Science.gov

Sample records for gregor eron adoberg

  1. Gregor Mendel: Creationist Hero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    In histories of twentieth-century Darwinism few developments loom larger than the turn-of-the-century rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's genetic research and the later application of Mendelian principles in constructing so-called Neo-Darwinism. Virtually unknown is the equally enthusiastic embrace of Mendel by antievolutionists, who as early as…

  2. Gregor Mendel: Creationist Hero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    In histories of twentieth-century Darwinism few developments loom larger than the turn-of-the-century rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's genetic research and the later application of Mendelian principles in constructing so-called Neo-Darwinism. Virtually unknown is the equally enthusiastic embrace of Mendel by antievolutionists, who as early as 1917 adopted the Austrian monk as their most celebrated scientific hero, a status he continues to hold down to the present day.

  3. The GREGOR Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lagg, A.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luehe, O.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope is a new facility for high-resolution observations of the Sun. The telescope is located at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The telescope incorporates advanced designs for a foldable-tent dome, an open steel-truss telescope structure, and active and passive means to minimize telescope and mirror seeing. Solar fine structure can be observed with a dedicated suite of instruments: a broad-band imaging system, the "GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer", and the "Grating Infrared Spectrograph". All post-focus instruments benefit from a high-order (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics system, which enables observations close to the diffraction limit of the telescope. The inclusion of a spectrograph for stellar activity studies and the search for solar twins expands the scientific usage of the GREGOR to the nighttime domain. We report on the successful commissioning of the telescope until the end of 2011 and the first steps towards science verification in 2012.

  4. GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Denker, C.; Solanki, S.; Balthasar, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Klvana, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Popow, E.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K.

    2010-07-01

    With the integration of a 1-meter Cesic primary mirror the GREGOR telescope pre-commissioning started. This is the first time, that the entire light path has seen sunlight. The pre-commissioning period includes testing of the main optics, adaptive optics, cooling system, and pointing system. This time was also used to install a near-infrared grating spectro-polarimeter and a 2D-spectropolarimeter for the visible range as first-light science instruments. As soon as the final 1.5 meter primary mirror is installed, commissioning will be completed, and an extended phase of science verification will follow. In the near future, GREGOR will be equipped with a multi-conjugate adaptive optics system that is presently under development at KIS.

  5. Marion McGregor Lee Loy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Marion Frances Kaleleonalani McGregor Lee Loy who served as a teacher in the Hawai'i Department of Education from 1935 to 1974. Marion McGregor Lee Loy was born in 1911 in Honolulu. She attended Central Grammar and Lincoln Grammar schools before entering Kamehameha School for Girls in the ninth grade. Lee…

  6. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  7. The GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Denker, C.; Kneer, F.; Al Erdogan, N.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S. M.; Beck, C.; Bello González, N.; Collados, M.; Hahn, T.; Hirzberger, J.; Hofmann, A.; Louis, R. E.; Nicklas, H.; Okunev, O.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Popow, E.; Seelemann, T.; Volkmer, R.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    The GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI) is one of three first-light instruments of the German 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. The GFPI uses two tunable etalons in collimated mounting. Thanks to its large-format, high-cadence CCD detectors with sophisticated computer hard- and software it is capable of scanning spectral lines with a cadence that is sufficient to capture the dynamic evolution of the solar atmosphere. The field-of-view (FOV) of 50 arcsec × 38 arcsec is well suited for quiet Sun and sunspot observations. However, in the vector spectropolarimetric mode the FOV reduces to 25 arcsec × 38 arcsec. The spectral coverage in the spectroscopic mode extends from 530-860 nm with a theoretical spectral resolution of R ≈ 250,000, whereas in the vector spectropolarimetric mode the wavelength range is at present limited to 580-660 nm. The combination of fast narrow-band imaging and post-factum image restoration has the potential for discovery science concerning the dynamic Sun and its magnetic field at spatial scales down to ˜50 km on the solar surface.

  8. Walking capabilities of Gregor controlled through Walknet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca; Schilling, Malte; Schmitz, Josef

    2007-05-01

    Locomotion control of legged robots is nowadays a field in continuous evolution. In this work a bio-inspired control architecture based on the stick insect is applied to control the hexapod robot Gregor. The control scheme is an extension of Walknet, a decentralized network inspired by the stick insect, that on the basis of local reflexes generates the control signals needed to coordinate locomotion in hexapod robots. Walknet has been adapted to the specific mechanical structure of Gregor that is characterized by specialized legs and a sprawled posture. In particular an innovative hind leg geometry, inspired by the cockroach, has been considered to improve climbing capabilities. The performances of the new control architecture have been evaluated in dynamic simulation environments. The robot has been endowed with distance and contact sensors for obstacle detection. A heading control is used to avoid large obstacles, and an avoidance reflex, as can be found in stick insects, has been introduced to further improve climbing capabilities of the structure. The reported results, obtained in different environmental configurations, stress the adaptive capabilities of the Walknet approach: Even in unpredictable and cluttered environments the walking behaviour of the simulated robot and the robot prototype, controlled through a FPGA based board, remained stable.

  9. Lab results from the GREGOR MCAO test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Heidecke, Frank

    2013-12-01

    We present the performance of the GREGOR MCAO system. This MCAO system, which actually is a tripple-conjugate adaptive optics, was set up in a laboratory test bench. GREGOR is the new German 1.5-meter solar telescope, and it is currently equipped with a 256-actuators classical adaptive optics system. On-sky tests of the MCAO system are planned for this observing season. A cooktop plate was used to generate turbulence in the test bench. We present measurements of residual agile image distortion, and of wavefront errors in the 19 guide directions.

  10. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; von der Lühe, O.; Feller, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kentischer, T.; Klva{ňa, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Rendtel, J.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.; Wiehr, E.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the ``historical'' context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  11. The GREGOR Fabry-Perot interferometer: status report and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, Klaus G.; Balthasar, Horst; Beck, Christian; Louis, Rohan E.; Popow, Emil; Seelemann, Thomas; Volkmer, Reiner; Woche, Manfred; Denker, Carsten

    2012-09-01

    The GREGOR Fabry-Ṕerot Interferometer (GFPI) is one of three first-light instruments of the German 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. The GFPI allows fast narrow-band imaging and post-factum image restoration. The retrieved physical parameters will be a fundamental building block for understanding the dynamic Sun and its magnetic field at spatial scales down to 50 km on the solar surface. The GFPI is a tunable dual-etalon system in a collimated mounting. It is designed for spectropolarimetric observations over the wavelength range from 530-860 nm with a theoretical spectral resolution of R ≍ 250,000. The GFPI is equipped with a full-Stokes polarimeter. Large-format, high-cadence CCD detectors with powerful computer hard- and software enable the scanning of spectral lines in time spans equivalent to the evolution time of solar features. The field-of-view of 50''×38'' covers a significant fraction of the typical area of active regions. We present the main characteristics of the GFPI including advanced and automated calibration and observing procedures. We discuss improvements in the optical design of the instrument and show first observational results. Finally, we lay out first concrete ideas for the integration of a second FPI, the Blue Imaging Solar Spectrometer, which will explore the blue spectral region below 530 nm.

  12. Subglacial Lake McGregor, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    2003-08-01

    It is proposed that a lake, here named "Subglacial Lake McGregor", existed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet at, or near, the last glacial maximum. The lake resided in the ancient buried McGregor and Tee Pee preglacial valleys, which are now mostly filled with glacigenic deposits. The greatest thickness of sediment in the valleys is in the form of chaotically deposited lake beds that were laid down in a subaqueous environment by a number of process: gravity flow, water transport, and suspension settling. Topographic, sedimentary, and stratigraphic evidence point to a subglacial, not a proglacial, origin for the beds. During the early stages of lake existence, ice movement was significant as there are numerous sets of shear planes in the sedimentary beds. This indicates that the lake filled (lake sedimentation) and drained (shearing of the beds by overlying ice when ice contacted the bed) often. Thus, early in its history, the lake(s) was/were ephemeral. During the later stages of lake existence, the lake was relatively stable with no rapid draining or influx of sediment. Gradual drainage of the lake resulted in lowering of the ice onto the lake beds resulting in subglacial till deposition. Drainage was not a single continuous event. Rather it was characterized by multiple phases of near total drainage (till deposition), followed by water accumulation (lake sedimentation). Water accumulation events became successively less significant reflected by thinning of lake beds and thickening of till beds higher in the stratigraphic sequence. Since subglacial lake sedimentation appears to be restricted to the subglacial valleys, it is suggested that the valleys acted as a large-scale interconnected cavity system that both stored and transported water. It is also suggested that these acted as the main routes of water flow beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  13. Historical study: Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884.

    PubMed

    Weiling, F

    1991-07-01

    The life and personality of Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), the founder of scientific genetics, are reviewed against the contemporary background of his times. At the end are weighed the benefits for Mendel (as charged by Sir Ronald Fisher) to have documented his results on hand of falsified data. Mendel was born into a humble farm family in the "Kuhländchen", then a predominantly German area of Northern Moravia. On the basis of great gifts Mendel was able to begin higher studies; however, he found himself in serious financial difficulties because of his father's accident and incapacitation. His hardships engendered illness which threatened continuation and completion of his studies until he was afforded the chance of absolving successfully theological studies as an Augustinian monk in the famous chapter of St. Thomas in Altbrünn (Staré Brno). Psychosomatic indisposition made Mendel unfit for practical pastoral duties. Thus, he was directed to teach but without appropriate state certification; an attempt to pass such an examination failed. At that point he was sent to the University of Vienna for a 2-year course of studies, with emphasis on physics and botany, to prepare him for the exam. His scientific and methodologic training enabled him to plan studies of the laws of inheritance, which had begun to interest him already during his theology training, and to choose the appropriate experimental plant. In 1865, after 12 years of systematic investigations on peas, he presented his results in the famous paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden." Three years after his return from Vienna he failed to attain his teaching certification a second time. Only by virtue of his exceptional qualifications did he continue to function as a Supplementary Professor of Physics and Natural History in the two lowest classes of a secondary school. In 1868 he was elected Abbot of his chapter, and freed from teaching duties, was able to pursue his many scientific interests with greater

  14. Leadership and Some Related Propositions: A Response to the Ideas of James MacGregor Burns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleedorn, Berenice D.

    The theories of James MacGregor Burns as expressed in his book, "Leadership" (1978), suggest that transformational leadership engages all persons to varying degrees throughout the levels and interstices of society. Burns believes that the transforming leader not only exploits a need or demand of a follower but also looks for his potential motives…

  15. Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

    PubMed

    Richter, Father Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic). PMID:26740939

  16. The project of installing a ZIMPOL_3 polarimeter at GREGOR in Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianda, M.; Ramelli, R.; Stenflo, J.; Berdyugina, S.; Gisler, D.; Defilippis, I.; Bello González, N.

    A project of collaboration between Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik, KIS, and Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, IRSOL, includes the installation of a ZIMPOL_3 high resolution polarimeter at the 1.5 meter aperture solar telescope GREGOR in Tenerife. Important scientific topics are expected to be investigated, in particular in the case of events showing faint amplitude polarization signatures like scattering polarization effects, and the Hanle effect. This project has also a technical importance, this combination can be used as test bench for future polarimeters to be installed on the new generation solar telescopes.

  17. Leadership: A Developmental Approach: A Simulation Exercise Based on the Theory of James MacGregor Burns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leight, Robert L.

    The paper examines current thoughts on leadership (specifically the works of James MacGregor Burns) and presents a simulation exercise developed as a practical application of Burns' model which can be used in secondary social studies classes for gifted students. Concepts of leadership and its development are addressed, as is the relationship of…

  18. The Human Side of Science Education: Using McGregor's Theory Y as a Framework for Improving Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more…

  19. Gregor Mendel's classic paper and the nature of science in genetics courses.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Julie F; Fairbanks, Daniel J

    2010-12-01

    The discoveries of Gregor Mendel, as described by Mendel in his 1866 paper Versuche uber Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on plant hybrids), can be used in undergraduate genetics and biology courses to engage students about specific nature of science characteristics and their relationship to four of his major contributions to genetics. The use of primary source literature as an instructional tool to enhance genetics students' understanding of the nature of science helps students more clearly understand how scientists work and how the science of genetics has evolved as a discipline. We offer a historical background of how the nature of science developed as a concept and show how Mendel's investigations of heredity can enrich biology and genetics courses by exemplifying the nature of science. PMID:21166799

  20. MuSICa at GRIS: a prototype image slicer for EST at GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; Collados, M.; López, R. L.

    2013-05-01

    This communication presents a prototype image slicer for the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) designed for the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope (GRIS). The design of this integral field unit has been called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera). It is a telecentric system developed specifically for the integral field, high resolution spectrograph of EST and presents multi-slit capability, reorganizing a bidimensional field of view of 80 arcsec^{2} into 8 slits, each one of them with 200 arcsec length × 0.05 arcsec width. It minimizes the number of optical components needed to fulfil this multi-slit capability, three arrays of mirrors: slicer, collimator and camera mirror arrays (the first one flat and the other two spherical). The symmetry of the layout makes it possible to overlap the pupil images associated to each part of the sliced entrance field of view. A mask with only one circular aperture is placed at the pupil position. This symmetric characteristic offers some advantages: facilitates the manufacturing process, the alignment and reduces the costs. In addition, it is compatible with two modes of operation: spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric, offering a great versatility. The optical quality of the system is diffraction-limited. The prototype will improve the performances of GRIS at GREGOR and is part of the feasibility study of the integral field unit for the spectrographs of EST. Although MuSICa has been designed as a solar image slicer, its concept can also be applied to night-time astronomical instruments (Collados et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7733, 77330H; Collados et al. 2012, AN, 333, 901; Calcines et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7735, 77351X)

  1. GREGOR Fabry-Pérot interferometer and its companion the blue imaging solar spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, Klaus G.; Denker, Carsten; Balthasar, Horst; Louis, Rohan E.; Popow, Emil; Woche, Manfred; Beck, Christian; Seelemann, Thomas; Volkmer, Reiner

    2013-08-01

    The GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI) is one of three first-light instruments of the German 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. The GFPI allows fast narrow-band imaging and postfactum image restoration. The retrieved physical parameters will be a fundamental building block for understanding the dynamic sun and its magnetic field at spatial scales down to ˜50 km on the solar surface. The GFPI is a tunable dual-etalon system in a collimated mounting. It is designed for spectrometric and spectropolarimetric observations between 530-860 nm and 580-660 nm, respectively, and possesses a theoretical spectral resolution of R≈250,000. Large-format, high-cadence charged coupled device detectors with sophisticated computer hard- and software enable the scanning of spectral lines in time-spans equivalent to the evolution time of solar features. The field-of-view (FOV) of 50″×38″ covers a significant fraction of the typical area of active regions in the spectroscopic mode. In case of Stokes-vector spectropolarimetry, the FOV reduces to 25″×38″. The main characteristics of the GFPI including advanced and automated calibration and observing procedures are presented. Improvements in the optical design of the instrument are discussed and first observational results are shown. Finally, the first concrete ideas for the integration of a second FPI, the blue imaging solar spectrometer, are laid out, which will explore the blue spectral region below 530 nm.

  2. The evolutionary ideas of F. M. (Ladimir) Klacel, teacher of Gregor Mendel.

    PubMed

    Peaslee, Margaret H; Orel, Vitezslav

    2007-06-01

    Abstract: A philosopher and teacher, F. M. (Ladimir) Klacel (1808-1882), educated in what is now the Czech Republic, developed his own explanation for the origin and interaction of living organisms. Klácel, a member of the Augustinian Monastery in Brno, influenced his younger colleague, Friar Gregor Mendel, who went on to formulate concepts in heredity that are still recognized for their profound insight. A mutual interest in the natural sciences of these two friends provided a basis for their discussions of the relationship between religion, evolution, and society. Klacel's outspoken defense of his proposals caused him to lose favor with both the Church and the authorities, and he immigrated to America in 1869. His failing health and inability to communicate with the English-speaking populace, unfortunately, limited his influence in his new environs. In this paper we trace the roots of Klacel's philosophy and elucidate his incorporation of ideas from Hegel, Darwin, and others. An investigation of Klacel's recipe for a successful society reveals his belief in the universality of life and his optimistic hope for human achievement. PMID:17690761

  3. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  4. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Min; Liao, Chong-Yu; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite. PMID:27548163

  5. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Min; Liao, Chong-Yu; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite. PMID:27548163

  6. The 2012 status of the MCAO testbed for the GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Heidecke, Frank

    2012-07-01

    We look back on two years of experience with the laboratory MCAO testbed for the GREGOR solar telescope. GREGOR’s MCAO features four adaptive mirrors, i. e. one tip-tilt mirror, and three DMs to compensate for turbulence around 0 km, 5 km, and 15.5 km above ground. Two different Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor units are used for wavefront tomography. A sensor with a narrow field of view and smaller subapertures is dedicated to high-order aberrations on the optical axis. This sensor directly follows the pupil plane DM and does not see the high-altitude DMs. The second sensor features larger subapertures and 19 guide regions spread over a wide field of view for off-axis wavefront sensing. We show that high-altitude DMs cause rapidly changing pupil distortions and thus misregistration, which renders the interaction of a pupil-plane DM and a subsequent wavefront sensor non-linear. We rewrote the control software for cleaner and more flexible code, and we switched to modal wavefront reconstruction from direct reconstruction. The original digital interfacing of the DMs high-voltage electronics didn’t prove to be reliable. Thus, we developed a new interface board that is based on CameraLink/ChannelLink technology to transmit the DM commands from the control computer. In this paper we present the innovations and some of the first experimental performance measurements with two DMs. One DM failed before scientific grade data was recorded with three DMs. This DM will be replaced soon. We conclude that GREGOR’s MCAO system is now ready for first on-sky tests at the telescope.

  7. Advancement of Piezo-Stack DM technology at CILAS: Example of HODM for KIS Gregor Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, J. C.; Bastard, A.; Cousty, R.; Guillemard, C.; Pagès, H.

    2011-09-01

    Cilas has designed, manufactured and tested the deformable mirror for use in the high order adaptive optics system in the 1.5 m Gregor solar telescope (Tenerife). In the scope of this project for Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS), we have reached the smallest spacing ever made with our piezo-stack technology (3.2 mm) while increasing the overall reliability of our DMs by significant design evolutions. We will present the main specifications of the DM (18x18 actuator array, > 2 μm interactuator stroke, > 20 kHz main resonance frequency) and the study results on reliability. This study is focused on electrical and opto-mechanical stability of the DM vs. time. The improved piezo-stack technology will be used for next generation of DMs for large telescopes as TMT and ESO (VLT and E-ELT)

  8. Antioxidant responses of citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), exposed to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Hong; Huang, Hai; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-12-01

    Relatively low or high temperatures are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in insects and mites. Induced thermal stress was recently associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In this study, we examined the time-related effect of the relatively low (0, 5, 10, and 15 °C) or high (32, 35, 38, and 41 °C) temperatures on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as a marker of lipid peroxidation in organisms, was also measured in the citrus red mite under thermal stress conditions. Results showed that SOD and GST activities were significantly increased and play an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. Lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly (P<0.001) and changed in a time-dependent manner. CAT and POX activity, as well as TEAC, did not vary significantly and play a minor role to remove the ROS generation. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play an important role in reducing oxidative damage in the citrus red mite. PMID:20709071

  9. Vítězslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.

    PubMed

    Paleček, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítězslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Kříženecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War. PMID:27325060

  10. Assessment of Prey Preference by the Generalist Predator, Mallada basalis (Walker), When Offered Two Species of Spider Mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) on Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated potential prey preference of the generalist predator Mallada basalis (Walker) when offered two mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor), both important pests on papaya. Laboratory choice tests revealed that none of the three larval instars of M. basalis sho...

  11. Characterization and functional analysis of a novel glutathione S-transferase gene potentially associated with the abamectin resistance in Panonychus citri (McGregor).

    PubMed

    Liao, Chong-Yu; Xia, Wen-Kai; Feng, Ying-Cai; Li, Gang; Liu, Hai; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), a major citrus pest distributed worldwide, has been found to be resistant to various insecticides and acaricides used in China. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with the abamectin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, results showed over-expression of a novel glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) gene (PcGSTm5) in abamectin-resistant P. citri. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the transcripts of PcGSTm5 were also significantly up-regulated after exposure to abamectin and the maximum mRNA expression level at nymphal stage. The recombinant protein of PcGSTm5-pET-28a produced by Escherichia coli showed a pronounced activity toward the conjugates of 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH). The kinetics of CDNB and GSH and its optimal pH and thermal stability were also determined. Reverse genetic study through a new method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding further support a link between the expression of PcGSTm5 and abamectin resistance. However, no direct evidence was found in metabolism or inhibition assays to confirm the hypothesis that PcGSTm5 can metabolize abamectin. Finally, it is here speculated that PcGSTm5 may play a role in abamectin detoxification through other pathway such as the antioxidant protection. PMID:27521916

  12. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae. PMID:25296220

  13. Collaborating with McGregor and ASTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Joan E.; Freeland, D. Kim

    A descriptive study using survey research techniques investigated the degree to which managerial philosophy was related to training and development professionals' acceptance and practice of those adult learning principles that support the collaborative teaching-learning mode. Data were collected from a random sample of 400 members of the American…

  14. GREGOR, a 1.5 M Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Lühe, O.; Schmidt, W.; Soltau, D.; Kneer, F.; Staude, J.

    We present the design of a new large solar telescope which is going to be installed at the Observatorio del Teide, in the tower that presently houses the 45cm Gregory-Coudé-Telescope. The new telescope has an aperture of 1.5 meters and its optical design is basically a Gregorian configuration. It will be an open telescope in an azimuthal mount. An adaptive optics system is incorporated in the optical design as well as a polarimetry package. The feasibility of lightweight optics for the primary mirror has been investigated in an industrial pre-study. The focal plane instrumentation will include a high resolution filter spectrometer similar to the existing TESOS instrument at the VTT and a new spectro-polarimeter for the visible and the near UV. The latter instrument is presently being developed jointly by the KIS and the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, USA. Budget permitting, detailed (Phase-B) planning will start in 2000, and the telescope will be developed and built in 2002 and 2003 with first light in spring of 2004.

  15. Music and Literacy: Strategies Using "Comprehension Connections" by Tanny McGregor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasher, Kathleen Diane

    2014-01-01

    Music and literacy share many of the same skills; therefore, it is no surprise that music and literacy programs can be used together to help children learn to read. Music study can help promote literacy skills such as vocabulary, articulation, pronunciation, grammar, fluency, writing, sentence patterns, rhythm/parts of speech, auditory processing,…

  16. Michael Mästlin's role in the polemic against the calendar reform of pope Gregor XIII. (German Title: Die Rolle Michael Mästlins in der Polemik um die Kalenderreform von Papst Gregor XIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    Because of theological resistance, the calendar reform of 1582 was introduced only in countries under catholic rule. Michael Mästlin is found among the spokesmen of opposition against this feared attempted of the pope to gain influence in the protestant church, nevertheless, Mästlin had no doubt that a calendar reform was necessary. This article retraces Mästlin's argumentation and puts it into context with contemporary discussions about a calendar reform.

  17. Comment on ''Spectral Identification of thin film coated and solid form semiconductor neutron detectors'' by McGregor and Shultis

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbeck, S; Caruso, Anthony N.; Adenwalla, S; Brand, Jennifer I.; Byun, Dongjin; Jiang, Hualiang; Lin, J Y.; Losovyj, Ya B.; Lundstedt, C; McIlroy, David N.; Pitts, W K.; Robertson, B W.; Dowben, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    While we welcome the attention paid to boron-rich semiconductor devices, several clarifications are indicated to a recent paper [1] modeling neutron capture in boron-rich semiconductor solid-state detectors

  18. Alone in the Garden: How Gregor Mendel's Inattention to Audience May Have Affected the Reception of His Theory of Inheritance in "Experiments in Plant Hybridization"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, James

    2007-01-01

    From a rhetorical perspective, Mendel's work and its reception elicit two important questions: (a) why were Mendel's arguments so compelling to 20th century biologists? And (b) why where they so roundly ignored by his contemporaries? The focus of this article is to examine the latter question while commenting on the former by employing several…

  19. Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardee, Ronald L.

