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1

Effect of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index and phagocytosis tested in healthy human subjects.  

PubMed

The Grewia asiatica (commonly known as Phalsa or Fasla) is a shrub or small tree found in southern Asia. It produces purple to black color fruit when ripe. In folk medicine the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. The current study described the effects of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index (GI) and phagocytosis in healthy non-diabetic human subjects. The results showed that Grewia asiatica fruit has low GI value of 5.34 with modest hypoglycemic activity. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay was carried out to determine the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the oxidative burst activity of whole blood. ROS production was found to be significantly affected, having the 78.3, 58.6 and 30.8% when the subjects were fed with D-glucose, mixture of D-glucose and Grewia asiatica fruit and Grewia asiatica fruit alone respectively as compared to the control. The aqueous, methanolic and butanolic extracts of Grewia asiatica fruits were found to produce a stimulatory effect on ROS production however; the chloroform, hexane and ethanol-acetate extracted exerted significant inhibitory effect. These results demonstrated that Grewia asiatica fruit has desirable effects on blood glucose metabolism manifested as low glycemic response and modulation of ROS production. PMID:23261731

Mesaik, Muhammad Ahmed; Ahmed, Asif; Khalid, Ahmed Shukralla; Jan, Saleem; Siddiqui, Afaq Ahmed; Perveen, Shahida; Azim, Muhammad Kamran

2013-01-01

2

Ameliorative effect of Grewia tenax (Forssk) fiori fruit extract on CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The ethanol extract of Grewia tenax (GTE) fruit was tested for possible efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver toxicity in Wistar albino rats. GTE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg were administered orally to CCl(4)-treated rats. Acute toxicity test and sleeping time determination were done with mice. The results showed that oral administration of GTE for 3 wk to rats significantly reduced the CCl(4)-induced elevated levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, and triglycerides. Moreover, it was found that the treatment with GTE significantly elevated the hemoglobin level in serum and increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl and total protein contents in the liver tissue, and a significant diminution was observed in the CCl(4)-induced elevated levels of malondialdehyde in the liver tissue. The biochemical findings were supported by an evaluation with liver histopathology. Pentobarbital-induced prolongation of narcolepsy in mice was shortened significantly by the extract. The observed hepatoprotective effect is believed to occur due to antioxidant properties of the contents of G. tenax extract, which may provide a new drug to be used for fighting liver diseases and it validates its folkloric use in anemic and other conditions. PMID:22416728

Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O; Rafatullah, Syed

2011-10-04

3

Synthesis and Characterizations of Silane Treated Grewia optiva Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, interest has grown in natural fibers as promising materials for a number of applications, particularly in polymer composite materials because they offer a number of advantages such as nontoxicity, eco-friendliness, combustibility, light weight, and low cost. Surface modification of Grewia optiva fibers through silane treatment as a simple and convenient method using aminopropyl triethoxy silane is introduced

Amar Singh Singha; Vijay Kumar Thakur

2009-01-01

4

Notes on Feeding and Breeding Habits of the Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica ( Cinnyris asiaticus ) in Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Southern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some feeding and breeding activities of Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica brevirostris have been studied in five localities in Bandar Abbas, southern Iran from June 2002 to June 2004 on monthly bases. According to 507 timed feeding observations, Purple Sunbirds feed on flowers' nectar (97%) and on fruits' nectar (3%). The nectar of the Chinese hibiscus Hibiscus rosa-chinensis flowers was the

TAHER GHADIRIAN; ALI T. QASHQAEI; MOHSEN DADRAS

5

Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

2013-02-18

6

Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

2013-01-01

7

Historical overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan.  

PubMed

An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented. PMID:23467308

Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

2013-02-18

8

Historical Overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented.

Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

2013-01-01

9

Therapeutic effect of praziquantel against Taeniasis asiatica.  

PubMed

Eight Japanese adult patients infected with Taenia asiatica were treated with a single 600 mg dose of praziquantel. The patients' body weights ranged from 47 to 87 kg (mean 67.1±12.7 kg). All patients expelled the strobila after taking praziquantel, and all of them were free from proglottids the day after praziquantel administration, hence all patients were considered to be cured. No side effects due to praziquantel were noted. Although the number of patients is small, our results indicate that praziquantel is a drug of choice for the treatment of taeniasis asiatica and that a single dose of 7-13 mg/kg (9.3±1.9 mg/kg) is effective. PMID:23618773

Ohnishi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Naoya; Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi

2013-04-22

10

Evidence of hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T. asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis

Munehiro Okamoto; Minoru Nakao; David Blair; Malinee T. Anantaphruti; Jitra Waikagul; Akira Ito

2010-01-01

11

Recent hybridization between Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata.  

PubMed

Five Taenia tapeworms collected from humans in Tibetan Plateau, Sichuan, China, where three species of human Taenia are sympatrically endemic, were examined for the mitochondrial cox1 gene and two nuclear genes, ef1 and elp. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that two adult worms showed nuclear-mitochondrial discordance, suggesting that they originated from hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. One of two worms had T. asiatica-type mtDNA, whereas another worm had T. saginata-type mtDNA, indicating that reciprocal hybridization between T. saginata and T. asiatica could occur. The worm having T. asiatica-type mtDNA was heterozygous at both nuclear loci with T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles. In another worm, the ef1 locus was heterozygous with a T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles, while the elp locus was homozygous with T. saginata-type alleles. Self-fertilization is the main reproductive method of the genus Taenia. Since self-fertilization represents a type of inbreeding, each locus in the offspring would become homozygous over generations with genetic drift. The fact that some nuclear loci are still heterozygous means that hybridization might have occurred recently. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is probably an ongoing event in many areas in which they are sympatrically endemic. PMID:22301089

Yamane, Kanako; Suzuki, Yumi; Tachi, Eiko; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Testuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

2012-01-25

12

Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species  

PubMed Central

Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries.

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

2009-01-01

13

Geographical distribution of Taenia asiatica and related species.  

PubMed

Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

2009-10-01

14

Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata: Genetic divergence estimated from their mitochondrial genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a differential identification of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, through the mapping of mitochondrial genomes and the sequencing of the cox1 and cob genes. The entire mitochondrial genomes of T. asiatica and T. saginata were amplified by long-extension PCR and cloned; each was approximately 14kb in size. Restriction maps of T. asiatica and T. saginata mitochondrial genomes were

H. K. Jeon; K. S. Eom

2006-01-01

15

Comparison on Cognitive Effects of Centella Asiatica in Healthy Middle Age Female and Male Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims of this study: Centella asiatica has a reputation to restore decline cognitive function in traditional medicine and in animal model. However, little evidence regarding the efficacy of Centella asiatica from clinical trials is available. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of Centella asiatica on cognitive function of healthy middle age volunteer. Materials and methods: Fourty one (22 females

Roxana Dev Omar Dev; Suhaila Mohamed; Zarida Hambali; Bahaman Abu Samah

2009-01-01

16

Hox genes from the tapeworm Taenia asiatica (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).  

PubMed

Hox genes are important in forming the anterior-posterior body axis pattern in the early developmental stage of animals. The conserved nature of the genomic organization of Hox genes is well known in diverse metazoans. To understand the Hox gene architecture in human-infecting Taenia tapeworms, we conducted a genomic survey of the Hox gene using degenerative polymerase chain reaction primers in Taenia asiatica. Six Hox gene orthologs from 276 clones were identified. Comparative analysis revealed that T. asiatica has six Hox orthologs, including two lab/Hox1, two Hox3, one Dfd/Hox4, and one Lox2/Lox4. The results suggest that Taenia Hox genes may have undergone independent gene duplication in two Hox paralogs. The failure to detect Post1/2 orthologs in T. asiatica may suggest that sequence divergence or the secondary loss of the posterior genes has occurred in the lineage leading to the cestode and trematode. PMID:17265186

Kim, Kyu-Heon; Lee, Yong Seok; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Chang-Bae; Eom, Keeseon S

2007-04-01

17

Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica using multiplex PCR.  

PubMed

Taenia asiatica and T. saginata are frequently confused tapeworms due to their morphological similarities and sympatric distribution in Asian regions. To resolve this problem, a high-resolution multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish T. asiatica infections from infection with other human Taenia tapeworms. For molecular characterization, the species specificity of all materials used was confirmed by sequencing of the cox1 gene. Fifty-two samples were analyzed in this study, comprising 20 samples of T. asiatica genomic DNA from China, Korea, and the Philippines; 24 samples of T. saginata from Belgium, Chile, China, Ethiopia, France, Indonesia, Korea, Laos, the Philippines, Poland, Taiwan, Thailand, and Switzerland; and 10 samples of T. solium from Cape Verde, China, Honduras, and Korea. The diagnostic quality of the results obtained using PCR and species-specific primers designed from valine tRNA and NADH genes was equal to that based on the nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay was useful for the differentially diagnosing T. asiatica, T. saginata, and T. solium based on 706-, 629-, and 474-bp bands. PMID:19017531

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Kong, Yoon; Waikagul, Jitra; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

2008-11-05

18

In vitro antioxidant and in vivo prophylactic effects of two ?-lactones isolated from Grewia tiliaefolia against hepatotoxicity in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grewia tiliaefolia is widely used in traditional Indian medicines to cure jaundice, biliousness, dysentery and the diseases of blood. Bioassay-guided fractionation of methanolic extract of the G. tiliaefolia bark has resulted in the isolation of D-erythro-2-hexenoic acid ?-lactone (EHGL) and gulonic acid ?-lactone (GAGL). Hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract and the isolated constituents were evaluated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in

Mohamed B. Khadeer Ahamed; Venkatarangaiah Krishna; Chethan J. Dandin

2010-01-01

19

Evidence of hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T. asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis to explore the possibility of gene exchange between these closely related taxa. In total, 38 taeniid tapeworms were collected from humans living in many localities including Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand where the two species are sympatric. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based multiplex PCR tentatively identified those parasites as T. asiatica (n=20) and T. saginata (n=18). Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and two nuclear loci, for elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp), assigned all except two individual parasites to the species indicated by multiplex PCR. The two exceptional individuals, from Kanchanaburi Province, showed a discrepancy between the mtDNA and nuclear DNA phylogenies. In spite of their possession of sequences typical of the T. saginata cox1 gene, both were homozygous at the elp locus for one of the alleles found in T. asiatica. At the ef1 locus, one individual was homozygous for the allele found at high frequency in T. asiatica while the other was homozygous for the major allele in T. saginata. These findings are evidence of occasional hybridization between the two species, although the possibility of retention of ancestral polymorphism cannot be excluded. PMID:19874910

Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakao, Minoru; Blair, David; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira

2009-10-27

20

Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

2013-02-18

21

Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis.

2013-01-01

22

Antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica Nakai.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica Nakai, its main constituents: 1,8-cineole and selin-11-en-4alpha-ol and monoterpene alcohols fraction were determined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Rhodotorula rubra and Aspergillus fumigatus. The oil exhibited a good inhibitory activity against bacteria and fungi. The monoterpene alcohols fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity. PMID:12164281

Kalemba, D; Kusewicz, D; Swiader, K

2002-05-01

23

Centella asiatica extracts modulate hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence in human dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) is a pharmacological plant in South Asia. It has been demonstrated that C. asiatica extracts containing various pentacyclic triterpenes exert healing effects, especially wound healing and collagen synthesis in skin. However, there are few studies on the effect of C. asiatica extracts on stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). To determine whether H(2) O(2) -induced senescence is affected by C. asiatica extracts, we performed senescence analysis on cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We also analysed whole gene expression level using microarrays and showed that 39 mRNAs are differentially expressed in H(2) O(2) -induced HDFs with and without treatment with C. asiatica extracts. These genes regulate apoptosis, gene silencing, cell growth, transcription, senescence, DNA replication and the spindle checkpoint. Differential expression of FOXM1, E2F2, MCM2, GDF15 and BHLHB2 was confirmed using semi-quantitative PCR. In addition, C. asiatica extracts rescued the H(2) O(2) -induced repression of replication in HDFs. Therefore, the findings presented here suggest that C. asiatica extracts might regulate SIPS by preventing repression of DNA replication and mitosis-related gene expression. PMID:22092576

Kim, Young Joo; Cha, Hwa Jun; Nam, Ki Ho; Yoon, Yeongmin; Lee, Hyunjin; An, Sungkwan

2011-12-01

24

Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep.  

PubMed

In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in comparison with cottonseed cake (CSC). Changes in the chemical composition of the leaves with progressive maturation (December to March) were studied. The leaves maintained a high CP content (>164 g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the prolonged maturation in the winter feed scarcity period. The leaves were rich in Ca (41 g/kg DM) and K (89 g/kg DM). The rate of degradation and effective degradability of CP were consistently higher (P < 0.001) in CSC than in G. oppositifolia. A balance trial in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four mature Ramghani wethers showed that DM intake, DM and CP digestibility, and N retention did not differ with the substitution of CSC with G. oppositifolia leaves, as a supplement to a basal diet of sorghum hay. Body weight (BW) gain and wool yield responses to the supplements were examined with 36 lambs (27 ± 3 kg BW; age 11 ± 1 months) for 15 weeks. The lambs were only grazed on local pasture (control group) or supplemented with CSC, G. oppositifolia leaves, and their mixture on iso-N basis. Addition of the supplements increased (P < 0.05) BW gain and wool yield, and the leaves were as effective as CSC. These results demonstrated that G. oppositifolia leaves provide good quality green fodder during the prolonged winter feed scarcity period, and that the leaves can be efficiently utilized as a CP supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep. PMID:22331457

Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Habib, Ghulam

2012-02-14

25

First report of Nocardia asiatica olecranon bursitis in an immunocompetent traveler returning to Austria.  

PubMed

Nocardia spp. are rarely isolated in extrapulmonary clinical specimens. We describe the first case of olecranon bursitis caused by Nocardia asiatica. The patient, a traveler returning from Thailand, was successfully treated with linezolid. PMID:23637291

Leitner, Eva; Valentin, Thomas; Hoenigl, Martin; Lanz, Philipp; Flick, Holger; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Grisold, Andrea J; Feierl, Gebhard; Krause, Robert

2013-05-01

26

Evaluation of Pb Phytoremediation Potential in Buddleja asiatica and B. paniculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation potential for Pb of Buddleja asiatica (a wild species) and a closely related cultivated species, B. paniculata, was investigated by means of field survey, hydroponic and pot experiments, and field trial experiments. Field surveys showed\\u000a that B. asiatica had an extraordinary accumulation capacity and tolerance for Pb. Plants grown in soil with 2,369.8–206,152 mg kg?1 total Pb accumulated 1,835.5–4,335.8 mg

Piyaporn Waranusantigul; Maleeya Kruatrachue; Prayad Pokethitiyook; Choowong Auesukaree

2008-01-01

27

Ossicular differentiation of airborne and seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole ( Chrysochloris asiatica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison between the middle ear anatomy of the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica), which exhibits a club-shaped malleus head, and the Desert golden mole (Eremitalpa granti), with a ball-shaped malleus head, suggests differences in sensitivity to airborne sound. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometric\\u000a measurements of the ossicular behavior in response to both vibration and airborne sound were made in C. asiatica.

U. B. Willi; G. N. Bronner; P. M. Narins

2006-01-01

28

Effect of Centella asiatica on arsenic induced oxidative stress and metal distribution in rats.  

