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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Observation of greenhouse gases from ground-based telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term observation of greenhouse gases is very important to understand temporal variations of greenhouse gases. This January, Japanese satellite, GOSAT (greenhouse gases observing satellite) was launched and its operational observation has started. For supporting satellite observations, validation data such as obtained by ground-based observations are very important. However, there is no observation site in South America. In this study, I

Y. Hayashi; R. Imasu; T. Miyata

2009-01-01

2

Greenhouse Gases Observation from the GOSAT Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a satellite to monitor the carbon dioxide (CO2) and the methane (CH4) globally from orbit. The two instruments are accommodated on GOSAT. The Greenhouse gases Observing Sensor is a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS), which detects gas absorption spectra of the solar short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth_fs surface as well as of the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. The FTS is capable of detecting three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 micron) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 micron) with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution. The cloud and aerosol sensor is an imager of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. The presentation includes the instrument design, pre-launch calibration and onboard calibration schemes; as well as, some test results using the Bread Board Model (BBM).

Kuze, A.; Kondo, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Hamazaki, T.

2005-12-01

3

Monitoring greenhouse gases with astronomical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern telescopes are equipped with high-precision multi-mode spectrographs. To obtain proper calibration, astronomers observe the plain night sky and specific telluric standard stars (TS stars) to estimate the influence of the Earth atmosphere on astronomical observations. TS stars are usually white dwarfs, as their spectra are not time dependent and hardly contain any spectral features. Since the atmospheric emission in the thermal infrared and the absorption of stellar radiation reflect molecular abundances in the lower atmosphere, plain night sky and TS spectra can be used to obtain column densities of greenhouse gases. We present a method for determining this, incorporating the radiative transfer code LBLRTM and the HITRAN database. We fit specific molecular absorption and emission features by varying the corresponding abundance profiles iteratively implementing a Levenberg-Marquardt ?2 minimisation algorithm. This method was originally developed to estimate the amount of precipitable water vapour, which strongly influences infrared observations, above the observing site of the ESO Very Large Telescope, Cerro Paranal. We are currently in the process of extending this procedure to other greenhouse gases. As plain sky and TS stars are observed several times per night these spectra can be used to monitor molecular column densities on a long term basis.

Kausch, W.; Noll, S.; Barden, M.; Smette, A.; Szyszka, C.; Jones, A.; Kimeswenger, S.; Sana, H.; Horst, H.

2012-04-01

4

Monitoring greenhouse gases with astronomical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern telescopes are equipped with high-precision multi-mode spectrographs. To obtain proper calibration, astronomers observe the plain night sky and specific telluric standard stars (TS stars) to estimate the influence of the Earth atmosphere on astronomical observations. TS stars are usually white dwarfs, as their spectra are not time dependent and hardly contain any spectral features. Since the atmospheric emission in the thermal infrared and the absorption of stellar radiation reflect molecular abundances in the lower atmosphere, plain night sky and TS spectra can be used to obtain column densities of greenhouse gases. We present a method for determining this, incorporating the radiative transfer code LBLRTM and the HITRAN database. We fit specific molecular absorption and emission features by varying the corresponding abundance profiles iteratively implementing a Levenberg-Marquardt ?^2 minimisation algorithm. This method was originally developed to estimate the amount of precipitable water vapour, which strongly influences infrared observations, above the observing site of the ESO Very Large Telescope, Cerro Paranal. We are currently in the process of extending this procedure to other greenhouse gases. As plain sky and TS stars are observed several times per night these spectra can be used to monitor molecular column densities on a long term basis.

Kausch, W.; Noll, S.; Barden, M.; Smette, A.; Szyszka, C.; Jones, A. M.; Kimeswenger, S.; Sana, H.; Horst, H.

2012-04-01

5

Greenhouse Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the Earth would be ... regulated independently of its warming effects. More about greenhouse gases’ effect on the climate » Also on Energy Explained Energy ...

6

On surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols: models and observations  

SciTech Connect

The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight by sulphate aerosols is represented by appropriately enhancing the surface albedo. On doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, the global mean temperature increases by 5.2 K. An integration with a 39% increase in CO{sub 2}, giving the estimated change in radiative heating due to increases in greenhouse gases since 1900, produced an equilibrium warming of 2.3 K, which, even allowing for oceanic inertia, is significantly higher than the observed warming over the same period. Furthermore, the simulation suggests a substantial warming everywhere, whereas the observations indicate isolated regions of cooling, including parts of the northern midlatitude continents. The addition of an estimate of the effect of scattering by current industrial aerosols (uncertain by a factor of at least 3) leads to improved agreement with the observed pattern of changes over the northern continents and reduces the global mean warming by about 30%. Doubling the aerosol forcing produces patterns that are still compatible with the observations, but further increase leads to unrealistically extensive cooling in the midlatitudes. The diurnal range of surface temperature decreases over most of the northern extratropics on increasing CO{sub 2}, in agreement with recent observations. The addition of the current industrial aerosol had little detectable effect on the diurnal range in the model because the direct effect of reduced solar heating at the surface is approximately balanced by the indirect effects of cooling. Thus, the ratio of the reduction in diurnal range to the mean warming is increased, in closer agreement with observations. Results from further sensitivity experiments with larger increases in aerosol and CO{sub 2} are presented.

Mitchell, J.F.B.; Davis, R.A.; Ingram, W.J.; Senior, C.A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

1995-10-01

7

Regulating Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video highlights the work of climate scientists in the Amazon who research the relationship between deforestation, construction of new dams, and increased amounts of greenhouse gases being exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

Kqed; Domain, Teachers'

8

Relationship between Greenhouse Gases and Global Temperature: Atmospheric Observations vs the Ice Proxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes of atmospheric composition during the 20th century involve an increase of greenhouse gases. Their interpretation rests on proxy evidence of previous atmospheric composition, principally from ice cores. The proxy record of atmospheric properties is dictated by two contributions: (i) the signature of those properties imprinted initially at the surface layer and (ii) nonconservative influences, largely undocumented, which have subsequently modified that signature. The relationship between properties, which must likewise be imprinted initially at the surface layer, is used to assess these contributions. The proxy record is found to obey a clear two-pronged relationship between composition and temperature. A counterpart relationship is then found in the modern record of atmospheric observations. The relationship in the observed record differs fundamentally from the one in the proxy record. Supporting analysis then shows that the two relationships are connected. Their connection reveals a common physical mechanism behind recorded changes of greenhouse gases, as well as the roles of contributions (i) and (ii) to the ice proxy of atmospheric composition. In light of these features, observed changes of greenhouse gases during the 20th century may not be unprecedented, indeed, comparatively small.

Salby, Murry; Titova, Evgenia

2013-04-01

9

Retrieval of CFC concentrations from thermal infrared spectrum observed by Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical substances emitted by the anthropological activities cause serious environmental problems. Among them, CFCs have been depleting ozone layer in the stratosphere. Also, it is reported that their radiative forcing is 0.268 W/m2 and they could largely account for global warming. To mitigate these problems, it is important to estimate their distribution and amount globally with good accuracy. Though on site measurements provide considerably precise data, the observation sites are quite limited. In contrast, results retrieved from data obtained by remote sensing may contain more errors, but its wide spatial coverage is great advantage to monitor atmosphere globally and continuously for long term. The purpose of this study is to retrieve concentrations of CFC-11 and CFC-12, and replacements for CFCs from thermal infrared spectrum data obtained by Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT). We use spectrum data taken from its main sensor, Fourier transform spectrometer TANSO-FTS, particularly its band 4 (5.5 - 14.3?m). The sub-sensor called TANSO-CAI is used for cloud screening. To calculate simulated spectrum using a radiative transfer model, LBLRTM, the meteorological reanalysis data including atmospheric information at each point such as surface temperature and atmospheric composition are prepared. As the first step, we focus on CFC-11 and CFC-12 which have strong absorption band near 850 cm-1 and 920 cm-1 respectably. For retrieving the gases, the baselines of the observed and calculated spectrum need to be matched. However, it is not always true due to the uncertainty of information in the reanalysis data. To match baselines, we first set the constant emissivity and estimate the surface temperature. Even after the procedure, spectral residue still remained particularly on the peaks of water vapor absorption lines. We will retrieve more precise surface temperature and the amount of water vapor from observed each spectrum so that we could get better a priori for gas retrieval. We will also discuss how accurately CFC-11 and CFC-12 can be retrieved by GOSAT data.

Inagoya, A.; Imasu, R.; Hayashi, Y.

2011-12-01

10

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization is the only existing long-term international global programme providing a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to greenhouse gases and climate change. The WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), integrates the observations from different platforms (surface-based, aircraft and satellite). Surface observations are made at about 180 stations for CO2. The latest analysis shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2008 with CO2 at 385.2 ppm, CH4 at 1797 ppb and N2O at 321.8 ppb: higher than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 38%, 157% and 19%, respectively. Atmospheric growth rates of CO2 and N2O in 2008 are consistent with recent years. The increase in atmospheric CH4 was 7 ppb from 2007 to 2008, similar to the increase of the year before. These are the largest increases since 1998. From the existing data it is not clear if this 14 ppb increase over two years represents the beginning of a new upward trend in CH4. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2008 the radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases has increased by 26.2%. The combined radiative forcing by halocarbons is nearly double that of N2O. Some halocarbons are decreasing slowly as a result of emission reductions under the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, whereas others are increasing rapidly. GAW is supporting the atmospheric component of the Integrated Global Carbon Observation System that assesses routinely the state of the global carbon budget and is aimed at better understanding atmospheric carbon sources and sinks through top-down inverse modelling.

Tarasova, Oksana A.; Braathen, Geir O.; Barrie, Leonard A.; Suda, Kazuto; Dlugokencky, Ed

2010-05-01

11

How Greenhouse Gases Absorb Heat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners observe two model atmospheres -- one with normal atmospheric composition and another with an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide. These two model atmospheres are exposed to light energy from a sunny window or from a lamp. This activity will help learners understand that greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb and hold heat, relating to global warming and climate change.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

12

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest analysis of data from the WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), shows that the globally averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have reached new highs in 2007 with CO2 at 383.1 ppm, CH4 at 1789 ppb and N2O at 320.9 ppb. These values are higher than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 37%, 156% and 19%, respectively. Atmospheric growth rates in 2007 of CO2 and N2O are consistent with recent years. The mixing ratio of CH4 shows the largest increase since 1998. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) shows that from 1990 to 2007 the atmospheric radiative forcing by all long-lived greenhouse gases has increased by 24.2%. The combined radiative forcing by the most abundant ozone depleting substances, CFC-11 and CFC-12, exceeds that of N2O. They are decreasing very slowly as a result of emission reductions under the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer.

Braathen, G. O.; Barrie, L. A.; Butler, J. H.; Dlugokencky, E.; Hofmann, D. J.; Tans, P.; Tsutsumi, Y.

2009-04-01

13

Global CO2 distributions over land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

January 2009 saw the successful launch of the first space-based mission specifically designed for measuring greenhouse gases, the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). We present global land maps (Level 3 data) of column-averaged CO2 concentrations (XCO2) derived using observations from the GOSAT ACOS retrieval algorithm, for July through December 2009. The applied geostatistical mapping approach makes it possible to generate maps at high spatial and temporal resolutions that include uncertainty measures and that are derived directly from the Level 2 observations, without invoking an atmospheric transport model or estimates of CO2 uptake and emissions. As such, they are particularly well suited for comparison studies. Results show that the Level 3 maps for July to December 2009 on a 1° × 1.25° grid, at six-day resolution capture much of the synoptic scale and regional variability of XCO2, in addition to its overall seasonality. The uncertainty estimates, which reflect local data coverage, XCO2 variability, and retrieval errors, indicate that the Southern latitudes are relatively well-constrained, while the Sahara Desert and the high Northern latitudes are weakly-constrained. A probabilistic comparison to the PCTM/GEOS-5/CASA-GFED model reveals that the most statistically significant discrepancies occur in South America in July and August, and central Asia in September to December. While still preliminary, these results illustrate the usefulness of a high spatiotemporal resolution, data-driven Level 3 data product for direct interpretation and comparison of satellite observations of highly dynamic parameters such as atmospheric CO2.

Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; O'Dell, Christopher; Kawa, S. Randolph

2012-04-01

14

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

EIA Publications

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program established a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., can report to the EIA, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

Information Center

2011-02-01

15

Greenhouse gases observation from space -initial operation and calibration results of TANSO on GOSAT- (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center and placed in a 666 km sun-synchronous orbit of 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. There are two instruments: the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects gas absorption spectra of Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2?m) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 ?m) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to detect cloud and aerosol interference. TANSO-FTS and CAI acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The presentation includes instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan, onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances. The data processing on the ground is also presented.

Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Nakajima, M.

2009-12-01

16

Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents4.1 Earth Observing System (EOS) program objectives 1674.2 Introduction 1684.2.1 Science questions 1684.2.1.1 How does changing land\\/land use affect fluxes of greenhouse gases such asCO 2 , methane, and nitrous oxide? How does it affect O 3 precursors fromsoil (e.g., NO), plant (e.g., biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons), emissions,and biomass-burning plumes? 1684.2.1.2 How does interannual variability in climate affect interannual variability inbiogeochemistry?

D. Schimel; D. Glover; J. Melack; R. Beer; R. Myneni

17

GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

18

Different Fuels and Greenhouse gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Peter Hall (a senior scientist in the field of bioenergy research at Crown Research Institute Scion) describes how different products (e.g. coal, wood) produce differing amounts of greenhouse gases.

Waikato, The U.; Hub, Science L.

19

Using observations of atmospheric greenhouse gases at Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) to validate regional bottom-up emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-altitude Jungfraujoch observatory in Switzerland is equipped with instruments to continuously measure a nearly complete set of climatically relevant trace gases. Using these observations we derive qualitative and quantitative emission estimates for the area influencing the measurements at the station, which includes Switzerland and the bordering countries. Our emission estimates are based on inverse modeling and on tracer ratio

M. K. Vollmer; S. Reimann; S. Henne; D. Brunner; M. Steinbacher; B. Buchmann

2008-01-01

20

IMG: Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The instrumentation for, data processing and analysis of, and expected results of the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Effect Gases (IMG) such as CO2, CH4, N2O, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) to be carried onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satelli...

R. Imasu T. Ogawa H. Shimoda H. Kobayashi

1993-01-01

21

Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

22

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Archive  

EIA Publications

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program established a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., can report to the EIA, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

Joe Ayoub

23

Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical process industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 highlighted the importance of greenhouse gas emissions. The metallurgical process industry\\u000a is a contributor to these emissions and would be seriously affected by measures curtailing them. The present lecture offers\\u000a a brief review of the greenhouse effect, the sources of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming,\\u000a the response of

Claude H. P. Lupis; C. H. P

1999-01-01

24

Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 2414.1 Introduction 2434.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 2484.3 Projections of Future Emissions 2664.4 Projections of Atmospheric Composition for the 21st Century 2674.5 Open Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric Chemistry Change 279

Ehhalt, D.; Prather, M.; Dentener, F.; Derwent, R.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Holland, E.; Isaksen, I.; Katima, J.; Kirchhoff, V.; Matson, P.; Midgley, P.; Wang, M.; Berntsen, T.; Bey, I.; Brasseur, G.; Buja, L.; Collins, W. J.; Daniel, J. S.; DeMore, W. B.; Derek, N.; Dickerson, R.; Etheridge, D.; Feichter, J.; Fraser, P.; Friedl, R.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Gauss, M.; Grenfell, L.; Grubler, Arnulf; Harris, N.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Jackman, C.; Jacob, D.; Jaegle, L.; Jain, Atul K.; Kanakidou, M.; Karlsdottir, S.; Ko, M.; Kurylo, M.; Lawrence, M.; Logan, J. A.; Manning, M.; Mauzerall, D.; McConnell, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Montzka, S.; Muller, J. F.; Olivier, J.; Pickering, K.; Pitari, G.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rogers, H.; Rognerud, B.; Smith, Steven J.; Solomon, S.; Staehelin, J.; Steele, P.; Stevenson, D. S.; Sundet, J.; Thompson, A.; van Weele, M.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Wang, Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wigley, T. M.; Wild, O.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Yantosca, R.; Joos, Fortunat; McFarland, M.

2001-10-01

25

Remote sensing of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using hyperspectral observations in the thermal infrared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Densely sampling the atmosphere in time and space, satellite measurements of the distribution of global atmospheric CO2 concentration could in principle provide a way to constrain atmo-spheric inversions of CO2 surface fluxes. Until the recent launch of the first dedicated CO2 observing instrument JAXA/GOSAT in January 2009, information on CO2 and other green-house gas atmospheric distribution have been obtained for several years from thermal infrared sounders, such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) launched onboard the NASA/Aqua satellite in May 2002 or the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched on-board the European MetOp platform in October 2006. We use coupled observations in the thermal infrared from IASI, and in the microwave from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), also launched onboard MetOp, to retrieve mid-to-upper tropospheric contents of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in clear-sky conditions, in the tropics. Thermal observations, sensitive to both temperature and either CO2 or CH4, are used in conjunction with microwave observations, only sensitive to temperature, to decorrelate both signals through a non-linear inference scheme based on neural networks. A key point of this approach is that no use is made of prior information in terms of gas seasonality, trend, or geographical patterns. The precision of the IASI retrieval is estimated to be about 2 ppmv (less than 1 Features of the retrieved CO2-CH4 space-time distributions include: (1) a CO2 trend of 2.1 ppmv.yr-1 in average, and a CH4 trend of 10 ppbv.yr-1 in the last couple of years, which confirms the recent increase of methane detected at surface stations; (2) a strong seasonal cycle in the northern tropics, and a lower seasonal cycle in the southern tropics, in agreement with in-situ measurements; in particular, comparison between AIRS and IASI retrievals highlights the time-lag of CO2 cycle while transported from the surface to the upper troposphere; (3) a latitudinal decrease from 20 N to 20 S lower than what is observed at the surface but in excellent agreement with tropospheric aircraft measurements; (4) geographical patterns in good agree-ment with simulations from atmospheric transport and chemistry models, but with a higher variability; (5) signatures of CO2 and CH4 emissions transported to the troposphere such as CO2 emissions from biomass burnings, or a large plume of elevated tropospheric methane south of the Asian continent, which might be due to Asian emissions from rice paddies uplifted by deep convection during the monsoon period and then transported towards Indonesia. More-over, these retrievals, performed from the same instrument and with the same retrieval process, provide the means to study the correlation between CO2 and CH4, in particular its seasonal variation over regions of specific interest, which leads the way to a multi-species study of surface fluxes and atmospheric transport. In addition to bringing a greatly improved view of CO2 and CH4 atmospheric distribution, these results from thermal infrared observations should provide a means to observe and understand atmospheric transport pathways of these two greenhouse gases from the surface to the upper troposphere.

Crevoisier, Cyril; Chedin, Alain; Nobileau, Delphine; Armante, Raymond; Thonat, Thibaud; Scott, Noelle A.

26

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01

27

Use of Offsets to Reduce Greenhouse Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discussions about reducing greenhouse gases often focus on limiting the use of fossil fuels to generate electricity or power cars and trucks, yet a variety of other actionsincluding disposing of waste in different ways, changing methods of farming, and le...

2009-01-01

28

Greenhouse gases from animal husbandry: mitigation options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abatement strategies for direct emissions of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry are discussed. The reduction options are\\u000a divided into preventive and `end of pipe' options. Preventive measures reduce either the carbon and nitrogen input into the\\u000a system of animal husbandry or their output from the system, respectively. `End of pipe' measures reduce the formation of greenhouse\\u000a gases from carbon and

Joachim Clemens; Heinz-Jürgen Ahlgrimm

2001-01-01

29

Non-C02 greenhouse gases; all gases count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Kyoto Protocol, a group of countries commit themselves to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to some 5% below the 1990 level. Countries can decide to spread their reduction commitment over several gases to lower compliance costs. Employing a multi-gas strategy can offer considerable efficiency gains because of the widely diverging marginal abatement cost for the different emission

Willemien Kets; Gerard Verweij

2005-01-01

30

Comparing the emissions of different greenhouse gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The emission of non-CO(sub 2) greenhouse gases should be included in evaluating strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For developing such strategies a distinction can be made between two extreme approaches: the limitation of the emissions of each...

J. R. Ybema

1990-01-01

31

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. A total of 228 U.S. companies and other o...

2004-01-01

32

NRC symposium explores links between greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

Two important climatic issues stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increase and the apparent connection between them led to the holding in March 1988 of a Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change. This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere.

Not Available

1989-04-01

33

IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Michelson interferometer is under development as a payload of the ADEOS satellite. It will measure the spectra of terrestrial thermal infrared radiation with a nadir view in 700-3,000 cm-1 wavenumber region with an apodized resolution of 0.1 cm-1. Using those measured spectra, we will retrieve the altitude profiles of atmospheric temperature and the concentrations of greenhouse gases such as H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, CO and O3. Our final goal is to observe horizontal structure in greenhouse gas concentrations and to infer the global distribution of the emission sources of greenhouse gases.

Ogawa, T.; Shimoda, H.; Hayashi, M.; Imasu, R.; Ono, A.; Nishinomiya, S.; Kobayashi, H.

1994-01-01

34

Atmospheric carbon dioxide retrieved from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT): Comparison with ground-based TCCON observations and GEOS-Chem model calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) from backscattered short-wave infrared (SWIR) sunlight measured by the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Over two years of XCO2 retrieved from GOSAT is compared with XCO2 inferred from collocated SWIR measurements by seven ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) stations. The average difference between GOSAT and TCCON XCO2 for individual TCCON sites ranges from -0.87 ppm to 0.77 ppm with a mean value of 0.1 ppm and standard deviation of 0.56 ppm. We find an average bias between all GOSAT and TCCON XCO2 retrievals of -0.20 ppm with a standard deviation of 2.26 ppm and a correlation coefficient of 0.75. One year of XCO2 was retrieved from GOSAT globally, which was compared to global 3-D GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model calculations. We find that the latitudinal gradient, seasonal cycles, and spatial variability of GOSAT and GEOS-Chem agree well in general with a correlation coefficient of 0.61. Regional differences between GEOS-Chem model calculations and GOSAT observations are typically less than 1 ppm except for the Sahara and central Asia where a mean difference between 2 to 3 ppm is observed, indicating regional biases in the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals unobserved by the current TCCON network. Using a bias correction scheme based on linear regression these regional biases are significantly reduced, approaching the required accuracy for surface flux inversions.

Cogan, A. J.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R. J.; Feng, L.; Palmer, P. I.; Blavier, J.-F. L.; Deutscher, N. M.; Macatangay, R.; Notholt, J.; Roehl, C.; Warneke, T.; Wunch, D.

2012-11-01

35

Long term observations of halogenated greenhouse gases in a European continental background station for assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and emission sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate altering halocarbons are continuously monitored at the atmospheric research station "O. Vittori" located on the top of Monte Cimone, Northern Apennines, Italy ( 2165 m asl), in the frame of the SOGE (System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe) network, an integrated system based on a combination of observations and models aimed at assessing atmospheric trends, annual growth rates and at estimating European halocarbon emissions. The use of such a top-down approach is useful to ascertain compliance to International Protocols regulating production/emission of halogenated greenhouse gases. Establishing the baseline is essential both for estimating annual growth rates and because back attribution techniques are based on the clear identification of "above the background" data. That is particularly challenging in a Station like Monte Cimone characterised by a complex meteorological and source field. The approach proposed is based on the identification of the lowest concentration values in a given temporal range to which a ?c representing variation due to instrumental error is added. Trends are evaluated by using a non-linear regression function, able to take into account both annual and seasonal variation. In order to identify source, regions baseline data are subtracted from the full data set and an inversion modelling cascade, which makes use of MM5 model to reproduce meteorological fields and of FLEXPART to simulate tracer dispersion, is used to find the best emissions map that fits the observations.

Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Uguccioni, F.; Giostra, U.; Furlani, F.; Belfiore, L.; Cava, D.

2009-04-01

36

Are recent Arctic ozone losses caused by increasing greenhouse gases?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

has been suggested that the Arctic ozone losses observed in recent years might be a manifestation of climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases. We here offer evidence to the contrary, by focusing on the volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC), a convenient proxy for polar ozone loss whose simplicity allows for easily reproducible results. First, we analyze the time series of VPSC in three reanalysis data sets and find no statistically significant trends in VPSC-nor changes in their probability density functions-over the period 1979-2011. Second, we analyze VPSC in a stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate model forced uniquely with increasing greenhouse gases following the A1B scenario: here too, we find no significant changes in VPSC over the entire 21st century. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the sporadic high ozone losses in recent years have not been caused by increasing greenhouse gases.

Rieder, Harald E.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

2013-08-01

37

Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Venterea, Rodney [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Soil and Water

2012-01-01

38

Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with...

J. S. Levine

2004-01-01

39

(Greenhouse gases and national energy options)  

SciTech Connect

Dr. L. D. Hamilton and Mr. G. A. Goldstein attended the 1st Workshop International Energy Agency (IEA), Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) Annex IV, Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, Energy Study Center, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten, The Netherlands, April 9--11, 1990. As global interest in evaluating the impacts of policies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases at national and international levels increases, the IEA ETSAP group could be in a good position to make a direct contribution. The group, applying the MARKAL energy/environment linear program as its primary modeling tool, was a forum for international collaboration on energy issues for over a decade. The purpose of this trip was to reassert US DOE interest in the activities of ETSAP Annex IV; obtain knowledge as to the current status of various national efforts; demonstrate the PC version of the US energy system the Market Allocation (MARKAL) model, together with the Brookhaven developed MARKAL Users Support System (MUSS), as a tool to improve greatly MARKAL usability for upcoming analysis and by non-IEA countries, especially developing countries; and participate in establishing a Work Plan for Annex IV.

Hamilton, L.D.

1990-04-18

40

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01

41

BIOMASS BURNING AND THE PRODUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which

Joel S. Levine

42

Critical UN Conference on Greenhouse Gases Begins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday at the Hague, delegates from over 160 nations began meeting to try to hammer out details of the 1997 Kyoto agreement which mandated that nations reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to pre-1990 levels by the year 2012. This sixth session of the UN's Framework Convention on Climate Change will have to overcome significant obstacles if delegates are to emerge with an agreement within the conference's scheduled two weeks. To begin with, there is disagreement between the European Union and the United States on the use of "clean development mechanisms" (CDMs), which give states a number of ways of reaching the treaty's targets without actually reducing emissions. Among these is a proposal to allow for the trading of emissions credits -- disparagingly viewed by most environmentalists as licenses to pollute -- and the possibility of states with high emissions investing in reforestation projects in developing countries that would serve as "Carbon sinks" to absorb these emissions. Naturally, the US, responsible for 24 percent of the world's greenhouse gases, favors such measures, while the EU -- believing its recent coastal flood to be greenhouse-related -- opposes them in favor of across-the-board reductions and tough sanctions for noncompliance. The US is also concerned that the current draft allows developing nations, including China and India, to pledge to reach emissions limits in the future, but does not hold them to any legal obligation for failure to do so. The United Kingdom has stated that an effective agreement can be reached with or without US support. However, given that the US is the main producer of greenhouse gases, most analysts feel that an agreement without US cooperation is liable to have little long-term consequence.

Charbonneau, David D.

43

Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is on the press the year 2000, both published by the National Institute of Ecology of the SEMARNAT. There is not an emissions inventory of Veracruz, the few measurements campaigns that have been done in urban centers, it has not been possible to have access data, neither it has been designed a public politic that suggests the necessity of counting on information on the matter. In spite of it, because of the geographic conditions of Veracruz, the potential impact will transform Veracruz in a short period of time, that’s why the Veracruz University must leadership studies around it, where the social distribution of the obtained results will make possible the creation of politics, strategies directed to a sustainable development, economically viable, socially fair and environmentally respectful.

Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

2007-05-01

44

Transport of Greenhouse Gases in Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured in cultivated and natural regions, quantifying overall emissions for croplands, wetlands, and forests. However, segregation between soil and plant emissions is less clear, and the dynamics behind each respective emission type differs. Better defined plant transport mechanisms will yield more accurate determination of greenhouse gas flux, contributing to a comprehensive theory quantifying greenhouse gas emissions globally. While the mechanisms of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice have not been fully identified, for trees these mechanisms are virtually unknown. CH4 and N2O emissions from several species of tree (Alnus rubra, Populus trichocarpa, Thuja plicata, Fraxinus latifolia) native to the Pacific Northwest have been measured. To identify mechanisms of gas transport, correlation of emissions and stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis has been tested. A synthesis between plant physiological data and emissions is sought to elucidate the role plant physiology plays in the production and transport of CH4 and N2O. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER64515.

Kutschera, E.; Khalil, A. K.; Shearer, M.; Rosenstiel, T.

2009-12-01

45

Different greenhouse gases as a possible origin of the different behaviour of TIR anomalies observed from satellite in seismogenic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been suggesting for decades a relation between Thermal Infrared (TIR) anomalies, observed from satellite, and seismic activity. In particular, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) for the first time provided a statistics-based definition of \\

C. Aliano; R. Corrado; C. Filizzola; V. Lanorte; M. Lisi; R. Paciello; N. Pergola; V. Tramutoli; T. Tsamalashvili

2009-01-01

46

Radiative forcings and global warming potentials of 39 greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative forcings and global warming potentials for 39 greenhouse gases are evaluated using narrowband and broadband radiative transfer models. Unlike many previous studies, latitudinal and seasonal variations are considered explicitly, using distributions of major greenhouse gases from a combination of chemical-transport model results and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements and cloud statistics from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology

Atul K. Jain; Bruce P. Briegleb; K. Minschwaner; Donald J. Wuebbles

2000-01-01

47

A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good…

Keating, C. F.

2007-01-01

48

76 FR 61293 - Extension of Public Comment Period: Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum and...Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum and...Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Electronics Manufacturing and the Petroleum...

2011-10-04

49

40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section...commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air...

2010-07-01

50

40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 71.13 Section 71...commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air...

2010-07-01

51

40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section...further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air...

2010-07-01

52

Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

1988-01-01

53

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2004  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2005-12-19

54

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2005  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2006-11-14

55

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1994  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1995-09-01

56

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2003  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2004-12-01

57

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1997  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1998-10-01

58

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01

59

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1998  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1999-10-01

60

World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model  

EIA Publications

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS+) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

2011-09-29

61

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1996  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1997-10-01

62

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1995  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1996-10-01

63

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1999  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2000-10-01

64

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2001  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2002-12-01

65

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2002  

EIA Publications

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2003-10-01

66

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

67

Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the continents. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

Ramanathan, V.

2007-12-01

68

From the First Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During the IGY to the Global Annual Greenhouse Gas Index in 2006: The Evolution of the Global Observing Network for Greenhouse Gases.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the International Geophysical Year, Dr. Charles "Dave" Keeling instituted both air sample collections at the South Pole in Antarctica and continuous carbon dioxide measurements with an infrared analyzer at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. Both of these locations were later to become Observatories of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), following its formation in 1970, and the pioneering measurements of Dave Keeling continued to be supported by NOAA at these sites until this day. In addition to instituting Observatories at key background locations (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; American Samoa; and more recently Trinidad Head, California, in addition to the Hawaii and Antarctic sites) the forerunners of NOAA/ESRL also began a global cooperative air sampling network in the late 1960's. The air samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide and other gases in the Boulder, Colorado laboratories. With the help of many people in many nations, this network has grown to the largest such effort in the world, numbering about 90 sites, including three ship routes, at present. In 1996, data from this network and from other networks around the world formed the basis of GLOBALVIEW, a web-based collection of carbon dioxide and methane data used extensively with transport models to determine global carbon dioxide sources and sinks. This data set is available at http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/globalview/index.html . In 2004, the global measurements of all the long-lived greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, the chlorofluorocarbons, and ten minor halogen gases were condensed into a simple index, the "Annual Greenhouse Gas Index" (AGGI) by summing their radiative climate forcing since the pre-industrial era (taken as 1750). The NOAA AGGI is designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The contribution of long-lived greenhouse gases to climate forcing is well understood by scientists and has been reported through a range of national and international assessments. Nevertheless, the language of scientists (for example, watts per square meter per year) often eludes policy makers, educators, and the general public. This index is designed to help bridge that gap.

Hofmann, D. J.; Butler, J. H.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masarie, K.; Montzka, S. A.; Tans, P. P.

2006-05-01

69

Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

Jackson, R.B.

1993-01-01

70

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

71

Biosequestration and organic assimilation of greenhouse gases  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Provided herein are methods for the biosequestration and organic assimilation of a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect. In these methods, a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect is introduced into a peat bog where it is thereafter sequestered and organically assimilated. A capture method may be employed in conjunction with the present invention to enable transport of the gas from an industrial site to a processing facility located at or near a peat bog. Once transported to a relevant processing facility, the captured gas may be regenerated and thereafter introduced into the peat bog for its biosequestration and organic assimilation. In the context of the present invention, the gas may be a greenhouse gas (GHG), sulfur oxide (SO.sub.x) gas, and/or volatile organic compound (VOC).

Pooler; Joel (Augusta, ME); Pooler; Christopher L. (Augusta, ME)

2005-09-20

72

Measurements of Greenhouse Gases around the Sacramento Area: The Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of California is leading the United States by enacting legislation (AB-32) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The success of reduction efforts can be gauged with accurate emissions inventories and potentially verified with atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) over time. Measurements of multiple GHGs and associated trace gas species in a specific region

A. Karion; M. L. Fischer; J. C. Turnbull; C. Sweeney; I. C. Faloona; N. Zagorac; T. P. Guilderson; S. Saripalli; T. Sherwood

2009-01-01

73

Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2 , essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

Zadorozhny, Alexander

74

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

SciTech Connect

This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

2011-02-01

75

Sources and emission of greenhouse gases in Danube Delta lakes.  