    Job satisfaction, motivation, and reward systems are included in one area of organizational theory. The strongest influence in this area is motivation because it overlaps into both of the other two components. A review of the classical literature on motivation reveals four major theory areas: (1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs; (2) Herzberg's…

  20. Moving and Handling Patients at a Glance MacGregor Hamish Moving and Handling Patients at a Glance 144pp £27.99 Wiley Blackwell 9781118853436 1118853431 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    THIS BOOK provides step-by-step guidance on moving and handling patients. It highlights controversial techniques and explains how to practice load handling. The text is supported by photographs that show what should be done at each stage of the manoeuvre, and the advice is backed up by theory. PMID:27138506

  1. An Investigation of the Fantasy Predisposition and Fantasy Style of Children with Imaginary Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouldin, Paula

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author tested whether children with imaginary companions (ICs) have a different fantasy life than do children without ICs. To measure the fantasy life of the 74 children aged 3.2 to 8.7 years, the author modified the Children's Fantasy Interview (E. Rosenfeld, L. R. Huesmann, L. D. Eron, & J. V. Torney-Purta, 1982) to make it…

  2. Influences on Mendel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckabee, Colleen J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Gregor Mendel's family background, schooling, and the brotherhood of his monastery life for insights into how Mendel was stimulated to engage in plant hybridization, his precursors, and why he was successful in his endeavors. (RT)

  3. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 WHITE MARBLE MANTEL ON NO. WALL OF FRONT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  4. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 MARBLE MANTEL, SO. WALL OF EAST HALF OF HALL, SECOND STORY - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  5. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 MARBLE MANTEL, NO. WALL of FRONT ROOM, 1st FLOOR - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  6. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 MARBLE MANTEL ON NORTH WALL OF REAR ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  7. Leadership through Shared Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccigrosso, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    The author explains the particular relevance of participatory decision making for the Catholic school administrator, with reference to such organizational theories as McGregor's Theory Y and Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. (Author/SJL)

  8. Er3+ infrared fluorescence affected by spatial distribution synchronicity of Ba2+ and Er3+ in Er3+-doped BaO-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuno, Atsunobu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Glasses with the composition xBaO-(99.9 - x)SiO2-0.1ErO3/2 (0 ≤x ≤ 34.9) were fabricated by a levitation technique. The glasses in the immiscibility region were opaque due to chemical inhomogeneity, while the other glasses were colorless and transparent. The scanning electron microscope observations and electron probe microanalysis scan profiles revealed that more Er3+ ions were preferentially distributed in the regions where more Ba2+ ions existed in the chemically inhomogeneous glasses. The synchronicity of the spatial distributions of the two ions initially increased with increasing x and then decreased when the Ba2+ concentration exceeded a certain value. The peak shape and lifetime of the fluorescence at 1.55 μm depended on x as well as the spatial distribution of both ions. These results indicate that although ErOn polyhedra are preferentially coordinated with Ba2+ ions and their local structure is affected by the coordination of Ba2+, there is a maximum in the amount of Ba2+ ions that can coordinate ErOn polyhedra since the available space for Ba2+ ions is limited. These findings provide us with efficient ways to design the chemical composition of glasses with superior Er3+ fluorescence properties for optical communication network systems.

  9. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively. PMID:27394311

  10. An express route to perfection: Ornamental plant breeders have the tools at their disposal to expedite breeding for specific traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants inherit traits the same way Gregor Mendel observed in his famous experiments with peas in the 1800s. Breeders select parents with one or more desirable traits and then look for superior combinations of these traits in their offspring. Seedlings must be rigorously evaluated for the desirable...

  11. Leadership Skills in School and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.

    1998-01-01

    Explores principals' leadership role by examining the business and general leadership literature. Applies Robert Katz's framework of technical, conceptual, and human skills to key organizational concepts and themes described by several writers (James MacGregor Burns, John Gardner, Stephen Covey, James Kouzes and Barry Posner) and the U.S. Managers…

  12. Transformational Leadership: Democratic or Despotic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allix, Nicholas M.

    2000-01-01

    James MacGregor Burns's conceptualization of transforming leadership stressed the moral and educative nature of the leader-follower relationship. However, critical examination of Burns's account uncovers philosophical and technical difficulties with some of his central claims. Transformative leadership may be structured more for domination than…

  13. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Steven; Burns, James MacGregor; McKay, Ritchie

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a transcript of Steven Berg's interviews with James MacGregor Burns and Ritchie McKay regarding leadership. James Burns is a senior fellow in the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond, Virginia. Ritchie McKay is Head Coach of the men's basketball team at University of New Mexico. Steven Berg is an…

  14. Leading the Way in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how, after a quarter-century, James MacGregor Burns, a fellow at the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond, is still working to refine leadership studies in a way that could change the face of the field. (EV)

  15. A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-00327 Ludwig*, R., McGregor, R.G., Blowes, D.W., Benner, S.G., and Mountjoy, K. A Permeable Reactive Barrier for Treatment of Heavy Metals. Ground Water 40 (1):59-66 (2002) Historical storage of ore concentrate containing sulfid...

  16. Self-Renewal for Self-Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sistrunk, Walter E.

    This speech explores the concept of professional self-renewal. The presenter seeks to understand why some professionals always seem fresh, energetic, and ready for new challenges, whereas others are perpetually tired, bored, and irritated with the demands of their work. Referring to McGregor's management theories, the paper infers that Theory X…

  17. Time for a Change: Theory X or Theory Y--What Is Your Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattaliano, Anthony P.

    1982-01-01

    Adapting to education Douglas McGregor's management theory that the day-to-day behavior of the immediate superior communicates to subordinates the superior's assumptions about human nature, the author contends that principals who have positive feelings about people will fare better in improving teacher motivation, creativity, and job satisfaction.…

  18. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  19. Align the Front End First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  20. Confronting Science: The Dilemma of Genetic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zallen, Doris T.

    1997-01-01

    Considers the opportunities and ethical issues involved in genetic testing. Reviews the history of genetics from the first discoveries of Gregor Mendel, through the spurious pseudo-science of eugenics, and up to the discovery of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. Explains how genetic tests are done. (MJP)

  1. Michigan Severity Rating Scales: Usage and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Anderson, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    For many years, increasing caseloads for vision professionals have caused concerns about the impact on educational services. Average caseload sizes in the literature have remained fairly consistent across decades, with 19.5 students per professional in the 1980s (Pelton, 1986), 18 students in the 1990s (Griffin-Shirley, McGregor, and Jacobson,…

  2. A Correlational Study of Principals' Leadership Style and Teacher Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, gender, age, and years of experience of principals form a composite explaining the variation in teacher absences. It sought to determine whether all or any of these variables would be statistically significant in explaining the variance in absences for teachers.…

  3. Child and Adult, X and Y: Reflections on the Process of Public Administration Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, Danny L.; Marini, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Mirroring McGregor's management theories X and Y, the authors posit educational theory X, in which learners are treated as passive children whose teachers make all curricular decisions, and theory Y, in which students are viewed as autonomous and self-directed learners. (SK)

  4. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  5. The Introduction of Middle Schools in the Northern Territory: Processes and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The year 2006 has been a year in which a decision on the introduction of middle schools has been made by the Labor government of the Northern Territory. The initial impetus for the change came from the 2003 Secondary Education Review "Future Directions for Secondary Education in the Northern Territory," chaired by Gregor Ramsay. There are many…

  6. The Role of Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy in Learning from Web-Based Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Biesinger, Kevin D.; Muis, Krista R.; Orgill, Marykay

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the roles of goal orientation and self-efficacy when learning from worked examples. A Web-based learning environment, used as a component of a traditional undergraduate chemistry course, served as the context for the study. Goal orientations were derived from Elliot and McGregor's (2001) achievement goals…

  7. Space for Performing Teacher Identity: Through the Lens of Kafka and Hegel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Franz Kafka's 1912 novella "The Metamorphosis" provides an analogy for a consideration of the process of teacher identity formation and performance. Gregor Samsa awoke to find himself transformed into a giant beetle. He faced a complete loss of identity as he lost connection with the micro-political space that formed the context of his former role…

  8. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  9. 76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Issuing an Experimental Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the... Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas. The Final EA... Technologies Corporation (SpaceX). Under the Proposed Action, the FAA would issue an experimental permit...

  10. A Systemwide Approach to Improving Early Childhood Program Quality in the Detroit Metropolitan Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, A. Clay; Epstein, Ann S.

    This document is the final report of the McGregor-funded High/Scope training initiative, a system-wide approach to improving the quality of early childhood programs in the Detroit metropolitan area. The 3-year project was based on the validated High/Scope educational approach and training model, which advocates hands-on active learning for both…

  11. Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Reviews a six-part series (available as 16mm film or videocassettes) in which actors portray scientists lecturing on various topics/issues. Scientists portrayed include Louis Pasteur, Charles Darwin, William Harvey, Gregor Mendel, William Beaumont, and Hans Spemann. Also reviews a film detailing construction of the Multiple Mirror Telescope on…

  12. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  13. Irish Studies Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Keith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Preface" (Keith Gregor); "Cultural Nationalism and the Irish Literary Revival" (David Pierce); "Transitions in Irish Miscellanies between 1923 and 1940" (Malcom Ballin); "Born into the Troubles: Deirdre Madden's 'Hidden Symptoms'" (Tamara Benito de la Iglesia); "'Reading in the Dark': The…

  14. Re-Engaging Young People with Education and Training: What Are the Alternatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberley; Stemp, Kellie; McGinty, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Alternative education programs are one way of responding to the disengagement of young people from mainstream schools. While there are a great variety of programs, those where young people experience success have incorporated a number of elements of best practice (Mills & McGregor 2010). This article reviews the attributes of effective alternative…

  15. Radiation Hybrid Mapping in Aquatic Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the inheritance of traits has always been of great interest to humanity. The first documented studies in inheritance were conducted on peas in the mid 1800s by the Austrian monk Gregor Von Mendel. In the early 1900s, Thomas Morgan and colleagues experimented...

  16. Teaching Mendelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) is rightly credited as being the "father of modern genetics." He presented the results of his pea experiments at a meeting of his local natural history society in two lectures during 1865. His paper was published in the proceedings of the society the next year. From his breeding experiments with the edible pea, he…

  17. Emerging Skills for School Administrators: Needs for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald

    This paper discusses leadership theories, leadership research issues that educational leaders must confront in the next decade, and leadership skills required for the future. The discussion of leadership theories begins with a review of McGregor's Theories X, Y, and Z and moves on to the qualities embodied in such heroic, charismatic, and…

  18. Into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Provides fully developed library media activities designed for specific curriculum units. Curriculum areas represented include reading and language arts (proverbs and fables, letters of the alphabet, and biographies); science (the study of Gregor Mendel and genetics, oil resources); and social studies (global awareness). (LRW)

  19. Mendel, mechanism, models, marketing, and more.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A

    2015-09-24

    This year marks the 150(th) anniversary of the presentation by Gregor Mendel of his studies of plant hybridization to the Brunn Natural History Society. Their nature and meaning have been discussed many times. However, on this occasion, we reflect on the scientific enterprise and the perception of new discoveries. PMID:26406361

  20. What Are Null Hypotheses? The Reasoning Linking Scientific and Statistical Hypothesis Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    2008-01-01

    We should dispense with use of the confusing term "null hypothesis" in educational research reports. To explain why the term should be dropped, the nature of, and relationship between, scientific and statistical hypothesis testing is clarified by explication of (a) the scientific reasoning used by Gregor Mendel in testing specific…

  1. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: Why You're You. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the teacher's edition of one of the eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). The chapters include basic information about heredity, activities, and optional "excursions." The answers to all activities are included. An introduction describes the work of Gregor Mendel and his…

  2. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  3. Using the World Wide Web To accommodate Diverse Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jonathan L.; Schulz, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of ways to use the World Wide Web in college instruction considers first, logistical issues; second, ways the Web can meet the needs of the visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learner; third, ways to accommodate the social learner; and fourth, using the Web with four cognitive learning styles, as measured by the Gregoric Style Delineator.…

  4. Enabling Inquiry Learning in Fixed-Schedule Libraries: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubeck, Carole J.

    2015-01-01

    Fixed scheduling is well-researched in the school library literature. We know from this research that information skills taught in isolation from curriculum content are not as relevant to students as skills taught in the context of what they already know (McGregor 2006). Constructivism is an approach to learning that posits individuals construct…

  5. Cognitive Mechanisms of Insight: The Role of Heuristics and Representational Change in Solving the Eight-Coin Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öllinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Faber, Amory H.; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-01-01

    The 8-coin insight problem requires the problem solver to move 2 coins so that each coin touches exactly 3 others. Ormerod, MacGregor, and Chronicle (2002) explained differences in task performance across different versions of the 8-coin problem using the availability of particular moves in a 2-dimensional search space. We explored 2 further…

  6. A Psychometric Evaluation of Two Achievement Goal Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnellan, M. Brent

    2008-01-01

    The properties of the achievement goal inventories developed by Grant and Dweck (2003) and Elliot and McGregor (2001) were evaluated in two studies with a total of 780 participants. A four-factor specification for the Grant and Dweck inventory did not closely replicate results published in their original report. In contrast, the structure of the…

  7. Person-Centered Management in Project Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraway, James E.

    The theories of several contemporary management theorists are examined in order to demonstrate that their administrative stance is that of a person-intensive approach to management. After exploring leadership theory and the positions of Douglas McGregor, John J. Morse, Jay W. Lorsch, Rensis Likert, Bernard M. Bass, William Reddin, George H. Rice,…

  8. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  9. On the modified Westergaard equations for certain plane crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eftis, J.; Liebowitz, H.

    1972-01-01

    An error in Westergaard's equation for a certain class of plane crack problems, originally pointed out by Sih, is briefly discussed. The source of the difficulty is traced to an oversight in an earlier work by MacGregor, upon whose work Westergaard based his equations. Several examples of interest illustrating the consequences of the necessary correction to these equations are given.

  10. Health measures in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for health measures following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior to BVDV challenge, steer...

  11. Feed intake and weight gain in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for individual feed intake and ADG for 42 d following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior ...

  12. Unleash the Power! Knowledge - Technology - Diversity: Papers Presented at the Third International Forum on Research in School Librarianship, Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (IASL) (28th, Birmingham, Alabama, November 10-14, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lighthall, Lynne, Ed.; Howe, Eleanor, Ed.

    Papers presented at this forum were grouped under the following four broad themes: "Unleash the Power!,""Powerful Roles,""Powerful Partnerships," and "Powerful Technologies." Also included is the paper that won the Takeshi Murofushi Research Award, "Implementing Flexible Scheduling in Elementary Libraries" (Joy H. McGregor). Titles and authors of…

  13. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... from Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX). Under the Proposed Action, the FAA would... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability... to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas AGENCY:...

  14. Faculty Attitudes Toward Leadership in Post-Secondary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Roberto; Ramey, Gerald W.

    Using the existing body of knowledge about both management and higher education, it is argued that the managerial climate surrounding professional level people should lean toward Douglas McGregor's Theory Y, a nonauthoritarian, nonautocratic style of leadership. A number of theories of leadership in organizations are brought into the discussion,…

  15. "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward." Disobedience-Based Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotin, Alison; Aguirre McGregor, Stella; Pellecchia, DeAnna; Schatz, Ingrid; Liu, Shaw Pong

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Alison Kotin, Stella Aguirre McGregor, DeAnna Pellecchia, Ingrid Schatz, and Shaw Pong Liu reflect on their experiences working with public high school students to create "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward.," a performative response to current and historical acts of civil disobedience. The authors--a group of instructors…

  16. Identification of Mendel's white flower character

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified A, the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice...

  17. Working Together: Collaborative School Leadership Fosters a Climate of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ginger Kelley

    2005-01-01

    In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school.…

  18. International Technological Literacy Symposium. Proceedings (Anchorage, Alaska, June 25-26, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage.

    The following papers are included: "Technological Literacy: Pedagogy for a New World Order" (Peter McGregor); "Career and Technology Studies, A Curriculum Model" (Clarence Preitz); "Vocational and Technical Education at Secondary Schools in Taiwan, Republic of China" (James Yu); "Blueprint for Literacy in Technology" (Jerry Balistreri, Douglas…

  19. Motivational Influences of Using Peer Evaluation in Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara; Parkes, Jay; McCarty, Teresita

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the ways in which medical students' achievement goal orientations (AGO) affect their perceptions of learning and actual learning from an online problem-based learning environment, Calibrated Peer Review™. First, the tenability of a four-factor model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001) of AGO was tested with data collected from…

  20. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

  1. Comparison of k0-NAA measurement results with calculated uncertainties for reference samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smodiš, B.; Bučar, T.

    2010-10-01

    Standard samples of well-defined geometry containing accurately known amounts of Co, Fe, Gd, Mo, Nd, Sb, Se, W, Zn and Zr were prepared and assayed using k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA). Measurement results for six independent determinations of each standard spiked sample were evaluated and compared to calculated uncertainties using the computer program ERON, which computes uncertainty propagation factors from the relevant formulae and calculates the overall uncertainty following the internationally recommended approach. The calculated relative expanded uncertainties U ( k=2), which ranged from 6 to 11% for particular nuclides/gamma-lines agreed well with the measurements results thus proving the correctness of the applied approach. One of the important measures to further reduce uncertainties in the k0-NAA measurements is to review and re-determine more accurately specific nuclear constants involved in the relevant calculations.

  2. South American Spider Mites: New Hosts and Localities

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Renata S; Navia, Denise; Diniz, Ivone R; Flechtmann, Carlos HW

    2011-01-01

    In order to contribute to taxonomic information on Tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in South America, surveys were conducted in Brazil (15 States and the Federal District) and Uruguay (one Department); 550 samples of 120 plant species were collected. Tetranychid mite infestations were confirmed in 204 samples, and 22 species belonging to seven genera of the Bryobiinae and Tetranychinae subfamilies were identified on 58 different host plants. Thirty-six new plant hosts were found in Brazil, South America, and worldwide for the following species: Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor); Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar); Oligonychus anonae Paschoal; O. mangiferus (Rahman and Sapra); Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker and Sales; T. desertorum Banks, 1900, T. evansi Baker and Pritchard; T. ludeni Zacher; T. mexicanus (McGregor); T. neocaledonicus André; and T. urticae Koch. Four new localities in Brazil were reported for Eotetranychus tremae De Leon; O. anonae; Panonychus ulmi (Koch); and T. gloveri Baker and Pritchard. PMID:22224405

  3. A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus’ native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828

  4. Reactive approach motivation (RAM) for religion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Prentice, Mike

    2010-07-01

    In 3 experiments, participants reacted with religious zeal to anxious uncertainty threats that have caused reactive approach motivation (RAM) in past research (see McGregor, Nash, Mann, & Phills, 2010, for implicit, explicit, and neural evidence of RAM). In Study 1, results were specific to religious ideals and did not extend to merely superstitious beliefs. Effects were most pronounced among the most anxious and uncertainty-averse participants in Study 1 and among the most approach-motivated participants in Study 2 (i.e., with high Promotion Focus, Behavioral Activation, Action Orientation, and Self-Esteem Scale scores). In Studies 2 and 3, anxious uncertainty threats amplified even the most jingoistic and extreme aspects of religious zeal. In Study 3, reactive religious zeal occurred only among participants who reported feeling disempowered in their everyday goals in life. Results support a RAM view of empowered religious idealism for anxiety management (cf. Armstrong, 2000; Inzlicht, McGregor, Hirsch, & Nash, 2009). PMID:20565192

  5. Detours to the unification of calendars: The ``Improved Calendar'' (1700 bis 1775) and the foundation of the Berlin Astronomical Observatory. (German Title: Umwege zur Kalendereinheit: Der ``Verbesserte Kalender'' (1700 bis 1775) und die Gründung der Berliner Sternwarte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, Wolfgang

    The refusal of most protestant communities in Germany and other countries to accept the calendar reform decreed by Pope Gregor XIII in 1582 was finally circumvented by the introduction of an ``Improved (Julian) Calendar''. It did provide for astronomical rather than cyclical calculation of the date of Easter. While for most years both calendars were identical except in name, some conflicts did eventually occur. This led finally, in 1775, to a decision in favour of the Gregorian mode of calculation.

  6. Adaptive Optics for the German Solar Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, D.; Brunner, R.; von der Lühe, O.

    Adaptive Optics is a precondition to get high resolution observations near the diffraction limit when the integration times become larger than a few milliseconds At the KIS there is a project to upgrade the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Tenerife with an adaptive optics system (KAOS = Kiepenheuer-Institut adaptives Optiksystem). The optical concept is discussed and first measurements with the KAOS wavefront sensor and their implications are presented. Considerations with respect to AO for the future GREGOR telescope are also discussed.

  7. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  8. The Interaction of Masculinity and Control and its Impact on the Experience of Suffering for an Older Man

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work suggests that control and suffering are related to one another. Although it would be expected that within cultures which emphasize the importance of masculinity, as well as personal control, there would be greater suffering among individuals who lose their sense of masculinity or control, how these constructs relate to each other and are individually negotiated has been largely understudied. This paper takes a case study approach to further exploring how the constructs of control, masculinity, and suffering are related in the lived experience of an older European American man, Mr. Gregor. Analysis of this case shows that masculinity is related to control and that these constructs act as themes which interact over Mr. Gregor’s lifetime in a variety of ways. The level of control maintained by Mr. Gregor in different aspects of his life affects his sense of suffering. In some instances his sense of masculinity helps to protect Mr. Gregor against suffering; in others, it contributes to his suffering. These findings support the notion that there are culturally dependent possibilities for how control and masculinity are related. PMID:20161225

  9. The origin of pyroxene megacrysts in alkali basalts from Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntaflos, Theo; Bjerg, Ernesto; Gregoire, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Clinopyroxene and othopyroxene megacrysts have been brought to the surface together with mantle xenoliths by Neogene and Quaternary alkali basalts from the back-arc environment in Patagonia. The collected megacrysts are from Pali Aike Volcanic Field (El Ruido, maar) and the Gobernador Gregores cinder cone in southern Patagonia, and from the Laguna Fria outcrop in northern Patagonia. The most frequent pyroxene megacrysts are augites (twelve samples), one diopside and two enstatites. Enstatites were found in El Ruido and Laguna Fria. The augites are magnesian rich with MG# that vary from 73.1 to 75.3 in Gobernador Gregores, fairly constant at 76.6 in El Ruido and from 74.0 to 78.6 in Laguna Fria. The MG# of diopside is 91.1 and the two enstatites, one from Gobernador Gregores and the other from Laguna Fria, have MG#s 78.3 and 82.5 respectively. The Na2O and TiO2 contents in augites vary from 0.99 to 2.06 wt% and from 0.69 to 1.86 wt% repectively. Systematically, the Gobernador Gregores augites have the highest TiO2 and Na2O contents. The primitive mantle normalized REE abundances have concave upwards patterns. While the Gobernador Gregores augites have (La/Y)N ratios that vary from 2.4 to 3.8, the El Ruido and Laguna Fria augites have ratios that vary from 0.91 to 1.74. The enstatites from both localities have similar MREE but they differ markedly in their LREE (in GG LaN=0.04xPM and in El Ruido LAN=0.14) and in their HREE (in Gobernador Gregores YbN=0.25 and in El Ruido YBN=0.6). The AL IV/AL VI in all augites is high and vary from 0.75 to1.07 suggesting that they have been formed at - more than 30 km depth. The calculated minimum equilibrium temperatures vary between 1260 to 1320°C. Pressure estimates for augites, with exception of the El Ruido augites with a pressure of 1.65 GP, vary between 1.27 and 1.47 GPa. Especially the pressure estimates from Gobernador Gregores megacrysts vary within a small interval from 1.29 to 1.36 GPa indicating an isobaric

  10. "Hypertractions and hyperstresses convey the same mechanical information Continuum Mech. Thermodyn. (2010) 22:163-176" by Prof. Podio Guidugli and Prof. Vianello and some related papers on higher gradient theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Isola, Francesco; Seppecher, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    In this commentary, we try to make clearer the state of the art concerning the relation between mechanical contact interactions and the different notions of stresses. We emphasize the importance of the concept of virtual displacements. Its role has been recognized in Mechanics and in Continuum Mechanics long ago (see e.g., Vailati in Il principio dei lavori virtuali da Aristotele a Erone d'Alessandria, 113-128, 1987; Russo in The forgotten revolution, Springer, Berlin, 2003, or Cosserat and Cosserat in Sur la Théorie des Corps Déformables, Herman, Paris, 1909; Cosserat and Cosserat in Note sur la théorie de l.action euclidienne, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1908), and it is central as well when starting with an expression of the power expended by internal stresses and deducing the form of contact interactions as when starting with some form of the contact interactions and developing a representation theorem for these contact interactions based on the Cauchy tetrahedron construction.

