knowledge. The retrieval algorithm will be improved soon.

Yokota, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Yukio; Morino, Isamu; Uchino, Osamu; Maksyutov, Shamil; Watanabe, Hiroshi

23

Comparing Greenhouse Gases for Policy Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions from different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often used to compare greenhouse gases, is not based on such a damage comparison. This essay presents assumptions under which ratios of gas-specific discounted marginal damages reduce to

Richard Schmalensee

1993-01-01

24

Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

1999-01-01

25

The Spatial and Temporal Representativeness of Atmospheric Observations of Greenhouse Gases at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous observations of trace species such as greenhouse gases (GHGs) made from ground-based stations contain excellent information in the time domain but no direct information about the spatial distribution of GHGs. Generally a rule-of-thumb is used for inferring horizontal length scales for specific time intervals, but this is approximate and does not give any indication about the specific contributions of advection and surface fluxes to GHG variability. We consider the first year of measurements from a new coastal background site in Namibia, the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory(NDAO) and apply a quantitative approach using footprints and back-trajectories to calculate a site-specific time to spatial scale conversion function. The extent of both horizontal and vertical transport exhibits seasonality and synoptic influence. The historical NOAA GHG flask record from nearby site GBB is also compared to the global background to assess how well regional and global trends are represented by observations at NDAO. Based on the results of the HYSPLIT and TM3 transport models, during austral summer the site receives marine boundary layer air with a greater extent of horizontal transport than in austral winter, when air masses are sourced from greater height and are more likely to be terrestrially influenced. This conclusion is supported by the trace gases and meteorological parameters measured at the station.

Morgan, Eric; Lavri?, Jošt; Heimann, Martin

2014-05-01

26

CARIBIC observations of greenhouse gases and non-methane hydrocarbons on flights between Germany and South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since May 2005 the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) has made near-monthly deployments of an atmospheric observatory making measurements from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 during routine passenger flights. Flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany and serve a large number of destinations, among them Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. On these flights, which took place primarily during northern hemisphere winter 2010/2011, a near-meridional profile was obtained over Europe and Africa, in similar fashion to HIPPO flight tracks over the Pacific, be it without vertical profiles. Over Central Africa, deep convection transports boundary layer air to the free troposphere, linking observations at cruise altitude to surface emissions and allowing for the investigation of emissions and sources of atmospherically relevant species in Africa. Mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (methane, carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide) and a suite of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude during flight. Several tracers, for example methane, carbon monoxide, and various NMHC, exhibit enhanced mixing ratios over tropical Africa. Using tracer-tracer correlations to characterize methane emissions from Africa, we find that biomass burning made a major contribution to the methane burden, but that also biogenic sources, such as wetlands, play a significant role. We also compare these measurements to those conducted earlier over India, which were used to investigate sources and emissions of greenhouse gases during the South Asian summer monsoon.

Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; van Velthoven, P.

2012-12-01

27

Detection of optical path in spectroscopic space-based observations of greenhouse gases: Application to GOSAT data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to detect optical path modification due to atmospheric light scattering in space-based greenhouse gas spectroscopic sounding. This method, which was applied to the analysis of radiance spectra measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), is based on the path length probability density function (PPDF) and on retrieval of PPDF parameters from radiance spectra in the oxygen A-band of absorption at 0.76 ?m. We show that these parameters can be effectively used to characterize the impact of atmospheric light scattering on carbon dioxide retrieval in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption bands at 1.6 ?m and 2.0 ?m. The threshold for PPDF parameters is set so that the optical-path modification is negligible, and these settings are recommended as a basic guideline for selecting the clearest atmospheric scenarios. An example of data processing for six global GOSAT repeat cycles in April and July 2009 shows that PPDF-based selection efficiently removes CO2 retrieval biases associated with subvisible cirrus and sandstorm activities.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Yokota, Tatsuya

2011-07-01

28

Estimating European emissions of ozone-depleting and greenhouse gases using observations and a modeling back-attribution technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Numerical Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling Environment (NAME) dispersion model driven by three-dimensional (3-D) synoptic meteorology from the Unified Model has been used to determine the fraction of air arriving at Mace Head, Ireland, from different European regions over a 6-year period. These data, along with observations of pollutants at Mace Head and a best fit algorithm, have been used to derive emission estimates over Western Europe. The algorithm starts from randomly generated emission maps and iterates toward the best solution. Using an idealized case study, it has been shown to be effective at distinguishing between distinct source regions. The technique has been applied to two ozone-depleting gases, CFC-11 and CFC-12, and two greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide. The emissions derived compare favorably with existing inventories. The technique is able to provide information regarding the emission distribution across Europe and to estimate area and country contributions; information that for some species is not readily available by other means. It is a different methodology to those currently used and so is a useful tool in verifying existing inventories.

Manning, A. J.; Ryall, D. B.; Derwent, R. G.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.

2003-07-01

29

Greenhouse role of trace gases  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric scientists are emphasizing the role of trace gases as important factors in a future substantial global increase in temperature. They estimate that, in 1980, trace gases contributed more than half as much to a greenhouse effect as did increased carbon dioxide. From 1880 to 1980, CO/sub 2/ increased from about 275 parts per million (ppm) to 339 ppm. The principal relevant trace gases in 1980 were Ch/sub 4/, 1.6 ppm; N/sub 2/O, 0.3 ppm; CCl/sub 2/F/sub 2/, 0.00028 ppm. CCl/sub 3/F, 0.00018 ppm, and O/sub 3/, which increased in the troposphere substantially over earlier values. Methane (CH/sub 4/) is at present the most effective greenhouse trace gas. Its concentration has been increasing about 1% per year since 1950. The total content in the atmosphere is about 5000 million tons. Methane is destroyed slowly, mainly in the trophosphere, by the reactive OH. Residence time for CH/sub 4/ is 5 to 10 years. This implies an annual addition of at least 500 million tons to hold the level constant. Growth of 1% per year requires an extra addition on the order of 50 million tons. Principal sources of CH/sub 4/ appear to be ruminant animals, organic-rich sediments, and rice paddies. A complicating factor in estimating trends in CH/sub 4/ distribution is the competition of CO for OH. Emissions of CO have been increasing, and they destroy OH that otherwise might react with CH/sub 4/.

Abelson, P.H.

1986-03-14

30

The ice record of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gases trapped in polar ice provide our most direct record of the changes in greenhouse gas levels during the past 150,000 years. The best conducted trace-gas records are for CO2 and CH4. The measurements corresponding to the industrial period document the recent changes in growth rate. The variability observed over the last 1000 years constrains the possible feedbacks of a

D. Raynaud; J. Jouzel; J. M. Barnola; J. Chappellaz; R. J. Delmas; C. Lorius

1993-01-01

31

Reporting emissions of greenhouse gases in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases are considered in “Canada's National Report on Climate Change: Actions to Meet Commitments Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”. By including all major greenhouse gases and their anthropogenic sources and sinks using best available science, the Report provides a practical illustration of the “comprehensive approach” policy to implementing the Convention's requirements. In addition

Patrick Finlay; Robert Stobbs

1994-01-01

32

Efficient abatement of different greenhouse gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although CO(sub 2) is the most important greenhouse gas, there are a number of other greenhouse gases which are important for the development of the climate. An efficient climate policy should in principle be related to emissions of all climate gases, wei...

M. Hoel I. Isaksen

1993-01-01

33

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Archive  

EIA Publications

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program established a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., can report to the EIA, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

Information Center

2011-02-01

34

Path-radiance correction by polarization observation of Sun glint glitter for remote measurements of tropospheric greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

High-accuracy remote measurement of greenhouse gases is hampered by contamination of the field of view by the path radiance of solar radiation scattered from clouds and aerosols. A method is proposed for eliminating the effect of path radiance by differentiating two components of polarized light. The polarization of path radiance is measured directly at the wave-number region of strong water-vapor absorption. Using this measurement, we eliminate the components of path radiance involved in other bands, which are used for greenhouse gas measurements, by differentiating two components of the polarized light. It is shown that the effect of path radiance on retrieving the column amount of gases potentially can be reduced to below 0.1%. PMID:12206201

Aoki, Tadao; Aoki, Teruo; Fukabori, Masashi

2002-08-20

35

Methane retrievals from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) shortwave infrared measurements: Performance comparison of proxy and physics retrieval algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare two conceptually different methods for determining methane column-averaged mixing ratios ? from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) shortwave infrared (SWIR) measurements. These methods account differently for light scattering by aerosol and cirrus. The proxy method retrieves a CO2 column which, in conjunction with prior knowledge on CO2acts as a proxy for scattering effects. The physics-based method accounts for scattering by retrieving three effective parameters of a scattering layer. Both retrievals are validated on a 19-month data set using ground-based ? at 12 stations of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), showing comparable performance: for the proxy retrieval we find station-dependent retrieval biases from -0.312% to 0.421% of ? a standard deviation of 0.22% and a typical precision of 17 ppb. The physics method shows biases between -0.836% and -0.081% with a standard deviation of 0.24% and a precision similar to the proxy method. Complementing this validation we compared both retrievals with simulated methane fields from a global chemistry-transport model. This identified shortcomings of both retrievals causing biases of up to 1ings and provide a satisfying validation of any methane retrieval from space-borne SWIR measurements, in our opinion it is essential to further expand the network of TCCON stations.

Schepers, D.; Guerlet, S.; Butz, A.; Landgraf, J.; Frankenberg, C.; Hasekamp, O.; Blavier, J.-F.; Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hase, F.; Kyro, E.; Morino, I.; Sherlock, V.; Sussmann, R.; Aben, I.

2012-05-01

36

Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical process industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 highlighted the importance of greenhouse gas emissions. The metallurgical process industry\\u000a is a contributor to these emissions and would be seriously affected by measures curtailing them. The present lecture offers\\u000a a brief review of the greenhouse effect, the sources of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming,\\u000a the response of

Claude H. P. Lupis; C. H. P

1999-01-01

37

Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 2414.1 Introduction 2434.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 2484.3 Projections of Future Emissions 2664.4 Projections of Atmospheric Composition for the 21st Century 2674.5 Open Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric Chemistry Change 279

Ehhalt, D.; Prather, M.; Dentener, F.; Derwent, R.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Holland, E.; Isaksen, I.; Katima, J.; Kirchhoff, V.; Matson, P.; Midgley, P.; Wang, M.; Berntsen, T.; Bey, I.; Brasseur, G.; Buja, L.; Collins, W. J.; Daniel, J. S.; DeMore, W. B.; Derek, N.; Dickerson, R.; Etheridge, D.; Feichter, J.; Fraser, P.; Friedl, R.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Gauss, M.; Grenfell, L.; Grubler, Arnulf; Harris, N.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Jackman, C.; Jacob, D.; Jaegle, L.; Jain, Atul K.; Kanakidou, M.; Karlsdottir, S.; Ko, M.; Kurylo, M.; Lawrence, M.; Logan, J. A.; Manning, M.; Mauzerall, D.; McConnell, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Montzka, S.; Muller, J. F.; Olivier, J.; Pickering, K.; Pitari, G.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rogers, H.; Rognerud, B.; Smith, Steven J.; Solomon, S.; Staehelin, J.; Steele, P.; Stevenson, D. S.; Sundet, J.; Thompson, A.; van Weele, M.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Wang, Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wigley, T. M.; Wild, O.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Yantosca, R.; Joos, Fortunat; McFarland, M.

2001-10-01

38

Remote sensing of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using hyperspectral observations in the thermal infrared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Densely sampling the atmosphere in time and space, satellite measurements of the distribution of global atmospheric CO2 concentration could in principle provide a way to constrain atmo-spheric inversions of CO2 surface fluxes. Until the recent launch of the first dedicated CO2 observing instrument JAXA/GOSAT in January 2009, information on CO2 and other green-house gas atmospheric distribution have been obtained for several years from thermal infrared sounders, such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) launched onboard the NASA/Aqua satellite in May 2002 or the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched on-board the European MetOp platform in October 2006. We use coupled observations in the thermal infrared from IASI, and in the microwave from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), also launched onboard MetOp, to retrieve mid-to-upper tropospheric contents of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in clear-sky conditions, in the tropics. Thermal observations, sensitive to both temperature and either CO2 or CH4, are used in conjunction with microwave observations, only sensitive to temperature, to decorrelate both signals through a non-linear inference scheme based on neural networks. A key point of this approach is that no use is made of prior information in terms of gas seasonality, trend, or geographical patterns. The precision of the IASI retrieval is estimated to be about 2 ppmv (less than 1 Features of the retrieved CO2-CH4 space-time distributions include: (1) a CO2 trend of 2.1 ppmv.yr-1 in average, and a CH4 trend of 10 ppbv.yr-1 in the last couple of years, which confirms the recent increase of methane detected at surface stations; (2) a strong seasonal cycle in the northern tropics, and a lower seasonal cycle in the southern tropics, in agreement with in-situ measurements; in particular, comparison between AIRS and IASI retrievals highlights the time-lag of CO2 cycle while transported from the surface to the upper troposphere; (3) a latitudinal decrease from 20 N to 20 S lower than what is observed at the surface but in excellent agreement with tropospheric aircraft measurements; (4) geographical patterns in good agree-ment with simulations from atmospheric transport and chemistry models, but with a higher variability; (5) signatures of CO2 and CH4 emissions transported to the troposphere such as CO2 emissions from biomass burnings, or a large plume of elevated tropospheric methane south of the Asian continent, which might be due to Asian emissions from rice paddies uplifted by deep convection during the monsoon period and then transported towards Indonesia. More-over, these retrievals, performed from the same instrument and with the same retrieval process, provide the means to study the correlation between CO2 and CH4, in particular its seasonal variation over regions of specific interest, which leads the way to a multi-species study of surface fluxes and atmospheric transport. In addition to bringing a greatly improved view of CO2 and CH4 atmospheric distribution, these results from thermal infrared observations should provide a means to observe and understand atmospheric transport pathways of these two greenhouse gases from the surface to the upper troposphere.

Crevoisier, Cyril; Chedin, Alain; Nobileau, Delphine; Armante, Raymond; Thonat, Thibaud; Scott, Noelle A.

39

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01

40

Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?  

SciTech Connect

Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

Fischer, Marc

2009-01-01

41

Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?  

ScienceCinema

Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

Fischer, Marc

2013-05-29

42

Greenhouse gases from animal husbandry: mitigation options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abatement strategies for direct emissions of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry are discussed. The reduction options are\\u000a divided into preventive and `end of pipe' options. Preventive measures reduce either the carbon and nitrogen input into the\\u000a system of animal husbandry or their output from the system, respectively. `End of pipe' measures reduce the formation of greenhouse\\u000a gases from carbon and

Joachim Clemens; Heinz-Jürgen Ahlgrimm

2001-01-01

43

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. A total of 228 U.S. companies and other o...

2004-01-01

44

Non-C02 greenhouse gases; all gases count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Kyoto Protocol, a group of countries commit themselves to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to some 5% below the 1990 level. Countries can decide to spread their reduction commitment over several gases to lower compliance costs. Employing a multi-gas strategy can offer considerable efficiency gains because of the widely diverging marginal abatement cost for the different emission

Willemien Kets; Gerard Verweij

2005-01-01

45

Measurement of greenhouse gases from space with a SWIR FTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering global increase in greenhouse-gases, observation and monitoring of the earth's atmosphere with space-borne instruments are essential. Satellite measurement offers the advantage of global and long-term monitoring. In the short wave infrared (SWIR) region of 1.5-1.9 micrometers , major greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and methane (CH4)) have absorption spectra of moderate strength without interference by other

Akihiko Kuze; Hideaki Nakajima; Makoto Suzuki; Yasuhiro Sasano

2002-01-01

46

Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the

J. A. Edmonds; W. U. Chandler; D. Wuebbles

1990-01-01

47

Decomposition of greenhouse gases by plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of decomposition and reduction of greenhouse gases is becoming an important issue in tackling the global warming\\u000a effect since several years ago. Several technologies, including plasma-utilized process, were proposed to improve the treatment\\u000a ability for the destruction of green house gases usually emitted by industrial activities. In this review paper, the application\\u000a of plasma to reduce the emission

Antonius Indarto; Jae-Wook Choi; Hwaung Lee; Hyung Keun Song

2008-01-01

48

Abatement of Greenhouse Gases: Does Location Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's climate policy is based on the assumption that the location of emissions reductions has no impact on the overall climate\\u000a effect. However, this may not be the case since reductions of greenhouse gases generally will lead to changes in emissions\\u000a of short-lived gases and aerosols. Abatement measures may be primarily targeted at reducing CO2, but may also simultaneously reduce

Terje Berntsen; Jan Fuglestvedt; Gunnar Myhre; Frode Stordal; Tore F. Berglen

2006-01-01

49

Development and evaluation of the interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases: a high-throughput fourier-transform infrared radiometer for nadir earth observation.  

PubMed

The interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases (IMG) was the precursor of the high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared radiometer (FTIR) onboard a satellite for observation of the Earth. The IMG endured the stress of a rocket launch, demonstrating that the high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer is indeed feasible for use onboard a satellite. The IMG adopted a newly developed lubricant-free magnetic suspension mechanism and a dynamic alignment system for the moving mirror with a maximum traveling distance of 10 cm. We present the instrumentation of the IMG, characteristics of the movable mirror drive system, and the evaluation results of sensor specifications during space operation. PMID:18324219

Kobayashi, H; Shimota, A; Kondo, K; Okumura, E; Kameda, Y; Shimoda, H; Ogawa, T

1999-11-20

50

Computing land use emissions of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model has been developed to estimate the regional emission of greenhouse gases from land-use related sources. Driving forces for this model are the changing regional demand for food and wood products driven by demographic and economic developments (Zuidema et al., 1994). To include the environmental conditions, which are essential factors determining the flux for certain sources, emissions are grid-based

G. J. J. Kreileman; A. F. Bouwman

1994-01-01

51

Reducing greenhouse gases: Promoting an international accord  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a Cornell Center for the Environmental sponsored workshop to explore the prospects for reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide as well as others through voluntary, market-based international accords. Cornell specialists in a range of fields were joined by participants from other universities and policy groups. The topics discussed covered the threat to the biosphere,

Schuler

2009-01-01

52

Diminishable\\/removable sources of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the purpose of a balanced, comprehensive approach to reducing and eliminating emissions of greenhouse gases, a list of their diminishable\\/removable sources has been worked out. This list cannot be complete and the authors expect it to provoke discussion in professional magazines and that this list will be expanded and modified.

Milan Vondruska; Vratislav Bednarik

2009-01-01

53

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with the Energy Information Administration (EIA) as the implementing agency, to develop a program to document voluntary actions that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases o...

2005-01-01

54

Atmospheric carbon dioxide retrieved from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT): Comparison with ground-based TCCON observations and GEOS-Chem model calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) from backscattered short-wave infrared (SWIR) sunlight measured by the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Over two years of XCO2 retrieved from GOSAT is compared with XCO2 inferred from collocated SWIR measurements by seven ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) stations. The average difference between GOSAT and TCCON XCO2 for individual TCCON sites ranges from -0.87 ppm to 0.77 ppm with a mean value of 0.1 ppm and standard deviation of 0.56 ppm. We find an average bias between all GOSAT and TCCON XCO2 retrievals of -0.20 ppm with a standard deviation of 2.26 ppm and a correlation coefficient of 0.75. One year of XCO2 was retrieved from GOSAT globally, which was compared to global 3-D GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model calculations. We find that the latitudinal gradient, seasonal cycles, and spatial variability of GOSAT and GEOS-Chem agree well in general with a correlation coefficient of 0.61. Regional differences between GEOS-Chem model calculations and GOSAT observations are typically less than 1 ppm except for the Sahara and central Asia where a mean difference between 2 to 3 ppm is observed, indicating regional biases in the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals unobserved by the current TCCON network. Using a bias correction scheme based on linear regression these regional biases are significantly reduced, approaching the required accuracy for surface flux inversions.

Cogan, A. J.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R. J.; Feng, L.; Palmer, P. I.; Blavier, J.-F. L.; Deutscher, N. M.; Macatangay, R.; Notholt, J.; Roehl, C.; Warneke, T.; Wunch, D.

2012-11-01

55

Long term observations of halogenated greenhouse gases in a European continental background station for assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and emission sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate altering halocarbons are continuously monitored at the atmospheric research station "O. Vittori" located on the top of Monte Cimone, Northern Apennines, Italy ( 2165 m asl), in the frame of the SOGE (System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe) network, an integrated system based on a combination of observations and models aimed at assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and at estimating European halocarbon emissions. The use of such a top-down approach is useful to ascertain compliance to International Protocols regulating production/emission of halogenated greenhouse gases. Establishing the baseline is essential both for estimating annual growth rates and because back attribution techniques are based on the clear identification of "above the background" data. That is particularly challenging in a Station like Monte Cimone characterised by a complex meteorological and source field. The approach proposed is based on the identification of the lowest concentration values in a given temporal range to which a ?c representing variation due to instrumental error is added. Trends are evaluated by using a non-linear regression function, able to take into account both annual and seasonal variation. In order to identify source, regions baseline data are subtracted from the full data set and an inversion modelling cascade, which makes use of MM5 model to reproduce meteorological fields and of FLEXPART to simulate tracer dispersion, is used to find the best emissions map that fits the observations.

Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Uguccioni, F.; Giostra, U.; Furlani, F.; Belfiore, L.; Cava, D.

2009-04-01

56

Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these conce...

D. Wuebbles J. A. Edmonds W. U. Chandler

1990-01-01

57

Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Venterea, Rodney [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Soil and Water

2012-01-01

58

Reservoir storage and containment of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of disposal of industrial waste greenhouse gases (CO2) into deep reservoirs. The simulator TOUGH2 was used to model the injection of 100 kg\\/s of CO2 for 10 years into an aquifer 3 km deep with the object of evaluating the long-term storage prospects for this gas. Depending on the permeability structure above the injection

Graham J. Weir; Stephen P. White; Warwick M. Kissling

1996-01-01

59

How Greenhouse Gases Absorb Heat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students will observe two model atmospheres: one with normal atmospheric composition and another with an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide. These two contained atmospheres will be exposed to light energy from a sunny window or from a lamp. The carbon dioxide is produced by a simple reaction and tested using bromothymol blue (BTB).

History, American M.

60

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01

61

BIOMASS BURNING AND THE PRODUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which

Joel S. Levine

62

Critical UN Conference on Greenhouse Gases Begins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday at the Hague, delegates from over 160 nations began meeting to try to hammer out details of the 1997 Kyoto agreement which mandated that nations reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to pre-1990 levels by the year 2012. This sixth session of the UN's Framework Convention on Climate Change will have to overcome significant obstacles if delegates are to emerge with an agreement within the conference's scheduled two weeks. To begin with, there is disagreement between the European Union and the United States on the use of "clean development mechanisms" (CDMs), which give states a number of ways of reaching the treaty's targets without actually reducing emissions. Among these is a proposal to allow for the trading of emissions credits -- disparagingly viewed by most environmentalists as licenses to pollute -- and the possibility of states with high emissions investing in reforestation projects in developing countries that would serve as "Carbon sinks" to absorb these emissions. Naturally, the US, responsible for 24 percent of the world's greenhouse gases, favors such measures, while the EU -- believing its recent coastal flood to be greenhouse-related -- opposes them in favor of across-the-board reductions and tough sanctions for noncompliance. The US is also concerned that the current draft allows developing nations, including China and India, to pledge to reach emissions limits in the future, but does not hold them to any legal obligation for failure to do so. The United Kingdom has stated that an effective agreement can be reached with or without US support. However, given that the US is the main producer of greenhouse gases, most analysts feel that an agreement without US cooperation is liable to have little long-term consequence.

Charbonneau, David D.

63

Why hybrid porous solids capture greenhouse gases?  

PubMed

Hybrid porous solids, with their tunable structures, their multifunctional properties and their numerous applications, are currently topical, particularly in the domain of adsorption and storage of greenhouse gases. Most of the data reported so far concern the performances of these solids in this domain, particularly in terms of adsorbed amounts of gas but do not explain at the atomic level why and how adsorption and storage occur. From a combination of structural, spectroscopic, thermodynamic experiments and of molecular simulations, this tutorial review proposes answers to these open questions with a special emphasis on CO(2) and CH(4) storage by some rigid and flexible hybrid porous materials. PMID:21180728

Férey, Gérard; Serre, Christian; Devic, Thomas; Maurin, Guillaume; Jobic, Hervé; Llewellyn, Philip L; De Weireld, Guy; Vimont, Alexandre; Daturi, Marco; Chang, Jong-San

2011-02-01

64

Potential Source Regions of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases Measured At A High Alpine Site (jungfraujoch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since January 2000 halogenated greenhouse gases are measured continuously at the high Alpine station Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl.) in Switzerland in the frame of a Swiss National project and the EU-project SOGE (System for Observation of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases in Europe). Emissions of such compounds from both Switzer- land and from different regions in Europe contribute to immissions measured at

D. Schaub; K. Stemmler; S. Reimann; A. K. Weiss

2002-01-01

65

Comparisons of aircraft measurements of greenhouse gases with GOSAT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profiles of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX). Airborne instruments measuring GHGs (Picarro Inc. G2301-m) and ozone (2B Technologies Inc., model 205) are installed in a wing pod and operated from NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, CA (37.415°N, 120.050°W). The in situ measurement instruments mounted on the aircraft yield precise and accurate vertical profiles of atmospheric GHGs and ozone. The purpose of this work is to validate GOSAT data and estimate from Alpha Jet measurements the contribution of GHGs from urban areas. We show the result of comparison of GOSAT and Alpha Jet measurements over Railroad Valley, NV and urban areas in Northern California. The Alpha Jet aircraft performs a measurement over the Railroad Valley (RRV) desert playa, Nevada (38.497°N, 115.691°W, 1437m above mean sea level) once a month for the comparison with Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) measurements from 2011. The GOSAT was developed to measure concentrations of CO2 and CH4 from space and has been in operation from 2009. The instruments onboard GOSAT are the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) (Kuze et al., 2009). The RRV playa is a flat, high altitude desert site and an area where local sources and sinks of carbon-species are expected to be minimal. The playa has virtually no vegetation and an overall size of 15 km× 15 km, which includes GOSAT's field of view. Reference Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Masakatsu Nakajima, and Takashi Hamazaki. Thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite for greenhouse gases monitoring. App. Opt., 48, 6716-6733, 2009.

Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.; Tadic, J.; Lopez, J. P.; Shiomi, K.; Kawakami, S.; kuze, A.; Yokota, T.

2013-12-01

66

Orbital insolation, ice volume, and greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SPECMAP models of orbital-scale climate change (Imbrie et al., Paleoceanography 7 (1992) 701, Paleoceanography 8 (1993) 699) are the most comprehensive to date: all major climatic observations were analyzed within the framework of the three orbital signals. Subsequently, tuning of signals in Vostok ice to insolation forcing has fixed the timing of greenhouse-gas changes closely enough to permit an

William F. Ruddiman

2003-01-01

67

Measuring the Heat Capacity of Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quantitative experiment involves lab teams in comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and measuring their heat capacity. The activity requires an infrared heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2L beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probe, volumetric flasks, a graduated cylinder, and tubing. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and becomes CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. A worksheet guides student calculations of heat capacity of the different samples. The investigation s is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

68

Total requirements of energy and greenhouse gases for Australian transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to fuels, passenger and freight transport require vehicles and infrastructure. As with fuels, the provision of goods and services that are needed for the operation of transport involves the consumption of energy and the emission of greenhouse gases. The energy consumed and greenhouse gases emitted due to fuel use by vehicles are referred to as direct requirements, while

Manfred Lenzen

1999-01-01

69

Effects of atmospheric light scattering on spectroscopic observations of greenhouse gases from space: Validation of PPDF-based CO2 retrievals from GOSAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes a validation study of Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) data processing using ground-based measurements of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) as reference data for column-averaged dry air mole fractions of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2). We applied the photon path length probability density function method to validate XCO2retrievals from GOSAT data obtained during 22 months starting from June 2009. This method permitted direct evaluation of optical path modifications due to atmospheric light scattering that would have a negligible impact on ground-based TCCON measurements but could significantly affect gas retrievals when observing reflected sunlight from space. Our results reveal effects of optical path lengthening over Northern Hemispheric stations, essentially from May-September of each year, and of optical path shortening for sun-glint observations in tropical regions. These effects are supported by seasonal trends in aerosol optical depth derived from an offline three-dimensional aerosol transport model and by cirrus optical depth derived from space-based measurements of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument. Removal of observations that were highly contaminated by aerosol and cloud from the GOSAT data set resulted in acceptable agreement in the seasonal variability of XCO2 over each station as compared with TCCON measurements. Statistical comparisons between GOSAT and TCCON coincident measurements of CO2column abundance show a correlation coefficient of 0.85, standard deviation of 1.80 ppm, and a sub-ppm negative bias of -0.43 ppm for all TCCON stations. Global distributions of monthly mean retrieved XCO2 with a spatial resolution of 2.5° latitude × 2.5° longitude show agreement within ˜2.5 ppm with those predicted by the atmospheric tracer transport model.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Yokota, Tatsuya; Morino, Isamu; Yoshida, Yukio; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Belikov, Dmitry; Wunch, Debra; Wennberg, Paul; Toon, Geoffrey; O'Dell, Christopher; Butz, André; Guerlet, Sandrine; Cogan, Austin; Boesch, Hartmut; Eguchi, Nawo; Deutscher, Nicholas; Griffith, David; Macatangay, Ronald; Notholt, Justus; Sussmann, Ralf; Rettinger, Markus; Sherlock, Vanessa; Robinson, John; Kyrö, Esko; Heikkinen, Pauli; Feist, Dietrich G.; Nagahama, Tomoo; Kadygrov, Nikolay; Maksyutov, Shamil; Uchino, Osamu; Watanabe, Hiroshi

2012-06-01

70

Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change.  

PubMed

Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO(2) greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO(2), so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. Although it is clear that sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with substantial cuts in emissions of CO(2), reducing non-CO(2) greenhouse gas emissions would be a relatively quick way of contributing to this goal. PMID:21814274

Montzka, S A; Dlugokencky, E J; Butler, J H

2011-08-01

71

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1997  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1998-10-01

72

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1994  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1995-09-01

73

World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model  

EIA Publications

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS+) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

2011-09-29

74

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1999  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2000-10-01

75

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1995  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1996-10-01

76

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2004  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2005-12-19

77

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2001  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2002-12-01

78

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2005  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2006-11-14

79

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2003  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2004-12-01

80

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2002  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2003-10-01

81

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1996  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1997-10-01

82

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1998  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1999-10-01

83

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01

84

Classroom Video on Researching Microorganisms That Live on Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this short video produced by Teachers' Domain, HHMI Professor and Investigator Catherine Drennan of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology explains her research into microorganisms that survive on greenhouse gases, which are widely believed to accelerate global warming.

Catherine Drennan (MIT;)

2010-05-11

85

Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

1988-01-01

86

GLOBAL MITIGATION OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report will provide mitigation abatement costs for reductions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, by source category and region. The principal technologies for reducing emissions will be thoroughly described and technical and economic assumptions documented....

87

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1997 publication was prepared under the guidance of Mary Hutzler, Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration. This report "presents the latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases." The paper states that 82% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are caused by coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Gases such as hydroflourocarbons (HFCs), perflourocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, methane, and other carbon dioxide gases comprise the other 18% of U.S. emissions. The paper provides an in-depth analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Methane Emissions, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Halocarbons and Other Gases, and Land Use Issues, among others.

88

International collaboration on capture, storage and utilisation of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will have world-wide implications. So it is highly appropriate that there should be international collaboration to investigate technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, the root cause of the problem. Sixteen countries, as well as three industrial sponsors, support the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme and, in many cases, industry is also involved indirectly, through the national memberships.

P. Freund

1998-01-01

89

Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had

James Hansen; Andrew Lacis; Michael Prather

1989-01-01

90

Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

Hansen, James E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

1990-08-01

91

Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

James E. Hansen; Andrew A. Lacis

1990-01-01

92

Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases - An assessment of their relative roles in global climate change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many mechanisms, including variations in solar radiation and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, compete with anthropogenic greenhouse gases as causes of global climate change. Comparisons of available data show that solar variability will not counteract greenhouse warming and that future observations will need to be made to quantify the role of tropospheric aerosols, for example.

Hansen, James E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

1990-01-01

93

Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the continents. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

Ramanathan, V.