PubMed

Concomitant oral supplementation of Centella asiatica (100, 200 or 300 mg kg(-1), orally once daily) during arsenic exposure (20 ppm in drinking water for 4 weeks) was investigated in rats for its protective value. The animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a marginal decrease in glutathione (GSH) and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level in blood. Hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) decreased, while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels increased significantly in the liver, kidney and brain. The activities of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase decreased marginally on arsenic exposure. Concomitant administration of Centella asiatica showed a significant protective action on inhibited blood ALAD activity and restored the blood GSH level, whereas most of the other blood biochemical parameters remained unchanged on Centella asiatica supplementation. Interestingly, most of the hepatic biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress showed protection. There was, however, a significant protection observed in the altered kidney GSSG level and hepatic and brain TBARS. Only a marginal beneficial effect of Centella asiatica on blood and liver arsenic concentration was noted, particularly at the highest dose studies (300 mg kg(-1)). No effect of Centella asiatica on most of the altered renal biochemical parameters was noted. The results thus lead to the conclusion that simultaneous supplementation of Centella asiatica significantly protects against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but does not influence the arsenic concentration in these organs. It can thus be suggested that co-administration of Centella asiatica protects animals from arsenic-induced oxidative stress but exhibits no chelating property. Further studies are recommended for determining the effect of co-administration of Centella asiatica during chelation therapy with a thiol chelator. PMID:16389662

Gupta, Richa; Flora, S J S

29

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of two important memory enhancing medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica  

PubMed Central

Background: Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen species are capable of inducing oxidative damage to human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. Both Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are used in treatment of brain disorders in humans and have almost similar effects. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the antioxidant properties of two well-known memory enhancer medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica. Results: The antioxidant activity of these two medicinal plants was evaluated by measuring reducing ability, free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and hydrogen peroxide methods. The antioxidants compounds like ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also evaluated in these plants. Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica exhibited significant differences (P<0.05) in their antioxidant values. The methanolic extract of whole leaf powder of Baccopa monnieri exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity than the Centella asiatica. The antioxidant components viz. ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also found in a higher concentration in Baccopa monnieri as compared to Centella asiatica. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that regular use of Baccopa monnieri as a supplement could be more helpful compared to Centella asiatica in treatment of neurological disorders caused by free radical damage.

Meena, Harsahay; Pandey, Hemant Kumar; Pandey, Pankaj; Arya, Mahesh Chand; Ahmed, Zakwan

2012-01-01

30

Centella asiatica Improves Physical Performance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Healthy Elderly Volunteer  

PubMed Central

Recently, oxidative stress has been reported to contribute an important role in the decline of physical function as age advances. Numerous antioxidants can improve both physical and psychological performances resulting in the increase of health-related quality of life (HQOL). Therefore, we hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a medicinal plant reputed for nerve tonic, strength improvement and antioxidant activity, could improve the physical performance and HQOL especially in the physical satisfaction aspect, of the healthy elderly volunteer. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Eighty healthy elderly were randomly assigned to receive placebo or standardized extract of C. asiatica at doses of 250, 500 and 750?mg once daily for 90 days. The subjects were evaluated to establish baseline data of physical performance using 30-s chair stand test, hand grip test and 6-min walk test. The health-related quality of life was assessed using SF-36. These assessments were repeated every month throughout the 3-month experimental period using the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, 1 month after the cessation of C. asiatica treatment, all subjects were also evaluated using these parameters again. The results showed that after 2 months of treatment, C. asiatica at doses of 500 and 750?mg per day increased lower extremity strength assessed via the 30-s chair stand test. In addition, the higher doses of C. asiatica could improve the life satisfaction subscale within the physical function subscale. Therefore, the results from this study appear to support the traditional reputation of C. asiatica on strength improvement, especially in the lower extremities of the elderly. C. asiatica also possesses the potential to be a natural resource for vigor and strength increase, in healthy elderly persons. However, further research is essential.

Mato, Lugkana; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyawatkul, Nawanant; Yimtae, Kwanchanok; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

2011-01-01

31

Development of Taenia saginata asiatica metacestodes in SCID mice and its infectivity in human and alternative definitive hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of Taenia saginata asiatica metacestodes in SCID mice, and its infectivity in humans, golden hamsters, and Mongolian gerbils as alternative definitive hosts, were investigated. Cysticerci were recovered from SCID mice that were subcutaneously injected with hatched oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. The morphological changes of metacestodes were observed. The recovered cysticerci were fed to gerbils, hamsters and humans, to

S. L. Chang; N. Nonaka; M. Kamiya; Y. Kanai; H. K. Ooi; W. C. Chung; Y. Oku

2005-01-01

32

On the phytosociology and ecology of Isoëtes asiatica (Makino) Makino in oligotrophic water bodies of South Sakhalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, in the southeast of the Sakhalin Island and south of the village Okhotskoye, Isoëtes asiatica (Makino) Makino and I. beringensis Kom. were detected in 24 oligotrophic lakes for the first time on Sakhalin. These are stands of the community of Isoëtetum asiaticae ass. nov. which in the majority of the lakes form a characteristic pioneer vegetation of the

W. Pietsch

1991-01-01

33

Ossicular differentiation of airborne and seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica).  

PubMed

Comparison between the middle ear anatomy of the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica), which exhibits a club-shaped malleus head, and the Desert golden mole (Eremitalpa granti), with a ball-shaped malleus head, suggests differences in sensitivity to airborne sound. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometric measurements of the ossicular behavior in response to both vibration and airborne sound were made in C. asiatica. Two distinct vibrational modes were observed. In response to low-frequency vibration (70-200 Hz), the malleus oscillates about the ligament of the short process of the incus, whereas in response to high-frequency airborne sound (1-6 kHz) the ossicular chain rotates about the long axis of malleus. It is proposed that the club-shaped malleus head in C. asiatica constitutes an adaptation towards bimodal hearing-sensitivity to substrate vibrations and airborne sound. Possible functional differences between these two middle ear types are discussed. PMID:16283329

Willi, U B; Bronner, G N; Narins, P M

2005-11-09

34

Neuroprotective Effects of Centella asiatica against Intracerebroventricular Colchicine-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Oxidative Stress.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress appears to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage in rats. Colchicine (15 mug/5 muL) was administered intracerebroventricularly in the lateral ventricle of male wistar rats. Morris water maze and plus-maze performance tests were used to assess memory performance tasks. Various biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, nitrite, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, acetylcholinesterase were also assessed. ICV colchicine resulted marked memory impairment and oxidative damage. Chronic treatment with Centella asiatica extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 25 days, beginning 4 days prior to colchicine administration, significantly attenuated colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage. Besides, Centella asiatica significantly reversed colchicines administered increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Thus, present study indicates protective effect of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative damage. PMID:20798885

Kumar, Anil; Dogra, Samrita; Prakash, Atish

2009-09-13

35

First Report of Septoria centellae Associated with Leaf Spot of Centella asiatica in Korea  

PubMed Central

Septoria centellae associated with leaf spot of Centella asiatica is reported for the first time in Korea. The fungus is described and illustrated in detail. It is also compared with related species of Septoria present on Centella and Hydrocotyle spp. with taxonomic comments. Two monoconidial isolates from Jeju and Wando were successfully cultured and have been deposited in the Korean Agricultural Culture Collection.

Park, Ji-Hyun; Park, Mi-Jeong; Wolcan, Silvia

2011-01-01

36

Ecological studies of Gracilaria asiatica and Gracilaria lemaneiformis in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural populations of G. asiatica Zhang & Xia and G. lemaneiformis (Bory) Weber van Bosse were studied during 1984 and 1986 in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao (36°4'N, 120° 21'E). Rapid growth (length, weight) of these plants occurred between mid-May and late June (water temperatures, 15-20°C). The major epiphyte of G. asiatica was Enteromorpha linza, while Punctaria latifolia was the major epiphyte of G. lemaneiformis. Epiphytism declined throughout early summer, and epiphytes were rare after mid-July (1984); they did not reappear in late summer, although macrophyte growth declined abruptly after early July. Populations of G. asiatica varied during late spring-early summer between adjacent sandy and rocky portions of the intertidal zone; plants at the sandy site were larger and epiphyte-free. Amphipod densities were low on both species of Gracilaria, but the most abundant species were Ampithoe lacertosa, Caprella equilibra, C. krøyeri, C. scauraand Pontogeneia rostrata. Additional information on general community structure is provided for the G. asiatica zone.

Brawley, Susan H.; Xiugeng, Fei

1988-03-01

37

Effects of sediment and its re-suspension on the growth of Vallisneria asiatica Miki  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic macrophytic growth and its distribution in eutrophic lakes are described in relation to its sediment type and irradiance. Hence, it is necessary to characterize the response of macrophytic growth to lake sediment and its re-suspension. We conducted two independent experiments to measure the effects of sediment and its re-suspension on the growth of Vallisneria asiatica Miki. Based on our

Ze-xiang LEI; Yi-fa XIE; De-lan XU; Zheng-wen LIU

2008-01-01

38

Field evaluation of in vitro-induced tetraploid and diploid Centella asiatica (L.) Urban.  

PubMed

Centella asiatica-a medicinal plant that produces high-value active triterpenoids-is in increasing demand by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to field-test one induced tetraploid and three diploid C. asiatica lines for the selection of high-quality plants with high phytomass and triterpenoid content and to determine their optimal harvesting time. All tested C. asiatica were micropropagated using an established protocol. One-month-old plantlets were acclimatized for the field experiment. The plants were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, ten plantlets per replication, and the experimental bed site was 0.6 × 1.0 m. Growth parameters, phytomass and the amounts of four active triterpenoids were evaluated. All lines exhibited the highest growth, yields and triterpenoids at 4 months after cultivation. The tetraploid line showed significantly better characteristics, i.e., larger leaf area, leaf width, petiole length, and greater yields, than diploid lines. Dry weight per cultivated area (77.53 ± 3.07 g/m(2)) and total triterpenoids (15.38 ± 0.76 % dry weight) were increased significantly in tetraploid plants of C. asiatica. Furthermore, the harvesting time had an effect on the yield and triterpenoid content (P < 0.001). In all tetraploid and diploid lines, the yields and triterpenoid content per cultivated area reached their maximum at 4 months after planting. Our results demonstrated that polyploidy induction is a beneficial tool that can be used to improve the medicinal value of C. asiatica. PMID:23529542

Thong-On, Wachiraporn; Arimatsu, Panida; Pitiporn, Supaporn; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Prathanturarug, Sompop

2013-03-26

39

Cloning of a cDNA probably encoding oxidosqualene cyclase associated with asiaticoside biosynthesis from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban  

Microsoft Academic Search

A homology-based PCR method was used to clone a cDNA encoding oxidosqualene cyclase from Centella asiatica, which produces a large quantity of triterpene saponins such as asiaticoside and madecassoside. Sequence analysis of one clone found sequences related to ?-amyrin synthase. An open reading frame in the full-length clone was named CabAS (Centella asiatica putative ?-amyrin synthase). On the basis of

Ok Tae Kim; Min Young Kim; Sun Mi Huh; Dong Gyu Bai; Jun Cheul Ahn; Baik Hwang

2005-01-01

40

Genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and other geographical locations as revealed by cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences.  

PubMed

Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species. PMID:23467439

Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

2013-02-18

41

Genetic Diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and Other Geographical Locations as Revealed by Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 Sequences  

PubMed Central

Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species.

Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

2013-01-01

42

Exophiala asiatica, a new species from a fatal case in China.  

PubMed

We describe a new species, Exophiala asiatica, isolated from an infection of the pharynx in a 20-year-old, immunocompetent woman in Nanjing, China. The infection was initiated by a fishbone prick in the pharynx, soon developed with facial nodules but subsequently seemed to have disappeared. Tonsil ulceration with progressive soreness of the pharynx was observed 3 years later. Dysphagia, headache and paralysis occurred four years after first signs of infection. Hyphae and yeast-like cells were detected in tissue and a black fungus was recovered repeatedly from pharynx tissue. Despite antifungal therapy for more than one year, the patient died of apparent cerebral dissemination of the etiologic agent. On the basis of morphology, nutritional physiology, ribosomal small subunit DNA and ITS sequence data the strain could not be matched with any existing species. A new species, Exophiala asiatica, is therefore proposed. PMID:19107634

Li, Dong Ming; Li, Ruo Yu; De Hoog, G S; Wang, Yu Xin; Wang, Duan Li

2008-12-19

43

Bioguided isolation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extract of the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. showed significant inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) determined by monitoring the transformation from a substrate hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL) to the product hippuric acid (HA) in vitro using an UPLC-MS method. The bioguided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of four ACE inhibitory active phenylpropanoid glycosides acteoside, isoacteoside, plantainoside D, and plantamajoside with IC(50) values of 2.69 mM, 2.46 mM, 2.17 mM, and 2.47 mM, respectively. Their structures were elucidated through the analysis of NMR, UV, IR and MS data. Our study is the first demonstration that Plantago asiatica L. and its major constituents have ACE inhibitory activity in vitro. It is assumed that the identified compounds contribute to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of the extract. PMID:19998322

Geng, Fang; Yang, Li; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

2010-07-01

44

Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure-all  

PubMed Central

In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Centella asiatica is an important medicinal herb that is widely used in the orient and is becoming popular in the West. Triterpenoid, saponins, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica are manly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. Apart from wound healing, the herb is recommended for the treatment of various skin conditions such as leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, diarrhoea, fever, amenorrhea, diseases of the female genitourinary tract and also for relieving anxiety and improving cognition. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on pharmacology, mechanisms of action, various preclinical and clinical studies, safety precautions and current research prospects of the herb. At the same time, studies to evaluate the likelihood of interactions with drugs and herbs on simultaneous use, which is imperative for optimal and safe utilization of the herb, are discussed.

Gohil, Kashmira J.; Patel, Jagruti A.; Gajjar, Anuradha K.

2010-01-01

45

Adriamycin induced myocardial failure in rats: Protective role of Centella asiatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in adriamycin induced cardiotoxicity.\\u000a Mitochondrial dysfunction is characterized by the accumulation of oxidized lipids, proteins and DNA, leading to disorganization\\u000a of mitochondrial structure and systolic failure. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Centella asiatica on the mitochondrial enzymes; mitochondrial antioxidant status in adriamycin induced myocardial

A. Gnanapragasam; S. Yogeeta; R. Subhashini; K. K. Ebenezar; V. Sathish; T. Devaki

2007-01-01

46

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ethanolic leaf extract of Centella asiatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report a novel use of the ethanolic leaf extract of Centella asiatica to produce gold nanoparticles by reduction of AuCl4? ions. The phytochemicals present in the leaf extract served as effective reducing and capping agent. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV–visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to

Ratul Kumar Das; Bibhuti Bhusan Borthakur; Utpal Bora

2010-01-01

47

Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica taeniasis through PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

New multiplex-PCR and PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism protocols, derived from Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence (AccN#AJ133740), have been designed that allow the simultaneous and specific identification of T. saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica. Proglottids expelled from 20 different Spanish taeniasis patients, previously diagnosed as T. saginata by both morphological identification and multiplex HDP2-PCR, were also examined by the newly

Luis Miguel González; Estrella Montero; Nimit Morakote; Sabino Puente; Jose Luis Díaz De Tuesta; Teresa Serra; Rogelio López-Velez; Donald P McManus; Leslie J. S Harrison; R. Michael E Parkhouse; Teresa Gárate

2004-01-01

48

Protective effect of Centella asiatica extract and powder on oxidative stress in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Centella asiatica extract and powder in reducing oxidative stress in SpraqueDawley rats was evaluated. Lipid peroxidation was monitored by measuring malonaldehyde (MDA) level in blood. Activities of free radical-scavenging enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were determined using H2O2 decomposition and nitrobluetetrazolium reduction, respectively. Results showed that administration of H2O2 (0.1%) in drinking water of the rats, for

Mahanom Hussin; Azizah Abdul-Hamid; Suhaila Mohamad; Nazamid Saari; Maznah Ismail; Mohd. Hair Bejo

2007-01-01

49

Enrichment and purification of madecassoside and asiaticoside from Centella asiatica extracts with macroporous resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, the performance and separation characteristics of five macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of asiaticoside and madecassoside from Centella asiatica extracts have been evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties of total triterpene saponins (80% purity) on macroporous resins including HPD100, HPD300, X-5, AB-8 and D101 have been compared. According to our results, HPD100 offered higher adsorption

Guangtao Jia; Xiuyang Lu

2008-01-01

50

Induction of root colonization by Piriformospora indica leads to enhanced asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) has wide application in Indian and Chinese traditional medicines with documented evidence for wound healing\\u000a and neuroprotective and anti-aging potential. Asiaticoside, a trisaccharide triterpene, is the most medicinally active compound\\u000a in the plant. ?-Amyrin synthase and squalene synthase have been identified as the two key genes in the triterpenoid pathway\\u000a which regulate the production of asiaticoside

Jisha Satheesan; Anith K Narayanan; Manjula Sakunthala

51

Separation and Determination of Madecassic Acid in Extracts of Centella asiatica Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with ?-Cyclodextrin as Mobile Phase Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a tropical medicinal plant with a long history of therapeutic uses. Madecassic acid and terminolic acid, a pair of structural isomers, are two constituents of Centella asiatica. A method using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography in which ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was the additive in mobile phase has been developed for separation and determination of the structural

Jian PAN; Guiqing KAI; Chuanxun YUAN; Beibei ZHOU; Risheng JIN; Yuan YUAN

2007-01-01

52

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

We aimed to assess the efficacy of Centella asiatica for improvement of the signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). We searched 13 electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of Centella asiatica for CVI. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed the risks of bias of included studies and extracted data. The treatment effects of similar studies were pooled whenever appropriate. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooling of data of similar studies showed that Centella asiatica significantly improved microcirculatory parameters such as transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 and O2, rate of ankle swelling and venoarteriolar response. Three out of the eight studies did not provide quantitative data. However, these studies reported that patients treated with Centella asiatica showed significant improvement in CVI signs such as leg heaviness, pain and oedema. Our results show that Centella asiatica may be beneficial for improving signs and symptoms of CVI but this conclusion needs to be interpreted with caution as most of the studies were characterised by inadequate reporting and thus had unclear risks of bias, which may threaten the validity of the conclusions.