PubMed

Production of methane and carbon dioxide as well as methane concentrations in surface waters and emissions to the atmosphere were investigated in two flow-through lake complexes (Uzlina-Isac and Puiu-Rosu-Rosulet) in the Danube Delta during post-flood conditions in May and low water level in September 2006. Retained nutrients fueled primary production and remineralization of bioavailable organic matter. This led to an observable net release of methane, particularly in the lakes Uzlina, Puiu and Rosu in May. Input from the Danube River, from redbuds and benthic release contributed to CH(4) concentrations in surface waters. In addition to significant river input of CO(2), this trace gas was released via aerobic remineralization within the water column and in top sediments. Emission patterns of CO(2) widely overlapped with those of CH(4). Generally, greenhouse gas emissions peaked in the lake complex adjacent to the Danube River in May due to strong winds and decreased with increasing hydrological distance from the Danube River. Intense remineralization of organic matter in the Danube Delta lakes results in a net source of atmospheric greenhouse gases. PMID:19506929

Pavel, Alina; Durisch-Kaiser, Edith; Balan, Sorin; Radan, Silviu; Sobek, Sebastian; Wehrli, Bernhard

2009-06-09

76

Grazing livestock and greenhouse gases in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Livestock have been identified as significant contributors to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and policies adopted by some authorities have discriminated against them for this reason as the UK seeks to meet the targets of the Kyoto Agreement. Analysis of available data shows that, while some livestock production systems can be implicated, grazing livestock in the UK on

Lawrence Alderson

77

Inventory of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Israel is committed to develop a national inventory of anthropogenic emissions and removals of greenhouse gases. This paper presents the national inventory, which was developed according to the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory includes the following sectors: energy, industrial processes, agriculture, forestry

J. Koch; U. Dayan; A. Mey-Marom

2000-01-01

78

Changes in the Arctic Oscillation under increased atmospheric greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic Oscillation (AO) under increased atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) was studied by comparing an ensemble of simulations from 13 coupled general circulation models with GHG at the pre-industrial level and at the late 20th century level, for November to March. The change in the linear AO pattern as GHG increased reveals positive sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies

Aiming Wu; William W. Hsieh; George J. Boer; Francis W. Zwiers

2007-01-01

79

Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to

K. Caldeira

2010-01-01

80

Changing by Degrees: Steps to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following topics are discussed: (1) climate change and greenhouse gases; (2) U.S. sectoral analysis and projections of CO2 emissions; (3) options for reducing U.S. emissions; and (4) U.S. influence on the rest of the world.

1991-01-01

81

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

SciTech Connect

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01

82

40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs...PERMIT PROGRAMS Operating Permits § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases...

2013-07-01

83

40 CFR 71.13 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs...PERMIT PROGRAMS Operating Permits § 71.13 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing Greenhouse Gases...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs...STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS § 70.12 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases...

2011-07-01

85

40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs...STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS § 70.12 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases...

2013-07-01

86

A review of research on human activity induced climate change I. Greenhouse gases and aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive research on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, carbon cycle modeling, and the characterization of atmospheric aerosols has been carried out in China during the last 10 years or so. This paper presents the major achievements in the fields of emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural lands, carbon cycle modeling, the characterization of Asian mineral dust, source identification of the precursors of the tropospheric ozone, and observations of the concentrations of atmospheric organic compounds. Special, more detailed information on the emissions of methane from rice fields and the physical and chemical characteristics of mineral aerosols are presented.

Wang, Mingxing; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Xin

2004-06-01

87

Keeping Mars warm with new super greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

Our selection of new super greenhouse gases to fill a putative "window" in a future Martian atmosphere relies on quantum-mechanical calculations. Our study indicates that if Mars could somehow acquire an Earth-like atmospheric composition and surface pressure, then an Earth-like temperature could be sustained by a mixture of five to seven fluorine compounds. Martian mining requirements for replenishing the fluorine could be comparable to current terrestrial extraction. PMID:11226208

Gerstell, M F; Francisco, J S; Yung, Y L; Boxe, C; Aaltonee, E T

2001-02-27

88

Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere.

Alexander Zadorozhny

2008-01-01

89

Greenhouse gases and recovery of the Earth's ozone layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical two-dimension zonally average interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere is used for investigation the role of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O in the recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine compounds. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere

I. G. Dyominov; A. M. Zadorozhny

2004-01-01

90

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01

91

Optical remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the troposphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of satellite borne sensor is proposed for measuring the column amount of green house gases in the troposphere from observations of near infrared solar radiation in the sun glint region reflected from water surface of ocean and lakes. A high accuracy determination of the column amount of gases is achieved by measuring the difference of absorption line of

Tadao Aoki; Masashi Fukabori; Teruo Aoki

2001-01-01

92

Concerns over biomass sources of greenhouse gases: potential issues in selected Asian Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues related to developing country sources of greenhouse gases are likely to be among the most difficult and contentious matters in any concerted international attempt to curtail emissions of greenhouse gases. Biomass sources of such gases as methane and carbon dioxide come largely from lower income nations and represent particularly difficult problems because of their close association with food production

William Barron; Peter Hills

1991-01-01

93

Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases in Products and Processes: An Evaluation of Technical Measures to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The many applications of fluorinated greenhouse gases as well as the increasing demand for information regarding appropriate measures to reduce their emissions made it neces- sary to compile a comprehensive report covering these issues. The report addresses 14 applica- tions of fluorinated gases - from refrigerants to tracer gas. For these applications it gives detailed information on the fluorinated gases

K. Schwaab; F. Dettling; D. Bernhardt; C. Elsner; R. Sartorius; K. Reimann; R. Remus; W. Plehn

94

40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.22 Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse...

2013-07-01

95

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01

96

On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have

G. Petron; A. Hirsch; M. K. Trainer; A. Karion; J. Kofler; C. Sweeney; A. Andrews; W. Kolodzey; B. R. Miller; L. Miller; S. A. Montzka; D. R. Kitzis; L. Patrick; G. J. Frost; T. B. Ryerson; J. M. Robers; P. Tans

2008-01-01

97

Use of 222Rn for estimation of greenhouse gases emissions at Russian territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that 222Rn is widely used as a tracer for studying different atmospheric processes including estimations of greenhouse gases emissions. Calculation of 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere allows quantitative estimation of greenhouse gases emissions having the soil origin or sources of which are located near the surface. For accurate estimation of 222Rn fluxes detailed

E. V. Berezina; N. F. Elansky

2009-01-01

98

Emission Estimates for Some Acidifying and Greenhouse Gases and Options for Their Control in Finland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete...

R. Pipatti

1998-01-01

99

Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in the absence of threats from climate change and ocean acidification. Therefore, these measures represent “no regrets” policy options for the marine environment. Nevertheless, even with adaptive policies in place, continued greenhouse gas emissions increasingly risk damaging marine ecosystems and the human communities that depend on them.

Caldeira, K.

2010-12-01

100

Diurnal cycle of greenhouse gases and biogenic hydrocarbons during summer near Cool, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosynthesis by forests is a large sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and also a large source of biogenic volatile organics (VOCs) that produce aerosols, nucleate clouds, and interact with nitrogen oxides (NOx) to produce ozone. To elucidate these complex biogeochemical mechanisms, we performed continuous high temporal resolution measurements of CO2, VOC, trace gases, and aerosol in June 2010 at the T1 site, 70 km from Sacramento, CA, during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010. Throughout the month we find that diurnal profiles exhibit minima in CO2 and maxima in isoprene during daytime. Both their amplitudes are modulated strongly by cloud cover consistent with a common photosynthetic mechanism. In contrast, we find that diurnal monoterpene profiles peak at night while CO2 is at its maxima. Their amplitudes are modulated by temperature and boundary layer height. The monoterpenes and CO2 cycle show larger increases at warmer temperatures, suggesting respiration as a common driver. Additional measurements of CH4, CO, benzene, toluene, NO, NOy and O3 are used to define biogeochemical cycling of greenhouse gases and are demonstrated as a baseline for separating anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and observing transport of greenhouse gases and air pollution.

Flowers, B. A.; Floerchinger, C.; Knighton, W. B.; Dubey, M. K.; Herndon, S. C.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Shaw, W. J.; Barnard, J.; Laulainen, N.; Zaveri, R. A.

2010-12-01

101

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page explains concepts related to the interaction between greenhouse gasses, transportation, and government regulations. A list of links is given for three main categories: greenhouse gasses, regulated emissions, and transportation energy use.

Shipvehicles, Auto C.

102

Reducing Greenhouse Gases in the Mid-Atlantic: An Overview of EPA Region 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The states and municipalities of the mid-Atlantic have been at the forefront of developing and implementing climate change policies to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 3 includes several states invol...

2011-01-01

103

75 FR 17331 - Public Hearings for the Mandatory Reporting Rule for Greenhouse Gases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide...carbon dioxide injection and geologic sequestration. The signed...to the presentations at that time. Written statements and supporting...Carbon Dioxide Injection and Geologic Sequestration, proposed...

2010-04-06

104

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000 Executive Summary  

EIA Publications

Executive Summary on the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01

105

Greenhouse gases and national energy options. Foreign trip report, April 7-14, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dr. L. D. Hamilton and Mr. G. A. Goldstein attended the 1st Workshop International Energy Agency (IEA), Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) Annex IV, Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissi...

L. D. Hamilton

1990-01-01

106

Sedimentary basins and greenhouse gases: a serendipitous association  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a natural association of sedimentary basins and fossil fuels. Therefore, we should expect a relation between the sedimentary basin, the exploitation of its fossil fuels, and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide is the dominant greenhouse gas resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, and it comprises more than half of all man-made greenhouse gas emissions. Among

Brian Hitchon; W. D. Gunter; Thomas Gentzis; R. T. Bailey

1999-01-01

107

Is recent climate change across the United States related to rising levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming as a result of rising concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases is predicted by current climate models. During the period 1948-1987, the concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases increased by more than 30%, and the mean annual temperature of the northern hemisphere increased by about 0.15°C. The mean annual temperature of the contiguous United States, however, does not show any

Marc S. Plantico; Thomas R. Karl; George Kukla; Joyce Gavin

1990-01-01

108

Measurements of Greenhouse Gases around the Sacramento Area: The Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of California is leading the United States by enacting legislation (AB-32) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The success of reduction efforts can be gauged with accurate emissions inventories and potentially verified with atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) over time. Measurements of multiple GHGs and associated trace gas species in a specific region also provide information on emissions ratios for source apportionment. We conducted the Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) campaign to determine emissions signature ratios for the sources that exist in the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento Valley areas. Specifically, we attempt to determine the emissions signatures of sources that influence ongoing measurements made at a tall-tower measurement site near Walnut Grove, CA. For two weeks in February and March of 2009, a Cessna 210 was flown throughout the Sacramento region, making continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO while also sampling discrete flasks for a variety of additional tracers, including SF6, N2O, and 14C in CO2 (?14CO2). Flight paths were planned using wind predictions for each day to maximize sampling of sources whose emissions would also be sampled contemporaneously by the instrumentation at the Walnut Grove tower (WGC), part of the ongoing California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project between NOAA/ESRL’s Carbon Cycle group and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Flights were performed in two distinct patterns: 1) flying across a plume upwind and downwind of the Sacramento urban area, and 2) flying across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from Richmond to Walnut Grove, a region consisting of natural wetlands as well as several power plants and refineries. Results show a variety of well-correlated mixing ratio signals downwind of Sacramento, documenting the urban signature emission ratios, while emissions ratios in the Delta region were more variable, likely due to the both natural and anthropogenic sources in that region. Periodic flask measurements of ?14CO2 provide additional insight regarding the partitioning of CO2 emissions due to fossil fuel (deficient in 14C) from those of biospheric sources. A strong correlation between fossil-fuel CO2 and CO was measured downwind of Sacramento, suggesting that the continuous measurements of CO can be used to estimate a continuous profile of fossil-fuel CO2 enhancement in this region.

Karion, A.; Fischer, M. L.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Faloona, I. C.; Zagorac, N.; Guilderson, T. P.; Saripalli, S.; Sherwood, T.

2009-12-01

109

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10

110

The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central

J. T. Kiehl; B. P. Briegleb

1993-01-01

111

A preliminary study of green-house gases interference for ammonia sensing in the mid UV region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a preliminary study of the possibility for greenhouse interference during ammonia measurement in the 200 nm – 230 nm region. An absorption spectrum for ammonia was compared with the greenhouse gases absorption lines to theoretically justify that there were no discernible interference effects during the ammonia concentration measurements. It was theoretically found that the primary greenhouse gases

Hadi Manap; Elfed Lewis

2011-01-01

112

A View of the Prebiotic Earth's Atmosphere: Greenhouse Gases, Oxidized Organic Haze, and the Anti-Greenhouse Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attempts to resolve the faint young sun paradox have focused on an early Earth atmosphere containing elevated levels of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to provide adequate warming to the Earth's surface. However, the photolysis of CH4 and CO2 in equal ratios in the laboratory has been shown to produce significant aerosol mass, equivalent to

L. Dewitt; M. G. Trainer; A. A. Pavlov; C. A. Hasenkopf; A. C. Aiken; J. L. Jimenez; C. P. McKay; O. B. Toon; M. A. Tolbert

2008-01-01

113

Radiometric calibration for the airborne interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases simulator.  

PubMed

The Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS), launched in the summer of 1996, has a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer, with the interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases (IMG) onboard. The IMG has a high spectral resolution of 0.1 cm(-1) for the purpose of retrieving greenhouse gas profile maps of the Earth. To meet the requirements of the retrieval algorithms for greenhouse gas profiles, atmospheric emission spectra must be calibrated to better than 1 K accuracy. Prior to the launch of the ADEOS with the IMG, we developed an airborne simulator called the tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS). We explain the calibration procedure for the TIIS, which determines the points with the same optical path difference on interferograms for complex Fourier transformation, using the retained phase term on the calibrated spectrum. The downward atmospheric radiation, measured with the TIIS, was well calibrated using this algorithm. Furthermore, calibration of the spectra obtained from the IMG initial checkout mission observation was carried out. PMID:18305649

Shimota, A; Kobayashi, H; Kadokura, S

1999-01-20

114

Managing agricultural greenhouse gases: The basis of GRACEnet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 2002, USDA Agricultural Research Service has been engaged in a national project called GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network). Goals of the project are to (1) evaluate soil organic carbon status and change, (2) assess net greenhouse gas emissions (...

115

Retrieval of greenhouse gases from GOSAT SWIR data processing with PPDF-based method of atmospheric light scattering correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) that is in orbit since 23rd January, 2009, one of the key issues of a large volume of near-infrared highly resolved spectra processing is the accurate and rapid determination of CO2 level. Algorithms for oper-ational satellite data processing of solar spectral observations of ground surface reflection must properly account for

Sergey Oshchepkov; Bril Andrey; Yukio Yoshida; Morino Isamu; Tatsuya Yokota

2010-01-01

116

Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The difference in the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer at the southern and northern polar latitudes through PCS modification is determined by the difference in temperature regimes of the Polar Regions. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

117

EVERGREEN (envisat for environmental regulation of greenhouse gases)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kyoto Protocol calls for a quantitative reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2010. However global emissions, sources and sinks, are not accurately known. EVERGREEN, a recently selected project of the European Commission 5th Framework Programme for Environment and Sustainable Development, proposes to use the measurements of ENVISAT to produce improved greenhouse gas emission inventories. A combination of measurement and (inverse) modelling will be employed to derive emission estimates. Measurements include (partial) columns of CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, O3, NO2 and H2O. The focus will be on methane and carbon monoxide and on regional and seasonal variations. End-user involvement is arranged through participation of one coal industry and several national/European institutes, with responsibility for greenhouse gas issues. Specific objectives are: -Quality assessment and improvement of geenhouse (CO2,CH4) and related gasr (CO) measurements from ENVISAT instruments SCIAMACHY and MIPAS. -Assessment of the role of constituent parts in the radiative forcing based on ENVISAT measurements and atmospheric radiative transfer modelling -Quantification of greenhouse and related biospheric gas fluxes through inverse modelling constrained by ENVISAT measurements, with focus on CH4 and CO. -Provision of greenhouse gas emission data to National and European institutes as a value added product from ENVIS T .A The paper will present progress of the project achieved to date. The project will run until the end of 2005.

Goede, A.

118

Is recent climate change across the United States related to rising levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1948-1987, the concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases increased by more than 30%, and the mean annual temperature of the northern hemisphere increased by about 0.15°C. To gain a better understanding of why the US temperature record does not reflect the anticipated greenhouse warming, the authors studied the inter-relationships between trends of temperature, cloudiness, sunshine and precipitation. Both

Marc S. Plantico; Thomas R. Karl; George Kukla; Joyce Gavin

1990-01-01

119

The economics of controlling stock pollutants: An efficient strategy for greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

Optimal control theory is applied to develop an efficient strategy to control stock pollutants such as greenhouse gases and hazardous waste. The optimal strategy suggests that, at any time, the marginal costs of abatement should be equated with the present value of the marginal damage of timely unabated emission. The optimal strategy calls for increasingly tight abatement over time as the pollutant stock accumulates. The optimal policy applied to greenhouse gases suggest moderate abatement efforts, at present, with the potential for much greater future efforts. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

Falk, I. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Mendelsohn, R. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1993-07-01

120

Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This ...

J. S. Francisco P. P. Bera S. I. Kokkila T. J. Lee

2012-01-01

121

The Importance of Ecosystem Thresholds in Assessing Safe Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a major strategic challenge in the public debate about global environmental change related to concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that might lead to environmentally, socially, and economically unacceptable impacts. This project takes one approach to this problem: avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" and "allowing ecosystems to adapt." But these phrases implicitly assume that the influences of climate change are likely to be gradual and that there will be substantial time for natural resources to adapt or for managers to cope with change. The current state of the science suggests that something quite different may be in the offing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other assessments of possible impacts now agree on two important points. One is that there is already well-documented evidence of the biological and ecological consequences of climate change - in the behavior of migratory birds, in corals bleached from the influence of warming ocean temperatures, in the loss of glaciers to warming air temperatures, and in the loss of sea grass beds to sea level rise. The second is that ecological systems may not in fact change gradually. Modeling studies and the historical record both suggest that changes in ecosystems can be rapid, large, and sometimes irreversible, i.e., there are thresholds that, once crossed, will present serious coping challenges to humans. Moreover, as suggested in a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) workshop on "Understanding and Responding to Multiple Environmental Stresses," dealing with threshold responses that may lead to sudden and dramatic change in societal or environmental structure and function will also require that we develop ways to proceed with decision-making despite the many uncertainties associated with thresholds. These observations present serious challenges to the modeling frameworks used in integrated assessment. Not only do the models have to characterize the dynamic behavior of ecosystems as they cross thresholds, but they also have to represent adaptation strategies that are promoted to cope with such sudden or irreversible changes. A major challenge in the discussion over the implications of tipping points and thresholds in natural resources and management systems is what lessons there are for debates over targets for concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Are there levels of greenhouse gases that would protect against ecosystems exhibiting tipping point behavior, for example? How does uncertainty in our knowledge of either the resources or the climate system influence margins of safety? What models and analytical tools are available for conducting the analyses that are needed to address these questions. The JGCRI's suite of integrated assessment models provide a systematic way of simulating different emissions and concentration scenarios that can then be used to investigate the climate triggers for ecological tipping points and thresholds.

Janetos, A. C.

2007-12-01

122

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases from Rice Agriculture. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the b...

M. A. K. Kjalil

2009-01-01

123

Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angles Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases and pollutants including CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. The existing database in the Los Angeles area is extremely sparse, and new methods are required that provide high spatial and temporal resolution. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. A new Fourier Transform Spectrometer called CLARS-FTS has been deployed at Mt. Wilson, California at JPL’s California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing for automated long-term measurements of greenhouse gases. The CLARS-FTS points at ground sites in the Los Angeles basin from its location at an altitude of 1.7 km, and records atmospheric absorption spectra over a broad spectral range (4000 - 14000 cm-1) in reflected sunlight. These spectra contain the absorption features of major greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4, CO) together with O2, which is used to quantify the atmospheric path. From these rotationally resolved spectra, the column densities of greenhouse gases along the light path are retrieved. The CLARS-FTS participated in the 2010 CalNex field campaign and measured the spatial and temporal distribution of greenhouse gases in the LA basin during 33 measurement days in May and June. The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions [XGAS] of these traces gases are computed using measured column densities. The CLARS-FTS measurements during CalNex will be discussed, and compared with other correlative data sources including aircraft and ground-based instruments and a co-located UV-visible MAX DOAS spectrometer.

Fu, D.; Sander, S. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Cheung, R.; Stutz, J.

2010-12-01

124

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (COâ), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of

DeLuchi

1991-01-01

125

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (COâ), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of

DeLuchi

1991-01-01

126

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.  

PubMed

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management. PMID:19318239

Calabrò, Paolo S

2009-03-21

127

Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design

Keith P. Shine; Jan S. Fuglestvedt; Kinfe Hailemariam; Nicola Stuber

2005-01-01

128

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GREENHOUSE GASES FROM A SOLAR CELL POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission from electricity generation sector is a subject of great debate. In order to design sustainable electricity generation scenarios, the reduction options should be assessed from an environmental life cycle perspective. Thus, life cycle assessment or LCA is used as a tool in this study for assessing the GHGs emission entire the

Muanjit Chamsilpa; Sate Sampattagul; Yucho Sadamichi; Natanee Vorayos; Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

129

Global warming: Experimental study about the effect of accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project presented here was developed by fifteen year old students of the Institut Sabadell (Sabadell Secondary School. Spain). The objective of this project was to raise the students awareness' about the problem of climate change, mainly caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also intended that students use the scientific method as an effective

Carlos Molto; Miquel Mas

2010-01-01

130

A new type separation process of condensable greenhouse gases by the formation of clathrate hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of a gas separation process by the formation of clathrate hydrates in porous membranes was proposed, and the concept was examined through the separation experiments for mixtures of greenhouse gases with nitrogen. The separation principle was based on the partition of the components in the mixture between the gaseous phase and the hydrate phase; a component that

K. Shiojiri; T. Okano; Y. Yanagisawa; M. Fujii; A. Yamasaki; H. Tajima; F. Kiyono

2004-01-01

131

Changes of Variability in Response to Increasing Greenhouse Gases. Part II: Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines hydrological variability and its changes in two different versions of a coupled ocean- atmosphere general circulation model developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and forced with estimates of future increases of greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. This paper is the second part, documenting potential changes in variability as green- house gases

Richard T. Wetherald

2009-01-01

132

Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008  

EIA Publications

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare an inventory of aggregate U.S. national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987-1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report documents the methodology for the seventeenth annual inventory, covering national emissions over the period 1990-2008.

Information Center

2011-01-03

133

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection  

SciTech Connect

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

Calabro, Paolo S. [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, via Graziella - loc. Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.calabro@unirc.it

2009-07-15

134

Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

2010-01-01

135

Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs),

Tsao-Chou Chen; Cheng-Fang Lin

2008-01-01

136

Advances in Data Processing for Open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry of Greenhouse Gases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The automated quantification of three greenhouse gases, ammonia, methane and nitrous oxide, in the vicinity of a large dairy farm by open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry at intervals of 5 minutes is demonstrated. Spectral pretreatment, including the detection and correction ...

137

Evaluation of Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases originated by various human activities, including agricultural origin, could contribute to climate change. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in ...

138

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25

139

Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-06-18

140

Greenhouse Gases and Ammonia Emissions from Organic Mixed Crop-Dairy Systems: A Critical Review of Mitigation Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dairy production systems represent a significant source of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHG), that increase global\\u000a warming, and ammonia (NH3), that leads to eutrophication and acidification of natural ecosystems. Greenhouse gases and ammonia are emitted both by\\u000a conventional and organic dairy systems. Several studies have already been conducted to design practices that reduce greenhouse\\u000a gas and ammonia emissions

S. M. Novak; J. L. Fiorelli

141

Greenhouse gases: low methane leakage from gas pipelines.  

PubMed

Using natural gas for fuel releases less carbon dioxide per unit of energy produced than burning oil or coal, but its production and transport are accompanied by emissions of methane, which is a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide in the short term. This calls into question whether climate forcing could be reduced by switching from coal and oil to natural gas. We have made measurements in Russia along the world's largest gas-transport system and find that methane leakage is in the region of 1.4%, which is considerably less than expected and comparable to that from systems in the United States. Our calculations indicate that using natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels could be useful in the short term for mitigating climate change. PMID:15829951

Lelieveld, J; Lechtenböhmer, S; Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Dienst, C; Fischedick, M; Hanke, T

2005-04-14

142

Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming are becoming a serious concern. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in C and N, as soil amendments could contribute to the increase in emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) into the atmosphere. Therefore, evaluation of flux of various greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge is essential to quantify their release into the atmosphere. Two soils with contrasting properties (Candler fine sand [CFS] from Florida, and Ogeechee loamy sand [OLS] from Savannah, GA) were amended with varying rates (0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, and 148.3 Mg ha(-1)) of 2 types of sewage sludge (industrial [ISS] and domestic [DSS] origin. The amended soil samples were incubated in anaerobic condition at field capacity soil water content in static chamber (Qopak bottles). Gas samples were extracted immediately after amending soils and subsequently on a daily basis to evaluate the emission of CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O. The results showed that emission rates and cumulative emission of all three gases increased with increasing rates of amendments. Cumulative emission of gases during 25-d incubation of soils amended with different types of sewage sludge decreased in the order: CO(2) > N(2)O > CH(4). The emission of gases was greater from the soils amended with DSS as compared to that with ISS. This may indicate the presence of either low C and N content or possible harmful chemicals in the ISS. The emission of gases was greater from the CFS as compared to that from the OLS. Furthermore, the results clearly depicted the inhibitory effect of acetylene in both soils by producing more N(2)O and CH(4) emission compared to the soils that did not receive acetylene at the rate of 1 mL g(-1) soil. Enumeration of microbial population by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and most probable number (MPN) procedure at the end of 25-d incubation demonstrated a clear relationship between microbial activity and the emission of gases. The results of this study emphasize the need to consider the emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with organic soil amendments such as sewage sludge, especially at high rates, and their potential contribution to global warming. PMID:18172810

Paramasivam, S; Fortenberry, Gamola Z; Julius, Afolabi; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, A K

2008-02-01

143

Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases  

PubMed Central

Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO2 greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a given greenhouse gas concentration but also on climate system behavior, particularly the timescales of heat transfer linked to the ocean. For carbon dioxide and methane, nonlinear optical absorption effects also play a smaller but significant role in prolonging the warming. In effect, dampening factors that slow temperature increase during periods of increasing concentration also slow the loss of energy from the Earth’s climate system if radiative forcing is reduced. Approaches to climate change mitigation options through reduction of greenhouse gas or aerosol emissions therefore should not be expected to decrease climate change impacts as rapidly as the gas or aerosol lifetime, even for short-lived species; such actions can have their greatest effect if undertaken soon enough to avoid transfer of heat to the deep ocean.

Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.; Sanford, Todd J.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2010-01-01

144

Monitoring variation in greenhouse gases concentration in urban environment of Delhi.  

PubMed

Cities across the globe are considered as major anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), yet very few efforts has been made to monitor ambient concentration of GHG in cities, especially in a developing country like India. Here, variations in the ambient concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) in residential, commercial, and industrial areas of Delhi are determined from fortnightly daytime observations from July, 2008 to March, 2009. Results indicate that the average daytime ambient concentration of CO(2) varied from 495 to 554 ppm in authorized residential areas, 503 to 621 ppm in the slums or jhuggies in the unauthorized residential areas, 489 to 582 ppm in commercial areas, and 512 to 568 ppm in industrial areas with an average of 541 ± 27 ppm. CH(4) concentration varied from 652 to 5,356 ppbv in authorized residential areas, 500 to 15,220 ppbv in the unauthorized residential areas, 921 to 11,000 ppbv in the commercial areas, and 250 to 2,550 ppbv in the industrial areas with an average of 3,226 ± 1,090 ppbv. A low mid-afternoon CO(2) concentration was observed at most of the sites, primarily due to strong biospheric photosynthesis coupled with strong vertical mixing. PMID:22362556

Sahay, Samraj; Ghosh, Chirashree

2012-02-24

145

Greenhouse gases and future long?term changes in the stratospheric temperature and the ozone layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical two?dimensional (2D) interactive dynamical–radiative–photochemical model including aerosol physics is used to examine the expected long?term changes in stratospheric temperature and the Earth's ozone layer due to anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O. The model time?dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2050. The results of the calculations show

I. G. Dyominov; A. M. Zadorozhny

2008-01-01

146

Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model

Alexander Zadorozhny; Igor Dyominov

2010-01-01

147

Integrated Modeling & Development of Emission Scenarios for Methane and Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines main accomplishments on the development of Emission inventories and Scenarios for Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases (CO, VOCs, NOx) and methane supported by Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy. This research produced 3 journal articles, 1 book chapter, and 4 research articles/abstracts in conference proceedings. In addition, this grant supported two PhD students and one undergraduate student at UIUC.

Jain, Atul K.

2005-09-30

148

Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., composting, anaerobic treatment), land application and chemical fertilisers. Although in many countries emphasis is put on reduction

G. J. Monteny; C. M. Groenestein; M. A. Hilhorst

2001-01-01

149

Upscaling Regional Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Rice Cultivation: Methods and Sources of Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important sources of greenhouse gases is the emission of methane from rice fields. Methane emission from rice fields\\u000a is the result of a complex array of soil processes involving plant-microbe interactions. The cumulative effects of these processes\\u000a at the level of individual plants influence the global atmospheric composition and make it necessary to expand our research\\u000a focus

Peter H. Verburg; Peter M. van Bodegom; Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon; Aldo Bergsma; Nico van Breemen

2006-01-01

150

Upscaling regional emissions of greenhouse gases from rice cultivation: methods and sources of uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important sources of greenhouse gases is the emission of methane from rice fields. Methane emission from rice fields\\u000a is the result of a complex array of soil processes involving plant-microbe interactions. The cumulative effects of these processes\\u000a at the level of individual plants influence the global atmospheric composition and make it necessary to expand our research\\u000a focus

Peter H. Verburg; Peter M. van Bodegom; Hugo A. C. Denier Gon; Aldo Bergsma; Nico van Breemen

151

Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

Larson, D. L.

1994-01-01

152

Anaerobic digestion: impact of future greenhouse gases mitigation policies on methane generation and usage.  

PubMed

The debate as to whether carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions will become subject to increasing regulation, increased restrictions, and probably to some form of carbon tax, has moved from a simple "yes" or "no" to "when". Wastewater treatment plants will be significantly impacted by increased energy costs and by specific regulations and/or penalties associated with emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, the greenhouse gases emissions of different wastewater process options are estimated. The paper outlines the increasing need for wastewater treatment plants to factor greenhouse gas mitigation issues into their medium- as and long-term strategies, and identifies anaerobic enhouse as processes as being at the core of such strategies. Further, the paper identifies a number of key research challenges to be addressed if such strategies are to play a larger role in attenuating the likely impacts of GHG mitigation requirements on wastewater treatment plant design and operation. PMID:16180407

Greenfield, P F; Batstone, D J

2005-01-01

153

Enhancement of greenhouse gases associated with Canadian forest fire using multi sensor data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire is a common natural hazard that takes lives of people and billion dollar loss of properties almost every year. In the recent past frequency of forest fires have increased in Canada and throughout the world that is associated with the changes in land use and land cover practice. Multi sensor satellites are now capable in providing information about the land cover, atmosphere and meteorological parameters. The present paper deals with the multi sensor data (AIRS, MODIS, OMI AURA, TOMS) to study the changes in greenhouse and other gases (NOx, O3, CO, water vapor) and aerosol parameters. The detailed analysis of multi sensor data have shown elevated amount of greenhouse gases, total ozone column and aerosol optical depth during summer of 2004 at the time of Canadian forest fire compared to other years. The spatial distribution of greenhouse gas, aerosol optical depth and meteorological conditions are found to change after the onset of forest fire that shows the dynamic nature of the greenhouse gas and associated releases with the dispersion of the plume and smoke from the forest fire. The maximum changes are found from the surface up to a pressure level height 500 hPa, the change occur is found to be very much dependent on the distance from the source (forest fire location) and also on the meteorological conditions.

Singh, Rachita; Singh, Rachita; Chaturvedi, Ritu

154

European emissions of halogenated greenhouse gases inferred from atmospheric measurements.  

PubMed

European emissions of nine representative halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, Halon 1211, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-22, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-152a) are derived for the year 2009 by combining long-term observations in Switzerland, Italy, and Ireland with campaign measurements from Hungary. For the first time, halocarbon emissions over Eastern Europe are assessed by top-down methods, and these results are compared to Western European emissions. The employed inversion method builds on least-squares optimization linking atmospheric observations with calculations from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The aggregated halocarbon emissions over the study area are estimated at 125 (106-150) Tg of CO(2) equiv/y, of which the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) make up the most important fraction with 41% (31-52%). We find that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from banks are still significant and account for 35% (27-43%) of total halocarbon emissions in Europe. The regional differences in per capita emissions are only small for the HFCs, while emissions of CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) tend to be higher in Western Europe compared to Eastern Europe. In total, the inferred per capita emissions are similar to estimates for China, but 3.5 (2.3-4.5) times lower than for the United States. Our study demonstrates the large benefits of adding a strategically well placed measurement site to the existing European observation network of halocarbons, as it extends the coverage of the inversion domain toward Eastern Europe and helps to better constrain the emissions over Central Europe. PMID:22192076

Keller, Christoph A; Hill, Matthias; Vollmer, Martin K; Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Arduini, Jgor; Maione, Michela; Ferenczi, Zita; Haszpra, Laszlo; Manning, Alistair J; Peter, Thomas

2011-12-16

155

The impact of greenhouse gases on past changes in tropospheric ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of changes in the abundance of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the evolution of tropospheric ozone (O3) between 1960 and 2005 is examined using a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOS CCM) with a combined troposphere-stratosphere chemical mechanism. Simulations are performed to isolate the relative role of increases in methane (CH4) and stratospheric ozone depleting substances (ODSs) on tropospheric O3. The 1960 to 2005 increases in GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4, and ODSs) cause increases of around 1-8% in zonal-mean tropospheric O3 in the tropics and northern extratropics, but decreases of 2-4% in most of the southern extratropics. These O3 changes are due primarily to increases in CH4 and ODSs, which cause changes of comparable magnitude but opposite sign. The CH4-related increases in O3are similar in each hemisphere (˜6%), but the ODS-related decreases in the southern extratropics are much larger than in northern extratropics (10% compared to 2%). This results in an interhemispheric difference in the sign of past O3 change. Increases in the other GHGs (CO2 and N2O) and SSTs have only a small impact on the total burden over this period, but do cause zonal variations in the sign of changes in tropical O3 that are coupled to changes in vertical velocities and water vapor.