2007-12-01

94

76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to...monitoring methods in regulations for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems....

2011-06-27

95

Greenhouse gases dissolved in soil solution - often ignored, but important?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flux measurements of climate-relevant trace gases from soils are frequently undertaken in contemporary ecosystem studies and substantially contribute to our understanding of greenhouse gas balances of the biosphere. While the great majority of such investigations builds on closed chamber and eddy covariance measurements, where upward gas fluxes to the atmosphere are measured, fewest concurrently consider greenhouse gas dissolution in the seepage and leaching of dissolved gases via the vadose zone to the groundwater. Here we present annual leaching losses of dissolved N2O and CO2 from arable, grassland, and forest lysimeter soils from three sites differing in altitude and climate. We aim to assess their importance in comparison to direct N2O emission, soil respiration, and further leaching parameters of the C- and N cycle. The lysimeters are part of the Germany-wide lysimeter network initiative TERENO-SoilCan, which investigates feedbacks of climate change to the pedosphere on a long-term scale. Soil water samples were collected weekly from different depths of the profiles by means of suction cups. A laboratory pre-experiment proved that no degassing occurred under those sampling conditions. We applied the headspace equilibration technique to determine dissolved gas concentrations by gas chromatography. The seepage water of all lysimeters was consistently supersaturated with N2O and CO2 compared to water equilibrated ambient air. In terms of N2O, leaching losses increased in the ascending order forest, grassland, and arable soils, respectively. In case of the latter soils, we observed a strong variability of N2O, with dissolved concentrations up to 23 ?g N L-1. However, since seepage discharge of the arable lysimeters was comparatively small and mostly limited to the hydrological winter season, leached N2O appeared to be less important than direct N2O emissions. In terms of dissolved CO2,our measurements revealed considerable leaching losses from the mountainous forest and grassland soils, based on concentrations up to 24 mg C L-1 and high seepage discharge. Such losses turned out to be similarly important like soil respiration, particularly during winter when temperature-dependent soil respiration declined. In conclusion, the results of the first year of our measurements provide evidence that dissolved greenhouse gases should be considered in studies which aim to assess full greenhouse gas balances, particularly in ecosystems where hydrological conditions favour microbial activity and high leaching losses.

Weymann, Daniel; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Puetz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

2014-05-01

96

Emission of Greenhouse Gases in the Netherlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate change has become an important component of Dutch environmental and energy policies. Human induced climate change has become an important issue. It is caused by the accumulation of a number of radiatively active trace gases in the atmosphere. Unti...

G. J. van den Born A. F. Bouwman J. G. J. Olivier R. J. Swart

1991-01-01

97

Observational determination of the greenhouse effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback

A. Raval; V. Ramanathan

1989-01-01

98

Production of Greenhouse Gases in The Atmosphere of Early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars was much warmer and wetter 3.5 to 4 billion years ago than it is today, suggesting that its climate was able to support life in the distant past. Carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases which may have kept Mars warm during this time. We explore the possibility that these gases were produced via grain-catalyzed reactions in the warm, dusty aftermath of large comet and/or asteroid impacts which delivered Mars, volatile inventory.

Kress, Monika E.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

99

Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases. Chapter 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which regulates the lifetime of almost every atmospheric gas. Following biomass burning, biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane are significantly enhanced. It is hypothesized that enhanced postburn biogenic emissions of these gases are related to fire-induced changes in soil chemistry and/or microbial ecology. Biomass burning, once believed to be a tropical phenomenon, has been demonstrated by satellite imagery to also be a regular feature of the world's boreal forests. One example of biomass burning is the extensive 1987 fire that destroyed more than 12 million acres of boreal forest in the People's Republic of China and across its border in the Soviet Union. Recent estimates indicate that almost all biomass burning is human-initiated and that it is increasing with time. With the formation of greenhouse and chemically active gases as direct combustion products and a longer-term enhancement of biogenic emissions of gases, biomass burning may be a significant driver for global change.

Levine, Joel S.

1994-01-01

100

Sources and emission of greenhouse gases in Danube Delta lakes.  

PubMed

Production of methane and carbon dioxide as well as methane concentrations in surface waters and emissions to the atmosphere were investigated in two flow-through lake complexes (Uzlina-Isac and Puiu-Rosu-Rosulet) in the Danube Delta during post-flood conditions in May and low water level in September 2006. Retained nutrients fueled primary production and remineralization of bioavailable organic matter. This led to an observable net release of methane, particularly in the lakes Uzlina, Puiu and Rosu in May. Input from the Danube River, from redbuds and benthic release contributed to CH(4) concentrations in surface waters. In addition to significant river input of CO(2), this trace gas was released via aerobic remineralization within the water column and in top sediments. Emission patterns of CO(2) widely overlapped with those of CH(4). Generally, greenhouse gas emissions peaked in the lake complex adjacent to the Danube River in May due to strong winds and decreased with increasing hydrological distance from the Danube River. Intense remineralization of organic matter in the Danube Delta lakes results in a net source of atmospheric greenhouse gases. PMID:19506929

Pavel, Alina; Durisch-Kaiser, Edith; Balan, Sorin; Radan, Silviu; Sobek, Sebastian; Wehrli, Bernhard

2009-08-01

101

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM DEFORESTATION IN BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA: NET COMMITTED EMISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia is a significant source of greenhouse gases today and, with almost 90% of the originally forested area still uncleared, is a very large potential source of future emissions. The 1990 rate of loss of forest (13.8 × 103 km2\\/year) and cerrado savanna (approximately 5 × 103 km2\\/year) was responsible for releasing approximately 261 × 106 metric

PHILIP M. Fearnside

1997-01-01

102

Inventory of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Israel is committed to develop a national inventory of anthropogenic emissions and removals of greenhouse gases. This paper presents the national inventory, which was developed according to the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory includes the following sectors: energy, industrial processes, agriculture, forestry

J. Koch; U. Dayan; A. Mey-Marom

2000-01-01

103

The significance of agricultural sources of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of development of land for agriculture and agricultural production practices on emissions of greenhouse gases is reviewed and evaluated within the context of anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate. Combined, these activities are estimated to contribute about 25%, 65%, and 90% of total anthropogenic emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively. Agriculture is also a significant contributor to global

John M. Duxbury

1994-01-01

104

The effects of sand dust storms on greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Asia, sand dust storms (SDSs) occur nearly every year, especially in northern China. However, there is little research about the relationship between SDSs and greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this article, we selected four SDSs that occurred in Asia in the spring of 2009 and 2010. We monitored the areas covered by these SDSs using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

Meng Guo; Xiufeng Wang; Yang Liu; Jing Li; Hongmei Wang; Nobuhiro Matsuoka; Hiroshi Tani

2012-01-01

105

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16

106

Greenhouse gases and recovery of the Earth's ozone layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical two-dimension zonally average interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere is used for investigation the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine compounds. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of types I and II. The scenarios of future changes of the greenhouse gases and chlorine and bromine species are taken from Climate Change 1995. The calculations show that expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by the increasing of the greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, enhances the ozone concentration in the stratosphere due to a weakness of the efficiencies of all catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction caused by temperature dependencies of photochemical reactions. The result of this effect is a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine species. On the other hand, the cooling of the stratosphere intensifies a formation of the polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere in the Polar Regions. Heterogeneous reactions on the polar stratospheric clouds, which are the key processes in the destruction of the ozone layer at the high latitudes, lead to more intensive ozone depletion here, which causes a delay of the ozone layer recovery. The calculations show that this effect is weaker than the first one so that the global ozone will recover faster under conditions of continuing anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases. The model predicts in this case that the annual average global ozone will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2040. If the growth of the greenhouse gases is stopped, the global ozone will reach this level only in the end of the 21st century.

Dyominov, I. G.; Zadorozhny, A. M.

107

Greenhouse Gases and the Kyoto Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme UNEP/ GRID Arendal Website (described in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) summarizes greenhouse gas emissions for 1998 and provides projections for 2010. The maps and statistics presented here are based on data collected by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the international summit in The Hague, November 2000. Units for totals are "thousands of metric tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) equivalent units," and for emissions per capita, the units are "tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) equivalent per person." In every case, emissions from industrialized nations are what the viewer might expect. Nevertheless, the comparison of 1998 and projected future levels is certainly instructive. A series of links provides access to additional related information.

2001-01-01

108

40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Definitions â(1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant...as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous...remain with respect to stationary sources for which GHGs do not...

2013-07-01

109

40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant...as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous...remain with respect to stationary sources for which GHGs do not...

2013-07-01

110

40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant...as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide, nitrous...remain with respect to stationary sources for which GHGs do not...

2013-07-01

111

78 FR 20632 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Greenhouse Gases and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids AGENCY: Environmental...of them, for eight fluorinated heat transfer fluids. We are requesting comments...greenhouse gases and fluorinated heat transfer fluids for which we do not...

2013-04-05

112

Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called Faint Young Sun Problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4 and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data for background pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 bar. For CO2 to resolve the FYSP alone, 0.21 bar is needed with 0.5 bar of atmospheric pressure, 0.13 bar with 1 bar of atmospheric pressures, or 0.07 bar with 2 bar of atmospheric pressure. For CH4, we find that near-infrared absorption is much stronger than previously thought, arising from updates to the HITRAN database. CH4 radiative forcing peaks at 10.3, 9, or 8.3 W m-2 for background pressures of 0.5, 1 or 2 bar, likely limiting the utility of CH4 for warming the Archean. For the other 26 HITRAN gases, radiative forcings of up to a few to 10 W m-2 are obtained from concentrations of 0.1-1 ppmv for many gases. We further calculate the reduction of radiative forcing due to gas overlap for the 20 strongest gases. We recommend the forcings provided here be used both as a first reference for which gases are likely good greenhouse gases, and as a standard set of calculations for validation of radiative forcing calculations for the Archean.

Byrne, B.; Goldblatt, C.

2014-05-01

113

Emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) from Burning of Biomass in Brick Kilns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning of biomass fuel is an important source of emission of greenhouse gases in the environment. Due to anthropogenic activities, concentrations of greenhouse gases are increasing, having a direct effect on the world's climate, which poses serious threat for mankind. In the present study, emission of greenhouse gases has been attributed to the burning of biomass fuel, i.e., fire wood

Syed Nasir Ahmed Tahir; Muhammed Rafique

2009-01-01

114

76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental...30, 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse...calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source...

2011-04-25

115

A review of research on human activity induced climate change I. Greenhouse gases and aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive research on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, carbon cycle modeling, and the characterization of atmospheric aerosols has been carried out in China during the last 10 years or so. This paper presents the major achievements in the fields of emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural lands, carbon cycle modeling, the characterization of Asian mineral dust, source identification of the precursors of the tropospheric ozone, and observations of the concentrations of atmospheric organic compounds. Special, more detailed information on the emissions of methane from rice fields and the physical and chemical characteristics of mineral aerosols are presented.

Wang, Mingxing; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Xin

2004-06-01

116

Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This symposium was organized to study the unusual convergence of a number of observations, both short and long term that defy an integrated explanation. Of particular importance are surface temperature observations and observations of upper atmospheric temperatures, which have declined significantly in parts of the stratosphere. There has also been a dramatic decline in ozone concentration over Antarctica that was not predicted. Significant changes in precipitation that seem to be latitude dependent have occurred. There has been a threefold increase in methane in the last 100 years; this is a problem because a source does not appear to exist for methane of the right isotopic composition to explain the increase. These and other meteorological global climate changes are examined in detail.

Mooney, Harold A.; Baker, D. James, Jr.; Bretherton, Francis P.; Burke, Kevin C.; Clark, William C.; Davis, Margaret B.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Imbrie, John; Malone, Thomas F.; Mcelroy, Michael B.

1989-01-01

117

Sensitivity of the hydrological cycle to increasing amounts of greenhouse gases and aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled atmosphere–ocean Climate Model of the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM) has been used to run a time-dependent climate change experiment to study the impact of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases and aerosols on the simulated water cycle. This simulation has been initialised with the oceanic temperature and salinity profiles and the atmospheric trace gas concentrations observed in

H. Douville; F. Chauvin; S. Planton; J.-F. Royer; D. Salas-Mélia; S. Tyteca

2002-01-01

118

Keeping Mars warm with new super greenhouse gases  

PubMed Central

Our selection of new super greenhouse gases to fill a putative “window” in a future Martian atmosphere relies on quantum-mechanical calculations. Our study indicates that if Mars could somehow acquire an Earth-like atmospheric composition and surface pressure, then an Earth-like temperature could be sustained by a mixture of five to seven fluorine compounds. Martian mining requirements for replenishing the fluorine could be comparable to current terrestrial extraction.

Gerstell, M. F.; Francisco, J. S.; Yung, Y. L.; Boxe, C.; Aaltonee, E. T.

2001-01-01

119

Controlling Greenhouse Gases: A Survey of Global Macroeconomic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework which identifies the main determinants of the macroeconomic costs of abating greenhouse gases is developed. This is used to survey long-term quantitative studies of abatement, especially their modelling approaches and choices of key parameters. These studies suggest that each 20% abatement below business-as-usual emissions is likely to cost approximately 1% of gross world product. Copyright 1996 by

Rosemary Clarke; Gianna Boero; L. Alan Winters

1996-01-01

120

IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Michelson interferometer is under development as a payload of the ADEOS satellite. It will measure the spectra of terrestrial thermal infrared radiation with a nadir view in 700-3,000 cm-1 wavenumber region with an apodized resolution of 0.1 cm-1. Using those measured spectra, we will retrieve the altitude profiles of atmospheric temperature and the concentrations of greenhouse gases such as

T. Ogawa; H. Shimoda; M. Hayashi; R. Imasu; A. Ono; S. Nishinomiya; H. Kobayashi

1994-01-01

121

Annual emissions of greenhouse gases from sheepfolds in Inner Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheepfolds represent significant hot spot sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) in semi-arid grassland regions, such as Inner\\u000a Mongolia in China. However, the annual contribution of sheepfolds to regional GHG emissions is still unknown. In order to\\u000a quantify its annual contribution, we conducted measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes at two sheepfold sites in the

Weiwei Chen; Benjamin Wolf; Nicolas Brüggemann; Klaus Butterbach-Bahl; Xunhua Zheng

2011-01-01

122

Observational determination of the greenhouse effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

1989-01-01

123

Greenhouse Gases in Intensive Agriculture: Contributions of Individual Gases to the Radiative Forcing of the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture plays a major role in the global fluxes of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane. From 1991 to 1999, we measured gas fluxes and other sources of global warming potential (GWP) in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems. Net GWP (grams of carbon dioxide equivalents per square meter per year) ranged from 110 in our conventional tillage

G. Philip Robertson; Eldor A. Paul; Richard R. Harwood

2000-01-01

124

An improved photon path length probability density function–based radiative transfer model for space-based observation of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an improved model to describe the photon path length probability density function (PPDF) that effectively accounts for both aerosol and thin cloud effects for rapid retrieval of greenhouse gas data from space-based high spectral resolution measurements. The reasonably simple PPDF and effective transmittance parameterization permit vertical inhomogeneity of gas absorption and three plane-parallel arbitrarily located layers to account

Sergey Oshchepkov; Andrey Bril; Tatsuya Yokota

2009-01-01

125

75 FR 70254 - PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0841; FRL-9228-2] PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases...posted its guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases...recently posted guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse...

2010-11-17

126

75 FR 22699 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2060-AQ15 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing...provisions for the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Rule...final rule would not take effect and we would publish a timely...Administrative practice and procedure, Greenhouse gases, Suppliers,...

2010-04-30

127

Laser remote sensing of greenhouse gases at NIST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology is pursuing optical technologies for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in support of mitigation efforts and climate research. We will describe the development of a rapid, integrated-path differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system at our Boulder site as well as the development and testing of an indoor, range-resolved DIAL system on our Gaithersburg site. Our eventual goal is the measurement of greenhouse gas emission rates from distributed sources covering areas of 1 km2 to 10 km2. Such measurements require simultaneous wind and gas density measurements. The presentation will describe our progress toward these measurements as well as development of LIDAR laser sources and implementation of various direct and heterodyne detection schemes.

Maxwell, Stephen; Douglass, Kevin; Plusquellic, David

2014-05-01

128

Concerns over biomass sources of greenhouse gases: potential issues in selected Asian Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues related to developing country sources of greenhouse gases are likely to be among the most difficult and contentious matters in any concerted international attempt to curtail emissions of greenhouse gases. Biomass sources of such gases as methane and carbon dioxide come largely from lower income nations and represent particularly difficult problems because of their close association with food production

William Barron; Peter Hills

1991-01-01

129

Greenhouse Gases, Aerosols and Reducing Future Climate Uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past record of global earth surface temperatures is unable to offer quantitative evidence about the amplitude of climate sensitivity, due to the competing effects of long-lived greenhouse gases and short-lived aerosols. This factor constitutes one of the reasons why uncertainties about climate sensitivity have remained almost unchanged for more than 30 years, and it is also limiting our current capacity to propose reliable climate projections for the coming century. This paper offers a short review of the studies that have dealt with this issue. A number of approaches aim at a process-oriented diagnostic of current models. These studies are in constant progress since the launch of remote-sensing instruments, such as those from the A-train satellite constellation. Past climate fluctuations may also offer some limited possibilities to discriminate the effects of greenhouse gases and aerosols. There is therefore a real hope that climate projections may eventually become more accurate, which would be extremely useful in monitoring global warming during the next decades.

Le Treut, Hervé

2012-07-01

130

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01

131

Analysis of Continuous Measurements of Anthropogenic Halogenated Greenhouse Gases at Monte Cimone for Estimation of European Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic halogenated greenhouse gases includes chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride. Even if atmospheric concentration levels of these compounds are in the range of pptvs, their contribute to global warming is significant. Furthermore, some of these gases are powerful ozone depleting substances. In order to assess their long-term atmospheric concentration trends and in order to evaluate anthropogenic source strengths on a regional scale, a continuous monitoring activity of the above mentioned compounds is currently performed at the CNR Scientific Station "O.Vittori", at Monte Cimone (44^o12'N, 10^o42'E, 2165 m a.s.l.). Such an activity is carried out in the frame of a four stations European Network, operating within an integrated system for observations of halogenated greenhouse gases, named SOGE (System for Observation of Greenhouse gases in Europe). Measurements are performed using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric instrumentation equipped with a sampling-adsorption unit, allowing the automated and continuous analysis of twenty-one halogenated greenhouse gases. In order to identify the source areas of the halogenated greenhouse gases concentrations recorded at Mt. Cimone, a statistical analysis of air masses back-trajectories as well as wind direction have been carried out. Particularly, in order to study the correlation between the species monitored at the measurement site and the air masses origins, the concentration fields of CFCs and HCFCs emissions as obtained by Mt. Cimone data have been calculated on a geographical grid over Europe.

Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Geniali, A.; Mangani, F.; Cristofanelli, P.; Bonasoni, P.

2003-04-01

132

Trends and temporal variations of major greenhouse gases at a rural site in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the trends and temporal variations of four major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6) measured at Hegyhátsál, Hungary, are analyzed. The long term trends observed closely follow the global tendencies. The relatively small positive offset can be attributed to the European anthropogenic sources. The seasonal cycles are basically governed by that in the atmospheric mixing, however, in

L. Haszpra; Z. Barcza; D. Hidy; I. Szilágyi; E. Dlugokencky; P. Tans

2008-01-01

133

Signatures of Annual and Seasonal Variations of CO2 and Other Greenhouse Gases from Comparisons between NOAA TOVS Observations and Radiation Model Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1979, sensors on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) series of polar meteorological satellites have provided continuous measurements of the earth's surface and atmosphere. One of these sensors, the Television Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS-N) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), observes earth-emitted radiation in the infrared-with the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS)-and in the microwave-with the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU)-portions

Alain Chédin; Soumia Serrar; Raymond Armante; Noëlle A. Scott; Anthony Hollingsworth

2002-01-01

134

Energy Information Administration: Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Energy Information Agency (EIA) has released a new report, "Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1996. The report shows that in 1996, "U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases increased by 3.4 percent over 1995 emissions, the highest rate of increase in recent years." EIA also released updated Country Analysis Briefs for OPEC, North Sea and Kuwait.

2008-08-06

135

On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have

G. Petron; A. Hirsch; M. K. Trainer; A. Karion; J. Kofler; C. Sweeney; A. Andrews; W. Kolodzey; B. R. Miller; L. Miller; S. A. Montzka; D. R. Kitzis; L. Patrick; G. J. Frost; T. B. Ryerson; J. M. Robers; P. Tans

2008-01-01

136

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes AS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of

DeLuchi

1993-01-01

137

Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming are becoming a serious concern. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in C and N, as soil amendments could contribute to the increase in emission of greenhouse gases such as methane

S. Paramasivam; Gamola Z. Fortenberry; Afolabi Julius; Kenneth S. Sajwan; A. K. Alva

2008-01-01

138

Use of 222Rn for estimation of greenhouse gases emissions at Russian territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that 222Rn is widely used as a tracer for studying different atmospheric processes including estimations of greenhouse gases emissions. Calculation of 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere allows quantitative estimation of greenhouse gases emissions having the soil origin or sources of which are located near the surface. For accurate estimation of 222Rn fluxes detailed

E. V. Berezina; N. F. Elansky

2009-01-01

139

The contribution of direct energy use for livestock breeding to the greenhouse gases emissions of Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for the estimation of the contribution of direct energy use to the greenhouse gases emissions of cattle, pig and poultry breeding in Cyprus. The energy consumption was estimated using the factors of 2034 MJ\\/cow, 2182 MJ\\/sow and 0.002797 MJ\\/bird. The greenhouse gases emissions for each animal species and energy source were estimated using emission factor of each greenhouse

Nicoletta Kythreotou; Savvas A. Tassou; Georgios Florides

2011-01-01

140

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission inc...

M. A. DeLuchi

1993-01-01

141

Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in the absence of threats from climate change and ocean acidification. Therefore, these measures represent “no regrets” policy options for the marine environment. Nevertheless, even with adaptive policies in place, continued greenhouse gas emissions increasingly risk damaging marine ecosystems and the human communities that depend on them.

Caldeira, K.

2010-12-01

142

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06

143

Potential Source Regions of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases Measured At A High Alpine Site (jungfraujoch)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since January 2000 halogenated greenhouse gases are measured continuously at the high Alpine station Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl.) in Switzerland in the frame of a Swiss National project and the EU-project SOGE (System for Observation of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases in Europe). Emissions of such compounds from both Switzer- land and from different regions in Europe contribute to immissions measured at the Jungfraujoch. In addition to the inhomogeneous distribution of the emission sources, variable and weather dependent transport of air pollution can be observed. As a deci- sion basis for the air pollution control politics, the support and verification of existing inventories is of fundamental importance. The results can be used to assess compliance with the international protocols regulating the emissions (Montreal, Kyoto), and they will be utilised to define criteria for future monitoring in Europe. Therefore, in-situ measurements and meteorological information provided by the Swiss Meteorological Office (MeteoSwiss) are combined to investigate potential source areas. The first ap- proach was the use of trajectories associated with large concentration values monitored at the Jungfraujoch, showing that for some species high concentrations are often linked to air masses with specific geographical origin. In a second step, trajectory statistics was used to localise potential source regions. Hereby receptor data were combined with air mass histories to perform source apportionment. First results will be shown indicating that Po-valley, Southern France, Germany and the Benelux countries are the most important source regions of halogenated greenhouse gases measured at the Jungfraujoch. An improvement of the results is expected by taking into consideration additional information about source regions and the incorporation of the data of the other SOGE-observation sites located at Mace Head (Ireland), Spitsbergen (Norway), and at Monte Cimone (Italy).

Schaub, D.; Stemmler, K.; Reimann, S.; Weiss, A. K.

144

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page explains concepts related to the interaction between greenhouse gasses, transportation, and government regulations. A list of links is given for three main categories: greenhouse gasses, regulated emissions, and transportation energy use.

Shipvehicles, Auto C.

145

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Wet Drained Forest Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ditching has commonly been used in order to improve forest productivity on wet soils. When wet soils are drained the methane emissions, which are usually substantial from wetlands, decrease and the uptake of carbon dioxide by the vegetation increases. However, there is also an increase in the emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from the soil. The sizes of the fluxes depend on drainage depth and soil fertility. We have performed a study with the objective to examine the effect of tree species composition and site fertility on greenhouse gas emissions from drained temperate forest ecosystems. The fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were measured during two years in seven temperate forest sites, one open mire, one undrained alder swamp, both to be used for comparison, and five drained forest sites of different fertilities covered with different tree species. The drained sites, chosen to represent the most common tree species in Sweden, were two spruce sites of different fertility, three sites dominated by pine, alder and birch respectively. All drained sites had a mean groundwater depth between 14 and 26 cm. Fluxes were measured with dark static chambers, ten chambers at each site. Gas samples were collected every week during summer and every month during the wintertime. The annual methane emissions (presented as means of all chambers +/- standard error) were much larger from the undrained sites, between 50 +/- 19.2 and 126 +/- 34.7 kg/ha compared to 0 +/- 1.5 to 17 +/- 8.3 kg/ha from the drained sites. The fluxes of carbon dioxide from the soil were higher at the drained sites but as most twice as large as from the undrained sites (8 +/- 1.6 ton/ha from the mire and 16 +/- 1.9 ton/ha from the drained alder during the first year of sampling). The emissions of nitrous oxide were highest from the drained alder site, 11 +/- 3.8 kg/ha the first sampling year and 7 +/- 2.9 the second. At all other sites the emissions were approximately 10 times smaller, ranging from 0 +/- 0.3 at the mire site the first year of sampling to 2 +/- 0.9 kg/ha during the first sampling year at the birch site. The results indicate that a small lowering of the water table decreases the total emissions of greenhouse gases from forest soils, at least from coniferous forests. No clear effect of fertility was found but it is probable that tree species composition has a large effect on the fluxes.

von Arnold, K.; Weslien, P.; Nilsson, M.; Hånell, B.; Klemedtsson, L.

2003-04-01

146

Increasing greenhouse gases lead to dramatic thinning of the upper atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) analyzed changes in the orbits of selected objects to derive the yearly average density encountered by each object in different levels of the atmosphere. After adjusting for other factors, the data from every object indicated a long-term decline in the density of the thermosphere. It was found that the observed decrease in density with increased distance in the troposphere depends on height in the same way as predicted by the theoretical simulations, indicating that greenhouse gases are a likely source of the change.

Agu

147

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000 Executive Summary  

EIA Publications

Executive Summary on the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01

148

76 FR 61293 - Extension of Public Comment Period: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Categories of...the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Categories of...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems....

2011-10-04

149

76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to...available monitoring methods for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems source category...final rule affects owners or operators of petroleum and natural gas systems. Regulated...

2011-09-27

150

Self-calibrating Balloon-borne Sensor for Measurements of Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better scientific understanding of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and of the interactions between the troposphere and stratosphere are needed. In situ, detailed measurements of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and other gases throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere can provide information to improve atmospheric models, as well as provide verification of satellite observations. Existing fixed wing or balloon gondola platforms are very expensive to operate and are used infrequently. In this research, we discuss the development of a self-calibrating, diode laser-based sensor capable of measuring atmospheric mixing ratio profiles from sea level to 30 km using meteorological balloons. The low cost, size and power requirements for this sensor should permit widespread use. Measurements of water vapor and carbon dioxide will be discussed.

Silver, J.; Paige, M. E.

2011-12-01

151

Are Phragmites-dominated wetlands a net source or net sink of greenhouse gases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phragmitesaustralis wetlands act as a sink for greenhouse gases by photosynthetic assimilation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and sequestration of the organic matter produced in the wetland soil. The wetlands also act as a source for greenhouse gases by emission of sediment-produced methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. In P.australis wetlands, the dominant mechanism of CH4 release to the

Hans Brix; Brian K. Sorrell; Bent Lorenzen

2001-01-01

152

A review of research on human activity induced climate change I. Greenhouse gases and aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, carbon cycle modeling, and the characterization of atmospheric\\u000a aerosols has been carried out in China during the last 10 years or so. This paper presents the major achievements in the fields\\u000a of emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural lands, carbon cycle modeling, the characterization of Asian mineral dust,\\u000a source identification

Mingxing Wang; Qiang Liu; Xin Yang

2004-01-01

153

Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of

Nathan P. Gillett; H. Damon Matthews

2010-01-01

154

Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will be set up. International negotiations have been going on for two years during which the constitutional documents have been processed and adopted. The instrument for the ICOS legal entity is the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) steered by the General Assembly of its Members. ICOS is a highly distributed research infrastructure where three operative levels (ICOS National Networks, ICOS Central Facilities and ICOS ERIC) interact on several fields of research and governance. The governance structure of ICOS RI needs to reflect this complexity while maintaining the common vision, strategy and principles.

Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

2013-04-01

155

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10

156

The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central

J. T. Kiehl; B. P. Briegleb

1993-01-01

157

Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NOx, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone

V. Ramanathan; Y. Feng

2009-01-01

158

Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angles Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases and pollutants including CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse

D. Fu; S. P. Sander; T. J. Pongetti; R. Cheung; J. Stutz

2010-01-01

159

The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central Europe. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols contribute a globally averaged annual forcing of -0.3 watt per square meter as compared with +2.1 watts per square meter for greenhouse gases. Sources of the difference in magnitude with the previous estimate of Charlson et al. (1992) are discussed.

Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

1993-01-01

160

The contribution from emissions of different gases to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this paper is to compare the different contributions, that mankind has made to perturbing the atmosphere`s radiative balance. We have, and will continue to perturb both the balance of outgoing long-wave radiation and the balance of incoming short-wave radiation. Human activities since preindustrial times have caused a substantial enhancement of the greenhouse effect, a process involving the absorption of outgoing long-wave radiation which leads to a warming of the lower atmosphere. Because the atmosphere`s short-wave radiative balance is affected by the presence of small particles (aerosols) produced by the oxidation of sulphur compounds, anthropogenic emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) have also caused a perturbation of the overall balance. The greenhouse gases we will consider are, in order of importance: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), Methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the halocarbons. We use observed and model-based concentration data together with the most recent information relating concentrations to radiative forcing to estimate the individual contributions of the different gases to the changing radiative balance of the atmosphere. We also estimate the ranges of uncertainty in each of these estimates. We base all results on the 1992 IPCC emissions scenarios IS92a-f. We begin with a summary of 1990 conditions, then consider each gas separately (but lumping the halocarbons into a single group), to compare their relative importance.

Wigley, T.M.L.

1993-01-01

161

NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Although global warming is generally linked to increasing levels of carbon dioxide, there are many other gases produced from industrial, agricultural, and energy-generating sources that can also cause the Earth's temperature to rise. Individually these gases are not likely to make a significant contribution, but, taken together, it is believed that they can rival the effects of carbon dioxide.

M. A. K. Khalil

1999-01-01

162

Update on Controlling Greenhouse Gases from International Aviation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The European Union's (EU's) decision in 2008 to control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international flights under its Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), effective January 1, 2012, has been contentious among nations, prompting threats of noncomplianc...

J. A. Leggett

2012-01-01

163

75 FR 33949 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation...and various metals. (3) Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced...oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are...

2010-06-15

164

Tradeable emission permits and the control of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reiterates the case for tradeable permits as a global policy option for limiting greenhouse gas emissions, and considers the detailed design of a global tradeable?permit regime, emphasising the importance of the initial assignment of property rights, and arguing that the relevant property rights in this case are the rights of every member of the world community to share

Geoffrey Bertram

1992-01-01

165

Is recent climate change across the United States related to rising levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1948-1987, the concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases increased by more than 30%, and the mean annual temperature of the northern hemisphere increased by about 0.15°C. To gain a better understanding of why the US temperature record does not reflect the anticipated greenhouse warming, the authors studied the inter-relationships between trends of temperature, cloudiness, sunshine and precipitation. Both

Marc S. Plantico; Thomas R. Karl; George Kukla; Joyce Gavin

1990-01-01

166

Climate Policy with Multiple Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how inclusion of many sources, sinks and reservoirs -- a comprehensive approach -- affects climate policy, compared with a control merely of CO2. Two questions of particular importance arise in such an analysis. One is how to aggregate the emissions of different climate gases, and the other is how to include all relevant measures in the analysis.