Chong, Nyuk Jet; Aziz, Zoriah

2013-01-01

53

Centella asiatica protects against UVB-induced HaCaT keratinocyte damage through microRNA expression changes.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) against ultraviolet B (UVB) damage in human keratinocytes using microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling analysis. Titrated extract of C. asiatica (TECA) demonstrated low cytotoxicity in normal human HaCaT keratinocytes only at low doses (<5 µg/ml). UVB (50 mJ/cm2) irradiation significantly decreased cell viability, and TECA treatment decreased the UVB toxicity. By using miRNA microarrays, we determined that 72 miRNAs had an altered expression following TECA treatment in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (46 upregulated and 26 downregulated). Using an miRNA target gene prediction tool and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, we determined that miRNAs with altered expression were functionally related with the inhibition of apoptosis and cell proliferation. Overall, these results provide meaningful information to facilitate the understanding of TECA-mediated UVB protection in human keratinocytes. PMID:23064234

An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Choe, Tae-?oo; Kang, Sang-?o; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, In-Chul; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Seunghee

2012-10-15

54

[Regulation mechanism of triterpenoid components from Prunella asiatica on phase II detoxifying enzymes in vitro and in vivo].  

PubMed

To study the effects of triterpenoid components from Prunella asiatica on phase II detoxifying enzymes and protein expression in vitro and in vivo. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell model was used in vitro, and the mouse model of Kunming (KM) mice was used in vivo. CDNB assay was used to measure the activity of GST. NADPH and DCIP was used to detect the activity of NQO1. DTNB colorimetric assay was used to detect GSH. Western blot was use to detect the protein expression of NQO1. We found that triterpenoid components from P. asiatica could increase the activity of GST, NQO1 and GSH in NHBE cells and KM mice. NQO1 protein expression can also be increased in vitro. The study suggests that triterpenoid components from P. asiatica can prevent the lung cancer by regulating the body phase II detoxification enzyme activity and protein expression. PMID:23477155

Jin, Ping; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Wen-Bo; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2012-12-01

55

Anthelmintic and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of fractions of methanol extract of Leea asiatica leaves  

PubMed Central

Leea asiatica, a folk medicinal plant of India, is used in the treatment of worm infection and other oxidative stress-related disorders, traditionally. In the present study, the in vitro anthelmintic and in vitro antioxidant activity of different fractions of the methanol extract from the Leea asiatica leaves were evaluated. The fraction displayed significant anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a better paralysis activity (13.99 ± 0.59), while the methanol fraction showed a better death time (63.76 ± 0.73 minutes), when compared with other fractions, at a dose of 50 mg/ml concentration. The anthelmintic activity of methanol and the ethyl acetate fraction were almost similar and comparable to the standard drug, piperazine citrate. The petroleum ether fraction did not produce a potent anthelmintic effect compared to the standard. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, lipid peroxidation assay, and the ferric thiocyanate method. The ethyl acetate fraction showed better antioxidant activity in all tested methods. The IC50 value of the ethyl acetate fraction in the DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, and lipid peroxidation assay were 9.5, 13.0, and 57.0 ?g/ml, respectively. The fractions significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the peroxidation of linoleic acid. The results confirmed the folk use of Leea asiatica in warm infection and the plant could be viewed as a potential source of natural anthelmintic and antioxidant compound.

Sen, Saikat; De, Biplab; Devanna, N.; Chakraborty, Raja

2012-01-01

56

Genetic variability of Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntz based on AFLP analysis and host-parasite interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLP analysis was used to estimate genetic variability within and among 14 populations of Striga asiaticaL. Kuntze collected from different locations within the Republic of Benin. The mean within-population genetic distances ranged\\u000a from 0.028 to 0.038, while the mean among-population genetic distances ranged from 0.019to 0.088, with an assumed minimum\\u000a genetic distance of0.01 in each case. Intra- and inter-population variation

Christopher J. Botanga; Jennifer G. Kling; Dana K. Berner; Michael P. Timko

2002-01-01

57

Effects of Centella Asiatica Linn. Leaves and Garcinia Mangostana Linn. hull on the Healing of Dermal Wounds in Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diabetes is a condition which is known to be associated with a variety of connective tissue abnormalities which contribute to impaired wound healing, leading to the chronic ulcer formation. Centella asiatica Linn. and Garcinia mangostana Linn. are widely used as Thai traditional medicine including wound treatment. However, the effects of both plant extracts in diabetic condition had not been

Jirat Nganlasom; Tunda Suttitum; Dusit Jirakulsomchok; Anucha Puapairoj

2008-01-01

58

Evaluation of the anticonvulsant effect of Centella asiatica (gotu kola) in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures with respect to cholinergic neurotransmission.  

PubMed

The study described here was carried out to investigate the anticonvulsant effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica with respect to cholinergic activity on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Rats were randomly divided into eight groups of six rats each: nonepileptic rats treated with saline; PTZ (60 mg/kg, IP)-induced seizure rats treated with saline; PTZ-induced seizure rats pretreated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of C. asiatica; and PTZ-induced seizure rats pretreated with diazepam (2mg/kg body wt). The seized rats pretreated with different extracts were administered a dose of 200mg/kg body wt orally for 1 week before induction of epilepsy. Increased acetylcholine content and decreased acetylcholinesterase activity were recorded in different brain regions during PTZ-induced seizures. Pretreatment with C. asiatica extracts caused recovery of the levels of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase. These findings suggest that C. asiatica causes perceptible changes in the cholinergic system as one of the facets of its anticonvulsant activity. PMID:20144879

Visweswari, Gopalreddygari; Prasad, Kanchi Siva; Chetan, Pandanaboina Sahitya; Lokanatha, Valluru; Rajendra, Wudayagiri

2010-02-09

59

Antioxidative activity and total phenolic compounds of leaf, root and petiole of four accessions of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidative activity and total phenolic compounds of root, leaf and petiole of four accessions of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, namely CA 01, CA 05, CA 08 and CA 11, were evaluated. Antioxidative activity of the extracts was measured using the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. The antioxidative activities were then compared with that of ?-tocopherol (natural

M. K Zainol; A Abd-Hamid; S Yusof; R Muse

2003-01-01

60

Influence of Environmental Factors on Production of Berberine Content in Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC in Kumaun West Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis asiatica samples collected from nine altitudes of Kumaun Himalaya, India were analyzed for berberine concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Correlation between berberine concentration, size class, and season were established. The root and stem bark samples from lower altitude, having larger size class, contained more berberine. Berberine concentration was the highest in summer and lowest in the rainy season. Low

Harish C. Andola; Kailash S. Gaira; Ranbeer S. Rawal; Mohan S. M. Rawat; Indra D. Bhatt

2011-01-01

61

Glycogen storage in relation to the moult cycle in the two crustaceans Emerita asiatica and Ligia exotica  

Microsoft Academic Search

InEmerita asiatica, the quantitative fluctuations in the glycogen content of the hepatopancreas were markedly related to the moult cycle. The glycogen content of the hepatopancreas was maximum during premoult stages. It has been suggested that reserve glycogen, in addition to meeting general metabolic needs, may be especially involved in the genesis of the sugar precursors of chitin. The marked fall

K. Parvathy

1971-01-01

62

Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).  

PubMed

Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds. PMID:22065063

Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

2011-11-09

63

Gene expression changes in the human fibroblast induced by Centella asiatica triterpenoids.  

PubMed

The molecular pathways underlying the diverse biological activity of the triterpeniod compounds isolated from the tropical medicinal plant Centella asiatica were studied with gene microarrays and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) to quantify the expression of 1053 human genes in human fibroblasts. Fibroblast cells grown in culture were used as a model system to evaluate the stimulation of wound healing by titrated extract from Centella asiatica (TECA) as well as by the four principal triterpenoid components of Centella. TECA treatment effects the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and the remodeling of extracellular matrix, as well as diverse growth factor genes. The extent of expression change of TNFAIP6, an extracellular hyaluronan binding protein, was found to be largely dose-dependent, to respond most strongly to the free acids asiatic acid and madecassic acid, and to increase in expression over 48 hours of treatment. These results show that Centella triterpenes evoke a gene-expression response consistent with their prevailing medical uses in the treatment of connective tissue disorders such as wound healing and microangiopathy. The identification of genes modulated by these compounds provides the basis for a molecular understanding of Centella's bioactivity, and opportunities for the quantitative correlation of this activity with clinical effectiveness at a molecular level. PMID:14531023

Coldren, Christopher D; Hashim, Puziah; Ali, Johari Mohd; Oh, Se-Kyung; Sinskey, Anthony J; Rha, ChoKyun

2003-08-01

64

A 90 day repeated oral toxicity study on plantamajoside concentrate from Plantago asiatica.  

PubMed

Plantago asiatica is distributed widely in East Asia. Since ancient times it has been used as a diuretic to treat acute urinary infections, and as an antiinflammatory, antiasthmatic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatitis drug. The major compound, plantamajoside from P. asiatica, which is used as a marker compound in chemotaxonomic studies, was reported to have antibacterial activity, inhibition activity against cAMP phosphodiesterase and 5-lipoxygenase and antioxidant activity. However, there are no reports on the safety of plantamajoside. This study assessed the toxic effects of plantamajoside concentrate (PC), the purity of which was above 80%, in rats following administration at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for 13 weeks, as recommended by the OECD guidelines. The results showed that there were no differences in body weight, food intake, water consumption, relative organ weight or the hematological and serum biochemical values among the different dosage groups. No death or abnormal clinical signs were observed during the experimental period. Therefore, the results suggested that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the PC in rats after oral administration is considered to be greater than 2000 mg/kg in rats under the conditions employed in this study. PMID:17622978

Park, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Chung-Oui; Won, Hye-Jin; Park, Ho-Young; Ryu, Yung-Sun; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kim, Kyoung-Heon; Park, Kuen-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Won

2007-12-01

65

Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea  

PubMed Central

In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs, leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea.

Rim, Han-Jong

2001-01-01

66

Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice: protective role of Leea asiatica leaves.  

PubMed

Abstract Cisplatin is a popular anticancer drug, but its side effects like nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity due to oxidative stress limited its clinical use. In tis study, nephoprotective effect of fractions of Leea asiatica (Leeaceae) leaves was assessed against cisplatin induced toxicity in rats. Leaves of L. asiatica extracted with methanol, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, and evaluated for in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity using several assay models. Methanol extract showed better antioxidant effects, and contain higher amount of phenolic (77.75?±?0.87?mg GAE/g of dry material) and flavonoid compound (60.98?±?0.58?mg QE/g of dry material) compared with other extracts. Hance methanol extract was selected for further investigation and fractionated with methanol, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether. Protective effect of methanol extract and its fractions was evaluated against cisplatin (20?mg/kg, i.p.) induced nephrotoxicity. Pretreatment with methanol extract (150 and 300?mg/kg), and its fractions especially methanol, ethyl acetate fraction (75 and 150?mg/kg) significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, uric acid levels, and decreased malondialdehyde level and increase total protein and albumin level (p?

Sen, Saikat; De, Biplab; Devanna, N; Chakraborty, Raja

2013-09-04

67

Artificial simulated saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion of polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.  

PubMed

The saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion of polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. seeds was investigated in vitro. It was found that salivary amylase had no effect on the polysaccharide; however, the polysaccharide was influenced in later gastrointestinal digestion. A steady decrease in molecular weight (M(w)) of the polysaccharide from 1903.1±93.0 to 4.7±0.2 kDa was observed as digestion time increased. Meanwhile, the reducing ends were increased from 0.157±0.009 to 0.622±0.026 mM, indicating the decrease of M(w) may due to the breakdown of glycosidic bonds. In addition, there was no monosaccharide released throughout the whole digestion period, suggesting that the gastrointestinal digestion did not result in a production of free monosaccharide. These results may provide some information on the digestion of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. in vitro, and may contribute to the methods of studying the digestion of other carbohydrates. PMID:23399139

Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Min, Fang-Fang; Xie, Ming-Yong

2012-11-03

68

The effect of methyl jasmonate on triterpene and sterol metabolisms of Centella asiatica, Ruscus aculeatus and Galphimia glauca cultured plants.  

PubMed

Considering that exogenously applied methyl jasmonate can enhance secondary metabolite production in a variety of plant species and that 2,3-oxidosqualene is a common precursor of triterpenes and sterols in plants, we have studied Centella asiatica and Galphimia glauca (both synthesizing triterpenoid secondary compounds) and Ruscus aculeatus (which synthesizes steroidal secondary compounds) for their growth rate and content of free sterols and respective secondary compounds, after culturing with or without 100 microM methyl jasmonate. Our results show that elicited plantlets of G. glauca and to a higher degree C. asiatica (up to 152-times more) increased their content of triterpenoids directly synthesized from 2,3-oxidosqualene (ursane saponins and nor-seco-friedelane galphimines, respectively) at the same time as growth decreased. In contrast, the free sterol content of C. asiatica decreased notably, and remained practically unaltered in G. glauca. However, in the case of R. aculeatus, which synthesizes steroidal saponins (mainly spirostane type) indirectly from 2,3-oxidosqualene after the latter is converted to the plant phytosterol-precursor cycloartenol, while the growth rate and free sterol content clearly decreased, the spirostane saponine content was virtually unchanged (aerial part) or somewhat lower (roots) in presence of the same elicitor concentration. Our results suggest that while methyl jasmonate may be used as an inducer of enzymes involved in the triterpenoid synthesis downstream from 2,3-oxidosqualene in both C. asiatica and G. glauca plantlets, in those of C. asiatica and R. aculeatus it inhibited the enzymes involved in sterol synthesis downstream from cycloartenol. PMID:16876832

Mangas, Susana; Bonfill, Mercè; Osuna, Lidia; Moyano, Elisabeth; Tortoriello, Jaime; Cusido, Rosa M; Piñol, M Teresa; Palazón, Javier

2006-07-28

69

FRUIT SPLIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water stage fruit split is a noninfectious disorder of pecan. Its occurrence and severity varies greatly depending upon cultivar, crop load, water status of trees, and atmospheric conditions. This review article discusses the symptoms, causes, and control measures for water stage fruit split in pe...