Lang, C.; Waugh, D. W.; Olsen, M. A.; Douglass, A. R.; Liang, Q.; Nielsen, J. E.; Oman, L. D.; Pawson, S.; Stolarski, R. S.

2012-12-01

156

Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10?2, ?1.85 × 10?3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr?1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10?1 and 3.37 × 10?2 kt yr?1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

2012-12-01

157

Emissions of greenhouse gases from a North American megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric column abundances of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured above the South Coast air basin (SCB), a densely populated urban region of Southern California, USA, which includes Los Angeles and the surrounding suburbs. Large diurnal variations in CO and CH4 are observed which correlate well with those in CO2. Weaker correlations are seen between N2O and CO2, with large uncertainties. We compute yearly SCB emissions of CO and CH4 to be 1.4 ± 0.3 Tg CO and 0.6 ± 0.1 Tg CH4. We compare our calculated emissions to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) estimates. Our measurements confirm that urban emissions are a significant source of CH4 and in fact may be substantially higher than currently estimated. If our emissions are typical of other urban centers, these findings suggest that urban emissions could contribute 7-15% to the global anthropogenic budget of methane.

Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Toon, G. C.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Yavin, Y. G.

2009-08-01

158

Analysis of Continuous Measurements of Anthropogenic Halogenated Greenhouse Gases at Monte Cimone for Estimation of European Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic halogenated greenhouse gases includes chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride. Even if atmospheric concentration levels of these compounds are in the range of pptvs, their contribute to global warming is significant. Furthermore, some of these gases are powerful ozone depleting substances. In order to assess their long-term atmospheric concentration trends and in order

M. Maione; J. Arduini; A. Geniali; F. Mangani; P. Cristofanelli; P. Bonasoni

2003-01-01

159

Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore how the Earth's atmosphere affects the energy balance between incoming and outgoing radiation. Using an interactive model, adjust realistic parameters such as how many clouds are present or how much carbon dioxide is in the air, and watch how these factors affect the global temperature.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-13

160

Greenhouse Gases  

MedlinePLUS

... As the temperature of the atmosphere rises, more water is evaporated from ground storage (rivers, oceans, reservoirs, soil). Because the air is warmer, the absolute humidity can be higher (in essence, the air is able to 'hold' more water when it's warmer), leading to more water vapor ...

161

Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the second-generation Canadian earth system model (CanESM2) to historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) natural and anthropogenic forcing is assessed using the newly-developed representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols. Allowable emissions required to achieve the future atmospheric CO2 concentration pathways, are reported for the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. For the historical 1850-2005 period, cumulative land plus ocean carbon uptake and, consequently, cumulative diagnosed emissions compare well with observation-based estimates. The simulated historical carbon uptake is somewhat weaker for the ocean and stronger for the land relative to their observation-based estimates. The simulated historical warming of 0.9°C compares well with the observation-based estimate of 0.76 ± 0.19°C. The RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios respectively yield warmings of 1.4, 2.3, and 4.9°C and cumulative diagnosed fossil fuel emissions of 182, 643 and 1617 Pg C over the 2006-2100 period. The simulated warming of 2.3°C over the 1850-2100 period in the RCP 2.6 scenario, with the lowest concentration of GHGs, is slightly larger than the 2°C warming target set to avoid dangerous climate change by the 2009 UN Copenhagen Accord. The results of this study suggest that limiting warming to roughly 2°C by the end of this century is unlikely since it requires an immediate ramp down of emissions followed by ongoing carbon sequestration in the second half of this century.

Arora, V. K.; Scinocca, J. F.; Boer, G. J.; Christian, J. R.; Denman, K. L.; Flato, G. M.; Kharin, V. V.; Lee, W. G.; Merryfield, W. J.

2011-03-01

162

Molecular conversion processing of greenhouse gases of global warming effect and conversion units employing a solid particle trap  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Molecular conversion processing of greenhouse gases of global warming effect and conversion units employing a solid particle trap. This is an industrial process capable of changing the chemical composition of the greenhouse gases from any source, such as the internal combustion engine, factory chimney and others, through the conversion of gas molecules to form new compounds such as clean gases. This is done by molecular conversion processing conversion unit with a solid particle trap, consisting of a plasma conversion chamber that produces a plasma jet, and an electrostatic filter for the collection of solid particles.

2011-06-21

163

A group increment scheme for infrared absorption intensities of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

2012-02-01

164

Greenhouse gases fluxes and soil thermal properties in a pasture in central Missouri.  

PubMed

Fluctuations of greenhouse gases emissions and soil properties occur at short spatial and temporal scales, however, results are often reported for larger scales studies. We monitored CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes and soil temperature (T), thermal conductivity (K), resistivity (R) and thermal diffusivity (D) from 2004 to 2006 in a pasture. Soil air samples for determination of CO2, CH4 and N20 concentrations were collected from static and vented chambers and analyzed within two hours of collection with a gas chromatograph. T, K, R and D were measured in-situ using a KD2 probe. Soil samples were also taken for measurements of soil chemical and physical properties. The pasture acted as a sink in 2004, a source in 2005 and again a sink of CH4 in 2006. CO2 and CH4 were highest, but N2O as well as T, K and D were lowest in 2004. Only K was correlated with CO2 in 2004 while T correlated with both N2O (r = 0.76, p = 0.0001) and CO2 (r = 0.88, p = 0.0001) in 2005. In 2006, all gases fluxes were significantly correlated with T, K and R when the data for the entire year were considered. However, an in-depth examination of the data revealed the existence of month-to-month shifts, lack of correlation and differing spatial structures. These results stress the need for further studies on the relationship between soil properties and gases fluxes. K and R offer a promise as potential controlling factors for greenhouse gases fluxes in this pasture. PMID:21174993

Nkonglolo, Nsalambi Vakanda; Johnson, Shane; Schmidt, Kent; Eivazi, Frieda

2010-01-01

165

Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models  

SciTech Connect

A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

2008-04-01

166

Observations of tropospheric trace gases from GOSAT thermal infrared spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS), which is one of the sensors onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), measures the sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface and atmosphere as well as the thermal radiance emitted from the Earth. Atmospheric trace gases such as ozone (O3), water vapor (H2O and HDO), methanol (CH3OH) and ammonia (NH3) are derived from the thermal infrared spectral radiance recorded with the TANSO-FTS by an optimal estimation retrieval approach. TANSO-FTS total ozone columns are compared with Dobson spectrophotometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data. The TANSO-FTS total ozone retrievals exhibit a positive bias of 3-4% with a root-mean-square difference of 2-6% compared to the Dobson and OMI measurements. We compare TANSO-FTS tropospheric ozone columns to those from ozonesonde data as well as from a three-dimensional chemical-climate model (MRI-CCM2). The TANSO-FTS data have high correlations with the ozonesonde data. The seasonal trends of the retrieved tropospheric ozone are consistent with those of the ozonesonde data. The spatial distribution of the tropospheric ozone from the TANSO-FTS and MRI-CCM2 shows good agreement, especially in the high-level tropospheric ozone regions. We also retrieve tropospheric H2O and HDO profiles simultaneously, accounting for the cross correlations between the water isotopes. The joint retrieval results in precise estimation of the isotope ratio by partial cancellation of systematic errors common to both H2O and HDO. The retrieved profiles and columns are compared with radiosonde, GPS, and ground-based high-resolution FTS data. The temporal and spatial variations of the precipitable water and the isotope ratio are consistent with those of the validation data. Finally, air pollutants such as CH3OH and NH3 are retrieved using the retrieved ozone and water vapor. We present the latitudinal and seasonal variations of CH3OH related to plant growth and biomass burning, and the high-level NH3 in the hot spot areas.

Ohyama, Hirofumi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Maki, Takashi; Deushi, Makoto

2013-04-01

167

Hydrological sensitivity to greenhouse gases and aerosols in a global climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols alter the atmospheric energy budget on different time scales and at different levels in the atmosphere. We study the relationship between global mean precipitation changes, radiative forcing, and surface temperature change since preindustrial times caused by several climate change components (CO2, CH4, sulphate and black carbon (BC) aerosols, and solar forcing) using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model (CESM1.03). We find a fast response in precipitation due to atmospheric instability that correlates with radiative forcing associated with atmospheric absorption and a slower response caused by changes in surface temperature which correlates with radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. In general, global climate models show large differences in climate response to global warming, but here we find a strong relationship between global mean radiative forcing and global mean precipitation changes that is very consistent with other models, indicating that precipitation changes from a particular forcing mechanism are more robust than previously expected. In addition, we look at the precipitation response and relate it to changes in lifetime of atmospheric water vapor (?). BC aerosols have a significantly larger impact on changes in ? related to surface temperature compared to greenhouse gases, sulphate aerosols, and solar forcing and are the dominating forcing mechanism affecting fast precipitation in this quantity.

KvalevâG, Maria Malene; Samset, BjøRn H.; Myhre, Gunnar

2013-04-01

168

Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2) A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm-1 (1565 nm) and 4800 cm-1 (2100 nm) and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

Butz, A.; Guerlet, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.

2013-05-01

169

Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface, which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2) A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm-1 (1565 nm) and 4800 cm-1 (2100 nm) and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

Butz, A.; Guerlet, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.

2013-09-01

170

Assessment of contribution of greenhouse gases, water vapour and cloudiness to global surface air temperature changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A contribution of the basic greenhouse effect components to the changes of global surface air temperature (SAT) has been assessed. The Earth's energy budget and the longwave energy transformation, in particular, were considered to investigate the mechanism of the influence of greenhouse effect (GHE) on global SAT. As is known, some part of the outgoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4, N2O, water vapour (WV) and cloudiness. The analysis of the changes in global SAT, GHGs and WV concentrations for the period 1984 - 2010 has shown that these parameters have a trend to increase. The research into global cloudiness and the vertical distribution of cloud layers made it possible to trace both positive and negative trends, namely the increase of availability of middle and high clouds has a positive trend while the increase of availability of global clouds and low clouds have a negative trend. Making use of the regression analysis relationships between global SAT and the components of greenhouse effect were obtained. It is shown, that the availability of total clouds and low clouds result in climate cooling, while the availability of middle and high clouds cause the increase of global SAT. The analysis of these parameters made it possible to carry out parameterization of GHE. To identify non-anthropogenic possible reasons of global SAT changes the influence of GHE on global SAT has been analyzed, with El-Nino phenomenon being one of the possible reasons. It has been shown that the GHGs role in global SAT changes is not dominant.

Gusakova, Maria; Karlin, Lev N.

2013-04-01

171

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during BARCA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

2009-12-01

172

PILOT STUDY: International comparison CCQM-P41 Greenhouse gases. 1. Measurement capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is one of the activities to monitor changes in the global environment, as some of these gases are presumed to contribute to climate change. The CCQM Gas Analysis Working Group has organised a pilot comparison for carbon dioxide and methane at ambient levels to compare primarily the capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) for measuring these species in air. The participation in this comparison was not limited to signatories of the MRA, as is usually the case. Laboratories from the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) were invited as well, and two participated. The project has been split in two parts, a comparison of the (analytical) measurement capability, and a high-accuracy comparison of primary standard gas mixtures for greenhouse gases. In this first part, the measurement capability was compared between NMIs and WMO laboratories. The nominal amount-of-substance fraction levels are 365 µmol/mol for carbon dioxide and 1.8 µmol/mol for methane. The matrix was synthetic air, simulated by a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen (209 mmol/mol) and argon (9.3 mmol/mol). The measurements took place in the spring of 2003. The protocol used for this comparison was the same as used so far in the gas analysis area for key comparisons and studies of this type. The reference values were assigned to each gas mixture on the basis of the gravimetric preparation, taking into account the results from the purity verification. In particular for the value assignment of methane, traces of methane in the matrix gases (nitrogen, oxygen and argon) can influence the value assigned to the gas mixture appreciably. The results for methane agree within 4% relative, and for most participants even within 2% relative at an amount of substance fraction level of 1.8 µmol/mol. For carbon dioxide all results agree within 1% relative, and for most the agreement is even better: within 0.5% relative at an amount of substance fraction level of 365 µmol/mol. The methane data show a discrepancy of approximately 0.025 µmol/mol between the averages of the WMO laboratories and the NMIs, which confirms results of earlier comparisons. Measurement traceability is quite differently established in NMIs and WMO laboratories, and may account for this difference. Further work is needed to find out the causes of this difference. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM.

van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Brinkmann, Freek N. C.; Arnautovic, Mile; Besley, Laurie; Heine, Hans-Joachim; Lopez Esteban, Teresa; Sega, Michela; Kato, Kenji; Seog Kim, Jin; Perez Castorena, Alejandro; Rakowska, Agata; Milton, Martin J. T.; Guenther, Frank R.; Francey, R.; Dlugokencky, E.

2007-01-01

173

O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ? -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included in this study. PMID:23441917

Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Fleming, Eric L; Jackman, Charles H; Burkholder, James B

2013-03-18

174

Tittel: An Alternative to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Title: An Alternative to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design

Keith P. Shine; Jan S. Fuglestvedt; Nicola Stuber

175

[Regional simulation of rice yield change under two emission scenarios of greenhouse gases].  

PubMed

Based on the newest emission scenarios of SO2 and greenhouse gases, i. e., the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios, and by using RCM (Regional Climate Model)-PRECIS and CERES-Rice model, this paper simulated the rice yield change in 2080 at 50 x 50 km scale. The results showed that there was a great range of yield change across whole China. The yield would increase along the Changjiang River and in South China, and decrease in North and Northeast China. Because of the direct effect of CO2 on rice growth, the SRES A2 scenario would be more positive to the increase of rice yield than B2. In 2080, the total rice yield in whole China would increase under A2 emission scenario, while decrease under B2 emission scenario. PMID:15852959

Xiong, Wei; Xu, Yinlong; Lin, Erda; Lu, Zhiguang

2005-01-01

176

Influence of the Stratosphere on the Northern Annular Mode Response to Increasing Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining credible climate change projections in NH extratropical winter is challenging as the current generation of coupled atmosphere-ocean models shows a wide range in the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) response to increasing greenhouse gases. Previous studies have suggested that the NAM response critically depends on the stratospheric representation in climate models. In this study, we assess the influence of the stratosphere on the tropospheric circulation response to increasing greenhouse gases by comparing the response in various versions of a comprehensive atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) without a well-resolved stratosphere ('low-top' model), to the response in a version of the same AGCM with a well-resolved stratosphere ('high-top' model). We show that the circulation response is more sensitive to orographic gravity wave drag (OGWD) parameter settings than to the model lid height. The causal relationship between OGWD and changes in NH wintertime circulation response is further investigated by introducing a methodology that allows OGWD forcing fixed to its 1×CO2 value when CO2 is doubled. Such experiments show that the changes in GWD forcing due to CO2 doubling have essentially no impact on the NAM response. The primary conclusion is that the OGWD influence is limited to its impact on the 1×CO2 basic-state climatology, which defines the propagation characteristics of resolved planetary waves. It is shown that the action of planetary waves explains essentially all of the NH wintertime circulation sensitivity. Finally, we will show preliminary results of an investigation of the sensitivity of the NH wintertime circulation response between IPCC models and its possible relation to the basic state climate.

Sigmond, M.; Scinocca, J.

2009-05-01

177

On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have built the 'Hybrid Lab'. A continuous CO2 and CH4 cavity ring down spectroscopic analyzer (Picarro, Inc.), a CO gas-filter correlation instrument (Thermo Environmental, Inc.) and a continuous UV absorption ozone monitor (2B Technologies, Inc., model 202SC) have been installed securely onboard a 2006 Toyota Prius Hybrid vehicle with an inlet bringing in outside air from a few meters above the ground. To better characterize point and distributed sources, air samples were taken with a Portable Flask Package (PFP) for later multiple species analysis in the lab. A GPS unit hooked up to the ozone analyzer and another one installed on the PFP kept track of our location allowing us to map measured concentrations on the driving route using Google Earth. The Hybrid Lab went out for several drives in the vicinity of the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall tower located in Erie, CO and covering areas from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Fort Collins and Greeley. Enhancements in CO2, CO and destruction of ozone mainly reflect emissions from traffic. Methane enhancements however are clearly correlated with nearby point sources (landfill, feedlot, natural gas compressor ...) or with larger scale air masses advected from the NE Colorado, where oil and gas drilling operations are widespread. The multiple species analysis (hydrocarbons, CFCs, HFCs) of the air samples collected along the way bring insightful information about the methane sources at play. We will present results of the analysis and interpretation of the Hybrid Lab Front Range Study and conclude with perspectives on how we will adapt the measurement strategy to study CO2 anthropogenic emissions in Denver Basin.

Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.; Trainer, M. K.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.; Kolodzey, W.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Kitzis, D. R.; Patrick, L.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Robers, J. M.; Tans, P.

2008-12-01

178

Research of the utilization of biotechnological agents for the reduction of ammonia and greenhouse gases emissions in livestock breeding in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of ammonia and greenhouse gases emissions resulting from the livestock breeding is conditioned by the performance of many experiments for the reducing technologies verification. The utilisation of biotechnological agents in the livestock breeding enables to reduce not only ammonia but in many cases also the principal greenhouse gases. In the paper is presented the system and methodology of

A. Jelínek; M. D?dina; R. Kraus

179

Greenhouse Gases Emission from Land Application of Swine Waste Water: A Comparison of Three Different Swine Slurry Application Methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural activities (including land application of animal manures) account for about 20% of the total human induced global warming budget due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Recently, there has been an increasing emphasis on controlling these emissions from livestock operations. One of...

180

An investigation into the mechanisms of changes in mid-latitude mean sea level pressure as greenhouse gases are increased  

Microsoft Academic Search

When greenhouse gases are increased in coupled GCM experiments there is both a direct effect and an indirect effect due to changes in the surface conditions. In this study we carry out experiments with a perpetual winter atmosphere only model in order to investigate the influence of changes to the surface conditions (sea surface temperatures, sea-ice and snow amount) on

R. E. Carnell; C. A. Senior

2002-01-01

181

Production of the greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2 by hydroelectric reservoirs of the boreal region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission fluxes and the distribution of dissolved methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were determined for 11 sampling stations in two hydroelectric reservoirs (flooded since 1978 and 1993) located in the James Bay territory of northern Québec. The measured benthic fluxes for the two greenhouse gases were found to be either higher or similar to those determined at the

E. Duchemin; M. Lucotte; R. Canuel; A. Chamberland

1995-01-01

182

Modeling of Global Biogenic Emissions for Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One key element of assessing the impact of human activities on climate change is to accurately estimate the emissions of not only direct but also indirect (reactive) greenhouse gases (GHGs). Direct GHGs, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ozone (O3), can warm up the Earths surface by absorbing the terrestrial infrared (IR) radiation. Reactive gases, e.g. carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NOx), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), though transparent to IR radiation, can impact the climate system by altering CH4 and tropospheric O3 concentrations, two important GHGs, through complex chemical processes. In this study, we integrated a biogenic model within a terrestrial ecosystem model to investigate the vegetation and soil emissions of key indirect GHGs, e.g., isoprene, monoterpene, other NMVOCs (OVOC), CO, and NOx. The combination of a high-resolution terrestrial ecosystem model with satellite data allows investigation of the potential changes in biogenic emissions of indirect GHGs due to atmospheric CO2 increases, and changes in climate and land-use practices.

Jain, A.; Yang, X.

2009-12-01

183

Greenhouse gases measurements in road tunnel in São Paulo Megacity, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is the richest area in Brazil and is one of the largest megacities in the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants. The fleet, with more than 7 million vehicles, is unique in that most are fueled by ethanol or by a gasoline-ethanol (flex-fuel vehicles) mixture containing 75-78% gasoline (by volume) and 22-25% ethanol (a blend referred to as gasohol). Nowadays, approximately 50% of the fuel burned by the fleet is ethanol. The vehicular emissions are responsible for approximately 98, 97, and 96%, respectively, of all emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, the fleet is the largest source of CO2 emissions in the MASP. The goal is to evaluate of the vehicles emissions of the pollutants and greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) in the MASP. The gases carbon dioxide and methane were carried out by Picarro G2301 Analyzer for CO2/CH4/H2O in air. Field measurements were carried out in two road tunnels within the MASP: May 2 to 13, 2011 in the Janio Quadros (JQ) tunnel and from July 04 to 19, 2011 in the Rodoanel (RA) tunnel. The JQ tunnel is located in the southwest portion of São Paulo. It is a two-lane tunnel that is 1900 m in length, and the traffic in both lanes flows in the same directions. The in-tunnel emissions are mainly from gasohol- and ethanol-powered vehicles. The RA tunnel is located in the West portion of the city and different from JQ tunnel. It is 1700m in length and carries gasohol, ethanol and diesel powered vehicles, being that approximately 40% of the heavy-duty (burning diesel) in its four-lane. The results showed that the effects of the number and velocity of the vehicles in the variability of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The carbon dioxide reaching the hourly maximum value of 550 ppm in-inside the JQ tunnel, and 900 ppm in-side the RA tunnel.

Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Galichio, W.; Astolfo, R.; Miranda, R. M.

2012-04-01

184

Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products.

Searchinger, Timothy; Heimlich, Ralph; Houghton, R. A.; Dong, Fengxia; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto; Tokgoz, Simla; Hayes, Dermot; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

2008-02-01

185

Definition of yearly emission factor of dust and greenhouse gases through continuous measurements in swine husbandry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of this study was to develop an accurate estimation method to evaluate the contribution of the various compartments of swine husbandry to dust and GHG (greenhouse gases, CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O) emission into the atmosphere during one year of observation. A weaning, a gestation, a farrowing and a fattening room in an intensive pig house were observed in three different periods (Autumn-Winter, Springtime and Summer, monitoring at least 60% of each period (20% at the beginning, in the middle and at the end) of each cycle). During monitoring, live weight, average live weight gain, number of animals and its variation, type of feed and feeding time were taken into account to evaluate their influence on PM 10, or the fraction of suspended particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 ?m [Emission Inventory Guidebook, 2007. B1100 Particle Emissions from Animal Husbandry Activities. Available from: (accessed October 2008)] and to define GHG emission. The selected piggery had a ventilation control system using a free running impeller to monitor continuously real-time environmental and management parameters with an accuracy of 5%. PM 10 concentration was monitored by a sampler (Haz Dust EPAM 5000), either continuously or through traditional gravimetric technique, and the mean value of dust amount collected on the membranes was utilized as a correction factor to be applied to continuously collected data. PM 10 concentration amount incoming from inlets was removed from PM 10 emission calculation, to estimate the real contribution of pig house dust pollution into atmosphere. Mean yearly emission factor of PM 10 was measured in 2 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.09 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 2.59 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 1.23 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. The highest PM 10 concentration and emission per LU was recorded in the fattening compartment while the lowest value was recorded in the farrowing room. CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O concentrations were continuously measured in the exhaust ducts using an infrared photoacoustic detector IPD (Brüel & Kjaer, Multi-gas Monitor Type 1302, Multipoint Sampler and Doser Type 1303) sampling data every 15 min, for the 60% of the cycles. Yearly emission factor for CO 2 was measured in 5997 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 1278 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 13,636 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 8851 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for CH 4 was measured in 24.57 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 4.68 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 189.82 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 132.12 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. Yearly emission factor for N 2O was measured in 3.62 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.66 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 3.26 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 2.72 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room.

Costa, Annamaria; Guarino, Marcella

186

Retrieval of greenhouse gases from GOSAT SWIR data processing with PPDF-based method of atmospheric light scattering correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) that is in orbit since 23rd January, 2009, one of the key issues of a large volume of near-infrared highly resolved spectra processing is the accurate and rapid determination of CO2 level. Algorithms for oper-ational satellite data processing of solar spectral observations of ground surface reflection must properly account for atmospheric light scattering. Aerosol and thin upper tropospheric clouds that affect the optical path through the atmosphere could be significant sources of error in greenhouse gas retrievals We present initial results on actual GOSAT SWIR data processing with PPDF-based method that corrects atmospheric light scattering through account for optical pathlength modification (PPDF is an abbreviation for "photon pathlength probability density function). The retrieval procedure includes constrained minimization of the residual between the modeled and observed GOSAT spectra. The constraints are mainly imposed on gas vertical profiles within the maximum a posteriori method using covariance matrices based on NIES atmo-spheric tracer transport model. The state vector includes vertical profiles of gas mixing ratios; correction factors for prior temperature and water vapor profiles; altitudes of the cirrus and aerosol layers parameters. Surface pressure is taken from climatological data set. In addition, we retrieve three polynomial coefficients for each spectral region to account for low-frequency part of the spectra and stretch factor to allow for wave number grid variations. Two spectral regions were utilized (6200 -6270 cm-1 from band 2 and 4800 -4880 cm-1 from band 3) for CO2 estimation depending on the retrieval strategy. The tapping of both regions permits si-multaneous gas and PPDF retrievals. The case of Band 2 only required independent PPDF estimations that were obtained on the base of three-dimensional aerosol transport radiation model SPRINTERS.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Andrey, Bril; Yoshida, Yukio; Isamu, Morino; Yokota, Tatsuya

187

Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NO x, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and its climate effects linked chemistry and climate strongly. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins due to fast long-range transport, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e., aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols may nucleate more cloud droplets, which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. The dimming has a surface cooling effect and decreases evaporation of moisture from the surface, thus slows down the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, absorption of solar radiation by black carbon and some organics increase atmospheric heating and tend to amplify greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. ABCs are concentrated in regional and mega-city hot spots. Long-range transport from these hot spots causes widespread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by widespread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. In S. Asia and N. Africa, the large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered both the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures and land-ocean contrast in surface temperatures, which in turn slow down the monsoon circulation and decrease rainfall over the continents. On the other hand, heating by black carbon warms the atmosphere at elevated levels from 2 to 6 km, where most tropical glaciers are located, thus strengthening the effect of GHGs on retreat of snow packs and glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya-Tibetan glaciers. Globally, the surface cooling effect of ABCs may have masked as much 47% of the global warming by greenhouse gases, with an uncertainty range of 20-80%. This presents a dilemma since efforts to curb air pollution may unmask the ABC cooling effect and enhance the surface warming. Thus efforts to reduce GHGs and air pollution should be done under one common framework. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.

188

Have greenhouse gases intensified the contrast between wet and dry regions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While changes in land precipitation during the last 50 years have been attributed in part to human influences, results vary by season, are affected by data uncertainty and do not account for changes over ocean. One of the more physically robust responses of the water cycle to warming is the expected amplification of existing patterns of precipitation minus evaporation. Here, precipitation changes in wet and dry regions are analyzed from satellite data for 1988-2010, covering land and ocean. We derive fingerprints for the expected change from climate model simulations that separately track changes in wet and dry regions. The simulations used are driven with anthropogenic and natural forcings combined, and greenhouse gas forcing or natural forcing only. Results of detection and attribution analysis show that the fingerprint of combined external forcing is detectable in observations and that this intensification of the water cycle is partly attributable to greenhouse gas forcing.

Polson, D.; Hegerl, G. C.; Allan, R. P.; Sarojini, B. Balan

2013-09-01

189

Environmental hazards and health risk of common liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes, potent greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

This article aimed at introducing the main physical properties and commercial/industrial uses of common liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes (including perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, perfluoroheptane, perfluorooctane, and perfluorononane) and the environment and health hazards posed by their toxic decomposition products (especially in hydrogen fluoride and perfluoroisobutylene) because these perfluorocompounds are potent greenhouse gases, which have been blanketed into the Kyoto Protocol, but was rarely described in the National Inventory Reports by Annex I Parties. The environmental properties (including octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility and Henry's law constant) of liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes were evaluated, and further discussed were its atmospheric implications according to the predicted properties and possible proposal for the formation of trifluoroacetic acid (CF(3)COOH) in the atmosphere by the ionized photolysis. These predicted values revealed that liquid perfluoro-n-alkanes tend to be hydrophobic and partitioned into organic matter, and they have exceptionally low solubility in water and extremely high vaporization from the water bodies, suggesting that it will sink into the atmosphere if it is released into the environment. PMID:18845341

Tsai, Wen-Tien

2008-10-09

190

Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model.  

PubMed

When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions. PMID:18164811

Chen, Tsao-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Fang

2007-11-22

191

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management--an introduction.  

PubMed

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO(2)-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies. PMID:19748948

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

2009-09-11

192

Emissions and reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture and food manufacturing -- A summary white paper  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the current scientific and technological knowledge about greenhouse gas emissions from various agricultural practices and the manufacturing of food. The study also provides estimates that compare agriculture-related alternatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Johnston, S.

1999-12-01

193

Evaluating Changes in Organic C and Emission of Greenhouse Gases in a California Agricultural Landscape.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major question in CA agriculture is how much C may be sequestered in soil of irrigated, minimum tillage systems. Our main research goals are to identify and quantify the underlying mechanisms and processes controlling the rate of CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions versus soil C stabilization as affected by tillage operations. A landscape research approach is used to increase our mechanistic understanding of the biotic and abiotic processes that govern C dynamics under standard and minimum tillage practices. We have selected an irrigated, laser leveled agricultural site in the CA Central Valley for this study. The 70-acre site, located approximately 10 miles northwest of Davis, has been split into two fields. Beginning in the fall of 2003, one field has been managed under standard tillage (ST) and the other under minimum tillage (MT). Each field is instrumented with 1) an eddy-covariance mast to measure field-scale CO2 fluxes, 2) with a 0.62-m2 automated chamber to assess the temporal pattern of CO2 and N2O fluxes, 3) with 36 506-cm2 portable PVC chambers to evaluate the spatial characteristics of CO2, N2O and NO fluxes, 4) with 4 subsurface soil gas probes to measure CO2 and N2O concentrations with depth and 5) with multiple piezometers and tensiometers to monitor the movement of soil water throughout the growing season. Round-up Ready corn was planted in both fields in April 2004. Results from this growing season indicate that the various methods of CO2 measurement compare well with one another. There was no notable difference in soil CO2 flux between tillage treatments, but the eddy-covariance towers measured differences in net CO2 flux between treatments based on differential crop growth patterns. The MT treatment had slightly higher N2O emissions than ST, but N2O and NO emissions were primarily restricted to areas and time periods of fertilizer application. Preliminary results from the 2005 growing season (sunflower crop) indicate similar results. MT corn yield was 73% of that in the ST treatment. Patterns of soil texture, ground water movement, and treatment effects are being explored to help explain the yield gap and other spatial patterns in the data. Upcoming years of the project include continued monitoring of greenhouse gases and soil C dynamics in the two tillage systems, comparison of field data with DNDC and Daycent models, and economic evaluation of the two systems. These results will help provide a realistic assessment of the role CA agriculture can play in C sequestration when land is converted from standard to minimum tillage.

Rolston, D. E.; Hopmans, J. W.; van Kessel, C.; Six, J.; Paw U, K.; Plant, R. E.; Hsiao, T. C.; Poch, R. M.; Shaver, G.; Ideris, A. J.; Lee, J.; Louie, D. T.; MacIntyre, J. L.; Matista, T. A.; Evatt, K. J.; King, A. P.

2005-12-01

194

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

1997-07-01

195

Measurement and modelling of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases from northern wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern wetlands contain ?30% of the world's terrestrial carbon store, resulting from the incomplete decomposition of plant material inhibited because oxygen diffusion is limited by water saturation of the soil. While this behaviour results in a sink for CO_2, anaerobic pathways of decomposition result in wetlands being a large, but variable, source of CH_4. Northern wetlands tend to be nitrogen-impoverished, therefore they are not an important source of N_2O. However, nitrogen deposition, peat extraction, and other land-use changes have the potential to alter their greenhouse gas (GHG) sink/source function. Until recently, most of the studies on the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of greenhouse gases from northern wetlands were short-term and seasonal. In 1998 the Peatland Carbon Study began continuous measurements of the carbon dynamics of a northern peatland and developed several ecosystem models to be used in simulations of the response of peatlands to climate variability and change. The continuous measurements have established the dominant role of climate variability in determining the magnitude and sign of the fluxes of GHGs. The Peatland Carbon Simulator (PCARS) was developed to use either direct measurements or modeled climate from a land surface process model such as the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) which has been modified to incorporate the physical attributes of wetlands as inputs. PCARS illustrates the relative importance of various components of the ecosystem in determining the inter-annual variability in GHG exchange. Evaluation of PCARS has helped identify significant gaps in our knowledge of peatland systems. A second, more phenomenological model, the Peat Accumulation Model (PAM), demonstrates the overall importance of precipitation in controlling decadal to millennial scale variations in sink/source strength of CO_2. The Canadian Global Coupled Climate Carbon Model (CGC^3M) Network is attempting to parameterize wetland processes for the inclusion in a global terrestrial ecosystem model for climate simulations, but it is a significant challenge to develop an efficient, yet realistic, wetland simulator for global scale modelling.