H. Asbjørn Aaheim

1999-01-01

167

75 FR 66433 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation...various metals. (iii) Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced...oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. (iv) Petroleum products that...Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are...

2010-10-28

168

Long-term reduction potential of non-CO 2 greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented here to assess the potential long-term contribution of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in mitigation scenarios. The analysis shows the future development of the mitigation potential of non-CO2 gases (as a function of changes in technology and implementation barriers) to represent a crucial parameter for the overall costs of mitigation scenarios. The recently developed marginal abatement cost curves

Paul L. Lucas; Detlef P. van Vuuren; Johannes Gerardus Jozef Olivier; Michel G. J. den Elzen

2007-01-01

169

The Kyoto Protocol and non-CO 2 Greenhouse Gases and Carbon Sinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many trace constituents other than carbon dioxide affect the radiative budget of the atmosphere. The existing international agreement to limit greenhouse gases, the Kyoto Protocol, includes carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and credit for some carbon sinks. We investigate technological options for reducing emissions of these gases and the economic

J. Reilly; M. Mayer; J. Harnisch

2002-01-01

170

Agroforestry systems: sources of sinks of greenhouse gases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prominent role of forestry and agroforestry systems in the flux and long-term storage of carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere has increased global interest in these land-use options to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Preliminary assessments suggest that some agroforestry systems (e.g., agrosilvicultural) can be CO2 sinks and temporarily store C, while other systems (e.g., ruminant-based silvopastoral systems) are

R. K. Dixon

1995-01-01

171

Methods for estimating greenhouse gases from local places  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on two efforts to develop methods for quantifying and analysing greenhouse gas emissions from local places. The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives?Cities for Climate Protection (ICLEI?CCP) campaign and the Association of American Geographers?Global Change in Local Places (AAG?GCLP) project represent independent efforts with differing origins and objectives. There is a rich and dynamic fine structure to

Robert W. Kates; Michael W. Mayfield; Ralph D. Torrie; Brian Witcher

1998-01-01

172

Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angles Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases and pollutants including CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. The existing database in the Los Angeles area is extremely sparse, and new methods are required that provide high spatial and temporal resolution. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. A new Fourier Transform Spectrometer called CLARS-FTS has been deployed at Mt. Wilson, California at JPL’s California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing for automated long-term measurements of greenhouse gases. The CLARS-FTS points at ground sites in the Los Angeles basin from its location at an altitude of 1.7 km, and records atmospheric absorption spectra over a broad spectral range (4000 - 14000 cm-1) in reflected sunlight. These spectra contain the absorption features of major greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4, CO) together with O2, which is used to quantify the atmospheric path. From these rotationally resolved spectra, the column densities of greenhouse gases along the light path are retrieved. The CLARS-FTS participated in the 2010 CalNex field campaign and measured the spatial and temporal distribution of greenhouse gases in the LA basin during 33 measurement days in May and June. The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions [XGAS] of these traces gases are computed using measured column densities. The CLARS-FTS measurements during CalNex will be discussed, and compared with other correlative data sources including aircraft and ground-based instruments and a co-located UV-visible MAX DOAS spectrometer.

Fu, D.; Sander, S. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Cheung, R.; Stutz, J.

2010-12-01

173

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection  

SciTech Connect

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

Calabro, Paolo S. [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, via Graziella - loc. Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.calabro@unirc.it

2009-07-15

174

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.  

PubMed

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management. PMID:19318239

Calabrò, Paolo S

2009-07-01

175

Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

2010-01-01

176

Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008  

EIA Publications

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare an inventory of aggregate U.S. national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987-1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report documents the methodology for the seventeenth annual inventory, covering national emissions over the period 1990-2008.

Information Center

2011-01-03

177

Comparison of energy sources in terms of their full energy chain emission factors of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the methodologies and databases for comparative assessment of emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the full energy chain (FENCH) of different energy sources. It largely refers to an international experts workshop on the topic held in October 1994 in Beijing, which was the first meeting in a series of IAEA expert meetings on comparison of FENCH-GHG

Joop F. van de Vate

1997-01-01

178

Sources and sinks of greenhouse gases in the soil-plant environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned mainly with nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide, which account for more than 70% of predicted greenhouse warming. All three have significant sources in the soil-plant environment and principal sinks in the atmosphere or the oceans. The emphasis is on methodological problems associated with measuring source and sink strengths, but the biogeochemistry of individual gases and

O. T. Denmead

1991-01-01

179

Limiting the greenhouses gases: a possible Italian strategy in the European framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases. The EU have mentioned Kyoto protocol-is to reduce green house gas emission by 8% from 1990 levels, by 2008 through 2012. The Kyoto protocol introduced three mechanisms for achieving the reduction goal: emission trading (ET) and joint implementation (JI) among developed countries, clean developed mechanisms (CDM) for cooperation between developed

L. Priori; E. Spa; L. Salvaderi

2003-01-01

180

The Economics of Controlling Stock Pollutants: An Efficient Strategy for Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal control theory is applied to develop an efficient strategy to control stock pollutants such as greenhouse gases and hazardous waste. The optimal strategy suggests that, at any time, the marginal costs of abatement should be equated with the present value of the marginal damage of timely unabated emission. The optimal strategy calls for increasingly tight abatement over time as

Falk Ita; Mendelsohn Robert

1993-01-01

181

Acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation due to Increases in Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation under rising concentrations of greenhouse gases is investigated using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. The circulation strengthens as a result of increased wave driving in the subtropical lower stratosphere, which in turn occurs because of enhanced propagation and dissipation of waves in this region. Enhanced wave propagation is due to changes in tropospheric

Rolando R. Garcia; William J. Randel

2008-01-01

182

Greenhouse gases and recovery of the Earth’s ozone layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O in the recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. A weakness in efficiencies of all catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere caused by greenhouse gases is shown to be a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer. Numerical experiments show that the total ozone changes caused by greenhouse gases will be comparable in absolute value with the changes due to chlorine and bromine species in the middle of the 21st century. Continuous anthropogenic growth of CO 2 will lead to a significantly faster recovery of the ozone layer. In this case, the global total ozone in the latitude range from 60°S to 60°N will reach its undisturbed level of 1980 by about 2040. If the CO 2 growth stops, the global total ozone will reach this level only by the end of the century.

Dyominov, Igor G.; Zadorozhny, Alexander M.

183

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-06-18

184

Greenhouse Gases and Ammonia Emissions from Organic Mixed Crop-Dairy Systems: A Critical Review of Mitigation Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dairy production systems represent a significant source of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHG), that increase global\\u000a warming, and ammonia (NH3), that leads to eutrophication and acidification of natural ecosystems. Greenhouse gases and ammonia are emitted both by\\u000a conventional and organic dairy systems. Several studies have already been conducted to design practices that reduce greenhouse\\u000a gas and ammonia emissions

S. M. Novak; J. L. Fiorelli

185

Sectoral emission inventories of greenhouse gases for 1990 on a per country basis as well as on 1°×1°  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of global greenhouse gas emission inventories has been compiled per source category for the 1990 annual emissions of the direct greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O, as well as of the indirect greenhouse gases (ozone precursors) CO, NOx and NMVOC, and of SO2. The inventories are available by sector, both on a per country\\/region basis and on a

J. G. J. Olivier; A. F. Bouwman; J. J. M. Berdowski; C. Veldt; J. P. J. Bloos; A. J. H. Visschedijk; C. W. M. van der Maas; P. Y. J. Zandveld

1999-01-01

186

On-line measurements of halogenated greenhouse gases for allocation of European sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halocarbons are important atmospheric trace gases, which contribute to the green-house effect and some of which are also responsible for destruction of stratospheric ozone (e.g. CFCs, halones). Emissions of halocarbons are therefore regulated through international treaties like the Montreal and Kyoto Protocol, which regulate their industrial usage according to their properties. In Europe these substances are measured within the EU-project SOGE at four back-ground sites (Jungfraujoch, Mace Head, Spitzbergen, Monte Cimone). Data of these measurements are used to allocate potent European source regions and estimate European source strengths of these gases. For example, analyses of the 3 years of data will be shown in order to estimate emissions of the Montreal regulated methyl chloroform as well as dominant source regions of the Kyoto Protocol regulated hy-drofluorocarbons. This system of ground-based measurements has the potential to be used as a verifi-cation tool for European emisions of these greenhouse gases.

Reimann, S.; Schaub, D.; Stemmler, K.; Simmonds, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Greally, B.; Stordal, F.; Schmidbauer, N.; Maione, M.

2003-04-01

187

Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure. PMID:22988613

Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

2012-01-01

188

Moisture effects on greenhouse gases generation in nitrifying gas-phase compost biofilters.  

PubMed

Gas-phase compost biofilters are extensively used in concentrated animal feeding operations to remove odors and, in some cases, ammonia from air sources. The expected biochemical pathway for these predominantly aerobic systems is nitrification. However, non-uniform media with low oxygen levels can shift biofilter microbial pathways to denitrification, a source of greenhouse gases. Several factors contribute to the formation of anoxic/anaerobic zones: media aging, media and particle structure, air velocity distribution, compaction, biofilm thickness, and moisture content (MC) distribution. The present work studies the effects of media moisture conditions on ammonia (NH(3)) removal and greenhouse gas generation (nitrous oxide, N(2)O and methane, CH(4)) for gas-phase compost biofilters subject to a 100-day controlled drying process. Continuous recordings were made for the three gases and water vapor (2.21-h sampling cycle, each cycle consisted of three gas species, and water vapor, for a total of 10,050 data points). Media moisture conditions were classified into three corresponding media drying rate (DR) stages: Constant DR (wetter media), falling DR, and stable-dry system. The first-half of the constant DR period (0-750 h; MC=65-52%, w.b.) facilitated high NH(3) removal rates, but higher N(2)O generation and no CH(4) generation. At the drier stages of the constant DR (750-950 h; MC=52-48%, w.b.) NH(3) removal remained high but N(2)O net generation decreased to near zero. In the falling DR stage (1200-1480 h; MC=44-13%) N(2)O generation decreased, CH(4) increased, and NH(3) was no longer removed. No ammonia removal or greenhouse gas generation was observed in the stable-dry system (1500-2500 h; MC=13%). These results indicate that media should remain toward the drier region of the constant DR (in close proximity to the falling DR stage; MC=50%, approx.), to maintain high levels of NH(3) removal, reduced levels of N(2)O generation, and nullify levels of CH(4) generation. PMID:22465726

Maia, Guilherme D N; Day, George B; Gates, Richard S; Taraba, Joseph L; Coyne, Mark S

2012-06-01

189

Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (LHR) for Measurements of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmospheric Column  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This passive laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) instrument simultaneously measures multiple trace gases in the atmospheric column including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and resolves their concentrations at different altitudes. This instrument has been designed to operate in tandem with the passive aerosol sensor currently used in AERONET (an established network of more than 450 ground aerosol monitoring instruments worldwide). Because aerosols induce a radiative effect that influences terrestrial carbon exchange, simultaneous detection of aerosols with these key carbon cycle gases offers a uniquely comprehensive measurement approach. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a technique for detecting weak signals that was adapted from radio receiver technology. In a radio receiver, a weak input signal from a radio antenna is mixed with a stronger local oscillator signal. The mixed signal (beat note, or intermediate frequency) has a frequency equal to the difference between the input signal and the local oscillator. The intermediate frequency is amplified and sent to a detector that extracts the audio from the signal. In the LHR instrument described here, sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas is mixed with laser light at a frequency matched to a trace gas absorption feature in the infrared (IR). Mixing results in a beat signal in the RF (radio frequency) region that can be related to the atmospheric concentration. For a one-second integration, the estimated column sensitivities are 0.1 ppmv for CO2, and <1 ppbv for CH4. In addition to producing a standalone ground measurement product, this instrument could be used to calibrate/validate four Earth observing missions: ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons), OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), OCO-3, and GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observational SATellite). The only network that currently measures CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric column is TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network), and only two of its 16 operational sites are in the United States. TCCON data is used for validation of GOSAT data, and will be used for OCO-2 validation. While these Fourier-transform spectrometers (FTS) can measure the largest range of trace gases, the network is severely limited due to the high cost and extreme size of these instruments (these occupy small buildings and require personnel for operation). The LHR/AERONET instrument offers a significantly smaller (carry-on luggage size) autonomous instrument that can be incorporated into AERONET s much larger (450 instruments) global network.

Steel, Emily; McLinden, Matthew

2012-01-01

190

Greenhouse warming by minor gases on early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early atmospheres of Earth and Mars were non-oxidizing mixtures likely derived from volcanic outgassing of a silicate mantle, with some fraction of the volatiles also contributed by impacting comets and meteorites. Here the authors investigate the potential of minor atmospheric constituents produced by ultraviolet and auroral chemistry to contribute to the thermal opacity of early Earth and Mars atmospheres. Using a very simple two-stream thermal opacity model, the authors show that HCN at 10 parts per million (ppm) and N2O at 100 ppm can each block radiation in thermal infrared windows sufficiently to increase the surface temperature by 7 K separately, or 14 K together. Small quantities of other species are also produced in such experiments. Some of these have especially complex infrared spectra and should be further investigated for their potential to help close windows in the CO2 + H2O infrared transmission. Enhancement of greenhouse warming by minor atmospheric species different from those present in today's atmosphere may have played important roles in the climate of early Earth and Mars.

Heinrich, M. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.

1992-01-01

191

Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, Process Studies and Modelling (MAMM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is a major source of atmospheric methane and other greenhouse gases, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Arctic greenhouse gas sources need to be quantified, by strength, geographic location, character (e.g. wetlands, gas fields, hydrates), and by temporal variation (daily, seasonally and annually), and their vulnerability to change assessed. To this end, the MAMM project was commissioned as part of the NERC Arctic Research Programme. It involves an integrated series of measurement and modelling activities. Analysis of atmospheric gas concentrations, isotopic character, and source fluxes, are being made from both the ground and from the FAAM aircraft. The measurements (historic and new) are being interpreted using a suite of models (trajectory, forward and inverse) to improve the understanding of the local/regional scale, placing the role of Arctic emissions in the context of large-scale global atmospheric change. The first measurement campaign was held in August 2012. Surface flux measurements were made at the Sodankylä research station in Finland, together with in-situ surface and aircraft measurements over a wider area. In addition to flights over the Sodankylä wetlands, the aircraft also flew out to Svalbard to investigate marine sources of methane. Further campaigns are taking place in Sweden in August and September 2013. The initial measurements have been used to infer wetland emission fluxes and confirm that Scandinavian wetlands are a major source of methane in this region. The aircraft also measured a high-CH4 plume over the sea between Norway and Svalbard, which was likely advected from mainland wetland sources. An overview of results from the field campaign will be presented, alongside results from the NAME model (the UK Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) to help understand the air mass histories of the observations.

Pyle, John; Cain, Michelle; Warwick, Nicola

2014-05-01

192

Methane and Other Greenhouse Gases in the Arctic - Measurements, Process Studies and Modelling (MAMM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is a major source of atmospheric methane and other greenhouse gases, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Arctic greenhouse gas sources need to be quantified, by strength, geographic location, character (e.g. wetlands, gas fields, hydrates), and by temporal variation (daily, seasonally and annually), and their vulnerability to change assessed. To this end, the MAMM project was commissioned as part of the UK NERC Arctic Research Programme. It involves an integrated series of measurement and modelling activities. Analysis of atmospheric gas concentrations, isotopic character, and source fluxes, are being made from both the ground and from the NERC FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) aircraft. The measurements (historic and new) are being interpreted using a suite of models (trajectory, forward and inverse) to improve the understanding of the local/regional scale, placing the role of Arctic emissions in the context of large-scale global atmospheric change. The first measurement campaign was held in August 2012. Surface flux measurements were made at the Sodankylä research station in Finland, together with in-situ surface and aircraft measurements over a wider area. In addition to flights over the Sodankylä wetlands, the aircraft also flew out to Svalbard, Norway to investigate marine sources of methane. Further campaigns are taking place in Sweden in August and September 2013. The initial measurements have been used to infer wetland emission fluxes and confirm that Scandinavian wetlands are a major source of methane in this region (see posters by Fisher et al, O'Shea et al). The aircraft also measured a high-methane plume over the sea between mainland Norway and Svalbard, which was likely advected from mainland wetland sources (see poster by France et al). Results from the field campaigns will be presented, alongside results from the NAME model (the UK Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) to help understand the air mass histories of the observations.

Pyle, J. A.; Warwick, N. J.; Cain, M.; Hayman, G.; Skiba, U.; Drewer, J.; Dinsmore, K.; George, C.; Nisbet, E. G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoiselle, M.; Brownlow, R. B.; Allen, G.; Bower, K.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C.; Illingworth, S. M.; Jones, B.; Muller, J.; O'Shea, S.; Manning, A. C.; Kozlova, E.; Manning, A. J.; Smith, M.; Anderson, D.; Bauguitte, S.

2013-12-01

193

Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., composting, anaerobic treatment), land application and chemical fertilisers. Although in many countries emphasis is put on reduction

G. J. Monteny; C. M. Groenestein; M. A. Hilhorst

2001-01-01

194

Greenhouse gases and future long?term changes in the stratospheric temperature and the ozone layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical two?dimensional (2D) interactive dynamical–radiative–photochemical model including aerosol physics is used to examine the expected long?term changes in stratospheric temperature and the Earth's ozone layer due to anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O. The model time?dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2050. The results of the calculations show

I. G. Dyominov; A. M. Zadorozhny

2008-01-01

195

Greenhouse Gases Emission from Energy Production in Conventional Biogas Plants in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the evaluation of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 emission from the widely accepted conventional biogas plants operating in India. CH4 and CO2 are the two major constituents of biogas and also the two important greenhouse gases causing the present global warming. Average CH4 and CO2 emission per plant from the floating gasholder model biogas plants ranged

R. S. Khoiyangbam

2008-01-01

196

Carbon, nitrogen and Greenhouse gases budgets over a four years crop rotation in northern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Croplands mainly act as net sources of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as nitrogen oxide (NO), a precursor of troposheric ozone. We determined the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balance\\u000a of a four-year crop rotation, including maize, wheat, barley and mustard, to provide a base for exploring mitigation options\\u000a of net emissions. The

Benjamin Loubet; Patricia Laville; Simon Lehuger; Eric Larmanou; Christophe Fléchard; Nicolas Mascher; Sophie Genermont; Romain Roche; Rossana M. Ferrara; Patrick Stella; Erwan Personne; Brigitte Durand; Céline Decuq; Dominique Flura; Sylvie Masson; Olivier Fanucci; Jean-Noël Rampon; Jan Siemens; Reimo Kindler; Benoit Gabrielle; Marion Schrumpf; Pierre Cellier

2011-01-01

197

Greenhouse gases fluxes and soil thermal properties in a pasture in central Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluctuations of greenhouse gases emissions and soil properties occur at short spatial and temporal scales, however, results are often reported for larger scales studies. We monitored CO2,CH4, and N2O fluxes and soil temperature (T), thermal conductivity (K), resistivity (R) and thermal diffusivity (D) from 2004 to 2006 in a pasture. Soil air samples for determination of CO2,CH4 and N2O concentrations

Nsalambi Vakanda Nkongolo; Shane Johnson; Kent Schmidt; Frieda Eivazi

2010-01-01

198

Long Term Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases at NOAA - a Forty Year Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory and its precursor organizations have been monitoring trends and distributions of greenhouse gases and other climatically relevant constituents in the atmosphere for over 40 years (http:\\/\\/www.esrl.noaa.gov\\/gmd). The focus of these measurements has been to obtain reliable records of global trends and distributions, but the experimental design and use of these measurements have advanced over time

J. H. Butler

2009-01-01

199

Greenhouse gases emission from soil contaminated with automobile industry residue in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste of the automobile industry containing large amounts of heavy metals might affect the emission of greenhouse gases\\u000a (GHG) when applied to the soil. Accumulation of inorganic chemical elements in the environment generally occurs due to human\\u000a activity (industry, agriculture, mining and waste landfills). Residues from human activities may release heavy metals to the\\u000a soil solution, causing toxicity to

Roberta Corrêa Nogueirol; Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni; Felipe José Cury Fracetto; Dilmar Baretta; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

2010-01-01

200

Upscaling Regional Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Rice Cultivation: Methods and Sources of Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important sources of greenhouse gases is the emission of methane from rice fields. Methane emission from rice fields\\u000a is the result of a complex array of soil processes involving plant-microbe interactions. The cumulative effects of these processes\\u000a at the level of individual plants influence the global atmospheric composition and make it necessary to expand our research\\u000a focus

Peter H. Verburg; Peter M. van Bodegom; Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon; Aldo Bergsma; Nico van Breemen

2006-01-01

201

Upscaling regional emissions of greenhouse gases from rice cultivation: methods and sources of uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important sources of greenhouse gases is the emission of methane from rice fields. Methane emission from rice fields\\u000a is the result of a complex array of soil processes involving plant-microbe interactions. The cumulative effects of these processes\\u000a at the level of individual plants influence the global atmospheric composition and make it necessary to expand our research\\u000a focus

Peter H. Verburg; Peter M. van Bodegom; Hugo A. C. Denier Gon; Aldo Bergsma; Nico van Breemen

202

Peatlands, carbon storage, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocol: Prospects and significance for Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol accepts terrestrial sinks for greenhouse gases (GHGs) as offsets for fossil fuel emissions. Only carbon\\u000a sequestered in living biomass from re- and afforestation is presently considered, but the Protocol contains a provision for\\u000a the possible future inclusion of other land uses and soils. As a result, the possibility of sequestration of carbon in wetlands,\\u000a and particularly peatlands,

Nigel T. Roulet

2000-01-01

203

The ice record of greenhouse gases: a view in the context of future changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of air trapped in polar ice provides the most direct information on the natural variability of Greenhouse Trace Gases (GTG). It gives the context for the dramatic change in their atmospheric concentrations induced by anthropogenic activities over the last 200yr, leading to present-day levels which have been unprecedented over the last 400,000yr. The GTG ice record also provides insight

D. Raynaud; J-M Barnola; J. Chappellaz; T. Blunier; A. Indermühle; B. Stauffer

2000-01-01

204

Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitas and populations in the northern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect CO[sub 2] has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains. Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled CO[sub 2] scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify. 113 refs., 1 fig.

Larson, D.L. (Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, ND (United States))

1994-04-01

205

Anaerobic digestion: impact of future greenhouse gases mitigation policies on methane generation and usage.  

PubMed

The debate as to whether carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions will become subject to increasing regulation, increased restrictions, and probably to some form of carbon tax, has moved from a simple "yes" or "no" to "when". Wastewater treatment plants will be significantly impacted by increased energy costs and by specific regulations and/or penalties associated with emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, the greenhouse gases emissions of different wastewater process options are estimated. The paper outlines the increasing need for wastewater treatment plants to factor greenhouse gas mitigation issues into their medium- as and long-term strategies, and identifies anaerobic enhouse as processes as being at the core of such strategies. Further, the paper identifies a number of key research challenges to be addressed if such strategies are to play a larger role in attenuating the likely impacts of GHG mitigation requirements on wastewater treatment plant design and operation. PMID:16180407

Greenfield, P F; Batstone, D J

2005-01-01

206

Greenhouse gases, climate change and the transition from coal to low-carbon electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transition from the global system of coal-based electricity generation to low-greenhouse-gas-emission energy technologies is required to mitigate climate change in the long term. The use of current infrastructure to build this new low-emission system necessitates additional emissions of greenhouse gases, and the coal-based infrastructure will continue to emit substantial amounts of greenhouse gases as it is phased out. Furthermore, ocean thermal inertia delays the climate benefits of emissions reductions. By constructing a quantitative model of energy system transitions that includes life-cycle emissions and the central physics of greenhouse warming, we estimate the global warming expected to occur as a result of build-outs of new energy technologies ranging from 100 GWe to 10 TWe in size and 1-100 yr in duration. We show that rapid deployment of low-emission energy systems can do little to diminish the climate impacts in the first half of this century. Conservation, wind, solar, nuclear power, and possibly carbon capture and storage appear to be able to achieve substantial climate benefits in the second half of this century; however, natural gas cannot.

Myhrvold, N. P.; Caldeira, K.

2012-03-01

207

European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases inferred from atmospheric measurements.  

PubMed

European emissions of nine representative halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, Halon 1211, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-22, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-152a) are derived for the year 2009 by combining long-term observations in Switzerland, Italy, and Ireland with campaign measurements from Hungary. For the first time, halocarbon emissions over Eastern Europe are assessed by top-down methods, and these results are compared to Western European emissions. The employed inversion method builds on least-squares optimization linking atmospheric observations with calculations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The aggregated halocarbon emissions over the study area are estimated at 125 (106-150) Tg of CO(2) equiv/y, of which the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) make up the most important fraction with 41% (31-52%). We find that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from banks are still significant and account for 35% (27-43%) of total halocarbon emissions in Europe. The regional differences in per capita emissions are only small for the HFCs, while emissions of CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) tend to be higher in Western Europe compared to Eastern Europe. In total, the inferred per capita emissions are similar to estimates for China, but 3.5 (2.3-4.5) times lower than for the United States. Our study demonstrates the large benefits of adding a strategically well placed measurement site to the existing European observation network of halocarbons, as it extends the coverage of the inversion domain toward Eastern Europe and helps to better constrain the emissions over Central Europe. PMID:22192076

Keller, Christoph A; Hill, Matthias; Vollmer, Martin K; Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Arduini, Jgor; Maione, Michela; Ferenczi, Zita; Haszpra, Laszlo; Manning, Alistair J; Peter, Thomas

2012-01-01

208

74 FR 18886 - Proposed Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...change: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons...six greenhouse gases as long-lived. Methane has an atmospheric lifetime of roughly...increased atmospheric concentrations of methane, nitrous oxide,...

2009-04-24

209

Emissions of greenhouse gases from a North American megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric column abundances of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured above the South Coast air basin (SCB), a densely populated urban region of Southern California, USA, which includes Los Angeles and the surrounding suburbs. Large diurnal variations in CO and CH4 are observed which correlate well with those in CO2. Weaker correlations are seen between N2O and CO2, with large uncertainties. We compute yearly SCB emissions of CO and CH4 to be 1.4 ± 0.3 Tg CO and 0.6 ± 0.1 Tg CH4. We compare our calculated emissions to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) estimates. Our measurements confirm that urban emissions are a significant source of CH4 and in fact may be substantially higher than currently estimated. If our emissions are typical of other urban centers, these findings suggest that urban emissions could contribute 7-15% to the global anthropogenic budget of methane.

Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Toon, G. C.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Yavin, Y. G.

2009-08-01

210

From Anti-greenhouse Effect of Solar Absorbers to Cooling Effect of Greenhouse Gases: A 1-D Radiative Convective Model Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The haze layer in Titan's upper atmosphere absorbs 90% of the solar radiation, but is inefficient for trapping infrared radiation generated by the surface. Its existence partially compensates for the greenhouse warming and keeps the surface approximately 9°C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone. This is the so called anti-greenhouse effect (McKay et al., 1991). This effect can be used to alleviate the warming caused by the increasing level of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. A one-dimensional radiative convective model (Kasting et al., 2009 and references listed there) is used to investigate the anti-greenhouse effect in the Earth atmosphere. Increasing of solar absorbers, e.g. aerosols and ozone, in the stratosphere reduces the surface solar flux and cool the surface. However, the absorption of the solar flux also increases the temperature in the upper atmosphere, while reduces the temperature at the surface. Thus, the temperature profile of the atmosphere changes and the regions with positive vertical temperature gradient are expanded. According to Shia (2010) the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases is directly related to the vertical temperature gradient. Under the new temperature profile increases of greenhouse gases should have less warming effect. When the solar absorbers keep increasing, eventually most of the atmosphere has positive temperature gradient and increasing greenhouse gases would cool the surface (Shia, 2011). The doubling CO2 scenario in the Earth atmosphere is simulated for different levels of solar absorbers using the 1-D RC model. The model results show that if the solar absorber increases to a certain level that less than 50% solar flux reaching the surface, doubling CO2 cools the surface by about 2 C. This means if the snowball Earth is generated by solar absorbers in the stratosphere, increasing greenhouse gases would make it freeze even more (Shia, 2011). References: Kasting, J. et al. 2009, http://vpl.astro.washington.edu/sci/AntiModels/models09.html McKay, C.P. et al. 1991, Titan: Greenhouse and Anti-greenhouse Effects on Titan. Science 253 (5024), 1118-21 Shia, R. 2011, Climate Effect of Greenhouse Gas: Warming or Cooling is Determined by Temperature Gradient, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2012, abstract #A51A-0274 Shia, R. 2010, Mechanism of Radiative Forcing of Greenhouse Gas and its Implication to the Global Warming, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #A11J-02

Shia, R.

2012-12-01

211

Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the second-generation Canadian earth system model (CanESM2) to historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) natural and anthropogenic forcing is assessed using the newly-developed representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols. Allowable emissions required to achieve the future atmospheric CO2 concentration pathways, are reported for the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. For the historical 1850-2005 period, cumulative land plus ocean carbon uptake and, consequently, cumulative diagnosed emissions compare well with observation-based estimates. The simulated historical carbon uptake is somewhat weaker for the ocean and stronger for the land relative to their observation-based estimates. The simulated historical warming of 0.9°C compares well with the observation-based estimate of 0.76 ± 0.19°C. The RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios respectively yield warmings of 1.4, 2.3, and 4.9°C and cumulative diagnosed fossil fuel emissions of 182, 643 and 1617 Pg C over the 2006-2100 period. The simulated warming of 2.3°C over the 1850-2100 period in the RCP 2.6 scenario, with the lowest concentration of GHGs, is slightly larger than the 2°C warming target set to avoid dangerous climate change by the 2009 UN Copenhagen Accord. The results of this study suggest that limiting warming to roughly 2°C by the end of this century is unlikely since it requires an immediate ramp down of emissions followed by ongoing carbon sequestration in the second half of this century.

Arora, V. K.; Scinocca, J. F.; Boer, G. J.; Christian, J. R.; Denman, K. L.; Flato, G. M.; Kharin, V. V.; Lee, W. G.; Merryfield, W. J.

2011-03-01

212

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

(Scroll down to find Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, a subheading under the broader heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases, etc.) CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to isotopes in greenhouse gases includes: • Monthly atmospheric 13C/12C isotopic ratios for 10 SIO stations, (2005) (Trends Online) • Mixing ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and isotope ratios of associated 13C, 18O, and 2H in air samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Monta±a de Oro, California, USA (2004) • Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A., (2004) (Trends Online) ?13C in CO2 from the CSIRO GASLAB Flask Sampling Network (Trends Online) • In Situ 13CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 (2001) (Trends Online) • In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 (1995) • Carbon-13 Isotopic Abundance and concentration of Atmospheric Methane for Background Air in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres from 1978 to 1989 (1995) • Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C/12C of Atmospheric Methane from Flask Air Samples (1999) • 14CO 2 Observations from Schauinsland, Germany (1997) (Trends Online) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Atmospheric CO 2 from Northern and Southern Hemisphere Sites, 1962-1992 (1996) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 (1998) (Specialized Interface)

213

Analysis of Continuous Measurements of Anthropogenic Halogenated Greenhouse Gases at Monte Cimone for Estimation of European Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic halogenated greenhouse gases includes chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride. Even if atmospheric concentration levels of these compounds are in the range of pptvs, their contribute to global warming is significant. Furthermore, some of these gases are powerful ozone depleting substances. In order to assess their long-term atmospheric concentration trends and in order

M. Maione; J. Arduini; A. Geniali; F. Mangani; P. Cristofanelli; P. Bonasoni

2003-01-01

214

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-11-01

215

Abiotic Mechanisms for the Formation of Greenhouse Gases from Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry and Photochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol particles such as mineral dust can undergo interfacial, heterogeneous reactions that can be involved in both the formation and destruction of important greenhouse gases. This talk will provide an overview of some of these reactions and will focus on the formation of atmospheric nitrous oxide from ammonium nitrate coated dust particles that can be initiated with simulated solar radiation. Although nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and a primary cause of stratospheric ozone destruction, there remain missing sources in the nitrous oxide budget. Nitrous oxide production by the abiotic mechanism discussed here is expected globally from both megacities and agricultural areas and may become more important under future projected changes in anthropogenic emissions.

Grassian, V. H.