70

Shocking Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how a piece of fruit can act as an electrolyte, conducting electricity between two different metals. In this way, learners construct a simple battery and record their observations. Educators can use this activity to introduce circuits, electrodes, and electrolytes. After completing this activity, learners can explore other fruit and vegetable conductors.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

71

The snakehead Channa asiatica accumulates alanine during aerial exposure, but is incapable of sustaining locomotory activities on land through partial amino acid catabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater snakehead Channa asiatica is an obligatory air-breather that resides in slow-flowing streams and in crevices near riverbanks in Southern China. In its natural habitat, it may encounter bouts of aerial exposure during the dry seasons. In the laboratory, the ammonia excretion rate of C. asiatica exposed to terrestrial conditions in a 12 h:12 h dark:light regime was one

Shit F. Chew; Mei Y. Wong; Wai L. Tam; Yuen K. Ip

2003-01-01

72

In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Florfenicol for Treatment of Francisella asiatica Infection in Tilapia ?  

PubMed Central

Francisella asiatica is a recently described, Gram-negative, facultative intracellular fish pathogen, known to be the causative agent of francisellosis in warm-water fish. Francisellosis outbreaks have increased in frequency among commercial aquaculture operations and have caused severe economic losses in every case reported. The lack of effective treatments for piscine francisellosis led us to investigate the potential efficacy of florfenicol for inhibition of F. asiatica in vitro and as an oral therapeutic agent in vivo. The MIC of florfenicol for F. asiatica, as determined by the broth dilution method, was 2 ?g/ml, which indicates its potential efficacy as a therapeutic agent for treatment of francisellosis. The intracellular susceptibility of the bacterium to florfenicol in tilapia head kidney-derived macrophages (THKDM) was also investigated. Addition of florfenicol to the medium at 10 ?g/ml was sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial loads in the THKDM in vitro. Cytotoxicity assays done in infected THKDM also demonstrated drug efficacy in vivo, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Levels of LDH released from infected THKDM were significantly lower in macrophages treated with florfenicol (P < 0.001) than in untreated cells. In medicated-feed trials, fish were fed 15 mg of florfenicol/kg of fish body weight for 10 days, and the feeding was initiated at either 1, 3, or 6 days postchallenge. Immersion challenges resulted in 30% mean percent survival in nontreated fish, and fish receiving medicated feed administered at 1 and 3 days postinfection showed higher mean percent survival (100% and 86.7%, respectively). A significant decrease (P < 0.001) in bacterial numbers (number of CFU/g of spleen tissue) was observed in treated groups compared to nontreated infected fish at both 1 and 3 days postchallenge. There were no differences in bacterial burden in the spleens between fish treated 6 days postchallenge and untreated controls. In conclusion, if florfenicol is administered during early stages of infection, it has the potential for effectively treating piscine francisellosis, including the capacity for intracellular penetration and bacterial clearance.

Soto, Esteban; Endris, Richard G.; Hawke, John P.

2010-01-01

73

State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

Flisser, Ana

2013-02-18

74

State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.

2013-01-01

75

Pome fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the beneficial influences of controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) on the major quality deterioration, physiological disorders and diseases of pome fruits, and the problems resulting from improper atmosphere conditions. It discusses the interactions between ...

76

Development of ITS sequence-based markers to distinguish Berberis aristata DC. from B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb.  

PubMed

The stems of Berberis aristata DC. (Berberidaceae) are used in the South Asian traditional medicine as a key ingredient in formulations for eye care, skin diseases, jaundice, rheumatism and also in diabetes. B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb. are traded as equivalents of B. aristata. Conventional macro-morphology and microscopic examination does not aid in critically distinguishing the three species. DNA markers were developed by amplifying and sequencing the complete internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2) from the genomic DNA, using universal primers. The markers developed are efficient and reliable in authenticating B. aristata, B. asiatica and B. lycium. These are useful as molecular pharmacognostic tool in quality control of raw drugs. PMID:22558531

Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Goraya, Gurinder Singh; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

2011-01-18

77

Evaluation of the anticonvulsant effect of Centella asiatica (gotu kola) in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures with respect to cholinergic neurotransmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study described here was carried out to investigate the anticonvulsant effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica with respect to cholinergic activity on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Rats were randomly divided into eight groups of six rats each: nonepileptic rats treated with saline; PTZ (60mg\\/kg, IP)-induced seizure rats treated with saline; PTZ-induced seizure rats pretreated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate,

Gopalreddygari Visweswari; Kanchi Siva Prasad; Pandanaboina Sahitya Chetan; Valluru Lokanatha; Wudayagiri Rajendra

2010-01-01

78

Development of ITS sequence-based markers to distinguish Berberis aristata DC. from B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stems of Berberis aristata DC. (Berberidaceae) are used in the South Asian traditional medicine as a key ingredient in formulations for eye care, skin\\u000a diseases, jaundice, rheumatism and also in diabetes. B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb. are traded as equivalents of B. aristata. Conventional macro-morphology and microscopic examination does not aid in critically distinguishing the three species.

Subramani Paranthaman Balasubramani; Gurinder Singh Goraya; Padma Venkatasubramanian

79

Improved HPLC Determination of the Centella asiatica Terpenes: Analysis in a Multiple Emulsion, Influence of the Surfactants on the Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance liquid chromatographic methods were established for the determination of the three terpenic compounds of Centella Asiatica. The samples were analyzed with a Spherisorb ODS-2 reversed phase column and detected at UV 206 nm.Regression equations were derived showing linear relationships (individual correlation coefficients ranged between 0.998 - 1.000).This quick and simple method has been used for evaluating the interaction

C. Laugel; A. Baillet; D. Ferrier

1998-01-01

80

Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal---Centella asiatica---extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ~180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w\\/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various

Panprung Sikareepaisan; Apichart Suksamrarn; Pitt Supaphol

2008-01-01

81

Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract  

PubMed Central

This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine.

Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

2013-01-01

82

Rod Press Fruit Harvester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to an apparatus for removing or harvesting fruit and more particularly to an apparatus that will harvest fruit especially from narrow fruit growing canopies by pressing the fruit out of the production canopy.

D. L. Peterson

1982-01-01

83

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

84

Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist. PMID:20540755

González, Luis M; Bailo, Begoña; Ferrer, Elizabeth; García, Maria D Fernandez; Harrison, Leslie Js; Parkhouse, Michael Re; McManus, Donald P; Gárate, Teresa

2010-06-11

85

Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist.

2010-01-01

86

Evaluation of comparative free-radical quenching potential of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and Mandookparni (Centella asiatica).  

PubMed

Ayurvedic texts describe rejuvenate measures called Rasayana to impart biological sustenance to bodily tissues. Rasayana acting specifically on brain are called Medhya Rasayana. Brahmi is one of the most commonly practiced herbs for the same. Yet there exist a controversy regarding the exact plant species among Bacopa monnieri L. Penn (BM) and Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (CA) to be used as Brahmi in the formulations. Though the current literature available has suggested a very good nootropic potential of both the drugs, none of the studies have been carried out on comparative potential of these herbs to resolve the controversy. Free-radical scavenging potential for these plants is studied to find out their comparative efficacy. The study revealed a very good in vitro free-radical scavenging properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both the plants as evidenced by FRAP, DPPH, reducing power, and antilipid peroxidation assays. It can be concluded from the studies that both the plants, although taxonomically totally different at family level, showed similar type of in vitro activities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also revealed a significant similarity in the two plants. The in vitro study supports the Ayurvedic concept of BM and CA having a similar potential. PMID:22408313

Mukherjee, Sourav; Dugad, Swapnil; Bhandare, Rahul; Pawar, Nayana; Jagtap, Suresh; Pawar, Pankaj K; Kulkarni, Omkar

2011-04-01

87

Statistical Analysis of Metal Chelating Activity of Centella asiatica and Erythroxylum cuneatum Using Response Surface Methodology.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the extraction parameters and the metal chelating activity of Centella asiatica (CA) and Erythroxylum cuneatum (EC). The response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of methanolic extract of CA and EC with respect to the metal chelating activity. For CA, Run 17 gave optimum chelating activity with IC50 = 0.93?mg/mL at an extraction temperature of 25°C, speed of agitation at 200?rpm, ratio of plant material to solvent at 1?g?:?45?mL and extraction time at 1.5 hour. As for EC, Run 13 with 60°C, 200?rpm, 1?g?:?35?mL and 1 hour had metal chelating activity at IC50 = 0.3817?mg/mL. Both optimized extracts were further partitioned using a solvent system to evaluate the fraction responsible for the chelating activity of the plants. The hexane fraction of CA showed potential activity with chelating activity at IC50 = 0.090 and the ethyl acetate fraction of EC had IC50 = 0.120?mg/mL. The study showed that the response surface methodology helped to reduce the extraction time, temperature and agitation and subsequently improve the chelating activity of the plants in comparison to the conventional method. PMID:23533781

Mohd Salim, R J; Adenan, M I; Amid, A; Jauri, M H; Sued, A S

2013-02-27

88

Exploring the role of "Brahmi" (Bocopa monnieri and Centella asiatica) in brain function and therapy.  

PubMed

It has been envisaged that in this century, disorders of the central nervous system will have a significant bearing on the healthcare concerns of the human population worldwide. Such neurological and psychiatric disorders are generally associated with loss of memory, cognitive deficits, impaired mental function etc. Due to the multi-factorial nature of these diseases, modern medicine based psychoactive drugs have met with limited success. Therefore, there is a growing demand for novel products that could target multiple pathways and improve the mental capabilities either independently or in combination with conventional drugs. In the recent times, herbal products based on traditional knowledge have been increasingly used both in developed and developing countries. According to "Ayurveda", the Indian traditional system of medicine, "medhyarasayanas" represent herbal therapeutics that boost memory, restore cognitive deficits and improve mental function. The current review deals with the components and application of such a traditional herb "Brahmi" that corresponds to two plants, Bacopa monnieri and Centella asiatica. Research evidences clearly indicate that both plants possess neuroprotective properties, have nootropic activity with therapeutic implications for patients with memory loss. The field has witnessed exciting patent activity with most inventions aiming at either (i) improving the methods of herbal extraction or (ii) enrichment and purification of novel compounds from brahmi or (iii) providing novel synergistic formulations for therapeutics in various human ailments. In this review, clinical trials related to the therapeutic properties of brahmi and current patents relevant to the preparation, composition and application have also been included. PMID:22074576

Shinomol, G K; Muralidhara; Bharath, Muchukunte M S

2011-01-01

89

Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa. PMID:17610142

Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

2007-07-04

90

Production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells in bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effects of some culture conditions on production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells cultured in 5-L bioreactor. Methods The centell cell suspension culture was conducted in 5-L bioreactor to investigate the growth and asiaticoside accumulation under various conditions. Asiaticoside content was determined by HPLC analysis. Results The results showed that the cell growth and asiaticoside accumulation peaked after 24 d of culture at an agitation speed of 150 r/min and aeration rate of 2.5 L/min. The cell biomass reached a maximum value of 302.45 g fresh weight (31.45 g dry weight) and growth index of 3.03 with inoculum size of 100 g. However, asiaticoside content was the highest (60.08 mg/g dry weight) when culture was initiated with an inoculum size of 50 g. Conclusions The present study found the suitable conditions for growth of centella cells and their asiaticoside production in bioreactor.

Loc, Nguyen Hoang; Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy

2013-01-01

91

In vitro effects of a novel polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. on intestinal function.  

PubMed

Effects of a novel polysaccharide (PLP) from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. on intestinal function were investigated in vitro. Results showed that PLP had notable influence on slowing down glucose diffusion and inhibiting ?-amylase activity. These might help prolong blood glucose response and hence control the postprandial glucose concentration. PLP could also decrease pancreatic lipase and protease activities, which may help lower the levels of serum lipids and modify protein digestibility. In addition, PLP was able to bind bile acids and may reduce cholesterol level. These results suggested that PLP may have potential benefits for human intestinal function and might be used as a potential ingredient in functional food applications. PMID:23246413

Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Chang; Xie, Ming-Yong

2012-12-12

92

Middle ear dynamics in response to seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica).  

PubMed

The hypertrophied malleus in the middle ear of some golden moles has been assumed to be an adaptation for sensing substrate vibrations by inertial bone conduction, but this has never been conclusively demonstrated. The Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) exhibits this anatomical specialization, and the dynamic properties of its middle ear response to vibrations were the subjects of this study. Detailed three-dimensional middle ear anatomy was obtained by x-ray microcomputed tomography (muCT) at a resolution of 12 microm. The ossicular chain exhibits large malleus mass, selective reduction of stiffness and displacement of the center of mass from the suspension points, all favoring low-frequency tuning of the middle ear response. Orientation of the stapes relative to the ossicular chain and the structure of the stapes footplate enable transmission of substrate vibrations arriving from multiple directions to the inner ear. With the long axes of the mallei aligned parallel to the surface, the animal's head was stimulated by a vibration exciter in the vertical and lateral directions over a frequency range from 10 to 600 Hz. The ossicular chain was shown to respond to both vertical and lateral vibrations. Resonant frequencies were found between 71 and 200 Hz and did not differ significantly between the two stimulation directions. Below resonance, the ossicular chain moves in phase with the skull. Near resonance and above, the malleus moves at a significantly larger mean amplitude (5.8+/-2.8 dB) in response to lateral vs vertical stimuli and is 180 degrees out of phase with the skull in both cases. A concise summary of the propagation characteristics of both seismic body (P-waves) and surface (R-waves) is provided. Potential mechanisms by which the animal might exploit the differential response of the ossicular chain to vertical and lateral excitation are discussed in relation to the properties of surface seismic waves. PMID:16391352

Willi, U B; Bronner, G N; Narins, P M

2006-01-01

93

Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's F s values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

2013-06-24

94

Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species.

Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

2013-01-01

95

Studies on abnormality of metacestodes and adult worms of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata asiatica in rodents and pigs.  

PubMed

Abnormalities are not uncommon in Taenia saginata and T. solium. After examining 328 mature proglottids from 2 adult worms from two experimentally infected hamsters, 13 (4.0%) were found to have no genital pore but with numerous testes and several vas efferents; 1 (0.3%) one genital pore with one reproductive system; 12 (3.7%) one on each side with two sets of reproductive system; 17 (5.2%) two on one side with 2 sets of reproductive system; 8 (2.4%) one on one side and two on the other side with 3 sets of reproductive system; 2 (0.6%) two on each side with 4 sets of reproductive system; 4 (1.2%) three on one side with 3 sets of reproductive system, and 4 one on one side and three on the other side with 4 sets of reproductive system. Nine evaginated abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from three experimentally infected SCID mice each had two protoscoleces and a big bladder. From two experimentally infected pigs, one abnormal cysticercus was observed to have two invaginated canals each in one end. Another one had a neck-band behind the scolex and a big bladder. This paper is not only the first report of abnormality of T. solium from hamster but also the first one of abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from pigs and mice. PMID:12041572

Fan, P C; Wan, I C; Chung, W C; Guo, J X; Ma, X Y; Xu, Z J

2001-01-01

96

Mechanism of Fruit Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The making of a fruit is a developmental process unique to plants. It requires a complex network of interacting genes and\\u000a signaling pathways. In fleshy fruit, it involves three distinct stages, namely, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening.\\u000a Of these, ripening has received most attention from geneticists and breeders, as this important process activates a whole\\u000a set of biochemical

M. Bouzayen; A. Latché; P. Nath; J. C. Pech

97

Mark's Fruit Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

Rieger, Mark

98

Centella asiatica Extract Improves Behavioral Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Investigation of a Possible Mechanism of Action.  