Roulet, N. T.; Frolking, S.; Lafleur, P. M.; Moore, T. R.; Richard, P. H. J.

2003-04-01

196

Simulating evolution of technology: An aid to energy policy analysis. A case study of strategies to control greenhouse gases in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues related to the reduction of greenhouse gases are encumbered with uncertainties for decision makers. Unfortunately, conventional analytical tools generate widely divergent forecasts of the effects of actions designed to mitigate these emissions. \\

John Nyboer

1997-01-01

197

Geologic Storage of Greenhouse Gases: Multiphase andNon-isothermal Effects, and Implications for Leakage Behavior  

SciTech Connect

Storage of greenhouse gases, primarily CO2, in geologic formations has been proposed as a means by which atmospheric emissions of such gases may be reduced (Bachu et al., 1994; Orr, 2004). Possible storage reservoirs currently under consideration include saline aquifers, depleted or depleting oil and gas fields, and unmineable coal seams (Baines and Worden, 2004). The amount of CO2 emitted from fossil-fueled power plants is very large, of the order of 30,000 tons per day (10 million tons per year) for a large 1,000 MW coal-fired plant (Hitchon,1996). In order to make a significant impact on reducing emissions, very large amounts of CO2 would have to be injected into subsurface formations, resulting in CO2 disposal plumes with an areal extent of order 100 km2 or more (Pruess et al., 2003). It appears inevitable, then, that such plumes will encounter imperfections in caprocks, such as fracture zones or faults, that would allow CO2 to leak from the primary storage reservoir. At typical subsurface conditions of temperature and pressure, CO2 is always less dense than aqueous fluids; thus buoyancy forces will tend to drive CO2 upward, towards the land surface, whenever adequate (sub-)vertical permeability is available. Upward migration of CO2 could also occur along wells, including pre-existing wells in sedimentary basins where oil and gas exploration and production may have been conducted (Celia et al., 2004), or along wells drilled as part of a CO2 storage operation. Concerns with leakage of CO2 from a geologic storage reservoir include (1) keeping the CO2 contained and out of the atmosphere, (2) avoiding CO2 entering groundwater aquifers, (3)asphyxiation hazard if CO2 is released at the land surface, and (4) the possibility of a self-enhancing runaway discharge, that may culminate in a ''pneumatic eruption'' (Giggenbach et al., 1991). The manner in which CO2 may leak from storage reservoirs must be understood in order to avoid hazards and design monitoring systems.

Pruess, Karsten

2005-08-05

198

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases. Initial studies, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

The current objective of the project ``Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases`` is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

199

AIRS: Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its two companion microwave sounders, AMSU and HSB were launched into polar orbit onboard the NASA Aqua Satellite in May 2002. NASA required the sounding system to provide high-quality research data for climate studies and to meet NOAA's requirements for improving operational weather forecasting. The NOAA requirement translated into global retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles with accuracies approaching those of radiosondes. AIRS also provides new measurements of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CO, CH4, O3, SO2, and aerosols.The assimilation of AIRS data into operational weather forecasting has already demonstrated significant improvements in global forecast skill. At NOAA/NCEP, the improvement in the forecast skill achieved at 6 days is equivalent to gaining an extension of forecast capability of six hours. This improvement is quite significant when compared to other forecast improvements over the last decade. In addition to NCEP, ECMWF and the Met Office have also reported positive forecast impacts due AIRS.AIRS is a hyperspectral sounder with 2,378 infrared channels between 3.7 and 15.4 µm. NOAA/NESDIS routinely distributes AIRS data within 3 hours to NWP centers around the world. The AIRS design represents a breakthrough in infrared space instrumentation with measurement stability and accuracies far surpassing any current research or operational sounder. The results we describe in this paper are “work in progress,” and although significant accomplishments have already been made much more work remains in order to realize the full potential of this suite of instruments.

Chahine, Moustafa T.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Atlas, Robert; Barnet, Christopher; Blaisdell, John; Chen, Luke; Divakarla, Murty; Fetzer, Eric J.; Goldberg, Mitch; Gautier, Catherine; Granger, Stephanie; Hannon, Scott; Irion, Fredrick W.; Kakar, Ramesh; Kalnay, Eugenia; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Le Marshall, John; McMillan, W. Wallace; McMillin, Larry; Olsen, Edward T.; Revercomb, Henry; Rosenkranz, Philip; Smith, William L.; Staelin, David; Larrabee Strow, L.; Susskind, Joel; Tobin, David; Wolf, Walter; Zhou, Lihang

2006-07-01

200

Factors Promoting a Cool Cambrian Climate: Role of Land Surface Conditions and Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of recent work suggesting episodic cooling during the Late Cambrian (~500 Ma), an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity is utilized to evaluate the roles of Late Cambrian continental configuration, mountain height, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on Earth's climate. The Planetary Simulator (PLASIM), developed at the Meteorological Institute of the University of Hamburg, is utilized at T21 spectral resolution (5.6° latitude x 5.6° longitude) with a 50 m deep slab ocean in four experiments. The first three experiments are run with a Late Cambrian continental configuration. Two experiments are run with an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 10 x pre-industrial (2800 ppm). This is in the range estimated for the Late Cambrian by carbon cycle modeling studies. One of these experiments utilizes a flat topography (CAMB_FLAT), and the other, includes mountains (CAMB_MTN). A third experiment is identical to CAMB_MTN, but CO2 is set to 280 ppm (CAMB_COLD). All Cambrian experiments are integrated without any vegetation, and with solar luminosity reduced by 6%. The Cambrian experiments also utilize a uniform land surface boundary condition consisting of sand with an albedo of 0.37. A fourth scenario was run with pre-industrial boundary conditions (modern geography and vegetation and 280 ppm CO2) as a control experiment (CONTROL). Despite the high level of CO2, global average temperatures in CAMB_FLAT and CAMB_MTN are cooler than that of CONTROL. In CAMB_COLD, the oceans freeze over completely and 'snowball Earth' conditions are present. These results highlight the importance of vegetation, land surface albedo, and continental position in maintaining an equable climate in modern times. They also suggest that a drop in greenhouse gases during the Cambrian, whether due to reduced natural emissions from biologic or volcanic sources, or an increase in biologic activity in the oceans, could have been responsible for the initiation of cooler climatic conditions.

Shellito, L. J.

2011-12-01

201

Svensk skogsindustries emissioner och upptag av vaexthusgaser. En bedoemning av skogsindustrins bidrag till vaexthuseffekten. (Emission and uptake of greenhouse gases in Swedish forestry. An estimation of the greenhouse effect contribution from the forest industry).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported are emission and uptake of the greenhouse gases CO(sub 2), N(sub 2)O and CH(sub 4) for the swedish forest industry. The contribution to the greenhouse effect is calculated from these figures. At present, the forest industry accounts for a net upt...

D. Cooper L. Zetterberg

1994-01-01

202

BASSTEGG (Bay Area Simplified Simulation of Travel, Energy and Greenhouse Gases) Sketch Planning Charrette\\/GIS Models for Predicting Household Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) and Greenhouse Gas (CO 2) Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased interest in the interactions of land use and transportation and their related impacts on global warming, there is now a warranted need for improved and quicker techniques for simulating mobile source based, regional and sub-regional greenhouse gas emissions. The Bay Area Simplified Simulation of Travel, Energy and Greenhouse Gases (BASTEGG) is a GIS-based tool for calculating automobile

H. M. Brazil; C. L. Purvis

203

Ionic composition and greenhouse gases evaluation in Tietê River sediment and mud landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are 39 cities composing the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) which has grown seven times during the last sixty years, reaching, in 2011, 19.3 million inhabitants. This fact associated with a strong industrial development provoked, among other consequences, a disordered urbanization along the most important river of the region: Tietê. About 100 Km of its 1,150 Km full extension crosses MASP and, during the 60's, Marginal Tietê roadway was constructed, occupying the river banks as access routes. Tietê River was straightened and several landfills were created with its deposit (sediment and mud). EACH-USP (46.50 W, 23.48 S) lies nowadays in one of these areas, where this work has been developed. Therefore, the goal is to evaluate the chemical composition (ionic and gases) and its variability in function of the depth levels using three wells, from 0.60 to 9.0 m of depth. The wells were perforated in September 2011, end of the dry weather. Each well owns a homemade multiport sampling device (HMSD), being possible to push gas and/or water up from 15 available ports. The gases measurements were carried out using a GEM-2000 plus (Landtec) portable analyzer. Aqueous samples containing solid material were taken at each level depth from ports of the HMSD. However, no water was found in some levels. All samples were kept cooled until analysis procedures. After decantation of the solid material, the supernatant liquid was divided in two portions, being its conductivity (Micronal conductimeter) and pH (pH-meter Metrohm 654 with combined glass electrode) measured with the former and ionic analysis with the latter, in which all samples were filtered (Millex 0.22 micrometer pores) before each ionic chromatographic analysis, using Metrohm 850 System, for the ions: sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. The first sampling stage was carried out during November and December 2011 in the beginning of rainy season in the mid Spring. From all the analysis performed, a large variability of the results may be observed for both gases and ionic composition not only among the wells, but also among the different depth levels. Vertically, one of the wells (W2) showed the same percentage of gases, methane 55% and carbon dioxide 45%, at all depth levels, while the other two wells (W1 and W3) presented these gases percentages only under 5.0 m deep. Concerning oxygen, 25% of this gas was detected at 1.0 m under the surface in W1 and W3. In relation to aqueous samples, the most acidity was observed near the surface (0.60 m deep, W1), pH 4.65, while pH 7.88 was obtained under 5.0 m deep (W3). For ionic concentrations a large range was observed considering all wells, being the lowest values for sulfate, from 0.60 to 20 mg/l, and the highest values for ammonium, between 14 and 53 mg/l. These results variability can be associated to the different soil composition layers, as well as to the biodegradation process and the time confinement of the river material deposit.

La-Scalea, M. A.; Fornaro, A.; Abreu, E. L.; Mendonça, C. A.

2012-04-01

204

Reported emissions of organic gases are not consistent with observations  

PubMed Central

Regulatory agencies and photochemical models of ozone rely on self-reported industrial emission rates of organic gases. Incorrect self-reported emissions can severely impact on air quality models and regulatory decisions. We compared self-reported emissions of organic gases in Houston, Texas, to measurements at a receptor site near the Houston ship channel, a major petrochemical complex. We analyzed hourly observations of total nonmethane organic carbon and 54 hydrocarbon compounds from C-2 to C-9 for the period June through November, 1993. We were able to demonstrate severe inconsistencies between reported emissions and major sources as derived from the data using a multivariate receptor model. The composition and the location of the sources as deduced from the data are not consistent with the reported industrial emissions. On the other hand, our observationally based methods did correctly identify the location and composition of a relatively small nearby chemical plant. This paper provides strong empirical evidence that regulatory agencies and photochemical models are making predictions based on inaccurate industrial emissions.

Henry, Ronald C.; Spiegelman, Clifford H.; Collins, John F.; Park, EunSug

1997-01-01

205

Modeling the Impact of Changing Climate and Permafrost on Emission of Greenhouse Gases From the Arctic Wetlands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is growing evidence that climatic warming and changes in permafrost may enhance the emission of the greenhouse gases from the Arctic wetlands. Arctic soils contain approximately 455 Gt C, or 14% of the global soil carbon of which about 50Gt C are accumulated in the Arctic wetlands. Deeper seasonal thawing may lead to enhanced decomposition of the organic material and release of soil carbon to the atmosphere in the form of either CO2 (typical for dry soils with high ventilation), or CH4 (typical for wetlands where decomposition takes place under anaerobic conditions). We used the digital contours of 112,520 Siberian wetlands, permafrost and soil carbon models, and GCM-based scenarios of future climate to calculate the changes in the volume of seasonally thawing organic-rich soil and emission of greenhouse gases from the wetlands in the Russian Arctic. By 2050 the overall volume of seasonally thawing carbon-rich soils is likely to increase on average by 20% - 30%. The largest relative increase, up to 50%, will be in the northernmost permafrost locations while in the southern zone of sporadic permafrost increase in the volume of seasonally thawing organic material will be relatively small, within 10%-15%. Such changes of permafrost, higher soil temperature and longer warm period may lead to enhanced emission of greenhouse gases. It may increase by 80% at selected locations along the arctic coast, by 30%-50% over the discontinuous permafrost region, and up to 20% in the southern permafrost zone. Better drainage conditions and enhanced evapotranspiration under warmer climate may lower the water table and improve soil ventilation, ultimately shifting the currently existing balance in favor of CO2 rather than CH4 production.

Anisimov, O.; Reneva, S.

2004-12-01

206

Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to

C. Y. J. Kao; E. Morz; X. Tie

1991-01-01

207

Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in the Second Generation Model  

SciTech Connect

The Second Generation Model (SGM) was developed for the purpose of analyzing policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper documents how greenhouse gas emissions are calculated in the SGM, an application to several Energy Modeling Forum scenarios that stabilize radiative forcing by using policies that either exclusively limit CO2 emissions or include both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gasses, and an extension including advanced fossil generating technologies with CO2 capture and storage in the USA region of the SGM.

Fawcett, Allen A.; Sands, Ronald D.

2006-12-29

208

Optimization Model for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Automobiles (OMEGA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (VGHG) model is used to apply various technologies to a defined set of vehicles in order to meet a specified GHG emission target, and to then calculate the costs and benefits of doing so....

209

GREENHOUSE GASES (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected for various scenarios and the most appropriate approaches and technologies for mitigation are identified by NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB). These methods contribute to reduct...

210

Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model as a Link between Local-Scale Measurements of Greenhouse Gases and Larger-Scale Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to represent small-scale variability in greenhouse gases we are considering a chain of nested models. First, a regional scale meteorological and transport is nested within a global transport model. In our studies SiB-RAMS (CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System coupled with Simple Biosphere model) is using CO2 fields from PCTM (Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model) with the aid nudging approach. SiB-RAMS is capable to realistically represent regional and mesoscale transport over complex terrain. However, the simulated tracer fields are still available as grid cell averages which are difficult to compare directly to point observations from a tower network To overcame this problem, we run Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) backward in time from each tower to derive influence functions (footprints) for both concentration and flux measurements. In turn, the observation can be expressed as a sum of contribution from surface fluxes, advection fluxes across lateral boundaries and from initial concentration field. LPDM can be used over arbitrary subdomain ( rectangular or cylindrical) and any time period. The LPDM subdomain can be as large as the RAMS domain as in our regional CO2 inversion studies or just to cover a few grid cells of RAMS to provide a subgrid scale transport parameterization. The advantages of the LPDM in this application include: - accurate representation of a point observation which is not possible in a grid transport model - implementing additional transport/mixing process which are not represented in RAMS but may significantly affect the tower measurements. We implemented a parameterization of non-Gaussian (skewed) turbulence within the convective boundary layer and are considering a parameterization of intermittent turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer in the same framework. - including surface fluxes with resolution finer (if available) than provided by a grid transport model near the tower. We will illustrate this modeling approach using the results from our CO2 studies in meso to regional scales (~10km - Tapajos River region in the Amazon, ~100km - 2004 ring of towers in Wisconsin, ~1000km - USA continental domain). The proposed modeling approach involving the backward in time LPDM is capable of represent any observational system including integrated column measurements. Reactive species with first order chemistry can be easily included. Currently, we are implementing tracing water vapor in term of the influence functions.

Uliasz, M.; Lu, L.; Denning, S.

2008-12-01

211

Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth`s radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to

C. Y. J. Kao; E. Morz; X. Tie

1991-01-01

212

An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

The Kyoto Protocol permits countries to meet part of their emission reduction obligations by cutting back on gases other than CO2 (ref. 1). This approach requires a definition of trade-offs among the radiatively active gases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has suggested global warming potentials for this purpose, which use the accumulated radiative forcing of each gas by a set time horizon to establish emission equivalence. But it has been suggested that this approach has serious shortcomings: damages or abatement costs are not considered and the choice of time horizon for calculating cumulative radiative force is critical, but arbitrary. Here we describe an alternative framework for determining emission equivalence between radiatively active gases that addresses these weaknesses. We focus on limiting temperature change and rate of temperature change, but our framework is also applicable to other objectives. For a proposed ceiling, we calculate how much one should be willing to pay for emitting an additional unit of each gas. The relative prices then determine the trade-off between gases at each point in time, taking into account economical as well as physical considerations. Our analysis shows that the relative prices are sensitive to the lifetime of the gases, the choice of target and the proximity of the target, making short-lived gases more expensive to emit as we approach the prescribed ceiling. PMID:11287950

Manne, A S; Richels, R G

2001-04-01

213

How declining aerosols and rising greenhouse gases forced rapid warming in Europe since the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mainland Europe's temperature rise of about 1°C since the 1980s is considerably larger than expected from anthropogenic greenhouse warming. Here we analyse shortwave and longwave surface forcings measured in Switzerland and Northern Germany and relate them to humidity- and temperature increases through the radiation- and energy budget. Shortwave climate forcing from direct aerosol effects is found to be much larger

Rolf Philipona; Klaus Behrens; Christian Ruckstuhl

2009-01-01

214

Global Warming: Difficulties Assessing Countries' Progress Stabilizing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors evaluate (1) the progress of the United States and other Annex I countries toward meeting the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000 and (2) the major factors that affect the countries' ability to reach that goal. As ...

1996-01-01

215

"An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…

Nolan, Jessica M.

2010-01-01

216

The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric mixing ratios of â¼10{sup -5 {+-}1} for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state

C. Sagan; C. Chyba

1997-01-01

217

“An Inconvenient Truth” Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie “An Inconvenient Truth.” Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.Two studies are reported, one

Jessica M. Nolan

2010-01-01

218

On the cause of the relative greenhouse strength of gases such as the halocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note examines some of the factors important in determining the large radiative impact, relative to carbon dioxide, of increased concentrations of gases in the optically thin limit (such as the halocarbons at their present day concentrations). A narrow-band radiative transfer model is used to show that an absorber with the same integrated band strength as CFC-12, but with almost

Keith P. Shine

1991-01-01

219

Precision high resolution fourier transform spectroscopy of greenhouse gases at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy (DFTS) provides us with a very effective technique for the measurement of absorption and refractive index spectra of environmentally hazardous gases. This paper presents the rotational transition lines and refractive index spectra of Nitrous Oxide gas as a function of varying pressure using DFTS for the very first time. The relationship between the variation of the

N. N. Almoayed; G. R. Khan; M. N. Afsar

2008-01-01

220

Diurnal cycle of greenhouse gases and biogenic hydrocarbons during summer near Cool, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis by forests is a large sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and also a large source of biogenic volatile organics (VOCs) that produce aerosols, nucleate clouds, and interact with nitrogen oxides (NOx) to produce ozone. To elucidate these complex biogeochemical mechanisms, we performed continuous high temporal resolution measurements of CO2, VOC, trace gases, and aerosol in June 2010 at

B. A. Flowers; C. Floerchinger; W. B. Knighton; M. K. Dubey; S. C. Herndon; P. Kelley; W. T. Luke; W. J. Shaw; J. Barnard; N. Laulainen; R. A. Zaveri

2010-01-01

221

Greenhouse gases from biomass and fossil fuel stoves in developing countries: A Manila pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were also taken. All samples were analyzed for CO 2, CO, CH 4, NzO, and total non-methane organic

K. R. Smith; M. A. K. KhaliP; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe; F. Manegdeg; M. Apte

1993-01-01

222

Soil-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases in subtropical plantations of indigenous tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous broadleaf plantations are increasingly developing as a prospective silvicultural management approach for substituting\\u000a in place of large pure conifer plantations in subtropical China. However, little information is known about the effects of\\u000a tree species conversion on soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges. Four adjacent monospecific plantations were selected\\u000a in subtropical China to examine the effects of tree species on soil-atmosphere

Hui Wang; Shirong Liu; Jiangming Mo; Tao Zhang

2010-01-01

223

Climate change and dietary choices — how can emissions of greenhouse gases from food consumption be reduced?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from an analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption during the life-cycle of carrots, tomatoes, potatoes, pork, rice and dry peas consumed in Sweden are presented and discussed. The life-cycle is delineated to the part of the production chain prior to purchase by the consumer. The study shows that emissions, expressed in g CO2 equivalents, are highest for

Annika Carlsson-Kanyama

1998-01-01

224

Trends in the solar quiet geomagnetic field variation linked to the Earth's magnetic field secular variation and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term trends in solar quiet geomagnetic field variation (Sq) are studied in connection to the Earth's magnetic field secular variations and increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Sq is mainly caused by ionospheric current systems that flow in the E region and depends, among other variables, on the ionospheric conductivities. These conductivities in turn depend on the Earth's main magnetic field (B) and the electron concentration in the E region, for which foE is a measure of its peak value. Since B shows secular variation, induced long-term changes in Sq might be expected. Another possible mechanism that would be able to induce Sq trends is the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases that produce a cooling effect in the upper atmosphere and, according to model predictions and experimental results, an increasing trend in foE. To detect if both mechanisms mentioned are able to induce trends in Sq, the Sq variation of the horizontal intensity (H) of three magnetic observatories (Apia, Fredericksburg, and Hermanus), for which B is decreasing, is analyzed for the period 1960-2001. We find significant increasing trends (6.6%, 5.4%, and 9.9%, respectively) which may be partially accounted for by B secular variations in the respective sites. The Sq trend expected from the theoretically predicted foE increase is low (˜0.5%), although positive, as is the observed trend.

Elias, Ana G.; de Artigas, Marta Zossi; de Haro Barbas, Blas F.

2010-08-01

225

Impact of a possible environmental externalities internalisation on energy prices: The case of the greenhouse gases from the Greek electricity sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is concerned with the impact of the internalisation of environmental externalities on energy prices. In this context, its aim is to quantify the external cost of greenhouse gases (specifically carbon dioxide) generated during electricity production in the thermal power plants in Greece and to estimate the impact on the electricity production cost and on the electricity prices

Dimitrios A. Georgakellos

2010-01-01

226

The role of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in cost-effective strategies to reduce pollution by dairy cattle in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In addition, it is a source of compounds contributing to other environmental problems such as acidification, terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation, and human health problems. These compounds include, for instance, ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) volatile organic compounds or

Martina Havlikova; Carolien Kroeze

2010-01-01

227

Modeling of global biogenic emissions for key indirect greenhouse gases and their response to atmospheric CO2 increases and changes in land cover and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) play a crucial role in the oxidation capacity of the lower atmosphere and changes in concentrations of major greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly methane and tropospheric ozone. In this study, we integrate a global biogenic model within a terrestrial ecosystem model to investigate the vegetation and soil emissions of key indirect GHGs, e.g.,

Zhining Tao; Atul K. Jain

2005-01-01

228

The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric mixing ratios of {approximately}10{sup -5 {+-}1} for ammonia on the early Earth would have been sufficient, through the resulting greenhouse warming, to counteract the temperature effects of the faint early sun. One argument against such model atmospheres has been the short time scale for ammonia photodissociation by solar ultraviolet light. Here it is shown that ultraviolet absorption by steady-state amounts of high-altitude organic solids produced from methane photolysis may have shielded ammonia sufficiently that ammonia resupply rates were able to maintain surface temperatures above freezing. 78 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sagan, C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Chyba, C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1997-05-23

229

Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and significantly higher than those (negative value) during January (winter) when sub soil have low temperature and relatively high moisture due to snow during the winter measurement period. Averages of soil temperature and moisture during these months were 17.5±1.2oC, 45.7±8.2%WFPS for October; and 1.4±1.3oC, 89.9±8.8%WFPS for January. It may indicate that soil temperature and moisture have significant role in determining whether the CO2 and CH4 emission or uptake take place. Low temperature and high moisture above a certain optimum level during winter could weaken microbial activity and the gas diffusion in soil matrix, and then make soil GHG emission to the atmosphere decrease. Other soil parameters were also correlated with GHG emissions and discussed. Both positive and negative gas fluxes in CH4 and CO2 were observed during these measurements, but not for N2O. CH4 and CO2 gases seem to be emitted from soil surface or up taken by the soil depending on other factors such as background concentrations and physicochemical soil conditions. However, still there are many uncertainties and large scarcities in both their determination methods and soil GHG flux data. Improvement of measurement techniques and well-understanding of relationships between gas emission and controlling factors in such environments need to be required.

Kim, D.; Na, U.

2010-12-01

230

Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Quéré, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are ±0.03 per mil and ±0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a separate airline and can be switched between inlets that are within 1m of grass lawn at ground level or within 5 m of a large oak tree at canopy level. Flow rates vary between the internal pumps of the CRDS instruments, but within the range 260-300 cc/min when inlet valves are fully opened. Controlling flows below 200 cc/min significantly increases stabilisation time for cylinder gases. Likewise setting outlet pressures for NOAA and target gases at 4 psi and allowing the instrument pumps to control flow speeds up stabilization. Currently the instruments are measuring CO2, CH4 and H2O at 5-second intervals. Precisions (1 SD) of NOAA tanks, based on the final 10 minutes of a 30-minute analysis period are better than ±0.03 ppm for CO2 and ±0.3 ppb for CH4. Automated inlets and automated data retrieval will be tested during spring, for deployment on the South Atlantic islands later in 2009. Fisher, R., Lowry, D., Wilkin, O., Sriskantharajah S. & Nisbet. E.G. (2006) High-precision, automated stable isotope analysis of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Comm. Mass. Spec. 20, 200-208. Le Quéré, C., C. Rödenbeck, E. T. Buitenhuis, T. J. Conway, R. Langenfelds, A. Gomez, C. Labuschagne, M. Ramonet, T. Nakazawa, N. Metzl, N. Gillett, and M. Heimann, Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change, Science, 316, 1735-1738, 2007.

Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisellé, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

2009-04-01

231

Observations and Photochemistry of Reactive Trace Gases in the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO and O_3 play a significant role in the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and thus the habitability of the Earth. NO controls the photochemical production of O_3. Reliable measurements of substantial temporal and/or spatial resolution are necessary to understand the distribution, transport, and photochemistry of these trace gases. The present work includes three experiments to study the distribution of ozone and its precursors in rural environment and during convective activity, to characterize the regional air quality, and to enrich the incomplete data base of constituents that play a key role in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone. Standard meteorological parameters and concentrations of O_3 and CO were monitored in rural Virginia from October 1988 to October 1989. Seasonal, monthly, and diurnal variations of hourly averages are examined. Dry deposition of O_3 dominates in the winter and photochemistry in the summer. Various lines of evidence suggests that the data are little affected by local sources and are reasonably representative of the regional continental air quality. In recognition of the deleterious effects of photochemical oxidants on human health and on the economy of the southeastern U.S., we made simultaneous measurements of NO, NO _{rm x}, NO_ {rm y}, CO, O_3, and UV solar flux in rural North Carolina, in August 1991. The NO_{rm x}/NO _{rm y} ratio shows the expected diurnal variation with a mean value of 0.25. Calculated rates of O_3 production, using a simplified chemical scheme, are of the same order of magnitude as the observed increases in O_3 mixing ratios, offering confidence on the reliability of our NO_{rm x} measurements. Downward transport from the stratosphere is the major natural source of O_3 in the troposphere. Measurements taken near a Mesoscale Convective System during the North Dakota Thunderstorm Project on June 28, 1989, suggest the existence of a previously undiscovered mechanism for troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The anvil outflow extended well into what used to be the stratosphere. Air inside the anvil was characterized by notably low concentrations of O_3, and high CO, relative to the out-of-cloud environment. The severe storm lifted the tropopause, the deformation of which resulted in a broken boundary around the anvil, leading to extensive troposphere-stratosphere exchange.

Poulida, Olga

232

Evaluation of surface air temperature change due to the greenhouse gases increase with a statistical-dynamical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical-dynamical climate model is used for investigating the relative contribution of the changes in the radiation budget and surface air temperature due to the increase of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases predicted for 2100 on the basis of IPCC SRES A1FI (the highest greenhouse level scenario). Five experiments are performed considering the changes in concentrations of (1) CO2, (2) CH4, (3) N2O, (4) tropospheric O3, and (5) all the changes together. The results show that the mean global planetary absorbed solar radiation increases in response to the predicted conditions according to the scenario A1FI for year 2100 (A1FI-2100). This is due to the effect of O3 absorptions. This increase leads to a decrease in the mean global planetary net thermal infrared radiation emitted to space by the Earth-atmosphere system to space and to an increase in mean global planetary net radiation. These changes are controlled mainly by the increase in CO2 concentration. The changes in the radiation budget due to N2O and CH4 are small. The mean global surface air temperature response to the predicted conditions for A1FI-2100 was +0.59°C. The change in CO2 concentration is responsible for an increase of +0.49°C. The higher increases occur in the polar regions: +2.15°C (at 85°S) and +1.55°C (at 85°N) in the case of the predicted conditions for A1FI-2100. Additional experiments indicate that the changes in surface air temperature are similar in the cases of the predicted conditions for A1FI-2100 and 4 × CO2, 2 × CO2 and 4 × N2O, and in 2 × N2O and 4 × CH4.

Moraes, Elisabete C.; Franchito, Sergio H.; Rao, V. Brahmananda

2005-12-01

233

ACCURATE: Influence of Cloud Layers and Aerosol on Infrared Laser Occultation Signals for Sensing of Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACCURATE (Atmospheric Climate and Chemistry in the UTLS Region And climate Trends Explorer), a new climate satellite concept, enables simultaneous measurement of profiles of greenhouse gases, isotopes, wind and thermodynamic variables from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. The measurement principle applied is a combination of the novel LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation (LIO) technique and the well-studied but not yet flown LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO) technique. As intrinsic to the space-borne occultation technique, the measurements are evenly distributed around the world, have high vertical resolution and high accuracy and are stable over long time periods. The LIO uses near-monochromatic signals in the short-wave infrared range (~2-2.5 m in the case of ACCURATE) which are absorbed by various trace species in the Earth's atmosphere. From signal transmission measurements, profiles of the concentration of the absorbing species can be derived given that temperature and pressure are accurately known from LMO. The current ACCURATE mission design is arranged for the measurement of six greenhouse gases (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO) and four isotopes (13CO2, C18OO, HDO, H218O) with focus on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS, 5-35 km). Wind speed in line-of-sight can be derived from a line-symmetric transmission difference which is caused by wind-induced Doppler shift. By-products are information on cloud layering, aerosol extinction and scintillation strength. This contribution presents an overview on the ACCURATE mission design and the expected accuracy of retrieved atmospheric variables and further focuses on the influence of clouds and aerosols on propagating LIO signals. Special emphasis will be given to sub-visible cirrus clouds which are semi-transparent to infrared signals. A simple frequency dependent cloud extinction parametrization was included into the occultation propagation software EGOPS and evaluated against results of the advanced radiative transfer model libRadtran. Use of this parametrization also allows to separate the disturbance by clouds from other atmospheric influences on signal transmission. The influence of aerosols was investigated by means of an extinction model developed on the basis of SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) measurements. The effects of different cases from background to volcanic aerosol levels are presented.

Proschek, V.; Schweitzer, S.; Emde, C.; Ladstädter, F.; Fritzer, J.; Kirchengast, G.

2009-04-01

234

Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available. PMID:19748950

Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

2009-09-11

235

TREATMENT PERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM AND ITS GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be classified into three typical types: Vertical flow (VF), Free-water Surface (FWS) and Subsurface Flow (SF) CWs according to their structures and directions of water flow. A combined FWS-VF-SFS CW system was designed and built to promote its treatment performance for actual domestic wastewater and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results from the pilot-scale combined system indicated that comparatively good performance for pollutant removal, which was 98.5%, 95.9%, 93.2% and 90.7% for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6-day HRT, respectively. It was also found that the N2O emission was mainly from the VF unit of the system, which accounted for more than 80% of the total emission, whereas N2O emission from the FWS unit was nearly zero. On the other hand, the CH4 emission was not so high as N2O in the combined CW system, which mainly emitted from the FWS and SF units.

Xu, K. Q.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

2009-12-01

236

Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for the open dump, 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1). On the other hand, utilization of landfill gas for electricity generation contributed to major savings, in most cases, corresponding to about half of the load caused by direct GHG emission from the landfill. However, this saving can vary significantly depending on what the generated electricity substitutes for. Significant amounts of biogenic carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about -70 to 30 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1), obtained by summing the direct and indirect (upstream and downstream) emissions and accounting for stored biogenic carbon as a saving. However, if binding of biogenic carbon was not accounted for, the overall GHG load would be in the range of 60 to 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1). This paper clearly shows that electricity generation as well as accounting of stored biogenic carbon are crucial to the accounting of GHG of waste landfilling. PMID:19808732

Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo

2009-10-06

237

Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

1993-11-01

238

Recycling of glass: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of glass waste were assessed from a waste management perspective. Focus was on the material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of glass waste takes place. The MRF delivers products like cullet and whole bottles to other industries. Two possible uses of reprocessed glass waste were considered: (i) remelting of cullet added to glass production; and (ii) re-use of whole bottles. The GHG emission accounting included indirect upstream emissions (provision of energy, fuels and auxiliaries), direct activities at the MRF and bottle-wash facility (combustion of fuels) as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of using the recovered glass waste in other industries and, thereby, avoiding emissions from conventional production. The GHG accounting was presented as aggregated global warming factors (GWFs) for the direct and indirect upstream and downstream processes, respectively. The range of GWFs was estimated to 0-70 kg CO(2)eq. tonne( -1) of glass waste for the upstream activities and the direct emissions from the waste management system. The GWF for the downstream effect showed some significant variation between the two cases. It was estimated to approximately -500 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of glass waste for the remelting technology and -1500 to -600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) of glass waste for bottle re-use. Including the downstream process, large savings of GHG emissions can be attributed to the waste management system. The results showed that, in GHG emission accounting, attention should be drawn to thorough analysis of energy sources, especially electricity, and the downstream savings caused by material substitution. PMID:19710108

Larsen, Anna W; Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-08-26

239

Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60- 1600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming. PMID:19748943

Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-09-11

240

[Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].  