2012-12-01

216

A group increment scheme for infrared absorption intensities of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

2012-02-01

217

A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

218

Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

PubMed Central

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

219

Quantifying the Summertime Austral Jet Stream and Hadley Cell Response to Stratospheric Ozone and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of anthropogenic forcing on the austral jet stream and Hadley Cell in summer is assessed across three comprehensive climate model datasets, the Chemistry Climate Model Validation Activity 2 (CCMVal2) and Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects, Phases 3 and 5 (CMIP3,5). Changes in stratospheric ozone and greenhouse gases impact the troposphere in this season, and a simple framework based on temperature trends in the lower polar stratosphere and upper tropical troposphere is developed to separate their effects. It suggests that Southern Hemisphere circulation trends are driven by changes in upper troposphere/lower stratosphere temperature gradients: the subtropical and extratropical jets respond similarly when the tropics warm or the polar stratosphere cools. The mean circulation response to greenhouse gases and ozone is fairly comparable across the three multimodel datasets; consistent with previous studies, ozone has dominated changes in recent decades, while in the future, ozone and greenhouse gases will largely offset each other. The multimodel mean perspective, however, masks considerable spread between individual models. Uncertainty resulting from differences in temperature trends is separated from differences in the circulation response to a given temperature change. Both sources of uncertainty contribute equally to model spread. Uncertainty in temperature trends is dominated by differences in the polar stratosphere, not the tropics, suggesting that reducing uncertainty in models' climate sensitivity may not narrow the spread in subtropical and extratropical circulation trends in this season. Rather, the ozone forcing must be constrained. Even if the temperature trends could be perfectly constrained, however, models' 'circulation sensitivity,' differences in the response of the circulation to the same thermal forcing, must be addressed in order to narrow spread in climate projections.

Gerber, E. P.; Son, S.

2013-12-01

220

[Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].  

PubMed

Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period. PMID:21780575

Liu, Li-hua; Jiang, Jing-yan; Zong, Liang-gang

2011-05-01

221

Renewable energies in electricity generation for reduction of greenhouse gases in Mexico 2025.  

PubMed

This study presents 4 scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the historic path of Mexico's energy policy. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The fourth scenario takes into account the present- and medium-term use of natural-gas technologies that the energy reform has produced, but after 2007 a high and feasible participation of renewable sources of energy is considered. The 4 scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). PMID:11928356

Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Martínez, Manuel

2002-02-01

222

Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models  

SciTech Connect

A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

2008-04-01

223

Lagrangian transport and inverse emission modeling of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagrangian models, which track the movement of fluid parcels in their moving frame of reference, have gained in popularity and sophistication over the past few decades. More recently, Lagrangian models, in particular the class of Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models (LPDMs), have demonstrated their great potential in the context of inverse emission estimation as the Lagrangian framework provides a simple means to establish the relationship between receptor (measurement) locations and upstream sources. We will first briefly summarize the basic concepts of LPDMs, their application in forward and backward mode, and their use in inverse modeling. We will then present several examples of inverse emission estimation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances. The main transport modeling tool is the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART which was driven either with meteorological fields of the global IFS model of ECWMF or, in an adapted and augmented version, with high-resolution fields of the mesoscale weather forecast model COSMO. Using ECMWF meteorology, FLEXPART was applied to quantify European halocarbon emissions based on measurements at Jungfraujoch, Mace Head and a few other sites in Europe. While for some compounds our estimates were in good agreement with officially reported numbers, we also identified important examples of large discrepancies. FLEXPART was also applied at smaller scales to study anthropogenic and semi-natural methane emissions in Switzerland. For this purpose, it was driven by high-resolution fields of the COSMO model and combined with observations from a small aircraft and from a new measurement network recently established in Switzerland. We will compare our independently estimated methane emissions with the numbers presented in the Swiss National Inventory Report.

Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Reimann, Stefan; Hiller, Rebecca; Manning, Alistair; Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas

2014-05-01

224

Response of the climate system to atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RECENTLY, Kiehl and Briegleb1 evaluated the radiative forcing associated with the capacity of atmospheric sulphate aerosols to reflect solar radiation back into space, and compared this with the forcing associated with atmospheric greenhouse gases. They found that the (negative) climate forcing by the aerosols has strong regional character, with the greatest forcing over Northern Hemisphere land surfaces, whereas the (positive) forcing by greenhouse gases is distributed almost equally between the hemispheres and varies mainly as a function of latitude. Here we present simulations of the response of the climate system to these two types of forcing. We find that the global response to aerosol forcing is regionally heterogeneous, with a distribution that is different from the forcing pattern. The simulations also imply that, for equal magnitudes of forcing, the temperature response is markedly greater for carbon dioxide than for aerosol forcing. We conclude that to predict the global mean climate response to global mean forcing, it is necessary to separate out the different components of the forcing to which the climate system is sensitive.

Taylor, K. E.; Penner, J. E.

1994-06-01

225

Changing lower stratospheric circulation: The role of ozone and greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratospheric climate has changed significantly during the last decades. The causes of these changes are discussed on the basis of two different general circulation model experiments forced by observed greenhouse gas and ozone concentration. There is a clear and significant response of the lower stratosphere temperature and geopotential in the model simulations forced by observed ozone changes that is in

Hans-F. Graf; Ingo Kirchner; Judith Perlwitz

1998-01-01

226

Influence of biochar amendment on greenhouse gases emission and rice production in paddy field, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar incorporating into agricultural soils as a strategy to increase soil carbon content and mitigate climate change received great attention. We present a field study about biochar amendment into paddy field in Sichuan province 2010, China. The objective was to evaluate the impacts of biochar incorporation on rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw at temperature 350-550°C. Biochar incorporated into paddy field before rice transplanting. Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured in situ using closed chamber method during whole rice growing season. Flux of greenhouse gases was monitored at about 7 day's interval. Two rates of N fertilizer (0 and 240 kg N/ha) were applied as urea in combination with 3 biochar rates (0, 20 and 40 t/ha). Amendment of biochar had no influence on rice yield even at the hightest rate of 40 t/ha. However, rice production was greatly relying on chemical N fertilization input. No interact effect was detected between biochar and N fertilizer. Amendment of biochar suppressed N2O emission. During the whole rice growing season, the total N2O emission from chemical fertilizer was reduce by 29% and 53% under biochar amendment rates of 20t/ha and 40t/ha respectively. Total amounts of CO2 and CH4 emitted from paddy fields during whole rice growing season were not greatly increased despite of much carbon brought into soil with biochar. However, biochar amendment slightly increased CO2 emission in the absence of N fertilizer. Our results showed that biochar amendment into paddy field did not increase the global warming potential (GPW) and greenhouse gases emission intensity (GHGI).

Liu, X.; Pan, G. X.; Li, L. Q.; Zhou, T.

2012-04-01

227

Possible Change of Extratropical Cyclone Activity due to Enhanced Greenhouse Gases and Sulfate Aerosols--Study with a High-Resolution AGCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the possible impacts of enhanced greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols on extratropical cyclone activity, two 20-yr time-slice experiments-the control run and the global warming run-are performed with a high-resolution AGCM (T106) of the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the control run, the atmosphere is forced by the observed SST and sea ice of 1979-98 and present-day CO2 and sulfate

Quanzhen Geng; Masato Sugi

2003-01-01

228

Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2) A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm-1 (1565 nm) and 4800 cm-1 (2100 nm) and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

Butz, A.; Guerlet, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.

2013-05-01

229

MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) progress report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAMM consortium (led by JA Pyle, Univ. Cambridge, with partners from Univ. East Anglia; Univ. Manchester; Royal Holloway, Univ. of London; NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology). The UK MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) is designed to improve quantitative knowledge of Arctic methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources (e.g. wetlands, natural gas, clathrates), to determine magnitudes and spatial distributions, and to develop process understanding (e.g. dependence of fluxes on temperature). In Arctic Finland, Sweden, Norway and Spitsbergen, intensive low-level aircraft campaigns (flights in spring, summer, autumn 2012 and 2013, with the UK FAAM BAe146 aircraft) are designed to measure concentrations of CH4 and other gases across the Arctic by time and location, with in situ sampling for ?13CCH4 at selected sites on land (Zeppelin, Pallas, Alert) and Keeling-plot diel determination of wetland source signatures. High altitude flights sampled stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the Arctic to assess the impact of the polar vortex on methane isotope budgets. Methane column profiles are measured by combining ground based eddy covariance and chamber measurements with aircraft measurements, using a landscape-scale box model approach and flying up and downwind of source regions. Airborne remote sensing is being used to retrieve CH4 columns for comparison with in-situ profiles and testing of hyperspectral retrieval methods from satellite platforms. Longer-term time series measurements are also being established in Kjølnes, northern Norway, for a range of greenhouse and related species via continuous or flask/bag sampling. Modelling studies are in progress to assess the overall Arctic influence on the global methane budget, including detailed back-trajectory analysis of the measurements, especially the isotopic data, to identify sources of methane by location, type (e.g. gasfield, wetland, biomass fire, clathrate), and seasonality / event, and also regional source analysis using the NAME particle dispersion model. Chemistry/climate modelling is used to assess the role of the Arctic in recent changes in atmospheric methane and to perform projections for future change.

Nisbet, E. G.; Pyle, J. A.

2012-12-01

230

Recent Trends in Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases, and their Implications for Emissions and Lifetime Estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine trends in non-CO2 greenhouse gases measured by the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) over the last decade. During this time, the concentrations of all the major chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) declined significantly. In contrast, a large number of replacement gases that have high global warming potentials, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), have grown rapidly. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) levels have continued to increase, but with rates that change inter-annually. Concentrations of very long lived, potent greenhouse gases such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) have also grown significantly. Using a model of atmospheric chemistry and transport, and a multi-species inverse method, we make use of the measured trends to infer global lifetimes of CFCs and global emissions of HFCs, HCFCs, CH4, N2O and other gases. We determine lifetimes of 52 (45-61) years for CFC-11 and 106 (85-138) years for CFC-113 that are somewhat higher than current `best' estimates, and a lifetime for CFC-12 in line with current estimates. Emissions estimates reveal substantial emissions growth over the last decade for most of the major long-lived, non-CO2, non-CFC greenhouse gases, highlighting the need for effective measures towards global emission reductions.

Rigby, M.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Simmonds, P. G.; Muhle, J.; Salameh, P.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.

2012-12-01

231

Biomass fuel burning and its implications: deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO(2)-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y(-1). PMID:20398986

Tahir, S N A; Rafique, M; Alaamer, A S

2010-07-01

232

Tittel: An Alternative to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Title: An Alternative to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design

Keith P. Shine; Jan S. Fuglestvedt; Nicola Stuber

233

Observations of tropospheric trace gases from GOSAT thermal infrared spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS), which is one of the sensors onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), measures the sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface and atmosphere as well as the thermal radiance emitted from the Earth. Atmospheric trace gases such as ozone (O3), water vapor (H2O and HDO), methanol (CH3OH) and ammonia (NH3) are derived from the thermal infrared spectral radiance recorded with the TANSO-FTS by an optimal estimation retrieval approach. TANSO-FTS total ozone columns are compared with Dobson spectrophotometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data. The TANSO-FTS total ozone retrievals exhibit a positive bias of 3-4% with a root-mean-square difference of 2-6% compared to the Dobson and OMI measurements. We compare TANSO-FTS tropospheric ozone columns to those from ozonesonde data as well as from a three-dimensional chemical-climate model (MRI-CCM2). The TANSO-FTS data have high correlations with the ozonesonde data. The seasonal trends of the retrieved tropospheric ozone are consistent with those of the ozonesonde data. The spatial distribution of the tropospheric ozone from the TANSO-FTS and MRI-CCM2 shows good agreement, especially in the high-level tropospheric ozone regions. We also retrieve tropospheric H2O and HDO profiles simultaneously, accounting for the cross correlations between the water isotopes. The joint retrieval results in precise estimation of the isotope ratio by partial cancellation of systematic errors common to both H2O and HDO. The retrieved profiles and columns are compared with radiosonde, GPS, and ground-based high-resolution FTS data. The temporal and spatial variations of the precipitable water and the isotope ratio are consistent with those of the validation data. Finally, air pollutants such as CH3OH and NH3 are retrieved using the retrieved ozone and water vapor. We present the latitudinal and seasonal variations of CH3OH related to plant growth and biomass burning, and the high-level NH3 in the hot spot areas.

Ohyama, Hirofumi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Maki, Takashi; Deushi, Makoto

2013-04-01

234

Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N2O and CH4 from soil under increased atmospheric CO2 have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO2 (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N2O emissions from upland soils and CH4 emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated.

van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W.; Hungate, Bruce A.

2011-07-01

235

Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2.  

PubMed

Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from soil under increased atmospheric CO(2) have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO(2) (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N(2)O emissions from upland soils and CH(4) emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated. PMID:21753852

van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W; Hungate, Bruce A

2011-07-14

236

Tracing origin and fate of dissolved greenhouse gases in Malaysian peat-draining rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical peatlands are known to store large amounts of organic carbon. Peat-draining rivers in these regions receive considerable amounts of carbon from these soils, yet, its fate remains poorly studied. Although a number of recent studies investigated greenhouse gas production and emission from inland waters, only a small number focused on tropical freshwaters, and data from tropical peat-draining rivers are particularly lacking. We investigated rivers in a peat-dominated catchment in Sarawak, Malaysia. Dissolved greenhouse gases (GHG) were measured with Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy. It allows for the simultaneous and continuous measurement of major GHG (CO2 and ?13C in CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO) with high accuracy and precision. We found that concentrations of dissolved CO, CO2 and CH4 were higher than the respective atmospheric equilibrium concentration, suggesting that those rivers are a source of these GHG to the atmosphere. Enhanced N2O concentrations were only found around some cultivated areas. In order to trace the origin of the GHG, we quantified dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), inorganic nutrients and different parameters that describe water chemistry. Stable carbon isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) yielded indications of a terrestrial source of inorganic carbon in the river, suggesting that in-situ respiration of organic matter might play an important role.

Müller, Denise; Warneke, Thorsten; Rixen, Tim; Denis, Nastassia; Müller, Moritz; Notholt, Justus

2014-05-01

237

On Surface Temperature, Greenhouse Gases, and Aerosols: Models and Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight by sulphate aerosols is represented by appropriately enhancing the surface albede.On doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, the global mean temperature increases by 5.2 K.

J. F. B. Mitchell; R. A. Davis; W. J. Ingram; C. A. Senior

1995-01-01

238

On surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols: models and observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight by sulphate aerosols is represented by appropriately enhancing the surface albedo. On doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, the global mean temperature increases by 5.2

J. F. B. Mitchell; R. A. Davis; W. J. Ingram; C. A. Senior

1995-01-01

239

A multiple criteria decision-aid approach in defining national priorities for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in the energy sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 represents a very important step in the effort for the limitation of the emissions of greenhouse gases. The energy sector, being responsible for the large majority of emissions, represents the most crucial field for undertaking mitigation actions. A large number of potential emission reduction measures exist in this sector, characterised by different

E. Georgopoulou; Y. Sarafidis; S. Mirasgedis; S. Zaimi; D. P. Lalas

2003-01-01

240

Supporting schemes for renewable energy sources and their impact on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Greece the target set by the Kyoto Protocol foresees an increase of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by up to 25% for the period 2008–2012, always with respect to 1990 levels. Apparently it is hard to achieve this target, because the current trend of emissions leads roughly to doubling the rate of increase, than to reducing it. Consequently, further support

Theocharis Tsoutsos; Eleni Papadopoulou; Alexandra Katsiri; Agis M. Papadopoulos

2008-01-01

241

Gas a effetto serra: Prima valutazione delle emissioni in Italia. (Estimate of the greenhouse gases emissions in Italy).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The estimate of the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and the selection of the relevant emission factors represents a preliminary condition to define policies aiming at curbing these emissions. In the first part of this paper is carried out an a...

D. Gaudioso G. Onufrio

1992-01-01

242

A View of the Prebiotic Earth's Atmosphere: Greenhouse Gases, Oxidized Organic Haze, and the Anti-Greenhouse Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent attempts to resolve the faint young sun paradox have focused on an early Earth atmosphere containing elevated levels of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to provide adequate warming to the Earth's surface. However, the photolysis of CH4 and CO2 in equal ratios in the laboratory has been shown to produce significant aerosol mass, equivalent to or greater than the aerosol mass produced in Titan simulations. The haze layer generated by these aerosols could offset the warming by scattering incoming solar radiation, creating an antigreenhouse effect. The amount of CH4 in the prebiotic Earth's atmosphere could have been significantly less than the amount of CO2. Additionally, high amounts of H2 may have been present in the prebiotic Earth's atmosphere, and could affect the haze chemistry. In this work we examine haze formation in an early Earth atmosphere composed of CO2, H2, N2, and CH4, with a CO2/CH4 ratio of 10. Haze particles were generated using different concentrations of H2, with levels up to 15 percent by volume H2. To initiate aerosol formation a broad-spectrum ultraviolet (UV) energy source with emission at Lyman-? was used to simulate the solar spectrum. Aerosol composition and total aerosol mass produced as a function of reagent gas were measured using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was also used to measure the aerosol mass, as well as the size distribution of the particles. Results show an order of magnitude decrease in haze production with the addition of H2, with no significant change in the chemical composition of the haze. We calculate that such a haze would not have a significant antigreenhouse effect. Further, the highly oxidized particles formed could be more biologically interesting than a Titan-like hydrocarbon haze. The presence of H2 on the early Earth could thus favor warmer surface temperatures while still allowing photochemical haze formation to deliver complex organic species to the early Earth's surface.

Dewitt, L.; Trainer, M. G.; Pavlov, A. A.; Hasenkopf, C. A.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; McKay, C. P.; Toon, O. B.; Tolbert, M. A.

2008-12-01

243

Have greenhouse gases intensified the contrast between wet and dry regions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While changes in land precipitation during the last 50 years have been attributed in part to human influences, results vary by season, are affected by data uncertainty and do not account for changes over ocean. One of the more physically robust responses of the water cycle to warming is the expected amplification of existing patterns of precipitation minus evaporation. Here, precipitation changes in wet and dry regions are analyzed from satellite data for 1988-2010, covering land and ocean. We derive fingerprints for the expected change from climate model simulations that separately track changes in wet and dry regions. The simulations used are driven with anthropogenic and natural forcings combined, and greenhouse gas forcing or natural forcing only. Results of detection and attribution analysis show that the fingerprint of combined external forcing is detectable in observations and that this intensification of the water cycle is partly attributable to greenhouse gas forcing.

Polson, D.; Hegerl, G. C.; Allan, R. P.; Sarojini, B. Balan

2013-09-01

244

Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NO x, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and its climate effects linked chemistry and climate strongly. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins due to fast long-range transport, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e., aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols may nucleate more cloud droplets, which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. The dimming has a surface cooling effect and decreases evaporation of moisture from the surface, thus slows down the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, absorption of solar radiation by black carbon and some organics increase atmospheric heating and tend to amplify greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. ABCs are concentrated in regional and mega-city hot spots. Long-range transport from these hot spots causes widespread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by widespread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. In S. Asia and N. Africa, the large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered both the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures and land-ocean contrast in surface temperatures, which in turn slow down the monsoon circulation and decrease rainfall over the continents. On the other hand, heating by black carbon warms the atmosphere at elevated levels from 2 to 6 km, where most tropical glaciers are located, thus strengthening the effect of GHGs on retreat of snow packs and glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya-Tibetan glaciers. Globally, the surface cooling effect of ABCs may have masked as much 47% of the global warming by greenhouse gases, with an uncertainty range of 20-80%. This presents a dilemma since efforts to curb air pollution may unmask the ABC cooling effect and enhance the surface warming. Thus efforts to reduce GHGs and air pollution should be done under one common framework. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.

245

Retrieval of greenhouse gases from GOSAT SWIR data processing with PPDF-based method of atmospheric light scattering correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) that is in orbit since 23rd January, 2009, one of the key issues of a large volume of near-infrared highly resolved spectra processing is the accurate and rapid determination of CO2 level. Algorithms for oper-ational satellite data processing of solar spectral observations of ground surface reflection must properly account for atmospheric light scattering. Aerosol and thin upper tropospheric clouds that affect the optical path through the atmosphere could be significant sources of error in greenhouse gas retrievals We present initial results on actual GOSAT SWIR data processing with PPDF-based method that corrects atmospheric light scattering through account for optical pathlength modification (PPDF is an abbreviation for "photon pathlength probability density function). The retrieval procedure includes constrained minimization of the residual between the modeled and observed GOSAT spectra. The constraints are mainly imposed on gas vertical profiles within the maximum a posteriori method using covariance matrices based on NIES atmo-spheric tracer transport model. The state vector includes vertical profiles of gas mixing ratios; correction factors for prior temperature and water vapor profiles; altitudes of the cirrus and aerosol layers parameters. Surface pressure is taken from climatological data set. In addition, we retrieve three polynomial coefficients for each spectral region to account for low-frequency part of the spectra and stretch factor to allow for wave number grid variations. Two spectral regions were utilized (6200 -6270 cm-1 from band 2 and 4800 -4880 cm-1 from band 3) for CO2 estimation depending on the retrieval strategy. The tapping of both regions permits si-multaneous gas and PPDF retrievals. The case of Band 2 only required independent PPDF estimations that were obtained on the base of three-dimensional aerosol transport radiation model SPRINTERS.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Andrey, Bril; Yoshida, Yukio; Isamu, Morino; Yokota, Tatsuya

246

A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 ± 54,700 ± 200 and 1.3 ± 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

Barrancos, José; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernández, Pedro A.

2013-08-01

247

Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model.  

PubMed

When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions. PMID:18164811

Chen, Tsao-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Fang

2008-06-30

248

POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

249

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management--an introduction.  

PubMed

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO(2)-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies. PMID:19748948

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

2009-11-01

250

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

1991-11-01

251

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States))

1991-11-01

252

The Role of Carbon Management Technologies in Addressing Atmospheric Stabilization of Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in decarbonization processes and engineered storage systems for CO2, together with preliminary cost estimates for these technologies, indicate that capture and storage of CO2 will have a major role to play in achieving deep reductions in emissions. These technologies hold the potential to reduce the cost of stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases, the ultimate objective of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Their value rises as the allowable level of cumulative carbon emissions declines. The value of these technologies is robust regardless of whether the world's economically recoverable oil and gas resources are eventually found to be large or small. This paper considers the economic implication of those advances in the context of long-term, global climate change mitigation strategies. This indicates the need for a broad, robust research and development strategy to reduce the cost of separating CO2 and to make accessible the widest range of storage reservoirs. It is also important to demonstrate excellent security of storage, in order to win public acceptance of the use of capture and storage techniques.

Edmonds, James A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Freund, Paul F. (WASTE MANAGEMENT); Dooley, James J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); David Williams, Bob Durie, et. al.

2002-08-10

253

Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model  

SciTech Connect

Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Tie, X. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States))

1991-11-01

254

Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model  

SciTech Connect

Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth`s radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tie, X. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States)

1991-11-01

255

Thermal infrared nadir observations of 24 atmospheric gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal infrared nadir sounders are ideal for observing total columns or vertical profiles of atmospheric gases such as water, carbon dioxide and ozone. High resolution sounders with a spectral resolution below 5 cm-1 can distinguish fine spectral features of trace gases. Forty years after the launch of the first hyperspectral sounder IRIS, we have now several state of the art instruments in orbit, with improved instrumental specifications. In this letter we give an overview of the trace gases which have been observed by infrared nadir sounders, focusing on new observations of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). We present typical observations of 14 rare reactive trace gas species. Several species are reported here for the first time in nadir view, including nitrous acid, furan, acetylene, propylene, acetic acid, formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, observations which were made in a pyrocumulus cloud from the Australian bush fires of February 2009. Being able to observe this large number of reactive trace gases will likely improve our knowledge of source emissions and their impact on the environment and climate.

Clarisse, Lieven; R'Honi, Yasmina; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy

2011-05-01

256

Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable Al3+ and higher available P regarding the condition of the original soil.

Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

2014-05-01

257

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

1997-07-01

258

Factors Promoting a Cool Cambrian Climate: Role of Land Surface Conditions and Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of recent work suggesting episodic cooling during the Late Cambrian (~500 Ma), an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity is utilized to evaluate the roles of Late Cambrian continental configuration, mountain height, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on Earth's climate. The Planetary Simulator (PLASIM), developed at the Meteorological Institute of the University of Hamburg, is utilized at T21 spectral resolution (5.6° latitude x 5.6° longitude) with a 50 m deep slab ocean in four experiments. The first three experiments are run with a Late Cambrian continental configuration. Two experiments are run with an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 10 x pre-industrial (2800 ppm). This is in the range estimated for the Late Cambrian by carbon cycle modeling studies. One of these experiments utilizes a flat topography (CAMB_FLAT), and the other, includes mountains (CAMB_MTN). A third experiment is identical to CAMB_MTN, but CO2 is set to 280 ppm (CAMB_COLD). All Cambrian experiments are integrated without any vegetation, and with solar luminosity reduced by 6%. The Cambrian experiments also utilize a uniform land surface boundary condition consisting of sand with an albedo of 0.37. A fourth scenario was run with pre-industrial boundary conditions (modern geography and vegetation and 280 ppm CO2) as a control experiment (CONTROL). Despite the high level of CO2, global average temperatures in CAMB_FLAT and CAMB_MTN are cooler than that of CONTROL. In CAMB_COLD, the oceans freeze over completely and 'snowball Earth' conditions are present. These results highlight the importance of vegetation, land surface albedo, and continental position in maintaining an equable climate in modern times. They also suggest that a drop in greenhouse gases during the Cambrian, whether due to reduced natural emissions from biologic or volcanic sources, or an increase in biologic activity in the oceans, could have been responsible for the initiation of cooler climatic conditions.

Shellito, L. J.

2011-12-01

259

Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.  

PubMed

Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6mgkg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0mgkg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1gkg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:24835490

Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

2014-08-01

260

Urban greenhouse gases monitoring with the QualAir Fourier transform spectrometer in Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large cities is becoming like air quality one of the priority environmental research areas for scientists and public health authorities. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey GHGs and urban air quality. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, the ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS, IFS 125HR model) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third European megacity. The continous monitoring of GHGs and atmospheric pollutants are essential to improve the estimate of sources and sinks of GHGs and the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many pollutants and GHGs, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. A description of the QualAir FTS will be given. Concentrations of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, ...) are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. Located in the centre of Paris, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary urban measurements as compared to unpolluted ground-based stations of existing networks (NDACC and TCCON). We will show some first CO2 measurements acquired with our instrument in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project, the main goal of which is to quantify CO2 emissions from Paris megacity. Such ground-based information will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to contribute to the characterization of regional GHGs fluxes, especially regarding anthropogenic emissions and trends.

Té, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Payan, S.; Pépin, I.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

2011-12-01

261

[Effects of antiseptic on the analysis of greenhouse gases concentrations in lake water].  

PubMed

To gain insight into antiseptic effects on the concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O in lake water, antisepetic (CuSO4 and HgCl2) were added into water sample, and concentrations of greenhouse gases were measured by the gas chromatography based on water equilibrium method. Experiments were conducted as following: the control group without antisepetic (CK), the treatment group with 1 mL CuSO4 solution (T1), the treatment group with 5 mL CuSO4 solution (T2), and the treatment group with 0.5 mL HgCl2 solution (T3). All groups were divided into two batches: immediately analysis (I), and after 2 days analysis (II). Results showed that CuSO4 and HgCl2 significantly increased CO2 concentration, the mean CO2 concentration (Mco2) of CK (I) and CK (II) were (11.5 +/- 1.47) micromol x L(-1) and (14.38 +/- 1.59) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T1 (I) and T1 (II) were (376 +/- 70) micromol x L(-1) and (448 +/- 246.83) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T2 (I) and T2 (II) were (885 +/- 51.53) micromol x L(-1) and (988.83 +/- 101.96) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T3 (I) and T3 (II) were (287.19 +/- 30.01) micromol x L(-1) and (331.33 +/- 22.06) micromol x L(-1), respectively. The results also showed that there was no difference in CH4 and N2O concentrations among treatments. Water samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after pretreatment. Our findings suggest that adding antiseptic may lead an increase in CO2 concentration. PMID:24720227

Xiao, Qi-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hu; James, Deng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Shou-Dong; Li, Xu-Hui

2014-01-01

262

BASSTEGG (Bay Area Simplified Simulation of Travel, Energy and Greenhouse Gases) Sketch Planning Charrette\\/GIS Models for Predicting Household Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) and Greenhouse Gas (CO 2) Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased interest in the interactions of land use and transportation and their related impacts on global warming, there is now a warranted need for improved and quicker techniques for simulating mobile source based, regional and sub-regional greenhouse gas emissions. The Bay Area Simplified Simulation of Travel, Energy and Greenhouse Gases (BASTEGG) is a GIS-based tool for calculating automobile

H. M. Brazil; C. L. Purvis

263

A new interactive chemistry-climate model: 2. Sensitivity of the middle atmosphere to ozone depletion and increase in greenhouse gases and implications for recent stratospheric cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of the middle atmosphere circulation to ozone depletion and increase in greenhouse gases is assessed by performing multiyear simulations with a chemistry-climate model. Three simulations with fixed boundary conditions have been carried out: one simulation for the near-past (1960) and two simulations for the near-present (1990 and 2000) conditions, including changes in greenhouse gases, in total organic chlorine,

E. Manzini; B. Steil; C. Brühl; M. A. Giorgetta; K. Krüger

2003-01-01

264

Ionic composition and greenhouse gases evaluation in Tietê River sediment and mud landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are 39 cities composing the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) which has grown seven times during the last sixty years, reaching, in 2011, 19.3 million inhabitants. This fact associated with a strong industrial development provoked, among other consequences, a disordered urbanization along the most important river of the region: Tietê. About 100 Km of its 1,150 Km full extension crosses MASP and, during the 60's, Marginal Tietê roadway was constructed, occupying the river banks as access routes. Tietê River was straightened and several landfills were created with its deposit (sediment and mud). EACH-USP (46.50 W, 23.48 S) lies nowadays in one of these areas, where this work has been developed. Therefore, the goal is to evaluate the chemical composition (ionic and gases) and its variability in function of the depth levels using three wells, from 0.60 to 9.0 m of depth. The wells were perforated in September 2011, end of the dry weather. Each well owns a homemade multiport sampling device (HMSD), being possible to push gas and/or water up from 15 available ports. The gases measurements were carried out using a GEM-2000 plus (Landtec) portable analyzer. Aqueous samples containing solid material were taken at each level depth from ports of the HMSD. However, no water was found in some levels. All samples were kept cooled until analysis procedures. After decantation of the solid material, the supernatant liquid was divided in two portions, being its conductivity (Micronal conductimeter) and pH (pH-meter Metrohm 654 with combined glass electrode) measured with the former and ionic analysis with the latter, in which all samples were filtered (Millex 0.22 micrometer pores) before each ionic chromatographic analysis, using Metrohm 850 System, for the ions: sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. The first sampling stage was carried out during November and December 2011 in the beginning of rainy season in the mid Spring. From all the analysis performed, a large variability of the results may be observed for both gases and ionic composition not only among the wells, but also among the different depth levels. Vertically, one of the wells (W2) showed the same percentage of gases, methane 55% and carbon dioxide 45%, at all depth levels, while the other two wells (W1 and W3) presented these gases percentages only under 5.0 m deep. Concerning oxygen, 25% of this gas was detected at 1.0 m under the surface in W1 and W3. In relation to aqueous samples, the most acidity was observed near the surface (0.60 m deep, W1), pH 4.65, while pH 7.88 was obtained under 5.0 m deep (W3). For ionic concentrations a large range was observed considering all wells, being the lowest values for sulfate, from 0.60 to 20 mg/l, and the highest values for ammonium, between 14 and 53 mg/l. These results variability can be associated to the different soil composition layers, as well as to the biodegradation process and the time confinement of the river material deposit.

La-Scalea, M. A.; Fornaro, A.; Abreu, E. L.; Mendonça, C. A.