PubMed

Centella asiatica (CA), commonly named gotu kola, is an Ayurvedic herb used to enhance memory and nerve function. To investigate the potential use of CA in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined the effects of a water extract of CA (GKW) in the Tg2576 mouse, a murine model of AD with high ?-amyloid burden. Orally administered GKW attenuated ?-amyloid-associated behavioral abnormalities in these mice. In vitro, GKW protected SH-SY5Y cells and MC65 human neuroblastoma cells from toxicity induced by exogenously added and endogenously generated ?-amyloid, respectively. GKW prevented intracellular ?-amyloid aggregate formation in MC65 cells. GKW did not show anticholinesterase activity or protect neurons from oxidative damage and glutamate toxicity, mechanisms of current AD therapies. GKW is rich in phenolic compounds and does not contain asiatic acid, a known CA neuroprotective triterpene. CA thus offers a unique therapeutic mechanism and novel active compounds of potential relevance to the treatment of AD. PMID:22506133

Soumyanath, Amala; Zhong, Yong-Ping; Henson, Edward; Wadsworth, Teri; Bishop, James; Gold, Bruce G; Quinn, Joseph F

2012-02-15

99

TECA (Titrated Extract of Centella Asiatica): new microcirculatory, biomolecular, and vascular application in preventive and clinical medicine. A status paper.  

PubMed

Plant-derived elements used for pharmacological applications constitute an increasing research field. Centella asiatica is widely used mainly as an extract (TECA). Triterpenic fractions, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica, produce a wide range of preventive and therapeutic effects. The modulation of collagen production and deposition in wound healing is of primary importance. TECA is also used to treat several microcirculatory problems, inflammatory skin conditions (leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis) and also intestinal problems, fever, amenorrhea and genitourinary conditions. Cognitive functions, anxiety and mental impairment may be also affected by TECA administration. New applications in neurology include nerve growth factor enhancement and applications in neurological degenerative conditions. Interaction with other products is also indicated in this document. The multiplicity of actions of TECA is associated to six important mechanisms, all inter-connected and modulating each other: 1) edema - and capillary filtration - control; 2) a strong antioxidant power, effective on several forms of oxidative stress associated to inflammation or infections and synergic with other antioxidant products; 3) an anti-inflammatory action; 4) a modulation of the collagen production avoiding slower scarring or faster, hyperthrophic scarring and cheloids; 5) a modulating action of local growth factors; 6) a modulation of angiogenesis. This "status" paper - resulting from an expert meeting held in Cobham, Surrey, indicates most of the therapeutic potential of TECA, still to be explored in further studies. The status paper constitutes the basis for a consensus document on TECA to be developed in the next future. This "status" paper opens a new window on an ancient but still partially unexplored product that may become an important value in prevention and treatment of several pre-clinical and risk conditions and in clinically significant disease both as a single products and in association with other 'natural' products. PMID:22108486

Belcaro, G; Maquart, F-X; Scoccianti, M; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Cesarone, M R; Luzzi, R; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A; Feragalli, B

2011-09-01

100

Characterisation of two phenotypes of Centella asiatica in Southern Africa through the composition of four triterpenoids in callus, cell suspensions and leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two morphologically distinct phenotypes of Centella asiatica (Type-1 and Type-2) in South Africa were compared in relation to the levels of triterpenoid saponins with the aim of assessing\\u000a their potential for biotechnological manipulation of triterpenoid synthesis. The metabolites investigated included madecassoside\\u000a and asiaticoside and their sapogenins madecassic—and asiatic acid; produced in cultured undifferentiated cells (cell suspensions\\u000a and calli) and leaves.

Jacinda T. James; Riaan Meyer; Ian A. Dubery

2008-01-01

101

Genetic variability of the 18 kDa/HP6 protective antigen in Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica: implications for vaccine development.  

PubMed

Genomic characterization of the genes encoding the Taenia 18 kDa/HP6 protective antigens was carried out for Taenia saginata and T. asiatica using 42 taeniid isolates comprising 23 samples of T. saginata, 13 samples of T. asiatica and 6 samples of T. solium. The corresponding sequences from all taeniid isolates were PCR-amplified with specific primers and then sequenced. All the genes, and other described taeniid gene homologues, had the same genomic structure. Surprisingly, the T. saginata TSA18 gene showed nucleotide variability within the 23 samples analyzed. This resulted in two distinct genotypes with 96% DNA sequence similarity and deduced amino acid sequences with 21 substitutions, mainly located in the second exon which contains the fibronectin type III domain. In regards to T. asiatica, the 18 kDa gene (TASI18) was very similar to the T. saginata antigen homologues, both at the DNA and deduced amino acid sequence levels, and the TSOL18 gene was conserved among T. solium isolates as previously described. The implications of these findings on the future development of taeniid vaccines are discussed. PMID:21232558

González, Luis M; Ramiro, Raquel; García, Luz; Parkhouse, R Michael E; McManus, Donald P; Gárate, Teresa

2011-01-11

102

Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.  

PubMed

Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed. PMID:22903452

Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

2012-08-18

103

In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. Leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. In in vitro studies T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract showed very good scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 605.34±2.62?g/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 694.37±2.12?g/ml) and nitric oxide (IC50 897.83±1.48?g/ml) radicals, as well as high reducing power. In Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats, oral treatment with T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract produced a significant (P?0.005) decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in comparison with hexane and methanol extracts. In high fat diet-fed hyperlipidemic rats, the ethyl acetate extract (200 and 400mg/kg) significantly altered the plasma and liver lipids levels to near normal. PMID:23891761

Irudayaraj, Santiagu Stephen; Sunil, Christudas; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2013-07-25

104

Long-Term Follow-Up of Oral Administration of Flavonoids, Centella asiatica and Melilotus, for Diabetic Cystoid Macular Edema Without Macular Thickening.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate long-term follow-up of the orally administered combination of flavonoids with Centella asiatica and Melilotus for treatment of diabetic cystoid macular edema (CME) without macular thickening. Methods: Seventy consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes and CME without macular thickening at optical coherence tomography (OCT) were prospectively and randomly enrolled in two groups of 35 subjects each (treatment and control groups). Patients in the treatment group were treated with an oral combination of diosmin (300?mg/day), with C. asiatica (15?mg/day) and Melilotus (160?mg/day). All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, OCT (Spectralis HRA-OCT), and central microperimetry (SD-SLO/OCT) at baseline, month 3, month 6, month 12, month 24, and month 36. Results: No differences in HbAc1 percentage, blood pressure, microalbuminuria, visual acuity, mean central retinal thickness, and stability of fixation were present between the two groups during follow up (p>0.05). Retinal sensitivity reduced in the control group only from month 6 until month 36 (p<0.001). In the treatment group, a greater retinal sensitivity was present at month 12, month 24, and month 36 (p=0.001). No side effects of treatment were observed. Conclusion: Oral administration of flavonoids, C. asiatica and Melilotus, in patients with CME without macular thickening provided preservation of retinal sensitivity during 36 months of follow up when compared with untreated patients. PMID:23844756

Forte, Raimondo; Cennamo, Gilda; Bonavolontà, Paola; Pascotto, Arduino; de Crecchio, Giuseppe; Cennamo, Giovanni

2013-07-11

105

How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

106

Precooked Fruits and Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precooked fruits and vegetables are prepared by a process wherein the fruits and vegetables are cooked to their centers at a temperature below the temperature at which sloughing of the surface tissue would occur if the fruits or vegetables were cooked to ...

M. L. Weaver K. C. Ng

1978-01-01

107

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts

V. H. Tournas; J. Heeres; L. Burgess

2006-01-01

108

Effects of the total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in venous hypertensive microangiopathy: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to demonstrate whether total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica (TTFCA), was effective in improving the microcirculation in venous hypertension and microangiopathy. Forty patients with severe venous hypertension, ankle swelling, lipodermatosclerosis were included. After informed consent, patients were randomized into a treatment and a placebo group: those in the treatment group received TTFCA (tablets, 60 mg, twice daily for 8 weeks). The two groups of subjects were comparable for age and sex distribution. The mean age was 48 years (SD 9; M:F= 11:11) in the treatment group (22 patients) and 47.6 (SD 7; M:F= 10:8) in the placebo group (18 patients). There were no differences between placebo and treatment group at inclusion; there was no change between inclusion and measurements at 8 weeks in the placebo group. A decrease (p < 0.05) in RF (flux at rest) and RAS (rate of ankle swelling) were observed in the treatment group. The decrease in capillary filtration was associated with improvement in signs and symptoms (p < 0.05). The difference in flux, signs and symptoms, and filtration was clinically important at 8 weeks. No side effects were observed. In conclusion venous microangiopathy was improved by TTFCA treatment. PMID:11666117

Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; De Sanctis, M T; Incandela, L; Cacchio, M; Bavera, P; Ippolito, E; Bucci, M; Griffin, M; Geroulakos, G; Dugall, M; Buccella, S; Kleyweght, S; Cacchio, M

2001-10-01

109

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

110

Fruit: Outlook and Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Larger fruit supplies, lower prices expected. Supplies of most fresh fruit this spring are expected to be larger than a year ago. The volume of oranges and lemons still to be harvested is substantially bigger, while cold storage holdings of fresh apples a...

1983-01-01

111

Regulation of fruit ripening  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

112

Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal—Centella asiatica—extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ~180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed.

Sikareepaisan, Panprung; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Supaphol, Pitt

2008-01-01

113

Vaccination trials against Taenia solium eggs in pigs injected with frozen oncospheres of T. solium or Taenia saginata asiatica.  

PubMed

In this study, 12 Small-Ear-Miniature pigs aged 142 to 185 days were used to determine whether pigs injected with nonviable oncospheres of Taenia solium or Taenia saginata asiatica can become resistant to the challenge of viable eggs of T. solium. The 12 pigs were equally divided into 4 groups: 3 experimental groups in which each pig was injected subcutaneously with a mixture of 0.2 mL complete Freund's adjuvant and 10(4)/0.2 mL nonviable Taiwan/Asian Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, or T. solium oncospheres, and 1 control group in which each pig was injected subcutaneously with 0.2 mL phosphate buffer solution and 0.2 mL complete Freund's adjuvant. Each pig was orally inoculated with 10000 viable T. solium eggs 1 month later. The infection rates were 100% (2/2), 100% (3/3), 33% (1/3), and 100% (3/3) and cysticerci recovery rates were 1.3% (254/20000), 1.2% (371/30000), 0.01% (4/30000), and 8.6% (2,577/30000), respectively. Except for the location of 72 cysticerci located in the viscera, 3134 cysticerci were recovered from the muscles. In the experimental groups, 4 cysticerci recovered were viable and the remaining 625 were either calcified or degenerated. However, 2567 cysticerci recovered from the control group remained viable and only 10 were calcified or degenerated. The results indicate that in addition to the vaccine of T. solium, those of Taiwan Taenia and Indonesia Taenia can also induce high-crossing immunologic reactions against T. solium infection. PMID:12886959

Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chun-Yun; Wu, Chin-Cheng

2003-06-01

114

Qualidade de produtos a base de plantas medicinais comercializados no Brasil: castanha-da-índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf ) e centela (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of products made from medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil: horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf), and gotu kola (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban). Aiming to evaluate the quality of products made from medicinal plants, there were analyzed ten samples of horsechestnut, eleven samples of lemongrass, and six samples of gotu kola commercialized in pharmacies from the city

Joabe Gomes de Melo; Járisson Diógenes Guilherme da Roch Martins; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim; Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque

2007-01-01

115

Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?  

PubMed

The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112

Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

2012-05-30

116

Transgenic Temperate Fruit Tree Rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperate fruit trees of the genus Malus (apple), Pyrus (pear) and Prunus (almond, apricot, sweet and sour cherry, peach, and plum) used for commercial fruit production and for backyard growers are usually grafted on clonal (asexually propagated) rootstocks. Rootstocks are used to propagate the fruiting scion onto a rooting system, to gain uniformity and precocity in fruiting portion compared to

SERGEY V DOLGOV; M-viola Hanke

117

Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

118

Fruits, Vegetables & Nuts  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... However, harmful bacteria that may be in the soil or water where produce grows may come in contact with and contaminate fruits, vegetables, and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

119

Purification and characterization of vitellogenin and lipovitellins of the sand crab Emerita asiatica: molecular aspects of crab yolk proteins.  

PubMed

In the mole crab Emerita asiatica, the main yolk proteins consist of two slow moving lipovitellins (Lv I and Lv II) of glycolipoprotein nature. Lv I cleaves into subunits (MW: 109,000 and 105,000) and Lv II gives rise to six subunits (MW: 65,000, 54,000, 50,000, 47,000, 44,000, and 42,000) in SDS-PAGE (with beta-mercaptoethanol). In order to observe the stability of Lv II as well as to achieve better resolution of the proteins, two different buffer systems (Phosphate buffered saline and tris-buffered saline), 40% sucrose, and glass distilled water were used as homogenizing media. Among them, better resolution was achieved with tris-buffered saline and 40% sucrose, and tris-buffered saline seems to be the ideal medium for elution of Lv II. The analysis of biochemical constituents of the major Lv II reveals a percentage composition of 69.325, 27.927, and 2.753 respectively for protein, lipid, and bound sugars. In the I stage embryo, protein comprises about 67.276%, lipid 29.65%, and bound sugars 3.015%. Vitellogenin (Vg) electrophoretically corresponding to the Lv I and Lv II was present in the female haemolymph during the entire period of embryogenesis. The number of subunits (8) of Vg in all stages remained unaltered and their approximate molecular weights were Vg1, 91,000; Vg2, 87,000; Vg3, 83,000; Vg4, 61,000; Vg5, 58,000; Vg6, 45,000; Vg7, 42,000; and Vg8, 38,000. Different proteins present in the embryos (I and IV stage) and the serum obtained from the animal carrying the I stage embryo were separated by gel-filtration in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sephadex (G-200) gel filtration chromatography was used to purify the Lv II in large quantity. Total lipid extracted from Lv II as well as the embryos belonging to different stages of development were separated into their constituent neutral, glycolipids, and phospholipids, using silicic acid column chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to isolate the different phospholipids purified from various stages of embryos and Lv II. As many as seven different phospholipids were separated from Lv II and I and IX stage embryos; and whereas thin layer chromatogram of V and VI stage embryos showed six different phospholipids, embryos of VII and VIII stage contained four phospholipid species. Cholesterol, glycolipids, and individual phospholipids isolated from the Lv II and I stage embryo were quantified spectrophotometrically and the results were discussed. PMID:1510841

Tirumalai, R; Subramoniam, T

1992-09-01

120

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Fruit Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2009-04-01

121

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Fruit Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2010-04-01

122

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Fruit Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2013-04-01

123

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-04-21

124

Heat treatment and fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest heat treatments lead to an alteration of gene expression and fruit ripening can sometimes be either delayed or disrupted. The extent of the alternation of fruit ripening is a function of the exposure temperature and duration and how quickly the commodity is cooled following the heat treatment. The most commonly measured components of fruit ripening affected by heat treatments

Robert E Paull; Nancy Jung Chen

2000-01-01

125

Microbial Safety of Tropical Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. Tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. Tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. Documented outbreaks of foodborne

Laura K. Strawn; Keith R. Schneider; Michelle D. Danyluk

2011-01-01

126

Anthocyanins in Blackcurrant Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robinson and Robinson1 investigated the anthocyanin pigments of the fruit of the blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and stated that the skins contained a cyanidin-3-bioside. Gyanidin was the only aglycone found; but it was thought possible that small amounts of delphinidin were present. Fouassin2 has recently examined blackcurrant pigments by paper chromatography and has found two glycosides of cyanidin and two glycosides

B. V. Chandler; K. A. Harper

1958-01-01

127

Fruits and vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-23

128

AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES IN HAWAIIAN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four economically important fruit flies have been accidentally introduced into Hawaii: melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and Malaysian fruit fly. Over 400 different host fruits are attacked. These fruit flies inhibit development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable i...