  11. Silicon shallow doping by erbium and oxygen recoils implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feklistov, K. V.; Cherkov, A. G.; Popov, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    In order to get shallow high doping of Si with optically active complexes ErOn, Er followed by O recoils implantation was realized by means of subsequent Ar+ 250-290 keV implantation with doses 2×1015-1×1016 cm-2 through 50-nm deposited films of Er and then SiO2, accordingly. High Er concentration up to 5×1020 cm-3 to the depth of 10 nm was obtained after implantation. However, about a half of the Er implanted atoms become part of surface SiO2 during post-implantation annealing at 950 °C for 1 h in the N2 ambient under a SiO2 cap. The mechanism of Er segregation into the cap oxide following the moving amorphous-crystalline interface during recrystallization was rejected by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Instead, the other mechanism of immobile Er atoms and redistribution of recoil-implanted O atoms toward cap oxide was proposed. It explains the observed formation of two Er containing phases: Er-Si-O phase with a high O content adjacent to the cap oxide and deeper O depleted Er-Si phase. The correction of heat treatments is proposed in order to avoid the above-mentioned problems.

  12. On the photoemission from 3-D quantum well boxes of nonlinear optical materials in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Kamakhya P.

    1990-08-01

    An attempt is made to study the photoemission :eron 3D quantum well boxes (QWBs) of nonlinear optical materials in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields, taking ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors as an example. Consi3ering the anisotropic crystal potential in the Harniltonian, we have formulated the generalized electron energy spectrum taking into account the anisotropies of the 0ther energy band par arne ter s, within the fr sine work of theory. We have then derlved.the photoernission from 3D QWBs of ternary chalCopyrite compounds by using the modified dispersion law under cross field configuration in the said material. It is found, taking 3D QWBs of n-CdGeAs2 as an example, that the photoernission exhibits ladder like dependence with incident photon energy as found in quanturn Hall effect and the corresponding results for three and two-band Kane models together with that of parabolic energy bands have been obtained from the present generalized exjressions as special cases. The photoeinission decreases with increasing magnetic field and decreasing electron concentration respectively. The oscillations in accordance with the present generalized model show up much more significantly and are in agreement with the experimental results as given elsewhere.

  13. 'It's the hearing that is last to go': a case of traumatic head injury.

    PubMed

    Tapson, Kate; Sierotowicz, Wanda; Marks-Maran, Di; Thompson, Trish Morris

    This article explores the literature related to acquired brain injury (ABI) and is followed by a case study of one patient with ABI, which reflects how the evidence, when implemented by a team of health professionals, can have a positive impact on recovery. Gregor is a middle-aged Polish man who suffered traumatic ABI when knocked down by a car. He spent a number of years in a specialist neurosurgical unit, then a rehabilitation unit, and for the past several years has been cared for in a care home. For most of this time he was in a coma. He began to come out of his coma and during his time in the care home received intensive physiotherapy and speech therapy. At the time of his brain injury Gregor could speak no English yet years later, when he began to regain consciousness, he was able to speak and understand English, a fact that might be attributed in part to 6 years of nurses talking to him in English as part of caring for him. Nurses are always told that hearing is the last of the senses to be lost when a person is unconscious or has a brain injury (Sisson, 1990). The case study presented in this article demonstrates the potential power of talking to a patient when providing care, even when that patient is in a coma, and the impact this may have had on Gregor. It also demonstrates the importance of the need for evidence-based neuro-rehabilitation, including multi-professional working by a team of specialist physiotherapists, nurses, speech therapists, continence specialist nurse and nutritionist. PMID:25757582

  14. Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome. PMID:24379857

  15. Scientific myth-conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allchin, Douglas

    2003-05-01

    Using several familiar examples - Gregor Mendel, H. B. D. Kettlewell, Alexander Fleming, Ignaz Semmelweis, and William Harvey - I analyze how educators currently frame historical stories to portray the process of science. They share a rhetorical architecture of myth, which misleads students about how science derives its authority. Narratives of error and recovery from error, alternatively, may importantly illustrate the nature of science, especially its limits. Contrary to recent claims for reform, we do not need more history in science education. Rather, we need different types of history that convey the nature of science more effectively.

  16. Is evolution finished?

    PubMed

    Davison, John A

    2004-01-01

    Since speciation seems to be no longer in progress, one is compelled to conclude that sexual reproduction is incompetent as a macroevolutionary device. I propose that the reason some might insist that evolution is still in progress stems primarily from the influence of two authorities, the geologist Charles Lyell, with his doctrine of uniformitarianism and Gregor Mendel, the discoverer of sexually mediated transmission genetics. William Bateson, the father of modern genetics, clearly foresaw the failure of Mendelism to explain macroevolutionary change, a perspective with which I am in full agreement. PMID:15648214

  17. Responses of the L5178Y mouse Lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. V: 27 coded chemicals.

    PubMed

    McGregor, D B; Brown, A G; Howgate, S; McBride, D; Riach, C; Caspary, W J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk+/tk- mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay using procedures based upon those described by McGregor et al. (McGregor DB, Martin R, Cattanach P, Edwards I, McBride D, Caspary WJ (1987): Environ Mol Mutagen 9:143-160). Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before plating in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 micrograms/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Statistically significant responses were obtained with acid orange 10, aniline, benzaldehyde, o-chloroaniline, chlorodibromomethane, cytembena, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromomethyl) cyclohexane, dieldrin, lithocholic acid, oxytetracycline, phenazopyridine HCl, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, solvent yellow 14, tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate. Apart from phenazopyridine HCl, acid orange 10, and solvent yellow 14, rat liver S9 mix was not a requirement for the mutagenic activity of these compounds. Chemical not identified as mutagens were N-4-acetylaminofluorene, chlorpheniramine maleate, chloropropamide, 1,4-dioxane, endrin, ethylene glycol, iron dextran, methapyrilene, sodium(2-ethylhexyl)alcohol PMID:1902415

  18. Overturning of slender blocks: Numerical investigation and application to precariously balanced rocks in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvance, Matthew D.

    This dissertation focuses on the parameterization of slender block overturning with application towards precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) in southern California. In order to quantify overturning in terms of block size, block shape, and excitation intensity, an extensive numerical experiment has been undertaken. The probabilistic formulation adopted in this dissertation, motivated by the work of Yim et al. (1980), regularizes the overturning responses in a very useful way. As a result, systematic overturning behavior is observed. Both logistic and multiple least squares regression analyses have been used to parameterize the overturning responses. In addition, the author has devised an approximate method to obtain prediction intervals through transformation techniques. Comparisons between the numerical formulation and overturning data derived from shake table experiments strongly suggests that the numerical formulation is applicable the prediction of PBR overturning. A methodology for the comparison of PBRs with ground motion models has been developed and applied to PBR sites in southern California. Ground motion models that utilize the attenuation relations of Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Gregor et al. (2002), and Abrahamson (2005) have been investigated at PBR sites near to the San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore, and White Wolf faults. The ground motion models that use the Abrahamson and Silva (1997) and Gregor et al. (2002) relations are more inconsistent with the PBRs than the ground motion models that utilize the Boore et al. (1997) and Abrahamson (2005) relations. These findings may be used to refine current PSHA methodologies.

  19. Theories for the winds from Wolf Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassinelli, J. P.

    The massive and fast winds of Wolf Rayet stars present a serious momentum problem for the line-driven wind theories that are commonly used to explain the fast winds of early type stars. It is perhaps possible for the winds to be driven by lines, if multiple scattering occurs and if there are a sufficient number of lines in the spectrum so that large fraction of the continuum is blocked by line opacity in the winds. Several other mechanisms are discussed, in particular two that rely on strong magnetic fields: (1) Alfven wave driven wind models like those recently developed by Hartmann and MacGregor for late type supergiants and (2) the 'Fast Magnetic Rotator' model that was developed by Belcher and MacGregor for the winds from pre-main sequence stars. In either model, large magnetic fields (about 10,000 gauss) are required to drive the massive and fast winds of Wolf Rayet stars. Smaller fields might be possible if the multiple scattering line radiation force can be relied on to provide a final acceleration to terminal velocity.

  20. Correlations of Cervical Sagittal Alignment before and after Occipitocervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Takachika; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Oshima, Yasushi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective radiographic study. Objective To investigate changes and correlations of cervical sagittal alignment including T1 slope before and after occipitocervical corrective surgery. We also investigated the relevance for preoperative planning. Methods We conducted a retrospective radiographic analysis of 27 patients who underwent surgery for occipitocervical deformity. There were 7 men and 20 women with a mean age of 56.0 years. Mean follow-up was 68.0 months (range 24 to 120). The radiographic parameters measured before surgery and at final follow-up included McGregor slope, T1 slope, occipito (O)-C2 angle, O-C7 angle, and C2-C7 angle. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the radiographic parameters. Results There was a stronger positive correlation between the T1 slope and the O-C7 angle both preoperatively and postoperatively (r = 0.72 and r = 0.83, respectively) than between the T1 slope and the C2-C7 angle (r = 0.60 and r = 0.76, respectively). The O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle had inverse correlations to each other both pre- and postoperatively (r =  - 0.50 and -0.45). McGregor slope and T1 slope did not significantly change postoperatively at final follow-up. Increase in O-C2 angle after surgery (mean change, 10.7 degrees) inversely correlated with decrease in postoperative C2-C7 angle (mean change, 12.2 degrees). As result of these complementary changes, O-C7 angle did not statistically change. Conclusions Our results suggest that the O-C7 angle is regulated by T1 slope and the corresponding O-C7 angle is divided into the O-C2 and C2-C7 angles, which have inverse correlation to each other and then maintain McGregor slope (horizontal gaze). PMID:27190739

  1. Regional climate modeling of heat stress, frost, and water stress events in the agricultural region of Southwest Western Australia under the current climate and future climate scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, Jatin; Lyons, Tom J.; Abbs, Deborah J.; Foster, Ian J.

    2010-05-01

    Heat stress, frost, and water stress events have significant impacts on grain quality and production within the agricultural region (wheat-belt) of Southwest Western Australia (SWWA) (Cramb, 2000) and understanding how the frequency and intensity of these events will change in the future is crucial for management purposes. Hence, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (Pielke et al, 1992) (RAMS Version 6.0) is used to simulate the past 10 years of the climate of SWWA at a 20 km grid resolution by down-scaling the 6-hourly 1.0 by 1.0 degree National Center for Environmental Prediction Final Analyses from December 1999 to Present. Daily minimum and maximum temperatures, as well as daily rainfall are validated against observations. Simulations of future climate are carried out by down-scaling the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Mark 3.5 General Circulation Model (Gordon et al, 2002) for 10 years (2046-2055) under the SRES A2 scenario using the Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model (CCAM) (McGregor and Dix, 2008). The 6-hourly CCAM output is then downscaled to a 20 km resolution using RAMS. Changes in extreme events are discussed within the context of the continued viability of agriculture in SWWA. Cramb, J. (2000) Climate in relation to agriculture in south-western Australia. In: The Wheat Book (Eds W. K. Anderson and J. R. Garlinge). Bulletin 4443. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. Gordon, H. B., Rotstayn, L. D., McGregor, J. L., Dix, M. R., Kowalczyk, E. A., O'Farrell, S. P., Waterman, L. J., Hirst, A. C., Wilson, S. G., Collier, M. A., Watterson, I. G., and Elliott, T. I. (2002). The CSIRO Mk3 Climate System Model [Electronic publication]. Aspendale: CSIRO Atmospheric Research. (CSIRO Atmospheric Research technical paper; no. 60). 130 p McGregor, J. L., and Dix, M. R., (2008) An updated description of the conformal-cubic atmospheric model. High Resolution Simulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Hamilton, K. and Ohfuchi

  2. In memoriam In memoriam In memoriam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John

    2010-12-01

    The preceding paper is a record of an invited paper presented by Beatrice Annaratone at the 29th ICPIG held in Cancún, Mexico in 2009. The principal author Beatrice Annaratone died, together with her husband Arturo Tanga, in a tragic car accident on 20 December 2009. As a result of this tragedy the paper has not received the usual final revision by its author. Some of the work described is incomplete, but it will certainly be of interest to researchers in the field, some of whom will carry it to fruition. A paper entitled 'In Memoriam Beatrice Maria Annaratone', by John Allen, Gregor Morfill and Hubertus Thomas was presented at the 37th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics held in Dublin in June 2010. See http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/52/12/124001

  3. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  4. Jasmonic acid induced resistance in grapevines to a root and leaf feeder.

    PubMed

    Omer, A D; Thaler, J S; Granett, J; Karban, R

    2000-06-01

    We investigated the effects of induced resistance to the folivore Pacific spider mite, Tetranychus pacificus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae), as well as the root-feeding grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) in grapevines using exogenous applications of the natural plant inducer, jasmonic acid. Foliar jasmonic acid application at concentrations that caused no phytotoxicity significantly reduced the performance of both herbivores. There were less than half as many eggs produced by spider mites feeding on the induced leaves compared with control grapevine leaves. Induction reduced the numbers of phylloxera eggs and nymphal instars by approximately threefold and twofold, respectively, on induced compared with control grapevine roots. The negative demographic effects of jasmonic acid application appeared to be caused by changes in fecundity for the Pacific spider mite, and possibly changes in development rate and fecundity for grape phylloxera. PMID:10902339

  5. Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

    2013-08-01

    Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270

  6. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  7. Bird viruses in multiple sclerosis: combination of viruses or Marek's alone?

    PubMed

    McHatters, G R; Scham, R G

    1995-03-24

    This is a short report confirming recent articles that birds are very likely involved as vectors of the exogenous causative agent of multiple sclerosis (MS). It also critically reviews the most recent article (MacGregor, H. and Latiwonk, Q., Neurol. Res., 15 (1993) 391-394.) in which a high percentage of serums from MS patients reacted positively with Marek's antigen and it was accidentally discovered that Epstein-Barr virus antibodies also cross-react positively with Marek's antigen. This discovery might help explain the complex epidemiology of MS (an infectious mononucleosis infection would immunize a person against future mononucleosis and a Marek's infection). A table comparing the similarities between MS and Marek's is included. Other possible avian viral candidates are entertained plus the possibility of various viral combinations within a protective chlamydial plasmid including Marek's and avian retroviruses. PMID:7792060

  8. Theoretical studies of chromospheres and winds in cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    Calculated radiative losses from H, H-, Ca II, and Mg II show that cooling for the chromosphere of the supergiant epsilon Gem do not differ greatly from the solar law, although there are differences at approximately 6000K due to ionization effects. With a rough standard law for computation of stellar winds using the Hartmann-MacGregor theory and standard stellar evolutionary calculations, the wind velocities and temperatures in the HR diagram were systematically explored. Results show that cool winds with tempratures 1,000,00K are not possible for log g or = 2. Predicted wind velocities are approximately 1.5 to 2 x larger than observed, particularly for the most luminous cool stars. The ionization balance for the wind of alpha ORI and the hydrogen profile lines for T Tauri stars were computed using the PANDORA computer program.

  9. Integration of Planetary Protection Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    Research and activities under this grant have focused on a systematic examination and analysis of critical questions likely to impact planetary protection (PP) controls and implementation for Mars sample return missions (MSR). Four areas in the non-scientific and social realms were selected for special attention because of their importance to future mission planning and concern about critical timing or possible economic impacts on MSR mission implementation. These include: (1) questions of legal uncertainty and the decision making process, (2) public perception of risks associated with sample return, (3) risk communication and Education/Public Outreach , and (4) planetary protection implications of alternative mission architectures, for both robotic and human sample return missions. In its entirety, NAG 2-986 has encompassed three categories of activity: (1) research and analysis (Race), (2) subcontracted research (MacGregor/Decision Research), and (3) consulting services.

  10. Cross-species identification of Mendel's I locus.

    PubMed

    Armstead, Ian; Donnison, Iain; Aubry, Sylvain; Harper, John; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; James, Caron; Mani, Jan; Moffet, Matt; Ougham, Helen; Roberts, Luned; Thomas, Ann; Weeden, Norman; Thomas, Howard; King, Ian

    2007-01-01

    A key gene involved in plant senescence, mutations of which partially disable chlorophyll catabolism and confer stay-green leaf and cotyledon phenotypes, has been identified in Pisum sativum, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Festuca pratensis by using classical and molecular genetics and comparative genomics. A stay-green locus in F. pratensis is syntenically equivalent to a similar stay-green locus on rice chromosome 9. Functional testing in Arabidopsis of a homolog of the rice candidate gene revealed (i) senescence-associated gene expression and (ii) a stay-green phenotype after RNA interference silencing. Genetic mapping in pea demonstrated cosegregation with the yellow/green cotyledon polymorphism (I/i) first reported by Gregor Mendel in 1866. PMID:17204643

  11. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented. PMID:6465152

  12. Beyond the simplicity of Mendelian inheritance.

    PubMed

    Schacherer, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying rules that govern the phenotypic diversity observed in natural populations is an old but still unaccomplished goal in biology. In 1865, Gregor Mendel paved the way for the dissection of the underlying genetic basis of traits by setting out to understand the principles of heredity. To date, we still lack a global overview of the spectrum and continuum existing between Mendelian and complex traits within any natural population. In this respect, we recently performed a species-wide survey of Mendelian traits across a large population of isolates using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By analyzing the distribution and the inheritance patterns of the trait, we have clearly shown that monogenic mutations can display a significant, variable, and continuous expressivity across different genetic backgrounds. Our study also demonstrated that combining the elegancy of both classical genetics and high-throughput genomics is more than valuable to dissect the genotype-phenotype relationship in natural populations. PMID:27344551

  13. Motivating pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate. PMID:10244538

  14. Fort Bliss exploratory slimholes: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    During November/96 to April/97 Sandia National Laboratories provided consulation, data collection, analysis and project documentation to the U.S. Army for a series of four geothermal exploratory slimholes drilled on the McGregor Range approximately 25 miles north of El Paso, Texas. This drilling was directed toward evaluating a potential reservoir for geothermal power generation in this area, with a secondary objective of assessing the potential for direct use applications such as space heating or water de-salinization. This report includes: representative temperature logs from the wells; daily drilling reports; a narrative account of the drilling and testing; a description of equipment used; a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data; and recommendations for future work.

  15. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sneeringer, M.R.; Dunn, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  16. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  17. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: putting theory X and theory Y into action in dental education.

    PubMed

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen

    2008-12-01

    Theory X and Theory Y are terms coined by Douglas McGregor to express the belief that managers' behaviors are shaped by their assumptions about the motivation of their subordinates. The theories were applied to dental education in a Perspectives article published in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Dental Education. This article explains how those seemingly contradictory theories can be reconciled using the concept of the "emotional bank account" introduced by Stephen Covey in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Understanding the underlying concept of an emotional bank account helps dental educators to bridge the generation gap between instructors, born during the baby boom period of 1946-63, and dental students, born after 1980, who are referred to as "Generation Y" or "millennials." PMID:19056621

  18. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  19. STS-51 preparation: ACTS, ORFEUS, Discovery in VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In NASA's building AM on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, STS-51 mission specialist Carl Walz (right) and Deutsche Aerospace technician Gregor Dawidowitsch check over the scientific instruments mounted on the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) carrier (38573); The Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) and SPAS is readied for hoisting into a test cell at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) (38574); Mating of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) with the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) booster is under way in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) (38575); The mated ACTS and TOS are ready to be moved from the PHSF to the Vertical Processsing Facility (VPF) (38576); The orbiter Discovery is rolled into the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for mating with the external tank and twin solid rocket boosters (38577-8).

  20. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastware toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  1. Fort Bliss Geothermal Area Data: Temperature profile, logs, schematic model and cross section

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This dataset contains a variety of data about the Fort Bliss geothermal area, part of the southern portion of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. The dataset contains schematic models for the McGregor Geothermal System, a shallow temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area. The dataset also contains Century OH logs, a full temperature profile, and complete logs from well RMI 56-5, including resistivity and porosity data, drill logs with drill rate, depth, lithology, mineralogy, fractures, temperature, pit total, gases, and descriptions among other measurements as well as CDL, CNL, DIL, GR Caliper and Temperature files. A shallow (2 meter depth) temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area with 63 data points is also included. Two cross sections through the Fort Bliss area, also included, show well position and depth. The surface map included shows faults and well spatial distribution. Inferred and observed fault distributions from gravity surveys around the Fort Bliss geothermal area.

  2. Re-discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) results. Between 1900 and 1910, he explored the complications of these laws, including the coupling of factors due to their chromosomal location and the inheritance of sex, in a great number of plant species. In later years Correns became interested in and experimented on phenomena of extra-nuclear inheritance.

  3. Testing PSHA Output via Precariously Balanced Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvance, M. D.; Brune, J. N.; Anooshehpoor, R.

    2005-12-01

    Purvance (2005) has shown that the overturning responses of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) depend on the PBR shapes, sizes, and the vector of ground motion intensity measures including PGA and either PGV, SA@1sec, or SA@2sec. This formulation allows one to quantify the overturning probability of an object that has been exposed to a ground motion time history with specified peak parameters (e.g. PGA and PGV). Vector-valued PSHA (VPSHA) provides a methodology to estimate the rate of occurrence of all ground motions. Combining the VPSHA output with the PBR fragility results in the rate of PBR overturning. In this way, one can compare the PBR age with the estimated failure date given the assumptions inherent in the VPSHA calculation. This study focuses on the variability of estimated failure dates of PBRs as a function of attenuation relations utilized in the VPSHA calculations. The following attenuation relations have been investigated: Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Abrahamson (2005), and Gregor et al. (2002). The Boore et al. (1997) and Abrahamson (2005) relations produce ground motion models that are more consistent with the PBRs in southern California than the Abrahamson and Silva (1997) and Gregor et al. (2002) relations. It is apparent that the addition of recent data (e.g. Chi-Chi, Izmit) in the development of the Abrahamson (2005) attenuation relation significantly affects the VPSHA output. These findings highlight the utility of this methodology to test alternate attenuation relations such as those produced by the NGA initiative. In addition, varying RELM models may be assessed for consistency with PBRs via the described methodology.

  4. Foldable dome climate measurements and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.

    2010-07-01

    As part of a larger project for measuring various aspects of foldable domes in the context of EST and with support of the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, we have collected over a year of continuous temperature and humidity measurements, both inside and outside the domes of the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma5 and the GREGOR telescope on Tenerife.6 In addition, we have measured the wind field around each dome. Although the structure of both domes is similar, the DOT dome has a single layer of cloth, and is situated on top of an open tower. In contrast, the GREGOR dome has a double layer of cloth, and is situated on top of a tower-shaped building. These differences result in large differences in temperature and humidity insulation when the dome is closed. We will present the changes in temperature and humidity one can expect for each dome within one day, and the statistics for the variations throughout a year. In addition, we will show that the main advantage of a foldable dome is the near instantaneous equilibration of the air inside the volume originally enclosed by the dome and that of the environment outside the dome. This property allows one to operate a telescope without needing expensive air conditioning and dome skin temperature control in order to limit dome and shell seeing effects. The measurements give also information about the weather fluctuations at the sites of the domes. It was observed that on small time scales the temperature fluctuations are significantly greater during the day than during the night.

  5. Spatial Variation of Basal Conditions on Kamb Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Welch, B. C.; Osterhouse, D.; Pettersson, R.; MacGregor, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Radar profiles of bed echo intensity provide a way to survey conditions at the ice-bed interface and test for the presence or absence of water. However, extracting information about bed properties from bed echo intensities requires an estimate of the dielectric attenuation loss through the ice. A recent survey [MacGregor et al., 2007] found that the few reported values of depth-averaged attenuation rates in West Antarctica vary by a factor of 3, presumably due to spatial variations in the chemistry and temperature profiles of the ice. Thus, a single value for depth-averaged ice-sheet attenuation cannot be assumed, even over a relatively small region. We measured attenuation rates at several locations on and near Kamb Ice Stream (KIS) by examining basal echo intensity values as a function of ice thickness from constant-offset radar data acquired in 2004-2006. Our values obtained for Siple Dome of 29 dB/km agree with previous measurements [Gades et al., 2000] and the recent calculations and model results of MacGregor et al. [2007]. On KIS, we measured attenuation values of 20 dB/km over the "sticky spot", where ice has become stagnant. This value is consistent with an attenuation model over the sticky spot calculated using borehole temperature data [Engelhardt, 2005] and chemistry data from the Siple Dome ice core. Our radar profiles in the main trunk region of KIS yield a slightly lower value of 15 dB/km, presumably because colder ice is still being advected from inland West Antarctica. Using these values of attenuation, we calculated the basal radar reflectivity at the ice-bed interface in the regions of all our surveys. We found that most regions of the bed in the trunk of KIS have high basal reflectivities and that these values are similar to those obtained in locations where water was found in the Caltech boreholes [Engelhardt, 2005]. Areas of lower bed reflectivity are limited to the sticky spot, where a borehole found a dry bed, and along the margins of KIS

  6. Predictive influence of sea surface temperature on teleconnection patterns in North Atlantic. A case study on winter seasonal forecast in NW Iberian Peninsula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, I.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Taboada, J. J.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; Ramos, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal forecast in medium latitudes is a research field not too much developed, but it is likely to improve considerable as the dynamics of atmosphere and ocean as a coupled system are better understood. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between the global sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and the most important teleconnection patterns which affect the North Atlantic area: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), East Atlantic pattern (EA), Scandinavia pattern (SCA), East Atlantic/Western Russia pattern (EA/WR) and Europe Polar/Eurasia pattern (POL). The relationship between SSTA and those patterns will be explored in autumn and winter, the seasons with the highest quantity of rainfall in the area under study. These teleconnection patterns have a relationship with climate characteristics in Europe. Therefore, any forecast skill over teleconnection patterns will mean a forecast skill on climate. The SST data was provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA. The teleconnection indices were taken from the Climate Prediction Center of the NOAA between 1950 and 2006. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1951-2006 for two locations at NW Iberian Peninsula were obtained from the database of MeteoGalicia, the forecast center of the Regional Government of Galicia. The methodology used in this work is the same one used in Phillips and McGregor, 2002 and Lorenzo el al., 2009. Results show that SST anomalies in certain areas of the world ocean have a great potential to improve seasonal climate forecast in the mid-latitudes. A potential predictability for NAO and EA patterns in winter and for SCA and EA patterns in autumn was obtained. The value of those kind of correlations have been studied for a particular region, located at the NW part of the Iberian Peninsula, highlighting the possibility of perform a climate forecast for autumn and winter. This work could serve like a reference for many other regions in Europe, whose climate is

  7. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  8. Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.