2012-04-01

265

Climate-active Trace Gases from ACE Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of more than 30 trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Launched by NASA in August 2003 for a nominal two-year mission, ACE performance remains excellent after 8 years in orbit. Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of sixteen halogenated trace gases are routinely retrieved from ACE-FTS atmospheric spectra: CCl4, CF4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), C2Cl3F3 (CFC-113), CH3Cl, ClONO2, COF2, COCl2, COClF, CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CCl2F (HCFC-141b), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), HCl, HF and SF6. ACE also provides VMR profiles for CH4, N2O and OCS; HCFC-23 (CHF3) is a recent research product. ACE-FTS measurements were compared to surface measurements made by the AGAGE network and output from the SLIMCAT three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model, which is constrained by similar surface data. ACE-FTS measurements of CFCs (and HCl) show declining trends which agree with both AGAGE and SLIMCAT values. The concentrations of HCFCs are increasing with ACE-FTS, SLIMCAT and AGAGE all showing positive trends. These results illustrate the success of the Montreal Protocol in reducing ozone depleting substances. The replacement of CFCs with HCFCs has led to an increase in the VMR of HF in the stratosphere. As chlorine containing compounds continue to be phased out and replaced by fluorine-containing molecules, it is likely that total atmospheric fluorine will continue increasing in the near future. These species are all powerful greenhouse gases. ACE provides near global VMR distributions and stratospheric lifetimes from tracer-tracer correlations. ACE trends, global distributions and lifetimes are all experimental inputs used by inverse models to determine top down emissions estimates.

Bernath, P. F.; Brown, A.; Harrison, J.; Chipperfield, M.; Boone, C.; Wilson, C.; Walker, K. A.

2011-12-01

266

The GHG-CCI Project to Deliver the Essential Climate Variable Greenhouse Gases: Current status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are bing further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

Buchwitz, M.; Boesch, H.; Reuter, M.

2012-04-01

267

The effect of water oxygen content on the production of greenhouse gases from shallow pond sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow lakes and ponds, including those commonly found in agricultural landscapes are often only a few metres deep, with surface areas <1ha. Despite this, landscapes may contain a high number of these ponds, amounting to a considerable cumulative surface area. Many of these features, both naturally formed and man-made, receive and trap runoff with high nutrient and sediment loadings. As such, the potential for the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through biogeochemical cycling in the pond sediments may be significant. Furthermore, the abundance of available nutrients coupled with the shallow physical characteristics of these systems, mean that short, irregular eutrophic episodes during the summer are common, causing large fluctuations in the oxygen content of the overlying water column. The oxygen content of the water column is often cited as key factor in the production of GHGs in large lake and reservoir systems. Given the limited research focusing on shallow ponds/lakes, and potential for these systems to be important sources of GHGs, the impacts of variable water oxygen content should be investigated. Here we present the results from a sediment microcosm experiment utilising sediment cores from an agricultural pond system in Cumbria, UK. Intact sediment cores were incubated in the dark at in-situ temperature and continuously fed with filtered pond water for 2 weeks. During this time the oxygen content of the water was manipulated between fully oxygenated and anaerobic. Measurements of GHG release were based on calculated dissolved gas concentrations present in the water columns of these cores. Results indicated that during times of water column anoxia, production of methane and carbon dioxide increased significantly, despite the presence of substantial quantities of nitrate in the water columns. No change in N2O production was detected. These results indicate that while representing a significant cumulative carbon store in agricultural landscapes, shallow pond and lake systems can contribute to emission of GHGs. Furthermore, the physical and ecological characteristics of these systems have the potential to significantly increase the quantity of gas produced. This understanding will be valuable when constraining both freshwater and agricultural GHG budgets.

Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

2014-05-01

268

Ecosystem Metabolism and Air-Water Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in High Arctic Wetland Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater lakes and wetlands can be very productive systems on the Arctic landscape compared to terrestrial tundra ecosystems and provide valuable resources to many organisms, including waterfowl, fish and humans. Rates of ecosystem productivity dictate how much energy flows through food webs, impacting the abundance of higher-level organisms (e.g., fish), as well as the net carbon balance, which determines whether a particular ecosystem is a source or sink of carbon. Climate change is predicted to result in warmer temperatures, increased precipitation and permafrost melting in the Arctic and is already altering northern ecosystems at unprecedented rates; however, it is not known how freshwater systems are responding to these changes. To predict how freshwater systems will respond to complex environmental changes, it is necessary to understand the key processes, such as primary production and ecosystem respiration, that are driving these systems. We sampled wetland ponds (n=8) and lakes (n=2) on northern Ellesmere Island (81° N, Nunavut, Canada) during the open water season for a suite of biogeochemical parameters, including concentrations of dissolved gases (O2, CO2, CH4, N2O) as well as stable-isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (?13C-DIC), dissolved oxygen (?18O-DO), and water (?18O-H2O). We will present rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, modeled from the concentration and stable isotope ratios of DIC and DO, as well as air-water gas exchange of greenhouse gases in these high Arctic ponds and lakes. Preliminary results demonstrate that ecosystem metabolism in these ponds was high enough to result in significant deviations in the isotope ratios of DIC and DO from atmospheric equilibrium conditions. In other words ecosystem rates of primary production and respiration were faster than gas exchange even in these small, shallow, well-mixed ponds. Furthermore, primary production was elevated enough at all sites except Lake Hazen, a large cold ultra-oligotrophic lake, to result in a shift in the ?18O of DO towards more depleted values. Two of the ponds also exhibited enriched ?13C-DIC indicative of high rates of DIC uptake and primary production. However most sites appear to be net heterotrophic systems, with the exception of a few net autotrophic ponds. Interestingly, due to the high DIC concentrations in pond waters, ?13C-DIC values are reflective of ecosystem metabolism on a somewhat longer time scale than ?18O-DO values, which might be useful for examining temporal changes in production and respiration. Finally, most ponds were sources of both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, but were surprisingly under-saturated with respect to N2O, demonstrating that they are sinks for atmospheric N2O. Rates of N2O consumption (denitrification) were modeled from concentration-time data and ranged from <0.1 to 1.1 nmol L-1 h-1.

Lehnherr, I.; Venkiteswaran, J.; St. Louis, V. L.; Emmerton, C.; Schiff, S. L.

2012-12-01

269

77 FR 10434 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule: Confidentiality Determinations and Best Available...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...greenhouse gas GHG greenhouse gas HTF heat transfer fluid mtCO 2 e metric ton...I? C. How does the Subpart I Heat Transfer Fluid Provisions final rule affect...Manufacturing (Subpart I): Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid Provisions''...

2012-02-22

270

Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Using Clear vs Cloudy Sky Diurnal Temperature Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard meteorological observations from local airports can provide a tangible example of how the greenhouse effect is a part of everyday life. In the exercise outlined here, students plot diurnal temperature observations to compare the relative magnitude of the greenhouse effect under clear and cloudy-sky conditions, gaining insight into the strength of the greenhouse effect. Contemplation of the relation of

S. V. Tayor

2006-01-01

271

A Projection of the Impact of the Climate Change induced by Increased Greenhouse Gases on the Hydroclimate of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present a projection of the regional-scale climate change signals in East Asia induced by increased atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) obtained by downscaling the global climate change scenarios generated by HadAM3P using the MAS model. The impact of the climate change induced by the increases in the atmospheric GHGs on the water cycle in East Asia is an important concern. The large population base and rapidly growing industrial activities in the region have been susceptible to the variations in water cycle that affect the frequency of weather-related natural disasters as well as water resources to sustain them. Hence, projections of future water cycle are crucial for planning for sustainable developments in the region. We compare the results from three 30-year long simulations. One represents today's climate (1961-1990) and the other two represent the future climate for the period 2071-2100 based on the SRES-A2/B2 emission scenarios (Nakicenovic et al. 2000), respectively. The downscaled control climate represents reasonably the characteristics of the climatology from observational data. In particular, the dynamical downscaling could improve warm season rainfall in the region compared to the GCM simulations. The seasonal mean temperature signal ranges 1-8 K, with larger increases in the high latitude regions which is consistent with other studies (e.g., IPCC 2001). The rainfall signals suggest increases (decreases) in summer rainfall in southern China, northern Mongolia, northern Manchuria, Korean Peninsula and Japan Islands (northern China and the South China Sea). We will also present the impact of increased GHGs on important hydrological characteristics such as the frequency of extreme events.

Kim, J.; Jung, H.; Mechoso, C. R.; Jones, R.; Hein, D.

2005-12-01

272

Optimization Model for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Automobiles (OMEGA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (VGHG) model is used to apply various technologies to a defined set of vehicles in order to meet a specified GHG emission target, and to then calculate the costs and benefits of doing so....

273

76 FR 59542 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing To Provide Flexibility AGENCY...provisions in the Electronics Manufacturing portion of the Greenhouse...annualized compliance costs to firm sales. The results of that...the largest semiconductor manufacturing facilities by...

2011-09-27

274

GREENHOUSE GASES (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected for various scenarios and the most appropriate approaches and technologies for mitigation are identified by NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB). These methods contribute to reduct...

275

remote sensing of greenhouse gases with solar occultation technique using high resolution near infrared heterodyne spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infrared heterodyne spectrometer has been developed, which uses a distributed feedback diode laser as a tunable local oscillator, for detecting methane in the atmosphere at 1.65 ?m. The main problem of heterodyning in the near infrared range is the stringent requirements to alignment of the incident radiation fronts. Single mode quartz fiber Y-coupler was used as a diplexer to solve this problem. Radiation mixed in a fiber was detected by a balanced couple of InGaAs p-i-n diodes. The amplifier bandpass was ~ 1.75 MHz, close to local oscillator linewith. Wavelength coverage of spectral measurement was provided by sweeping local oscillator frequency in the range of 1.5 cm-1. The spectrometer noise level is demonstrated to be 1.3 of the fundamental shot-noise limit. Using Sun observations, atmospheric methane absorption line has been recorded. Achieved spectral resolution is constrained by local oscillator linewidth and stability, and constitutes about 2 MHz, which corresponds to resolving power of 10^8. The simplicity of the proposed scheme opens a perspective to use it for ultra-high resolution spectroscopy in various applications, including TCCON activity. In particular, it allows solar occultation observations of CO2, C?, CH4, H2S, C2H4 and other gases from both spacecraft and ground-based platforms, as well as Doppler measurements of stratospheric winds.

Klimchuk, Artem; Nadezhdinskii, Alexander; Ponurovskii, Yakov; Rodin, Alexander; Spiridonov, Maxim

2013-04-01

276

Spatial and Temporal Variation of Multiyear Sea Ice Distributions: Relationships among Melt Duration, Recruitment, Export, Clouds, and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the spatial and temporal variation of multiyear (MY) sea ice distributions: relationships among melt duration, recruitment, export, clouds, and greenhouse gases in the Arctic. Melt onset dates, freeze onset dates were estimated over Arctic sea-ice for the past 25-years using standardized SMMR-SSM/I data sets (1979-2002). Sea ice melt dynamics were compared between annual and perennial ice, and between different geographic regions. Average annual melt dates, freeze dates, and melt durations in annual ice were significantly correlated with seasonal strength of the Arctic oscillation (AO). Following high-index AO winters (January-March), spring melt tended to be earlier and autumn freeze later, leading to longer melt season durations. The largest increases in melt duration were observed in the eastern Siberian Arctic, coinciding with cyclonic low pressure and ice motion anomalies associated with the AO's high-index phase (1989-2002). In the northern Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, mean annual melt duration increased 2-3 weeks following the positive AO phase shift, compared to prior years (1979-1988). Different methods of MY sea ice inversions from SSM/I Tb data were compared using different multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks (NN) constructed with learning data based on ERS SAR and OKEAN-01 MY ice map products. Monthly Arctic MY sea ice concentration maps (1979 - 2003) were generated from SSM/I Tbs (19 GHz V, 19 GHz H and 37 GHz V) using a modified MLP with error back propagation, and then compared with respective MY sea ice concentration maps derived with the NASA Team algorithm. Three MLP NN ice-type classification methods utilizing SSM/I passive microwave data were originally developed and compared. Each used the same OKEAN-derived MY sea ice learning data, but each used a different learning algorithm: error back propagation with simulated annealing, dynamic learning with polynomial basis functions, and dynamic learning with two-step optimization. For MY sea ice inversions, the modified MLP NN with error back propagation was determined more efficient. NN analyses of MY sea ice distribution revealed considerable interannual dynamics and variability. Linear trends in MY sea ice area during 1979-2003 were negative and most significant for the NN estimates. MY sea ice distribution revealed considerable interannual dynamics and regional variability. Overall decreases in MY ice area over the 14-year period resulted from average net losses in the far western and near eastern Arctic, however, the losses were partially compensated by increases in the central Siberian sector. In conclusion of our studies we estimated Fram Strait MY sea ice export, constructed January MY ice area concurrently regressed on the previous winter's AO index and the previous year's average sea level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait, and correlation between melting events, clouds, and greenhouse gases.

Belchansky, G. I.; Douglas, D. C.; Eremeev, V. A.; Platonov, N. G.

2004-05-01

277

Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ?FFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (?CO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ?FFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Environment and Urbanization, 21,185. [2] Arikan Y., Desaim R., Bhatia P. and W. K. Fong, 2012 Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC), C40 Cities Climate Leadership group, available at: http://www.c40.org [3] Vogel, F. R., Ishizawa, M., Chan, E., Chan, D., Hammer, S., Levin, I., & Worthy, D. E. J. (2012). Regional non-CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes inferred from atmospheric measurements in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 9(1), 41-55. *The term 'sister sites' refers to sites that share a common background signal (i.e. common large scale influence), while significantly differing sensitivities to urban GHG emissions. In our case: Egbert, Ontario and Downsview, Toronto, Ontario.

Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

2013-12-01

278

Climatic response to anthropogenic sulphate aerosols versus well-mixed greenhouse gases from 1850 to 2000 AD in CLIMBER-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth system model CLIMBER-2 is extended by a scheme for calculating the climatic response to anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions. The scheme calculates the direct radiative forcing, the first indirect cloud albedo effect, and the second indirect cloud lifetime effect induced by geographically resolved sulphate aerosol burden. The simulated anthropogenic sulphate aerosol burden in the year 2000 amounts to 0.47 TgS. The best guesses for the radiative forcing due to the direct effect are -0.4 Wm-2 and for the decrease in short-wave radiation due to all aerosol effects -0.8 Wm-2. The simulated global warming by 1 K from 1850 to 2000 caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases reduces to 0.6 K when the sulphate aerosol effects are included. The model's hydrological sensitivity of 4%/K is decreased by the second indirect effect to 0.8%/K. The quality of the geographically distributed climatic response to the historic emissions of sulphur dioxide and greenhouse gases makes the extended model relevant to computational efficient investigations of future climate change scenarios.

Bauer, Eva; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Ganopolski, Andrey; Eliseev, Alexey V.

2008-02-01

279

Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model as a Link between Local-Scale Measurements of Greenhouse Gases and Larger-Scale Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to represent small-scale variability in greenhouse gases we are considering a chain of nested models. First, a regional scale meteorological and transport is nested within a global transport model. In our studies SiB-RAMS (CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System coupled with Simple Biosphere model) is using CO2 fields from PCTM (Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model) with the aid nudging approach. SiB-RAMS is capable to realistically represent regional and mesoscale transport over complex terrain. However, the simulated tracer fields are still available as grid cell averages which are difficult to compare directly to point observations from a tower network To overcame this problem, we run Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) backward in time from each tower to derive influence functions (footprints) for both concentration and flux measurements. In turn, the observation can be expressed as a sum of contribution from surface fluxes, advection fluxes across lateral boundaries and from initial concentration field. LPDM can be used over arbitrary subdomain ( rectangular or cylindrical) and any time period. The LPDM subdomain can be as large as the RAMS domain as in our regional CO2 inversion studies or just to cover a few grid cells of RAMS to provide a subgrid scale transport parameterization. The advantages of the LPDM in this application include: - accurate representation of a point observation which is not possible in a grid transport model - implementing additional transport/mixing process which are not represented in RAMS but may significantly affect the tower measurements. We implemented a parameterization of non-Gaussian (skewed) turbulence within the convective boundary layer and are considering a parameterization of intermittent turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer in the same framework. - including surface fluxes with resolution finer (if available) than provided by a grid transport model near the tower. We will illustrate this modeling approach using the results from our CO2 studies in meso to regional scales (~10km - Tapajos River region in the Amazon, ~100km - 2004 ring of towers in Wisconsin, ~1000km - USA continental domain). The proposed modeling approach involving the backward in time LPDM is capable of represent any observational system including integrated column measurements. Reactive species with first order chemistry can be easily included. Currently, we are implementing tracing water vapor in term of the influence functions.

Uliasz, M.; Lu, L.; Denning, S.

2008-12-01

280

Distinguishing the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and well-mixed greenhouse gases on Arctic stratospheric ozone and temperature trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

stratospheric cooling due to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG) could increase the depletion of Arctic stratospheric ozone has been the subject of scientific and public attention for decades. Here we provide evidence that changes in the concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODS), not WMGHG, have been the primary driver of observed Arctic lower stratospheric trends in both ozone and temperature. We do so by analyzing polar cap ozone and temperature trends in reanalysis data: these clearly suggest that both trends are mainly driven by ODS in the lower stratosphere. This observation-based finding is supported by results from a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model driven with time-varying ODS and WMGHG, specified in isolation and in combination. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that ODS are the main driver of changes in the Arctic lower stratospheric temperatures and ozone, whereas WMGHG are the primary driver of changes in the upper stratosphere.

Rieder, Harald E.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Solomon, Susan

2014-04-01

281

Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil.  

PubMed

The effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and soil prokaryotic communities were investigated in an experimental rice field. The water layer was kept at 1-2 cm in the water-saving (WS) irrigation treatment and at 6 cm in the continuous flooding (CF) irrigation treatment. WS irrigation decreased CH4 emissions by 78 % and increased N2O emissions by 533 %, resulting in 78 % reduction of global warming potential compared to the CF irrigation. WS irrigation did not affect the abundance or phylogenetic distribution of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the abundance of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNAs. The transcript abundance of CH4 emission-related genes generally followed CH4 emission patterns, but the difference in abundance between mcrA transcripts and amoA/pmoA transcripts best described the differences in CH4 emissions between the two irrigation practices. WS irrigation increased the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs and functional gene transcripts associated with Anaeromyxobacter and Methylocystis spp., suggesting that their activities might be important in emissions of the greenhouse gases. The N2O emission patterns were not reflected in the abundance of N2O emission-related genes and transcripts. We showed that the alternative irrigation practice was effective for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and that it did not affect the overall size and structure of the soil prokaryotic community but did affect the activity of some groups. PMID:24682309

Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Sik; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon

2014-08-01

282

Hydrologic Profiling for Greenhouse Gases from Prairie Potholes in Western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prairie Pothole Region is a unique physiographic region covering a large portion of the central Great Plains of North America that is populated by shallow depressions or “potholes” of varying size. Potholes typically fill with water after snowmelt, forming ephemeral or permanent ponds surrounded by concentric bands of soils with water contents. These ponds vary both in space and time, defining the “hydrologic profile” of the pothole. We tested the hypothesis that hydrologic profiles are important drivers of biogeochemical activity, including the transport of the greenhouse gas (GHG) precursors, which influence GHG exchanges from contributing source areas towards the ponds. Potholes at five study nodes along a N-S climatic gradient in south central Saskatchewan (with precipitation-potential evapotranspiration ranging from -520 mm/yr to -270 mm/yr) were selected for study. Topographic features representing positions along the hydrologic profile from dry to wet (crest, shoulder, backslope, footslope and toeslope) were derived through digital terrain analysis of LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) and were used as the basis for satellite (Radarsat-1) estimates of soil water content. The satellite derived soil water contents were then related to CO2, CH4 and N2O GHG effluxes during the growing season (May to September). Within potholes, nonlinear relationships between hydrological profiles and soil GHG effluxes were observed. In general, backslopes yielded the highest N2O fluxes, footslopes and toeslopes yielded the highest CO2, and inundated portions of the pothole yielded the highest CH4. However, the magnitude of GHG effluxes varied over the growing season, with peak magnitudes typically occurring in late summer. Among the study nodes, GHG global warming potential decreased from south (dry) to north (wet). These findings illustrate that static topographic features derived from LiDAR DEMs can be fused with dynamic soil water contents derived from radar satellite imagery to predict the changing nature of hydrologic controls on GHG dynamics in prairie pothole landscapes.

Creed, I. F.; Aldred, D. A.; Bourbonniere, R. A.

2010-12-01

283

Greenhouse gases in the South Atlantic Ocean: recent trends and anomalies from continuous island and shipboard measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ observation of tropical and southern Atlantic greenhouse gases is still limited. Continuous high-precision greenhouse gas measurement by CRDS in the South Atlantic started in 2010 on Ascension Is. (8° S) and near Stanley on East Falkland Is. (52° S), and in 2012 on the British Antarctic Survey ship RRS James Clark Ross, which sails annually from the UK to Antarctica and back. Both the Ascension and Falklands records show sustained inter-annual growth in both CO2 and CH4. NOAA data from a small number of stations indicate that Southern Tropical Methane has been increasing since 2007 but that growth is now slowing. This is confirmed by our new data. Strong CH4 growth of 11 ppb was observed on Ascension between July 2010 and July 2011 (winter to winter), of 7 ppb/yr from Jan 2011 to Jan 2012 (summer-to-summer) and decreased further to 4 ppb from July 2011 to July 2012. This compares with a fairly constant growth of 4-5 ppb/yr for the Falklands site. Isotopic evidence for the causes of the 2010-11 southern hemisphere sub-tropical methane anomaly is inconclusive. A slight depletion in 13C on Ascension during the period of growth might indicate that wetland emissions are the dominant cause of the anomaly, fitting with much higher than average sub-tropical rainfall during recent years, but a much longer data set is required to isolate the anomaly from the long-term trend. On 23 April 2011, Ascension experienced a 20-year event when the ITCZ moved far south of its normal position. In very clean marine air, in the space of 3 minutes the methane jumped from a normal autumn southern hemisphere level of 1763 ppb to 1795 ppb, closer to the concentrations of northern hemisphere spring, settling near to 1800 ppb for six hours, after which it rapidly fell back to 1760 ppb. Simultaneously CO2 rose from 389 to about 392 ppm, then to 396 ppm before falling back to 388 ppm. During this period there was very heavy rainfall, with nearly 300 mm on the slopes of Green Mountain and more than 200 mm in surrounding desert areas. The 35 ppb magnitude of this methane switch compares with a magnitude of 55 ppb (1825 to 1770 ppb) observed by continuous measurement on-board the James Clark Ross when crossing the ITCZ from 8° N to 8° S in October 2010. In this event, high altitude Northern hemisphere air was moving SE over NW moving trade winds until the storm brought high level air to ground level. The observations highlight the usefulness of continuous measurement at such a site and demonstrate that the meteorological boundary between the hemispheres can on occasion be very sharp.

Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca; Lanoisellé, Mathias; France, James; Nisbet, Euan

2013-04-01

284

Detection of greenhouse gases emitted by engines powered by natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect is a major environmental problem, and a cause of climatic changes. Gas species such as methane and carbon dioxide cause this effect. These substances are mainly produced by Vehicle Natural Gas (VNG, more than 85% methane)?powered engines, thermoelectric plants, etc. In this paper, we report work by an infrared analyser based on the photo?acoustic method (URAS) to

G. R. Lima; M. S. Sthel; D. U. Schramm; M. V. Rocha; J. R. Tavares; L. S. Campos; H. Vargas

2010-01-01

285

Global Warming: Difficulties Assessing Countries' Progress Stabilizing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors evaluate (1) the progress of the United States and other Annex I countries toward meeting the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000 and (2) the major factors that affect the countries' ability to reach that goal. As ...

1996-01-01

286

The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric mixing ratios of â¼10{sup -5 {+-}1} for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state

C. Sagan; C. Chyba

1997-01-01

287

Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from household stoves, especially those using solid fuels, can contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and have adverse health impacts. Few data are available on emissions from the numerous types of cookstoves used in developing countries. We have systematically measured emissions from 56 fuel\\/stove combinations in India and China, a large fraction of the combinations in use world-wide.

J. Zhang; K. R. Smith; Y. Ma; S. Ye; F. Jiang; W. Qi; P. Liu; M. A. K. Khalil; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe

2000-01-01

288

Reported emissions of organic gases are not consistent with observations  

PubMed Central

Regulatory agencies and photochemical models of ozone rely on self-reported industrial emission rates of organic gases. Incorrect self-reported emissions can severely impact on air quality models and regulatory decisions. We compared self-reported emissions of organic gases in Houston, Texas, to measurements at a receptor site near the Houston ship channel, a major petrochemical complex. We analyzed hourly observations of total nonmethane organic carbon and 54 hydrocarbon compounds from C-2 to C-9 for the period June through November, 1993. We were able to demonstrate severe inconsistencies between reported emissions and major sources as derived from the data using a multivariate receptor model. The composition and the location of the sources as deduced from the data are not consistent with the reported industrial emissions. On the other hand, our observationally based methods did correctly identify the location and composition of a relatively small nearby chemical plant. This paper provides strong empirical evidence that regulatory agencies and photochemical models are making predictions based on inaccurate industrial emissions.

Henry, Ronald C.; Spiegelman, Clifford H.; Collins, John F.; Park, EunSug

1997-01-01

289

Evaluation of carbon dioxide equivalent values for greenhouse gases: CEWN as a new indicator replacing GWP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new indicator, the CEWN (Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Warming Number), is proposed as an alternative to the GWP (Global Warming Potential). CEWN is a metric where the global warming by the emission of gases is compared unifying the removal rate of each gas from the atmosphere, using carbon dioxide as a reference. To comply with the basket system of the

Akira Sekiya; Sayuri Okamoto

2010-01-01

290

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

291

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES -- A PILOT STUDY IN MANILA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of sampling of combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. n a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested, fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Five ambient sample...

292

Importance of greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide and other possible differences between various fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt has been made to assess factors that indicate how various fuels affect the climate. In these factors emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are weighed together with reference to the direct and indirect effects of these gases on...

T. Levander

1989-01-01

293

Greenhouse gases from biomass and fossil fuel stoves in developing countries: A Manila pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were also taken. All samples were analyzed for CO 2, CO, CH 4, NzO, and total non-methane organic

K. R. Smith; M. A. K. KhaliP; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe; F. Manegdeg; M. Apte

1993-01-01

294

Emission of non CO2 greenhouse gases from landfills of different age located in central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill gas is a product of the natural biological decomposition of organic material contained in wastes deposited in landfills. This denomination generically indicates a gas mixture made of methane and carbon dioxide. These gases are produced until most of the organic material in the waste has been degraded. Emissions from municipal landfill sites are therefore potentially harmful to both local

Michela Maione; Jgor Arduini; Matteo Rinaldi; Filippo Mangani; Bruno Capaccioni

2005-01-01

295

Diurnal cycle of greenhouse gases and biogenic hydrocarbons during summer near Cool, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis by forests is a large sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and also a large source of biogenic volatile organics (VOCs) that produce aerosols, nucleate clouds, and interact with nitrogen oxides (NOx) to produce ozone. To elucidate these complex biogeochemical mechanisms, we performed continuous high temporal resolution measurements of CO2, VOC, trace gases, and aerosol in June 2010 at

B. A. Flowers; C. Floerchinger; W. B. Knighton; M. K. Dubey; S. C. Herndon; P. Kelley; W. T. Luke; W. J. Shaw; J. Barnard; N. Laulainen; R. A. Zaveri

2010-01-01

296

On the cause of the relative greenhouse strength of gases such as the halocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note examines some of the factors important in determining the large radiative impact, relative to carbon dioxide, of increased concentrations of gases in the optically thin limit (such as the halocarbons at their present day concentrations). A narrow-band radiative transfer model is used to show that an absorber with the same integrated band strength as CFC-12, but with almost

Keith P. Shine

1991-01-01

297

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with

H. Chen; J. Winderlich; C. Gerbig; A. Hoefer; C. W. Rella; E. R. Crosson; A. D. van Pelt; J. Steinbach; O. Kolle; V. Beck; B. C. Daube; E. W. Gottlieb; V. Y. Chow; G. W. Santoni; S. C. Wofsy

2010-01-01

298

Halogenated greenhouse gases at the Swiss High Alpine Site of Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl): Continuous measurements and their use for regional European source allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the high Alpine site of Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl), 23 halogenated greenhouse gases are measured quasi-continuously by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Measurement data from the years 2000-2002 are analyzed for trends and pollution events. Concentrations of the halogenated trace gases, which are already controlled in industrialized countries by the Montreal Protocol (e.g., CFCs) were at least stable or declining.

Stefan Reimann; Daniel Schaub; Konrad Stemmler; Doris Folini; Matthias Hill; Peter Hofer; Brigitte Buchmann; Peter G. Simmonds; Brian R. Greally; Simon O'Doherty

2004-01-01

299

Inspection of non-CO 2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectrometry: Measurements with FTIS-MAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared spectrometry is a versatile basis to analyse greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A multicomponent air pollution software (MAPS) was developed for retrieval of gas concentrations from radiation emission as well as absorption measurements. Concentrations of CO, CH4, N2O, and H2O as well as CO2, NO, NO2, NH3, SO2, HCl, HCHO, and the temperature of warm gases are determined on-line.

Klaus Schäfer; Rainer Haus; Jörg Heland

1994-01-01

300

Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 ?mol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 ?mol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

2014-05-01

301

Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conven- tional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems

Simone Manfredi; Davide Tonini; Thomas H. Christensen; H. Scharff

2009-01-01

302

Food consumption, diet shifts and associated non-CO 2 greenhouse gases from agricultural production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the agricultural sector accounts for approximately 15% of total global anthropogenic emissions, mainly methane and nitrous oxide. Projecting the future development of agricultural non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is important to assess their impacts on the climate system but poses many problems as future demand of agricultural products is highly uncertain. We developed a global land use model (MAgPIE)

Alexander Popp; Hermann Lotze-Campen; Benjamin Bodirsky

2010-01-01

303

The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric mixing ratios of {approximately}10{sup -5 {+-}1} for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing. 78 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sagan, C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Chyba, C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1997-05-23

304

The early faint sun paradox: organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric mixing ratios of approximately 10(-5 +/- 1) for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing.

Sagan, C.; Chyba, C.

1997-01-01

305

The role of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in cost-effective strategies to reduce pollution by dairy cattle in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In addition, it is a source of compounds contributing to other environmental problems such as acidification, terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation, and human health problems. These compounds include, for instance, ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) volatile organic compounds or

Martina Havlikova; Carolien Kroeze

2010-01-01

306

Valuation of Human Health Effects and Environmental Benefits of Greenhouse Gases Mitigation and Local Air Pollution Abatement Options in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this work is to assess through the 'avoided health cost' method what would be the local economic benefits of undertaking greenhouse gases mitigation policies and other more local air pollution policy measures. To do so, we have developed ...

F. Gaioli P. Tarela A. Soerensson T. Svensson E. Perone

2002-01-01

307

Radiative forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases: Estimates from climate models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative effects from increased concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs) represent the most significant and best understood anthropogenic forcing of the climate system. The most comprehensive tools for simulating past and future climates influenced by WMGHGs are fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). Because of the importance of WMGHGs as forcing agents it is essential that AOGCMs compute

W. D. Collins; V. Ramaswamy; M. D. Schwarzkopf; Y. Sun; R. W. Portmann; Q. Fu; S. E. B. Casanova; J.-L. Dufresne; D. W. Fillmore; P. M. D. Forster; V. Y. Galin; L. K. Gohar; W. J. Ingram; D. P. Kratz; M.-P. Lefebvre; J. Li; P. Marquet; V. Oinas; Y. Tsushima; T. Uchiyama; W. Y. Zhong

2006-01-01

308

Modeling of global biogenic emissions for key indirect greenhouse gases and their response to atmospheric CO2 increases and changes in land cover and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) play a crucial role in the oxidation capacity of the lower atmosphere and changes in concentrations of major greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly methane and tropospheric ozone. In this study, we integrate a global biogenic model within a terrestrial ecosystem model to investigate the vegetation and soil emissions of key indirect GHGs, e.g.,

Zhining Tao; Atul K. Jain

2005-01-01

309

Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Quéré, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are ±0.03 per mil and ±0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a separate airline and can be switched between inlets that are within 1m of grass lawn at ground level or within 5 m of a large oak tree at canopy level. Flow rates vary between the internal pumps of the CRDS instruments, but within the range 260-300 cc/min when inlet valves are fully opened. Controlling flows below 200 cc/min significantly increases stabilisation time for cylinder gases. Likewise setting outlet pressures for NOAA and target gases at 4 psi and allowing the instrument pumps to control flow speeds up stabilization. Currently the instruments are measuring CO2, CH4 and H2O at 5-second intervals. Precisions (1 SD) of NOAA tanks, based on the final 10 minutes of a 30-minute analysis period are better than ±0.03 ppm for CO2 and ±0.3 ppb for CH4. Automated inlets and automated data retrieval will be tested during spring, for deployment on the South Atlantic islands later in 2009. Fisher, R., Lowry, D., Wilkin, O., Sriskantharajah S. & Nisbet. E.G. (2006) High-precision, automated stable isotope analysis of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Comm. Mass. Spec. 20, 200-208. Le Quéré, C., C. Rödenbeck, E. T. Buitenhuis, T. J. Conway, R. Langenfelds, A. Gomez, C. Labuschagne, M. Ramonet, T. Nakazawa, N. Metzl, N. Gillett, and M. Heimann, Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change, Science, 316, 1735-1738, 2007.

Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisellé, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

2009-04-01

310

Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of -34.9 to -66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as -19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

2014-06-01

311

Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of –34.9 to –66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as –19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

2014-01-01

312

Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly revise the estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions for Midwest agroecology.

Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

2013-12-01

313

TREATMENT PERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM AND ITS GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be classified into three typical types: Vertical flow (VF), Free-water Surface (FWS) and Subsurface Flow (SF) CWs according to their structures and directions of water flow. A combined FWS-VF-SFS CW system was designed and built to promote its treatment performance for actual domestic wastewater and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results from the pilot-scale combined system indicated that comparatively good performance for pollutant removal, which was 98.5%, 95.9%, 93.2% and 90.7% for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6-day HRT, respectively. It was also found that the N2O emission was mainly from the VF unit of the system, which accounted for more than 80% of the total emission, whereas N2O emission from the FWS unit was nearly zero. On the other hand, the CH4 emission was not so high as N2O in the combined CW system, which mainly emitted from the FWS and SF units.

Xu, K. Q.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

2009-12-01

314

Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60- 1600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming. PMID:19748943

Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-11-01

315

Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

1993-11-01

316

Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0-70 kg CO(2)eq. tonne( -1) of glass waste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately -500 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of glass waste for the remelting technology and -1500 to -600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution. PMID:19710108

Larsen, Anna W; Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-11-01

317

Recycling of paper: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been established for recycling of paper waste with focus on a material recovery facility (MRF). The MRF upgrades the paper and cardboard waste before it is delivered to other industries where new paper or board products are produced. The accounting showed that the GHG contributions from the upstream activities and operational activities, with global warming factors (GWFs) of respectively 1 to 29 and 3 to 9 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) paper waste, were small in comparison wih the downstream activities. The GHG contributions from the downstream reprocessing of the paper waste ranged from approximately 490 to 1460 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of paper waste. The system may be expanded to include crediting of avoided virgin paper production which would result in GHG contributions from -1270 to 390 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) paper waste. It may also be assumed that the wood not used for virgin paper production instead is used for production of energy that in turn is assumed to substitute for fossil fuel energy. This would result in GHG contributions from -1850 to -4400 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of paper waste. These system expansions reveal very large GHG savings, suggesting that the indirect upstream and operational GHG contributions are negligible in comparison with the indirect downstream emissions. However, the data for reprocessing of paper waste and the data for virgin paper production are highly variable. These differences are mainly related to different energy sources for the mills, both in regards to energy form (heat or electricity) and fuel (biomass or fossil fuels). PMID:19854817

Merrild, Hanna; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-11-01

318

Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstream activities and the MRF causes negligible GHG emissions (12.8 to 52.6 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) recovered metal) compared to the reprocessing of the metal itself (360-1260 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of recovered aluminium and 400- 1020 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) of recovered steel).The reprocessing is however counterbalanced by large savings of avoided virgin production of steel and aluminium. The net downstream savings were found to be 5040-19 340 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated aluminium and 560-2360 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the technology and data choices. Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. The range of avoided impact shows that recovery of metals will always be beneficial over primary production, due to the high energy savings, and that the GHG emissions associated with the sorting of metals are negligible. PMID:19767324

Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-11-01

319

Observations of seasonal variations in atmospheric greenhouse trapping and its enhancement at high sea surface temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Greenhouse trapping is examined theoretically using a version of the radiative transfer equations that demonstrates how atmospheric greenhouse trapping can vary. Satellite observations of atmospheric greenhouse trapping are examined for four months representing the various seasons. The cause of the super greenhouse effect at the highest SSTs is examined, and four processes are found to contribute. The middle and upper troposphere must be particularly moist and the temperature lapse rate must be increasingly unstable over the warmest regions to explain the observed distribution of atmospheric greenhouse trapping. Since the highest SSTs are generally associated with deep convection, this suggests that deep convection acts to moisten the middle and upper troposphere in regions of the highest SSTs relative to other regions. The tropical atmospheric circulation acts to both increase the temperature lapse rate and greatly increase the atmospheric water vapor concentration with spatially increasing SST.

Hallberg, Robert; Inamdar, Anand K.

1993-01-01

320

Do Agricultural Soils of California have the Potential to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate Greenhouse Gases?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural ecosystems play a major role in the global carbon cycle and can be both sources of carbon emissions to the atmosphere and also carbon sinks which may be used to offset any future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In California, climate change predictions indicate major impacts and substantial alterations of agricultural systems over the next decades. In 2006, California passed the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) that requires reduction of the three major GHG's (CO2, N2O and CH4) to 1990 levels by 2020. We surveyed and synthesized available data from recent studies describing the potential to sequester carbon and reduce other GHG emissions in California agricultural soils. The studies evaluated various management practices in both annual row and perennial cropping systems, with other studies focusing upon biogeochemical model predictions for carbon sequestration and GHG mitigation calibrated towards California agriculture. Management practices considered included minimum or no tillage, cover cropping, organic residue (low and high inputs) and nitrogen fertilizer management. Though practices involving inputs of carbon, such as cover cropping and organic amendments, were often associated with increases in soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top soil layer (0-20 cm), results were not consistent across farming systems. Several studies indicated that conservation tillage, alone, increased above-ground biomass, especially when used with a cover crop. However, the reduced soil disturbance from conservation tillage merely resulted in a redistribution of the soil carbon rather than an overall accumulation, when compared with standard tillage and cover cropping practices together. Predictions from biogeochemical models indicated that increased inputs of manure and increased organic residues led to substantial carbon sequestration but did not consistently reduce non-CO2 related GHG emissions. The most effective way to reduce non-CO2 GHG emissions, and simultaneously add organic matter to soil, was to employ reduced tillage techniques and low input farming which is based upon the reduction of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides without their complete elimination and to also add carbon to the soils through the addition and incorporation of organic amendments and cover crops.

Suddick, E. C.; Scow, K. M.; Six, J. W.

2008-12-01

321

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15

322

[Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].  

PubMed

Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. PMID:20560308

Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

2010-03-01

323

Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system.  

PubMed

In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system. PMID:24954560

Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

2014-09-15

324

Attribution of Ozone Changes in the Near Future: Nonlinear Feedbacks between Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first half of the 21st century the stratospheric burden of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) is predicted to decrease due to the regulations in the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Concomitantly, the concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to rise. As the removal of the ODSs from the stratosphere is also affected by changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation, the decrease of halogens will also depend on the rate of the GHG increase. Furthermore, the increasing concentrations of the GHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can modify the halogen-ozone chemistry. Therefore, a non-linear contribution has to be included in the attribution analysis of the ozone changes to ODS and GHG changes. In this study we detect and analyze this non-linear term in a set of appropriately defined timeslice simulations for the year 2045 with the Chemistry-Climate-Model EMAC. The causal processes of the non-linear interactions are studied in more detail by separating the relative ozone changes in the contribution from chemistry (production and loss) and transport. This allows us to identify not only feedbacks between chemistry and temperature but also between chemistry and dynamics, i.e. ozone transport.

Meul, Stefanie; Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike

2014-05-01

325

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China.  

PubMed

About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening+anaerobic digestion+dewatering+residue land application in China. Fossil CO(2), biogenic CO(2), CH(4,) and avoided CO(2) as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO(2)-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO(2)), while the net CO(2)-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO(2)). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO(2)-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO(2)-eq reduction. PMID:22884580

Niu, Dong-jie; Huang, Hui; Dai, Xiao-hu; Zhao, You-cai

2013-01-01

326

Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Using Clear vs Cloudy Sky Diurnal Temperature Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard meteorological observations from local airports can provide a tangible example of how the greenhouse effect is a part of everyday life. In the exercise outlined here, students plot diurnal temperature observations to compare the relative magnitude of the greenhouse effect under clear and cloudy-sky conditions, gaining insight into the strength of the greenhouse effect. Contemplation of the relation of surface temperature and humidity with cloud cover leads to a further understading of important atmospheric processes involving the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and terrestrial and solar radiation effects.

Tayor, S. V.

2006-12-01

327

Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ?CH4 / ?CO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence the ambient levels of CH4 locally. ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios during peak traffic hours are 40 to 50 times higher than FTP vehicle dynamometer tests confirming the presence and dominance of non-vehicular CH4 emissions sources. ?N2O /?CO2 ratios during morning commute hours ( NW winds) are similar to fleet emissions ratios from literature. CH4 correlates moderately with C3-C6 straight chain alkanes (also found in raw natural gas). The correlation slopes are similar to those measured downwind from Wattenberg oil field in Colorado and obtained natural gas samples (Petron et al., 2010) suggesting fugitive emissions is a likely source. CH4 or the C3-C6 alkanes do not correlate with any of the gasoline or diesel fuel specific tracers (isooctane and toluene) confirming vehicular combustion is not a major source of CH4. Partial analysis of ethanethiol (CH3-CH2-SH) which is a natural gas odorant indicates strong correlation with CH4. CH4 correlates fairly well with acetone that is also emitted from dairies. Further analysis of VOC measurements and meteorological data will lead to better source attribution and emission factors that will be compared to previously reported data from ground measurements and inventory calculations.

Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

2011-12-01

328

Multispectral information from TANSO-FTS instrument - Part 1: Application to greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) in clear sky conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) mission, and in particular the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) instrument, has the advantage of being able to measure simultaneously the same field of view in different spectral ranges with a high spectral resolution. These features allow studying the benefits of using multispectral measurements to improve the CO2 and CH4 retrievals. In order to quantify the impact of the spectral synergy on the retrieval accuracy, we performed an information content (IC) analysis from simulated spectra corresponding to the three infrared bands of TANSO-FTS. The advantages and limitations of using thermal and shortwave infrared simultaneously are discussed according to surface type and state vector composition. The IC is then used to determine the most informative spectral channels for the simultaneous retrieval of CO2 and CH4. The results show that a channel selection spanning the three infrared bands can improve the computation time and retrieval accuracy. Therefore, a selection of less than 700 channels from the thermal infrared (TIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands allows retrieving CO2 and CH4 simultaneously with a similar accuracy to using all channels together to retrieve each gas separately.

Herbin, H.; Labonnote, L. C.; Dubuisson, P.

2013-11-01

329

The Response of the Stratospheric Climate to Projected Changes in the Concentrations of Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases from 1992 to 2051  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from two 60-yr integrations of the troposphere-stratosphere configuration of the U.K. Met. Office's Unified Model. The integrations were set up identically, apart from different initial conditions, which, nonetheless, were both representative of the early 1990s. Radiative heating rates were calculated using the IS92A projected concentrations of the well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) given by the Intergovernmental Panel on

Neal Butchart; John Austin; Jeffrey R. Knight; Adam A. Scaife; Mark L. Gallani

2000-01-01

330

Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of possibilities for future climate evolution needs to be taken into account when planning climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This requires ensembles of multi-decadal simulations to assess both chaotic climate variability and model response uncertainty. Statistical estimates of model response uncertainty, based on observations of recent climate change, admit climate sensitivities-defined as the equilibrium response of global

D. A. Stainforth; T. Aina; C. Christensen; M. Collins; N. Faull; D. J. Frame; J. A. Kettleborough; S. Knight; A. Martin; J. M. Murphy; C. Piani; D. Sexton; L. A. Smith; R. A. Spicer; A. J. Thorpe; M. R. Allen

2005-01-01

331

Outflow of Greenhouse Gases and Tracer Species from the San Francisco Metropolitan Area at a New Measurement Site in Livermore, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 'top down' approach to estimating greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas will be critical for verifying progress toward reductions targets and identifying the effectiveness of local emissions reduction policies. Measurements of gases and particulates that are co-emitted with greenhouse gases may provide important constraints on the emissions from different sectors. In order to study the emissions from a major urban area, we are measuring a variety of tracers, atmospheric parameters, and greenhouse gases in the outflow from the San Francisco Bay area. The measurement tower is located in the eastern end of the Livermore Valley, and samples drawn from 30 m above the ground are continuously analyzed for CO2, CO2 stable isotopes, CH4, H2O, CO, NOx, NOy, SO2, O3, and VOC mixing ratios. Additionally, the local temperature, pressure, and humidity are measured along with ceilometer-derived boundary layer parameters. Patterns in measurements made in Livermore are analyzed and compared to estimates made using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, Vulcan fossil-fuel emissions inventory, and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. Comparisons are made with measurements from other locations in the San Francisco Bay area and interpreted with the help of emission inventories and atmospheric transport modeling.

Bambha, R.; Schrader, P. E.; Dansson, M. A.; Liu, Z.; Michelsen, H. A.

2013-12-01

332

Non-linear response of South-WPWP SST to greenhouse gases forcing changes during the past 360,000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical Pacific temperature plays a pivotal role in heat and moisture budget in the Earth's climate systems; its responds to greenhouse forcing is a key question in global warming research. Here we present a 360,000 years (0-360 kyrs) sea surface temperature (SST) record from the western equatorial Pacific to demonstrate the non-linear responses and threshold behavior to greenhouse gases level over the past four deglaciations. The SSTs rose drastically when equivalent CO2 (pCO2eqv.) exceeded a threshold value at 220 × 10 ppmv and lead to ultimate termination of glacial states. We speculate that the southern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) has responded as an non-linear amplifier to both of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water formation and greenhouse gases concentration and sequentially accelerated a series of positive feedback processes in the climate system to deliver the Earth from glacial to full interglacial condition once the atmospheric CO2 concentration passes the critical thresholds. The non-linearity in the relationship between South-WPWP SST and greenhouse gas concentration is a key feature shown by the past tropical climate changes related to the Southern Hemisphere. Such non-linearity and its mechanism should be bear in mind when we deal with future global warming.

Lo, L.; Chang, S.; Wei, K.; Lee, S.; Chen, Y.; Chuang, C.; Mii, H.; Burr, G. S.; Chen, M.; Tung, Y.; Shen, C.

2013-12-01

333

AIRS: Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the performance of AIRS and examines how it is meeting its operational and research objectives based on the experience of more than 2 yr with AIRS data. We describe the science background and the performance of AIRS in terms of the accuracy and stability of its observed spectral radiances. We examine the validation of the retrieved temperature and water vapor profiles against collocated operational radiosondes, and then we assess the impact thereof on numerical weather forecasting of the assimilation of the AIRS spectra and the retrieved temperature. We close the paper with a discussion on the retrieval of several minor tropospheric constituents from AIRS spectra.

Chahine, Moustafa T.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Atlas, Robert; Barnet, Christopher; Blaisdell, John; Chen, Luke; Divakarla, Murty; Fetzer, Eric J.; Goldberg, Mitch; Gautier, Catherine; Granger, Stephanie; Hannon, Scott; Irion, Fredrick W; Kakar, Ramesh; Kalnay, Eugenia; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Marshall, John Le; McMillan, W. Wallace; McMillin, Larry; Olsen, Edward T.; Revercomb, Henry; Rosenkranz, Philip; Smith, William L.

2006-01-01

334

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Fine Particles (PM2.5) from Wildland Fires in the United States from 2003 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fires not only affect adjacent communities, but also produce smoke that can travel long distances and significantly impact downwind communities, alter weather patterns, and contribute to global climate change. As air quality standards have tightened, smoke from wildland fires has faced greater scrutiny from the air quality management community. Wildland fire emissions in the United States from 2003 to 2011 were estimated using the SmartFire2 system and the BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. Based on various sources of observational fire activity data, including ground-based incident reports and satellite-derived fire perimeters, fire information was reconciled and passed through a chain of models that estimate fuel loading, fuel consumption, and smoke emissions. While the spatial and temporal distributions of prescribed fires follow a stable pattern, wildfires are difficult to predict and their effects vary greatly from fire to fire. We analyzed the area burned and the emissions of select greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) and fine particles (PM2.5) from the model outputs to characterize long-term temporal and spatial variations. We will present these results, discuss factors that cause variability and uncertainty, and make comparisons to typical global modeling methods.

Huang, S.; Larkin, N. K.; Raffuse, S. M.

2013-12-01

335

Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. Methods In this paper the EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management methods comprised in seven scenarios. Results The amount of GHG which was generated from Iran’s waste sector estimated about 17836079 Metric Tons of Carbon dioxide Equivalents (MT CO2e) in this study. The lowest amount of GHG was generated by LFG capture system with energy recovery (557635 MT CO2e), while Incineration of materials being sent to landfill (1756823 MT CO2e), Landfill Gas (LFG) capture system with flaring (2929150 MT CO2e) and Improved source reduction and recycling (4780278 MT CO2e) emitted fewer GHG than the other scenarios. Lowest levels of gross energy consumption occur in source reduction with recycling and composting (-89356240 Mega British Thermal Unit, M BTU), recycling and composting (-86772060 M BTU) as well as Improved source reduction with recycling and composting (-54794888 M BTU). Conclusions It appears that recycling and composting each offer significant GHG emissions and energy consumption reductions (scenarios 4, 5 and 6). Upon of the GHG emission and energy consumption results concluded that improved source reduction and recycling scenario has been the Balanced and appropriate technology for handling the solid waste streams in municipalities.

2014-01-01

336

Attribution of Regional and Global Climate Change: Relative Effects of Fossil-Fuel Soot, Methane, Other Greenhouse Gases and Particles, and Urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon, the main component of fossil-fuel soot (FFS), warms the air first by absorbing sunlight. Its absorption is enhanced by optical focusing when it becomes coated during vapor condensation or aerosol- aerosol coagulation, when it enters cloud drops or ice crystals during nucleation scavenging or aerosol- hydrometeor coagulation, and when it is surrounded by sea ice or snow following its precipitation or dry deposition. Its absorption over snow, sea ice, desert, fog, and cloud surfaces is further enhanced by the high reflectivity of these surfaces, which increases the number of photons hitting a soot particle. Although soot has a short lifetime, the air that it warms persists to larger scales. Soot's effective lifetime is also extended when it deposits to snow and sea ice. Since the organic material emitted with FFS is mostly hydrophobic, soot's effects on cloud activation are delayed thus weaker than sulfate's effects. Here new results for the climate response of fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, organic matter, sulfate), accounting for the factors listed above and for size resolution of aerosol particles and clouds and the aging of soot through the treatment of two size distributions, are presented. The results are compared with the climate responses of all anthropogenic aerosol particles, anthropogenic methane, all anthropogenic greenhouse gases, all anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosol particles, and urbanization. Fossil-fuel sources of black carbon treated include land-based, shipping, and aircraft. The study finds that fossil-fuel soot appears to have a stronger effect on global near- surface temperatures than either methane or urbanization, thus it may be the second-leading cause of historic near-surface global warming after carbon dioxide. Methane is found to have a stronger effect on near-surface temperatures than urbanization. FFS exacerbates warming due to greenhouse gases in Russia and over the Arctic sea ice. FFS causes little regional cooling in contrast to all aerosol particles, which, on their own, cause strong cooling in the southeast U.S., Europe, and China. The combination of all anthropogenic aerosol particles and greenhouse gases explains much of the difference between current and historic regional temperatures on a global scale. Whereas methane and other greenhouse gases cool the stratosphere, neither FFS nor urbanization do so significantly. The results here apply only to fossil-fuel soot. Biomass-burning particles, which contain black carbon, have a different composition from FFS and a different climate effect.

Jacobson, M. Z.

2006-12-01

337

Bad Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is designed to belie the statement that the greenhouse effect is caused when gases in the atmosphere behave as a blanket and trap radiation which is then reradiated to the Earth. Students will learn that the atmosphere does not act like a blanket, trap radiation, reradiate heat, trap heat, or behave like a greenhouse. In addition, the analogy of a closed automobile in the sun to a greenhouse is reasonable but neither has to do with the atmosphere.

Fraser, Alistair

338

Comparative Climate Responses of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases, All Major Aerosol Components, Black Carbon, and Methane, Accounting for the Evolution of the Aerosol Mixing State and of Clouds/Precipitation from Multiple Aerosol Size Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several modeling studies to date have simulated the global climate response of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and bulk (non-size-resolved) sulfate or generic aerosol particles together, but no study has examined the climate response of greenhouse gases simultaneously with all major size- and composition resolved aerosol particle components. Such a study is important for improving our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on climate. Here, the GATOR-GCMOM model is used to study the global climate response of (a) all major greenhouse gases and size-resolved aerosol components, (b) all major greenhouse gases alone, (c) fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, primary organic matter, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate), and (d) methane. Aerosol components treated in all simulations included water, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, hydrogen ion, soil dust, and pollen/spores. Fossil-fuel soot (FFS) was emitted into its own size distribution. All other components, including biofuel and biomass soot, sea-spray, soil dust, etc., were emitted into a second distribution (MIX). The FFS distribution grew by condensation of secondary organic matter and sulfuric acid, hydration of water, and dissolution of nitric acid, ammonia, and hydrochloric acid. It self-coagulated and heterocoagulated with the MIX distribution, which also grew by condensation, hydration, and dissolution. Treatment of separate distributions for FFS allowed FFS to evolve from an external mixture to an internal mixture. In both distributions, black carbon was treated as a core component for optical calculations. Both aerosol distributions served as CCN during explicit size-resolved cloud formation. The resulting clouds grew by coagulation and condensation, coagulated with interstitial aerosol particles, and fell to the surface as rain and snow, carrying aerosol constituents with them. Thus, cloud evolution accounted for the first and second indirect effects and the mixing state of aerosol particles. The optical properties of clouds were found by treating black carbon inclusions surrounded by a shell of water. The albedos of snow, sea ice, and water were calculated with radiative transfer solutions, assuming black carbon inclusions in the case of snow and sea ice. The simulations accounted for 3-D energy diffusion to the deep ocean and 2-D ocean circulation. Major conclusions are (a) the most important constituents of global warming, in terms of climate response, appear to be, in order, carbon dioxide, black carbon, and methane, (b) aerosol particles (all together) appear to act on top of greenhouse gases to enhance extremes in both regional cooling and regional warming, (b) the combination of important greenhouse gases and aerosol particles can explain observed major regions of historic warming and cooling, and (d) eliminating all anthropogenic aerosol emission could more than double current global warming but would have less of an effect than independently doubling carbon dioxide.

Jacobson, M. Z.

2005-12-01

339

ICOS, Integrated Carbon Observing System, a Research Infrastructure to Integrate Greenhouse Gas observations in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a European Research infrastructure. ICOS's mission is to collect data for monitoring greenhouse gas fluxes over Europe and adjacent regions, and to provide the long-term observations required to quantify and to predict the behavior of the carbon cycle. ICOS builds upon the measurement networks and expertise developed under many European and national projects by a research community of more that 2000 researchers and students. ICOS received initial funding for the period 2008-2013 for the preparation of a Research Infrastructure hat will be operational in 2014 and run during the next 20 years a data collection for essential GHG variables including The presentation of ICOS will focus 1) on the mechanisms that have enabled the agencies / networks / governments to produce work products (data products, modeling products, and sensor acquired or human acquired measurements), and 2) on strategies to enable all identified user families, to take those products into assessments and analyses of European time varying maps GHG fluxes, including information on the attribution of these fluxes to underlying human and natural drivers and policy relevant information to improve GHG inventories at regional to national scale. These mechanisms take the form of adherence to technical standards (data, measurements, calibration/validation, modelling protocols), data policies, and governance mechanisms, which may prove complex when many different research councils and ministries are involved, as in the case of the ICOS preparation.

Ciais, P.; Paris, J.; Rivier, L.; Ceulemans, R.; Dolman, A. J.; Flaud, J.; Garrec, C.; Gerbig, C.; Grace, J.; Huertas, E.; Johannessen, T.; Jordan, A.; Levin, I.; Lindroth, A.; Loustau, D.; Papale, D.; Ramonet, M.; Valentini, R.; Vesala, T.; Kaukolehto, M.; Watson, A.

2012-12-01

340

Profiling Wind and Greenhouse Gases by Infrared-laser Occultation: Algorithm and Results from Simulations in Windy Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO) microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method to derive a full set of thermodynamic state variables from microwave signals and climate benchmark profiling of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind using infrared-laser signals. The focus lies on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS - 5 km to 35 km). The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. In this study we focus on the infrared-laser part of LMIO, where we introduce a new, advanced wind retrieval algorithm to derive accurate l.o.s. wind profiles. The wind retrieval uses the reasonable assumption of the wind blowing along spherical shells (horizontal winds) and therefore the l.o.s. wind speed can be retrieved by using an Abel integral transform. A 'delta-differential transmission' principle is applied to two thoroughly selected infrared-laser signals placed at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line (nominally ±0.004 cm-1 from the line center near 4767 cm-1) plus a related 'off-line' reference signal. The delta-differential transmission obtained by differencing these signals is clear from atmospheric broadband effects and is proportional to the wind-induced Doppler shift; it serves as the integrand of the Abel transform. The Doppler frequency shift calculated along with the wind retrieval is in turn also used in the GHG retrieval to correct the frequency of GHG-sensitive infrared-laser signals for the wind-induced Doppler shift, which enables improved GHG estimation. This step therefore provides the capability to correct potential wind-induced residual errors of the GHG retrieval in case of strong winds. We performed end-to-end simulations to test the performance of the new retrieval in windy air. The simulations used realistic atmospheric conditions (thermodynamic state variables and wind profiles) from an analysis field of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). GHG profiles were taken from the Fast Atmospheric Signature Code (FASCODE) model. Three geographic regions were investigated, representing three different atmospheric conditions: Tropics (TRO) - a warm and moist atmosphere, Standard (STD) - an intermediate atmosphere at mid-latitudes, and Sub-Arctic Winter (SAW) - a cold and dry atmosphere. We will discuss the results in windy air, which show an encouraging performance both for the wind retrieval throughout the stratosphere (essentially unbiased l.o.s. winds with rms errors within 2 m/s over about 15 to 35 km) and for the GHG estimation.

Plach, Andreas; Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried

2014-05-01

341

Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the Tropics and high latitudes, are consistent with predictions of a number of previous GCM studies. Finally, direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is predicted to induce strong regional cooling over East and South Asia. Wintertime rainfall over southeastern China and the Indian subcontinent is predicted to decrease because of the increased atmospheric stability and decreased surface evaporation, while the geographic distribution of precipitation is also predicted to be altered as a result of aerosol-induced changes in wind flow.

Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

2007-01-01

342

Measurements and modeling of greenhouse gases and the planetary boundary layer for the Boston metro area and the Northeastern Megalopolis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and air quality simulations reflects the fidelity of the atmospheric transport model employed that in turn is highly dependent on the accuracy of the meteorological input data. We begin by describing a multi-scale measurement network and model-data analysis framework for the Boston Metro region, with extension to the mid-Atlantic urban corridor. Observations include a network of automated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 inside and outside the urban domain, near the surface, on towers and tall buildings, total column measurements using the sun as a source, aerosol LiDAR data defining atmospheric structure, and meteorological data. The model-data analysis framework includes a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT), driven by meteorological fields from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and an inversion framework. We show examples of data and discuss the observational network's sampling design and a plan for extension to the NE urban corridor of the US. These urban studies are demonstrating the feasibility and value of incorporating advanced instrumentation such as the Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR to evaluate and improve the fidelity of the WRF simulations of atmospheric transport and structure in the planetary boundary layer. We also present examples of inverse analyses assessing anthropogenic emission rates for CH4 and CO2 in the urban region of metro Boston and along the urban-rural gradient.

DeCola, Philip; Jones, Taylor; Wofsy, Steven; McKain, Kathryn; Chen, Jia; Bererra, Yanina; Gottlieb, Elaine; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Hegarty, Jennifer; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Henderson, John; Mountain, Marikate; Hutyra, Lucy; Callahan, William

2014-05-01

343

The enhancement of clear sky greenhouse effect in HIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) observations are used to understand the atmospheric response at the top of the atmosphere, induced by the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. The HIRS brightness temperature channels are used to regress the Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), and the greenhouse effect, in clear sky conditions, over the period 1981-2004. Here, we find that since 1981, the OLR remains relatively stable, compared to the greenhouse effect that has significant increased, because of the surface temperature changes. With a multi-model ensemble of coupled model simulations, we show that the greenhouse gases emissions, and the water vapor feedback, account for this observed enhancement of the greenhouse effect. This study further reinforce our confidence that anthropogenic greenhouse gases emission are causing a large part of the recent climate changes.

Gastineau, Guillaume; Soden, Brian; Jackson, Darren; O'Dell, Chris; Stephens, Graeme

2010-05-01

344

Biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases from the Ogooué River (west central Africa): preliminary results after two years of monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ogooué River is the fourth largest river in Africa by discharge. The Ogooué Basin mostly consists of undisturbed rainforest with some savanna grassland. Yet, there is no information on the biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and greenhouse gases in this river. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Lambaréné (Gabon) [10.24°E 0.69°S] between April 2012 and March 2014 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct annual budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Ogooué River.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Mbega, Jean-Daniel; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

345

Observable vortex properties in finite-temperature Bose gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of vortices in finite temperature atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, focusing on decay rates, precession frequencies, and core brightness, motivated by a recent experiment [ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1191224 329, 1182 (2010)] in which real-time dynamics of a single vortex was observed. Using the Zaremba, Nikuni, and Griffin (ZNG) formalism based on a dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semiclassical Boltzmann equation for the thermal cloud, we find a rapid nonlinear increase of both the decay rate and precession frequency with increasing temperatures. The increase, which is dominated by the dynamical condensate-thermal coupling is also dependent on the intrinsic thermal cloud collisional dynamics; the precession frequency also varies with the initial radial coordinate. The integrated thermal cloud density in the vortex core is for the most part independent of the position of the vortex (except when it is near the condensate edge), with its value increasing with temperature. This could potentially be used as a variant to the method of Coddington [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.70.063607 70, 063607 (2004)] for experimentally determining the temperature.

Allen, A. J.; Zaremba, E.; Barenghi, C. F.; Proukakis, N. P.

2013-01-01

346

Peer Review of the Optimization Model for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Automobiles (OMEGA) and EPA's Response to Comments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On-road vehicles are the predominant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector (principally, CO2 and hydrocarbon emissions from vehicle air conditioners). Of all on-road vehicles, light-duty passenger cars and trucks produce th...

2009-01-01

347

Greenhouse gases embodied in the international trade and final consumption of Finland: An input–output analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with international trade and final consumption gives a more complete and balanced picture of the responsibilities of various countries for the emissions that cause the climate change. The aim of this study was to look at the impact of the coverage of the GHGs and their sources and assumptions regarding the emissions

Ilmo Mäenpää; Hanne Siikavirta

2007-01-01

348

Sensitivity of the Climate to Changes in Solar Irradiance, Orbital Forcing and Greenhouse Gases During the Maunder Minimum From a Suite of GCM Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equilibrium model experiments have been run with the GENESIS AGCM version 2.0 (Pollard and Thompson 1995b) to examine sensitivity of the climate to a variety of possible forcing scenarios during the Maunder Minimum (~1675), present-day and ~2050AD. Solar irradiance, orbital forcing and greenhouse gases were incrementally added in a suite of experiments to determine the relative effects of each individual forcing as well as the combined response. If solar irradiance is reduced to Maunder Minimum-estimated values (maintaining present-day greenhouse gases and orbital forcing), globally averaged temperature is cooler than present, as expected, and though the GCM does not have a coupled ocean, it does have a coupled sea-ice model and sea-ice feedbacks dominate the high-latitude response pattern. Especially large near-surface temperature responses are seen in the areas of Greenland and the Weddell Sea. Naturally, the sea-ice feedback leads to a marked seasonality of response, but there are substantial differences in the seasonal response in the tropics as well as at high latitudes. The model results indicate that a shift in the ITCZ position contributes to this temperature difference as well as substantial precipitation changes. Consistent with a cooler climate, precipitation is also moderately reduced relative to present. In addition, an increase in the meridionality of circulation, which has been suggested as a more persistent pattern of circulation for the Little Ice Age (eg. Wanner 1994), is evident when solar irradiance is reduced to estimated Maunder Minimum values in these model experiments. During all three model time-periods, including the Maunder Minimum, orbital forcing plays a larger role than expected, especially at high-latitudes. The forcing is of the opposite sign to that induced by solar variability over this time-frame, therefore moderately tempers the effect of lower solar irradiance during the Maunder Minimum. Greenhouse gases also play a large role in the global temperature differences between present-day climate and conditions in ~1675, but does not appear to excite sea-ice feedbacks in the Antarctic to the same degree as changes in solar irradiance. Sensitivity of land versus ocean is also different for the different forcings in the GENESIS model.