129

Parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.  

PubMed

Parthenocarpic fruit development is a very attractive trait for growers and consumers. In tomato, three main sources of facultative parthenocarpy, pat, pat-2, pat-3/pat-4, are known to have potential applications in agriculture. The parthenocarpic fruit development in these lines is triggered by a deregulation of the hormonal balance in some specific tissues. Auxins and gibberellins are considered as the key elements in parthenocarpic fruit development of those lines. An increased level of these hormones in the ovary can substitute for pollination and trigger fruit development. This has opened up genetic engineering approaches for parthenocarpy that have given promising results, both in quality and quantity of seedless fruit production. PMID:15822008

Gorguet, B; van Heusden, A W; Lindhout, P

2005-03-01

130

Transfer of Natrialba asiatica B1T to Natrialba taiwanensis sp. nov. and description of Natrialba aegyptiaca sp. nov., a novel extremely halophilic, aerobic, non-pigmented member of the Archaea from Egypt that produces extracellular poly(glutamic acid).  

PubMed

A novel extremely halophilic member of the Archaea, strain 40T, was isolated from Egypt (Aswan). This isolate requires at least 1.6 M sodium chloride for growth and exhibits optimal growth between 37 and 42 degrees C. Determination of the entire 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed the highest similarity to the type strain of Natrialba asiatica (> 99%). Polar lipid analysis indicated that strain 40T and Natrialba asiatica have essentially identical compositions, indicating that the former is a member of genus Natrialba. However, physiological and biochemical data provided evidence that Natrialba asiatica strains B1T and 172P1T, as well as strain 40T, are sufficiently different to be divided in three different species. The G+C content of strain 40T was 61.5+/-0.6 mol%. In addition, DNA-DNA hybridization data supported the placement of the isolate in a new species in the genus Natrialba, Natrialba aegyptiaca sp. nov., and indicated that Natrialba asiatica strain B1T should also be placed in a separate species, Natrialba taiwanensis sp. nov. Morphological studies of strain 40T indicated clearly that this isolate appears in three completely different cell shapes (cocci, rods, tetrads) under different conditions of growth, including different sodium chloride concentrations and different growth temperatures. Another interesting property of strain 40T is the ability to produce an extracellular polymer, which was found to be composed predominantly of glutamic acid (85% w/w), representing poly(glutamic acid), carbohydrates (12.5% w/w) and unidentified compounds (2.5% w/w). Among the Archaea, production of an extracellular polysaccharide has been described for some members of the genera Haloferax and Haloarcula. PMID:11411682

Hezayen, F F; Rehm, B H; Tindall, B J; Steinbüchel, A

2001-05-01

131

Fruitful DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

Kalamuck, Karen; Exploratorium

2000-01-01

132

Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.  

PubMed

Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

2013-06-26

133

ABNORMAL FRUIT TYPES IN THE AVOCADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequently avocado fruits are observed to be irregular in form, color, or structure. Such abnormalities occur in all kinds of fruits and are of interest because they may suggest certain aspects of the fruit morphology which are otherwise difficult to ascertain. Double avocado fruits, distortions of various types, sectorial chimeras, and woody fruits have been described previously2, 4. Monstrosities such

C. A. Schroeder

134

Hormonal Interactions in Fruit Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit development involves a complex interplay of cell division, differentiation and expansion of sporophytic and gametophytic\\u000a tissues that is carefully coordinated temporally and spatially. Plant hormones are signal molecules that regulate many processes\\u000a of plant development, including fruit development leading to mature fruit and viable mature seed. Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins,\\u000a abscisic acid, and ethylene have been implicated at various stages

Jocelyn A. Ozga; Dennis M. Reinecke

2003-01-01

135

Chilling injury in mangosteen fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major components of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit quality include pericarp hardening, and shrinkage of both the stem and the sepals (calyx). At room temperature in South-East Asia (29±308C) the fruit remains acceptable for about 6±8.d. To determine optimum storage temperature, fruit were stored at 38, 68 and 128C (88±90% r.h.). Unacceptable chilling injury symptoms were found within 5.d at

R. Choehom; S. Ketsa; Doorn van W. G

2003-01-01

136

Mushroom fruiting and climate change  

PubMed Central

Many species of fungi produce ephemeral autumnal fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic importance, little is known about the phenology of fruiting bodies. Using ?34,500 dated herbarium records we analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940–2006. We show that the time of fruiting has changed considerably over this time period, with an average delay in fruiting since 1980 of 12.9 days. The changes differ strongly between species and groups of species. Early-fruiting species have experienced a stronger delay than late fruiters, resulting in a more compressed fruiting season. There is also a geographic trend of earlier fruiting in the northern and more continental parts of Norway than in more southern and oceanic parts. Incorporating monthly precipitation and temperature variables into the analyses provides indications that increasing temperatures during autumn and winter months bring about significant delay of fruiting both in the same year and in the subsequent year. The recent changes in autumnal mushroom phenology coincide with the extension of the growing season caused by global climate change and are likely to continue under the current climate change scenario.

Kauserud, Havard; Stige, Leif Christian; Vik, Jon Olav; ?kland, Rune H.; H?iland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2008-01-01

137

The fruits of selectivity: how birds forage on Goupia glabra fruits of different ripeness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have been published on avian fruit selection, few have addressed the effects of fruit scarcity on the patterns of fruit choice. Here, we compared the consumption of seven bird species for six simultaneously present maturation stages of Goupia glabra fruits. Ripe G. glabra fruits contain more lipids, carbohydrates and energy, and fewer phenols, than unripe fruits. All

H. Martin Schaefer; Veronika Schaefer

2006-01-01

138

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

2006-03-20

139

Children's perception of fresh fruit and fruit snacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain children's perception of fruit and fruit snacks and the influences on their choice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – One hundred primary school children (the majority aged 7-11 years), from three schools, were surveyed or interviewed. A quota sample was taken with a balance of age and gender. A questionnaire survey (n = 50)

John A. Bower; Jessica Ferguson

2008-01-01

140

Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos)—A potential fruit for processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa, Rutaceae) is an indigenous fruit of India. It grows throughout the Indian Peninsula as well as in Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand and most of the southeastern Asian countries. It is a very hardy subtropical, deciduous tree that can thrive well in various soil-climatic conditions (from swampy to dry soils) and can tolerate alkaline

Susanta K. Roy; R. N. Singh

1979-01-01

141

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple, crabapple, pineapple, or two or all of such fruits. (9) Cinnamon flavoring, other than artificial flavoring, and artificial red coloring in case the fruit juice ingredient or...

2013-04-01

142

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit jelly. 150.140 Section 150.140 Food...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products...

2010-04-01

143

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Fruit jelly. 150.140 Section 150.140 Food...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products...

2009-04-01

144

Fruit Xylophone: Fruit Salad Instrument of the Future!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a perfect summertime lunch activity! Pico Cricket is required (micro controller). First, get a bunch of cut up fruit, line them up, then plug a piece of fruit with a Pico Cricket sensor clip. Next, hold the other Pico Cricket sensor clip in your hand and touch each of the fruits with it to see what kind of music it makes! This activity contains the programming instructions you need to read the resistance in the fruit, which assigns that resistance number a sound. This activity is a great way to explore the conductivity of fruit and vegetables and their resistance. This activity is an easy programming activity for beginners. Note: an older version of the Pico Cricket is shown in this activity, please revise where necessary.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-26

145

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

146

VACUUM OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum osmotic dehydration leads a special behaviour of mass transfer in fruit-sugar soluion system.Vacuum treatments intensify the capillary flow function and increase water transfer ratio.but have no significant influence on sugar uptake.Fruits such as pineapples which have higher porosity are more suitable to be treated under vacuum during the osmotic dehydration.

Xian Quan Shi; Pedro Fito Maupoey

1993-01-01

147

Thermophysical Properties of Stone Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophysical properties of the stone fruits plum, peach, and nectarine were modeled from experimental data as functions of moisture content. Samples were dried to preset moistures in a laboratory cabinet dryer, and the thermal conductivity, specific heat, apparent density, bulk density, and porosity of the fruit were determined. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were found to be linear

W. Phomkong; G. Srzednicki; R. H. Driscoll

2006-01-01

148

Temperate fruit production in Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the adaptation, culture, and management of temperate fruit trees in the tropics of Guatemala are remarkable in comparison with fruit production developments observed in the tropical highlands of Mexico and other Central American countries. Several cultivars of apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica) have been adapted and form part of home

2006-01-01

149

Fruits of two seabuckthorn varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of two varieties of Hippophae rhamnoides L. collected in Kyrgyzstan (I) and Uzbekistan (II) were investigated. Differences in their morphological and biochemical properties were demonstrated. Titrable acids, ascorbic acid, and protein dominated in the fruits of I. Pulp oil of II contained more free fatty acids (acid number 2.9 mg KOH) and carotinoids (419.3 mg%). The principal pulp acid

T. V. Chernenko; N. T. Ul’chenko; A. I. Glushenkova

2004-01-01

150

The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

Nyhuis, Jane

151

Anatomy of the Avocado Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a brief summary of an anatomical study of the avocado fruit begun by the senior author in 1940 as part of a general study of the structure, chemical composition and physiological behavior of this fruit undertaken at the request of the California avocado industry. In 1941 the problem was taken over by the junior author. More complete

Katharine Cummings; C. A. Schroeder

152

Process for Peeling Waxy Fruit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waxy skinned fruits, such as apples, are peeled by contacting the fruit with a wax solvent and a lye solution. In one embodiment, the wax solvent is combined with the lye solution and dewaxing occurs in conjunction with digestion of the peel or skin.

W. O. Harrington C. H. Hills

1965-01-01

153

Parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parthenocarpic fruit development is a very attractive trait for growers and consumers. In tomato, three main sources of facultative parthenocarpy, pat, pat-2, pat-3\\/pat-4, are known to have potential applications in agriculture. The parthenocarpic fruit development in these lines is triggered by a deregulation of the hormonal balance in some specific tissues. Auxins and gibberellins are considered as the key elements

B. J. M. Gorguet; Heusden van A. W; P. Lindhout

2005-01-01

154

Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica) extract enhances phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in neuroblastoma cells expressing amyloid beta peptide.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that shows cognitive deficits and memory impairment. Extract from the leaves of Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica) have been used as an alternative medicine for memory improvement in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for a long time. Although several studies have revealed its effect in ameliorating the cognitive impairment in rat models of AD and stimulating property on neuronal dendrites of hippocampal region, the molecular mechanism of Gotu Kola on neuroprotection still remains to be elucidated. In this study, we report that phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is enhanced in both a neuroblastoma cell line expressing amyloid beta 1-42 (Abeta) and in rat embryonic cortical primary cell culture. In addition, the contribution of two major single components to the enhanced CREB phosphorylatioin was examined. Furthermore, inhibitors were applied in this study revealing that ERK/RSK signaling pathway might mediate this effect of Gotu Kola extract. Taken together, we provide a possible molecular mechanism for memory enhancing property of Gotu Kola extract for the first time. PMID:18431001

Xu, Yanan; Cao, Zhiming; Khan, Ikhlas; Luo, Yuan

2008-04-01

155

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) on acoustic startle response in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Investigations of the pharmacologic profile of medicinal plants have revealed that a number of plants with purported anxiolytic activity bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. This finding is intriguing in view of the proposed involvement of CCK in the pathophysiology of fear and anxiety. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) in healthy subjects. Gotu Kola has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. Recent studies in the rat have shown that long-term pretreatment with Gotu Kola decreases locomotor activity, enhances elevated-plus maze performance, and attenuates the acoustic startle response (ASR). In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of Gotu Kola on the ASR in humans. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a single 12-g orally administered dose of Gotu Kola (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20). The results revealed that compared with placebo, Gotu Kola significantly attenuated the peak ASR amplitude 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Gotu Kola had no significant effect on self-rated mood, heart rate, or blood pressure. These preliminary findings suggest that Gotu Kola has anxiolytic activity in humans as revealed by the ASR. It remains to be seen whether this herb has therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of anxiety syndromes. PMID:11106141

Bradwejn, J; Zhou, Y; Koszycki, D; Shlik, J

2000-12-01

156

High pressure homogenization increases antioxidant capacity and short-chain fatty acid yield of polysaccharide from seeds of Plantago asiatica L.  

PubMed

Physiological properties of homogenized and non-homogenized polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L., including antioxidant capacity and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, were compared in this study. High pressure homogenization decreased particle size of the polysaccharide, and changed the surface topography from large flake-like structure to smaller porous chips. FT-IR showed that high pressure homogenization did not alter the primary structure of the polysaccharide. However, high pressure homogenization increased antioxidant capacity of the polysaccharide, evaluated by 4 antioxidant capacity assays (hydroxyl radical-scavenging, superoxide radical-scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH)-scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition). Additionally, the production of total SCFA, propionic acid and n-butyric acid in ceca and colons of mice significantly increased after dieting supplementation with homogenized polysaccharide. These results showed that high pressure homogenization treatment could be a promising approach for the production of value-added polysaccharides in the food industry. PMID:23497894

Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

2012-12-26

157

Field testing Chinese and Japanese gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus and disparvirus against a Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica in Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

The activity of three geographic isolates of the gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) was evaluated in field trials against larvae of the Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij in Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, in 2004, 2005, and 2006. Although the Chinese isolate of the virus, LdMNPV-H, was the most pathogenic of the isolates tested, having the lowest mean lethal concentration causing 50% and 95% larval mortality, the increase in efficacy that would be obtained by incorporating this isolate into a commercial product does not justify the time or expense required to register it for use in the United States or Canada. The commercially available North American isolate, LdMNPV-D, was moderately pathogenic, whereas the Japanese isolate, LdMNPV-J, was the least pathogenic. The slopes of the dose-response regression lines for the three virus isolates indicated that the Chinese gypsy moth larvae were more homogenously susceptible to LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D than to LdMNPV-J. Time-response data showed that LdMNPV-J was significantly more virulent, but at a much higher dose, than the other two isolates, causing 50% mortality in the shortest time, followed by LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D. Rainfall immediately after the application of LdMNPV-D in 2005 resulted in significantly reduced gypsy moth larval mortality. PMID:22606802

Duan, L Q; Otvos, I S; Xu, L B; Conder, N; Wang, Y

2012-04-01

158

Mitoprotective effect of Centella asiatica against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats: possible relevance to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis mechanism.  