    PubMed

    Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

    2012-01-29

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed. PMID:22286142

  9. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    PubMed

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  10. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

  11. Revision of the Afrotropical Phaeogenini (Ichneumonidae, Ichneumoninae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species

    PubMed Central

    Rousse, Pascal; van Noort, Simon; Diller, E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We revise the 10 genera and 23 species of the tribe Phaeogenini (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae) known to occur in the Afrotropical region. We describe the following 13 new taxa: Kibalus Rousse, van Noort & Diller, gen. n.; K. toro Rousse, van Noort & Diller, sp. n.; K. mubfs Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Arearia oxymoron Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Chauvinia nyanga Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Dicaelotus asantesana Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; D. hoerikwaggoensis Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; D. tablemountainensis Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Heterischnus mfongosi Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; H. mkomazi Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Lusius flummox Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Tycherus amatola Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; and T. nardousberg Rousse & van Noort, sp. n. New distribution records: Heterischnus africanus (Heinrich, 1936) from South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda; H. krausi Schönitzer, 1999 from Rwanda; Lusius tenuissimus (Heinrich, 1938) from Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. A doubtful record of Aethecerus foveolatus Gregor, 1940 from Sao Tome is additionaly reported in the appendix. We provide illustrated diagnoses and identification notes. Online interactive dichotomous and matrix Lucid keys to genera and species are available at http://www.waspweb.org. PMID:24294101

  12. COSMIC INHERITANCE RULES: IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE AND SCIENCE1

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, F.; Cornélissen, G.; Katinas, G. S.; Watanabe, Y.; Siegelová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Countering the trend in specialization, we advocate the trans-disciplinary monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate for signatures of environmental cyclic and other variabilities in space as well as terrestrial weather on the one hand, and for surveillance of personal and societal health on the other hand. New rules (if confirmed novel laws) emerge as we recognize our inheritance from the cosmos of cycles that constitute and characterize life and align them with inheritance from parents. In so doing, we happen to follow the endeavors of Gregor Mendel, who recognized the segregation and independent assortment of what became known as genes. Circadians, rhythms with periods, τ, between 20 and 28 hours, and cycles with frequencies that are higher (ultradian) or lower (infradian) than circadian, are genetically anchored. An accumulating long list of very important but aeolian (nonstationary) infradian cycles, characterizing the incidence patterns of sudden cardiac death, suicide and terrorism, with drastically different τs, constitutes the nonphotic (corpuscular emission from the sun, heliogeomagnetics, ultraviolet flux, gravitation) Cornélissen-series. PMID:21603087

  13. Design and fabrication of a 3m class light weighted mirror blank for the E-ELT M5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Seibert, Volker; Thomas, Armin; Westerhoff, Thomas; Müller, Michael; Cayrel, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In the recent past, SCHOTT has demonstrated its ability to manufacture large light weighted ZERODUR® mirror blanks for telescope projects like the GREGOR solar-telescope, for example. In 2010, SCHOTT was commissioned with a study aimed at developing a design for the M5 mirror blank of the ESO E-ELT. The tip and tilt M5 mirror of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) requires a demanding approach in light weighting. The approximately 3.1 m x 2.5 m elliptical plano mirror is specified to a weight of less than 500 kg with high Eigenfrequencies and low deformation under different inclination angles. The study was divided into two parts. The first part focused on coming up with an optimized light weighted design with respect to performance and processability with finite element modeling. In the second part of the study, a concept for the processing sequence including melting, cold-processing, acid etching and handling of the M5 blank was developed. By producing a prototype section, SCHOTT demonstrated its ability to manufacture the demanding features, including pockets 350 mm in depth, thin walls and sloped pocket bottoms. This paper outlines the results of the design work, processing concept and demonstrator fabrication.

  14. Panonychus from Georgia: survey, taxonomical status and redescription of P. hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) (Acari, Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Arabuli, Tea; Çobanoglu, Sultan; Auger, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Panonychus species was undertaken across Georgia from 2005 to 2014 on various host plants, revealing three species: Panonychus citri (McGregor, 1916), Panonychus hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) and Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836). New hosts for P. ulmi and P. citri are recorded, Buxus sempervirens, Hedera colchica and Prunus laurocerasus for P. ulmi and Ficus carica for P. citri, whereas P. hadzhibejliae was only found on F. carica. The newly collected material also allowed us to investigate the taxonomical status of P. hadzhibejliae. The comparison of P. hadzhibejliae with the two closely related species sampled in the survey, P. ulmi and P. citri, and with data of P. caricae found in the literature, shows that P. hadzhibejliae is a valid species. It can be separated from the three other Panonychus species without ambiguity especially using the female dorsal setae length in combination with the ratio between the length of the female dorsal opisthosomal f2 and h1 setae and the ratio between the palptarsal terminal eupathidium su and the related solenidion ω. A redescription of P. hadzhibejliae is provided including the male and some morphological characters, measurements and drawings of the female that were omitted in the original description. A key to the world species of Panonychus is also proposed. PMID:27395141

  15. Exposure to diflubenzuron results in an up-regulation of a chitin synthase 1 gene in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

  16. Effect of the administration of Solanum nigrum fruit on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to phenylephrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used in Asia to manage, control, and treat diabetes but there is no scientific evidence of the efficacy of Solanum nigrum fruit in treatment of diabetes. We designed this study to investigate the effect of the administration of oral doses of aqueous extract from Solanum nigrum fruit on plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and the sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to Phenylephrine in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Material/Methods Animals were divided into 5 groups (n=10): 2 groups served as non-diabetic controls (NDC), and the other groups had diabetes induced with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Solanum nigrum-treated chronic diabetic (CD-SNE) and Solanum nigrum-treated controls (ND-SNE) received 1g/l of Solanum nigrum added to drinking water for 8 weeks. The mesenteric vascular beds were prepared using the McGregor method. Results Administration of Solanum nigrum caused Ca/Mg ratio, plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations to return to normal levels, and was shown to decrease alteration in vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that Solanum nigrum could play a role in the management of diabetes and the prevention of vascular complications in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23660828

  17. Role of GABAB Receptor and L-Arg in GABA-Induced Vasorelaxation in Non-diabetic and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Rezaei, Sana; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Farsi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to determine the role of gamma amino butyric acid B (GABAB) receptor and L-arginine (L-Arg) in GABA-induced vasorelaxation in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat vessels. Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Eight weeks later, superior mesenteric arteries of all groups were isolated and perfused according to the McGregor method. Results: Baseline perfusion pressure of STZ diabetic rats was significantly higher than non-diabetic rats in both intact and denuded endothelium. In the presence of faclofen, a selective GABAB receptor blocker, GABA-induced relaxation in intact and denuded endothelium mesenteric beds of STZ diabetic rats was suppressed, but this response in non-diabetic rats was not suppressed. Our results showed that in the presence of L-Arg, a nitric oxide precursor, GABA induced vasorelaxation in both diabetic and non-diabetic vessels. Conclusion: From the results of this study, it may be concluded that the vasorelaxatory effect of GABA in diabetic vessel is mediated by the GABAB receptor and nitric oxide, but it seems that in non-diabetic vessel GABAB receptor does not play any role in GABA-induced vasorelaxation, but nitric oxide induced GABA relaxation in non-diabetic vessel. PMID:25864813

  18. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed. PMID:25524512

  19. Mites occurrence on Pachira aquatica Aubl. including aspects of external mouthpart morphology of Brachytydeus formosa (Acari: Tydeidae).

    PubMed

    Lorençon, J R; Andrade, S C; Andrade, D J

    2016-02-01

    Pachira aquatica Aubl. is commonly used as an ornamental plant in urban areas of Brazil. The objective of the study was to investigate the occurrence of mites on P. aquatica, with emphasis on Brachytydeus formosa (Cooreman), and to describe aspects the external features of its mouthpart. The study was conducted in 2012 in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Ten trees of P. aquatica were selected for the experiment. Approximately 130 leaflets were collected from each tree, which were located in different quadrants (north, south, east, and west) and strata (upper, middle, and lower). The leaflets were placed in paper bags and transported to the laboratory. The mites were prepared on optical microscope slides. A total of eleven species of mites were found, belonging to eight different families. The species and genera of the organisms included B. formosa, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), Agistemus sp., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781), Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), Brevipalpus sp., Cheletogenes sp., Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, Euseius sp., Neoseiulus sp., and only one specimen from the Bdellidae family. The predominant species was B. formosa, with 8,142 mites equally distributed among the four quadrants and mostly in the middle and upper strata of the plant. B. formosa mites from leaflets of P. aquatica were separated for the study of the external mouthpart morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:26871751

  20. DNA barcoding as a screening tool for cryptic diversity: an example from Caryocolum, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Peter; Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explore the potential value of DNA barcode divergence for species delimitation in the genus Caryocolum Gregor & Povolný, 1954 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), based on data from 44 European species (including 4 subspecies). Low intraspecific divergence of the DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (cytochrome c oxidase 1) gene and/or distinct barcode gaps to the nearest neighbor support species status for all examined nominal taxa. However, in 8 taxa we observed deep splits with a maximum intraspecific barcode divergence beyond a threshold of 3%, thus indicating possible cryptic diversity. The taxonomy of these taxa has to be re-assessed in the future. We investigated one such deep split in Caryocolum amaurella (Hering, 1924) and found it in congruence with yet unrecognized diagnostic morphological characters and specific host-plants. The integrative species delineation leads to the description of Caryocolum crypticum sp. n. from northern Italy, Switzerland and Greece. The new species and the hitherto intermixed closest relative C. amaurella are described in detail and adults and genitalia of both species are illustrated and a lectotype of C. amaurella is designated; a diagnostic comparison of the closely related C. iranicum Huemer, 1989, is added. PMID:24843272

  1. The perception of minimal structures: performance on open and closed versions of visually presented Euclidean travelling salesperson problems.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Douglas; Bovet, Pierre; Lee, Michael D; Hughes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The planar Euclidean version of the travelling salesperson problem (TSP) requires finding a tour of minimal length through a two-dimensional set of nodes. Despite the computational intractability of the TSP, people can produce rapid, near-optimal solutions to visually presented versions of such problems. To explain this, MacGregor et al (1999, Perception 28 1417-1428) have suggested that people use a global-to-local process, based on a perceptual tendency to organise stimuli into convex figures. We review the evidence for this idea and propose an alternative, local-to-global hypothesis, based on the detection of least distances between the nodes in an array. We present the results of an experiment in which we examined the relationships between three objective measures and performance measures of optimality and response uncertainty in tasks requiring participants to construct a closed tour or an open path. The data are not well accounted for by a process based on the convex hull. In contrast, results are generally consistent with a locally focused process based initially on the detection of nearest-neighbour clusters. Individual differences are interpreted in terms of a hierarchical process of constructing solutions, and the findings are related to a more general analysis of the role of nearest neighbours in the perception of structure and motion. PMID:12974572

  2. Evaluation of thermobarometers for garnet peridotites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnerty, A. A.; Boyd, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-one geothermometers and six geobarometers are evaluated for accuracy and precision for garnet lherzolites, with a suite of well-equilibrated xenoliths from kimberlites of northern Lesotho. Accuracy was tested by comparison of P-T estimates for a diamond-bearing and a graphite-bearing xenolith with the experimentally determined diamond-graphite univariant curve and by comparison of P-T estimates for phlogopite-bearing xenoliths to the high-temperature stability limit of phlogopite. Precision was evaluated by measuring the scatter of P-T estimates for each of four xenoliths from a wide range of P and T when many point analyses of the constituent minerals are used for P-T estimation. Most satisfactory is a thermobarometer composed of the uncorrected diopside-enstatite miscibility gap of Lindsley and Dixon (1976), combined with the uncorrected isopleths for aluminum in enstatite coexisting with pyrope of MacGregor (1974). The inflection observed in the northern Lesotho paleogeotherm cannot be an artifact of the method of temperature estimation.

  3. Conditional mutations in Drosophila melanogaster: On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of G. Mendel's report in Brünn.

    PubMed

    Chadov, Boris F; Fedorova, Nina B; Chadova, Eugenia V

    2015-01-01

    The basis for modern genetics was laid by Gregor Mendel. He proposed that traits belonging to the intraspecific variability class be studied. However, individuals of one species possess traits of another class. They are related to intraspecific similarity. Individuals never differ from each other in these traits. By analogy with traits varying within a species and determined by genes, it is conjectured that intraspecific similarity is determined by genes, too. If so, mutations in these genes can be obtained. This paper provides a review of works published in 2000-2014 that: (1) propose breeding methods for detection of mutations in Drosophila melanogaster genes that lead intraspecific similarity; these mutations were called conditional; (2) describe collections of conditional mutations in chromosomes X, 2, and 3 of Drosophila; (3) show unusual features of epigenetic nature in the mutants; and (4) analyze these features of the mutants. Based on the peculiarities of manifestation it is supposed that the recognized conditional mutations occur in genes responsible for intraspecific similarity. The genes presumably belong to the so-called regulatory network of the Drosophila genome. This approach expands the scope of breeding analysis introduced by G. Mendel for heredity studies 150 years ago. PMID:26281767

  4. Genetic networks and the flow of positional information in embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialek, William

    When we study a biological system, we make inferences about the underlying mechanisms and dynamics. But biological systems themselves must also solve inference problems, as when our brains draw conclusions about the world given (often quite limited) data from our eyes and ears. My colleagues and I have been exploring both of these inference problems as they play out in the first hours of development in the fruit fly embryo. In this system, the concentrations of particular molecules encode the position of each cell in the embryo, and these concentrations are the outputs of a genetic network. Putting ourselves in the place of the cells, we have been able to read the code, building a dictionary that maps gene expression levels back into estimates of position. If our dictionary really is the one used by the embryo, then mutants should build predictably distorted body plans, and preliminary results show quantitative agreement with these predictions. Independent of their role as carriers of information, we can also analyze the patterns of gene expression to draw inferences about the underlying network. Finally, it is possible that the network architecture and parameters have been chosen to optimize the flow of information, and we see signatures of this optimization. Joint work with CG Callan, JO Dubuis, T Gregor, D Krotov, M Petkova, TR Sokolowski, G Tkacik, AM Walczak, and EF Wieschaus.

  5. Effect of expertise acquisition on strategic perception: the example of chess.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Vincent; Didierjean, André; Marmèche, Evelyne

    2008-08-01

    The two experiments presented here study perceptual processes implemented by chess players in situations related to their domain of expertise. The aim was to determine how patterns are perceived as a function of their strategic value when players acquire expertise. In this study, conducted on novice and more experienced players, it is hypothesized that with acquisition of expertise players would quickly encode familiar patterns and then rapidly focus their attention on patterns with a higher immediate strategic value. In Experiment 1, participants had to carry out a change-detection task that used the "flicker paradigm". The results showed that during the perception of standard chess positions, experienced players--but not novices--quickly focused their attention on the most strategic patterns. In Experiment 2, experienced players and novices carried out a recognition task after having encoded chess positions for 1 or 5 s. The results indicated early encoding of familiar patterns without immediate strategic value, followed by the encoding of more strategic patterns. Taken together, the results of these two experiments are consistent with the results by both de Groot and Gobet (1996) and McGregor and Howes (2002) about the strategic content of Chase and Simon's chunks (Chase & Simon, 1973b). PMID:18938781

  6. How to Implement JITT - Just In Time Teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Carolina; Hay, Katrina

    2010-03-01

    Reforms in education and the desire to improve the quality of learning were the incentive to search for more efficient teaching strategies [1]. Here is presented Just In Time Teaching, JITT, which is an exciting methodology [2] intended to engage students by using feedback from pre-class web assignments. In this process the students are more in control of the learning process and they become more active and interested learners. Even though some examples from physics are presented, this method can be successfully implemented in almost all the fields. The implementation of this method at SUNY Oswego, and Pacific Lutheran University is discussed. [4pt] [1]John D. Bransford, Ann L. Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking - editors, How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning; National Research Council; National Academy Press 1999[0pt] [2] Gregor M. Novak, Evelyn T. Patterson, Andrew D. Gavrin and Wolfgang Christian, Just in Time Teaching -- Blending Active Learning with Web Technology, Prentice Hall Series in Educational Innovation, 1999.

  7. Cell theory, specificity, and reproduction, 1837-1870.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2010-09-01

    The cell is not only the structural, physiological, and developmental unit of life, but also the reproductive one. So far, however, this aspect of the cell has received little attention from historians and philosophers of biology. I will argue that cell theory had far-reaching consequences for how biologists conceptualized the reproductive relationships between germs and adult organisms. Cell theory, as formulated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, implied that this relationship was a specific and lawful one, that is, that germs of a certain kind, all else being equal, would produce adult organisms of the same kind, and vice versa. Questions of preformation and epigenesis took on a new meaning under this presupposition. The question then became one of whether cells could be considered as autonomous agents producing adult organisms of a given species, or whether they were the product of external, organizing forces and thus only a stage in the development of the whole organism. This question became an important issue for nineteenth-century biology. As I will demonstrate, it was the view of cells as autonomous agents which helped both Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel to think of inheritance as a lawful process. PMID:20934643

  8. Cell Theory, Specificity, and Reproduction, 1837–1870

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The cell is not only the structural, physiological, and developmental, but also the reproductive unit of life. So far, however, this aspect of the cell has received little attention by historians and philosophers of biology. I will argue that cell theory had far-reaching consequences for how biologists conceptualized the reproductive relationships between germs and adult organisms. Cell theory, as formulated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, implied that this relationship was a specific and lawful one, i.e. that germs of a certain kind, all else being equal, would produce adult organisms of the same kind, and vice versa. Questions of preformation and epigenesis took on a new meaning under this presupposition. The question now was whether cells could be considered as independent agents producing adult organisms of a given species, or whether they were the product of external, organizing forces and thus a stage in the development of the whole organism only. The question was an important one for nineteenth-century biology. As I will demonstrate, it was the view of cells as independent agents which helped both Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel to think of differential reproduction as a lawful process. PMID:20934643

  9. The Development of Genetics in the Light of Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions.

    PubMed

    Portin, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a paradigm is in the key position in Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. A paradigm is the framework within which the results, concepts, hypotheses and theories of scientific research work are understood. According to Kuhn, a paradigm guides the working and efforts of scientists during the time period which he calls the period of normal science. Before long, however, normal science leads to unexplained matters, a situation that then leads the development of the scientific discipline in question to a paradigm shift--a scientific revolution. When a new theory is born, it has either gradually emerged as an extension of the past theory, or the old theory has become a borderline case in the new theory. In the former case, one can speak of a paradigm extension. According to the present author, the development of modern genetics has, until very recent years, been guided by a single paradigm, the Mendelian paradigm which Gregor Mendel launched 150 years ago, and under the guidance of this paradigm the development of genetics has proceeded in a normal fashion in the spirit of logical positivism. Modern discoveries in genetics have, however, created a situation which seems to be leading toward a paradigm shift. The most significant of these discoveries are the findings of adaptive mutations, the phenomenon of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and, above all, the present deeply critical state of the concept of the gene. PMID:26392355

  10. It Doesn't Take a Rocket Scientist: Great Amateurs of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, John

    2002-10-01

    Did you know. . . . . . that the woman who discovered the largest and most complete T. rex fossil on record was a high-school dropout who became one of the world's greatest fossil hunters? . . . that the great British scientist Michael Faraday was the son of a blacksmith and had very little formal education? . . . that Gregor Mendel had time to study inherited traits in garden peas because he failed the test to qualify as a high school science teacher? This is just a small sampling of the many surprises you'll find in this enlightening survey of the mavericks, misfits, and unschooled investigators who have been responsible for some of the greatest scientific discoveries in history. It Doesn't Take a Rocket Scientist explains the achievements of each of these accomplished amateurs, describes how they approached their investigations, and discusses the impact of their discoveries. In these amazing and inspiring stories, you'll learn about: Grote Reber and the birth of radio astronomy Arthur C. Clarke's vision of communication satellites Joseph Priestley and the discovery of oxygen Felix d'Herelle's pinpointing of bacteriophages, killers of bacteria Thomas Jefferson and the science of archaeology You'll also discover which fields of science still offer great opportunities for modern amateurs eager to make a name for themselves. After all, it doesn't take a rocket scientist!