Waple, A. M.; DeConto, R. M.; Bradley, R. S.

2002-05-01

349

Photocatalytic TiO 2 coating—to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform

Marcella Guarino; Annamaria Costa; Marco Porro

2008-01-01

350

PhET Simulation: The Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation explores how greenhouse gases affect Earth's climate. Students can view levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases present during Earth's last Ice Age, in the year 1750, today, or some time in the future.....and observe how the Earth's temperature changes. Levels of 4 greenhouse gases are displayed: water, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Add cloud cover to the simulation and observe the resulting temperature changes. Choose the tab "Glass Layers" to see what happens in an ideal greenhouse model. In the third simulation, students can adjust levels of atmospheric gases, then shoot infrared and visible photons from a photon emitter. How do the gases influence photon absorption? See Related Materials for a comprehensive student guide that explains how to use the "Greenhouse Effect" simulation to conduct a lab experiment. The experimental question: Which atmospheric gas is the best absorber of infrared photons? This item is part of a growing collection of simulations by the Physics Education Technology Project (PhET). Simulations were designed using principles from physics education research and refined based on student interviews and classroom observations.

351

Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of total emissions of greenhouse gases from biomass burning  

SciTech Connect

One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG emissions.

Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.

1997-12-31

352

Greenhouse gases balances in the terrestrial ecosystems of North America: patterns and contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial ecosystem in North America has been identified as a sink of atmospheric CO2 though there is no consensus on the carbon sink strength. However, changes in non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) (i.e., CH4 and N2O) emissions may offset or even turnover this trend. We first simultaneously estimated the contemporary CO2, CH4, N2O balances and their overall global warming potential. Then we identified the contributions of multiple environmental factors to the changes of global warming potential. Finally, we presented an uncertainty range for contemporary global warming potential based on data compilation from inventory, forward modeling, and inverse modeling approaches. Overall, the terrestrial ecosystem in North America reduced global warming potential by -0.50 Pg CO2 eq/yr in terms of combined CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes during 2000-2010. This region could also increase warming potential during some years (e.g., 1994 and 2002) with extreme drought events. CH4 and N2O emissions could offset 73% (57~138%) of the carbon sinks. All the biome types except wetland had the potential to reduce climate warming potential in North America. Climate change and elevated tropospheric O3 concentration contributed the most to the increased global warming potential, while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration contributed the most to decreased global warming potential during 1979-2010. Combining the predicted increasing CH4 emission in the high-latitude permafrost zone and elevated N2O emission due to increasing nitrogen fertilizer amounts in intensive managed forests, climate warming could be greatly accelerated by the environmental changes in the terrestrial ecosystems of North America in the future.

Tian, H.; Chen, G.; Lu, C.; Ren, W.; Tao, B.; Pan, S.; Yang, J.; Hayes, D. J.; Wei, Y.

2012-12-01

353

NF3, the greenhouse gas missing from Kyoto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) can be called the missing greenhouse gas: It is a synthetic chemical produced in industrial quantities; it is not included in the Kyoto basket of greenhouse gases or in national reporting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); and there are no observations documenting its atmospheric abundance. Current publications report a long lifetime of

Michael J. Prather; Juno Hsu

2008-01-01

354

The enhancement of clear sky greenhouse effect in HIRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) observations are used to understand the atmospheric response at the top of the atmosphere, induced by the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. The HIRS brightness temperature channels are used to regress the Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), and the greenhouse effect, in clear sky conditions, over the period 1981-2004. Here, we find that since 1981,

Guillaume Gastineau; Brian Soden; Darren Jackson; Chris O'Dell; Graeme Stephens

2010-01-01

355

A comparative study of vertical flow and free-water surface constructed wetlands for low C/N ratio domestic wastewater treatment and its greenhouse gases emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed wetland (CW) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of chemical treatment. Therefore, CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countries. However, growing attention has been directed to its greenhouse side-effect and global-warming potential in recent years. In this study, two typical constructed wetlands: Vertical flow (VF) and Free-water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands were used not only to compare the nutrients removal performance for treatment of low C/N ratio loading domestic wastewater, but also to investigate and compare their CH4 and N2O greenhouse gases emission characteristics. The results indicated that the VF CW showed a comparatively good performance for nitrogen and phosphorus removal than FWS constructed wetland, which was 98.5, 95.9, 93.2 and 90.7 percent for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6 days HRT, respectively. It was found that the FWS CW had the higher tendency to emit CH4 than the VF CW during four seasons of one year.

Xu, K.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

2008-12-01

356

Summer fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases N 2O, CH 4 and CO 2 from mangrove soil in South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 from the soil in four mangrove swamps in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, South China were investigated in the summer of 2008. The fluxes ranged from 0.14 to 23.83?molm?2h?1, 11.9 to 5168.6?molm?2h?1 and 0.69 to 20.56mmolm?2h?1 for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. Futian mangrove swamp in Shenzhen had the highest greenhouse gas fluxes,

G. C. Chen; N. F. Y. Tam; Y. Ye

2010-01-01

357

Greenhouses Reduce the Greenhouse Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface albedo, the ratio of upward solar radiation reflected by the surface over the downward solar radiation, is an important parameter to determine the surface radiation budget and thus the global mean surface temperature. Apparently, increase in surface albedo can be found in the area where the white plastic greenhouses are widely used by farmers during the rent decade. Such increase will reduce the radiation absorbed by the surface and then the surface temperature. Hence, greenhouses covered with white plastic can reflect more solar radiation and reduce the warming effect of greenhouse gases. In this paper are presented some field measurements of surface albedo and reflectance spectrum over different surfaces, particularly over the greenhouses.

Chen, H.; Xia, X.; Li, Z.; Wang, J.; Wang, P.

2005-12-01

358

Biotechnologies for greenhouse gases (CH?, N?O, and CO?) abatement: state of the art and challenges.  

PubMed

Today, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent approximately 98 % of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory worldwide, and their share is expected to increase significantly in this twenty-first century. CO2 represents the most important GHG with approximately 77 % of the total GHG emissions (considering its global warming potential) worldwide, while CH4 and N2O are emitted to a lesser extent (14 and 8 %, respectively) but exhibit global warming potentials 23 and 298 times higher than that of CO2, respectively. Most members of the United Nations, based on the urgent need to maintain the global average temperature 2 °C above preindustrial levels, have committed themselves to significantly reduce their GHG emissions. In this context, an active abatement of these emissions will help to achieve these target emission cuts without compromising industrial growth. Nowadays, there are sufficient empirical evidence to support that biological technologies can become, if properly tailored, a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to physical/chemical methods for the abatement of GHGs. This study constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the microbiology (biochemistry, kinetics, and waste-to-value processes) and bioreactor technology of CH4, N2O, and CO2 abatement. The potential and limitations of biological GHG degradation processes are critically discussed, and the current knowledge gaps and technology niches in the field are identified. PMID:23389341

López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Souza, Theo S O; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

2013-03-01

359

Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

360

Direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in ultracold Fermi gases.  

PubMed

Phase transitions are dramatic phenomena: water freezes into ice, atomic spins spontaneously align in a magnet, and liquid helium becomes superfluid. Sometimes, such a drastic change in behaviour is accompanied by a visible change in appearance. The hallmark of Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in trapped, weakly interacting Bose gases is the sudden formation of a dense central core inside a thermal cloud. However, in strongly interacting gases--such as the recently observed fermionic superfluids--there is no longer a clear separation between the superfluid and the normal parts of the cloud. The detection of fermion pair condensates has required magnetic field sweeps into the weakly interacting regime, and the quantitative description of these sweeps presents a major theoretical challenge. Here we report the direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in a strongly interacting gas of 6Li fermions, through sudden changes in the shape of the clouds--in complete analogy to the case of weakly interacting Bose gases. By preparing unequal mixtures of the two spin components involved in the pairing, we greatly enhance the contrast between the superfluid core and the normal component. Furthermore, the distribution of non-interacting excess atoms serves as a direct and reliable thermometer. Even in the normal state, strong interactions significantly deform the density profile of the majority spin component. We show that it is these interactions that drive the normal-to-superfluid transition at the critical population imbalance of 70 +/- 5 per cent (ref. 12). PMID:16823447

Zwierlein, Martin W; Schunck, Christian H; Schirotzek, André; Ketterle, Wolfgang

2006-07-01

361

How ground-based observations can support satellite greenhouse gas retrievals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global society will eventually accelerate efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a variety of ways. These would likely involve international treaties, national policies, and regional strategies that will affect a number of economic, social, and environmental sectors. Some strategies will work better than others and some will not work at all. Because trillions of dollars will be involved in pursuing greenhouse gas emission reductions - through realignment of energy production, improvement of efficiencies, institution of taxes, implementation of carbon trading markets, and use of offsets - it is imperative that society be given all the tools at its disposal to ensure the ultimate success of these efforts. Providing independent, globally coherent information on the success of these efforts will give considerable strength to treaties, policies, and strategies. Doing this will require greenhouse gas observations greatly expanded from what we have today. Satellite measurements may ultimately be indispensable in achieving global coverage, but the requirements for accuracy and continuity of measurements over time are demanding if the data are to be relevant. Issues such as those associated with sensor drift, aging electronics, and retrieval artifacts present challenges that can be addressed in part by close coordination with ground-based and in situ systems. This presentation identifies the information that ground-based systems provide very well, but it also looks at what would be deficient even in a greatly expanded surface system, where satellites can fill these gaps, and how on-going, ground and in situ measurements can aid in addressing issues associated with accuracy, long-term continuity, and retrieval artifacts.

Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.

2012-04-01

362

Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 ?g CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 ?g CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was no effect of treatment on subsurface CO2 concentrations. Subsurface N2O peaked at 500ppm 12 days after and 1200ppm 56 days after application. Subsurface NO3- concentration peaked at approximately 300 mg N kg dry soil-112 days after application. Results indicate that denitrification is the key driver for N2O release in peatlands and that production is strongly related to increased soil moisture. N2O production at depth continued long after emissions were detected at the surface. Increased study of the interaction between subsurface gas concentrations, surface emissions and soil hydrological conditions is required to successfully predict greenhouse gas production and emission.

Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura

2014-05-01

363

Carbon emissions from a temperate peat fire and its relevance to interannual variability of trace atmospheric greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of wildfire in peatlands outside of boreal and tropical regions to interannual variability of global carbon emissions has been relatively little studied. There are 0.19 to 0.88 million km2 of localized peat deposits in the temperate zone (30-50° latitude) where drainage and climate change may affect the status of this potentially large carbon pool. For example, in the coastal plain of North Carolina, USA, where wildfire is common, over 325 teragrams of carbon (Tg C) are stored in peat deposits up to 5 m deep. We estimated carbon emissions for a temperate peatland fire in North Carolina using remote sensing to reconstruct burn severity and topographic lidar to constrain peat burn depths. Total carbon emissions for the fire ranged from 1 to 3.8 Tg, with spatially heterogeneous patterns of carbon fluxes (0.2 to 11 kg C m-2) responding to variation in vegetation type, peat burn depth, soil substrate (mineral or organic), and fire severity. To maintain a carbon sink in this region at the current rates of carbon sequestration (0.109 to 0.127 kg C m-2 yr-1) we estimated a fire return interval of greater than 20-80 years. Continued drainage and future drought could decrease the fire return interval to less than 20 years or increase peat burn depths thereby converting these peatlands into a net carbon source. On a global scale, this study suggests that temperate peatland fires may emit up to 0.32 petagrams of carbon during drought years, a significant contribution to interannual greenhouse gas variability.

Poulter, Benjamin; Christensen, Norman L.; Halpin, Patrick N.

2006-03-01

364

Emission of greenhouse gases from home aerobic composting, anaerobic digestion and vermicomposting of household wastes in Brisbane (Australia).  

PubMed

This study investigated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three different home waste treatment methods in Brisbane, Australia. Gas samples were taken monthly from 34 backyard composting bins from January to April 2009. Averaged over the study period, the aerobic composting bins released lower amounts of CH(4) (2.2 mg m(- 2) h(-1)) than the anaerobic digestion bins (9.5 mg m(-2) h(-1)) and the vermicomposting bins (4.8 mg m(-2) h( -1)). The vermicomposting bins had lower N(2)O emission rates (1.2 mg m(-2) h(- 1)) than the others (1.5-1.6 mg m(-2) h( -1)). Total GHG emissions including both N(2)O and CH(4) were 463, 504 and 694 mg CO(2)-e m(- 2) h(-1) for vermicomposting, aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion, respectively, with N(2)O contributing >80% in the total budget. The GHG emissions varied substantially with time and were regulated by temperature, moisture content and the waste properties, indicating the potential to mitigate GHG emission through proper management of the composting systems. In comparison with other mainstream municipal waste management options including centralized composting and anaerobic digestion facilities, landfilling and incineration, home composting has the potential to reduce GHG emissions through both lower on-site emissions and the minimal need for transportation and processing. On account of the lower cost, the present results suggest that home composting provides an effective and feasible supplementary waste management method to a centralized facility in particular for cities with lower population density such as the Australian cities. PMID:20601402

Chan, Yiu C; Sinha, Rajiv K; Weijin Wang

2011-05-01

365

Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.  

PubMed

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit. PMID:17574843

Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

2008-05-01

366

Biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases from the Niger River (West Africa): preliminary results after two years of monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km2. It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Yet, there is surprisingly little or no information on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in this river. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples have been collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01° E 13.57° N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, quantification and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC ?13C-DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (partial pressure of CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct an annual budget for both particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the matter transported by the Niger River and of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Borges, Alberto V.

2013-04-01

367

Potential of in-service aircraft based greenhouse gas observations within IAGOS for constraining regional carbon budgets.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 contain information about carbon sources and sinks and the characteristics of the CO2 exchange processes between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. Within the recently established European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System), highly accurate and precise in-situ observation of greenhouse gases is foreseen in the near future. The objective of this study is to quantify the reduction in uncertainty in estimates of carbon sources, sinks, and exchange processes brought about by the use of this newly developed data stream. Anticipating the deployment of five GHG observing systems within IAGOS, the flight tracks from five in-service aircraft within MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by AIrbus in-service airCraft), a predecessor of IAGOS, are used in an inversion system to assess the constraint on the carbon budget and quantify the potential for reduction in posterior CO2 flux uncertainties. These measurement locations are used to evaluate the impact of data from aircraft on the reduction of flux uncertainties compared to that based on the existing global observation network, and furthermore to identify areas where the addition of these measurements would be of greatest impact. We use the Jena Inversion System that employs the Global Atmospheric Tracer Model TM3 for atmospheric transport, focussing on the period 1996-2004. The vertical aircraft profiles are input into the inversion as two partial-column averages instead of point measurements, the lower partial column completely containing (and exceeding) the boundary layer. Thus the error due to imperfect model representation of the boundary layer height and hence the vertical tracer transport near the surface can be diminished, and results in the reduction of the overall model-data mismatch error. The experimental design is such that in each simulation the existing measurement network is augmented by pseudo-observations from up to five simulated IAGOS aircraft. Uncertainty reduction from each of these simulations is compared to the uncertainty reduction from simulations employing only IAGOS or only the existing observation network. Additional constraint on regional carbon budgets is expected from the reduced model-data mismatch error when using vertical profiles as compared to using point measurements within the atmospheric boundary layer only.

Verma, Shreeya; Gerbig, Christoph; Marshall, Julia; Roedenbeck, Christian

2014-05-01

368

Observations of the Earth's radiative spectrum and greenhouse effect from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's radiative energy balance between absorbed incoming solar radiation and outgoing longwave emission is expected to remain in balance as the planet maintains equilibrium. However, we are not clear about the speed with which this balance is maintained as a result of perturbations. In addition to the information about clouds and their processes that may be found within measurements of the integrated flux emitted by the Earth, if we can observe the spectrally resolved fluxes, then we have access to much more detailed information, about greenhouse gas absorption, cloud, lower atmosphere and surface effects. In this paper we will review work in the Imperial College group on the analysis of IR spectra of the Earth measured from orbiting spacecraft. The talk will include clear sky and cloudy sky studies, and will address a number of issues, such as the sampling problem. Studies using new space instruments such as AIRS will also be reviewed.

Harries, J. E.; Brindley, H. E.; Bantges, R. J.; Griggs, J. A.

2003-04-01

369

The Standard Model for Noble Gases in Mantle Geochemistry: Some Observations and Alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the Standard Model of noble gases against a number of observational constraints of relevance to the distribution of noble gases in the Earth's mantle. These constraints include: 1) the lack of evidence for high 3He/4He ratios correlating with high (initial) He concentrations, 2) that MORB and OIB 3He/4He data do not represent two different distributions [1], 3) that systematic global correlations between 3He/4He ratios and lithophile isotopic systems are lacking, 4) that the correlations we do observe are broadly linear, 5) that large, local geographical 3He/4He variations are observed, which are inconsistent with a strongly localized (i.e. plum-stem) flux of high-3He/4He material, and 6) that dramatic temporal 3He/4He variations are observed on very short time scales (10-100 years). Non-layered noble gas mantle models, in which the carrier of unradiogenic He is a relatively noble gas-poor phase scattered in the mantle, are more consistent with this set of constraints. We propose that the carrier of unradiogenic noble gases is primarily olivine [2]. Olivine-rich lithologies, produced in previous partial melting events, are a natural part of the Statistical Upper Mantle Assemblage (SUMA); a highly heterogeneous assemblage of small-to-moderate scale (1-100 km) enriched and depleted lithologies with a wide range in chemical composition, fertility, age and isotopic signatures. The isotopic signatures of oceanic basalts, including noble gases, are obtained by partial melting of the SUMA under slightly different P-T conditions; i.e. different degrees of partial melting and different degrees of homogenization prior to eruption [3-5]. Noble gas isotopic systematics do not trace deep mantle components in the source materials of oceanic basalts. They may, however, indirectly indicate potential temperature, as the order in which different mantle lithologies melt depends on pressure. References: [1] Anderson, EPSL 193, 77-82 (2001). [2] Brooker et al., Lithos, 73, S15 (2004). [3] Morgan and Morgan, EPSL 170, 215-239 (1999). [4] Meibom and Anderson, EPSL 217, 123-139 (2003). [5] Ito and Mahoney, EPSL submitted (2004).

Meibom, A.; Sleep, N. H.; Zahnle, K.; Anderson, D. L.

2004-12-01

370

Global warming potentials; Part 7 of 7 supporting documents. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the general guidelines for voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Public review draft  

SciTech Connect

This document provides methods to account for the different effects of different gases on the atmosphere. It discusses the rationale and uses for simplified measures to represent human-related effects on climate and provides a brief introduction to a major index, the global warming potential (GWP) index. Appendix 7.A analyzes the science underlying the development of indices for concerns about climate, which is still evolving, evaluates the usefulness of currently available indices, and presents the state of the art for numerical indices and their uncertainties. For concerns about climate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been instrumental in examining relative indices for comparing the radiative influences of greenhouse gases. The IPCC developed the concept of GWPs to provide a simple representation of the relative effects on climate resulting from a unit mass emission of a greenhouse gas. Alternative measures and variations on the definition of GWPs have also been considered and reported.

Not Available

1994-05-31

371

MAX-DOAS observations of trace gases over Mainz: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report on levels of trace gases in ambient atmosphere in Mainz, Germany. We measured the differential Slant Column Density (dSCD) of NO2, HCHO and O4 in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument. The MAX-DOAS observations were taken at Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, from January to March 2014, at different elevation angles. The main aim of the study is to compare the results of the Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument with those from a 'scientific' MAX-DOAS instrument operated simultaneously at the same location. We quantify systematic differences and random and errors of both data sets for different measurement conditions. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas DSCDs will be discussed in this work.

Alberti, Carlos; Gu, Myojeong; Remmers, Julia; Wagner, Thomas

2014-05-01

372

Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3  

PubMed Central

A laser flash photolysis–resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O(1D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO2F2(k1), NF3(k2), and SF5CF3(k3). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k1(T) = 9.0 × 10-11 exp(+98/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k1b = (5.8 ± 2.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 independent of temperature. We find that k2(T) = 2.0 × 10-11 exp(+52/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with reaction proceeding almost entirely (?99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O(1D) by NF3 is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF3. Deactivation of O(1D) by SF5CF3 is slow enough (k3 < 2.0 × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K) that reaction with O(1D) is unimportant as an atmospheric removal mechanism for SF5CF3. The kinetics of O(1D) reactions with SO2 (k4) and CS2 (k5) have also been investigated at 298 K. We find that k4 = (2.2 ± 0.3) × 10-10 and k5 = (4.6 ± 0.6) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1; branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.76 ± 0.12 and 0.94 ± 0.06 for the SO2 and CS2 reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2?) and rate coefficients ki(T) (i = 1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of ± 15% (2?).

Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L.; Nicovich, J. Michael; Wine, Paul H.

2010-01-01

373

Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

374

[Greenhouse gases fluxes of biological soil crusts and soil ecosystem in the artificial sand-fixing vegetation region in Shapotou area].  

PubMed

Uncertainties still existed for evaluating greenhouse gases fluxes (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) at the regional scale for desert ecosystem because available GHGs data about biological soil crusts (BSCs) was very scarce. In 2011 and 2012, soil ecosystem covered by various types of BSCs and BSCs at different succession stages in an artificial sand-fixing vegetation region established in various periods at southeast of the Shapotou area in Tengger Desert was selected to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O using static chamber and gas chromatography. The results showed that curst type, recovery time and their interactions with sampling date significantly affected CO2 flux. Recovery time and interaction of crust type and sampling date significantly affected CH4 flux. Sampling date significantly affected the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The mean annual flux of CO2 for moss crust (105.1 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) was significantly higher than that of algae crust (37.7 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) at the same succession stage. Annual mean CH4 and N2O consumption was 19.9 and 3.4 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. Mean annual consumption of CH4 and N2O for algae crust was slightly higher than that of moss crust, however, significant difference was not found. Ecosystem respiration (Re) of desert soil covered by BSCs increased with the recovery process of desert ecosystem, in contrast, consumption of CH4 and N2O decreased. Re of moss crust was more sensitive to temperature and moisture variation than algae crust and Re sensitivity of temperature and moisture gradually increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Both soil temperature and moisture were not the main factor to determine CH4 and N2O fluxes of BSCs-soil in desert ecosystem. PMID:24765843

Hu, Yi-Gang; Feng, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Bing-Xin

2014-01-01

375

Multi-Model CIMP5 projected impacts of increased greenhouse gases on the Niger basin and implications for hydropower production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change could potentially have large impacts on water availability in West Africa and the predictions are accrued with high uncertainties in this region. Countries in the Niger River basin (West Africa) plan the investment of 200 million in the installation of an additional 400MW of hydropower in the nearest future, adding to the existing 685MW. With the impacts of climate change in the basin already occurring, there is a need for comprehending the influence of future hydro-climatic changes on water resources and hydro-power generation in the basin. This study uses a hydrological model to simulate river flow under present and future conditions and evaluates the impacts of potential changes on electricity production of the largest hydroelectric dam (Kainji) in the Niger Basin. The Kainji reservoir produces 25 per cent of the current energy needs of Nigeria and was subject to large fluctuations in energy production as a result of variable inflow and operational reasons. Inflow into the reservoir was simulated using hydroclimatic data from a set of 7 regional climate models (RCM) with two emission scenarios from the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiment, driven with CMIP5 data. Based on observations of inflow, water level in the reservoir, and energy production we developed a simple hydroelectricity production model to simulate future energy production for the reservoir. Results suggest increases in river flow for the majority of RCM data as a result of increases in precipitation in the headwaters of the basin around 2050 and slightly decreasing trends for low emission scenarios by the end of the century. Despite this consistent increase, shifts in timing of river flow can challenge the reliable production of energy. This analysis could help assess the planning of hydropower schemes in the basin for a sustainable production of hydroelectricity in the future.

Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Wisser, Dominik

2014-05-01

376

Observations of tropospheric trace gases and techniques for assessing the regional transport of air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Two techniques were used to assess regional transport of gaseous air pollutants. The first involved conducting airborne measurements of vertical profiles of the trace gases CO, O/sub 3/, and reactive nitrogen compounds near convective clouds, followed by analysis and interpretation with detailed meteorological data. The second technique involved applying spectral and cross spectral analyzes to surface-based time series of simultaneous trace gas concentrations and wind data. Airborne measurements were conducted near a line of deep convective clouds in south-central Oklahoma. Trace gas concentrations in the upper tropospheric outflow region of these clouds were near levels found in the surrounding environment. Meteorological analyses showed that these clouds were located above a cold front, which prevented the entry of air from the boundary layer directly below the cloud. These results suggest that the large amount of vertical trace gas transport noted in previous observations and model results cannot simply be extrapolated to all convective cells.

Pickering, K.E.

1987-01-01

377

Experimental observations of the transport of brine and dissolved gases in sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed knowledge of processes in sea ice is necessary to understand how sea ice behaviour both affects and is affected by our changing climate. As the extent of sea ice cover is modified due to anthropogenic climate change, it is important to understand how these variations will themselves contribute to feedback mechanisms in the climate system, particularly when considering the sources, sinks, and transport of CO2 and other climatically important gases. So that we can understand the effect that changing sea ice cover will have on the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and the oceans, we have to understand how gas transport occurs in sea ice. It is therefore necessary to understand the movement of the brines in which these gases are dissolved. The mechanisms of sea ice formation have been well described previously, however, the processes and mechanisms of transport of brine and fresher sea water through the ice are not yet completely understood. As ice freezes from sea water, it behaves as a mushy layer in which the salts present are expelled into pockets of increasingly saline brine. These pockets link together at certain critical values of brine volume fraction, temperature, and salinity to form channels by which the dense brine can sink into the underlying sea water, so driving convective transport from the ice layer into the sea. To analyse the influence of this convection on the transport of gases in ice, we will experimentally characterise convective patterns and instabilities in an ice-liquid two-layer system. We produce a quasi-2D ice-salt water interface within a Hele-Shaw cell by applying a gradient of temperature to a thin layer of saline water, cooling from the upper boundary. As the system cools, a freezing front develops, so forming a 2D model of the mushy layer. Here we will present the methodology and preliminary results of visualisation of this process using optical imaging techniques. Schlieren and synthetic Schlieren imaging allow gradients of densities to be mapped due to their different refractive indices, and we can therefore potentially observe the downward flow of denser brine and upward movement of fresher water as the freezing front progresses. From these experiments we can provide qualitative observations of the transport mechanisms, and also analyse the onset of convection within these brine channels.

Middleton, Ceri A.; Thomas, Carelle; Escala, Darío M.; De Wit, Anne; Tison, Jean-Louis

2014-05-01

378

Is the additional greenhouse effect already evident in the current climate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several greenhouse gases, which are in part or entirely produced by human activities, have accumulated in the atmosphere since approximately the middle of the 19th century. They are assumed to have an additional greenhouse effect causing a further increase of atmospheric temperatures near the ground and a decrease in the layers above approximately 15 km altitude. The currently observed near-surface

E. Raschke

2001-01-01

379

Spaceborne remote sensing of greenhouse gas concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their primary contribution to climate change, there are still large uncertainties on the sources and sinks of the main greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4) and nitrous oxide (N 2O). A better knowledge of these sources is necessary to understand the processes that control them and therefore to predict their variations. Indeed, large feedbacks between climate change and greenhouse gas fluxes are expected during the 21st century. Sources and sinks of these gases generate spatial and temporal gradients that can be measured either in situ or from space. One can then estimate the surface fluxes, either positive or negative, from concentration measurements through a so-called atmospheric inversion. Surface measurements are currently used to estimate the fluxes at continental scales. The high density of spaceborne observations allows potentially a much higher resolution. Several remote sensing techniques can be used to measure atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. These techniques have motivated the development of spaceborne instruments, some of them already in space and others under development. However, the accuracy of the current estimates is still not sufficient to improve our knowledge on the greenhouse gases sources and sinks. Rapid improvements are expected during the forthcoming years with a strong implication of the scientific community and the launch of dedicated instruments, optimized for the measurement of CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations.

Bréon, François-Marie; Ciais, Philippe

2010-04-01

380

[Short-term effects of fire disturbance on greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China].  

PubMed

By the methods of static chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the effects of fire disturbance on the seasonal dynamics and source/sink functions of CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland as well as their relations with environmental factors in Xiaoxing' an Mountains of China. In growth season, slight fire disturbance on the wetland induced an increase of air temperature and ground surface temperature by 1.8-3.9 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 6.3 cm; while heavy fire disturbance led to an increase of air temperature and 0-40 cm soil temperature by 1.4-3.8 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 33.9 cm. Under slight or no fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed by the wetland soil in spring but emitted in summer and autumn; under heavy fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed in spring and summer but emitted in autumn. The CO2 flux had a seasonal variation of summer > spring = autumn under no fire disturbance, but of summer > autumn > spring under fire disturbance; and the N2O flux varied in the order of spring > summer > autumn under no fire disturbance, but of autumn > spring > summer under slight fire disturbance, and of summer > spring = autumn under heavy fire disturbance. At unburned site, the CO2 flux was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and ground surface temperature; at slightly burned site, the CO2 flux had significant positive correlations with air temperature, 5-10 cm soil temperature, and water table; at heavily burned sites, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 flux and 5-40 cm soil temperature. Fire disturbance made the CH4 emission increased by 169.5% at lightly burned site or turned into weak CH4 sink at heavily burned site, and made the CO2 and N2O emissions and the global warming potential (GWP) at burned sites decreased by 21.2% -34.7%, 65.6% -95.8%, and 22.9% -36.6% respectively, compared with those at unburned site. Therefore, fire disturbance could decrease the greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland, and planned firing could be properly implemented in wetland management. PMID:21774304

Mu, Chang-cheng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Li-dong; Yu, Li-li; Gu, Han

2011-04-01

381

SAFT-? force field for the simulation of molecular fluids: 2. Coarse-grained models of greenhouse gases, refrigerants, and long alkanes.  