PubMed

Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. PMID:20560308

Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

2010-03-01

241

Simulation of the hydrological cycle over Europe: Model validation and impacts of increasing greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different methods of estimating precipitation area means, based on observations, are compared with each other to investigate their usefulness for model validation. For the applications relevant to this study the ECMWF reanalyses provide a good and comprehensive data set for validation. The uncertainties of precipitation analyses, based on observed precipitation or from numerical weather forecasting schemes, are generally in the

Klaus Arpe; Erich Roeckner

1999-01-01

242

Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ?CH4 / ?CO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence the ambient levels of CH4 locally. ?CH4 / ?CO2 ratios during peak traffic hours are 40 to 50 times higher than FTP vehicle dynamometer tests confirming the presence and dominance of non-vehicular CH4 emissions sources. ?N2O /?CO2 ratios during morning commute hours ( NW winds) are similar to fleet emissions ratios from literature. CH4 correlates moderately with C3-C6 straight chain alkanes (also found in raw natural gas). The correlation slopes are similar to those measured downwind from Wattenberg oil field in Colorado and obtained natural gas samples (Petron et al., 2010) suggesting fugitive emissions is a likely source. CH4 or the C3-C6 alkanes do not correlate with any of the gasoline or diesel fuel specific tracers (isooctane and toluene) confirming vehicular combustion is not a major source of CH4. Partial analysis of ethanethiol (CH3-CH2-SH) which is a natural gas odorant indicates strong correlation with CH4. CH4 correlates fairly well with acetone that is also emitted from dairies. Further analysis of VOC measurements and meteorological data will lead to better source attribution and emission factors that will be compared to previously reported data from ground measurements and inventory calculations.

Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

2011-12-01

243

Assessment of Ground-based Atmospheric Observations for Tracking Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fairness and effectiveness of agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions depends on our ability to verify reported changes in emissions using direct atmospheric observations. The goal of this work was to test whether ground-based measurements of greenhouse gases from urban regions can be used to quantify changes in emissions. We performed an atmospheric inversion for Salt Lake City, Utah using an existing dataset of CO2 measurements, prior estimates of emissions, and a high-resolution Lagrangian atmospheric transport model. By comparing simulated and observed CO2 for Salt Lake City, we were able to constrain emissions to within 15%. Substantial improvements in our ability to estimate emissions using urban surface observations are not expected because of limitations imposed by the character of the data, namely the dominance of the stochastic component of the signal and the inverse relationship between the daily cycle of emissions and CO2 concentration enhancements. Based on these results, we believe ground- and space-based measurements of column enhancements in the urban dome offer a superior route for verification purposes.

McKain, K.; Wofsy, S. C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.

2011-12-01

244

A new aspect of the coupled ozone and nitrous oxide, and its implications for longterm changes in these two greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two greenhouses, N2O and O3 are currently thought to be quite independent, excepting that O(1D) from O3 photodissociation in the Hartley -Huggins band destroys N2O. A meta-analysis of the most recent and highly accurate laboratory determinations of the N2O quantum yields in UV (266 nm) photolysis of O3/O2/N2 mixtures (at 100 torr ? pressure ? 900 torr) shows that N2O is a byproduct of the way O3 shields the biosphere from the lethal ultraviolet. Thus, the two greenhouse gases, O3 and N2O, may not be truly independent in their origins; an increase in the atmospheric O3 may cause some increase in the N2O as well and complicate the estimation of the greenhouse effects of these two gages. These new developments will be discussed and the need of further laboratory studies will be identified.

Prasad, S.

245

Space-borne remote sensing with active optical instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, ozone and the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar Light Detection and Ranging is regarded as an innovative component of the global observing system It offers the possibility to directly sample the four-dimensional variability of the atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution In Europe space-borne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations since mid 1970 s resulting in mission and instrument concepts such as ATLID a backscatter lidar for aerosol and clouds for the EarthCARE mission or ALADIN a Doppler wind lidar considered for the ADM Aeolus mission Major advances particularly in humidity profiling are expected from the space-borne Differential Absorption Lidar DIAL being the Core instrument of the WALES Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space mission which was studied up to a level of Phase A In this presentation we report on the background definition of a future lidar system capable of monitoring the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide CO 2 methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2 O stratospheric and tropospheric ozone O 3 and the meteorological parameter pressure p and temperature T The idea of this study which was initiated by the European Space Agency ESA was to select one or two candidate instruments for follow-on activities on sensor and mission level For each parameter appropriate performance models of active optical instruments either for range-resolved or for total column measurements were defined and implemented as computer codes for parametric analysis The sampling strategy and error characteristics for the

Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.

246

PILOT STUDY: International comparison CCQM-P41 Greenhouse gases. 2. Direct comparison of primary standard gas mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this second part of this study, primary standard gas mixtures (PSMs) as used for calibrations for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane have been compared. The nominal amount-of-substance fraction levels were 365 µmol/mol for carbon dioxide and 1.8 µmol/mol for methane. The matrix was synthetic air, simulated by a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen (209 mmol/mol) and argon (9.3 mmol/mol). The measurements took place in the spring of 2003. In the protocol, it was foreseen to have the PSMs produced for this study in a small range, enabling regression analysis on the data to assess the consistency of the gas mixtures. The direct comparison of the PSMs shows agreement for carbon dioxide at 365 µmol/mol nominal within 0.52 µmol/mol (0.14% relative) standard uncertainty. One cylinder lies between the 95% and 99% boundaries of the regression line, and after removing this cylinder from the dataset the standard deviation of the x-residuals reduces to 0.18 µmol/mol (0.05% relative). This value for the standard deviation is substantially greater than the stated standard uncertainties for several cylinders. The standard deviation of the x-residuals for methane at 1.8 µmol/mol nominal is 0.011 µmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM.

van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Brinkmann, Freek N. C.; Arnautovic, Mile; Besley, Laurie; Heine, Hans-Joachim; Lopez Esteban, Teresa; Sega, Michela; Kato, Kenji; Seog Kim, Jin; Perez Castorena, Alejandro; Rakowska, Agata; Milton, Martin J. T.; Guenther, Frank R.; Francey, R.; Dlugokencky, E.

2007-01-01

247

Comparative Climate Responses of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases, All Major Aerosol Components, Black Carbon, and Methane, Accounting for the Evolution of the Aerosol Mixing State and of Clouds/Precipitation from Multiple Aerosol Size Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several modeling studies to date have simulated the global climate response of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and bulk (non-size-resolved) sulfate or generic aerosol particles together, but no study has examined the climate response of greenhouse gases simultaneously with all major size- and composition resolved aerosol particle components. Such a study is important for improving our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on climate. Here, the GATOR-GCMOM model is used to study the global climate response of (a) all major greenhouse gases and size-resolved aerosol components, (b) all major greenhouse gases alone, (c) fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, primary organic matter, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate), and (d) methane. Aerosol components treated in all simulations included water, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, hydrogen ion, soil dust, and pollen/spores. Fossil-fuel soot (FFS) was emitted into its own size distribution. All other components, including biofuel and biomass soot, sea-spray, soil dust, etc., were emitted into a second distribution (MIX). The FFS distribution grew by condensation of secondary organic matter and sulfuric acid, hydration of water, and dissolution of nitric acid, ammonia, and hydrochloric acid. It self-coagulated and heterocoagulated with the MIX distribution, which also grew by condensation, hydration, and dissolution. Treatment of separate distributions for FFS allowed FFS to evolve from an external mixture to an internal mixture. In both distributions, black carbon was treated as a core component for optical calculations. Both aerosol distributions served as CCN during explicit size-resolved cloud formation. The resulting clouds grew by coagulation and condensation, coagulated with interstitial aerosol particles, and fell to the surface as rain and snow, carrying aerosol constituents with them. Thus, cloud evolution accounted for the first and second indirect effects and the mixing state of aerosol particles. The optical properties of clouds were found by treating black carbon inclusions surrounded by a shell of water. The albedos of snow, sea ice, and water were calculated with radiative transfer solutions, assuming black carbon inclusions in the case of snow and sea ice. The simulations accounted for 3-D energy diffusion to the deep ocean and 2-D ocean circulation. Major conclusions are (a) the most important constituents of global warming, in terms of climate response, appear to be, in order, carbon dioxide, black carbon, and methane, (b) aerosol particles (all together) appear to act on top of greenhouse gases to enhance extremes in both regional cooling and regional warming, (b) the combination of important greenhouse gases and aerosol particles can explain observed major regions of historic warming and cooling, and (d) eliminating all anthropogenic aerosol emission could more than double current global warming but would have less of an effect than independently doubling carbon dioxide.

Jacobson, M. Z.

2005-12-01

248

Control of greenhouse gases emission by radiation-induced formation of useful products. Utilization of CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in enormous quantities by combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and heavy industries. It is strongly influencing the environment and the climate. However, it can be separated from the exhaust gases and utilized as row material for making value-added products by irradiation. Results of experiments in laboratory scale showed, e.g. that amino acids and short chain proteins can be produced by carboxylation of amines, whereas salicylic acid results from phenol and malonic acid formation is observed from acetic acid. The yield dependence from various experimental factors as well as the reaction mechanisms of the studied systems are discussed and an outlook of future developments is given.

Getoff, Nikola

2006-04-01

249

Response of the midlatitude jets and of their variability to increased greenhouse gases in the CMIP5 models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work documents how the midlatitude, eddy-driven jets respond to climate change using output from 72 model integrations run for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5). We consider separately the North Atlantic, the North Pacific and the Southern Hemisphere jets. Unlike previous studies, we do not limit our analysis to annual mean changes in the latitude and speed of the jets only, but also explore how the daily variability of each jet changes with increased greenhouse gases. Given the direct connection between synoptic activity and the location of the eddy-driven jet, changes in jet variability directly relate to the changes in the future storm tracks. We find that all jets migrate poleward with climate change: the Southern Hemisphere jet shifts poleward by 2 degrees of latitude between the Historical period and the end of the 21st century in the RCP8.5 scenario, whereas the Northern Hemisphere jets shift by only 1 degree. The speed of the Southern Hemisphere jet also increases markedly (by 1.2 m/s between 850-700 hPa), while the speed remains nearly constant for both jets in the Northern Hemisphere. The seasonality of the jet shifts will also be addressed, whereby the largest poleward jet shift occurs in the autumn of each hemisphere (i.e. MAM for the Southern Hemisphere jet, and SON for the North Atlantic and North Pacific jets). We find that the structure of the daily jet variability is a strong function of the jet position in all three sectors of the globe. For the Southern Hemisphere and the North Atlantic jets, the variability becomes less of a north-south wobbling (i.e. an `annular mode') with a poleward shift of the jet. In contrast, for the North Pacific jet, the variability becomes less of a pulsing and more of a north-south wobbling. In spite of these differences, we are able find a mechanism (based on Rossby wave breaking) that is able to explain many of the changes in jet variability within a single theoretical framework.

Barnes, Elizabeth; Polvani, Lorenzo

2013-04-01

250

Attribution of observed sea level pressure trends to greenhouse gas, aerosol, and ozone changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

influence on atmospheric sea level pressure (SLP) has previously been detected globally, but the contributions of greenhouse gas, aerosol, and ozone changes to the observed trends have not been separately identified. We use simulations from eight climate models to show that greenhouse gas, aerosol, and ozone changes each drive distinct seasonal and geographical patterns of trends, which are separately detectable in observed seasonal SLP trends over the 1951-2011 period. This detection is driven by significant low-latitude SLP responses to greenhouse gas, aerosol, and ozone changes, as well as the more frequently-studied high latitude responses. These results aid in understanding past atmospheric circulation changes, and have potential to improve projections of future circulation changes.

Gillett, Nathan P.; Fyfe, John C.; Parker, David E.

2013-05-01

251

Greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change: A critical appraisal of simulations and observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is the culmination of a Workshop on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations which was held at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, during 8--12 May 1989. The objectives of the Workshop we...

M. E. Schlesinger

1990-01-01

252

How will greenhouse gas observations meet changing requirements, laws, and demands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent efforts to develop a global greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS) have been driven by an anticipated need to support future national emission reduction policies or international treaties with observations. Such an effort would be similar to that done in support of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone, but more complex. However, greenhouse gas emissions are much more difficult to manage and may not be controlled by international agreement. The Kyoto Protocol has been fraught with political and practical difficulties, not the least of which is the absence of an independent observation and analysis requirement. Nevertheless, no unifying agreement was reached at the much heralded 2009 Conference of Parties (COP-15) in Copenhagen. Thus, it is quite possible (likely?) that greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced owing to other, uncoordinated policies that have their own merits, e.g., energy efficiency, alternative energy development, air quality improvement, forest development, agricultural practices, etc. If this is the future, then what observations and observation system design are needed and to what end? This presentation will discuss those needs in light of critical observations, analytical approaches, and evolving, disparate policies.

Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, J. B.; Montzka, S. A.

2010-12-01

253

Nitric oxide and greenhouse gases emissions following the application of different cattle slurry particle size fractions to soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (>2000 ?m, 2000-500 ?m, 500-100 ?m, <100 ?m) was compared to other experimental treatments, including whole slurry (WS), ammonium sulphate (AS) and an unamended control (CON). The highest value of cumulated NO emissions (6.3 mg NO-N kg-1 dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted (˜1 mg NO-N kg-1 dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (>2000 ?m) induced significantly higher N2O emissions (1.8 mg N2O-N kg-1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N2O-N kg-1 dry soil). The >2000 ?m, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N2O emissions. Hence, for N2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the >2000 ?m, fraction. Low CH4 emissions (<200 ?g CH4-C kg-1 dry soil d-1) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH4 emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO2 emissions relative to whole slurry application.Overall, N2O contributed 10-30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions have to be used for other purposes as anaerobic digestion rather than applied to soil.

Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, João; Cabral, Fernanda; Fidalgo, Paula; Bol, Roland; Trindade, Henrique

2012-02-01

254

An Input-output Analysis of Total Requirements of Energy and Greenhouse Gases for all Industrial Sectors in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO2— the most important greenhouse gas emission, for the Thailand economy. An input-output model based on energy and economic data is constructed in order to identify the sources of CO2 emissions and to discuss the share of sectors in total emission. Thus, the empirical application is for Thailand, the

O. F. Kofoworola; S. H. Gheewala

255

EPA Optimization Model for reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Automobiles (OMEGA). Core Model Version 1.4.1 Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On-road vehicles are the predominant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Of all on-road vehicles, light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks (hereafter referred to as cars and trucks) produce the majority of the GHG emi...

2012-01-01

256

Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Emissions and Sinks. Third Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the 21st century, management of municipal solid waste continues to be an important environmental challenge. Climate change is also a serious issue, and the United States is embarking on a number of voluntary actions to reduce the emissions of greenhous...

2006-01-01

257

Influence of water table level and soil properties on emissions of greenhouse gases from cultivated peat soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic

Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

2011-01-01

258

Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This HyperPhysics webpage contains information and diagrams on global warming, the greenhouse effect, and greenhouse gases. Numerous graphs and diagrams illustrate the measurements and concepts. Also, this page displays the famous "Keeling curve" showing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration versus time from 1958 to 2004. This page page is part of the HyperPhysics Collection, which contains many short, illustrated pages on various areas of physics and astronomy.

Nave, Carl R.

2013-04-29

259

Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants A. Gardner(1), D. Baer (1), T. Owano (1), R. Provencal (1), V. Parsotam (1), P. Graves (1), M. Gupta (1), Allen Goldstein (2), Abhinav Guha (2) (1) Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, CA 94041-1529 (2) Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California at Berkeley Quantifying the Urban Fossil Fuel Plume: Convergence of top-down and bottom-up approaches (Session A54). We report on the design, development and deployment of a novel Mobile Emissions Laboratory, consisting of innovative laser-based gas analyzers, for rapid measurements of multiple greenhouse gases and pollutants. Designed for real-time mobile and stationery emissions monitoring, the Mobile Emissions Laboratory was deployed at several locations during 2010, including CalNEX 2010, Caldecott Tunnel (Oakland, CA), and Altamont Landfill (Livermore, CA), to record real-time continuous measurements of isotopic CO2 (?13C, CO2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and isotopic water vapor (H2O; ?18O, ?2H). The commercial gas analyzers are based on novel cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The portable analyzers provide measurements in real time, require about 150 watts (each) of power and do not need liquid nitrogen to operate. These instruments have been applied in the field for applications that require high data rates (for eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., for chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that can be 10-1000 times higher than typical ambient levels) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Mobile Emissions Laboratory, which contains onboard batteries for long-term unattended measurements without access to mains power, can provide regulatory agencies, monitoring stations, scientists and researchers with temporally and spatially resolved data (including measurements of important greenhouse gases, isotopes and pollutants) necessary for compliance monitoring, hot-spot detection, as well as cap and trade, at any location. Details of extended measurement campaigns (including lessons learned) at the various field sites (urban and rural environments) will be presented.

Gardner, A.; Baer, D. S.; Owano, T. G.; Provencal, R. A.; Gupta, M.; Parsotam, V.; Graves, P.; Goldstein, A.; Guha, A.

2010-12-01

260

High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

2010-03-01

261

Photocatalytic TiO 2 coating—to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform

Marcella Guarino; Annamaria Costa; Marco Porro

2008-01-01

262

Direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in ultracold Fermi gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water freezes into ice, atomic spins spontaneously align in a magnet, liquid\\u000ahelium becomes superfluid: Phase transitions are dramatic phenomena. However,\\u000adespite the drastic change in the system's behaviour, observing the transition\\u000acan sometimes be subtle. The hallmark of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and\\u000asuperfluidity in trapped, weakly interacting Bose gases is the sudden\\u000aappearance of a dense central core inside

Christian H. Schunck; André Schirotzek; Wolfgang Ketterle; Martin W. Zwierlein

2006-01-01

263

Greenhouse gases emission and carbon sequestration in agro-ecosystems under long-term no-till: implications for global warming mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No-till (NT) management has gained wide acceptance in US agriculture, and could contribute to global warming mitigation by offsetting fossil fuel emission. While C sequestration in NT systems is fairly well documented, the dynamics of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is less well understood. However, the literature abounds with viewpoints and assumptions. Because of crop residue accumulation on NT surface and generally higher soil moisture, it is often assumed that production of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) is greater in NT systems compared to conventional tillage (MP). But it is also possible that long-term implementation of NT could increase soil macro-porosity, lead to the evolution of an active population of methanotrophs, and ultimately result in enhanced CH4 uptake. Field data are needed to reconcile these conflicting assumptions. A 2-year (2009-2011) study was conducted to quantify C sequestration, and compare GHG fluxes in adjacent forest and cropland under MP and long-term NT (9, 13, 36 and 48 years). The study sites were located across Ohio on soil series with similar drainage characteristics (moderately well drained, MWD) so that duration of NT management is the experimental factor. We also included a site under NT for 48 years but located on somewhat poorly-drained soil (SPD) in order to assess the impact of soil drainage. Results revealed marked effect of NT duration and soil drainage characteristics on GHG fluxes. As hypothesized, we found a positive impact of NT on CH4 uptake, but significant difference with MP management was noted at sites under NT for > 10 years. At the sites under NT for 48 years, CH4 uptake rate was 10-12 times higher in MWD than in SPD soils. When data from all sites were pooled, N2O fluxes were significantly higher under MP (2.01 mg N2O-N m-2 d-1) than under NT (0.73), but the trend varied with NT duration. While at recent (<10 y) NT sites, N2O emission was significantly lower than under MP, the reverse was observed at sites under NT for > 30 years. At these older NT sites, N2O emissions accounted for 40-60 % of the global warming potential (GWP, sum of all GHG expressed as CO2 equivalents). These findings suggest that the viability of NT farming as a climate warming mitigation strategy hinges on the adoption of N fertilizer management practices (timing, amount, type and method of application) that minimize N2O emissions from cropland under long-term NT.

Jacinthe, P.; Dick, W. A.; Lal, R.; Shrestha, R. K.; Bilen, S.

2011-12-01

264

Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of total emissions of greenhouse gases from biomass burning  

SciTech Connect

One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG emissions.

Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.

1997-12-31

265

Direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in ultracold Fermi gases.  

PubMed

Phase transitions are dramatic phenomena: water freezes into ice, atomic spins spontaneously align in a magnet, and liquid helium becomes superfluid. Sometimes, such a drastic change in behaviour is accompanied by a visible change in appearance. The hallmark of Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in trapped, weakly interacting Bose gases is the sudden formation of a dense central core inside a thermal cloud. However, in strongly interacting gases--such as the recently observed fermionic superfluids--there is no longer a clear separation between the superfluid and the normal parts of the cloud. The detection of fermion pair condensates has required magnetic field sweeps into the weakly interacting regime, and the quantitative description of these sweeps presents a major theoretical challenge. Here we report the direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in a strongly interacting gas of 6Li fermions, through sudden changes in the shape of the clouds--in complete analogy to the case of weakly interacting Bose gases. By preparing unequal mixtures of the two spin components involved in the pairing, we greatly enhance the contrast between the superfluid core and the normal component. Furthermore, the distribution of non-interacting excess atoms serves as a direct and reliable thermometer. Even in the normal state, strong interactions significantly deform the density profile of the majority spin component. We show that it is these interactions that drive the normal-to-superfluid transition at the critical population imbalance of 70 +/- 5 per cent (ref. 12). PMID:16823447

Zwierlein, Martin W; Schunck, Christian H; Schirotzek, André; Ketterle, Wolfgang

2006-07-01

266

NF3, the greenhouse gas missing from Kyoto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) can be called the missing greenhouse gas: It is a synthetic chemical produced in industrial quantities; it is not included in the Kyoto basket of greenhouse gases or in national reporting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); and there are no observations documenting its atmospheric abundance. Current publications report a long lifetime of

Michael J. Prather; Juno Hsu

2008-01-01

267

A comparative study of vertical flow and free-water surface constructed wetlands for low C/N ratio domestic wastewater treatment and its greenhouse gases emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed wetland (CW) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of chemical treatment. Therefore, CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countries. However, growing attention has been directed to its greenhouse side-effect and global-warming potential in recent years. In this study, two typical constructed wetlands: Vertical flow (VF) and Free-water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands were used not only to compare the nutrients removal performance for treatment of low C/N ratio loading domestic wastewater, but also to investigate and compare their CH4 and N2O greenhouse gases emission characteristics. The results indicated that the VF CW showed a comparatively good performance for nitrogen and phosphorus removal than FWS constructed wetland, which was 98.5, 95.9, 93.2 and 90.7 percent for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6 days HRT, respectively. It was found that the FWS CW had the higher tendency to emit CH4 than the VF CW during four seasons of one year.

Xu, K.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

2008-12-01

268

Observational constraints on U.S. emissions of climate-active and ozone-depleting trace gases from a tall-tower and aircraft sampling network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air samples have been regularly collected at a number of tall tower sites and from aircraft profiling locations across the U.S. and Canada during the past 4 to 5 years. Measurements of approximately 50 trace gases in these samples provide a rich dataset of chemical markers related to urban, industrial, oceanic, biomass burning, fossil-fuel burning, atmospheric mixing, photosynthesis, and soil influences. Anthropogenic emission signals are readily apparent in the halocarbon and hydrocarbon data, upon which this talk will focus. Measured correlations between different halocarbons (especially hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)) show variations as a function of season that are qualitatively consistent with the expected regional and seasonal patterns of use and emission of these industrially-produced chemicals. In some instances, annual mean correlation slopes between different trace gases are well described by the U.S. EPA Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories, but for others, large differences are observed. Furthermore, interannual changes in correlation slopes are expected for gases that are being phased out (i.e., HCFCs) compared to those for which emissions may be increasing (i.e., HFCs) in the US. This presentation will focus on the regional, seasonal, and interannual variations in trace gas emissions implied from a straightforward analysis of this extensive measurement record.

Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; Siso, C.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Karion, A.; Neff, D.; Fischer, M. L.; Higgs, J.

2010-12-01

269

Airborne observations of trace gases over boreal Canada during BORTAS: campaign climatology, airmass analysis and enhancement ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ airborne measurements were made over Eastern Canada in summer 2011 as part of the BORTAS experiment (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and~Satellites). In this paper we present observations of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) and other biomass burning tracers and related trace gases, both climatologically and through case studies, as recorded on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Vertical profiles of CO2 were generally characterised by depleted boundary layer concentrations relative to the free troposphere, consistent with terrestrial biospheric uptake. In contrast, CH4 concentrations were found to rise with decreasing altitude due to strong local and regional surface sources. We use coincident tracer-tracer correlations and a Lagrangian trajectory model to characterise and differentiate air mass history of intercepted plumes. In particular, CO, HCN and CH3CN were used to identify air masses that have been recently influenced by biomass burning. Concentrations of CO2 were found to have a mean tropospheric, campaign-average concentration of 384.8 ppm (ranging between 371.5 and 397.1 ppm), whilst CH4 concentrations had a mean value of 1859 ppb (ranging between 1797 and 1968 ppb), representing the episodic sampling of local fire plumes. CH4 and CO2 concentrations during BORTAS were found to be broadly comparable to previous measurements in the region during the regional burning season and with reanalysed composition fields from the EU Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Change (MACC) project. By examining individual case studies we were able to quantify emissions from biomass burning. Using both near-field (<1 day) and far-field (>1 day) sampling, boreal forest fire plumes were identified throughout the troposphere. Fresh plumes from fires in Northwest Ontario yield emission factors for CH4 and CO2 of 8.5 ± 0.9 g (kg dry matter)-1 and 1512 g ± 185 g (kg dry matter)-1, respectively. We have also investigated the efficacy of calculating emission factors from far-field sampling, in which there might be expected to be limited mixing with background and other characteristic air masses and we provide guidance on best practice and limitations in such analysis. We have found that for measurements within plumes that originated from fires in Northwest Ontario 2-4 days upwind, emission factors can be calculated that range between 1618 ± 216 and 1702 ± 173 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CO2 and 1.8 ± 0.2 and 6.1± 1 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CH4.

O'Shea, S. J.; Allen, G.; Gallagher, M. W.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Illingworth, S. M.; Le Breton, M.; Muller, J. B. A.; Percival, C. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Oram, D. E.; Parrington, M.; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.

2013-05-01

270

Observation of scale invariance and universality in two-dimensional Bose gases.  

PubMed

The collective behaviour of a many-body system near a continuous phase transition is insensitive to the details of its microscopic physics; for example, thermodynamic observables follow generalized scaling laws near the phase transition. The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in two-dimensional Bose gases presents a particularly interesting case because the marginal dimensionality and intrinsic scaling symmetry result in a broad fluctuation regime and an extended range of universal scaling behaviour. Studies of the BKT transition in cold atoms have stimulated great interest in recent years, but a clear demonstration of critical behaviour near the phase transition has remained elusive. Here we report in situ density and density-fluctuation measurements of two-dimensional Bose gases of caesium at different temperatures and interaction strengths, observing scale-invariant, universal behaviours. The extracted thermodynamic functions confirm the existence of a wide universal region near the BKT phase transition, and provide a sensitive test of the universality predicted by classical-field theory and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Our experimental results provide evidence for growing density-density correlations in the fluctuation region, and call for further explorations of universal phenomena in classical and quantum critical physics. PMID:21270797

Hung, Chen-Lung; Zhang, Xibo; Gemelke, Nathan; Chin, Cheng

2011-01-26

271

Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective. Essential GHG emission data for the most common fuels, electricity and heat are provided. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fuels being used and different efficiencies for electricity production in the individual countries (0.007-1.13 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh(-1)). Marginal data on electricity provision show even larger variations (0.004-3 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). Somewhat less variation in GHG emissions is being found for heat production (0.01-0.69 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). The paper further addresses allocation principles and the importance of applying either average or marginal energy data, and it discusses the consequences of introducing reduction targets on CO( 2) emissions. All discussed aspects were found to significantly affect the outcome of GHG accounts suggesting transparent reporting to be critical. Recommendations for use of average/marginal energy data are provided. PMID:19808739

Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Tomas; Ekvall, Thomas

2009-10-06

272

The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Public Data Archive at CDIAC: Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gas Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) project is investigating the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases throughout various altitudes in the atmosphere over the Pacific Basin through the annual cycle (Wofsy and the HIPPO Science Team 2011, this session). Aircraft-based data collection occurred during 2009-2011. Data analyses, comparisons, and integration are ongoing. A permanent public archive of HIPPO data has been established at the U. S. DOE Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Datasets are provided primarily by the Lead Principal Investigator (PI), who draws on a comprehensive set of aircraft navigation information, meteorological measurements, and research instrument and sampling system results from multiple co-investigators to compile integrated and generate value-added products. A website/ftp site has been developed for HIPPO data and metadata (http://hippo.ornl.gov), in coordination with the UCAR website that presents field catalogs and other detailed information about HIPPO missions (http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/hippo/dm/). A data policy was adopted that balances the needs of the project investigators with the interests of the scientific user community. A data dictionary was developed to capture the basic characteristics of the hundreds of measurements. Instrument descriptions were compiled. A user's guide is presented for each dataset that also contains data file information enabling users to know when data have been updated. Data are received and provided as space-delimited ASCII files. Metadata records are compiled into a searchable CDIAC index and will be submitted to climate change research data clearinghouses. Each dataset is given a persistent identifier (DOI) to facilitate attribution. We expect that data will continue to be added to the archive for the next year or more. In the future we anticipate creating a database for HIPPO data, with a web interface to facilitate searching and customized data extraction.

Christensen, S. W.; Hook, L. A.

2011-12-01

273

Observation of threshold effects in positron scattering from the noble gases.  

PubMed

Channel coupling is a phenomenon that has been investigated for many scattering processes, and is responsible for the formation of cusps or steps in the cross sections for open scattering channels at, or near, the onset of a new scattering channel. It has long been speculated that the opening of the positronium formation channel may lead to the formation of such cusp features in the elastic positron scattering cross section. In this work, elastic scattering of positrons has been measured in the region of the positronium formation threshold for the noble gases He-Xe. Cusplike behavior is observed and, while the features which are observed appear broad, they represent a magnitude of between 4 and 15% of the total elastic cross section. No evidence is found of any other features in this region, at least within the uncertainty of the present data, discounting the possibility of scattering resonances. PMID:20868040

Jones, A C L; Caradonna, P; Makochekanwa, C; Slaughter, D S; McEachran, R P; Machacek, J R; Sullivan, J P; Buckman, S J

2010-08-13

274

[Temporal variation of soil greenhouse gases fluxes in a cold-temperate Larix gmelinii forest in Inner Mongolia, China].  

PubMed

By using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique, an in situ measurement was conducted on the soil CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes in a cold-temperate Larix gmelinii forest in Inner Mongolia from June to September 2007, aimed to understand the diurnal and seasonal variations of soil greenhouse gasses fluxes and their relations with the associated environmental factors in L. gmelinii forests in cold-temperate zone. In growth season, the soil in the L. gmelinii forest was the sink of atmospheric CH4, with the flux ranged from 22.3 to 107.8 microg CH4-C x m(-2) x h(-1). The mean monthly uptake of CH4 in June, July, August, and September was 34.0 +/- 7.1, 71.4 +/- 9.4, 86.3 +/- 7.9, and 40.7 +/- 6.2 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. The mean diurnal flux of soil CH4 from June to September showed the same variation trend, i. e., peaked at 10:00 am. The diurnal variation of soil CO2 flux showed an obvious double-peak, and the mean monthly CO2 flux was in the order of July > August > June > September. Soil N2O flux varied dramatically from -9.1 to 31.7 microg x m(-2) x h(-1). Soil temperature and humidity were the main factors affecting the CH4 and CO2 fluxes, and soil temperature mainly affected the N2O flux. In the L. gmelinii forest, the CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes measured at 10:00 am could represent the diurnal CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes on the same day. PMID:23189692

Ma, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Qiu-Liang; Li, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Gao-Wa; Wang, Fei

2012-08-01

275

The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung") accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC) analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC. The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times) where a greater number of sampling points are required.

Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Harvey, M. J.; Moss, R. C.; Pattey, E.; Dow, D.

2011-10-01

276

The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung") accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC) analyzer capable of measuring greenhouse gas emissive fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar® bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three flux chambers, multiplexed to a single GC. The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times) where a greater number of sampling points are required.

Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Harvey, M. J.; Moss, R. C.; Pattey, E.; Dow, D.

2011-03-01

277

Photocatalytic TiO2 coating-to reduce ammonia and greenhouse gases concentration and emission from animal husbandries.  