  11. Ricoseius loxocheles, a phytoseiid mite that feeds on coffee leaf rust.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cleber M; Ferreira, João A M; Oliveira, Rafael M; Santos, Francisco O; Pallini, Angelo

    2014-10-01

    One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the coffee red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae). Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are well-known for their potential to control herbivorous mites and insects, but they can also develop and reproduce on various other food sources, such as plant pathogenic fungi. In a field survey, we found Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the necrotic areas caused by the coffee leaf rust fungus during the reproductive phase of the pathogen. We therefore assessed the development, survivorship and reproduction of R. loxocheles feeding on coffee leaf rust fungus and measured predation and oviposition of this phytoseiid having coffee red mite as prey under laboratory conditions. The mite fed, survived, developed and reproduced successfully on this pathogen but it was not able to prey on O. ilicis. Survival and oviposition with only prey were the same as without food. This phytoseiid mite does not really use O. ilicis as food. It is suggested that R. loxocheles is one phytoseiid that uses fungi as a main food source. PMID:24744058

  12. Interview with Heribert Hirt.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Heribert

    2016-01-01

    As a son of an engineer who traveled widely during his career, Heribert Hirt began his life in the exotic country of Iran, before receiving his high-school education in Germany and then studying biochemistry at the University of Cape Town and then later at the University of Vienna, from where he received his PhD in 1987. He then worked as a postdoctoral fellow in Vienna, Oxford, and Wageningen, before starting his own group at the University of Vienna in 1993. It was also in Vienna that he became professor of genetics in 1997, followed by vice-director of the Gregor Mendel Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, and later head of the Plant Molecular Biology Department of the University of Vienna. In 2007, he decided that it was time for new challenges and accepted an appointment in France to direct the Paris-based INRA-CNRS Plant Genomics Institute for the following 7 years. In 2014, Heribert embarked on yet another challenge by accepting the role to head up the Center for Desert Agriculture at King Abdullah University of Sciences and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26686410

  13. Evolution of Genetic Techniques: Past, Present, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Asude Alpman; Karaca, Emin; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Cogulu, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is the study of heredity, which means the study of genes and factors related to all aspects of genes. The scientific history of genetics began with the works of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Prior to Mendel, genetics was primarily theoretical whilst, after Mendel, the science of genetics was broadened to include experimental genetics. Developments in all fields of genetics and genetic technology in the first half of the 20th century provided a basis for the later developments. In the second half of the 20th century, the molecular background of genetics has become more understandable. Rapid technological advancements, followed by the completion of Human Genome Project, have contributed a great deal to the knowledge of genetic factors and their impact on human life and diseases. Currently, more than 1800 disease genes have been identified, more than 2000 genetic tests have become available, and in conjunction with this at least 350 biotechnology-based products have been released onto the market. Novel technologies, particularly next generation sequencing, have dramatically accelerated the pace of biological research, while at the same time increasing expectations. In this paper, a brief summary of genetic history with short explanations of most popular genetic techniques is given. PMID:25874212

  14. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel. PMID:26873811

  15. From Mendel to epigenetics: History of genetics.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The origins of genetics are to be found in Gregor Mendel's memoir on plant hybridization (1865). However, the word 'genetics' was only coined in 1906, to designate the new science of heredity. Founded upon the Mendelian method for analyzing the products of crosses, this science is distinguished by its explicit purpose of being a general 'science of heredity', and by the introduction of totally new biological concepts (in particular those of gene, genotype, and phenotype). In the 1910s, Mendelian genetics fused with the chromosomal theory of inheritance, giving rise to what is still called 'classical genetics'. Within this framework, the gene is simultaneously a unit of function and transmission, a unit of recombination, and of mutation. Until the early 1950s, these concepts of the gene coincided. But when DNA was found to be the material basis of inheritance, this congruence dissolved. Then began the venture of molecular biology, which has never stopped revealing the complexity of the way in which hereditary material functions. PMID:27263362

  16. Description of Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov., a Novel Psychrotrophic Bacterium from James Ross Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kosina, Marcel; Švec, Pavel; Černohlávková, Jitka; Barták, Miloš; Snopková, Kateřina; De Vos, Paul; Sedláček, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    During the microbiological research performed within the scope of activities of Czech expeditions based at the Johann Gregor Mendel Station at James Ross Island, Antarctica, two psychrotrophic gram-stain negative non-fluorescent strains CCM 8506T and CCM 8507 from soil were extensively characterized using genotypic and phenotypic methods. Initial characterization using ribotyping with HindIII restriction endonuclease and phenotyping implies that both isolates belong to a single Pseudomonas species. Sequencing of rrs, rpoB, rpoD and glnA genes of strain CCM 8506(T) confirmed affiliation of investigated strains within the genus Pseudomonas. Further investigation using automated ribotyping with EcoRI (RiboPrinter(®) Microbial Characterisation System), whole-cell protein profiling using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer system, extensive biochemical testing and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both investigated strains are members of a single taxon which is clearly separated from all hitherto described Pseudomonas spp. Based on all findings, we describe a novel species Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov. with the type strain CCM 8506(T) (=LMG 28632T). PMID:27032403

  17. Emphasizing the History of Genetics in an Explicit and Reflective Approach to Teaching the Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Cody Tyler; Rudge, David Wÿss

    2016-05-01

    Science education researchers have long advocated the central role of the nature of science (NOS) for our understanding of scientific literacy. NOS is often interpreted narrowly to refer to a host of epistemological issues associated with the process of science and the limitations of scientific knowledge. Despite its importance, practitioners and researchers alike acknowledge that students have difficulty learning NOS and that this in part reflects how difficult it is to teach. One particularly promising method for teaching NOS involves an explicit and reflective approach using the history of science. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a historically based genetics unit on undergraduates' understanding of NOS. The three-class unit developed for this study introduces students to Mendelian genetics using the story of Gregor Mendel's work. NOS learning objectives were emphasized through discussion questions and investigations. The unit was administered to undergraduates in an introductory biology course for pre-service elementary teachers. The influence of the unit was determined by students' responses to the SUSSI instrument, which was administered pre- and post-intervention. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted that focused on changes in students' responses from pre- to post-test. Data collected indicated that students showed improved NOS understanding related to observations, inferences, and the influence of culture on science.

  18. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  19. Distribution of Amblydromalus limonicus in northeastern Spain and diversity of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in tomato and other vegetable crops after its introduction.

    PubMed

    Chorąży, Alicja; Kropczyńska-Linkiewicz, Danuta; Sas, Daniel; Escudero-Colomar, Lucia-Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman and McGregor) was detected for the first time in 2011 on tomatoes of several locations of the northeastern Spain. During 2012 and 2013 samplings on tomato crop cultivars in the two provinces of Catalonia where the species was found were carried out. The goals of the study were to know the range of spread of the species in these two provinces, its abundance in tomato cultivars, non-crop vegetation among them, in the different parts of the tomato plant and in some other vegetable crops. Results showed that A. limonicus was present at both regions sampled, although there were significant differences in the abundance of the species between sampling points. It is the second in abundance in tomato and the cultivars that most frequently host A. limonicus were Anaidis, Hybrid and Marmande. No significant differences were found in the abundance of A. limonicus among tomato plant canopy strata. On average, it accounted for 31.6 % of all sampled phytoseiids. It was present in four crops (tomato, bean, cucumber and strawberry) and in Amaranthus cruentus, Chenopodium polyspermum, Cynodon dactylon, Mentha sp., Parietaria officinalis and Phleum pratense. Amblydromalus limonicus is well established in the extreme northeast of Spain all year round in crops and non-crops. PMID:27193216

  20. Fanniidae (Diptera): new synonym, new records and an updated key to males of European species of Fannia

    PubMed Central

    Barták, Miroslav; Preisler, Jiří; Kubík, Štěpán; Šuláková, Hana; Sloup, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on revision of large recent collections of the authors, the following five species are first recorded from the Czech Republic: Fannia collini d’Assis-Fonseca, 1966 (simultaneously first record in Central Europe), Fannia lugubrina (Zetterstedt, 1838), Fannia melania (Dufour, 1839), Fannia slovaca Gregor & Rozkošný, 2005, and Fannia brinae Albuquerque, 1951 (simultaneously first record from low altitudes). Another species, Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, is first recorded from Slovak Republic, and Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) is first recorded from Kazakhstan. An updated key to males of European species of Fannia is presented. A list of Czech and Slovak Fanniidae is appended. One new synonym is established: Fannia lucida Chillcott, 1961 is considered junior synonym of Fannia norvegica Ringdahl, 1934. Altogether two species are first recorded from Bohemia [Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) and Fannia vespertilionis Ringdahl, 1934] and three for Moravia [Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, Fannia conspecta Rudzinski, 2003, and Fannia limbata (Tiensuu, 1938) – this species considered in Central Europe very rare was found in numbers near waters both running and standing in early spring under unusually warm temperature conditions]. PMID:27408553

  1. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, H; Kozłowska, H

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant properties of water and 80% methanolic extracts of cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Almari and cv. Henika, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Gregor and cv. Mobek, rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. Dańkowskie Zlote, oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Slawko and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cv. Kora were used. PC (L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) liposome system and spectrophotometric assay of total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts. Among the water extracts, only the one prepared from buckwheat exhibited antioxidant activity at the concentration analyzed. The following hierarchy of antioxidant activity was provided for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grain: buckwheat > barley > oat > wheat congruent with rye. The antioxidant activity was observed in extract prepared from separated parts of buckwheat and barley. In respect to hulls, the antioxidant hierarchy was as follows: buckwheat > oat > barley. The correlation coefficient between total phenolic compounds and total antioxidative activity of the extracts was -0.35 for water extracts and 0.96, 0.99, 0.80, and 0.99 for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grains, hulls, pericarb with testa fractions and endosperm with embryo fractions, respectively. PMID:10888490

  2. Numerical Simulations Of The Impact Of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9: Plume Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palotai, Csaba J.; Korycansky, D.; Deming, D.; Harrington, J.; Reese, C.

    2007-10-01

    We present results of our three-dimensional, hydrodynamic simulations of the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) into the atmosphere of Jupiter. In the current phase of the research we focus on the plume blowout and splashback phases of the SL9 event. We have modified the Zeus-MP/2 model (Hayes et al. 2006) to be suitable for our investigation, adding a Jovian atmospheric profile, Tillotson equation of state for the impactor, and the Coriolis terms. As an initial condition of our high-resolution simulations we use the energy deposition profile taken from the SL9 impact modeling of Korycansky et al. (2006). The effects of the Coriolis force during the shockwave propagation are tested through sensitivity tests. The viscosity in the splash model is adjusted until the outer part of the plume re-entry shock matches the expanding infrared rings (McGregor et al. 1996). The molecular viscosity being well-known, this will place a strong constraint on the Jovian eddy viscosity. We add radiative terms from previous 2D splash calculation of Deming and Harrington (2001) to allow us to calculate realistic wavelength-dependent lightcurves and low-resolution spectra for direct comparison to data. This work is supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. 0307638 and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. NNG 04GQ35G.

  3. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matioli, André L; Pallini, Angelo; Tavares, Mara G

    2009-01-01

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifi cations were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute (+/- 360 microm long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the first molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. PMID:19488517

  4. Modelling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery

    PubMed Central

    St-Louis, Véronique; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Radeloff, Volker C.; Clayton, Murray K.; Locke, Brian A.; Bash, Dallas; Hostert, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing for biodiversity conservation typically rely on image classifications that do not capture variability within coarse land cover classes. Here, we compare two measures derived from unclassified remotely sensed data, a measure of habitat heterogeneity and a measure of habitat composition, for explaining bird species richness and the spatial distribution of 10 species in a semi-arid landscape of New Mexico. We surveyed bird abundance from 1996 to 1998 at 42 plots located in the McGregor Range of Fort Bliss Army Reserve. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values of two May 1997 Landsat scenes were the basis for among-pixel habitat heterogeneity (image texture), and we used the raw imagery to decompose each pixel into different habitat components (spectral mixture analysis). We used model averaging to relate measures of avian biodiversity to measures of image texture and spectral mixture analysis fractions. Measures of habitat heterogeneity, particularly angular second moment and standard deviation, provide higher explanatory power for bird species richness and the abundance of most species than measures of habitat composition. Using image texture, alone or in combination with other classified imagery-based approaches, for monitoring statuses and trends in biological diversity can greatly improve conservation efforts and habitat management. PMID:24733952

  5. Lip Reconstruction after Tumor Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimi, Azin; Kazemi, Mohammad; Shams, Amin; Hashemzadeh, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25% of all oral cavity carcinomas involve the lips, and the primary management of these lesions is complete surgical resection. Loss of tissue in the lips after resection is treated with a variety of techniques, depending on the extension and location of the defect. Here we review highly accepted techniques of lip reconstruction and some of new trials with significant clinical results. Reconstruction choice is primarily depend to size of the defect, localization of defect, elasticity of tissues. But patient’s age, comorbidities, and motivation are also important. According to the defect location and size, different reconstruction methods can be used. For defects involved less than 30% of lips, primary closures are sufficient. In defects with 35–70% lip involvement, the Karapandzic, Abbe, Estlander, McGregor or Gillies’ fan flaps or their modifications can be used. When lip remaining tissues are insufficient, cheek tissue can be used in Webster and Bernard advancement flaps and their various modifications. Deltopectoral or radial forearm free flaps can be options for large defects of the lip extending to the Jaws. To achieve best functional and esthetic results, surgeons should be able to choose most appropriate reconstruction method. Considering defects’ size and location, patients’ expects and surgeon’s ability and knowledge, a variety of flaps are presented in order to reconstruct defects resulted from tumor ablation. It’s necessary for surgeons to trace the recent innovations in lip reconstruction to offer best choices to patients. PMID:27308236

  6. Spin-down Dynamics of Magnetized Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglethorpe, R. L. F.; Garaud, P.

    2013-12-01

    It has long been known that solar-type stars undergo significant spin-down, via magnetic braking, during their main-sequence lifetimes. However, magnetic braking only operates on the surface layers; it is not yet completely understood how angular momentum is transported within the star and how rapidly the spin-down information is communicated to the deep interior. In this work, we use insight from recent progress in understanding internal solar dynamics to model the interior of other solar-type stars. We assume, following Gough & McIntyre, that the bulk of the radiation zone of these stars is held in uniform rotation by the presence of an embedded large-scale primordial field, confined below a stably stratified, magnetic-free tachocline by large-scale meridional flows downwelling from the convection zone. We derive simple equations to describe the response of this model interior to spin-down of the surface layers, which are identical to the two-zone model of MacGregor & Brenner, with a coupling timescale proportional to the local Eddington-Sweet timescale across the tachocline. This timescale depends both on the rotation rate of the star and on the thickness of the tachocline, and it can vary from a few hundred thousand years to a few Gyr, depending on stellar properties. Qualitative predictions of the model appear to be consistent with observations, although they depend sensitively on the assumed functional dependence of the tachocline thickness on the stellar rotation rate.

  7. Characterization of optical turbulence at the solar observatory at the Mount Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Optical turbulence represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn2 is regarded as one of the chief causes of image degradation of ground-based astronomical telescopes operating in visible or infrared wavebands. Especially, it affects the attainable spatial resolution. Therefore since the middle of September 2012 the optical turbulence has been monitored between two German solar telescopes at the Observatory in Tenerife /Canary Islands /Spain. It comprises the solar telescope GREGOR and the vacuum tower telescope VTT mounted on two 30 m high towers. Between the two towers at the level of the telescopes, Cn2 was measured using a Laser-Scintillometer SLS40 (Scintec, Rottenburg, Germany). The horizontal distance of the measurement path was 75 m. The first results of the measurements starting from the 15th September 2012 up to the end of December 2012 are presented and analyzed using simultaneous measured meteorological data of wind, temperature and humidity. Daily and seasonal variations are shown and discussed.

  8. The development of locomotor coordination: longitudinal change and invariance.

    PubMed

    Roberton, M A; Halverson, L E

    1988-09-01

    Developmental sequence, relative timing, center of gravity, and phase-plane analyses were used to study a minimum of 15 years of longitudinal, filmed data on the development of hopping in 7 children. The developmental sequences revealed common, qualitative changes in the movement of the children, although each child progressed through the changes at his/her own rate. The timing analyses showed that, in the advanced hop, the tightest limb relationships were found within the hopping leg, then between contralateral limbs of the same girdle, and then between legs and arms. Relative-timing calculations revealed (a) intralimb, timing invariances that were present in first attempts to perform the skill at age 3 and remained for 15 years across all developmental levels; (b) emergent, interlimb timings that gradually became invariant; and (c) intra- and interlimb timing showing gradual development over the 15 years. One invariant, the time between landing and deepest knee flexion, is also invariant in the walk and the run (Shapiro, Zernicke, Gregor, & Diestel, 1981). Phase plane analyses indicated that the timing of peak and zero velocities may be the coordinative constant accounting for a relative timing invariance between the two legs. Position of the body's center of gravity may explain the invariant relative time between landing and deepest knee flexion, or the explanation could lie in the "equation of constraint" regulating joint equilibrium points. The data suggest that modeling the developing hop as the evolving interaction of four vibratory systems would be promising. PMID:15078621

  9. An intergrative factor analysis of leadership measures and theories.

    PubMed

    Sweney, A B; Fiechtner, L A; Samores, R J

    1975-05-01

    Since the instruments for measuring most of the current leadership models have never been reconciled, it is important that the relationships between them be clearly understood before assumptions of similarity are made. A sample of 103 male working students were given a battery of tests measuring leadership orientations. The tests included role preference and role pressure measures from Sweney's Response to Power Model, the California F Scale, Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale and Assumed Similarity Between Opposites Scale, Costley and Downey's six scales to measure McGregor's "Theory X" and "Theory Y" constructs, modified scales for the Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid, and relevant scales from the 16 PF. The results were intercorrelated and yielded 11 varimax factors based upon a Guttman criterion, as follows: Authoritarian Role Preferance, Authoritarian Role Pressure, Equalitarian Role Preferance, Equalitarian Role Pressure, Balanced Manager, People Oriented Manager, Assumed Similarity Between Opposites, Contemptuous Indulgence, Supportive Values, People Tolerance, and Organizational Tolerance. The instruments measuring authoritarianism loaded the first factor in the right direction, but most of them had their primary loadings elsewhere, suggesting greater conceptual complexity to this area than previously recognized. PMID:1151904

  10. Against UNESCO: Gedda, Gini and American scientific racism.

    PubMed

    Cassata, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on the ideological, institutional and intellectual connections between Italian eugenics and American scientific racism, from 1953 to 1967. The paper pays special attention to the scientific links between fascist demographer Corrado Gini (the first president of the Italian Central Statistical Institute - Istat), and geneticist Luigi Gedda (the president of the Gregor Mendel Institute in Rome and head of the Catholic political association Azione Cattolica) on the one hand, and on the other, the members of the IAAEE (International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics) and their journal, "The Mankind Quarterly". Corrado Gini and Luigi Gedda were both members of the honorary advisory board of "The Mankind Quarterly", and Gini was also assistant editor in 1962. Despite the theoretical differences between the "neo-Lamarckians" Gini and Gedda, and the "Mendelians" Robert Gayre and Reginald Ruggles Gates--editor and associate editor of "The Mankind Quarterly"--the relationship grew stronger because of a sort of strategic alliance in the ideological fight against UNESCO's Statements on Race. The main source of the paper is Corrado Gini's personal archive, deposited in Rome at the National State Archive (ACS). PMID:19848223

  11. COSMIC INHERITANCE RULES: IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE AND SCIENCE.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Katinas, G S; Watanabe, Y; Siegelová, J

    2010-01-01

    Countering the trend in specialization, we advocate the trans-disciplinary monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate for signatures of environmental cyclic and other variabilities in space as well as terrestrial weather on the one hand, and for surveillance of personal and societal health on the other hand. New rules (if confirmed novel laws) emerge as we recognize our inheritance from the cosmos of cycles that constitute and characterize life and align them with inheritance from parents. In so doing, we happen to follow the endeavors of Gregor Mendel, who recognized the segregation and independent assortment of what became known as genes. Circadians, rhythms with periods, τ, between 20 and 28 hours, and cycles with frequencies that are higher (ultradian) or lower (infradian) than circadian, are genetically anchored. An accumulating long list of very important but aeolian (nonstationary) infradian cycles, characterizing the incidence patterns of sudden cardiac death, suicide and terrorism, with drastically different τs, constitutes the nonphotic (corpuscular emission from the sun, heliogeomagnetics, ultraviolet flux, gravitation) Cornélissen-series. PMID:21603087

  12. A search for Potential Impact Sites in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, M. C. L.

    The Southern part of Argentina is composed of five Provinces; Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro and Neuquen. A search for potential impact sites was performed by the author through the examination of 76 color LANDSAT satellite images ( 1:250,000 - resolution = 250 meters ) at the Instituto Geografico Militar ( IGM ) of Buenos Aires city. When a potential candidate was found a more detailed study of the site was done. If available the radar X-SAR satellite images of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, (DLR), Berlin, Germany , were also examined. The final step was to perform a review of the available published geologic information of each site at the Servicio Geologico y Minero Argentino ( SEGEMAR ), ( =Geological Survey of Argentina ), in Buenos Aires. The resulting catalogue contains information about sites where possible simple crater or complex impact structures could be present. Each case demands future detailed and `in situ' research by an impact cratering specialist. --Tierra del Fuego: TF1 ) Ushuaia 5569-II, No 218. Cerro Taarsh, Estancia San Justo. Possible complex structure. Semi-circular area of concentric low ridges. Estimated diameter : 12 km. Probably very eroded. --Santa Cruz: SC1 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Estancia La Aragonesa Possible eroded complex structure. Circular area of low ridges, estimated diameter: 10 km.. Bull's eye like morphology. SC2 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Gran Altiplanicie Central. Possible simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1 km.. SC3 ) Tres Lagos 4972-IV, No 106. Meseta del Bagual Chico. Possible perfectly circular simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1.0 km.. SC4 )Paso Rio Bote 5172-II, No 20. Rio Pelque, Ruta Provincial No 5. A circular bowl-shaped structure is present on fluvial deposits of pleistocenic age. Diameter: 3.5 km.. SC5 ) Caleta Olivia 4769-II, No 28. North of Cerro Doce Grande. Possible complex structure of concentric circular rings of ridges. SC6 ) Caleta

  13. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-03-15

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria z ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [Spanish] Los efectos residuales en poblaciones de la 'arana roja', Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichidae) y de los acaros predadores

  14. Lithological and structural controls for glacial valley development in the Valais, Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, P. G.; Herman, F.; Champagnac, J.-D.

    2009-04-01

    Quaternary glaciations affected most modern mountain ranges and shaped glacial landscapes including U-shaped valleys, overdeepenings, cirques and ridgelines. Glacial valley formation has been explained using qualitative morphometric evidence or small-scale models (e.g., MacGregor et al., 2000); however glacial erosion rates and the timing of glacial valley formation are presently poorly understood. Glacial erosion is often approximated by scaling erosion rates to the basal sliding velocity of ice (e.g., Herman and Braun, 2008); and several studies show that the faster erosion occurs at the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA, e.g., Anderson et al., 2006). Furthermore it has been proposed that lithology and structural control influence glacial erosion (Harbor, 1995). The Valais in the Swiss Alps is an ideal natural laboratory to better understand these issues. This area is mainly drained by the Rhône valley, a large and overdeepened U-shaped valley; with several high relief transverse valleys. The geology of the area is contrasted, most transverse valleys cut into Penninic metamorphic rocks, whereas the Rhône valley lies mainly on soft Mesozoic sedimentary sequences, highly fracturated by the long-lived Rhône-Simplon fault zone (e.g., Hubbard and Mancktelow, 1992; Champagnac et al., 2003). This context is thus ideal to test potential lithological and/or structural controls on glacial valley formation. We used a 2D numerical model (Herman and Braun, 2008) that is calibrated using the sediment budget record since the Last Glacial Maximum (Hinderer, 2001), LGM ice-surface geometry (Kelly et al., 2004), and field observations. We first explore the effects of initial topographic conditions on the computed erosion patterns. Using a uniform lithology, the predicted glacial erosion patterns do not enable explaining the contrast between the overdeepened Rhône valley and its lateral tributaries. Lithological dependent erosion law is therefore necessary to explain these spatial

  15. Comparative toxicity of an acetogenin-based extract and commercial pesticides against citrus red mite.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Vendramim, José Djair; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenins, a class of natural compounds produced by some Annonaceae species, are potent inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport systems. Although the cellular respiration processes are an important biochemical site for the acaricidal action of compounds, few studies have been performed to assess the bioactivity of acetogenin-based biopesticides on spider mites, mainly against species that occur in orchards. Using residual contact bioassays, this study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of an ethanolic extract from Annona mucosa seeds (ESAM) (Annonaceae) against the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), an important pest of the Brazilian citriculture. ESAM is a homemade biopesticide which was previously characterized by its high concentration of acetogenins. It caused both high mortality of P. citri females (LC50 = 7,295, 4,662, 3,463, and 2,608 mg l(-1), after 48, 72, 96, and 120 h of exposure, respectively) and significant oviposition deterrence (EC50 = 3.194,80 mg l(-1)). However, there was no effect on P. citri female fertility (hatching rate). In addition, the ESAM efficacy (in terms of its LC90) was compared with commercial acaricides/insecticides (at its recommended rate) of both natural [Anosom(®) 1 EC (annonin), Derisom(®) 2 EC (karanjin), and Azamax(®) 1.2 EC (azadirachtin + 3-tigloylazadirachtol)] and synthetic origin [Envidor(®) 24 SC (spirodiclofen)]. Based on all of the analyzed variables, the ESAM exhibited levels of activity superior to other botanical commercial acaricides and similar to spirodiclofen. Thus, our results indicate that ESAM may constitute a biorational acaricide for citrus red mite integrated pest management in Brazilian citrus orchards, particularly for local use. PMID:24696362

  16. Clinical significance of changes in pB-C2 distance in patients with Chiari Type I malformations following posterior fossa decompression: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Phillip A; Maurer, Adrian J; Cheema, Ahmed A; Duong, Quyen; Glenn, Chad A; Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Stoner, Julie A; Mapstone, Timothy B

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT The coexistence of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) and ventral brainstem compression (VBSC) has been well documented, but the change in VBSC after posterior fossa decompression (PFD) has undergone little investigation. In this study the authors evaluated VBSC in patients with CM-I and determined the change in VBSC after PFD, correlating changes in VBSC with clinical status and the need for further intervention. METHODS Patients who underwent PFD for CM-I by the senior author from November 2005 to January 2013 with complete radiological records were included in the analysis. The following data were obtained: objective measure of VBSC (pB-C2 distance); relationship of odontoid to Chamberlain's, McGregor's, McRae's, and Wackenheim's lines; clival length; foramen magnum diameter; and basal angle. Statistical analyses were performed using paired t-tests and a mixed-effects ANOVA model. RESULTS Thirty-one patients were included in the analysis. The mean age of the cohort was 10.0 years. There was a small but statistically significant increase in pB-C2 postoperatively (0.5 mm, p < 0.0001, mixed-effects ANOVA). Eleven patients had postoperative pB-C2 values greater than 9 mm. The mean distance from the odontoid tip to Wackenheim's line did not change after PFD, signifying postoperative occipitocervical stability. No patients underwent transoral odontoidectomy or occipitocervical fusion. No patients experienced clinical deterioration after PFD. CONCLUSIONS The increase in pB-C2 in patients undergoing PFD may occur as a result of releasing the posterior vector on the ventral dura, allowing it to relax posteriorly. This increase appears to be well-tolerated, and a postoperative pB-C2 measurement of more than 9 mm in light of stable craniocervical metrics and a nonworsened clinical examination does not warrant further intervention. PMID:26613273

  17. Biphasic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit aqueous extract on vascular mesenteric beds in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Asia, Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used to manage, control, and treat diabetes. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the endothelium and nitric oxide roles in Solanum nigrum-induced vasorelaxation in non-diabetic and diabetic rat vessels. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin. Eight weeks later, superior mesenteric arteries of non-diabetic and diabetic groups were isolated and perfused according to the McGregor method. Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNE) at concentrations of 0.00001 to 0.6 mg/ml was added to the medium and perfusion pressure was recorded. Results: Baseline perfusion pressure of diabetic group was significantly higher than non-diabetic rats in both intact and denuded endothelium. The low concentrations of SNE have vasodilatory effect in the diabetic and non-diabetic, but high concentrations of SNE produce initial significant contractions, followed by secondary relaxations in normal and diabetic rats. We observed vasorelaxation at low and high concentrations of SNE in both diabetic and non-diabetic groups after endothelium denudation. SNE-induced vasorelaxation in diabetic group is mediated by both endothelium and smooth muscle, but the relaxatory effect of SNE in non-diabetic group is not mediated by endothelium, and SNE has direct action on the smooth muscle. Conclusion: Although the part of SNE-induced relaxation in diabetic vessel was mediated by endothelium, nitric oxide didn’t play any role in this action, and maybe we can use SNE in the management of diabetes vessel complications in future. PMID:24761120

  18. Optical Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, Dmitry; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson

    2013-03-01

    Part I. Principles and Techniques: 1. General principles and characteristics of optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, E. B. Alexandrov and D. Budker; 2. Quantum noise in atomic magnetometers M. V. Romalis; 3. Quantum noise, squeezing, and entanglement in radio-frequency optical magnetometers K. Jensen and E. S. Polzik; 4. Mx and Mz magnetometers E. B. Alexandrov and A. K. Vershovskiy; 5. Spin-exchange-relaxation-free (serf) magnetometers I. Savukov and S. J. Seltzer; 6. Optical magnetometry with modulated light D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. Pustelny, V. V. Yashchuk and D. Budker; 7. Microfabricated atomic magnetometers S. Knappe and J. Kitching; 8. Optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, P. R. Hemmer, J. R. Maze and R. L. Walsworth; 9. Magnetometry with cold atoms W. Gawlik and J. M. Higbie; 10. Helium magnetometers R. E. Slocum, D. D. McGregor and A. W. Brown; 11. Surface coatings for atomic magnetometry S. J. Seltzer, M.-A. Bouchiat and M. V. Balabas; 12. Magnetic shielding V. V. Yashchuk, S.-K. Lee and E. Paperno; Part II. Applications: 13. Remote detection magnetometry S. M. Rochester, J. M. Higbie, B. Patton, D. Budker, R. Holzlöhner and D. Bonaccini Calia; 14. Detection of nuclear magnetic resonance with atomic magnetometers M. P. Ledbetter, I. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer and D. Budker; 15. Space magnetometry B. Patton, A. W. Brown, R. E. Slocum and E. J. Smith; 16. Detection of biomagnetic fields A. Ben-Amar Baranga, T. G. Walker and R. T. Wakai; 17. Geophysical applications M. D. Prouty, R. Johnson, I. Hrvoic and A. K. Vershovskiy; Part III. Broader Impact: 18. Tests of fundamental physics with optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. K. Lamoreaux and T. E. Chupp; 19. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscopes E. A. Donley and J. Kitching; 20. Commercial magnetometers and their application D. C. Hovde, M. D. Prouty, I. Hrvoic and R. E. Slocum; Index.