PubMed

In the first paper of this series [C. Avendaño, T. Lafitte, A. Galindo, C. S. Adjiman, G. Jackson, and E. A. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B2011, 115, 11154] we introduced the SAFT-? force field for molecular simulation of fluids. In our approach, a molecular-based equation of state (EoS) is used to obtain coarse-grained (CG) intermolecular potentials that can then be employed in molecular simulation over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions of the fluid. The macroscopic experimental data for the vapor-liquid equilibria (saturated liquid density and vapor pressure) of a given system are represented with the SAFT-VR Mie EoS and used to estimate effective intermolecular parameters that provide a good description of the thermodynamic properties by exploring a wide parameter space for models based on the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jones) potential. This methodology was first used to develop a simple single-segment CG Mie model of carbon dioxide (CO2) which allows for a reliable representation of the fluid-phase equilibria (for which the model was parametrized), as well as an accurate prediction of other properties such as the enthalpy of vaporization, interfacial tension, supercritical density, and second-derivative thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound). In our current paper, the methodology is further applied and extended to develop effective SAFT-? CG Mie force fields for some important greenhouse gases including carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), modeled as simple spherical molecules, and for long linear alkanes including n-decane (n-C10H22) and n-eicosane (n-C20H42), modeled as homonuclear chains of spherical Mie segments. We also apply the SAFT-? methodology to obtain a CG homonuclear two-segment Mie intermolecular potential for the more challenging polar and asymmetric compound 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf), a novel replacement refrigerant with promising properties. The description of the fluid-phase behavior and the prediction of the other thermophysical properties obtained by molecular simulation using our SAFT-? CG Mie force fields are found to be of comparable quality (and sometimes superior) to that obtained using the more sophisticated all-atom (AA) and united-atom (UA) models commonly employed in the field. We should emphasize that though the focus of our current work is on simple homonuclear models, the SAFT-? methodology is based on a group contribution methodology which is naturally suited to the development of more sophisticated heteronuclear models. PMID:23311931

Avendaño, Carlos; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S; Galindo, Amparo; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

2013-03-01

382

Assessment of a multi-species in situ FTIR for precise atmospheric greenhouse gas observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We thoroughly evaluate the performance of a multi-species, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyser with respect to high-accuracy needs for greenhouse gas monitoring networks. The in situ FTIR analyser is shown to measure CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O mole fractions continuously, all with better reproducibility than the inter-laboratory compatibility (ILC) goals, requested by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme. Simultaneously determined ?13CO2 reaches reproducibility as good as 0.03‰. Second-order dependencies between the measured components and the thermodynamic properties of the sample, (temperature, pressure and flow rate) and the cross sensitivities among the sample constituents are investigated and quantified. We describe an improved sample delivery and control system that minimises the pressure and flow rate variations, making post-processing corrections for those quantities non-essential. Temperature disequilibrium effects resulting from the evacuation of the sample cell are quantified and improved by the usage of a faster temperature sensor. The instrument has proven to be linear for all measured components in the ambient concentration range. The temporal stability of the instrument is characterised on different time scales. Instrument drifts on a weekly time scale are only observed for CH4 (0.04 nmol mol-1 day-1) and ?13CO2 (0.02‰ day-1). Based on 10 months of continuously collected quality control measures, the long-term reproducibility of the instrument is estimated to ±0.016 ?mol mol-1 CO2, ±0.03‰ ?13CO2, ±0.14 nmol mol-1 CH4, ±0.1 nmol mol-1 CO and ±0.04 nmol mol-1 N2O. We propose a calibration and quality control scheme with weekly calibrations of the instrument that is sufficient to reach WMO-GAW inter-laboratory compatibility goals.

Hammer, S.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Konrad, G.; Vardag, S.; Caldow, C.; Levin, I.

2013-05-01

383

The detection of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The greenhouse effect is accepted as an undisputed fact from both theoretical and observational considerations. In Earth's atmosphere, the primary greenhouse gas is water vapor. The specific concern today is that increasing concentrations of anthropogenically introduced greenhouse gases will, sooner or later, irreversibly alter the climate of Earth. Detecting climate change has been complicated by uncertainties in historical observations and measurements. Thus, the primary concern for the GEDEX project is how can climate change and enhanced greenhouse effects be unambiguously detected and quantified. Specifically examined are the areas of: Earth surface temperature; the free atmosphere (850 millibars and above); space-based measurements; measurement uncertainties; and modeling the observed temperature record.

Schiffer, Robert A.; Unninayar, Sushel

1991-01-01

384

CarbonSat Quantification of natural and man-made greenhouse gas surface fluxes from satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column amounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surprisingly and in spite of their exceptional driving role in climate change, our knowledge about the variable sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 is currently inadequate. For example, the ability of the Earth-atmosphere system to buffer increasing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere has large uncertainties and emissions from many sources (geo-logic, anthropogenic, biogenic) are to a

Heinrich Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. P. Burrows; J. Notholt; M. Reuter; T. Trautmann; G. Ehret; M. Heimann; P. Monks; Sch; R. Harding; S. Quegan; P. Rayner; F. M. Breon; P. Bergam-O Aschi; H. J. Dittus; J. Erzinger; D. Crisp

2010-01-01

385

The Warming Trend and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment produced by ThinkTV explains the greenhouse effect and its connection to the recent rise in Earth's average temperature. Scientists explore the role of human activity in the increase of greenhouse gases and the warming trend.

Thinktv

2010-11-30

386

Mapping Greenhouse Gas Emissions Where You Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, learners examine some of the of greenhouse gas emissions sources in their community. To investigate the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, learners use the Environmental Protection Agencyâs (EPA) Facility Level Information on GreenHouse gases Tool (FLIGHT). The FLIGHT Tool is a publicly accessible repository of data submitted to EPA by power plants, factories, refineries, and other U.S. facilities that emit large amounts of greenhouse gases.

Agency, United S.

2014-04-30

387

Greenhouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is dependent on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Errors in assumed atmospheric transport can adversely affect surface flux estimates inferred from surface, aircraft or satellite observations of greenhouse gas concentrations using inverse models. We present a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer (GHOST) for installation on the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to provide tropospheric column observations of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O and HDO over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely resolved measurements of key GHGs. These species cover a range of lifetimes and source processes, and measurements of their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of their vertical and horizontal transport within the troposphere. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) provide observations which can be used to test atmospheric transport models; 2) validate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans, thus filling a critical gap in current validation capabilities; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer tracer observations from other instrumentation on board the Global Hawk to provide a link between upper and lower troposphere concentration measurements. The GHOST spectrometer system comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM design utilises a gimbal behind an optical dome, which is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. The fibre slicer and feed system then splits the light into the four spectral bands using order sorting filters. The fibres corresponding to each band are arranged with a small sideways offset to correctly centre each spectrum on the detector array. The spectrograph design is unique in that a single grating and detector is used for all four spectral bands. The whole instrument is housed within a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat to ensure thermal stability. We summarise the GHOST project and its objectives, and will provide a detailed overview of the instrument concept, development, and proposed deployment on board the Global Hawk.

Humpage, Neil; Boesch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul; Parr-Burman, Phil; Vick, Andy; Bezawada, Naidu; Black, Martin; Born, Andy; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

2014-05-01

388

The rising greenhouse effect: experiments and observations in and around the Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid temperature increase of more than 1°C in central Europe over the last three decades is larger than expected from anthropogenic greenhouse warming. Surface radiation flux measurements in and around the Alps in fact confirm that not only thermal longwave radiation but also solar shortwave radiation increased since the 1980s. Surface energy budget analyses reveal the rising surface temperature to be well correlated with the radiative forcing, and also show an increase of the kinetic energy fluxes explaining the rise of atmospheric water vapor. Solar radiation mainly increased due to a strong decline of anthropogenic aerosols since mid of the 1980s. While anthropogenic aerosols were mainly accumulated in the boundary layer, this reduction let solar radiation to recover (solar brightening after several decades of solar dimming) mainly at low altitudes around the Alps. At high elevations in the Alps, solar forcing is much smaller and the respective temperature rise is also found to be smaller than in the lowlands. The fact that temperature increases less in the Alps than at low elevations is unexpected in the concept of greenhouse warming, but the radiation budget analyses clearly shows that in the plains solar forcing due to declining aerosols additionally increased surface temperature, whereas in the Alps temperature increased primarily due to greenhouse warming that is particularly manifested by a strong water vapor feedback.

Philipona, R.

2010-09-01

389

Observations of Reactive Gases in the Central Siberia in 2007-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a considerable shortage of direct observations of atmospheric trace gases in low-populated regions of Siberia. Since March, 2007 till now continuous measurements of O3, NOx, NO and NO2 concentrations have been performed at ZOTTO station in the middle of Krasnoyarsky Krai (60 N, 90 E) with 10 sec timing. Observations are completely automated and are part of scientific program on atmospheric chemistry measurements of ZOTTO Consortium headed by Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena. Variations of ozone concentration reveal vivid seasonal and daily features which have been analyzed and compared to other mid-latitude background stations as well as to data of TROICA train-based observations. These variations are likely to be typical for the Northern Eurasia boreal zone. Seasonal spring maximum (40-50 ppbv) is caused by stratospheric ozone intrusions that are only considerable ozone source. Smaller variations can be induced both by local factors and long-range transport of ozone precursors from pollution sources. The largest ozone formation rate has been observed in summer time from 9 a.m. till 3 p.m. of local time and made up 1-2 ppbv/hour. Such value points out on quite low photochemical activity and ambient air oxidizing ability. NOx concentration does not exceed 1 ppb that is typical for background areas but may vary by order and some more in few hours. Higher surface NOx(=NO+NO2) concentrations during day time generally correspond to higher ozone when NO/NO2 ratio indicates on clean or slightly polluted conditions. Analysis on base of Lagrangian model for evaluation of air parcel trajectories basing on NCEP final analysis meteorological fields and Russian Federation Hydrometeocenter reanalysis fields and residence time statistics has shown that most probable sources of man-made emissions influencing the Central Siberia air are located on south of Siberia (Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tomsk, Novosibirsk). These results have been verified by CO data provided Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, and agreement was very good. Data of TROICA-11, 12, 13 campaigns which occurred correspondingly in summer of 2007, 2008 and 2009 have been used to analyze pollution sources located along the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Measurements of volatile organic compounds by proton mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) in 2008 and 2009 have been also considered to assess concentrations of biogenic VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) for dark-coniferous forests zone. Some of man-made VOCs (aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde) were measured at ZOTTO in 2008 and in 2009 and are also presented in this study. The work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project # 08-05-13589).

Skorokhod, Andrey; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Pankratova, Natalia; Shumsky, Roman; Vivchar, Anastasia; Timkovsky, Joseph; Berezina, Elena

2010-05-01

390

An Ongoing Observational Study of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Boston Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and their relationship to atmospheric conditions in major cities are an important component of current efforts to understand the effects of urbanization on anthropogenic sources of GHGs. One-minute CO2 mixing ratio measurements in the city of Cambridge, MA have been determined from air samples collected from an intake mounted at on the roof of MIT's Green building (99.0 m) since July 3, 2012. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations are governed by a diurnal cycle with July hourly average mixing ratios ranging from a minimum of 390.22 ± 9.22 ppm at 4:00PM to a maximum of 412.89 ± 16.78 ppm at 6:00AM. Occasional plume events, with mixing ratios exceeding 500 ppm, are seen in preliminary records especially in the morning hours (6:00AM-12:00PM). Small CO2 detectors also have been deployed at other locations on MIT's campus to determine CO2 mixing ratios to within 30 ppm at different elevations. These detectors provide a cost effective way to determine the spatial extent of plume events. To assess overall levels of GHGs in the Boston area, corresponding CO and N2O concentrations, obtained with a continuous wave, quantum cascade tunable infrared laser absorption spectrometer are used to determine source signatures during plume events. The potential exists to establish a baseline diurnal signal in the CO and N2O records similar to that of CO2 in the ongoing measurements. Further analyses will look to determine the existence and extent of an urban GHG dome over the city of Boston. Some unique source signatures are identified on the basis of their characteristic N2O-CO-CO2 ratios; this information will be used to evaluate the location of significant anthropogenic sources of GHGs in conjunction with wind direction and traffic flow data. Preliminary N2O/CO2 ratios, averaged over six hour periods, fall between (7.31 ± 0.31)*10-4 in the morning (6:00AM-12:00PM) and (8.34 ± 0.13)*10-4 in the evening (6:00PM - 12:00AM) are slightly higher than Jimenez et al.'s mixed traffic ratio ((12.8±0.3)*10-5 ) and Farmulari et al.'s urban emission ratio ((2.5)*10-4) from Edinburgh, Scotland. In further analysis, CO/CO2 and N2O/CO ratios will also be considered. While diurnal cycles in GHG levels are largely attributed to changes in temperature and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, the geographical variation and significance of high frequency plume events will be evaluated in the context of the urban CO2 budget.

Merrifield, A.; Prinn, R. G.; Ono, S.

2012-12-01

391

Spatial variability of greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir flooding primary forest (Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Petit Saut Reservoir (PSR, French Guiana, South America), vertical profiles were performed at 5 stations in the open waters (OW) and 6 stations in two shallow flooded forest (FF) areas between April 2012 and September 2013. Measurements included physico-chemical parameters, ammonium, nitrate and dissolved greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) and nitrogen (PN), ?13C-POC and ?15N-PN . The diffusive fluxes were calculated from surface concentrations. The aim of this study was to estimate the spatial variations of greenhouse gas emissions at a dentrical hydroelectric reservoir located in the tropics and flooding primary forest. Twenty years after impoundment, the water column of the PSR is permanently and tightly stratified thermally in the FF whereas in the OW, the thermal gradients are not as stable. The different hydrodynamical behaviours between the two different zones have significant consequences on the biogeochemistry: oxygen barely diffuses down to the hypolimnion in the FF whereas destratification occurs sporadically during the rainy season in the OW. Although we found the same range of POC in the FF and the OW (2.5-29 ?mol L-1) and 20% more DOC at the bottom of OW than in the FF (229-878 ?mol L-1), CO2 and CH4 concentrations were always significantly higher in the FF (CO2: 11-1412 ?mol L-1, CH4: 0.001-1015 ?mol L-1) than in the OW. On average, the CO2 concentrations were 30-40% higher in the FF than in the OW and the CH4 concentrations were three times higher in the FF than in the OW. The ?13C-POC and C:N values did not suggest substantial differences in the sources of OM between the FF and OW. At all stations, POC at the bottom has an isotopic signature slightly lighter than the terrestrial OM in the surrounding forest whereas the isotopic signature of surface POM would result from phytoplankton and methanotrophs. The vertical profiles of nitrogen compounds reveal that the main source of nitrogen in the water column of the PSR is the NH4+ produced during the mineralisation of the OM at the bottom of the reservoir. In OW, the production of NO3- and N2O is enhanced compared to the FF. As a result, N2O concentrations are three times higher at the bottom of OW but surface concentrations are similar in the FF and OW. CO2 diffusive fluxes are 40% higher and CH4 diffusive fluxes are three times higher in FF (CO2: 42±20 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.7±1.4 mmol m-2 d-1) than in OW (CO2: 27±17 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.2±0.3 mmol m-2 d-1). In shallow FF, average CH4 ebullition is 3±10 mmol m-2 d-1 whereas ebullition was never observed in OW. N2O emissions did not exhibit any spatial variability (9±4 ?mol m-2 d-1). At the PSR, FF which represents one third of the surface area, is responsible of half of the GHG emissions from the reservoir. This implies that the emissions from most of the tropical reservoirs flooding primary forest need to be reassessed since FF environments are usually overlooked.

Cailleaud, Emilie; Guérin, Frédéric; Bouillon, Steven; Sarrazin, Max; Serça, Dominique

2014-05-01

392

Abundances of Cloud-Related Gases in the Venus Atmosphere as Inferred from Observed Radio Opacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various radio-analytical techniques have detected microwave opacity in the middle atmosphere of Venus, well above the main carbon dioxide opacity of the lower atmosphere. Consideration of the amount, distribution, and effects of the constituents which produce the main cloud layer at about 50 km altitude, indicate that such cloud-related gases, especially sulfuric acid vapor, are the predominant source of the

Paul Gregory Steffes

1982-01-01

393

Experimental observation of a traveling plasma grating formed by two crossing filaments in gases  

SciTech Connect

The spatial motion and effective duration of a traveling plasma grating formed by two interfering femtosecond laser filaments in gases is characterized by its Doppler effect imparted on a probe pulse. The shift velocity determined experimentally agrees with the theoretical calculations.

Durand, Magali [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); ONERA, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Liu Yi; Forestier, Benjamin; Houard, Aurelien; Mysyrowicz, Andre [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

2011-03-21

394

Trends in the solar quiet geomagnetic field variation linked to the Earth's magnetic field secular variation and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term trends in solar quiet geomagnetic field variation (Sq) are studied in connection to the Earth's magnetic field secular variations and increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Sq is mainly caused by ionospheric current systems that flow in the E region and depends, among other variables, on the ionospheric conductivities. These conductivities in turn depend on the Earth's main magnetic field (B)

Ana G. Elias; Marta Zossi de Artigas; Blas F. de Haro Barbas

2010-01-01

395

Comparison of the observed and calculated clear sky greenhouse effect - Implications for climate studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The clear sky greenhouse effect is defined in terms of the outgoing longwave clear sky flux at the top of the atmosphere. Recently, interest in the magnitude of the clear sky greenhouse effect has increased due to the archiving of the clear sky flux quantity through the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The present study investigates to what degree of accuracy this flux can be analyzed by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. The conclusion from this comparison is that for most regions over oceans the analyzed fluxes agree to within the accuracy of the ERBE-retrieved fluxes (+/- 5 W/sq m). However, in regions where deep convective activity occurs, the ERBE fluxes are significantly higher (10-15 W/sq m) than the calculated fluxes. This bias can arise from either cloud contamination problems or variability in water vapor amount. It is argued that the use of analyzed fluxes may provide a more consistent clear sky flux data set for general circulation modeling validation. Climate implications from the analyzed fluxes are explored. Finally, results for obtaining longwave surface fluxes over the oceans are presented.

Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

1992-01-01

396

Field Observations of the Processing of Organic Aerosol Particles and Trace Gases by Fogs and Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many environments, organic compounds account for a significant fraction of fine particle mass. Because the lifetimes of accumulation mode aerosol particles are governed largely by interactions with clouds, it is important to understand how organic aerosol particles are processed by clouds and fogs. Recently we have examined the organic composition of clouds and fogs in a variety of environments as well as how these fogs and clouds process organic aerosol particles and soluble organic trace gases. The investigations, conducted in Europe, North America, Central America, and the Pacific region, have included studies of polluted radiation fogs, orographic clouds in clean and polluted environments, and marine stratocumulus. Our results show that organic matter is a significant component of fog and cloud droplets. In polluted California radiation fogs, we observed concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) ranging from 2 to 40 ppmC, with significantly lower concentrations measured in marine and continental clouds. An average of approximately 80 percent of organic matter was found in solution, while the remainder appears to be suspended material inside cloud and fog drops. Ultrafiltration measurements indicate that as much as half of the dissolved organic carbon is present in very large molecules with molecular weights in excess of 500 Daltons. Field measurements made using a two-stage cloud water collector reveal that organic matter tends to be enriched in smaller cloud or fog droplets. Consequently, removal of organic compounds by precipitating clouds or by direct cloud/fog drop deposition will be slowed due to the fact that small drops are incorporated less efficiently into precipitation and removed less efficiently by sedimentation or inertial impaction. Despite this trend, we have observed that sedimentation of droplets from long-lived radiation fogs provides a very effective mechanism for cleansing the atmosphere of carbonaceous aerosol particles, with organic carbon removed more efficiently than elemental carbon. Efforts to characterize organic matter in clouds and fogs reveal that the most abundant species are typically low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes. These species have been observed collectively to account for roughly 20-30 percent of the total organic carbon in some fogs and clouds. Dicarboxylic acids, frequently used as model compounds for organic CCN, typically account for only about 1 percent of the organic carbon, with oxalic acid the most important contributor. Measurements by GC/MS, HPLC, and H-NMR reveal that many other organic compounds are present, including aerosol source markers and compound families frequently detected in aerosol particles including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These latter compounds were detected in both dissolved and undissolved forms in droplets, with dissolved concentrations often higher than their solubilities in pure aqueous solutions, suggesting a possible role of surface organic films. Although more than 100 organic species have been quantified in many samples, the majority of the organic carbon mass remains unspeciated. Given the importance of high molecular weight material, future efforts will focus in part on further characterization of these compounds, including possible contributions from humic like substances.

Collett, J. L.; Herckes, P.

2003-12-01

397

Estimation of greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from no-till cropland under increased temperature and altered precipitation regime: a DAYCENT model approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play an important role in regulating the Earth surface temperature. GHG emissions from soils are sensitive to climate change and land management practices. According to general circulation model (GCM) predictions, the Earth will experience a combination of increased temperature and altered precipitation regimes which may result in an increase or a decrease of GHG exchange. The effect of climate change on GHG emissions can be examined through both experiments and by applying process-based models, which have become more popular. The performance of those models can be improved significantly by appropriate calibration procedures. The objectives of this study are to: (i) calibrate the DAYCENT model using advance parameter estimation (PEST) software and to (ii) examine simulated GHG dynamics at daily and seasonal time-scales under a climate change scenario of increased temperature (2 °C) and a precipitation regime change where 40% of precipitation during the dry season was redistributed to the wet season. The algorithmic calibration improved the model performance by reducing the sum of weighted squared residual differences by up to 223% (decreased from 1635 to 505 g N2O-N ha- 1 d- 1) for N2O and 22% (decreased from 623 to 507% WFPS) for water filled pore space (WFPS) simulation results. In the altered climate scenario, total N2O and CO2 fluxes decreased by 9% (from 2.31 to 2.10 kg N2O-N ha- 1 yr- 1) and 38% (from 1134.08 to 699.56 kg CO2 ha- 1 yr- 1) respectively, whereas CH4 fluxes increased by 10% (from 1.62 to 1.80 kg CH4 ha- 1 yr- 1). Our results show a larger impact of altered climate on CO2 as compared to N2O and CH4 emissions. The main difference in all GHG emissions was observed in summer period due to drought conditions created by reduced precipitation and increased temperatures. However, the GHG dynamics can also be attributed to no-till practices which play an important role in changing the soil moisture conditions for aerobic and anaerobic microsites. These results are based on a process-based model, therefore, we suggest performing experimental studies to examine the GHG emissions under increased temperature and especially under altered precipitation regimes.

Rafique, Rashad; Kumar, Sandeep; Luo, Yiqi; Xu, Xianli; Li, Dejun; Zhang, Wei; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman

2014-07-01

398

Retrieval of vertical profiles of multiple trace gases from MAX-DOAS observations during the MADCAT Campaign in Mainz, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to promote the development of passive DOAS technique and solve some critical problems including e.g. accurate retrievals of trace gas slant column densities (SCD), profile retrievals of trace gases and aerosol, and the effects of cloud, the Multi Axis DOAS-Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) was held at the Max-Planck institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany from June to August 2013. Within this campaign, spectra of scattered sun light were taken by our two-dimensional scanning MAX-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) instrument and a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument from the Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this presentation, firstly we show the retrieved differential SCDs of O4, NO2, HCHO, HONO and CHOCHO based on the observations of the 2D-MAX-DOAS. Based on these dSCDs we acquired the vertical profiles of these trace gases and aerosol extinction using optimal estimation method. We compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MAX-DOAS with simultaneous observations from an AERONET instrument as well as the near surface volume mixing ratio (VMR) of NO2 from MAX-DOAS with those from a CE-DOAS instrument from the IUP Heidelberg group and found in general good agreement. In addition we apply a cloud classification scheme based on our MAX-DOAS observations to identify different kinds of weather during the MAD-CAT campaign.

Wang, Yang; Xie, Pinhua; Wagner, Thomas; Li, Ang; Luo, Yuhan; Remmers, Julia; Horbanski, Martin; Friess, Udo

2014-05-01

399

Assessment of a multi-species in-situ FTIR for precise atmospheric greenhouse gas observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We thoroughly evaluate the performance of a multi-species, in-situ FTIR analyser with respect to high accuracy needs for greenhouse gas monitoring networks. The in-situ FTIR analyser measures CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O mole fractions continuously, all with better reproducibility than requested by the WMO-GAW inter-laboratory compatibility (ILC) goal. Simultaneously determined ?13CO2 reaches reproducibility as good as 0.03‰. This paper focuses on the quantification of residual dependencies between the measured components and the thermodynamic properties of the sample as well as the cross-sensitivities among the sample constituents. The instrument has proven to be linear for all components in the ambient range. The temporal stability of the instrument was investigated by 10 months of continuously collected quality control measures. Based on these measures we conclude that for moderately stable laboratory conditions weekly calibrations of the instrument are sufficient to reach WMO-GAW ILC goals.

Hammer, S.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Konrad, G.; Vardag, S.; Caldow, C.; Levin, I.

2012-05-01

400

Aquifer disposal of CO 2 -rich greenhouse gases: Extension of the time scale of experiment for CO 2 -sequestering reactions by geochemical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In previous work,Gunter et al. (1993), suggested water-rock reactions in deep aquifers in sedimentary basins could sequester injected-CO2-waste from industry, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Experiments, carried out at 105°C and 90 bars CO2 pressure, to test the validity of this mineral-trapping of CO2 were unsuccessful due to sluggish kinetics of reaction. The most significant change recorded by the

W. D. Gunter; B. Wiwehar; E. H. Perkins

1997-01-01

401

Policy implications of greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

Contents: background; the greenhouse gases and their effects; policy framework; adaptation; mitigation; international considerations; findings and conclusions; recommendations; questions and answers about greenhouse warming; background information on synthesis panel members and professional staff; and membership lists for effects, mitigation, and adaptation panels.

Not Available

1991-01-01

402

What is the Greenhouse Effect?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of this activity, students will read and discuss information on the greenhouse effect and list important points about global warming. Tables are provided to show the most important greenhouse gases and how much their concentrations have increased since the pre-industrial era.

Rosenberg, David

403

Greenhouse effect of NO X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through various processes the nitrogen oxides (NOX) interact with trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere which do absorb in the spectral range relevant to the greenhouse\\u000a effect (infrared wavelengths). The net effect is an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The catalytic role of NOX in the production of tropospheric ozone provides the most prominent contribution. The global waming potential

Gerhard Lammel; Hartmut Grafll

1995-01-01

404

GreenHouse Gas Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GreenHouse Gas Online catalogues greenhouse gas related articles published in over 100 peer-reviewed journals from around the world. Only journal articles with freely available abstracts are included. The latest general news and journal articles can be found listed by title, while links to archived material is available by topic. Pages devoted to background information on the various greenhouse gases, current scientific understanding and the potential for control of emissions are also available.

2002-08-01

405

Space Place: Have a Greenhouse Gas Attack!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, players help rid Earth of excess greenhouse gases with the goal of getting atmospheric temperature to the "normal" range. A link is included which provides directions on making greenhouse gases out of gumdrops. The article/game is targeted to children ages 10-12.

406

A burning question. Can recent growth rate anomalies in the greenhouse gases be attributed to large-scale biomass burning events?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous in situ measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the principal gases linked to biomass burning at the Mace Head Observatory, Ireland, reveal a strong correlation in 1998–99 and 2002–03, both periods with intense global fires. CO2, carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), hydrogen (H2), ozone (O3) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl), all have similar rates of accumulation during these time frames.

P. G. Simmonds; A. J. Manning; R. G. Derwent; P. Ciais; M. Ramonet; V. Kazan; D. Ryall

2005-01-01

407

Influence of orography on variability of a non-CO2 greenhouse gases concentrations measured at Kasprowy Wierch station, Tatra, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kasprowy Wierch is a mountain peak in north-western Tatra mountain ridge, where meteorological station was settled in year 1936. As the station is situated in the convergence area of three large valleys it suffers from breeze wind and from frequent katabatic winds as well. Unfortunately vertical constituent of wind is not measured at the station. Prevailing wind direction pattern in this part of Europe is western circulation. However 75-years record consistently indicate south as the predominant direction of wind at Kasprowy Wierch. Two of the valleys coming toward this mountain peak are forcing the transport of air exactly from that direction. Since 1994 trace gas analysis is performed at the station. In year 1996 automated gas chromatograph was installed at the station and data are collected till nowadays. "In situ" concentrations of CH4, N2O and SF6 are measured every 16 minutes. Since 2010 also H2 and CO are observed at the station. Especially carbon monoxide concentration may be used as a proxy for determination of cases when local emission contaminates the air coming to the station. Usually location of the station in high mountain assures large distance from sources of the observed gases. Some tracers connected with human activity like carbon monoxide or sulphur hexafluoride may indicate proximity of anthropogenic sources of N2O and CH4, which might substantially change the composition of air surrounding the station. Valley breezes occur frequently in each mountain area. It has a large influence on air composition meas-ured at the mountain stations. It can be clearly noticed in CH4 and N2O records and at much smaller rate in SF6 concentration as well. Diurnal cycle of methane and nitrous oxide concentrations reflects substantial change of its value usually shortly after the sunrise. During the summer season a valley breeze transports to the station an air enriched in CH4 and N2O from the peat lands located along the foothill of Tatra mountains. Additionally ni-trous oxide is emitted from arable lands representing almost half of the terrain bordering with Tatra. In case of Kasprowy Wierch methane enhancement may reach even 150ppb usually in July and August. Average diurnal amplitude remains at 30ppb. Variations of nitrous oxide concentration remains is usually characterized by amplitude of 3ppb. Sulphur hexafluoride amplitude remains usually below 1.5ppt. In winter, mean diurnal amplitude of methane abundance recorded at Kasprowy Wierch decrease to 10ppb as most of the terrain including peat lands is shielded by a deep snow cover. N2O reproduces also decreased variations in opposition to SF6 which tend to represent much stronger fluctuation with impaired diurnal frequency. Global circulation models doesn't take to account valley breeze wind. This is one of the reasons why model results of trace gas concentration for mountainous sites are incoherent with measurements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Frame-work Programs (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 244122 (GHG-Europe) and n° 284274 (InGOS).

Necki, J.; Chmura, L.; Zimnoch, M.

2012-04-01

408

Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

2011-03-01

409

The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

410

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document, provided by the US Energy Information Agency, summarizes emission data reported for 1995 as part of the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. Global warming is caused by increasing quantities of greenhouse gases being emitted into the atmosphere. Such gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and toxic pollutants. Estimates of temperature increase range from 2-6.5 degrees Fahrenheit in the next 100 years.

1997-01-01

411

Observation and modelling of dissolved gases as indicators for mass transfer during gas sparging in a contaminated aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of organic contaminants in aquifers is often limited by the availability of electron acceptors, and the attenuation of contaminants could be enhanced by additional supply of oxygen. Gas sparging is a remediation technique that supplies additional oxygen to ground water via injection of air or oxygen gas. For the performance of this method the mass transfer of gases from the gas phase trapped after injection is a key process. Our study investigated kinetic gas-water mass transfer between trapped gas phase in porous media and groundwater by spatially and temporally resolved dissolved gas measurements in an unconfined model aquifer. The aquifer model was built on-site as a 12 m tall underground tank filled with aquifer material and recharged in vertical direction by the local, contaminated groundwater. For the injection of short gas pulses, oxygen and air as injected gas phase were studied in view of interfacial mass transfer, gas transport in the aqueous phase, and accumulation of trapped gas in the porous space. At several locations dissolved nitrogen, methane and oxygen were observed at different stages of gas dissolution. Kinetic gas-water mass transfer in presence of oxygen demanding reactions in the polluted aquifer material and the transport of dissolved gases were simulated numerically for heterogeneous distribution of gas phase as was observed. Partitioning of nitrogen played an important role in the accumulation of trapped gas and contributes additional information on gas transfer processes. While injection of pure oxygen resulted in complete dissolution of trapped gas within a few meters, nitrogen and methane showed distinct patterns of mass transfer into the gas phase and back into aqueous phase. Naturally occurring gases such as methane or nitrogen were demonstrated to be valuable tracers to describe multiple compound gas-water mass transfer and to assist in predicting gas dissolution and oxygen consumption in porous media.

Oswald, S.; Balcke, G.

2009-04-01

412

Greenhouse gas induced climate change.  

PubMed

Simulations using global coupled climate models predict a climate change due to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. Both are associated with the burning of fossil fuels. There has been considerable debate if this postulated human influence is already evident. This paper gives an overview on some recent material on this question. One particular study using optimal fingerprints (Hegerl et al., 1996) is explained in more detail. In this study, an optimal fingerprint analysis is applied to temperature trend patterns over several decades. The results show the probability being less than 5% that the most recently observed 30 year trend is due to naturally occurring climate fluctuations. This result suggests that the present warming is caused by some external influence on climate, e.g. by the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols. More work is needed to address the uncertainties in the magnitude of naturally occurring climate fluctuations. Also, other external influences on climate need to be investigated to uniquely attribute the present climate change to the human influence. PMID:24234957

Hegerl, G C; Cubasch, U

1996-06-01

413

Model Greenhouses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the advantages and disadvantages of the greenhouse effect. They construct their own miniature greenhouses and explore how their designs take advantage of heat transfer processes to create controlled environments. They record and graph measurements, comparing the greenhouse indoor and outdoor temperatures over time. Students are also introduced to global issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and their relationship to global warming.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

414

First Results of Atmospheric Trace Gases in and around New Delhi using mobile MAX-DOAS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Megacities are localized, heterogeneous and variable sources of air pollutants, greatly influence air quality and have direct influence on climate. Within the European project MEGAPOLI, in month of April 2010, we carried out mobile MAX-DOAS measurements in and around Delhi and made comparison with satellite data. The MAX-DOAS was mounted on a car. The aim of the project was to characterize and quantify pollutants. The mobile observations were conducted in and around New Delhi along circles of different radii. The analysis of MAX-DOAS, satellite observations and meteorological data, is used to quantify the total emissions of trace gases like NO2, HCHO or Glyoxal. The results obtained from the detailed analysis are first time compared with the satellite data. The ground and satellite d