PubMed

Role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been well documented in various cognitive-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal that may be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative processes. The antioxidant and memory enhancing effects of Centella asiatica (CA) are well known in the last few decades. Therefore, the present study has been designed to explore the neuroprotective effect of CA on chronic aluminum exposure induced mitochondrial enzyme alteration, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction in rat. Aluminum (100 mg/kg) and CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) were administered daily for a period of 6 weeks in male Wistar rats. Various behavioral, biochemical and cellular estimations and aluminum concentration were assessed. Chronic aluminum administration resulted in memory impairment and caused marked oxidative damage associated with mitochondria impairment. It also caused a significant increase in caspase-3 activity, acetylcholine esterase activity and aluminum concentration in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rat brain. Chronic administration of CA significantly improved memory performance, oxidative defense decreased aluminum concentration, caspase-3, acetylcholinestrease activity and reversal of mitochondrial enzyme activity as compared to aluminum-treated animals. Results of the study demonstrate neuroprotective potential of CA against aluminum-induced cognitive dysfunction and mito- oxidative damage. PMID:23224641

Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

2012-12-08

159

Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2013-08-29

160

Life history data on the fly parasitoids Aleochara nigra Kraatz and A. asiatica Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and their potential application in forensic entomology.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations. PMID:24053864

Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

2013-07-30

161

Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits  

SciTech Connect

Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

1989-04-01

162

Fruit Development in Trillium1  

PubMed Central

Leaves are the main source of carbon for fruit maturation in most species. However, in plants seeing contrasting light conditions such as some spring plants, carbon fixed during the spring could be used to support fruit development in the summer, when photosynthetic rates are low. We monitored carbohydrate content in the rhizome (a perennating organ) and the aboveground stem of trillium (Trillium erectum) over the entire growing season (May–November). At the beginning of the fruiting stage, stems carrying a developing fruit were harvested, their leaves were removed, and the leafless stems were maintained in aqueous solution under controlled conditions up to full fruit maturation. These experiments showed that stem carbohydrate content was sufficient to support fruit development in the absence of leaves and rhizome. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of complete fruit development sustained only by a temporary carbohydrate reservoir. This carbohydrate accumulation in the stem during the spring enables the plant to make better use of the high irradiances occurring at that time. Many other species might establish short-term carbohydrate reservoirs in response to seasonal changes in growing conditions.

Lapointe, Line

1998-01-01

163

Volatiles from Syzygium paniculatum fruit.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds of Syzygium paniculatum Banks ex Gaertn. fruit were isolated by simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detectection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 155 volatile constituents were identified, accounting for 24.5 mg/kg of the fruit composition. Major compounds were alpha-pinene (32.8% of the total composition), (Z)-beta-ocimene (21.8%), limonene (6.9%), and alpha-terpineol (5.1%), indicating that the volatile composition of the fruit is more rich in terpenes. PMID:23472477

Quijano-Célis, Clara E; Echeverri-Gil, Daniel; Ruiz, Yinet; Pino, Jorge A

2013-01-01

164

Fruit Quality: New Insights for Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development.

Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-lópez

2012-01-01

165

Fungal fruit rots of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the symptoms, etiology, and control of the three main fungal fruit rots of kiwifruit in New Zealand is reviewed. Field rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, affects immature fruits on the vines. Storage rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, affects harvested fruits during cold storage. Ripe rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, affects harvested fruits during post-storage ripening.

S. R. Pennycook

1985-01-01

166

A new method for fruits recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fruit recognition techniques are developed based upon color and shape attributes. However, different fruit images may have similar or identical color and shape values. Hence, using color features and shape features analysis methods are still not robust and effective enough to identify and distinguish fruits images. A new fruit recognition system has been proposed, which combines three features analysis

Woo Chaw Seng; Seyed Hadi Mirisaee

2009-01-01

167

Preharvest factors affecting physiological disorders of fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of disorders during postharvest ripening and storage of fruit depends on a range of preharvest factors. The most obvious of these is maturity of fruit at harvest. However, a number of other factors may be just as important in ripening-related disorders and in determining how fruit respond to low temperatures or other imposed postharvest conditions. Fruiting position on the

Ian Ferguson; Richard Volz; Allan Woolf

1999-01-01

168

Metabolic regulation underlying tomato fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and maturation of tomato fruits has received considerable attention because of both the uniqueness of such processes to the biology of plants and the importance of these fruits as a component of the human diet. Molecular and genetic analysis of fruit development, and especially ripening of fleshy fruits, has resulted in significant gains in knowledge over recent years.

Fernando Carrari; Alisdair R. Fernie

2009-01-01

169

Virus Diseases of Small Fruits,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The illustrated handbook was compiled by international authorities on virus and viruslike diseases of small fruits. Crops covered are in the plant genera Fragaria (strawberry), Vaccinium (blueberry and cranberry), Ribes (currant and gooseberry), and Rubus...

R. H. Converse

1987-01-01

170

Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)|

Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

1997-01-01

171

Superoxide Dismutase in Ripening Fruits  

PubMed Central

The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracts of preclimacteric apple, banana, avocado, and tomato fruits were not greatly different than in extracts of postclimacteric fruits. The results indicate that no major quantitative change in SOD occurs in fruits with or preceding the onset of senescence. Tomato fruit SOD was studied in more detail, and was found largely in the soluble fraction, and to a lesser extent in the mitochondrial and plastid fractions. The soluble fraction was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Isoelectric focusing separated SOD from contaminating peroxidases. The purified tomato SOD showed an apparent molecular weight of 31,500 determined by gel filtration. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this preparation indicated two SOD components corresponding to two protein bands, one of which stained more intensely than the other. The purified tomato enzyme was inhibited 90% by 1 mm KCN.

Baker, James Earl

1976-01-01

172

Superoxide dismutase in ripening fruits.  

PubMed

The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracts of preclimacteric apple, banana, avocado, and tomato fruits were not greatly different than in extracts of postclimacteric fruits. The results indicate that no major quantitative change in SOD occurs in fruits with or preceding the onset of senescence. Tomato fruit SOD was studied in more detail, and was found largely in the soluble fraction, and to a lesser extent in the mitochondrial and plastid fractions. The soluble fraction was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Isoelectric focusing separated SOD from contaminating peroxidases. The purified tomato SOD showed an apparent molecular weight of 31,500 determined by gel filtration. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this preparation indicated two SOD components corresponding to two protein bands, one of which stained more intensely than the other. The purified tomato enzyme was inhibited 90% by 1 mm KCN. PMID:16659735

Baker, J E

1976-11-01

173

A necrosis-inducing elicitor domain encoded by both symptomatic and asymptomatic Plantago asiatica mosaic virus isolates, whose expression is modulated by virus replication.  

PubMed

Systemic necrosis is the most destructive symptom induced by plant pathogens. We previously identified amino acid 1154, in the polymerase domain (POL) of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), which affects PlAMV-induced systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana. By point-mutation analysis, we show that amino acid 1,154 alone is not sufficient for induction of necrotic symptoms. However, PlAMV replicons that can express only RdRp, derived from a necrosis-inducing PlAMV isolate, retain their ability to induce necrosis, and transient expression of PlAMV-encoded proteins indicated that the necrosis-eliciting activity resides in RdRp. Moreover, inducible-overexpression analysis demonstrated that the necrosis was induced in an RdRp dose-dependent manner. In addition, during PlAMV infection, necrotic symptoms are associated with high levels of RdRp accumulation. Surprisingly, necrosis-eliciting activity resides in the helicase domain (HEL), not in the amino acid 1,154-containing POL, of RdRp, and this activity was observed even in HELs of PlAMV isolates of which infection does not cause necrosis. Moreover, HEL-induced necrosis had characteristics similar to those induced by PlAMV infection. Overall, our data suggest that necrotic symptoms induced by PlAMV infection depend on the accumulation of a non-isolate specific elicitor HEL (even from nonnecrosis isolates), whose expression is indirectly regulated by amino acid 1,154 that controls replication. PMID:21190438

Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Shiraishi, Takuya; Neriya, Yutaro; Miura, Chihiro; Minato, Nami; Okano, Yukari; Sugawara, Kyoko; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

2011-04-01

174

Simultaneous determination of pimpinellin, isopimpinellin and phellopterin in rat plasma by a validated UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after administration of Toddalia asiatica extract.  

PubMed

A rapid and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of three bioactive coumarins of Toddalia asiatica extract including pimpinellin, isopimpinellin and phellopterin in rat plasma for the first time. Phenacetin was used as the internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether. The chromatographic separation was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C?? column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate (65:35, v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) via electrospray ionization (ESI) source with positive ionization mode. The method was linear for all analytes over investigated range with all correlation coefficients greater than 0.9942. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 25.0 ng/mL for pimpinellin, 10.0 ng/mL for isopimpinellin and 5.00 ng/mL for phellopterin. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) was within 12% and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -2.3% to 5.5%. The rapid and sensitive method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of pimpinellin, isopimpinellin and phellopterin in rats following oral administration of Toddalia asiatica extract. PMID:22418072

Liu, Zhigang; Jiang, Minyan; Lu, Xiumei; Qin, Feng; Song, Yang; Wen, Jing; Li, Famei

2012-02-22

175

Biomechanics of fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

The scope of fruit and vegetable biomechanics is reviewed. Sources of mechanical injury to produce in harvesting, processing, storage, packaging and transportation are briefly described. A survey of produce handling and transportation environments was conducted, whereby an envelope model encompassing composite spectra of trucks, railroad, marine and cargo aircraft is presented. The protective quality, i.e. strength of shipping containers is quantified in static and dynamic loading such as encountered in storage, handling and transportation. Mechanical response of fruits and vegetables in quasistatic and dynamic loading are formulated by a nonlinear rheological model, whereby a time and deformation dependent relaxation modulus is defined. A realistic link is established between the model and real fruits and vegetables by test procedures for determination of the parameters in the governing nonlinear equations. Based on the nonlinear relaxation modulus, mechanical damage of fruits and vegetables is quantified for static compression, transients and vibration loading as well as for combined static and dynamic loading, by equations of contact circle diameter, bruise depth and contact pressure. Distribution of loads over a maximal number of contact points per fruit is linked to geometrical patterns of produce packs. The application of Shock Damage Boundary techniques for produce-package testing is described along with a case study comparing the protective qualities of two types of apple packs. Produce damage quantification by direct fruit inspection in terms of a 'Bruise Index' is described, including a practical example, comparing the protective qualities of three types of apple packs in shipping tests. Indirect methods of mechanical injury evaluation, based on weight loss and CO2 emission differences between bruised and wholesome fruits are also briefly discussed. PMID:4077855

Peleg, K

1985-01-01

176

Trace elements in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation. PMID:22068730

Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

2011-11-09

177

Molecular regulation of fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R

2013-06-14

178

Erwinia amylovora can pass through the abscission layer of fruit-bearing twigs and invade apple fruit during fruit maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion of apple fruit by Erwinia amylovora from fruit-bearing twigs through the abscission layer at fruit maturation was examined. Erwinia amylovora (ca. 105?cfu) tagged with bioluminescence genes from Vibrio fischeri was deposited in artificial wounds on fruit-bearing twigs of apple trees grown in a containment greenhouse on September 22,\\u000a 27, or October 5, 2004. On October 22, 176 apples were

Koji Azegami; Takanori Tsukamoto; Takayuki Matsuura; Yasuhiro Inoue; Hiroshi Uematsu; Tatsuji Ohara; Akifumi Mizuno; Kouji Yoshida; Hideo Bessho; Shigeyoshi Sato; Shigeru Kimura; Masao Goto

2006-01-01

179

21 CFR 145.135 - Canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Canned fruit cocktail. 145.135 Section 145.135...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.135 Canned fruit cocktail....

2009-04-01

180

21 CFR 145.135 - Canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned fruit cocktail. 145.135 Section 145.135...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.135 Canned fruit cocktail....

2010-04-01

181

Fruit and Tree Nuts: Situation and Outlook Report, August 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary; Fruit Price Outlook; Noncitrus Fruit Outlook; Berry Outlook; Tropical Fruit Outlook; Citrus Fruit Outlook; Tree Nut Outlook; Special Article; The Economic Effects of Terminating the Federal Marketing Order for Plums; List of Tables; Lis...

D. Lee

1994-01-01

182

Whole Fruits Tied to Lower Diabetes Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... study links whole fruits -- especially blueberries, grapes and apples -- to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, ... People who ate fruits, especially blueberries, grapes and apples, at least twice a week were up to ...

183

Bagging of mango ( Mangifera indica cv. `Keitt') fruit influences fruit quality and mineral composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bagging of mango (Mangifera indica) fruit was evaluated in order to improve fruit quality of late maturing cultivars. In 1993\\/1994, fruit of the `Keitt' cultivar were bagged with white paper bags at approximately 100 days before harvest on two separate orchards in the same growing district. In 1994\\/1995, `Keitt' fruit from another growing district were bagged at

Peter J Hofman; Lyn G Smith; Daryl C Joyce; Greg I Johnson; Geraldine F Meiburg

1997-01-01

184

Relationships between Fruit Mineral Nutrients Concentrations and Some Fruit Quality Attributes in Greenhouse Cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to determine nutritional and performance quality indices of greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) in relationship with fruit nutrient concentrations. Fruit firmness showed a positive correlation with fruit calcium (Ca) concentration (r = 0.66; P < 0.01). Ascorbic acid and citric acid concentrations in the fruit were positively influenced by potassium (K) concentration. There was

F. Aghili; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni; M. Mobli

2009-01-01

185

Roles of heat shock proteins in tomato fruit ripening and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although significant progress has been made in characterizing various components of fruit ripening process, the molecular mechanisms regulating fruit texture and other attributes remain poorly understood. Using fruit juice viscosity as an indicator of cell wall solubilization and depolymerization, I tested the possibility of isolating novel genes that affect fruit quality attributes. Characterization of genes differentially expressed in thick- and

Zhiping Deng

2003-01-01

186

Agroinjection of Tomato Fruits : a Tool for Rapid Functional Analysis of Transgenes Directly in Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient expression of foreign genes in plant tissues is a valuable tool for plant biotechnology. To shorten the time for gene functional analysis in fruits, we developed a transient methodology that could be applied to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv Micro Tom) fruits. It was found that injection of Agrobacterium cultures through the fruit stylar apex resulted in complete fruit infiltration.

D. V. Orzaéz Calatayud; S. Mirabel; W. H. Wieland; A. Granell

2006-01-01

187

Effect of cultivar, tree vigour and fruit position on calcium accumulation in avocado fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal trends of calcium (Ca) in cultivars 'Fuerte' and 'Hass' avocado fruits from vigorous and non-vigorous trees with little and moderate root infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi, respec- tively, were studied. The Ca concentration increased in all fruit until 6 weeks after fruit set, but then decreased rapidly until ~ 16 weeks. Ca mass per fruit increased fairly consistently throughout

G. W. Witney; P. J. Hofman; B. N. Wolstenholme

1990-01-01

188

Passiflora incarnata (Passifloraceae): A new fruit crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passiflora incarnata:A New Fruit Crop. Economic Botany 53(2): 161–176, 1999. Passiflora incarnata bears flavorful fruits consumed\\u000a by past and present peoples, and this plant deserves greater use as a fruit crop. Native to southeastern North America, it\\u000a is an herbaceous perennial vine which flowers and fruits over much of the growing season. P. incarnata is self-incompatible\\u000a and usually pollinated by

CHRISTOPHER M. McGUIRE

1999-01-01

189

Demand for Organic and Conventional Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine consumer demand for organic and conventional fruits by estimating a censored demand system, using Nielsen's Homescan data. Sociodemographic characteristics and income are found to be significant factors of organic fruit consumption. Consumers are responsive to own-price changes in selected organic fruits, while the own-price elasticities for conventional fruits are much smaller. Asymmetric cross-price effects are found between organic

Biing-Hwan Lin; Steven T. Yen; Chung L. Huang

2008-01-01

190

Edible Coatings for Fresh-Cut Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and\\/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have

G. I. Olivas; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2005-01-01

191

SEASONAL CHANGES OF AVOCADO LIPIDS DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT AND STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of the maturity of avocado fruits it is important to elucidate the lipid metabolism in the fruit during growth and storage, since the avocado stores a large amount of lipids in the edible pulp of the fruit. From morphological and physiological viewpoints of fruit development, Schroeder (10) observed that the avocado fruit deviated from, most investigated fruits

Yoshio Kikuta; Louis C. Erickson

192

Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

193

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST DISEASES OF FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Losses from postharvest diseases of fruits have been substantial at the storage, wholesale, retail, and consumer levels. Most of the fruit decay results from infection through wounds made during harvest and postharvest handling, but for some fruits, infection takes place in the orchard during the g...