  19. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae), by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ling Lan; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Campbell, James F; Yang, Ping Shih; Chen, Chien Chung; Lu, Chiu Tung

    2009-06-01

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of larvae of a domesticated line of the green lacewing, Mallada basalis (Walker), in no-choice tests with different life stages of these two mite pests. After a period of prey deprivation, all three larval instars of M. basalis exhibited a high rate of acceptance of all life stages of both T. kanzawai and P. citri. In 2-h trials, second- and third-instar predators foraged actively most of the time, whereas first instars spent approximately 40% of the time at rest. Consumption increased and prey handling time decreased as predator life stage advanced and prey stage decreased. Third-instar lacewings consumed an average of 311.4 T. kanzawai eggs (handling time: 6.7 s/egg) and 68.2 adults (handling time: 58.8 s/adult), whereas first instars consumed 19.6 eggs (handling time: 23.6 s/egg) and 4.0 adults (handling time: 633.4 s/adult). M. basalis generally consumed more P. citri than T. kanzawai. Except for prey eggs, handling times of T. kanzawai were generally longer than those of P. citri by all M. basalis instars. Handling times were shorter, and consumption were greater, at the higher P. citri density than at the lower one, whereas there were generally no significant differences in prey acceptability and foraging time between those two densities. This study suggests that M. basalis larvae may have high potential for augmentative biological control of mites on papayas. PMID:19508780

  20. Occurrence of pore-filling halite in carbonate rocks, Nesson Anticline, Williston basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    Clear, colorless pore-filling halite of late diagenetic origin occurs locally in the Devonian Dawson Bay, Winnipegosis, and Ashern Formations, the Silurian Interlake Formation, and the Ordovician Red River Formation. The halite occludes a variety of pore types and individual pores are filled with single crystals or aggregates of only a few crystals. This halite is present in quantities ranging from a trace to approximately 12%. Cores from McGregor field, Williams County, show the Winnipegosis Formation consists of mixed-skeletal lime wackestones and mudstones. These contain vugs up to 4 in. (10 cm) in size, intraparticle pores, and shelter porosity within pelecypod shells, up to 4 in. (10 cm) in size, which are occluded with halite. Halite also fills common small discontinuous vertical fractures. The upper 200 ft (61 m) of the Interlake Formation locally exhibits the most striking occurrences of pore-filling halite. These dolostones consist predominantly of intraclast-peloid mudstones, wackestones, packstones, occasional grainstones, algal boundstones, and solution-collapse breccias containing vug, fenestral, interparticle, shelter, intercrystalline, moldic, channel, breccia, and fracture porosity types. All porosity types, except intercrystalline, can be halite filled. A rare occurrence of pore-filling halite exists in Red River cores from Blue Buttes field, McKenzie County, where a dolomitic, mixed-skeletal, lime mudstone and wackestone lithofacies contains vugs, discontinuous vertical fractures, and intraparticle porosity types occluded with halite. In most occurrences, the pore systems were noneffective prior to halite infilling and had no potential as hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, it has been demonstrated that halite plugging in the Interlake Formation has locally formed updip seals to hydrocarbon migration.

  1. The use of the cannibalistic habit and elevated relative humidity to improve the storage and shipment of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using the cannibalistic habits of the mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and controlling the relative humidity (RH) to prolong the survival time during the storage or shipment of this predatory mite. Three-day-old mated and unmated females were individually kept at 25 ± 1 °C in polypropylene vials (1.5 mL), each containing one of the following items or combinations of items: a kidney bean leaf disk (L), N. californicus eggs (E), and both a leaf disk and the eggs (LE). Because the leaf disk increased the RH in the vials, the RH was 95 ± 2 % under the L and LE treatments and 56 ± 6 % under the E treatment. The median lethal time (LT50) exceeded 50 days for the mated and unmated females under the LE treatment. However, it did not exceed 11 or 3 days for all females under the L or E treatments, respectively. Under the LE treatment, the mated and unmated females showed cannibalistic behavior and consumed an average of 5.2 and 4.6 eggs/female/10 days. Some of the females that survived for LT50 under each treatment were transferred and fed normally with a constant supply of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Unmated females were provided with adult males for 24 h for mating. Only females previously kept at LE treatment produced numbers of eggs equivalent to the control females (no treatment is applied). The results suggested that a supply of predator eggs and leaf material might have furnished nutrition and water vapor, respectively, and that this combination prolonged the survival time of N. californicus during storage. Moreover, this approach poses no risk of pest contamination in commercial products. PMID:27059865

  2. Male 11-ketotestosterone levels change as a result of being watched in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Eklund, Amy C; Rowland, William J

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of nesting status and the presence of an audience on 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels in male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Prior studies have demonstrated that both nesting status, an indicator of territory-holding power and reproductive state, and the sex of a conspecific audience lead to differences in male behavior during aggressive encounters. Since behavioral changes have already been demonstrated, we chose to investigate whether 11KT levels were also influenced by nesting status and audience presence as 11KT both stimulates, and is stimulated by, reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male teleosts. Male 11KT levels were measured from water samples taken from containers holding fish both before and after interaction. Males interacted under three treatment conditions: no audience, female audience, and male audience. Within these treatments were two nest paradigms: both males had nests or neither male had a nest. 11KT levels varied depending on nesting status and audience type. In general, 11KT levels were lower in interacting males when a female audience was present or when males had nests. Overall, 11KT showed increases or decreases as aggression increased or decreased, as shown by already established behavioral findings [see Dzieweczynski T.L., Green T.M., Earley R.L., Rowland W.J., 2005. Audience effect is context dependent in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Behav. Ecol. 16, 1025-1030; Doutrelant, C., McGregor, P.K., Oliveira, R.F., 2001. Effect of an audience on intrasexual communication in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Behav. Ecol. 12, 283-286.]. Our results suggest that 11KT levels are influenced by reproductive status, as indicated by nest ownership, and audience presence and are most likely modulated by territorial behavior and social environment. PMID:16473353

  3. Complex reconstruction of the dorsal hand using the induced membrane technique associated with bone substitute: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Guillier, David; Rizzi, Philippe; De Taddeo, Alice; Henault, Benoit; Tchurukdichian, Alain; Zwetyenga, Narcisse

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High-energy trauma of the hand often causes tissue loss involving bone, tendon and skin and is sometimes accompanied by devascularization of digits. Bone stabilization is the first step in the management of such injuries. Materials and methods A young patient presented composite tissue loss of the dorsum of his right (dominant) hand following an accident with a surface planer. Tissue loss involved the diaphyses of the first 4 metacarpals, tendons and skin with almost complete amputation of the 3rd finger. Bone stabilization comprised osteosynthesis using pins associated with cement to fill the bone defect. Hunter tendon rods were used for tendon repair and a pedicle groin flap (McGregor) was used to achieve skin coverage. The cement was replaced with autologous cortico-cancellous bone graft combined with bone paste (Nanostim) 3 months after the cement stabilization. Results Eleven months after the accident, the patient was able to return to work as a carpenter. Pinch and Grasp strength in the injured hand were half that in the contralateral hand, but there was no loss of sensitivity. Mobility was very satisfactory with a Kapandji score of 9 and a mean TAM of 280°. The patient can write, open a bottle and does not feel limited for everyday activities. Radiographically, the bone of the 3 reconstructed metacarpals appears consolidated. Conclusion The induced membrane technique allowed the reconstruction of small bone deficits in the long bones of the hand in a two-step procedure, the first step taking place in an emergency context of composite tissue trauma. PMID:27077131

  4. Comments on Evaluation of thermobarometers for garnet peridotites' by A. A. Finnerty and F. R. Boyd

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, J. )

    1992-02-01

    In order to evaluate the accuracy of a given combination of thermo-barometer, Finnerty and Boyd (1984) calculated the P-T conditions of two control samples of garnet lherzolite xenoliths, namely BD 2125 and PHN 1569. The importance of the samples lies in the fact that BD 2125 is diamond bearing, whereas PHN 1569 is graphite bearing. The alumina solubility in orthopyroxene (OPx) coexisting with garnet (Gt) is sensitive to both pressure and temperature changes and has thus been used widely, in combination with various geothermometers, for the thermo-barometry of garnet lherzolite xenoliths. Finnerty and Boyd (1984) concluded that the experimental calibrations of alumina solubility in OPx by Akella (1976) and Lane and Ganguly (1980) are as precise as, but probably less accurate than MC74 barometer,' where MC74 referred to the experimental calibration of alumina solubility in OPx by McGregor (1974) in the system MgSiO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (MAS) based on synthesis experiments from glass of appropriate compositions. This conclusion on the accuracy of the above barometers was based on their observation that the use of only MC74 placed the calculated P-T conditions of the control samples in the right field with respect to the diamond-graphite equilibrium boundary, while those of Akella (1976; AK76) and Lane and Ganguly (1980; LG80) yielded P-T conditions that did not exactly satisfy the latter constraint, but were within 2 kb of the phase boundary. While it is clear from thermodynamic considerations that an unambiguous test of the accuracy of the calibrations cannot be carried out without making corrections for the effects of the additional components which are present in the natural samples but not in the experimental charges, the calculations of Finnerty and Boyd (1984) using LG80 are grossly erroneous.

  5. The assumption of equilibrium in models of migration.

    PubMed

    Schachter, J; Althaus, P G

    1993-02-01

    In recent articles Evans (1990) and Harrigan and McGregor (1993) (hereafter HM) scrutinized the equilibrium model of migration presented in a 1989 paper by Schachter and Althaus. This model used standard microeconomics to analyze gross interregional migration flows based on the assumption that gross flows are in approximate equilibrium. HM criticized the model as theoretically untenable, while Evans summoned empirical as well as theoretical objections. HM claimed that equilibrium of gross migration flows could be ruled out on theoretical grounds. They argued that the absence of net migration requires that either all regions have equal populations or that unsustainable regional migration propensities must obtain. In fact some moves are inter- and other are intraregional. It does not follow, however, that the number of interregional migrants will be larger for the more populous region. Alternatively, a country could be divided into a large number of small regions that have equal populations. With uniform propensities to move, each of these analytical regions would experience in equilibrium zero net migration. Hence, the condition that net migration equal zero is entirely consistent with unequal distributions of population across regions. The criticisms of Evans were based both on flawed reasoning and on misinterpretation of the results of a number of econometric studies. His reasoning assumed that the existence of demand shifts as found by Goldfarb and Yezer (1987) and Topel (1986) invalidated the equilibrium model. The equilibrium never really obtains exactly, but economic modeling of migration properly begins with a simple equilibrium model of the system. A careful reading of the papers Evans cited in support of his position showed that in fact they affirmed rather than denied the appropriateness of equilibrium modeling. Zero net migration together with nonzero gross migration are not theoretically incompatible with regional heterogeneity of population, wages, or

  6. Exploration Drilling and Technology Demonstration At Fort Bliss

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Ben; Moore, Joe; Segall, Marylin; Nash, Greg; Simmons, Stuart; Jones, Clay; Lear, Jon; Bennett, Carlon

    2014-02-26

    The Tularosa-Hueco basin in south-central New Mexico has long been known as an extensional area of high heat flow. Much of the basin is within the Fort Bliss military reservation, which is an exceptionally high value customer for power independent of the regional electric grid and for direct use energy in building climate control. A series of slim holes drilled in the 1990s established the existence of a thermal anomaly but not its practical value. This study began in 2009 with a demonstration of new exploration drilling technology. The subsequent phases reported here delivered a useful well, comparative exploration data sets and encouragement for further development. A production-size well, RMI56-5, was sited after extensive study of archival and newly collected data in 2010-2011. Most of 2012 was taken up with getting state and Federal authorities to agree on a lead agency for permitting purposes, getting a drilling permit and redesigning the drilling program to suit available equipment. In 2013 we drilled, logged and tested a 924 m well on the McGregor Range at Fort Bliss using a reverse circulation rig. Rig tests demonstrated commercial permeability and the well has a 7-inch slotted liner for use either in production or injection. An August 2013 survey of the completed well showed a temperature of 90 C with no reversal, the highest such temperature in the vicinity. The well’s proximity to demand suggests a potentially valuable resource for direct use heat and emergency power generation. The drilling produced cuttings of excellent size and quality. These were subjected to traditional analyses (thin sections, XRD) and to the QEMScan™ for comparison. QEMScan™ technology includes algorithms for determining such properties of rocks as density, mineralogy, heavy/light atoms, and porosity to be compared with direct measurements of the cuttings. In addition to a complete cuttings set, conventional and resistivity image logs were obtained in the open hole before

  7. Mississippi Basin Carbon Project: upland soil database for sites in Nishnabotna River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.; Haughy, R.; Kramer, L.; Zheng, Shuhui

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of land from its native state to an agricultural use commonly results in a significant loss of soil carbon (Mann, 1985; Davidson and Ackerman, 1993). Globally, this loss is estimated to account for as much as 1/3 of the net CO2 emissions for the period of 1850 to 1980 (Houghton and others, 1983). Roughly 20 to 40 percent of original soil carbon is estimated to be lost as CO2 as a result of agricultural conversion, or "decomposition enhancement". Global models use this estimate along with land conversion data to provide agricultural contributions of CO2 emissions for global carbon budgets (Houghton and others, 1983; Schimel, 1995). Soil erosion rates are significantly (10X) higher on croplands than on their undisturbed equivalents (Dabney and others, 1997). Most of the concern over erosion is related to diminished productivity of the uplands (Stallings, 1957; McGregor and others, 1969; Rhoton, 1990) or to increased hazards and navigability of the lowlands in the late 1800's to early 1900's. Yet because soil carbon is concentrated at the soil surface, with an exponential decline in concentration with depth (Harden et al, 1999), it is clear that changes in erosion rates seen on croplands must also impact soil carbon storage and terrestrial carbon budgets as well. As yet, erosional losses of carbon are not included in global carbon budgets explicitly as a factor in land conversion nor implicitly as a portion of the decomposition enhancement. However, recent work by Lal and others (1995) and by Stallard (1998) suggests that significant amounts of eroded soil may be stored in man-made reservoirs and depositional environments as a result of agricultural conversion. Moreover, Stallard points out that eroding soils have the potential for replacing part of the carbon trapped in man-made reservoirs. If true, then the global carbon budget may grossly underestimate or ignore a significant sink term resulting from the burial of eroded soil.

  8. Mississippi Basin Carbon Project; upland soil database for sites in Yazoo Basin, northern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    The conversion of land from its native state to an agricultural use commonly results in a significant loss of soil carbon (Mann, 1985; Davidson and Ackerman, 1993). Globally, this loss is estimated to account for as much as 1/3 of the net CO2 emissions for the period of 1850 to 1980 (Houghton et al, 1983). Roughly 20 to 40 percent of original soil carbon is estimated to be lost as CO2 as a result of agricultural conversion, or 'decomposition enhancement', and global models use this estimate along with land conversion data to provide agricultural contributions of CO2 emissions for global carbon budgets (Houghton and others, 1983; Schimel, 1995). As yet, erosional losses of carbon are not included in global carbon budgets explicitly as a factor in land conversion nor implicitly as a portion of the decomposition enhancement. However, recent work by Lal et al (1995) and by Stallard (1998) suggests that significant amounts of eroded soil may be stored in man-made reservoirs and depositional environments as a result of agricultural conversion. Moreover, Stallard points out that if eroding soils have the potential for replacing part of the carbon trapped in man-made reservoirs, then the global carbon budget may grossly underestimate or ignore a significant sink term resulting from the burial of eroded soil. Soil erosion rates are significantly (10X) higher on croplands than on their undisturbed equivalents (Dabney et al, 1997). Most of the concern over erosion is related to diminished productivity of the uplands (Stallings, 1957; McGregor et al, 1993; Rhoton and Tyler, 1990) or to increased hazards and navigability of the lowlands in the late 1800's to early 1900's. Yet because soil carbon is concentrated at the soil surface, with an exponential decline in concentration with depth, it is clear that changes in erosion rates seen on croplands must also impact soil carbon storage and terrestrial carbon budgets as well.

  9. Seasonal variation of air temperature at the Mendel Station, James Ross Island in the period of 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, Kamil; Prošek, Pavel; Budík, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    Key words: air temperature, seasonal variation, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula Recently, significant role of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation variation on positive trend of near surface air temperature along the Antarctic Peninsula has been reported by many authors. However, small number of the permanent meteorological stations located on the Peninsula coast embarrasses a detail analysis. It comprises analysis of spatiotemporal variability of climatic conditions and validation of regional atmospheric climate models. However, geographical location of the Czech Johann Gregor Mendel Station (hereafter Mendel Station) newly established on the northern ice-free part of the James Ross Island provides an opportunity to fill the gap. There are recorded important meteorological characteristics which allow to evaluate specific climatic regime of the region and their impact on the ice-shelf disintegration and glacier retreat. Mendel Station (63°48'S, 57°53'W) is located on marine terrace at the altitude of 7 m. In 2006, a monitoring network of several automatic weather stations was installed at different altitudes ranging from the seashore level up to mesas and tops of glaciers (514 m a.s.l.). In this contribution, a seasonal variation of near surface air temperature at the Mendel Station in the period of 2006-2009 is presented. Annual mean air temperature was -7.2 °C. Seasonal mean temperature ranged from +1.4 °C (December-February) to -17.7 °C (June-August). Frequently, the highest temperature occurred in the second half of January. It reached maximum of +8.1 °C. Sudden changes of atmospheric circulation pattern during winter caused a large interdiurnal variability of air temperature with the amplitude of 30 °C.

  10. Variability in solar irradiance observed at two contrasting Antarctic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, Boyan H.; Láska, Kamil; Vitale, Vito; Lanconelli, Christian; Lupi, Angelo; Mazzola, Mauro; Budíková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    The features of erythemally weighted (EW) and short-wave downwelling (SWD) solar irradiances, observed during the spring-summer months of 2007-2011 at Johann Gregor Mendel (63°48‧S, 57°53‧W, 7 m a.s.l.) and Dome Concordia (75°06‧S, 123°21‧E, 3233 m a.s.l.) stations, placed at the Antarctic coastal region and on the interior plateau respectively, have been analysed and compared to each other. The EW and SWD spectral components have been presented by the corresponding daily integrated values and were examined taking into account the different geographic positions and different environmental conditions at both sites. The results indicate that at Mendel station the surface solar irradiance is strongly affected by the changes in the cloud cover, aerosols and albedo that cause a decrease in EW between 20% and 35%, and from 0% to 50% in SWD component, which contributions are slightly lower than the seasonal SWD variations evaluated to be about 71%. On the contrary, the changes in the cloud cover features at Concordia station produce only a 5% reduction of the solar irradiance, whilst the seasonal oscillations of 94% turn out to be the predominant mode. The present analysis leads to the conclusion that the variations in the ozone column cause an average decrease of about 46% in EW irradiance with respect to the value found in the case of minimum ozone content at each of the stations. In addition, the ratio between EW and SWD spectral components can be used to achieve a realistic assessment of the radiation amplification factor that quantifies the relationship between the atmospheric ozone and the surface UV irradiance.

  11. The sudden appearance of CO emission in LHA 115-S 65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Kraus, M.; Arias, M. L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Cidale, L.; Muratore, M. F.; Curé, M.

    2012-10-01

    Molecular emission has been detected in several Magellanic Cloud B[e] supergiants. In this Letter, we report on the detection of CO band head emission in the B[e] supergiant LHA 115-S 65, and present a K-band near-infrared spectrum obtained with the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observation in the Near-Infrared (SINFONI; R= 4500) on the ESO VLT UT4 telescope. The observed molecular band head emission in S65 is quite surprising in the light of a previous non-detection by McGregor, Hyland & McGinn, as well as a high-resolution (R= 50 000) Gemini/Phoenix spectrum of this star taken nine months earlier showing no emission. Based on analysis of the optical spectrum by Kraus, Borges Fernandes & de Araújo, we suspect that the sudden appearance of molecular emission could be due to density build-up in an outflowing viscous disc, as seen for Be stars. This new discovery, combined with variability in two other similar evolved massive stars, indicates an evolutionary link between B[e] supergiants and luminous blue variables. Based on observations obtained with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 088.D-044 and at the Gemini Observatory which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (USA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), under programme ID GS-2010B-Q-31.