PubMed

Animal production is a main source of NH3 emission into the environment and a significant producer of other polluting gases. Most of the best available techniques (BAT) that could be used today are not very widely applied in the field because of costs, especially in existing livestock buildings. Industrial applications show that TiO2 catalytic paint can be used to transform NH3 into N2, N2O or NO and water. Field experiments aimed at determining effects on indoor air quality and NH3 and polluting gas emissions into the environment of coating pig house walls with TiO2 catalytic paint and to assess the potential efficiency of this simple painting technique as a low cost BAT technique for animal farmers. The trial was performed in two identical mechanical ventilated farrowing rooms in a swine farm in Northern Italy. Environmental parameters, ventilation rate and gas concentrations were continuously monitored in the two units throughout a 28 day production cycle. NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 average concentrations of 5.41, 1.18, 6.28 and 2109.38 mg m(-3) (reference unit without treatment) and 3.76, 1.13, 5.32 and 1881.64 mg m(-3) (experimental unit) were, respectively, recorded during a full farrowing cycle. Pollutant emissions, expressed on a Livestock Unit (LU, i.e., 500 kg live weight) basis, were 16.33, 3.57, 18.96 and 6365.01 kg y(-1)LU(-1) (reference unit) and 11.37, 3.43, 16.11 and 5695.58 kg y(-1) LU(-1) (experimental unit), respectively. Significantly higher pollutant concentrations and emissions were found in the untreated reference unit, under similar environmental conditions and with identical numbers of sows and piglets per unit. PMID:17574843

Guarino, Marcella; Costa, Annamaria; Porro, Marco

2007-06-15

278

Network design assessment for greenhouse gas observing systems using Lagrangian footprint simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deriving greenhouse gas balances at regional scales can be done via two approaches: up-scaling of local information such as from inventories for emissions and natural processes ("bottom-up"), or independently via combined atmospheric observations and inverse transport modeling ("top-down"). For the top-down approach, a dense coverage of the atmosphere with an observing network that enables a precise estimation of surface fluxes is associated with considerable costs. The European infrastructure project ICOS, (Integrated Carbon Observation System), together with Earth Networks, a US based Company, will largely increase the density of the atmospheric network within the next years. To facilitate decision-making with respect to the number and location of observing stations to be deployed, a quantitative network design tool is required that allows balancing cost and benefit. Here we assess different aspects of network design using the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model. We present sensitivities of mixing ratio observations from various potential networks to surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes (footprints), and assess impact from transport model uncertainties. Footprint analysis on specific temporal and spatial scales is used to assess the ability of a given network to detect spatial and temporal patterns and trends, and to investigate the impact of different a-priori assumptions for flux distributions on the potential to retrieve fluxes at reduced uncertainty bounds.

Gerbig, C.; Pillai, D.; Kretschmer, R.; Karstens, U.; Koch, F. T.

2011-12-01

279

Biogeochemistry, transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases from the Niger River (West Africa): preliminary results after two years of monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km2. It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Yet, there is surprisingly little or no information on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in this river. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples have been collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01° E 13.57° N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, quantification and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC ?13C-DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (partial pressure of CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct an annual budget for both particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the matter transported by the Niger River and of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Borges, Alberto V.

2013-04-01

280

Global warming potentials; Part 7 of 7 supporting documents. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the general guidelines for voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Public review draft  

SciTech Connect

This document provides methods to account for the different effects of different gases on the atmosphere. It discusses the rationale and uses for simplified measures to represent human-related effects on climate and provides a brief introduction to a major index, the global warming potential (GWP) index. Appendix 7.A analyzes the science underlying the development of indices for concerns about climate, which is still evolving, evaluates the usefulness of currently available indices, and presents the state of the art for numerical indices and their uncertainties. For concerns about climate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been instrumental in examining relative indices for comparing the radiative influences of greenhouse gases. The IPCC developed the concept of GWPs to provide a simple representation of the relative effects on climate resulting from a unit mass emission of a greenhouse gas. Alternative measures and variations on the definition of GWPs have also been considered and reported.

Not Available

1994-05-31

281

CarbonSat - Quantification of natural and man-made greenhouse gas surface fluxes from satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column amounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surprisingly and in spite of their exceptional driving role in climate change, our knowledge about the variable sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 is currently inadequate. For example, the ability of the Earth-atmosphere system to buffer increasing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere has large uncertainties and emissions from many sources (geologic, anthropogenic, biogenic) are to a

Heinrich Bovensmann; Michael Buchwitz

2010-01-01

282

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.  

PubMed

Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an effective means for evaluating some aspects of the current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential to improve the robustness of the next generation inventory system. PMID:22827140

Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

2012-06-01

283

Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. Onshitsu koka gas no kagakuteki teigensaku to sono hyoka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu. (Investigations on trends in global environment adaptive industrial technologies. Investigations and studies on measures to reduce greenhouse gases chemically and their evaluation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes specific evaluations on measures to reduce carbon dioxide chemically, and measures to reduce non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases. The former measures could reduce CO2 by 10% to 20% by improving energy utilization and using unutilized ...

1993-01-01

284

Modeling of global biogenic emissions for key indirect greenhouse gases and their response to atmospheric CO2 increases and changes in land cover and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) play a crucial role in the oxidation capacity of the lower atmosphere and changes in concentrations of major greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly methane and tropospheric ozone. In this study, we integrate a global biogenic model within a terrestrial ecosystem model to investigate the vegetation and soil emissions of key indirect GHGs, e.g., isoprene, monoterpene, other NMVOCs (OVOC), CO, and NOx. The combination of a high-resolution terrestrial ecosystem model with satellite data allows investigation of the potential changes in net primary productivity (NPP) and resultant biogenic emissions of indirect GHGs due to atmospheric CO2 increases and changes in climate and land use practices. Estimated global total annual vegetation emissions for isoprene, monoterpene, OVOC, and CO are 601, 103, 102, and 73 Tg C, respectively. Estimated NOx emissions from soils are 7.51 Tg N. The land cover changes for croplands generally lead to a decline of vegetation emissions for isoprene OVOC, whereas temperature and atmospheric CO2 increases lead to higher vegetation emissions. The modeled global mean isoprene emissions show relatively large seasonal variations over the previous 20 years from 1981 to 2000 (as much as 31% from year to year). Savanna and boreal forests show large seasonal variations, whereas tropical forests with high plant productivity throughout the year show small seasonal variations. Results of biogenic emissions from 1981 to 2000 indicate that the CO2 fertilization effect, along with changes in climate and land use, causes the overall up-trend in isoprene and OVOC emissions over the past 2 decades. This relationship suggests that future emission scenario estimations for NMVOCs should account for effects of CO2 and climate in order to more accurately estimate local, regional, and global chemical composition of the atmosphere, the global carbon budget, and radiation balance of the Earth-atmosphere system.

Tao, Zhining; Jain, Atul K.

2005-11-01

285

Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe

R. Salve; M. S. Torn

2011-01-01

286

Greenhouse gas chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems facing mankind is the global warming of the atmosphere due to man-made emissions of greenhouse gases. Mitigation of these greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be achieved by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). In this paper, we report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen

B Eliasson; E Killer; U Kogelschatz

1997-01-01

287

Overview of an aircraft expedition into the Brazilian cerrado for the observation of atmospheric trace gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropospheric trace gases were measured from an aircraft platform. The flights were organized to sample air masses from the geographic area of central Brazil, where the vegetation, a savanna-type environment with the local name of \\

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff; P. C. Alvalfi

1996-01-01

288

Further observations on the interaction between sugar cane and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.  

PubMed

Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) variety SP 70-1143 was inoculated with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 (ATCC 49037) in two experiments. In experiment 1 the bacteria were inoculated into a modified, low sucrose MS medium within which micropropagated plantlets were rooted. After 10 d there was extensive anatomical evidence of endophytic colonization by G. diazotrophicus, particularly in lower stems, where high numbers of bacteria were visible within some of the xylem vessels. The identity of the bacteria was confirmed by immunogold labelling with an antibody raised against G. diazotrophicus. On the lower stems there were breaks caused by the separation of the plantlets into individuals, and at these 'wounds' bacteria were seen colonizing the xylem and intercellular spaces. Bacteria were also occasionally seen entering leaves via damaged stomata, and subsequently colonizing sub-stomatal cavities and intercellular spaces. A localized host defence response in the form of fibrillar material surrounding the bacteria was associated with both the stem and leaf invasion. In experiment 2, stems of 5-week-old greenhouse-grown plants were inoculated by injection with a suspension of G. diazotrophicus containing 10(8) bacteria ml(-1). No hypersensitive response (HR) was observed, and no symptoms were visible on the leaves and stems for the duration of the experiment (7 d). Close to the point of inoculation, G. diazotrophicus cells were observed within the protoxylem and the xylem parenchyma, where they were surrounded by fibrillar material that stained light-green with toluidine blue. In leaf samples taken up to 4 cm from the inoculation points, G. diazotrophicus cells were mainly found within the metaxylem, where they were surrounded by a light green-staining material. The bacteria were growing in relatively low numbers adjacent to the xylem cell walls, and they were separated from the host-derived material by electron-transparent 'haloes' that contained material that reacted with the G. diazotrophicus antibody. PMID:11413211

James, E K; Olivares, F L; de Oliveira, A L; dos Reis, F B; da Silva, L G; Reis, V M

2001-04-01

289

Les fluctuations à court terme du climat et l'interprétation des observations récentes en terme d'effet de serreShort-term climatic fluctuations and the interprétation of récent observations in terms of greenhouse effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of future climate made with coupled general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean predict that the increase of the concentration of greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere by man's activities will have a large influence on the climate of the next century. The identification of the climatic impact produced by the rapid increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the last decades is made difficult by strong interannual climate variability, and requires the application of statistical techniques combining several climatic indicators (method of climatic "fingerprints") so as to improve the detection of a possible anthropogenic perturbation. In this paper we review the evolution through the last decades of several climate indicators showing global warming, its geographical distribution, sea level, the hydrological cycle and the response of vegetation, and we compare them to the model results predicted in climate scenarios. The coherence between model results and observed climatic trends shows that the additional greenhouse effect is starting to become detectable in recent climatic data.

André, Jean-Claude; Royer, Jean-François

1999-02-01

290

Vertical Distribution of Gases and Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere Observed by VIMS/Cassini Solar Occultations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the vertical distribution of gaseous species and aerosols in Titan's atmosphere through the analysis of VIMS solar occultations. We employ the infrared channel of VIMS, which covers the 1 - 5 ?m wavelength range. VIMS occultations can provide good vertical resolution (~10 km) and an extended altitude range (from 70 to 700 km), complementing well the information from other Cassini instruments. VIMS has retrieved 10 solar occultations up to now. They are distributed through the whole Cassini mission and they probe different latitudes in both hemispheres. Two main gases can be observed by VIMS occultations: methane, through its bands at 1.2, 1.4, 1.7, 2.3 and 3.3 ?m, and CO, at 4.7 ?m. We can extract methane's abundance between 70 and 750 km and CO's between 70 and 180 km. Regarding aerosols, the VIMS altitude range allows to get information on the properties of both the main haze and the detached layer. Aerosols also affect the transmittance through their spectral signatures. In particular, a spectral signature at 3.4 ?m that was attributed to aerosols was recently discovered by the analysis of the first VIMS occultation. We will monitor the latitudinal and temporal variations of the 3.4 ?m feature through various occultations. A change in the global circulation regime of Titan sets in with the approaching to the vernal equinox, and a strong decrease of the altitude of the detached layer between the winter solstice and the equinox has indeed been observed. The temporal coverage of VIMS occultations allows the study the effect of these variations in the vertical distribution of aerosol optical and spectral properties.

Maltagliati, Luca; Vinatier, Sandrine; Sicardy, Bruno; Bézard, Bruno; Sotin, Christophe; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Matt; Brown, Robert H.; Baines, Kevin; Buratti, Bonnie; Clark, Robert

2013-04-01

291

Observations of Reactive Gases in the Central Siberia in 2007-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a considerable shortage of direct observations of atmospheric trace gases in low-populated regions of Siberia. Since March, 2007 till now continuous measurements of O3, NOx, NO and NO2 concentrations have been performed at ZOTTO station in the middle of Krasnoyarsky Krai (60 N, 90 E) with 10 sec timing. Observations are completely automated and are part of scientific program on atmospheric chemistry measurements of ZOTTO Consortium headed by Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena. Variations of ozone concentration reveal vivid seasonal and daily features which have been analyzed and compared to other mid-latitude background stations as well as to data of TROICA train-based observations. These variations are likely to be typical for the Northern Eurasia boreal zone. Seasonal spring maximum (40-50 ppbv) is caused by stratospheric ozone intrusions that are only considerable ozone source. Smaller variations can be induced both by local factors and long-range transport of ozone precursors from pollution sources. The largest ozone formation rate has been observed in summer time from 9 a.m. till 3 p.m. of local time and made up 1-2 ppbv/hour. Such value points out on quite low photochemical activity and ambient air oxidizing ability. NOx concentration does not exceed 1 ppb that is typical for background areas but may vary by order and some more in few hours. Higher surface NOx(=NO+NO2) concentrations during day time generally correspond to higher ozone when NO/NO2 ratio indicates on clean or slightly polluted conditions. Analysis on base of Lagrangian model for evaluation of air parcel trajectories basing on NCEP final analysis meteorological fields and Russian Federation Hydrometeocenter reanalysis fields and residence time statistics has shown that most probable sources of man-made emissions influencing the Central Siberia air are located on south of Siberia (Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tomsk, Novosibirsk). These results have been verified by CO data provided Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, and agreement was very good. Data of TROICA-11, 12, 13 campaigns which occurred correspondingly in summer of 2007, 2008 and 2009 have been used to analyze pollution sources located along the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Measurements of volatile organic compounds by proton mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) in 2008 and 2009 have been also considered to assess concentrations of biogenic VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) for dark-coniferous forests zone. Some of man-made VOCs (aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde) were measured at ZOTTO in 2008 and in 2009 and are also presented in this study. The work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project # 08-05-13589).

Skorokhod, Andrey; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Pankratova, Natalia; Shumsky, Roman; Vivchar, Anastasia; Timkovsky, Joseph; Berezina, Elena

2010-05-01

292

Aerosols and gases concentrations observed at Stelvio National Park (Italian Alps) during summer conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three summer fields campaigns were carried out during 2009, 2010 and 2011 in two sites in the area of Stelvio National Park (SNP), Central Italian Alps. Those activities were performed in the frame of the SHARE - Stelvio project (Station at High Altitude for Research on the Environment). SNP includes an extensive impervious territory of valleys and high mountains, up to 3900 m asl. Two high altitude sampling sites, Rifugio Guasti (3285 m asl) and Forni glacier ( 2700 m asl), have been picked out for collecting the main atmospheric parameters: the first site hosted the field campaign in 2009 and 2010 and was located at Cevedale pass, at the border between Lombardia and Trentino-Alto Adige regions, while in 2011 the measurements were carried out on Forni glacier surface, in a N-S oriented valley, through SHARE-box, a portable and autonomous unit for atmospheric measurements developed in the framework of SHARE project. Because of different location Rifugio Guasti is an ideal site to monitor long range transport on Southern slope of Alpine range, while Forni glacier is more affected by local influence of valley and glacier breezes. Monitored parameters concerned (i) meteorology, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, air pressure, (ii) chemical and physical properties of the aerosols (number concentrations, size distribution and chemical composition) and (iii) , gases concentration (CO2, O3). This work is aimed at describing the behaviour of these compounds, in terms of concentration observed over different time scales, such hourly and daily, in order to investigate the impact of transport processes (i.e. air masses transports arisen from both "thermal" breezes or synoptic circulation) on aerosols and gases variability at SNP. The Alps face the Po Valley, one of the more populated and industrialized region in Europe. This is one of the most probable source of polluted air masses which spread towards high altitude sites, such as Alps and Apennines, according to the dominant wind direction and the planetary boundary layer depth. In fact during summer-time, when the convective boundary layer is well developed, the measurement could be affected by air masses travelling along Tellina Valley and from the urbanized Po Valley and vegetated belt, spreading towards the high elevation of Alpine Southern slope, strongly affecting the tropospheric conditions and resulting in a typical diurnal cycle. On the other hand, as will be shown in this work, the long-range transport related with synoptic circulation may affect air-mass composition at the SNP. In fact several episodes of mineral dust transport coming from Northern Africa and air-masses descending from the upper troposphere or the low stratosphere has been observed. Long range transport of polluted air masses from continental Europe may also affect the pristine air conditions at SNP.

Landi, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; Cristofanelli, P.; Bonafè, U.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Laj, P.; Villani, P.; Bonasoni, P.

2012-04-01

293

Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3.  

PubMed

A laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O((1)D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO(2)F(2)(k(1)), NF(3)(k(2)), and SF(5)CF(3)(k(3)). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k(1)(T) = 9.0 x 10(-11) exp(+98/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k(1b) = (5.8 +/- 2.3) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) independent of temperature. We find that k(2)(T) = 2.0 x 10(-11) exp(+52/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with reaction proceeding almost entirely (approximately 99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O((1)D) by NF(3) is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF(3). Deactivation of O((1)D) by SF(5)CF(3) is slow enough (k(3) < 2.0 x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) that reaction with O((1)D) is unimportant as an atmospheric removal mechanism for SF(5)CF(3). The kinetics of O((1)D) reactions with SO(2) (k(4)) and CS(2) (k(5)) have also been investigated at 298 K. We find that k(4) = (2.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(-10) and k(5) = (4.6 +/- 0.6) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.76 +/- 0.12 and 0.94 +/- 0.06 for the SO(2) and CS(2) reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2sigma) and rate coefficients k(i)(T) (i = 1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of +/- 15% (2sigma). PMID:20133693

Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L; Nicovich, J Michael; Wine, Paul H

2010-02-04

294

SAFT-? force field for the simulation of molecular fluids: 2. Coarse-grained models of greenhouse gases, refrigerants, and long alkanes.  

PubMed

In the first paper of this series [C. Avendaño, T. Lafitte, A. Galindo, C. S. Adjiman, G. Jackson, and E. A. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B2011, 115, 11154] we introduced the SAFT-? force field for molecular simulation of fluids. In our approach, a molecular-based equation of state (EoS) is used to obtain coarse-grained (CG) intermolecular potentials that can then be employed in molecular simulation over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions of the fluid. The macroscopic experimental data for the vapor-liquid equilibria (saturated liquid density and vapor pressure) of a given system are represented with the SAFT-VR Mie EoS and used to estimate effective intermolecular parameters that provide a good description of the thermodynamic properties by exploring a wide parameter space for models based on the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jones) potential. This methodology was first used to develop a simple single-segment CG Mie model of carbon dioxide (CO2) which allows for a reliable representation of the fluid-phase equilibria (for which the model was parametrized), as well as an accurate prediction of other properties such as the enthalpy of vaporization, interfacial tension, supercritical density, and second-derivative thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound). In our current paper, the methodology is further applied and extended to develop effective SAFT-? CG Mie force fields for some important greenhouse gases including carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), modeled as simple spherical molecules, and for long linear alkanes including n-decane (n-C10H22) and n-eicosane (n-C20H42), modeled as homonuclear chains of spherical Mie segments. We also apply the SAFT-? methodology to obtain a CG homonuclear two-segment Mie intermolecular potential for the more challenging polar and asymmetric compound 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf), a novel replacement refrigerant with promising properties. The description of the fluid-phase behavior and the prediction of the other thermophysical properties obtained by molecular simulation using our SAFT-? CG Mie force fields are found to be of comparable quality (and sometimes superior) to that obtained using the more sophisticated all-atom (AA) and united-atom (UA) models commonly employed in the field. We should emphasize that though the focus of our current work is on simple homonuclear models, the SAFT-? methodology is based on a group contribution methodology which is naturally suited to the development of more sophisticated heteronuclear models. PMID:23311931

Avendaño, Carlos; Lafitte, Thomas; Adjiman, Claire S; Galindo, Amparo; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

2013-02-27

295

Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process investigating the technical issues surrounding the ability to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation in developing countries, this paper reviews technical capabilities for monitoring deforestation and estimating emissions. Implementation of policies to reduce emissions from deforestation require effective deforestation monitoring systems that are reproducible, provide consistent

Ruth DeFries; Frédéric Achard; Sandra Brown; Martin Herold; Daniel Murdiyarso; Bernhard Schlamadinger; Carlos de Souza

2007-01-01

296

CarbonSat Quantification of natural and man-made greenhouse gas surface fluxes from satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column amounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surprisingly and in spite of their exceptional driving role in climate change, our knowledge about the variable sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 is currently inadequate. For example, the ability of the Earth-atmosphere system to buffer increasing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere has large uncertainties and emissions from many sources (geo-logic, anthropogenic, biogenic) are to a

Heinrich Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. P. Burrows; J. Notholt; M. Reuter; T. Trautmann; G. Ehret; M. Heimann; P. Monks; Sch; R. Harding; S. Quegan; P. Rayner; F. M. Breon; P. Bergam-O Aschi; H. J. Dittus; J. Erzinger; D. Crisp

2010-01-01

297

Experimental observation of a traveling plasma grating formed by two crossing filaments in gases  

SciTech Connect

The spatial motion and effective duration of a traveling plasma grating formed by two interfering femtosecond laser filaments in gases is characterized by its Doppler effect imparted on a probe pulse. The shift velocity determined experimentally agrees with the theoretical calculations.

Durand, Magali [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); ONERA, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Liu Yi; Forestier, Benjamin; Houard, Aurelien; Mysyrowicz, Andre [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

2011-03-21

298

Direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in ultracold Fermi gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase transitions are dramatic phenomena: water freezes into ice, atomic spins spontaneously align in a magnet, and liquid helium becomes superfluid. Sometimes, such a drastic change in behaviour is accompanied by a visible change in appearance. The hallmark of Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in trapped, weakly interacting Bose gases is the sudden formation of a dense central core inside a

Martin W. Zwierlein; Christian H. Schunck; André Schirotzek; Wolfgang Ketterle

2006-01-01

299

Abundances of Cloud-Related Gases in the Venus Atmosphere as Inferred from Observed Radio Opacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various radio-analytical techniques have detected microwave opacity in the middle atmosphere of Venus, well above the main carbon dioxide opacity of the lower atmosphere. Consideration of the amount, distribution, and effects of the constituents which produce the main cloud layer at about 50 km altitude, indicate that such cloud-related gases, especially sulfuric acid vapor, are the predominant source of the

Paul Gregory Steffes

1982-01-01

300

Assessment of ground-based atmospheric observations for verification of greenhouse gas emissions from an urban region  

PubMed Central

International agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require verification to ensure that they are effective and fair. Verification based on direct observation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will be necessary to demonstrate that estimated emission reductions have been actualized in the atmosphere. Here we assess the capability of ground-based observations and a high-resolution (1.3 km) mesoscale atmospheric transport model to determine a change in greenhouse gas emissions over time from a metropolitan region. We test the method with observations from a network of CO2 surface monitors in Salt Lake City. Many features of the CO2 data were simulated with excellent fidelity, although data-model mismatches occurred on hourly timescales due to inadequate simulation of shallow circulations and the precise timing of boundary-layer stratification and destratification. Using two optimization procedures, monthly regional fluxes were constrained to sufficient precision to detect an increase or decrease in emissions of approximately 15% at the 95% confidence level. We argue that integrated column measurements of the urban dome of CO2 from the ground and/or space are less sensitive than surface point measurements to the redistribution of emitted CO2 by small-scale processes and thus may allow for more precise trend detection of emissions from urban regions.

McKain, Kathryn; Wofsy, Steven C.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ehleringer, James R.; Stephens, Britton B.

2012-01-01

301

Rapport preliminaire sur l'inventaire de gaz a effet de serre. Phase 1. (Preliminary report on inventory of greenhouse gases. Phase 1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) requires the signatory countries to develop, periodically update, publish and make available to the Conference of the Parties national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions ...

J. Fenhann

1997-01-01

302

The Warming Trend and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment produced by ThinkTV explains the greenhouse effect and its connection to the recent rise in Earth's average temperature. Scientists explore the role of human activity in the increase of greenhouse gases and the warming trend.

Thinktv

2010-11-30

303

A new fast stratospheric ozone chemistry scheme in an intermediate general-circulation model. II: Application to effects of future increases in greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While chlorine loadings in the atmosphere are expected to decrease towards pre-ozone-hole levels by 2060, the greenhouse gases (GHGs) burden is rising continuously and may in turn significantly modify the stratospheric ozone layer.In this study, use is made of the new interactively coupled chemistry-general-circulation model IGCM-FASTOC to investigate in detail the response of stratospheric ozone to a specified increase in GHG concentrations between 1979 and 2060.The Intermediate General Circulation Model (IGCM) is a relatively fast general-circulation model with parametrizations of an intermediate level of complexity, and the new chemistry scheme Fast STratospheric Ozone Chemistry (FASTOC) is an efficient input-output model composed of pre-computed nonlinear functions.A total of seven 14-year time-slice simulations are performed to allow for the separation of individual processes and the analysis of sensitivity to methane and stratospheric water-vapour scenarios.In a basic scenario where all GHG concentrations increase (except stratospheric H2O) the total ozone column is found to increase at a global rate of 0.27 DU decade-1 with maxima in late winter-spring poles. This increase is merely the result of two opposing effects: (i) An increase of ozone concentration in the summer and tropical stratospheric region near 30-40 km which is passively advected into the polar-night vortex between 40 and 20 km. This ozone increase is due to the slowing down of the NOx catalytic cycle caused by the cooling of the stratosphere resulting from increased GHG concentrations in the stratosphere. (ii) A decrease of ozone concentration in the same region which is also advected into the polar-night vortex, due to enhanced NOx concentrations caused by the increased N2O concentrations. These two opposing effects are additive to a large degree, i.e. the sum of their individual effects is a good approximation of their total effect when the processes are acting together.

A significant deviation from this additivity occurs inside the northern polar-night vortex and to a lesser extent in the southern polar-night vortex. Our analysis suggests that methane is mainly responsible for this feature. The impact of methane increase on ozone is confined to the high latitudes and is found to have a negative sign in the northern polar vortex when the stratospheric cooling is taken into account, and a positive sign when no stratospheric cooling is taken into account.

The scenario where methane is kept at its 1979 level produces a global rate of increase of the ozone column of 9% above the basic scenario. The scenario where stratospheric H2O is increased by 50% leads to a global rate of increase of the ozone column of 70% above the basic scenario. Finally, in a scenario where CO2 is reduced to its 1979 level and the other GHGs involved in the ozone chemistry are increased as in the basic scenario, the global effect of GHGs on the ozone layer is to decrease it at a rate of 0.37 DU decade-1.

Bourqui, M. S.; Taylor, C. P.; Shine, K. P.

2005-07-01

304

40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section 600... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES...Procedures § 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for...

2013-07-01

305

An approach for retrieval of atmospheric trace gases CO2, CH4 and CO from the future Canadian micro earth observation satellite (MEOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among all trace gases, the carbon dioxide and methane provide the largest contribution to the climate radiative forcing and together with carbon monoxide also to the global atmospheric carbon budget. New Micro Earth Observation Satellite (MEOS) mission is proposed to obtain information about these gases along with some other mission's objectives related to studying cloud and aerosol interactions. The miniature

Alexander P. Trishchenko; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov; Shusen Wang; Yi Luo; Roman V. Kruzelecky; Wes Jamroz; Guennadi Kroupnik

2007-01-01

306

The relative role of trace gas emissions in greenhouse abatement policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive abatement of greenhouse gases involves reducing the emissions of all greenhouse gases. Comprehensive abatement strategies require indices to trade off between gases based on their relative contributions to climate change and associated impacts. This paper presents the results of an integrated approach to determining the relative role of different gases in the greenhouse abatement policy. Scientific and economic processes

Milind Kandlikar

1995-01-01

307

A Simple MetaModel for Assessing the Contribution of Liquid Fossil Fuel for On-Farm Fieldwork to Agricultural Greenhouse Gases in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fuel used for farm fieldwork contributes less than 10% of on-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a range of commodities, scales of farming and regional constraints, and implement choices make farm machinery fuel-related GHG emissions highly variable. Many of the same decisions that affect farm fuel use also affect soil carbon levels, as well as other sustainable agriculture issues such

J. A. Dyer; R. L. Desjardins

2005-01-01

308

Observation and modelling of dissolved gases as indicators for mass transfer during gas sparging in a contaminated aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of organic contaminants in aquifers is often limited by the availability of electron acceptors, and the attenuation of contaminants could be enhanced by additional supply of oxygen. Gas sparging is a remediation technique that supplies additional oxygen to ground water via injection of air or oxygen gas. For the performance of this method the mass transfer of gases from the gas phase trapped after injection is a key process. Our study investigated kinetic gas-water mass transfer between trapped gas phase in porous media and groundwater by spatially and temporally resolved dissolved gas measurements in an unconfined model aquifer. The aquifer model was built on-site as a 12 m tall underground tank filled with aquifer material and recharged in vertical direction by the local, contaminated groundwater. For the injection of short gas pulses, oxygen and air as injected gas phase were studied in view of interfacial mass transfer, gas transport in the aqueous phase, and accumulation of trapped gas in the porous space. At several locations dissolved nitrogen, methane and oxygen were observed at different stages of gas dissolution. Kinetic gas-water mass transfer in presence of oxygen demanding reactions in the polluted aquifer material and the transport of dissolved gases were simulated numerically for heterogeneous distribution of gas phase as was observed. Partitioning of nitrogen played an important role in the accumulation of trapped gas and contributes additional information on gas transfer processes. While injection of pure oxygen resulted in complete dissolution of trapped gas within a few meters, nitrogen and methane showed distinct patterns of mass transfer into the gas phase and back into aqueous phase. Naturally occurring gases such as methane or nitrogen were demonstrated to be valuable tracers to describe multiple compound gas-water mass transfer and to assist in predicting gas dissolution and oxygen consumption in porous media.

Oswald, S.; Balcke, G.

2009-04-01

309

Detection of the Arctic Dehydration-Greenhouse Feedback Using Satellite Observations and a Regional Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Datasets from the CloudSat radar reflectivity and the CALIPSO lidar backscattering measurements have provided a new regard on Arctic winter cloud systems, as well as on the way aerosols determine their formation and evolution. In this presentation, we emphasize the role of sulfates in the cooling and dehydrating air masses from cold low pressure systems entering the Arctic during the cold season. Using combined information from satellite instruments and the Northern Aerosol Regional Climate Model (NARCM), we show that a high sulfate fraction in the aerosol field is much likely to favour the production of bigger ice crystals which, by increased precipitation rates, accelerate both the depletion of atmospheric water content and the reduction of its greenhouse effect. This is linked to the property of sulfuric acid to lower the freezing point of haze droplets, leading to a type of thin ice clouds (TIC-2) extending deeply in the troposphere and increasing the radiative cooling rate with further strenghtening of water deposition and sedimentation of large ice crystals. This enhanced dehydration-IR cooling induced by acidic IFN is a case of dehydration-greenhouse feedback (DGF). In contrast, pristine aerosols favour the formation of large amounts of small crystals and non-precipitating thin ice cloud (TIC-1) systems. Because of their high sensitivity to discriminate crystal sizes, TIC-2 types are easily detected by both instruments, lidar and radar, whereas TIC-1 type is only seen by the lidar due to its capability to detect smaller crystals. Therefore, CloudSat and CALIPSO datasets are used to heuristically discriminate Arctic TIC in two crystal size categories (radar/lidar versus lidar-only). A calculation of the correlation between the occurrence of these cloud types and the aerosol sulfate fraction is obtained by joining satellite information to an aerosol field simulation from NARCM. Humidity field from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) is also used to analyse a cold cyclone dehydration case over the Arctic Ocean in January 2007. Results show that the DGF process could be responsible for climatic tropospheric cooling when a cold region is subject to an increase in sulfuric acid concentrations.

Grenier, P.; Blanchet, J.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Girard, E.; Jones, C.; Bertram, A.; Stephens, G. L.

2007-12-01

310

Greenhouse gas emissions, inventories and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The emission of greenhouse gases has become a very high priority research and environmental policy issue due to their effects on global climate. The knowledge of changes in global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution is well documented, and the global budgets are reasonably well known. However, even at this scale there are important uncertainties in

DAVID FOWLER; UTE SKIBA; JOHN B. MONCRIEFF; DEBBIE POLSON

311

What is the Greenhouse Effect?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of this activity, students will read and discuss information on the greenhouse effect and list important points about global warming. Tables are provided to show the most important greenhouse gases and how much their concentrations have increased since the pre-industrial era.

Rosenberg, David

312

GreenHouse Gas Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GreenHouse Gas Online catalogues greenhouse gas related articles published in over 100 peer-reviewed journals from around the world. Only journal articles with freely available abstracts are included. The latest general news and journal articles can be found listed by title, while links to archived material is available by topic. Pages devoted to background information on the various greenhouse gases, current scientific understanding and the potential for control of emissions are also available.

2002-08-01

313

Greenhouse Gas Molecules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of an interactive table with a comprehensive list of 29 Greenhouse Gases, their molecular structures, a chart showing a time series of their atmospheric concentrations (at several sampling sites), their global warming potential (GWP) and their atmospheric lifetimes. References are given to the data sets that range from the mid-1990s to 2008.

Lisensky, George; College, Beloit

314

The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

315

The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

316

MANAGING GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS FROM LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Options for mitigation of enteric methane and other greenhouse gases from ruminant livestock systems are constrained by regional characteristics of the systems. In both developing and developed countries there are various non- greenhouse gas issues that also need to be considered when identifying effective and sustainable options for greenhouse gas mitigation, for example regional human food security and the need

G. J. McCrabb; S. Fernandez; R. A. Hunter; M Kurihara; F. Terada; T. Wirth

317

Towards robust global greenhouse gas monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global monitoring of greenhouse gases and carbon across the coupled earth system would enhance the quality of greenhouse gas emission and removal information available to inventory compilers, auditors, businesses and policy makers. A robust monitoring system would combine direct measurements of the atmosphere, land and oceans, earth system models, inventories and other information to accurately estimate greenhouse gas and carbon

Riley M. Duren; Charles E. Miller

2011-01-01

318

Isotopic dependences of the dielectric strength of gases: new observations, classification, and possible origins  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report: (1) the finding that the CH/sub 4//CD/sub 4/ nonuniform field behavior is polarity dependent (i.e., the V/sub s/ of CD/sub 4/ is lower than the V/sub s/ of CH/sub 4/ for negative polarity which is just the opposite of that observed for positive polarity); (2) discuss the origins of the observed isotope effects and predict new isotopic dependences of V/sub s/; and (3) report results on the V/sub s/ of H/sub 2/S and D/sub 2/S for negative polarity which confirm their predicted isotopic behavior.

Christophorou, L.G.; Rodrigo, H.; Marode, E.; Bastien, F.