  12. Physiological Cost Index and Comfort Walking Speed in Two Level Lower Limb Amputees Having No Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vllasolli, Teuta Osmani; Orovcanec, Nikola; Zafirova, Beti; Krasniqi, Blerim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Krasniqi, Valbona; Rama, Bukurije

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Physiological Cost Index (PCI) was introduced by MacGregor to estimate the energy cost in walking of healthy people, also it has been reported for persons with lower limb amputation, walking with prosthesis. Objective: To assess energy cost and walking speed in two level lower limb amputation: transfemoral and transtibial amputation and to determine if the age and prosthetic walking supported with walking aids have impact on energy cost and walking speed. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was performed in two level lower limb amputees with no vascular disease who were rehabilitated at the Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. The Physiological Cost Index (PCI) was assessed by five minutes of continuous indoor walking at Comfort Walking Speed (CWS). Results: Eighty three lower limb amputees were recruited. It is shown relevant impact of level of amputation in PCI (t=6.8, p<0.001) and CWS (T=487, p<0.001). The great influence of using crutches during prosthetic walking in PCI (ANOVA F= 39.5 P < 0.001) and CWS (ANOVA F=32.01, P <0.001) has been shown by One Way ANOVA test. The correlation coefficient (R) showed a significant correlation of age with PCI and CWS in both groups of amputation. Conclusions: Walking with transfemoral prosthesis or using walking aids during prosthetic ambulation is matched with higher cost of energy and slower walking speed. Advanced age was shown with high impact on PCI and CWS in both groups of amputees. PMID:25870485

  13. ELECTRONIC SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING: FOUNDATIONS OF GENETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Robbins

    2002-11-10

    As the Human Genome Project (HGP) moves toward its successful completion, more and more people have become interested in understanding this project and its results. Since the HGP has significant ethical, legal, and social implications for all citizens, the number of individuals who do, or should wish to become familiar with the project is high. In addition to its importance in the training of professional geneticists, the HGP is of special relevance for undergraduate training in basic biology, and even for high-school and other K-12 education. Understanding the results of HGP research requires a familiarity with the notions of basic genetics. Unlike other disciplines that evolved over centuries, modern genetics began abruptly with the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's work in 1900. Within a few years, fundamental concepts were elaborated and the foundations of genetics established. Because genetics developed so rapidly in just a few decades after 1900, the literature of that period constitutes a valuable resource even now. It may be read profitably by students and scientists wishing to understand the foundations of their field, as well as by laymen or historians of science. Unfortunately, the early literature is rapidly becoming almost inaccessible. Newer libraries do not hold older journals and even established libraries are moving their materials from that era into hard-to-reach (and impossible to browse) long-term storage in remote warehouses. To be sure, key studies from the early work are discussed in nearly all textbooks, but a comparison of these presentations with the actual literature shows that most textbook treatments have essentially mythologized the early work so that real understanding is lost. There have been several collections of classic works developed over the years (although none lately), but these suffer from the effects of the necessary, but nonetheless pernicious, highly selective sampling that accompanies these projects. Such selectivity

  14. New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to

  15. Excited-State Dynamics in 6-THIOGUANOSINE from Femtosecond to Microsecond Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Cao; Reichardt, Christian; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E.

    2011-06-01

    6-thioguanine is a widely used pro-drug in which the oxygen atom in the carbonyl group of guanine is replaced by a sulfur atom. Previous studies have shown that patients treated with 6-thioguanine can metabolize and incorporate it in DNA as 6-thioguanosine (6tGuo). These patients show a high incidence of skin cancer when they are exposed to extended periods of sunlight irradiation. In this work, the photodynamics of 6tGuo is investigated by broad band time resolved transient spectroscopy. Similar to previously studied 4-thiothymidine, our results show that excitation of 6tGuo with UVA light at 340 nm results in efficient and ultrafast intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold (τ = 0.31±0.05 ps) and a high triplet quantum yield (φ = 0.8±0.2). The triplet state has a lifetime of 720±10 ns in N2-saturated vs. 460±10 ns in air-saturated aqueous solution. In addition, a minor picosecond deactivation channel (80±15 ps) is observed, which is tentatively assigned to internal conversion from the lowest-energy excited singlet state to the ground state. Quantum chemical calculations support the proposed kinetic model. Based on the high triplet quantum yield measured, it is proposed that the phototoxicity of 6tGuo is due to its ability to photosensitized singlet oxygen, which can result in oxidative damage to DNA. P. O'Donovan, C. M. Perrett, X. Zhang, B. Montaner, Y.-Z. Xu, C. A. Harwood, J. M. McGregor, S. L. Walker, F. Hanaoka, P. Karran, Science 309, 1871 (2005). C. Reichardt, C. Guo, C. E. Crespo-Hernández, J. Phys. Chem. B. in press (2011). C. Reichardt, C. E. Crespo-Hernández, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 2239 (2010) C. Reichardt, C. E. Crespo-Hernández, Chem. Comm. 46, 5963 (2010).

  16. Evaluation of site-specific tactics using bifenazate and Neoseiulus californicus for management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruohan; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2016-10-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of site-specific tactics for management of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, a major pest of greenhouse and field-grown strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). Two site-specific (spot) treatments, the miticide bifenazate (Acramite(®)) and the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor, were compared with whole-plot treatments of bifenazate or N. californicus to determine whether T. urticae could be effectively managed in field-grown strawberry using only site-specific tactics. Additionally, the cost of site-specific tactics was compared with whole-plot treatments to determine the economic value of using site-specific management tactics for T. urticae in strawberries. In the greenhouse, all treatments equivalently reduced the number of T. urticae below control. In the field during the 2011-2012 season, more T. urticae eggs and motiles were in the whole-plot treatments of both N. californicus and bifenazate in the mid-season and late season, respectively, compared with the spot treatments. With the exception of site-specific N. californicus during the 2011-2012 field season, there were no differences in marketable yields between plots with site-specific treatments and whole-plot management. An economic analysis demonstrated a significant cost savings (75.3 %) with site-specific treatments of N. californicus compared with whole-plot application of N. californicus. Similarly, a 24.7 % reduction in cost was achieved in using site-specific bifenazate compared with whole-plot application of bifenazate. The findings indicate that site-specific treatments with N. californicus and bifenazate are competitive alternatives to whole-field application for T. urticae management in strawberries. PMID:27502111

  17. Final Progress Report: Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M; Cote, J

    2009-06-05

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and applications important for the U.S. and Canadian public, business and policy decision makers, as well as for international collaborations on regional, and especially climate related issues.

  18. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  19. Metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath southern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosova-Satlberger, Olesya; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2014-05-01

    Mantle xenoliths from Gobernador Gregores, southern Patagonia are spinel- lherzolites, harzburgites and wherlites. A large number of the studied xenoliths have experienced cryptic and modal metasomatism. The xenoliths are mainly coarse-grained with prevalent protogranular texture but equigranular tabular and mosaic textures are present as well. Xenoliths that have undergone modal metasomatism bear hydrous phases such as amphibole, phlogopite ± apatite and melt pockets. The latter are of particular interest because of their unusually large size (up to 1 cm in diameter) and freshness. They consist of second generation olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel ± relict amphibole ± sulfides that are surrounded by a yellowish vesicular glass matrix. The melt pockets are found in amphibole- and/or phlogopite-bearing wehrlites and harzburgites as well as anhydrous lherzolites. Subhedral primary olivines enclosed by melt pockets show in the BSE images a dark grey margin up to 80 microns thick attributed to the reaction of the primatry olivine with melt. Fine grained spinel inclusions are always associated with the dark grey margin, indicating that they belong to the secong generation assemblage. There are considerable differences between first and second generation minerals found in melt pockets. While primary olivine has Fo-contents that range from 88.0 to 93.3, second generation olivines in melt pockets vary from Fo89.3 to Fo94.4. Both primary and second generation cpx are diopsides with the latter systematically enriched in TiO2. The glasses that occur in melt pockets or propagate intergranular have compositions varying from trachyandesite to phonolite. The variable composition of the glass could be attributed to host basalt infiltration and decompressional melting of amphiboles. Some of the studied xenoliths show melt propagation of two compositional different glasses crosscutting primary generation minerals and finally mixing with each other. Microprobe analyses suggest

  20. The COronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) Large Aperture Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Steve; Gallagher, Dennis; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Nelson, Pete; Burkepile, Joan; Kolinksi, Don; Sutherland, Lee

    2013-04-01

    The COSMO is a facility dedicated to observing coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields. It will be located on a mountaintop in the Hawaiian Islands and will replace the current Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). COSMO will provide unique observations of the global coronal magnetic fields and its environment to enhance the value of data collected by other observatories on the ground (e.g. SOLIS, BBO NST, Gregor, ATST, EST, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, NLST, FASR) and in space (e.g. SDO, Hinode, SOHO, GOES, STEREO, Solar-C, Solar Probe+, Solar Orbiter). COSMO will employ a fleet of instruments to cover many aspects of measuring magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. The dynamics and energy flow in the corona are dominated by magnetic fields. To understand the formation of CMEs, their relation to other forms of solar activity, and their progression out into the solar wind requires measurements of coronal magnetic fields. The large aperture coronagraph, the Chromospheric and Prominence Magnetometer and the K-Coronagraph form the COSMO instrument suite to measure magnetic fields and the polarization brightness of the low corona used to infer electron density. The large aperture coronagraph will employ a 1.5 meter fuse silica singlet lens, birefringent filters, and a spectropolarimeter to cover fields of view of up to 1 degree. It will observe the corona over a wide range of emission lines from 530.3 nm through 1083.0 nm allowing for magnetic field measurements over a wide range of coronal temperatures (e.g. FeXIV at 530.3 nm, Fe X at 637.4 nm, Fe XIII at 1074.7 and 1079.8 nm. These lines are faint and require the very large aperture. NCAR and NSF have provided funding to bring the large aperture coronagraph to a preliminary design review state by the end of 2013. As with all data from Mauna Loa, the data products from COSMO will be available to the community via the Mauna Loa website: http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu

  1. Hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-mannans in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is mediated by the concerted action of (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase and β-D-mannosidase

    PubMed Central

    Hrmova, Maria; Burton, Rachel A.; Biely, Peter; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    A family GH5 (family 5 glycoside hydrolase) (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase or β-D-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78), designated HvMAN1, has been purified 300-fold from extracts of 10-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation, followed by ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified HvMAN1 is a relatively unstable enzyme with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa, a pI of 7.8 and a pH optimum of 4.75. The HvMAN1 releases Man (mannose or D-mannopyranose)-containing oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 2–6 from mannans, galactomannans and glucomannans. With locust-bean galactomannan and mannopentaitol as substrates, the enzyme has Km constants of 0.16 mg·ml−1 and 5.3 mM and kcat constants of 12.9 and 3.9 s−1 respectively. Product analyses indicate that transglycosylation reactions occur during hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides. The complete sequence of 374 amino acid residues of the mature enzyme has been deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a near full-length cDNA, and has allowed a three-dimensional model of the HvMAN1 to be constructed. The barley HvMAN1 gene is a member of a small (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase family of at least six genes, and is transcribed at low levels in a number of organs, including the developing endosperm, but also in the basal region of young roots and in leaf tips. A second barley enzyme that participates in mannan depolymerization through its ability to hydrolyse (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides to Man is a family GH1 β-D-mannosidase, now designated HvβMANNOS1, but previously identified as a β-D-glucosidase [Hrmova, MacGregor, Biely, Stewart and Fincher (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11134–11143], which hydrolyses 4NP (4-nitrophenyl) β-D-mannoside three times faster than 4NP β-D-glucoside, and has an action pattern typical of a (1,4)-β-D-mannan exohydrolase. PMID:16771710

  2. The Effects of Lithium Carbonate Supplemented with Nitrazepam on Sleep Disturbance during Cannabis Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Johnston, Jennifer; Helliwell, David; Winstock, Adam; McGregor, Iain S.; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    actigraphy measures of sleep disturbance, warranting further investigation. Discord between objective and subjective sleep indices suggest caution in evaluating treatment interventions with self-report sleep data only. Citation: Allsop DJ, Bartlett DJ, Johnston J, Helliwell D, Winstock A, McGregor IS, Lintzeris N. The effects of lithium carbonate supplemented with nitrazepam on sleep disturbance during cannabis abstinence. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1153–1162. PMID:26285109

  3. Multi-Scale Structure and Earthquake Properties in the San Jacinto Fault Zone Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-12-01

    numerous minute local earthquakes that contribute to the high frequency "noise". Updated results will be presented in the meeting. *The studies have been done in collaboration with Frank Vernon, Amir Allam, Dimitri Zigone, Zach Ross, Gregor Hillers, Ittai Kurzon, Michel Campillo, Philippe Roux, Lupei Zhu, Dan Hollis, Mitchell Barklage and others.

  4. Garnet peridotites from Williams kimberlites, north-central Montana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, B.C.; McGee, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two Williams kimberlites, 250x350m and 37x390m, in the eastern part of a swarm of 30 middle Eocene alnoitic diatremes in north-central Montana, USA, contain xenoliths of garnet-bearing lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites, in addition to spinel peridotites and upper and lower crustal amphibolites and granulites. Colluvial purple, red, and pink garnets are dominantly Mg- and Cr-rich, indicating their derivation From peridotites or megacrysts, and have CaO and Cr2O3 contents that fall in the lherzolite trend. Temperatures were calculated by the Lindsley-Dixon 20 kb method for lherzolites and by the O'Neill-Wood method for harzburgites and dunites, and pressures were calculated by the MacGregor method, or were assumed to be 50 kb for dunites. Most peridotites equilibrated at 1220-1350?C and 50-60 kb, well above a 44mW/m2 shield geotherm and on or at higher P than the graphite-diamond boundary. Four lherzolites are low T-P (830-990?C, 23-42 kb) and are close to the shield geotherm. All four low T-P lherzolites have coarse textures whereas the high T-P cluster has both coarse and porphyroclastic textures, indicating a range of conditions of deformation and recrystallization in a restricted high T-P range. The tiny size (0.01-0.2 mm) of granulated and euhedral olivines in several xenoliths shows that deformation was occurring just prior to incorporation in kimberlite and that ascent was rapid enough (40-70 km/hr) to retard Further coarsening of fine-grained olivine. For other high T-P peridotites, cessation of deformation and beginning of recrystallization before or during inclusion in kimberlite is suggested by larger (up to 3mm) euhedral olivines in a matrix of fine granulated olivine or by optical continuity of large and nearby small olivines. Two low T-P lherzolites contain distinctive, phlogopite-rimmed, 5-8mm clots of moderate-Cr garnet + Cr-spinel + Cr-diopside + enstatite that are inferred to have formed by reaction of an initial high-Cr garnet brought into the

  5. The rise and fall of the craniocervical junction relative to the hard palate: a lifetime story.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Grant W; Arutyunyan, Grigoriy; Murphy, Meghan E; Van Abel, Kathryn M; Francois, Elvis; Wetjen, Nicholas M; Fogelson, Jeremy L; O'Brien, Erin K; Clarke, Michelle J; Eckel, Laurence J; Van Gompel, Jamie J

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Endoscopic approaches to the anterior craniocervical junction are increasing in frequency. Choice of oral versus endoscopic endonasal approach to the odontoid often depends on the relationship of the C1-2 complex to the hard palate. However, it is not known how this relevant anatomy changes with age. We hypothesize that there is a dynamic relationship of C-2 and the hard palate, which changes with age, and potentially affects the choice of surgical approach. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship of C-2 relative to the hard palate with respect to age and sex. METHODS Emergency department billing and trauma records from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed for patients of all ages who underwent cervical or maxillofacial CT as part of a trauma evaluation for closed head injury. Patients who had a CT scan that allowed adequate visualization of the hard palate, opisthion, and upper cervical spine (C-1 and C-2) were included. Patients who had cervical or displaced facial/skull base fractures, a history of rheumatoid arthritis, or craniofacial anomalies were excluded. The distance from McGregor's palatooccipital line to the midpoint of the inferior endplate of C-2 (McL-C2) was measured on midsagittal CT scans. Patients were grouped by decile of age and by sex. A 1-way ANOVA was performed with each respective grouping. RESULTS Ultimately, 483 patients (29% female) were included. The mean age was 46 ± 24 years. The majority of patients studied were in the 2nd through 8th decades of life (85%). Significant variation was found between McL-C2 and decile of age (p < 0.001) and sex (p < 0.001). The mean McL-C2 was 27 mm in the 1st decade of life compared with the population mean of 37 mm. The mean McL-C2 was also noted to be smaller in females (mean difference 4.8 mm, p < 0.0001). Both decile of age (p = 0.0009) and sex (p < 0.0001) were independently correlated with McL-C2 on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS The relationship of C-2 and the hard palate

  6. Intensification of the meridional temperature gradient in the Great Barrier Reef following the Last Glacial Maximum - Results from IODP Expedition 325

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, Thomas; McGregor, Helen V.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Tudhope, Alexander W.; Gagan, Michael K.; Suzuki, Atsushi; Inoue, Mayuri; Thomas, Alexander L.; Esat, Tezer M.; Thompson, William G.; Tiwari, Manish; Potts, Donald C.; Mudelsee, Manfred; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Webster, Jody M.

    2015-04-01

    Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and δ18O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that were drilled by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 along the shelf edge seaward of the modern GBR. The Sr/Ca and δ18O records of the precisely U-Th dated fossil shallow-water corals show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1-2 ° C larger temperature decrease between 17° S and 20° S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial and regionally differing temperature change during the last deglaciation, much larger temperature changes than previously recognized. Furthermore, our findings suggest a northward contraction of the Western Pacific Warm Pool during the LGM and last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous drying of northeastern Australia at that time. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and, considering temperature alone, may be more resilient than previously thought. Webster, J. M., Yokoyama, Y. & Cotteril, C. & the Expedition 325 Scientists. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Vol. 325 (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International Inc., 2011). Felis, T., McGregor, H. V., Linsley, B. K., Tudhope, A. W., Gagan, M. K., Suzuki, A., Inoue, M., Thomas, A. L., Esat, T. M., Thompson, W. G., Tiwari, M., Potts, D. C., Mudelsee, M., Yokoyama, Y., Webster, J. M. Intensification of the meridional temperature gradient in the Great Barrier Reef following the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature Communications 5, 4102

  7. Abortion foes get turn to ask Supreme Court for constitutional protection.

    PubMed

    Denniston, L

    1994-04-28

    judge's order. Clinic lawyer, Talbot D'Alemberte, president of Florida State University and former president of the American Bar Association, will argue that the issue is about intimidation. The Clinton administration's Solicitor General Drew S. Days III will support Seminole County Circuit Court Judge Robert S. McGregor's decision limiting protester activity. PMID:12287661

  8. Geomorphology and sedimentology of hummocky terrain, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    The landscape in south-central Alberta, Canada, is dominated by a suite of landforms that formed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This thesis explores the origins of those landforms, specifically hummocky terrain. Sediments in the hummocks, hummock form, and associations with other landforms are examined to determine hummock genesis. Sediment was examined from over one hundred exposures through the "Buffalo Lake Moraine" at Travers Reservoir, McGregor Reservoir, and the Little Bow River. This belt of hummocky terrain (like most hummocky terrain regions) is traditionally interpreted as forming at, or near, the stagnating margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet by supraglacial letdown. However, hummocks in south-central Alberta contain a complex variety of sediments and materials atypical of supraglacial letdown: in situ bedrock, thrust bedrock, lodgement till, melt-out till, sorted sand and gravel, rippled sand, rhythmically-bedded sand, silt, and clay, and pervasively sheared beds. All sediment types and deformation structures were deposited, or formed, subglacially. Also, the deposits make up in situ stratigraphies that record the history of initial Laurentide Ice Sheet advance into the area (lodgment till and thrust bedrock), the extensive accumulation of water at the bed (glaciolacustrine beds), and ice stagnation (melt-out till). Regardless of the genesis of sediments in hummocks, sedimentary units and structures are abruptly truncated by the surface that represents the hummock and trough morphology, demonstrating that the hummocks are erosional forms and that they represent a landscape unconformity. Subglacial sediments predating the erosion and subglacial eskers overlying the erosion surface strongly suggest that hummock erosion was subglacial. Also, hummock morphology, lithostratigraphy correlated from hummock to hummock, abrupt truncation at the land surface, and widespread boulder lags support meltwater erosion for hummocky terrain in the region. Well

  9. Biology, Predation, and Life Table of Cydnoseius negevi and Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the Old World Date Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Mohamed W.; Alatawi, Fahad J.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.

    2014-01-01

    The old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a severe spider mite pest of date palm in most of the Middle East and North Africa. Considering that nothing is known about the performance of phytoseiid predators against O. afrasiaticus, biology, predation, and life table parameters of Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski and Amitai) and Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae), collected from date palm orchards, were studied under laboratory conditions (25, 35°C and 35 ± 10% RH) as a first step to understand their effectiveness against all mobile life stages of O. afrasiaticus. For both predators, oviposition period was significantly shorter at 35°C than at 25°C. The following parameters were obtained for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively: female longevity, 31.8, 20.1, 35.7, 27.4 d; fecundity, 21.6, 38.0, 18.8, 34.8 eggs per female; oviposition period, 23.9, 13.7, 25.9, 18.1 d. Total predation of C. negevi and N. barkeri female was 246.0, 270.0, 227.6, 205.3 prey at 25 and 35°C, respectively. Rectal plugs were observed attached to the opisthosoma of some adult females of N. barkeri, which often cause the mite to stick to the surface. Life table parameters were estimated as net reproductive rate (R0) 10.44, 17.35, 10.19, 13.84, intrinsic rate of increase (rm) 0.14, 0.19, 0.13, 0.16 d−1, finite rate of increase (λ) 1.15, 1.21, 1.12, 1.17 d−1, generation time (T) 17.03, 15.17, 17.83, 16.61 d, doubling time (DT) 04.95, 03.64, 05.33, 04.33 d for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively. The values of intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were higher in C. negevi than N. barkeri at both temperature regimes. Therefore, it could be concluded that C. negevi performance was better than N. barkeri against O. afrasiaticus and can be considered as a valuable addition to the existing methods for spider mites control. PMID:25368087

  10. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  11. A final report for: Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Stanley M.

    1999-04-01

    This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the front surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed from a layer of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed from the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10{sup -12} amps at -1 V on a 3mm x 3mm diode, or a density of 1.1 x 10{sup -11} amps cm{sup -2}, with many of the diode structures tested having nearly similar results. The PIN diodes were significantly better than the Schottky barrier device, which had six orders of magnitude higher dark current. Diodes were characterized in terms of their current-mode response to 5.5 MeV alpha particles from 241-Americium. These radiation-induced currents were as high as 9.78 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -1} on a PIN device with an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As BSF. Simple PIN diodes had currents as high as 2.44 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -2}, with thicker undoped layers showing better sensitivity. Boron coatings were applied, and response to neutrons tested at University of Michigan by Dr. Doug McGregor. Devices with PIN and Schottky barrier designs showed neutron detection efficiencies as high as 2% on 5 {micro}m thick devices, with no need for external bias voltages. PIN diodes showed higher breakdown voltages and lower noise

  12. High Holocene lake levels in eastern Patagonia (Argentina) as a result of persistent Atlantic rainfall (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariztegui, D.; Compagnucci, R.; Agosta, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Today's precipitation in central Patagonia, Argentina, mostly follows the intensity of the Westerlies. However, the extraordinary persistence of daily easterly winds can trigger episodes of intense rainfall reflected as water level variations in Lago Cardiel, a closed lacustrine basin located at 49°S. Meteorological data from 11-20 March 2002 at nearby Gobernador Gregores station recorded a heavy rain spell of 50mm accounting for 30% of the mean annual rainfall (167mm/year). The synoptic situation during this interval shows rainfall produced by wet air mass advection from the Atlantic. The weather surface maps for these days display a cyclone incoming at 45°S to the west of western Patagonia together with a concomitant anticyclone to the southwest, while a cyclogenesis initiates in eastern Patagonia. This pressure dipole produced east-north-eastern winds at the lake latitude and a generalized drop in the Westerlies intensity almost across the entire Patagonia. This is shown in distant stations such as Bariloche(41.9°S) and Rio Gallegos (51.4°S) in northwestern and southeastern Patagonia, respectively, as well as in Chilean stations such as Balmaceda (45.9°S) and Chile Chico (46.9°S). Similar pressure anomalies along with changes in wind intensity and direction have been previously simulated for the Austral winter (JJA) during the middle Holocene (7.0 to 4.5 kcal yrs BP). Thus, weaker Westerlies along with a higher frequency of the dipole-type atmospheric circulation than at present increased the described easterly winds-triggered rainfall. This inference agrees with high lake levels in the Lago Cardiel record along with more negative - Atlantic type - oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic carbonates. An increase in the frequency of this climatic configuration during longer time intervals could further explain the extreme lake highstands reconstructed for the early Holocene, and the contemporaneous negative isotopic signature of the carbonates. It could

  13. Observations of a solar storm from the stratosphere: The BARREL Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, Alexa

    2016-07-01

    During the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) second campaign, BARREL observed with a single primary instrument, a 3"x3" NaI spectrometer measuring 20 keV - 10 MeV X-rays [Woodger et al 2015 JGR], portions of an entire solar storm. This very small event, in terms of geomagnetic activity, or one of the largest of the current solar cycle, in terms of solar energetic particle events, has given us a very clear set of observations of the response of the day side magnetosphere to the arrival of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection shock. The BARREL mission of opportunity working in tandem with the Van Allen Probes was designed to study the loss of radiation belt electrons to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. However BARREL is able to see X-rays from a multitude of sources. During the second campaign, the Sun produced, and BARREL observed, an X-class flare [McGregor et al in prep.]. This was followed by BARREL observations of X-rays, gamma-rays, and directly injected protons from the solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the eruption from the Sun while simultaneously the Van Allen Probes observed the SEP protons in the inner magnetosphere [Halford et al 2016 submitted JGR]. Two days later the shock generated by the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME-shock) hit the Earth while BARREL was in conjunction with the Van Allen Probes and GOES [Halford et al 2015 JGR]. Although this was a Mars directed CME and the Earth only received a glancing blow [Möstl et al 2015 Nat. Commun., Mays et al 2015 ApJ], the modest compression led to the formation of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, and very low frequency (VLF) whistler mode waves [Halford and Mann 2016 submitted to JGR]. The combination of these waves and the enhancement of the local particle population led to precipitation of electrons remotely observed by BARREL. This was not a Halloween, Bastille Day, or one of the now

  14. Garnet lherzolite xenoliths in the kimberlites of northern Lesotho: revised P-T equilibration conditions and upper mantle Palaeogeotherm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carswell, D. A.; Gibb, F. G. F.

    1987-12-01

    Evidence is presented that the inflected palaeogeotherm for northern Lesotho, previously highlighted by Boyd (1973), Boyd and Nixon (1973, 1975), Finnerty and Boyd (1984, 1987), is essentially an artifact of the unsatisfactory, over-simplified barometer formulation (based on MacGregor 1974) employed. The absence of an inflection in the palaeogeotherm for Udachnaya, Siberia based on P-T estimates for garnet lherzolite xenoliths calculated with the same barometer, does not prove the reality of an inflected palaeogeotherm for northern Lesotho. Rather, it reflects, at least in part, chemical differences between the equivalent deformed, high- T xenoliths in these two areas — most importantly expressed in the respective contents of Jadeite relative to ureyite in the constituent orthopyroxenes. Accurate estimation of P-T equilibration conditions for garnet lherzolite xenoliths requires both complete and precise mineral analyses and adequate consideration of the influence of minor elements, such as Cr and Na, on the element exchange reaction thermometers and barometers employed. The barometer formulation of Nickel and Green (1985) is judged to be the best currently available. As no single thermometer is entirely satisfactory and dependable throughout the P-T range of interest, equilibration temperatures are currently best assessed as a mean value obtained from application of the most accurate formulations for both the two-pyroxene solvus thermometer (Bertrand and Mercier 1985) and Fe2+-Mg2+ exchange reactions between garnet-clinopyroxene (Powell 1985), garnet-orthopyroxene (Harley 1984a) and garnet-olivine (O'Neill and Wood 1979) mineral pairs. Such ‘best’ P-T estimates for xenoliths in the kimberlites of northern Lesotho indicate a somewhat elevated, non-inflected, upper mantle palaeogeotherm, compatible with a 120 145 km thick thermally conductive lithosphere above a convecting asthenosphere. The common coarse textured, chemically depleted, garnet lherzolite

  15. Synthesis and assembly of hepatitis A virus-specific proteins in BS-C-1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Borovec, S V; Anderson, D A

    1993-01-01

    To determine the mechanism for the delayed and inefficient replication of the picornavirus hepatitis A virus in cell culture, we studied the kinetics of synthesis and assembly of virus-specific proteins by metabolic labeling of infected BS-C-1 cells with L-[35S]methionine and L-[35S]cysteine. Sedimentation, electrophoresis, and autoradiography revealed the presence of virions, provirions, procapsids, and 14S (pentameric) subunits. Virions and provirions contained VP1, VP0, VP2, and VP3; procapsids contained VP1, VP0, and VP3; and pentamers contained PX, VP0, and VP3, as previously shown by immunoblotting (D.A. Anderson and B.C. Ross, J. Virol. 64:5284-5289, 1990). Under single-cycle growth conditions label was found in 14S subunits immediately after labeling from 15 to 18 h postinfection (p.i.); however, a proportion of labeled polyprotein was not cleaved and assembled into pentamers for a further 18 h. When analyzed at 72 h p.i., incorporation of label which flowed into virions was detected from 3 h p.i., with maximal uptake levels being observed from 12 to 15 h p.i. Viral antigen, infectious virus, and viral RNA were determined in parallel, with coincident peaks in these variables being observed 12 h after the period of maximum label uptake. It was also found that the lag between the synthesis of the viral polyprotein and assembly of viral particles was the same after labeling from either 12 to 15 or 27 to 30 h p.i. despite increased levels of viral RNA during this period, suggesting that factors additional to the level of RNA are involved in the restriction of viral replication. Sedimentation and immunoblot analysis revealed an additional protein of approximately 100 kDa containing both VP1- and VP2-reactive sequences and sedimenting slightly more slowly than 14S pentamers, which may represent intact P12A assembled into pentamers as has been reported for the P1 of some other picornaviruses (S. McGregor and R. R. Rueckert, J. Virol. 21:548-553, 1977). The results

  16. Final Progress Report submitted via the DOE Energy Link (E-Link) in June 2009 [Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M; Cote, J

    2009-10-09

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. The results of the successful SGMIP multi-model ensemble simulations of the U.S. climate are available at the SGMIP web site (http://essic.umd.edu/~foxrab/sgmip.html) and through the link to the WMO/WCRP/WGNE web site: http://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/wgne. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and

  17. American uveitis society meeting october 31, 1994 san francisco, california.

    PubMed

    Lowder, C Y; Meisler, D M

    1995-01-01

    1 Ophthalmic manifestations of presumed rifabutin-related uveitis. Arevalo JF, Freeman WR, La Jolla, CA, USA. 2 Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis acute anterior uveitis by PCR. Cano J, Diaz M, Navee A, Maldonado M, Barcelona, Spain. 3 Neuroretinits in patients with AIDS. Berger B, Austin TX, USA. 4 Presumed varicella zoster retinitis in a pediatric patient with AIDS. El Baba F, Nachman S, Stony Brook, NY, USA. 5 ARN with hypopyon caused by EVB and herpes type VI viruses. Cano J, Diaz M, Navea A, Maldonado MJ, Barcelona, Spain. 6 CD8(+) T-lymphocytes and ocular infections in HIV(+) patients. Lowder CY, Butler CP, Dodds EM, Recillas-Gispert C, Cleveland, OH, USA. 7 Intravitreal foscanet for persistent CMV. Lieberman RM, Orellana J, New York, NY, USA. 8 Perfluorocarbon liquid versus air-fluid exchange during surgical repair of retinal detachment caused by cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. Sery T, Gomes J, Sando R, Dua H, Donoso L, Vrabec T, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 9 Endogenous ophthalmitis simulating retinoblastoma: a report of six cases. Shields J, Shields C, Eagle R, Barrett J, DePotter P, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 10 Ocular lymphoma resembling chronic postoperative endophthalmitis. Fox G, Chan CC, Whitcup SM, Nussenblatt R, Bethesda, MD, USA. 11 A phase II trial of combination chemotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma. Whitcup SM, Stark-Vanes V, Nussenblatt RB, Heiss H, Witte R, Bethesda, MD, USA. 12 Cancer-induced autoimmune retinopathy. Thirkill C, Sacramento, CA, USA. 13 Leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Tessler H. Chicago, IL, USA. 14 Bilateral choroidal neovascular membranes after Candida albicans chorioretinitis. Dodds E, Townsend-Pico W, Lowder CY, Lewis H, Cleveland, OH, USA. 15 An unusual complications of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. Gormley PD, Flaxel CJ, Pavesio CE, Conrad DK, Lightman S, London, UK. 16 Surgical removal of a choroidal neovascular membrane in sympahtetic ophthalmia. Conrad DK, McCluskey PJ, Schwartz S, Gregor Z. Lightman S

  18. FIELD EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING AT CDG AIRPORTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  19. INTRODUCTION Introduction to the conference proceeding of the Workshop on Electromagnetic Inverse ProblemsThe University of Manchester, UK, 15-18 June, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Oliver; Lionheart, Bill

    2010-11-01

    any successful inversion, whereas the other three papers discuss novel inversion techniques for specific applications. In the first contribution, with the title A Novel Simplified Mathematical Model for Antennas used in Medical Imaging Applications, the authors M J Fernando, M Elsdon, K Busawon and D Smith discuss a new technique for modelling the current across a monopole antenna from which the radiation fields of the antenna can be calculated very efficiently in specific medical imaging applications. This new technique is then tested on two examples, a quarter wavelength and a three quarter wavelength monopole antenna. The next contribution, with the title An investigation into the use of a mixture model for simulating the electrical properties of soil with varying effective saturation levels for sub-soil imaging using ECT by R R Hayes, P A Newill, F J W Podd, T A York, B D Grieve and O Dorn, considers the development of a new visualization tool for monitoring soil moisture content surrounding certain seed breeder plants. An electrical capacitance tomography technique is employed for verifying how efficiently each plant utilises the water and nutrients available in the surrounding soil. The goal of this study is to help in developing and identifying new drought tolerant food crops. In the third contribution Combination of Maximin and Kriging Prediction Methods for Eddy-Current Testing Database Generation by S Bilicz, M Lambert, E Vazquez and S Gyimóthy, a novel database generation technique is proposed for its use in solving inverse eddy-current testing problems. For avoiding expensive repeated forward simulations during the creation of this database, a kriging interpolation technique is employed for filling uniformly the data output space with sample points. Mathematically this is achieved by using a maximin formalism. The paper 2.5D inversion of CSEM data in a vertically anisotropic earth by C Ramananjaona and L MacGregor considers controlled

  20. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  1. PREFACE: The Science of Making Torque from Wind 2014 (TORQUE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Bak, Christian; Bechmann, Andreas; Bingöl, Ferhat; Dellwik, Ebba; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Giebel, Gregor; Hansen, Martin O. L.; Jensen, Dorte Juul; Larsen, Gunner; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Natarajan, Anand; Rathmann, Ole; Sathe, Ameya; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Nørkær Sørensen, Niels

    2014-06-01

    The 186 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the fifth Science of Making Torque from Wind conference, which is organized by the European Academy of Wind Energy (EAWE, www.eawe.eu). The conference, also called Torque 2014, is held at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) 17-20 June 2014. The EAWE conference series started in 2004 in Delft, the Netherlands. In 2007 it was held in Copenhagen, in 2010 in Heraklion, Greece, and then in 2012 in Oldenburg, Germany. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown approximately by 25% annually over the last couple of decades and covers now 2-3% of the global electrical power consumption. In order to make a significant impact on one of the large challenges of our time, namely global warming, the growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research and education in wind turbine aerodynamics and wind resources, the two topics which are the main subjects of this conference. Similar to the growth in electrical power production by wind is the growth in scientific papers about wind energy. Over the last decade the number of papers has also grown by about 25% annually, and many research based companies all over the world are founded. Hence, the wind energy research community is rapidly expanding and the Torque conference series offers a good opportunity to meet and exchange ideas. We hope that the Torque 2014 will heighten the quality of the wind energy research, while the participants will enjoy each others company in Copenhagen. Many people have been involved in producing the Torque 2014 proceedings. The work by more than two hundred reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of sixteen ''section editors'' all from DTU Wind Energy: Christian Bak, Andreas Bechmann, Ferhat Bingöl, Ebba Dellwik, Nikolay Dimitrov, Gregor Giebel, Martin

  2. Po-Basin Atmospheric Composition during the Pegasos Field Campaign (summer 2012): Evaluation of ninfa/aodeM Simulation with In-Situ e Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Tony C.; Bonafe, Giovanni; Stortini, Michele; Minguzzi, Enrico; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Giulianelli, Lara; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Rinaldi, Matteo; Ricciardelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    Guillaume, Catherine Liousse, Sophie Moukhtar, Betty Pun, Christian Seigneur, and Michaël Schulz (2008). "Regional modeling of carbonaceous aerosols over europe-focus on secondary organic aerosols." Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 61, no. 3 : 175-202. Landi Tony Christian (2013). AODEM: A post-processing tool for aerosol optical properties calculation in the Chemical Transport Models. Book published by LAP - Lambert Academic Publishing ISBN: 978-3-659-31802-3. Steppeler, J., G. Doms, U. Schättler, H. W. Bitzer, A. Gassmann, U. Damrath, and G. Gregoric (2003). "Meso-gamma scale forecasts using the nonhydrostatic model LM." Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 82, no. 1-4 : 75-96. M. Stortini, M. Deserti, G. Bonafè, and E. Minguzzi. Long-term simulation and validation of ozone and aerosol in the Po Valley. In C.Borrego and E.Renner, editors, Developments in Environmental Sciences, volume 6, pages 768-770. Elsevier, 2007.

  3. Antiproliferative effects and mechanism of action of ICI 195,739, a novel bis-triazole derivative, on epimastigotes and amastigotes of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Urbina, J A; Lazardi, K; Aguirre, T; Piras, M M; Piras, R

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro antiproliferative effects of ICI 195,739, a recently developed bis-triazole derivative (T. Boyle, D. J. Gilman, M. B. Gravestock, and J. M. Wardleworth, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 544:86-100, 1988; J. F. Ryley, S. McGregor, and R. G. Wilson, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 544:310-328, 1988), on epimastigotes and amastigotes of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi and some aspects of its mechanism of action are described. Despite previous claims that triazole compounds act on susceptible organisms by essentially the same mechanism demonstrated for the imidazole compounds, i.e., by interfering with the synthesis of ergosterol at the level of the cytochrome P-450-dependent C-14 demethylation of lanosterol, our results indicate that ICI 195,739 acts on T. cruzi epimastigotes by a dual mechanism which involves blockade of ergosterol byosynthesis and a second, still-unidentified target whose alteration leads to immediate growth arrest. Although ICI 195,739 blocks ergosterol biosynthesis at the level of C-14 lanosterol demethylation, as shown by gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography, growth arrest in ICI 195,739-treated cells is not related to the depletion of the endogenous ergosterol pool, contrary to what was previously found for ketoconazole, the reference compound among antifungal and antiprotozoal azole derivatives. Consistent with this observation is the fact that the concentration of ICI 195,739 required to inhibit de novo synthesis of ergosterol in epimastigotes by 50% is 60 nM, which is essentially identical to that previously found for ketoconazole under identical conditions, while the minimum concentration required to produce complete growth inhibition is 0.1 microM, which is 300 times lower than that of ketoconazole. With respect to the intracellular amastigote form proliferating inside vertebrate (Vero) cells, 10 nM is sufficient to eradicate the parasite completely in 96 h, with no effects on the host cells; this concentration is identical to that previously

  4. Canary current upwelling: More or less?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, E. D.; Field, D. B.; Roy, C.

    2013-09-01

    surface temperature is increasing near the coast at all latitudes throughout the region at a rate >0.01 °C y-1; wind estimates from different data bases can differ in trends and variability, but WASWind estimates appear to agree well with the few available coastal stations; no statistically significant change in meridional (upwelling favorable) wind component is found, except off Iberia, where winds are becoming slightly less upwelling favorable; there is no evidence for a general intensification of upwelling in this large marine ecosystem, contrary to the hypothesis of Bakun (1990) and the conclusions of McGregor et al. (2007). Consideration of the factors influencing the alkenone unsaturation index U37K derived from coccolithophorids and other phytoplankton leads to the conclusions that: the use of the alkenone unsaturation index as a proxy for sea surface temperature is subject to considerable uncertainty, and should not be used uncritically; further examination of the mechanisms causing deviations in the alkenone unsaturation index-sea surface temperature relationship is required to understand paleo records (particularly those where SST changes are of lower magnitude); use of the index should preferably be made in conjunction with the examination of other proxies that are sensitive to changes in the structure of the water column (e.g. microfossils). In general, caution should be exercised in the use of proxy temperature estimates and their extrapolation to regional scales from a single proxy and/or sediment site. Multiple proxies and sediment cores are clearly needed in oceanographic reconstructions.

  5. Soil thermal properties at two different sites on James Ross Island in the period 2012/13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Láska, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    James Ross Island (JRI) is the largest island in the eastern part of the Antarctic Peninsula. Ulu Peninsula in the northern part of JRI is considered the largest ice free area in the Maritime Antarctica region. However, information about permafrost on JRI, active layer and its soil properties in general are poorly known. In this study, results of soil thermal measurements at two different sites on Ulu Peninsula are presented between 1 April 2012 and 30 April 2013. The study sites are located (1) on an old Holocene marine terrace (10 m a. s. l.) in the closest vicinity of Johann Gregor Mendel (JGM) Station and (2) on top of a volcanic plateau named Johnson Mesa (340 m a. s. l.) about 4 km south of the JGM Station. The soil temperatures were measured at 30 min interval using platinum resistance thermometers Pt100/8 in two profiles up to 200 cm at JGM Station and 75 cm at Johnson Mesa respectively. Decagon 10HS volumetric water content sensors were installed up 30 cm at Johnson Mesa to 50 cm at JGM Station, while Hukseflux HFP01 soil heat flux sensors were used for direct monitoring of soil physical properties at 2.5 cm depth at both sites. The mean soil temperature varied between -5.7°C at 50 cm and -6.3°C at 5 cm at JGM Station, while that for Johnson Mesa varied between -6.9°C at 50 cm and -7.1°C at 10 cm. Maximum active layer thickness estimated from 0 °C isotherm reached 52 cm at JGM Station and 50 cm at Johnson Mesa respectively which corresponded with maximum observed annual temperature at 50 cm at both sites. The warmest part of both profiles detected at 50 cm depth corresponded with maximum thickness of active layer, estimated from 0°C isotherm, reached 52 cm at JGM Station and 50 cm at Johnson Mesa respectively. Volumetric water content at 5 cm varied around 0.25 m3m-3 at both sites. The slight increase to 0.32 m3m-3 was observed at JGM Station at 50 cm and at Johnson Mesa at 30 cm depth. Soil texture analysis showed distinctly higher share of coarser

  6. 3d-modelling workflows for trans-nationally shared geological models - first approaches from the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupf, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    framework model are interpreted seismic lines, 3d-models can be generated either in time or in depth domain. Some partners will build their 3d-model in time domain and convert it after finishing to depth. Other participants will transform seismic information first and will model directly in depth domain. To ensure comparability between the different parts transnational velocity models for time-depth conversion are required at an early stage of the project. The exchange of model geometries, topology, and geo-scientific content will be achieved applying an appropriate cyberinfrastructure called GST. It provides functionalities to ensure semantic and technical interoperability. Within the project GeoMol a web server for the dissemination of 3d geological models will be implemented including an administrative interface for the role-based access, real-time transformation of country-specific coordinate systems and a web visualisation features. The project GeoMol is co-funded by the Alpine Space Program as part of the European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland and runs from September 2012 to June 2015. Further information on www.geomol.eu. The GeoMol 3D-modelling team: Roland Baumberger (swisstopo), Magdalena Bottig (GBA), Alessandro Cagnoni (RLB), Laure Capar (BRGM), Renaud Couëffé (BRGM), Chiara D'Ambrogi (ISPRA), Chrystel Dezayes (BRGM), Gerold Diepolder (LfU BY), Charlotte Fehn (LGRB), Sunseare Gabalda (BRGM), Gregor Götzl (GBA), Andrej Lapanje (GeoZS), Fabio Carlo Molinari (RER-SGSS), Edgar Nitsch (LGRB), Robert Pamer (LfU BY), Sebastian Pfleiderer (GBA), Marco Pantaloni (ISPRA), Uta Schulz (LfU BY), Günter Sokol (LGRB), Gunther Wirsing (LGRB), Heiko Zumsprekel (LGRB)

  7. Walker circulation in a transient climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesca, Elina; Grützun, Verena; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2016-04-01

    response (temperature change by the time of CO2 doubling), which in turn might be related to a decreased ocean heat uptake. This uncertainty across the models we attribute to the multitude of factors controlling ocean and atmosphere heat exchange, both at global and regional scales, as well as to the present capabilities of GCMs in simulating this exchange. References: England, M. H., McGregor, S., Spence, P., Meehl, G. A., Timmermann, A., Cai, W., Gupta, A. S., McPhaden, M. J., Purich, A., and Santoso, A., 2014. Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus. Nature Climate Change 4 (3): 222-227. Ma, J., and Xie, S. P., 2013. Regional Patterns of Sea Surface Temperature Change: A Source of Uncertainty in Future Projections of Precipitation and Atmospheric Circulation*. Journal of Climate, 26 (8): 2482-2501

  8. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  9. The Universal Cpx Jd-Di barometer for mantle peridotite eclogite and pyroxenites and it using for the mantle petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The Jd-Di exchange in clinopyroxenes used for the calibration of pyroxene barometer (Ashchepkov, 2000;2002; Ashchepkov et al 2010;2011;2012) was transformed to make one universal equation for mantle peridotite eclogites and pyroxenites. The original barometer (Ashchepkov, 2002) calibrated on pressures produced by Opx barometry (McGregor , 1974) was transformed (Ashchepkov et al ., 2004; 2010; 2011) to satisfy the increasing data bases for the mantle xenoliths and experimental values 530 in peridotitic and 650 in elcogitic systems . The obtained difference Pd =Pcpx- Pexp were studied for the dependence on each component and their combination . Instead of the common activities we used the temperature-dependent empirical equations. The three separate equations for the common peridotites, pyroxenites and eclogites (Ashchepkov et al., 2010) were checked and complex To and Al-Na-Fe dependent universal coefficients were received. The KD is determined as follows: KD=Na/AlCr*Mg/Ca The logarithmic dependence between P and KD was transformed to a linear one. Final pressure equations are: AlCr=(Al-0.01) *((T-600)/700)**0.75+Cr*(ToK-100)/1000+(4*Ti-0.0125)/ (T0-801)*650 +0.55*((Fe-0.23) *(T0-900)/10000-K) P=0.26*(5+12*(Al+0.30*Na)KD* ToK**0.75 /(1+Fe+ Fe*(ToK-600)/1000)-ln(1273/ ToK))*40*(7*Na-Al-15*Ti+10*Cr+Mg/4)+7.5*Si-20*( Al*Na*Mg/Ca/(Al-2*Ti+Na-2*Fe/(Fe+Mg))+50*(Na+0.1*Al-2*Ti+0.05*Mg-0.22*Ca-0.7*Na)/Ca). Obtained equation in combination with the (Nimis,Taylor, 2000) thermometer allow to reconstruct position of the magma feeder systems of the alkali basaltic magma withing the mantle diapirs in modern platforms like in Vitim plateau (Ashchepkov et al., 2011) and now was applicated to reconstruct the deep seated magma conduits beneath the mountain collision systems, island arcs ocean plateaus etc. This equation allows to receive the positions of the major groups of eclogites mantle sections and to find out the regularities of their behavior. The Fe rich eclogites commonly

  10. Respiratory medicine and research at McGill University: A historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James G; Schwartzman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The history of respiratory medicine and research at McGill University (Montreal, Quebec) is tightly linked with the growth of academic medicine within its teaching hospitals. Dr Jonathan Meakins, a McGill medical graduate, was recruited to the Royal Victoria Hospital in 1924; as McGill’s first full-time clinical professor and Physician-in-Chief at the Royal Victoria Hospital. His focus on respiratory medicine led to the publication of his first book, Respiratory Function in Disease, in 1925. Meakins moved clinical laboratories from the Department of Pathology and placed them within the hospital. As such, he was responsible for the development of hospital-based research. Dr Ronald Christie was recruited as a postdoctoral fellow by Meakins in the early 1930s. After his fellowship, he returned to Britain but came back to McGill from St Bartholomew’s Hospital (London, United Kingdom) to become Chair of the Department of Medicine in 1955; he occupied the post for 10 years. He published extensively on the mechanical properties of the lung in common diseases such as emphysema and heart failure. Dr David Bates was among Dr Christie’s notable recruits; Bates in turn, recruited Drs Maurice McGregor, Margaret Becklake, William Thurlbeck, Joseph Milic-Emili, Nicholas Anthonisen, Charles Bryan and Peter Macklem. Bates published extensively in the area of respiratory physiology and, with Macklem and Christie, coauthored the book Respiratory Function in Disease, which integrated physiology into the analysis of disease. Dr JA Peter Paré joined the attending staff of the Royal Victoria Hospital and the Royal Edward Laurentian Hospital in 1949. A consummate clinician and teacher, he worked closely with Dr Robert Fraser, the Chair of Radiology, to write the reference text Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest. This was a sentinel contribution in its focus on radiographic findings as the foundation for a systematic approach to diagnosis, and the correlation of these findings with