1985-01-01

319

Atmospheric correction for MASTER image data using localized modelled and observed meteorology and trace gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric correction for remote sensing-based studies typically does not use information from spatio-temporally resolved meteorological models. We assessed the effect of using observations and mesoscale weather and chemical transport models on multispectral retrievals of land and ocean properties. We performed two atmospheric corrections on image data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)\\/Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer

Daniel S. Tkacik; Yaítza Luna-Cruz; Nicholas Clinton; Scott Spak; John Ryan

2012-01-01

320

Observability of Quantum Criticality and a Continuous Supersolid in Atomic Gases  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the Bose-Hubbard model with a three-body hard-core constraint by mapping the system to a theory of two coupled bosonic degrees of freedom. We find striking features that could be observable in experiments, including a quantum Ising critical point on the transition from atomic to dimer superfluidity at unit filling, and a continuous supersolid phase for strongly bound dimers.

Diehl, S.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Baranov, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); RRC 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-04-23

321

Odin\\/SMR limb observations of stratospheric trace gases: Validation of N2O  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (Odin\\/SMR) on board the Odin satellite, launched on 20 February 2001, performs regular measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) using spectral observations of the J = 20 ? 19 rotational transition centered at 502.296 GHz. We present a quality assessment for the retrieved N2O profiles (level 2 product) by comparison with independent balloonborne

J. Urban; N. Lautié; E. Le Flochmoën; C. Jiménez; P. Eriksson; J. de La Noë; E. Dupuy; L. El Amraoui; U. Frisk; F. Jégou; D. Murtagh; M. Olberg; P. Ricaud; C. Camy-Peyret; G. Dufour; S. Payan; N. Huret; M. Pirre; A. D. Robinson; N. R. P. Harris; H. Bremer; A. Kleinböhl; K. Küllmann; K. Künzi; J. Kuttippurath; M. K. Ejiri; H. Nakajima; Y. Sasano; T. Sugita; T. Yokota; C. Piccolo; P. Raspollini; M. Ridolfi

2005-01-01

322

Odin\\/SMR limb observations of stratospheric trace gases: Validation of N2O  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (Odin\\/SMR) on board the Odin satellite, launched on 20 February 2001, performs regular measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) using spectral observations of the J = 20 -> 19 rotational transition centered at 502.296 GHz. We present a quality assessment for the retrieved N2O profiles (level 2 product) by comparison with independent balloonborne

J. Urban; N. Lautié; E. Le Flochmoën; C. Jiménez; P. Eriksson; J. de La Noë; E. Dupuy; L. El Amraoui; U. Frisk; F. Jégou; D. Murtagh; M. Olberg; P. Ricaud; C. Camy-Peyret; G. Dufour; S. Payan; N. Huret; M. Pirre; A. D. Robinson; N. R. P. Harris; H. Bremer; A. Kleinböhl; K. Küllmann; K. Künzi; J. Kuttippurath; M. K. Ejiri; H. Nakajima; Y. Sasano; T. Sugita; T. Yokota; C. Piccolo; P. Raspollini; M. Ridolfi

2005-01-01

323

Development of inexpensive continuous emission monitors for feedback control of combustion devices that minimize greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, and ozone damaging products  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combustion is the major cause of poor urban air quality, of depletion of the ozone layer, and a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Careful control of combustor conditions is important for minimizing the effects of combustion on the environment. The authors have developed sensitive, inexpensive continuous emission monitors that will assist in direct feedback of turbine power systems and provide assurance to the public and the operators of the facilities that their facility emissions lie within the accepted bounds. These include a robust solid-state Fourier transform spectrometer for rapid gas analysis, based on the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal technology, and an infrared helium-neon probe for real time measurement of combustor air-to-fuel ratios.

Funk, D.J.; Moore, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Mongia, R.K.; Tomita, E.; Hsu, F.K.; Talbot, L.; Dibble, R.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US); Lovett, J. [Pratt and Whitney (US); Yamazaki, Akira [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan)

1998-11-01

324

Stratospheric ozone depletion at northern mid latitudes in the 21st century: The importance of future concentrations of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence that the halogen loading of the atmosphere has peaked and stratospheric ozone levels are expected to recover to pre-1980 levels this century. However, N2O concentrations in the atmosphere are increasing, resulting in increasing levels of NOx in the stratosphere. In addition, the growth rate in the atmospheric methane burden has declined in recent years, leading to the suggestion that methane emissions have stabilized. A 2-D chemical transport model is used to calculate stratospheric ozone from 2000 to 2100 for a range of IPCC scenarios. The model predicts that mid-latitude stratospheric ozone will recover only partially towards pre-1980 levels over the next 50 years, but will then decline, largely due to increases in stratospheric NOx. If greenhouse gas mitigation strategies result in lower future methane levels, mid-latitude stratospheric ozone levels in 2100 are predicted to be lower than current values, particularly in late summer and autumn.

Randeniya, L. K.; Vohralik, P. F.; Plumb, I. C.

2002-02-01

325

Regional Modeling Support for Planning Airborne Campaigns to Observe CO2 and Other Trace Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagrangian particle models (e.g., CSU LPDM, STILT) driven by regional meteorological models (e.g., WRF, SiB-RAMS) are useful tools in regional CO2 research including inversion studies, design of tower network, or testing and supporting flight scenarios. They are typically used in backward in time mode as an adjoint transport model providing, for each data point, influence functions (footprints) for surface fluxes and inflow fluxes across a domain perimeter. The following modeling framework is proposed to support a design of observational networks and field campaigns for measurement of CO2 concentrations in regional and continental scales: (1) atmospheric transport climatology covering several months for selected towers or flight transects, (2) testing specific flight scenarios (shorter time periods, but higher resolution), and (3) using model generated pseudo-data and inversion techniques to optimize observational strategies for specific objectives in terms of uncertainty reduction in estimated CO2 surface fluxes. This framework will be presented using examples from previous regional CO2 studies over North America with the aid of CSU SiB-RAMS and LPDM models. Then, it will be used to explore how column integrated measurements of CO2 from aircraft (active laser sounding) together with airborne sampling can complement the NOAA tall tower network of continuous CO2 measurements for inversion studies. Hypothetical flight scenarios are designed to collect information on both surface fluxes and boundary conditions around US domain perimeter using model simulations for the entire year of 2007. Example of three concentration sampling strategies (WBI tower continuous, and two flights during 4 afternoon hours every day), one month average (July, 2007) for a passive tracer (top), CO2 respiration flux (middle) and CO2 assimilation flux (bottom)

Uliasz, M.; Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A.

2010-12-01

326

Measuring fluxes of trace gases at regional scales by Lagrangian observations: Application to the CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne (COBRA) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general framework for designing and analyzing Lagrangian-type aircraft observations in order to measure surface fluxes of trace gases on regional scales. Lagrangian experiments minimize uncertainties due to advection by measuring tracer concentrations upstream and downstream of the study region, assuring that observed concentration changes represent fluxes within the region. The framework includes (1) a receptor-oriented model of

J. C. Lin; C. Gerbig; S. C. Wofsy; A. E. Andrews; B. C. Daube; C. A. Grainger; B. B. Stephens; P. S. Bakwin; D. Y. Hollinger

2004-01-01

327

EVERGREEN: Global satellite observations of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EVERGREEN project of the European Commission 5 th Framework Programme has demonstrated new methods able to exploit satellite data in global climate and local air pollution research and application begin itemize item Global maps of CH4 CO and CO2 simultaneously measured were produced for the first time from SCIAMACHY space observations containing new information on sources and sinks item Major new methane sources in the tropics have been discovered which has lead to new research in methane emissions from plants item Global carbon monoxide data from SCIAMACHY and MOPITT have shown generally good agreement with models except for higher concentrations measured in Southern America These data have resulted in improved agreement with surface FTIR measurements tens of percent item Global carbon dioxide data from SCIAMACHY are in qualitative agreement with existing models and agree with the limited ground based FTIR stations to within a few percent item Variability in stratospheric methane measured by MIPAS was found to have a relatively small impact on the radiation budget 0 01 W m2 not exceeding the error bars Enhanced methane found by SCIAMACHY has a more significant effect on instantaneous radiative forcing 0 1W m2 depending on profile assumptions made item MOPITT data have been used to establish source sink strengths by inverse modelling item SCIAMACHY data have allowed inverse modelling of methane sources and sinks showing enhanced tropical emissions compared with a priory estimates end itemize Important new global atmospheric data sets

Goede, A. P. H.; Evergreen Consortium

328

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in Agricultural Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable biological potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils but many factors prevent\\u000a the full biological potential being realized. When considering greenhouse gas mitigation, it is important to consider all\\u000a of the greenhouse gases together as a management practice suitable for reducing one gas may increase emissions of another.\\u000a Successful greenhouse gas mitigation options for agricultural

Pete Smith; Pete Falloon; Uwe Franko; Martin Körschens; Rattan Lal; Keith Paustian; David Powlson; Vladimir Romanenkov; Ludmila Shevtsova; Jo Smith

329

Model Greenhouses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the advantages and disadvantages of the greenhouse effect. They construct their own miniature greenhouses and explore how their designs take advantage of heat transfer processes to create controlled environments. They record and graph measurements, comparing the greenhouse indoor and outdoor temperatures over time. Students are also introduced to global issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and their relationship to global warming.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

330

Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100?g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Outcome measures Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Results Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18?683 (14?665to 22?889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15?228 (11?245to 19?492) ktCO2e/year. Conclusions Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets.

Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

2013-01-01

331

EVALUATION OF SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is an initial evaluation of significant anthropogenic sources of radiatively important trace gases. missions of greenhouse gases from human activities--including fossil fuel combustion, industrial/agricultural activities, and transportation--contribute to the increasin...

332

Enteric methane production and greenhouse gases balance of diets differing in concentrate in the fattening phase of a beef production system.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were 1) to assess the effects of 3 high-concentrate diets on enteric CH(4) production, total tract digestibility, and rumen fermentation of beef cattle, and 2) to evaluate, by life cycle assessment, the potential effects of these feeding systems on the environment. Six bulls (age of 12.4 mo and BW of 417 kg at midexperiment) of the Blond d'Aquitaine breed were assigned to 3 dietary treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Diets consisted of 1) 49% natural grassland hay, 41% ground corn grain, and 10% soybean meal (hay); 2) 63% corn silage, 21% ground corn grain, and 16% soybean meal (CS); and 3) 70% ground corn grain, 16% soybean meal, and 14% wheat straw (CG). Daily CH(4) emission (g/d), measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, was similar for the hay and CS diets and was 56% greater than for the CG diet (P < 0.001). This difference between diets was maintained when CH(4) output was expressed by unit of feed intake (P < 0.001) or digested feed (P < 0.001). Gross energy intake loss as CH(4) averaged 6.9% for the hay and CS diets and 3.2% for the CG diet (P < 0.001). Organic matter intake and GE intake did not differ between diets. Organic matter digestibility was less for the hay diet than for the CS and CG diets (P=0.008). Digestibility of NDF was greatest for the hay diet, intermediate for the CS diet, and least for the CG diet (P=0.02), with ADF digestibility being similar between the hay and CS diets and greater than for the CG diet (P < 0.001). The rumen pH at 5 h postfeeding was less for animals fed the CG diet compared with those fed the other 2 diets (on average, 5.1 vs. 5.9, respectively; P < 0.001). Total CH(4) emission (enteric + manure) was least for the CG diet, whereas N(2)O and CO(2) emissions were greatest for the CG diet. Total greenhouse gas emissions were least for the CG diet when C sequestration by grasslands was not taken into account. PMID:21383032

Doreau, M; van der Werf, H M G; Micol, D; Dubroeucq, H; Agabriel, J; Rochette, Y; Martin, C

2011-03-07

333

A regional interpretation of rules and good practice for greenhouse accounting: northern Australian savanna systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use change, particularly clearing of forests for agriculture, has contributed significantly to the observed rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Concern about the impacts on climate has led to efforts to monitor and curtail the rapid increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Internationally, much of the current focus is on the Kyoto Protocol

Beverley HenryA; Chris MitchellA; Oliver WoldringD; John CarterA

334

The greenhouse trap  

SciTech Connect

This book describes evidence of global warming and the contributions of man's activities to the process. The impacts of greenhouse gases on climate and health are discussed and recommendations are made for mitigation of these effects. Changes in fuel use, expansion of carbon sinks through planting of trees, and personal commitments to energy conservation are among these recommendations. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base.

Lyman, F.; Mintzer, I.; Courrier, K.; MacKenzie, J.

1990-01-01

335

Importance of methane and nitrous oxide for Europe's terrestrial greenhouse-gas balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change negotiations aim to reduce net greenhouse-gas emissions by encouraging direct reductions of emissions and crediting countries for their terrestrial greenhouse-gas sinks. Ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake has offset nearly 10% of Europe's fossil fuel emissions, but not all of this may be creditable under the rules of the Kyoto Protocol. Although this treaty recognizes the importance of methane and nitrous oxide emissions, scientific research has largely focused on carbon dioxide. Here we review recent estimates of European carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes between 2000 and 2005, using both top-down estimates based on atmospheric observations and bottom-up estimates derived from ground-based measurements. Both methods yield similar fluxes of greenhouse gases, suggesting that methane emissions from feedstock and nitrous oxide emissions from arable agriculture are fully compensated for by the carbon dioxide sink provided by forests and grasslands. As a result, the balance for all greenhouse gases across Europe's terrestrial biosphere is near neutral, despite carbon sequestration in forests and grasslands. The trend towards more intensive agriculture and logging is likely to make Europe's land surface a significant source of greenhouse gases. The development of land management policies which aim to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions should be a priority.

2009-12-01

336

Fire emissions in Euro-Mediterranean area: evaluation of the impact on trace gases composition using satellite and surface observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are one of the main sources of trace gases and aerosols. However, their impact remains poorly quantified due to large uncertainties especially on the emissions, as well as on the transport processes and chemical evolution of the pollution plumes. In the framework of APIFLAME project a new high resolution fire emission inventory is developed. Simulations performed with the regional chemistry transport model CHIMERE, are carried out in order to assess the effect of the emissions scenarios on air quality in Europe and Mediterranean basin. For a comprehensive evaluation of the processes involved with fire emissions and a validation of simulations, the modeled species are compared to satellite observations and ground measurements. The latter data have good accuracy with high temporal resolution, but they are collected at specific locations and, in general for our case study, are far away from the location where wildfires occur. On the other hand, the satellite data, due to their high spatial coverage, can be a useful tool for monitoring pollution plumes transport, but their vertical resolution is often limited to a total column amount. In this study, the modeled concentrations are compared to the ground measurements (CO, O3 and NO2 concentrations) that come from AirBase database, and to CO partial columns and CO, NH3 and C2H4 total columns from the IASI instrument, to NO2 and CH2O total columns from GOME2 (both on MetOp-A satellite) and to NO2 total columns from OMI (on Aura). In the presented work we focus on strong biomass burning episodes that occurred in summer 2007. Particular attention is given to the evolution of the plume characteristics. The same fire inventory setup is used for both reanalysis and near-real time analysis. The first evaluation of the air quality forecasting system including fires will be presented.

Messina, P.; Turquety, S.; Stromatas, S.; Menut, L.; Anav, A.; Coheur, P.-F.; R'honi, Y.; Bessagnet, B.; Clerbaux, C.

2012-04-01

337

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trust in an international agreement to limit future greenhouse gas emissions will depend on the ability of each nation to make accurate estimates of its own emissions, monitor their changes over time, and verify one another’s estimates with independent information. A recent National Research Council committee assessed current capabilities for estimating and verifying emissions from greenhouse gases that result from human activities, have long lifetimes in the atmosphere, and are likely to be included in an international agreements. These include CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6, and CFCs. The analysis shows that countries have the capability to estimate their CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel use with sufficient accuracy to support monitoring of an international treaty, but accurate methods are not universally applied and the estimates cannot be checked against independent data. Deployment of existing methods and technologies could, within 5 years, yield a capability to both estimate and verify CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel use and deforestation, which comprise approximately three-quarters of greenhouse emissions likely covered by a treaty. Estimates of emissions of other greenhouse gases will remain uncertain in the near term.

Linn, A. M.; Law, B.

2010-12-01

338

Equity and equality in the greenhouse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses some ideas of how to balance equity and equality in negotiating action on greenhouse gases. Some parallels are drawn with previous agreements to combat another regional air pollution problem, acid rain. The ease with which formulation...

D. G. Streets

1990-01-01

339

Gas-water-rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO{sub 2} injection: Implications for the storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600 t of CO{sub 2} were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-in-thick sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional brine and oil reservoir in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before CO{sub 2} injection showed a Na-CaCl-type brine with 93,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) at near saturation with CH{sub 4} at reservoir conditions. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5-5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100-3000 mg/L as HCO{sub 3}) and Fe (30-1100 mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and CH{sub 4}. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower but for the buffering by dissolution of carbonate and iron oxyhydroxides. This rapid dissolution of carbonate and other minerals could ultimately create pathways in the rock seals or well cements for CO{sub 2} and brine leakage. Dissolution of minerals, especially iron oxyhydroxides, could mobilize toxic trace metals and, where residual oil or suitable organics are present, the injected CO{sub 2} could also mobilize toxic organic compounds. Environmental impacts could be major if large brine volumes with mobilized toxic metals and organics migrated into potable groundwater.

Kharaka, Y.K.; Cole, D.R.; Hovorka, S.D.; Gunter, W.D.; Knauss, K.G.; Freifeld, B.M. [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

2006-07-15

340

Towards a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems and in the oceans. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, meta-analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to rigorously identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a status of the GHGIS effort including our latest analysis and ideas for potential near-term pilot projects with potential relevance to European initiatives including the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS).

Duren, Riley; Butler, James; Rotman, Doug; Miller, Charles; Decola, Phil; Sheffner, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Mitchiner, John; Jonietz, Karl; Dimotakis, Paul

2010-05-01

341

Assessment report on NRP subtheme “gGeenhouse Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the subtheme Greenhouse gases of the Dutch National Research programme on (NRP) is to quantify the sources and sinks of the major greenhouse gases to enable estimates of the future atmospheric concentration. The major part of the projects in this theme is focused on the Dutch situation, but the results can be extrapolated countries or regions. The

J. G. de Beer

1995-01-01

342

Buying greenhouse insurance  

SciTech Connect

A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO{sub 2} emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO{sub 2} emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists.

Manne, A.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Richels, R.G. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

343

IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IEA Greenhouse Gas Programme is an international collaboration that evaluates technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, disseminates the results of these studies and identifies targets for research, development and demonstration. The program operates under the auspices of the International Energy Agency. The key areas of study for the IEA GGP include climate change, emission reduction and carbon dioxide capture and storage.

2008-01-22

344

Delivery of micrometeoritic greenhouse gases and  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Processed micrometeorites in Astrobiology. In previous studies, we considered the contribution of unmelted micrometeorites in astrobiology. We now argue that even processed micrometeorites that are destroyed upon atmospheric entry could have participated in the birth of life on Earth. Unweathered micrometeorites from our new \\

M. Maurette; A. Brack; J. Duprat; C. Engrand

2004-01-01

345

Biofuels, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biofuels are fuels produced from biomass, mostly in liquid form, within a time frame sufficiently short to consider that their\\u000a feedstock (biomass) can be renewed, contrarily to fossil fuels. This paper reviews the current and future biofuel technologies,\\u000a and their development impacts (including on the climate) within given policy and economic frameworks. Current technologies\\u000a make it possible to provide first

Cécile Bessou; Fabien Ferchaud; Benoît Gabrielle; Bruno Mary

346

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996  

EIA Publications

Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

Information Center

1997-10-01

347

Composition and Trends of Short-Lived Trace Gases in the UT/LS over Europe Observed by the CARIBIC Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from aboard a commercial airliner, and has operated since 2005 from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus 340-600 . Measurements from the container include in-situ trace gas and aerosol analyses and the collection of aerosol and whole air samples for post-flight laboratory analysis. Measurements made from the sampling flasks include greenhouse gas (GHG), halocarbon and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis. CARIBIC flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany with routes to India, East Asia, South America, North America and Africa, and typical aircraft cruising altitudes of 10-12km allow for the monitoring of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) along these routes. Data collected during the aircraft’s departure from and return to Frankfurt provide a 4 year time series of near-monthly measurements of the composition of the UT/LS above Europe. Here we present a discussion of the composition of short-lived trace gases in the whole air samples collected above Europe during CARIBIC flights. Over 150 air samples were collected between May 2005 and July 2009, or about 4 samples per month. Of the whole air samples collected, about 45% showed influence by stratospheric air (i.e. very low values of GHG, NMHC and halocarbons, elevated O3, high potential vorticity). The remaining samples were representative of the upper troposphere; back trajectories for these samples indicate that a little over half were collected in air masses that had been in the boundary layer within the previous 8 days. The predominant source regions for these samples were the Gulf of Mexico and continental North America. Owing to their wide range of chemical lifetimes and the varying composition of emissions, short-lived trace gases transported to the UT/LS can be useful indicators of source region, photochemical processing and transport timescales of an air mass. Seasonal and longer-term trends in trace gases and trace gas composition are discussed, as well as composition of air masses having different origins. Additionally, we apply relationships between the different species, particularly the NMHC, to gain a qualitative understanding of photochemical processes occurring during transport from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere over Europe.

Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Oram, D. E.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Slemr, F.; Schuck, T. J.

2009-12-01

348

Overview of global greenhouse effects  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

Reck, R.A.

1993-09-01

349

Observation-based assessment of stratospheric fractional release, lifetimes, and Ozone Depletion Potentials of ten important source gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the recovery time of stratospheric ozone heavily rely on the exact knowledge of the processes that lead to the decomposition of the relevant halogenated source gases. Crucial parameters in this context are Fractional Release Factors (FRFs) as well as stratospheric lifetimes and Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs). We here present data from the analysis of air samples collected between 2009 and 2011 on board research aircraft flying in the mid- and high latitudinal stratosphere and infer the above-mentioned parameters for ten major source gases:CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CF2ClCFCl2(CFC-113), CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride),CH3CCl3 (methyl chloroform), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b), CH3CF2Cl (HCFC-142b), CF2ClBr (H-1211), and CF3Br (H-1301). The inferred correlations of their FRFs with mean ages of air reveal less decomposition as compared to previous studies for most compounds. When using the calculated set of FRFs to infer equivalent stratospheric chlorine we find a reduction of more than 20% as compared to the values inferred in the most recent Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO, 2011). We also note that FRFs and their correlations with mean age are not generally time-independent as often assumed. The stratospheric lifetimes were calculated relative to that of CFC-11. Within our uncertainties the inferred ratios between lifetimes agree with those between stratospheric lifetimes from recent WMO reports except for CFC-11, CFC-12 and CH3CCl3. Finally we calculate lower ODPs than WMO for six out of ten compounds with changes most pronounced for the three HCFCs. Collectively these newly calculated values may have important implications for the severity and recovery time of stratospheric ozone loss.

Laube, J. C.; Keil, A.; Bönisch, H.; Engel, A.; Röckmann, T.; Volk, C. M.; Sturges, W. T.

2012-10-01

350

CarbonSat - Quantification of natural and man-made greenhouse gas surface fluxes from satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column amounts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surprisingly and in spite of their exceptional driving role in climate change, our knowledge about the variable sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 is currently inadequate. For example, the ability of the Earth-atmosphere system to buffer increasing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere has large uncertainties and emissions from many sources (geologic, anthropogenic, biogenic) are to a large degree uncertain. An adequate knowledge of the sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4 and their response to a changing climate is a pre-requisite for the accurate prediction of the regional variation of the climate of our planet. CarbonSat is a new mission concept to quantify and monitor CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks at the regional to local scale. The data will allow a better understanding of the processes that control the Carbon Cycle dynamics and an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.). This will be achieved by a unique combination of high spatial resolution passive and active compact remote sensing with inverse modeling techniques. CarbonSat will accurately measure column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, at a spatial resolution of 2 x 2 km2 (500 km continuous swath) with 0.5% goal (1%, threshold) single measurement precision and global coverage within 3-6 days. Beside the quantification of sources and sinks on the regional scale, one key and innovative aim of the CarbonSat mission is to go a step forward towards quantifying local emission hot spots (fossil fuel emissions by power plants, gas/oil production, geological sources etc.). The core sensor will be a compact Imaging NIR/SWIR spectrometer (SCIAMACHY, OCO heritage) whose measurements yield global data sets of XCO2 and XCH4 with at least one order of magnitude higher number of cloud free measurements than GOSAT and OCO and one order of magnitude better spatial coverage than OCO, due to CarbonSat's 500 km swath continuous across track coverage with 2 x 2 km2 spatial resolution. Ideally, the imaging spectrometer will be accompanied by a compact CH4 Lidar, to derive complementary accurate XCH4 - especially in high northern latitudes - as well as information on clouds and vegetation height. The overall mission concept, the expected data quality and selected application areas will be presented.

Bovensmann, Heinrich; Buchwitz, Michael

2010-05-01

351

CarbonSat -Quantification of natural and man-made greenhouse gas surface fluxes from satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column amounts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surprisingly and in spite of their exceptional driving role in climate change, our knowledge about the variable sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 is currently inadequate. For example, the ability of the Earth-atmosphere system to buffer increasing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere has large uncertainties and emissions from many sources (geo-logic, anthropogenic, biogenic) are to a large degree uncertain. An adequate knowledge of the sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4 and their response to a changing climate is a pre-requisite for the accurate prediction of the regional variation of the climate of our planet. CarbonSat is a new mission concept to quantify and monitor CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks at the regional to local scale. The data will allow a better understanding of the processes that control the Carbon Cycle dynamics and an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.). This will be achieved by a unique combination of high spatial resolution passive and active compact remote sensing with inverse modeling techniques. CarbonSat will accurately measure column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, at a spatial resolution of 2 x 2 km2 (500 km continuous swath) with 0.5 percent goal (1 percent threshold) single measurement precision and global coverage within 3-6 days. Beside the quantification of sources and sinks on the regional scale, one key and innovative aim of the CarbonSat mission is to go a step forward towards quantifying local emission hot spots (fossil fuel emissions by power plants, gas/oil production, geological sources etc.). The core sensor will be a compact Imaging NIR/SWIR spectrometer (SCIAMACHY, OCO her-itage) whose measurements yield global data sets of XCO2 and XCH4 with at least one order of magnitude higher number of cloud free measurements than GOSAT and OCO and one order of magnitude better spatial coverage than OCO, due to CarbonSat's 500 km swath continuous across track coverage with 2 x 2 km2 spatial resolution. Ideally, the imaging spectrometer will be accompanied by a compact CH4 Lidar, to derive complementary accurate XCH4 -especially in high northern latitudes -as well as information on clouds and vegetation height. The overall mission concept will be presented.

Bovensmann, Heinrich; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Notholt, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Reuter, M.; Trautmann, T.; Ehret, G.; Heimann, M.; Monks, P.; B&Ü, H.; Sch; Harding, R.; Quegan, S.; Rayner, P.; Breon, F. M.; Bergam-O Aschi, P.; Dittus, H. J.; Erzinger, J.; Crisp, D.

352

Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a greenhouse-effect-in-a-bottle experiment. The lesson includes readings from NEED.org and an inquiry lab measuring the effect of carbon dioxide and temperature change in an enclosed environment.

Education, Connecticut E.

353

Transportation fuels and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Continued emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases are expected to cause substantial global warming with adverse consequences for agriculture and coastal cities, yet emission of greenhouse gases has not been a criterion in evaluation of alternative transportation fuels. In this paper these are evaluated emissions of CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and other greenhouse gases from the use of gasoline and diesel fuel, electricity, methanol, natural gas, and hydrogen in highway vehicles. Emissions from initial resource extraction to end use are estimated. It is found that the use of coal to make any highway fuel would substantially accelerate greenhouse warming relative to the base-case use of petroleum. The use of natural gas as a feedstock would result in a small reduction. Significant reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases can be achieved only by greatly increasing vehicle efficiency or by using biofuels, electrolytic hydrogen, or nonfossil-fuel-based electricity as the fuel feedstock. Emissions of gases other than CO{sub 2} are likely to contribute appreciably to the warming, but better data are needed. Full social-cost pricing of fuels and increased research and development on sustainable, environmentally sound fuels are recommended.

DeLuchi, M.A.; Johnston, R.A.; Sperling, D. (Div. of Environmental Studies, Univ. of California-Davis, Davis, CA (US))

1988-01-01

354

Spatial distributions, sources and sinks of methyl iodide, methyl chloride, methyl bromide, carbonyl sulfide, and other trace gases from observations over North America during INTEX-NA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole air sampling aboard the NASA DC-8 in summer 2004 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-NA) provided an excellent opportunity to obtain a picture of the spatial distribution of trace gases over the North American continent. Our nearly 3,000 measurements of a wide range of trace gases are a crucial component in the investigation of the influence of anthropogenic and biogenic sources, fires, photochemical and biogenic sinks, long range transport and convection on the northern hemisphere troposphere. Here we highlight just a few interesting features of the trace gas distributions observed during INTEX-NA, including the large contrasts between the character of marine and continental boundary layer air masses. We also saw surprisingly high methyl iodide levels over the continent, which we attribute to strong marine influence during several INTEX-NA flights. However, we do not rule out a small terrestrial source for methyl iodide. The effect of vegetative draw-down was evident in the vertical distribution of carbonyl sulfide during INTEX-NA. Methyl chloride levels were also diminished over the same regions. Methyl bromide "hot spots" over certain agricultural regions of the US suggest continued use of this gas as a soil fumigant.

Blake, N. J.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A.; Doezema, L.; Meinardi, S.; Novak, B.; Barletta, B.; Midyett, J.; Kamboures, M.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Vay, S. A.; Rowland, F. S.

2005-12-01

355

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01

356

Is greenhouse gas forcing a plausible explanation for the observed warming in the Baltic Sea catchment area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate if anthropogenic forcing is a plausible explanation for the observed warming in the Baltic Sea catchment area. Therefore, we compare the most recent trends in surface temperature over land with anthropogenic climate change pro- jections from regional climate model simulations. We analyze patterns of change with different spatio-temporal resolution. The observed annual area mean change in daily mean

Jonas Bhend; Hans von Storch

357

A regional interpretation of rules and good practice for greenhouse accounting: northern Australian savanna systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Land-use change, particularly clearing of forests for agriculture, has contributed significantly to the observed rise in atmospheric,carbon dioxide concentration. Concern about the impacts on climate has led to efforts to monitor and curtail the rapid increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse,gases in the atmosphere. Internationally, much of the current focus is on the Kyoto Protocol to

Beverley Henry; Chris Mitchell; Annette Cowie; Oliver Woldring; John Carter

2005-01-01

358

Greenhouse gas relationships in the Indian summer monsoon plume measured by the CARIBIC passenger aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Indian summer monsoon period 2008, regular measurement flights were performed by the CARIBIC aircraft between Germany and India. Measure- ments included whole air sampling and subsequent analysis for greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2, N2O, SF6) and in-situ mea- surements of CO, O3, and H2O. For all these tracers a distinct monsoon signature was observed in the longitude range 50-

T. J. Schuck; C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; A. K. Baker; F. Slemr; P. F. J. von Velthoven; A. Zahn

2010-01-01

359

Greenhouse gas relationships in the Indian summer monsoon plume measured by the CARIBIC passenger aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Indian summer monsoon period 2008, regular measurement flights were performed by the CARIBIC aircraft between Germany and India. Measurements included whole air sampling and subsequent analysis for greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2, N2O, SF6) and in-situ measurements of CO, O3, and H2O. For all these tracers a distinct monsoon signature was observed in the longitude range 50-80° E south

T. J. Schuck; C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; A. K. Baker; F. Slemr; P. F. J. von Velthoven; A. Zahn

2010-01-01

360

Atmospheric gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which gases make up the atmosphere? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the gaseous components of the atmosphere. Students explore the main gases of the atmosphere using a pop-up pie chart. Descriptions of the gases and their percentages in the atmosphere are provided. Students read about water vapor in the atmosphere, and an animation shows a simplified process of precipitation. A pop-up window explains the effects of dust on the atmosphere, and a photograph shows how large amounts of dust in the atmosphere create the reds and oranges displayed in sunsets. Finally, ozone is introduced to students as a necessary component of human life on Earth. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

361

Odin-SMR limb observations of stratospheric trace gases: polar ozone loss during 2001-02 estimated using tracer correlations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SubMillimeter Radiometer (SMR) onboard the Odin mini satellite, launched in February 2001, employs 4 tunable single-sideband Schottky-diode heterodyne receivers in the ~485-580GHz spectral range. Observations of the Earths limb are performed in a time sharing mode with astronomical observations using a 1m telescope. Spectra are recorded using 2 high resolution autocorrelators and an acousto-optical spectrometer. In aeronomy mode, various target bands are dedicated to observations of trace constituents relevant to stratospheric/mesospheric chemistry and dynamics such as O3, ClO, N2O, HNO3, H2O, CO, and isotopes of H2O and O3. Profile information can be retrieved from the spectral measurements of a limb scan by inverting the radiative transfer equation for a non-scattering atmosphere. A retrieval algorithm based on the so-called Optimal Estimation Method has been adopted for the ground segments of Odin-SMR in Sweden and in France. Observations of stratospheric ozone and nitrous oxide are done simultaneously in a band around 502GHz. The aim of the presentation is to provide estimates on the polar ozone loss in the lower stratosphere of the northern and southern winter hemispheres during 2002 by using the correlation of ozone with the chemically passive tracer nitrous oxide. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by Sweden, Canada, Finland and France.

Urban, J.; Odin-Smr Retrieval Group

2003-04-01

362

Odin/SMR Limb Observations of Stratospheric Trace Gases During the 2002-03 Northern Hemisphere Winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (SMR) on board the Odin satellite, launched in February 2001, employs 4 tunable single-sideband Schottky-diode heterodyne receivers in the ˜ 485-580 GHz spectral range and a 1 m telescope for passive observations of thermal emissions originating from the Earths limb. Spectra are recorded using 2 high resolution auto-correlator spectrometers. Measurements are performed in a time sharing mode with astronomical observations. In aeronomy mode, various target bands are dedicated to observations of trace constituents relevant to stratospheric/mesospheric chemistry and dynamics such as O3, ClO, N2O, HNO3, H2O, CO, and isotopes of H2O and O3. Profile information is retrieved from the spectral measurements of a limb scan by inverting the adiative transfer equation for a non-scattering atmosphere. A retrieval algorithm based on the ``Optimal Estimation Method'' has been adopted for the ground segments of Odin-SMR in Sweden and in France. We present results of stratospheric mode measurements taken during the 2002/2003 northern hemisphere winter. Activated chlorine was observed inside the Arctic polar vortex until mid-February. The accumulated chemical ozone loss in the lower stratosphere, derived from the correlation with the chemically passive tracer N2O, is estimated to be in the order of 20-30 %. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by Sweden, Canada, Finland and France.

Urban, J.; Lautié, N.; Le Flochmoën, E.; Dupuy, E.; Eriksson, P.; Jimenez, C.; de La Noë, J.; Murtagh, D.; Olberg, M.; Ricaud, P.; Frisk, U.

2003-12-01

363

CD Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners plant seeds and watch them sprout and grow inside a CD case. This is a creative way to introduce learners to the process of germination as well as plant anatomy and elements of habitat. Learners will be surprised that they can construct a functioning greenhouse inside a simple CD case.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

364

Odin\\/SMR Limb Observations of Stratospheric Trace Gases During the 2002-03 Northern Hemisphere Winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (SMR) on board the Odin satellite, launched in February 2001, employs 4 tunable single-sideband Schottky-diode heterodyne receivers in the ˜ 485-580 GHz spectral range and a 1 m telescope for passive observations of thermal emissions originating from the Earths limb. Spectra are recorded using 2 high resolution auto-correlator spectrometers. Measurements are performed in a time sharing mode

J. Urban; N. Lautié; E. Le Flochmoën; E. Dupuy; P. Eriksson; C. Jimenez; J. de La Noë; D. Murtagh; M. Olberg; P. Ricaud; U. Frisk

2003-01-01

365

Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals  

EIA Publications

This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

John J. Conti

2006-03-08

366

New measurements quantify atmospheric greenhouse effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of a large body of existing measurements of incoming short-wave solar radiation and outgoing long-wave terrestrial radiation at the surface of the Earth and, more recently, in the upper atmosphere, there are few observations documenting how radiation profiles change through the atmosphere—information that is necessary to fully quantify the greenhouse effect of Earth's atmosphere. Through the use of existing technology but employing improvements in observational techniques it may now be possible not only to quantify but also to understand how different components of the atmosphere (e.g., concentration of gases, cloud cover, moisture, and aerosols) contribute to the greenhouse effect. Using weather balloons equipped with radiosondes, Philipona et al. continuously measured radiation fluxes from the surface of Earth up to altitudes of 35 kilometers in the upper stratosphere. Combining data from flights conducted during both day and night with continuous 24-hour measurements made at the surface of the Earth, the researchers created radiation profiles of all four components necessary to fully capture the radiation budget of Earth, namely, the upward and downward short-wave and long-wave radiation as a function of altitude.

Bhattacharya, Atreyee

2012-10-01

367

VARIACIONES MICROCLIMÁTICAS EN INVERNADERO: EFECTO SOBRE LAS RELACIONES HÍDRICAS E INTERCAMBIO DE GASES EN PIMENTÓN (Capsicum annuum) GREENHOUSE MICROCLIMATIC VARIATIONS: EFFECTS ON WATER RELATIONS AND GAS EXCHANGE ON BELL PEPPER (Capsicum annuum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

? ? ? ? ?2 s ? ? ? ? ?1 ) sobre el microclima en invernaderos y las relaciones hídricas e intercambio de gases en tres híbridos de Capsicum annuum. Las mediciones de microclima incluyeron temperatura y humedad relativa a 4, 2.5 y 1.5 m. En ambas condiciones de radiación, la temperatura y humedad relativa entre 1.5 y 4.0

Ronald Da-Silva; Andreína D' Aubeterre; Josu Allende; Fermín Rada; Rafael Figueiral; Vivero El Horticultor

368

Construct-a-Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shed some light on the physics supporting plant growth in a controlled environment. Greenhouses provide the differential energy needs of plants during their growth cycle. Students design structures that convert light to heat during germination and reconfigure those structures to promote photosynthesis. By comparing the effects of design characteristics on plant growth, students observe the connections between plant biology and thermodynamics and energy transfer.

Lee, Felicia; Press, Nsta; Terc

2000-01-01

369

What is a Greenhouse?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to familiarize students with how a greenhouse retains heat by building simple models. As a result of this activity, students will come to understand that greenhouses are useful because they both allow sunlight to enter and prevent heat from escaping. The transparent covering of the greenhouse allows visible light to enter unhindered, where it warms the interior as it is absorbed by the material within. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

370

What do near-term observations tell us about long-term developments in greenhouse gas emissions?  

SciTech Connect

Long-term scenarios developed by integrated assessment models are used in climate research to provide an indication of plausible long-term developments in the global energy system and land-use patterns and the associated emissions. The phenomena that determine these longterm developments (several decades or even centuries) are very different than those that operate on a shorter time-scales (a few years). Nevertheless, in the literature, we still often find direct comparisons between short-term observations and long-term developments that do not take into account the differing dynamics over these time scales. In this letter, we discuss some of differences between the factors that operate on in the short and long term and use long-term historical emissions trends to show that short-term observations are very poor indicators of long-term future emissions developments. Based on this, we conclude that the performance of long-term scenarios should be evaluated against the appropriate, corresponding long-term variables and trends. The research community may facilitate this by developing appropriate data sets and protocols that can be used to test the performance of long-term scenarios and the models that produce them.

Van Vuuren, Detlef; Edmonds, James A.; Smith, Steven J.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Karas, Joseph F.; Kainuma, M.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Riahi, Keywan; van Ruijven, Bas; Swart, Robert; Thomson, Allison M.

2010-10-26

371

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas

M. Q. Wang; W. W. Marr

1994-01-01

372

Toxic gases.  

PubMed Central

An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given.

Matthews, G.

1989-01-01

373

Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the Earth and the rest of the inner solar were made by collecting the solids, to the rather efficient exclusion of the gases. In this grand separation the noble gases, because they are noble, were partitioned strongly into the gas phase. The resultant generalization is that the noble gases are very scarce in the materials of the inner solar system, whence their common synonym "rare gases."This scarcity is probably the most important single feature to remember about noble-gas cosmochemistry. As illustration of the absolute quantities, for example, a meteorite that contains xenon at a concentration of order 10 -10 cm3STP g -1 (4×10-15 mol g-1) would be considered relatively rich in xenon. Yet this is only 0.6 ppt (part per trillion, fractional abundance 10-12) by mass. In most circumstances, an element would be considered efficiently excluded from some sample if its abundance, relative to cosmic proportions to some convenient reference element, were depleted by "several" orders of magnitude. But a noble gas would be considered to be present in quite high concentration if it were depleted by only four or five orders of magnitude (in the example above, 10-10 cm3STP g-1 of xenon corresponds to depletion by seven orders of magnitude), and one not uncommonly encounters noble-gas depletion of more than 10 orders of magnitude.The second most important feature to note about noble-gas cosmochemistry is that while a good deal of the attention given to noble gases really is about chemistry, traditionally a good deal of attention is also devoted to nuclear phenomena, much more so than for most other elements. This feature is a corollary of the first feature noted above, namely scarcity. A variety of nuclear transmutation processes - decay of natural radionuclides and energetic particle reactions - lead to the production of new nuclei that are often new elements. Most commonly, the quantity of new nuclei originating in nuclear transmutation is very small compared to the quantity already present in the sample in question,

Podosek, F. A.

2003-12-01

374

Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) contributing to net greenhouse gas balance of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in a systemic approach, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used experimental data sets from intensively monitored

Simon Lehuger; Benoît Gabrielle; Patricia Laville; Matieyendou Lamboni; Benjamin Loubet; Pierre Cellier

2011-01-01

375

Literature review of greenhouse gas emissions from biogenic sources. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a literature review of estimates of biogenic emissions of five greenhouse gases: COâ, CHâ, NâO, and NOx. Review results include data and information from about 170 sources published over the past 10 years. The report's two sections cover greenhouse gases containing (1) carbon and (2) nitrogen. Within each section, emissions estimates are grouped by type

D. Campbell; M. Stockton; S. Buchanan; J. McLean; R. Pandullo

1990-01-01

376

Greenhouse gas emissions from soil under changing environmental conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript is the Guest Editors’ Introduction to a special issue on greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The papers were assembled following presentation at EuroSoil 2012. Exchange of greenhouse gases between soils and the atmosphere is a natural consequence of several ecosystem process...

377

GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-THERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-thermal electricity generation contributes to climate change because it incurs the emission of greenhouse gases during the provision of services and the production of materials needed for the construction and operation of solar power plants. These greenhouse gas costs (GGC) can be determined using either material inventories in physical units or monetary cost breakdowns. Solar-only plants employing parabolic troughs, central

M. LENZEN

1999-01-01

378

Greenhouse Gas Emissions during Cattle Feedlot Manure Composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

feedlots of 10 000 head and larger are now common. Associated with intensification of livestock operations The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) during feedlot manure is an increased amount of feedlot manure produced each composting reduces the agronomic value of the final compost and increases the greenhouse effect. A study was conducted to determine year. Proper utilization of manure is

Xiying Hao; Chi Chang; Francis J. Larney; Greg R. Travis

2001-01-01

379

Vision for an Open, Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well

R. M. Duren; J. H. Butler; D. Rotman; P. Ciais

2010-01-01

380

Requirements for a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global greenhouse gas information system will prove a critical component of any successful effort to mitigate climate change which relies on limiting the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The system will provide the situational awareness necessary to actively reduce emissions, influence land use change, and sequester carbon. The information from such a system will be subject to intense scrutiny.

R. Duren; S. Boland; R. Lempert; C. Miller

2008-01-01

381

Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO 2 emissions be detected by atmospheric observations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower troposphere is an excellent receptacle, which integrates anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions over large areas.\\u000a Therefore, atmospheric concentration observations over populated regions would provide the ultimate proof if sustained emissions\\u000a changes have occurred. The most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), also shows large natural concentration variations, which need to be disentangled from anthropogenic signals to assess changes

Ingeborg Levin; Christian Rödenbeck

2008-01-01

382

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will research solids, liquids, and gases. By the end of this project you will be able to answer the question: Can you tell what is alike and different between solids, liquids, and gases? Read the song about matter. song with music about matter Record your observations on the organizer provided by the teacher. On the diagram write the word solid in one of the circles. Write liquid in one of the circles and write gas in the last circle. As you collect your information write your information under ...

Sibley, Ms.

2009-10-22

383

Clean Air Kids: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource for younger students about the greenhouse effect and global warming is part of a series of information sheets about the atmosphere, climate, and the environment. It begins with an explanation of the natural greenhouse effect of our atmosphere and the enhancement of the effect by the addition of greenhouse gases. The effects of this global warming on the weather, sea level, farming, and water usage along with the dangers to living organisms are also discussed.

384

Principles of monitoring of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles and substantiation of a system of monitoring anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks are considered. The\\u000a basic task of the system is to estimate the anthropogenic contribution to the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and\\u000a possible climate effect. The major attention is paid to the system of indirect or “computational” monitoring of anthropogenic\\u000a greenhouse gases. A multifunctional information system is

Yu. A. Izrael; A. A. Romanovskaya

2008-01-01

385

Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect (PAGE)  

EPA Science Inventory

PAGE2002 is a spreadsheet probabilistic model written in Microsoft Office Excel. The model calculates regional and global impacts of climate change, and social costs of different greenhouse gases. It also calculates the costs of abatement and adaptation. It is an Integrated Asses...

386

Greenhouse gas abatement strategies for animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture contributes significantly to the anthropogenic emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, a review is presented of the agriculture related sources of methane and nitrous oxide, and of the main strategies for mitigation. The rumen is the most important source of methane production, especially in cattle husbandry. Less, but still substantial, amounts of methane

Gert-Jan Monteny; Andre Bannink; David Chadwick

2006-01-01

387

Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHG): carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). It can also be a sink for CO2 through carbon (C) sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestrati...

388

Tropical forest fragmentation and greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainforest fragments in central Amazonia have been found to experience a marked loss of above-ground biomass caused by sharply increased rates of tree mortality and damage near fragment margins. These findings suggest that fragmentation of tropical forests is likely to increase emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases above and beyond that caused by deforestation per se. We estimated committed

William F. Laurance; Susan G. Laurance; Patricia Delamonica

1998-01-01

389

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

390

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)|

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

391

The Effect of Cloudiness on a Greenhouse Model of the Venus Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous models of the greenhouse effect in the Venus atmosphere it has been assumed that infrared-absorbing atmospheric gases provide the sole contribution to the infrared opacity of the Venus atmosphere. In the present study the influence of an extensive cloud cover, opaque to infrared radiation, is also included in the greenhouse model. The magnitude of the greenhouse effect, which

George Ohring; Joseph Mariano

1964-01-01

392

Strongly interacting Fermi gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

Bakr, W.; Cheuk, L. W.; Ku, M. J.-H.; Park, J. W.; Sommer, A. T.; Will, S.; Wu, C.-H.; Yefsah, T.; Zwierlein, M. W.

2013-08-01

393

A Strategic Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global warming is considered a problem caused by combined worldwide greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Many greenhouse gases\\u000a occur naturally as a result of Earth’s geological, hydrological, and biological cycles. They include water vapor, carbon dioxide\\u000a (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). In addition, other photochemically important gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO\\u000a x

Aydin Kilic; Adnan Midilli; Ibrahim Dincer

394

Ten years of continuous observations of stratospheric ozone depleting gases at Monte Cimone (Italy)--comments on the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective.  

PubMed

Halogenated gases potentially harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer are monitored worldwide in order to assess compliance with the Montreal Protocol requiring a phase out of these compounds on a global scale. We present the results of long term (2002-2011) continuous observation conducted at the Mt. Cimone GAW Global Station located on the highest peak of the Italian Northern Apennines, at the border of two important regions: the Po Valley (and the Alps) to the North and the Mediterranean Basin to the South. Bi-hourly air samples of CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HCFC-124 and methyl bromide are collected and analysed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, providing multi annual time series. In order to appreciate the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective, trends and annual growth rates of halogenated species have been calculated after identification of their baseline values. A comparison with results from other international observation programmes is also presented. Our data show that the peak in the atmospheric mixing ratios of four chlorofluorocarbons, two halons and two chlorocarbons has been reached and all these species now show a negative atmospheric trend. Pollution episodes are still occurring for species like halon-1211, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, indicating fresh emissions from the site domain which could be ascribed both to fugitive un-reported uses of the compounds and/or emissions from banks. For the hydrofluorocarbons changes in the baseline are affected by emissions from fast developing Countries in East Asia. Fresh emissions from the site domain are clearly declining. Methyl bromide, for which the Mediterranean area is an important source region, shows, in a generally decreasing trend, an emission pattern that is not consistent with the phase-out schedule of this compound, with a renewed increase in the last two years of pollution episodes. PMID:23333511

Maione, M; Giostra, U; Arduini, J; Furlani, F; Graziosi, F; Lo Vullo, E; Bonasoni, P

2013-01-16

395

The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS): measurement of the carbon gases from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases remain highly uncertain [IPCC1] making quantitative predictions of atmospheric composition and their impacts. The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) is a multi-purpose instrument designed to reduce uncertainty associated with atmospheric radiative forcing. GRIPS will measure will measure greenhouse gases and aerosols - two of the most important elements in the earth's radiation budget. GRIPS will observe carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), - the carbon gases, nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapor and aerosols with unprecedented precision through the atmosphere. The GRIPS instrument uses gas filter correlation radiometry (GFCR) to detect reflected and thermal IR radiation to detect the gases and the reflected solar radiation in the visible and short-wave infrared bands for aerosols. GRIPS is designed to have sensitivity down to the Earth's surface at ~2-8km nadir resolution. GRIPS can resolve CO2, CO, and CH4 anomalies in the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere to quantify lofting, diurnal variations and longrange transport. With repeated measurements throughout the day GRIPS can maximize the number of cloud free measurements determining biogenic and anthropogenic sources, sinks, and fluxes. GRIPS is highly complementary to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory, OCO-2, the geostationary Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and other existing and planned missions.

Schoeberl, M.; Dickerson, R.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M.; Fish, C.; Bloom, H.

2013-09-01

396

Reply [to Comments on “The greenhouse debate: Time for action?”] Greenhouse economics and policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their comments, Harvey [1992], Oeschger et al. [1992], and Bolin [1992] raise the intertwined issues of greenhouse economics and policy, particularly the economic and environmental costs of a 10-year delay in action and the need for the natural and socioeconomic sciences to define future scenarios. In the following I address these concerns by summarizing recent research conducted on greenhouse economics and policy by Peck and Teisberg [1992a, b], W.D. Nordhaus (Rolling the “DICE”: An optimal transition path for controlling greenhouse gases, submitted to the Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1992; hereinafter, referred to as Nordhaus, 1992), and Hammitt, Lempert, and Schlesinger [1992], followed by conclusions and recommendations.

Schlesinger, Michael E.

397

No way to cool the ultimate greenhouse  

SciTech Connect

When the Clinton Administration announced its Climate Change Action Plan last week, some press accounts called it an effort to halt greenhouse warming. To greenhouse experts, however, cutting emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the end of the decade -- the goal of the plan -- will only delay the inevitable. Such modest conservation measures, as a recent study shows, will buy humanity valuable time to adapt to the greenhouse world, but they will have little effect on how warm the global climate ultimately becomes. Centuries down the road, humanity will have to come to grips with elevated temperatures due to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels. Reducing emissions will slow the warming process and give humanity more time to adapt.

Kerr, R.A.

1993-10-29

398

Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from enzyme and yeast manufacture for corn and cellulosic ethanol production.  

PubMed

Enzymes and yeast are important ingredients in the production of ethanol, yet the energy consumption and emissions associated with their production are often excluded from life-cycle analyses of ethanol. We provide new estimates for the energy consumed and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted during enzyme and yeast manufacture, including contributions from key ingredients such as starch, glucose, and molasses. We incorporated these data into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model and observed that enzymes and yeast together contribute 1.4 and 27 % of farm-to-pump GHG emissions for corn and cellulosic ethanol, respectively. Over the course of the entire corn ethanol life cycle, yeast and enzymes contribute a negligible amount of GHG emissions, but increase GHG emissions from the cellulosic ethanol life cycle by 5.6 g CO(2)e/MJ. PMID:23086569

Dunn, Jennifer B; Mueller, Steffen; Wang, Michael; Han, Jeongwoo

2012-10-20

399

The 2003 heat wave as an example of summers in a greenhouse climate? Observations and climate model simulations for Basel, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat wave that affected many parts of Europe during the course of summer 2003 may be a harbinger of summers that could occur more regularly in a future climate, under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. Switzerland was not exempt from the 2003 heat wave and, indeed, the previous absolute maximum temperature record dating back to the middle of the 20th

Martin Beniston; Henry F. Diaz

2004-01-01

400

Patterns of trace gases near sources of global pollution  

SciTech Connect

Many trace gases are increasing in the earth's armosphere and may couase global environmental changes in the future. Consequently there has been growing interest in the cycles of the long-lived gases that are likely to contribute the most to global change. At present there are four such gases: methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}0), trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F,F-11), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2},F-12). Methane and N{sub 2}O are involved mostly in adding to the greenhouse effect with some role in the stratospheric ozone cycle, and the two main fluorocarbons (F-11 and F-12) are involved in the depletion of the ozone layer with some role in global warming. This paper is about the patterns of these trace gases near regions of global scale pollution. Our purpose is to provide a synthesis of observations from diverse environments and ecosystems of the world and to provide readers with intuitive connections between sources and concentrations. We will consider four types of regions: rice fields in CHina that are a major source of methane, urban areas of the United States and China that are sources of fluorocarbons and other gases, rivers and surrounding wetlands, specifically the Yangtze in China and the Amazon in Brazil, and finally the environment of Boola Boola National Forest in Australia populated by many speices of termites that are a source of methane to the atmosphere. Eventually these patterns can be translated into estimeates of fluxes from the various sources of global pollution.

Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A. (Oregon Graduate Inst., Beaverton (USA))

1990-08-01

401

Integrated Carbon Observation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICOS is a recently-launched, world-class research infrastructure dedicated to the monitoring and improved understanding of carbon sources and sinks. It consists of complementary, harmonized networks of long-term monitoring stations focusing on Europe and adjacent regions. The ICOS networks will comprise about 40 operational atmospheric stations (measuring atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases and other core parameters), ca. 30 ecosystem stations (measuring fluxes to and from ecosystems) and about 25 oceanic measurement platforms (including fixed time series stations, repeat hydrographic sections and voluntary observing ships). The station networks are expected to be operational in 2014. The networks will be coordinated through a set of central facilities: three Thematic Centres respectively for atmospheric, ecosystem and ocean data, and a Central Analytical Laboratory. The mission of the Thematic Centres is to process, validate and distribute data to end-users. ICOS will also set up a Carbon Portal dedicated to easy discovery of and access to data and elaborated products such as flux maps by end users. Through its Preparatory Phase Project (funded by the EU through FP7) ICOS is currently demonstrating its capability to monitor greenhouse gases across Europe at four atmospheric sites and four ecosystem sites, working in near real time with the Atmospheric and Ecosystem Thematic Centres. At this occasion, the instrumental packages, the experimental set up as well as protocols prepared for the standardized ICOS stations are tested. ICOS atmospheric measurements, in combination with a dedicated modelling framework, will allow estimating daily fluxes at a typical resolution of 50 km with a precision of ~40 gC m-2 yr-1. The ecosystem network informs on the small scale variability of fluxes and its drivers. When completed, ICOS will provide the essential long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gases emissions. ICOS will notably provide key data for the monitoring and assessment of the impact of carbon sequestration and/or greenhouse gases emission reduction activities on global atmospheric composition levels.

Paris, J.-D.; Ciais, P.; Rivier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Dolman, H.; Flaud, J.-M.; Garrec, C.; Gerbig, C.; Grace, J.; Huertas, E.; Johannessen, T.; Jordan, A.; Levin, I.; Papale, D.; Valentini, R.; Watson, A.; Vesala, T.; ICOS-PP Consortium

2012-04-01

402

Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

Garcia, N.

1996-04-01

403

Solids Liquids and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compare and contrast the three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases. First you will begin by looking at characteristics of each solids, liquids and gasesGases, Liquids and Solids Facts. Then you will look at examples of each stateSolids, Liquids and Gases Video. Demonstrate an understanding of solids, liquids and gases by playing interactive gameSolids, Liquids and Gases Game. Graphic Organizer is here to be filled out as you learn during this lesson. Use the red ...

Salter, Ms.

2009-10-22

404

COMPRESSED MEDICAL GASES GUIDELINE  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... COMPRESSED MEDICAL GASES GUIDELINE. (REVISED) FEBRUARY 1989. ... COMPRESSED MEDICAL GASES GUIDELINE. INTRODUCTION. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

405

Gardening with Greenhouses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

Keeler, Rusty

2010-01-01

406

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian soybeans grown for up to 25 years with no tillage on arable soil for which tropical

L. Reijnders; M. A. J. Huijbregts

2008-01-01

407

Satellite observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect and column longwave cooling rates: Relative roles of the continuum and vibration-rotation to pure rotation bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite provides, for the first time, a large-scale (40 S to 40 N) data set for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and the column-averaged longwave (LW) radiative cooling rates in the broadband (5-100 microns) and the window (8-12 microns) regions. We demonstrate here

Anand K. Inamdar; V. Ramanathan; Norman G. Loeb

2004-01-01

408

Satellite observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect and column longwave cooling rates: Relative roles of the continuum and vibration-rotation to pure rotation bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite provides, for the first time, a large-scale (40 S to 40 N) data set for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and the column-averaged longwave (LW) radiative cooling rates in the broadband (5–100 microns) and the window (8–12 microns) regions. We demonstrate here

Anand K. Inamdar; V. Ramanathan; Norman G. Loeb

2004-01-01

409

The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index - 2012 Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past several decades, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to databases, analyses, and various relevant products, including national and international climate assessments. To make these data more useful and available, NOAA several years ago released its Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The long-lived gases capture most of the radiative forcing, and uncertainty in their measurement is very small. This allows us to provide a robust measure and assessment of the long-term, radiative influence of these gases. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 60 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. In 2010, the AGGI was 1.29, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 29% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In this presentation, preliminary values for 2011 will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4,nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

Butler, J. H.; Montzka, S. A.; Conway, T. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masari, K. A.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

2012-04-01

410

Greenhouse effect and the global climate. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning terrestrial climatic changes known as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is an accumulation of carbon dioxide and other gases that retain solar-induced heat, thereby increasing the average global temperature. Modeling studies, measurements of atmospheric gases, pollutants and temperatures, studies of climatic records for occurrence of similar changes (paleoclimatology), prediction of environmental changes due to the greenhouse effect, government energy policy as a result of possible climate change, and the contributions of manmade and natural pollutants to the greenhouse effect are among the topics discussed. (Contains a minimum of 52 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

411

Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Smith College: A Comprehensive Inventory from 1990-2004 and Suggestions for Future Emissions Reductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are known to be causing an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations well above natural levels. This drastic increase may be causing global warming that is resulting in worldwide climate change. As part of an agreement with Clean Air-Cool Planet, whose mission is to address the issue of global warming, Smith College conducted a greenhouse

Elizabeth Thomas

412

Greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, an overview of the CO 2 capture, storage and future activities of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEA Greenhouse gas R&D programme is an international collaboration supported by 16 countries and several industrial organisations. During the first three years (phase 1) the programme has evaluated technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from power stations. The main types of fossil fuel power plant were investigated and the costs and emissions associated with power generation were calculated.

Pierce Riemer

1996-01-01

413

Greenhouse gas mitigation technology: An overview of the CO 2 capture and sequestration studies and further activities of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme is an international collaboration supported by 16 countries and several industrial organisations. Its purpose is to evaluate technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The following are the findings of the first phase of its work: the most appropriate technology for capture of CO2 depends upon the type of power plant and proven technology

Harry Audus

1997-01-01

414

Large Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Temperate Peatland Pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural drainage is thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from temperate peatlands, with CH4 emissions reduced in favor of greater CO2 losses. Attention has largely focussed on C trace gases, and less is known about the impacts of agricultural conversion on\\u000a N2O or global warming potential. We report greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, CO2, N2O) from a drained peatland in the

Yit Arn Teh; Whendee L. Silver; Oliver Sonnentag; Matteo Detto; Maggi Kelly; Dennis D. Baldocchi

2011-01-01

415

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has tracked the national trend in greenhouse gas emissions and removals since 1990. This website provides access to the reports they have created since then, and the reports represent the collaborative efforts of hundreds of experts from academic institutions, consultants, and other government agencies. Visitors can download the reports, or take a look at their respective executive summary. Each summary contains "an overview of recent trends, anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and an explanation of the relative importance of emissions and removals from each source category." Users of the website are also encouraged to look over the overviews for different emissions, such as carbon dioxide and methane. The site is rounded out by a list of greenhouse gas inventories from other countries and global emission projections.

416

Energy Consumption in Greenhouses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Official, national statistics concerning green-houses, their oil consumption and energy costs are studied and data on the topics given. Oil consumption in green-houses may be reduced considerably by improving the heating and regulating installations and i...

K. Repstad P. Sauge

1982-01-01

417

The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of ...  

Treesearch

Date: 2008 ... are essentially the same as those for total energy, reflecting the fact that most of the displaced energy is in fossil fuels. ... Keywords: carbon, greenhouse gases, GHG, building materials, residential construction, wood products, ...

418

Mexico Joins the Venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns wi...

M. Imaz C. Gay R. Friedmann B. Goldberg

1998-01-01

419

Demonstration of superconducting sub-millimeter-wave limb emission sounder (SMILES) for observing trace gases in the middle atmosphere using the exposed facility of the Japanese experimental module (JEM) of the international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sub-millimeter wavelength region is advantageous for high-precision observations of trace species in the stratosphere. A Superconducting Sub-Millimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) is scheduled to demonstrate the measurements of extremely faint sub-millimeter-wave emissions of the atmospheric trace gases on the Exposed Facility (EF) of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station in 2003. The applications of superconductivity and mechanical 4K-refrigerator in space will be demonstrated in the experiment. JEM/SMILES obtains the diurnal and seasonal variability in the global three-dimensional distributions of the stratospheric trace gases for quantitative understanding of the stratospheric ozone depletion and its effect on the climate change with respect to the relationships among chemical reaction processes and their relationships with atmospheric dynamics. JEM/SMILES utilizes the 640GHz band to measure the vertical profiles of trace gases involved in the stratospheric ozone depletion such as chlorine monoxide (CLO), bromine monoxide (BrO), etc., along with atmospheric temperature. JEM/SMILES employs Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixers to improve measurement precision and spatial resolution, thereby enabling us to quantitatively understand the interactive processes between chemistry and dynamics.

Masuko, Harunobu; Manabe, Takeshi; Seta, Masumichi; Kasai, Yasuko; Ochiai, Satoshi; Irimajiri, Yoshihisa; Inatani, Junji; Ikeda, Naomi; Nishibori, Toshiyuki; Iida, Yukiei; Fujii, Yasunori

1999-01-01

420

Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

Kimberly Frerichs

2012-03-01

421

The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

Roman, Harry T.

2010-01-01

422

The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

Roman, Harry T.

2010-01-01

423

Policy implications of greenhouse warming: Mitigation, adaptation, and the science base  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the policy implications of greenhouse warming by examining three major areas: general summary of information about the greenhouse effect leading to a framework for policy; the science basis for the greenhouse effect; mitigation of greenhouse warming. Each section contains 9-13 chapters on specific subjects including the following: overview of greenhouse gases; policy implications; internations considerations; climate records and models; sea levels; temperature rise estimation; energy management at several levels; nonenergy emission reduction; human populations; deforestation. Conclusions are summarized at the end of each section.

Not Available

1992-01-01

424

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will be introduced to solids, liquids, and gases. Students will identify key characteristics of the three states of matter. Everything is made of matter. Matter is made of atoms. Matter makes up solids, liquids, and gases. What are some similarities and differences between solids, liquids, and gases? Follow the link below to find out. Characteristics of the States of Matter The previous website gave some general characteristics for solids, liquids, and gases. Now ...

Rohlfing, Mrs.

2010-10-22

425

Survey Instrument Probing Student Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through student interviews and multiple iterations of open-ended and multiple-choice surveys (involving over 3,600 undergraduate non-science majors), we have developed at multiple-choice survey instrument for assessing undergraduate student understanding of the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Central topics include: 1) the energies of light given off by the sun and absorbed and given off by Earth’s atmosphere and surface, 2) energy balance, 3) abundant greenhouse gases, 4) mental models of how the greenhouse effect works, and 5) distinctions between the natural greenhouse effect and global warming. We have also developed a lecture tutorial activity focused on several of these topics. The final survey instrument has been validated using standard survey metrics and an expert review process. We offer this survey instrument to the science education community as a research tool for assessing the impact of instruction on student understanding of the greenhouse effect.

Keller, John M.; Slater, T. F.; Prather, E. E.

2006-12-01

426

Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for in-situ Downhole Detection of Gases Applied During Geological Storage of CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is regarded as a possible technology for the reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, comprehensive research is still needed to better understand the behaviour of CO2 during and after storage. Therefore, we developed and applied a new, innovative geochemical monitoring tool for the real time and in-situ determination of CO2 and other gases in the underground and in bore holes. The method uses a phase separating silicone membrane, permeable for gases, in order to separate gases dissolved in borehole fluids, water and brines. Argon is used as a carrier gas to conduct the collected gases through capillaries to the surface. Here, the gas phase is analyzed in real-time with a portable mass spectrometer for all permanent gases. In addition, gas samples may be collected for detailed investigations in the laboratory. Downhole extraction and on-line determination of gases dissolved in brines using this gas membrane sensor (GMS) technique was successful applied at the scientific CO2SINK test site in Ketzin, Germany (sandstone aquifer). GMSs together with temperature and pressure probes were installed in two approx. 700m deep observation holes, drilled in 50m and 100m distance from the CO2 injection well. Hydraulic pressure in the observation wells rose gradually during injection of CO2. Increasing reservoir gas concentrations of helium, hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen as well as the arrival of the added krypton tracer were determined shortly before the injected CO2 appeared. The breakthrough of CO2 into the observation well, in 50m distance, was recorded after 531.5 tons of CO2 were injected.

Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, C.; Group, C.

2008-12-01

427

Reservoir gases exhibit subtle differences; Part 4  

SciTech Connect

This segment of the reservoir fluids series describes the characteristics of wet and dry gases. At an initial producing gas-oil ratio greater than 15,000 scf/STB, engineers can treat the reservoir fluid as a wet gas. Gases with initial producing gas-oil ratios greater than 100,000 scf/STB can be treated as dry gases. Retrograde behavior has been observed in gases with initial producing gas-oil ratios greater than 150,000 scf/STB. The quantity of retrograde liquid in the reservoir is very small for gases this lean. If a gas has enough heavy components to release condensate at the surface, the gas will probably release some amount of condensate in the reservoir. This implies few true wet gases exist (liquid at the surface but no liquid in the reservoir).

McCain, W.D. Jr. (S.A. Holditch and Associates, College Station, TX (United States)); Piper, L.D. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-03-01

428

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, S.

1986-08-19

429

Murky Precedent Meets Hazy Air: The Compact Clause and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it becomes clear that global warming is a reality, states are increasingly taking measures to regulate the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). These efforts come largely in respo