194

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE AVOCADO FRUIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avocado fruit exhibits several unusual characteristics both physiological and morphological in nature. One prominent feature is the great quantity of oil which develops in the edible portion, a character comparable in few other fruits except the olive. Another rather unusual aspect is the fact that the fruit will not mature while firmly attached to the tree, hence it must

C. A. Schroeder

195

Fruit Ripening Phenomena–An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and

V. Prasanna; T. N. Prabha; R. N. Tharanathan

2007-01-01

196

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

197

Nutritional Quality of Commercial Fruit Baby Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial fruit baby food is a preserved fruit product usually made with fruit purees, sugar, water and variable additives (thickening agents, antioxidants, etc.). As the foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses, baby foods for infants and young children conforms to a set of strict guidelines e.g. maximum levels for pesticide residues, microbiological contamination, addition of additives, labelling, etc. However, being

H. ?ížko Vá; R. Še; A. RAJCHl; M. Vold?

198

Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these

W Patrick Wechter; Amnon Levi; Karen R Harris; Angela R Davis; Zhangjun Fei; Nurit Katzir; James J Giovannoni; Ayelet Salman-Minkov; Alvaro Hernandez; Jyothi Thimmapuram; Yaakov Tadmor; Vitaly Portnoy; Tova Trebitsh

2008-01-01

199

A fruit quality gene map of Prunus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus

Ebenezer A Ogundiwin; Cameron P Peace; Thomas M Gradziel; Dan E Parfitt; Fredrick A Bliss; Carlos H Crisosto

2009-01-01

200

Pre-Cooked Fruits and Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precooked fruits and vegetables are prepared by a process wherein the fruits or vegetables are cooked to their centers at a temperature below the temperature at which sloughing of the surface tissue would occur if the fruits or vegetables were cooked to t...

M. L. Weaver K. C. Ng

1977-01-01

201

Freeze Injuries in Avocado Fruit1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences were found in the extent of freeze injury among 'Fuerte', 'Hass' and 'Nabal' avocados (Persea americana Mill.). Large 'Fuerte' fruit suffered more than small ones. Relatively high rates of ethylene production and of respiration were found in heavily injured fruit as soon as 1 day after harvest. Keeping quality of freeze-damaged fruit was reduced. It is concluded that the

Y. Fuchs; G. Zauberman; U. Yanko

202

Exposure to Captan in Fruit Growing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterized occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growing in The Netherlands to assess determinants of exposure. Large-scale exposure surveys were carried out during application of pesticides and during reentry activities. Data on contamination inside the fruit growers' homes were obtained, and total potential exposure for the fruit grower and his family during the growing and harvesting season was

Johan de Cock; Dick Heederik; Jan S. M. Boleij; Hans Kromhout; Fred Hoek; Hillion Wegh; Evelyn Tjoe Ny

1998-01-01

203

ROOTSTOCK BREEDING FOR STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last 20 years stone fruit rootstock development has begun shifting from seedling to clonal types, many of interspecific origin. Publicly funded breeding programs have produced most of these rootstocks due to the time, cost, and risk associated with their development; however, private indus...

204

OVERVIEW OF ORGANIC FRUIT PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center funded by the USDA's Rural Business -- Cooperative Service. Abstract: This guide provides an overview of issues relevant to commercial organic production of temperate zone fruits. Included are discussions of marketing and economics, soil fertility, weed control, and management of pests (diseases, insects, and vertebrates). Electronic and print resources are offered for

Guy K. Ames; George Kuepper

205

FRUIT-DROP IN PECAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive fruit abortion is a major industry-wide problem for pecan producers. Abortions occur due to a variety of reasons that can be controlled by orchard managers. An overview is provided describing the types of abortions and their causes. The primary causes are low tree resource reserves from...

206

Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus groups comprised of WIC participants were held to identify perceived barriers to fruit and vegetable (F\\/V) consumption, helpful practices for increasing F\\/V intake, and preferred educational methods. The University Human Subjects Approval Committee approved study procedures. Two focus groups were conducted in metropolitan areas and two were held in rural areas of the state. Each focus group included five

H. C. Reid

1999-01-01

207

EVAPORATION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES  

PubMed Central

More and more the world is utilizing dried fruits and vegetables, the war having given impetus to the preparation of the latter. Here are plain statements of processes and values deduced from scientific institution investigations. Evaporation is in its infancy while sun drying is very ancient. Evaporated products are better looking but more costly. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Cruess, W. V.

1921-01-01

208

Why are Some Fruits Toxic? Glycoalkaloids in Solanum and Fruit Choice by Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of secondary metabolites (glycoalkaloids) of Solanum fruits on fruit consumption by seed dispersers and seed predators. Our goal was to determine the degree to which secondary metabolites might explain fruit-frugivore in- teractions that heretofore have not been explained by other fruit-related variables (e.g., color, nutrient content, seediness, etc.). Using feeding trails with real fruits and artificial

Martin L. Cipollini; Douglas J. Levey

1997-01-01

209

Tomato Fruit Cell Wall 1  

PubMed Central

Cell wall isolation procedures were evaluated to determine their effect on the total pectin content and the degree of methylesterification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cell walls. Water homogenates liberate substantial amounts of buffer soluble uronic acid, 5.2 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall. Solubilization appears to be a consequence of autohydrolysis mediated by polygalacturonase II, isoenzymes A and B, since the uronic acid release from the wall residue can be suppressed by homogenization in the presence of 50% ethanol followed by heating. The extent of methylesterification in heat-inactivated cell walls, 94 mole%, was significantly greater than with water homogenates, 56 mole%. The results suggest that autohydrolysis, mediated by cell wall-associated enzymes, accounts for the solubilization of tomato fruit pectin in vitro. Endogenous enzymes also account for a decrease in the methylesterification during the cell wall preparation. The heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was superior to the other methods studied since it reduces ?-elimination during heating and inactivates constitutive enzymes that may modify pectin structure. This heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was used in subsequent enzymatic analysis of the pectin structure. Purified tomato fruit polygalacturonase and partially purified pectinmethylesterase were used to assess changes in constitutive substrates during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase treatment of heat-inactivated cell walls from mature green and breaker stages released 14% of the uronic acid. The extent of the release of polyuronides by polygalacturonase was fruit development stage dependent. At the turning stage, 21% of the pectin fraction was released, a value which increased to a maximum of 28% of the uronides at the red ripe stage. Pretreatment of the walls with purified tomato pectinesterase rendered walls from all ripening stages equally susceptible to polygalacturonase. Quantitatively, the release of uronides by polygalacturonase from all pectinesterase treated cell walls was equivalent to polygalacturonase treatment of walls at the ripe stage. Uronide polymers released by polygalacturonase contain galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose. As a function of development, an increase in the release of galacturonic acid and rhamnose was observed (40 and 6% of these polymers at the mature green stage to 54 and 15% at the red ripe stage, respectively). The amount of galactose and arabinose released by exogenous polygalacturonase decreased during development (41 and 11% from walls of mature green fruit to 11 and 6% at the red ripe stage, respectively). Minor amounts of glucose and xylose released from the wall by exogenous polygalacturonase (4-7%) remained constant throughout fruit development.

Koch, James L.; Nevins, Donald J.

1989-01-01

210

The effect of unripe fruits on ripe fruit removal by birds in Pistacia terebinthus: flag or handicap?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrub Pistacia terebinthus produces crowded infructescences with up to several hundred fruits, which are bright red when unripe and turn green when ripe. Most fruits contain an empty seed and never reach maturity. More ripe fruits were removed by birds from experimental bicolored fruit displays (consisting of infructescences with ten ripe fruits and stripped of unripe fruits, paired with

Marcelino Fuentes

1995-01-01

211

How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales.  

PubMed

The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals, but their diversity remains poorly understood. Using an avian color space to derive a sensory morphospace for fruit color, we tested four hypotheses of fruit color diversity: fruit colors occupy a limited area of the color space; they are less diverse than flower colors; fruit colors within localities are similar to each other; and fruit color diversity reflects phylogeny. The global fruit color diversity of 948 primarily bird-dispersed plant species and the color diversity of localities were compared with null models of random, unconstrained evolution of fruit color. Fruit color diversity was further compared with the diversity of 1300 flower colors. Tests of phylogenetic effects on fruit color were used to assess the degree of correspondence with phylogeny. Global and local fruit color diversity was limited compared with null models and fruits have achieved only half the color diversity of flowers. Interestingly, we found little indication of phylogenetic conservatism. Constraints resulting from the chemical properties of pigments probably limit global fruit and flower color diversity. Different types of selection on fruits and flowers may further explain the smaller color diversity of fruits. PMID:23374020

Stournaras, Kalliope E; Lo, Eugenia; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Cazetta, Eliana; Dehling, D Matthias; Schleuning, Matthias; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Donoghue, Michael J; Prum, Richard O; Schaefer, H Martin

2013-02-04

212

Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1  

PubMed Central

Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention.

Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

2012-01-01

213

Ammonium reduces growth, fruit yield and fruit quality of watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermelon (Citrullus lunatus Thunb.) plants cv ‘Sugar Baby’ were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse under NO3:NH4 ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. Plants receiving the high ammonium treatment expressed symptoms of NH4?toxicity and declined rapidly after bloom. Reducing NO3:NH4 from 3:1 to 1:1 significantly reduced growth, water use, fruit yield, flesh soluble solids and uptake of NO3, NH4, K, Ca

E. H. Simonne; H. A. Mills; D. A. Smittle

1992-01-01

214

Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.  

PubMed

Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science. PMID:23986917

Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

2013-06-01

215

Carbohydrate control over carotenoid build-up is conditional on fruit ontogeny in clementine fruits.  

PubMed

The final contents of primary and secondary metabolites of the ripe fruit depend on metabolic processes that are tightly regulated during fruit ontogeny. Carbohydrate supply during fruit development is known to influence these processes but, with respect to secondary metabolites, we do not really know whether this influence is direct or indirect. Here, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of clementine fruit metabolism to carbohydrate supply was conditional on fruit developmental stage. We applied treatments increasing fruit load reversibly or irreversibly at three key stages of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) fruit development: early after cell division, at the onset of fruit coloration (color break) and near maturity. The highest fruit load obtained by early defoliation (irreversible) had the highest impact on fruit growth, maturity and metabolism, followed by the highest fruit load obtained by early shading (reversible). Final fruit size decreased by 21 and 18% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Soluble sugars decreased by 18% in the early irreversible treatment, whereas organic acids increased by 46 and 29% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Interestingly, total carotenoids increased by 50 and 18%, respectively. Changes in leaf starch content and photosynthesis supported that these early treatments triggered a carbon starvation in the young fruits, with irreversible effects. Furthermore, our observations on the early treatments challenge the common view that carbohydrate supply influences positively carotenoid accumulation in fruits. We propose that early carbon starvation irreversibly promotes carotenoid accumulation. PMID:22882610

Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Poggi, Isabelle; Urban, Laurent

2012-09-13

216

Cellular Organization and Fruit Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major theories have been adduced through the years to explain the climacteric rise in respiration during the ripening of fruits. On the one hand, the climacteric has been imputed to a surge of protein synthesis1-4. On the other, the climacteric has been attributed to a breakdown in ``organization resistance''5,6. Ethylene is considered as a causative endogenous ripening agent7.

T. Solomos; G. G. Laties

1973-01-01

217

Carbon dioxide effects on fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The first products of C14O2 fixation by lemon fruit in the dark were found to be malic, citric and aspartic acids. It is presumed that exalacetic is actually the first product to be labeled but that it is converted rapidly to the three other acids.2.Malonic acid was identified as one of the products of exposure to C14O2.3.Aconitic, fumaric and a-ketoglutaric

Roy E. Young; Jacob B. Biale

1968-01-01

218

Radionuclide transfer from soil to fruit.  

PubMed

The available literature on the transfer of radionuclides from soil to fruit has been reviewed with the aim of identifying the main variables and processes affecting the behaviour of radionuclides in fruit plants. Where available, data for transfer of radionuclides from soil to other components of fruit plant have also been collected, to help in understanding the processes of translocation and storage in perennial plants. Soil-to-fruit transfer factors were derived from agricultural ecosystems, both from temperate and subtropical or tropical zones. Aggregated transfer factors have also been collected from natural or semi-natural ecosystems. The data concern numerous fruits and various radionuclides. Soil-to-fruit transfer is nuclide specific. The variability for a given radionuclide is first of all ascribable to the different properties of soils. Fruit plant species are very heterogeneous, varying from woody trees and shrubs to herbaceous plants. In temperate areas the soil-to-fruit transfer is higher in woody trees for caesium and in shrubs for strontium. Significant differences between the values obtained in temperate and subtropical and tropical regions do not necessarily imply that they are ascribable to climate. Transfer factors for caesium are higher in subtropical and tropical fruits, while those for strontium, as well as for plutonium and americium, in the same fruits, are lower; these results can be interpreted taking into account different soil characteristics. PMID:11202699

Carini, F

2001-01-01

219

Freeze concentration of fruit juices.  

PubMed

Concentration of aqueous foods such as fruit juices, milk, beer, wine, coffee, and tea, is a major unit operation in the food industry. Technically feasible processes that are commercially available for the concentration of liquid foods include evaporation, freeze concentration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration. Evaporation is considered to be the most economical and most widely used method of concentration. However, it is not suited for food products with very delicate flavors. Commercial processes for the concentration of such products by membrane separation techniques are not yet available. As compared to the conventional evaporation processes, concentration by freezing is potentially a superior and economic process for aroma-rich liquid foods. In the past, the process, however, was seldom used because of the investment cost and the considerable loss of concentrate in the withdrawn ice, and hence, the quality. Recent technological developments have minimized these two drawbacks associated with the earlier freeze concentration processes. In the coming decade, freeze concentration is seen as a potentially attractive method for the concentration of aroma-rich liquid foods, including fruit juices, coffee, tea, and selected alcoholic beverages. In this article, several aspects of the theoretical considerations behind freeze concentration of fruit juices, the development of new and cheaper designs, and commercially available freeze concentration processes are reviewed. The economics of the process and its application to several other areas of the food industry are also discussed. PMID:6383717

Deshpande, S S; Cheryan, M; Sathe, S K; Salunkhe, D K

1984-01-01

220

Why fruits go to the dark side  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

Schaefer, H. Martin

2011-11-01

221

Development of Seeded and Seedless Avocado Fruits1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed influences rate of growth, size, shape and maturation of avocado fruits. Seeded fruits are 8-10 times larger than seedless ones and contain more and larger cells. The growth pattern of seeded and seedless fruits is similar from June until maturation, when growth rate of seeded fruits decreases. Fruit maturation is characterized by rapid accumulation of oil in the

Amos Blumenfeld; Shmuel Gazit

222

Carbon and water balances for young fruits of platyopuntias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions relating to transpired versus retained water for pected for CAM plants. The water potential of the young fruits, the xylem versus the phloem as water supplier to the fruits (average of 0.41 MPa) was higher than that of the fruits, and the importance of fruit photosynthesis for fruit cladodes (average of 0.60 MPa), indicating that water dry mass gain

Park S. Nobel; Erick De la Barrera

2000-01-01

223

Dried Fruits: Excellent in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this work is to determine the amount and quality of phenol antioxidants in dried fruits and compare them with the corresponding fresh fruits; to compare the nutrients in fresh and dried fruits; to determine if figs are a source of in vivo antioxidants when eaten. Methods: Commercial samples of dried fruits and fresh fruits were compared

Joe A Vinson; Ligia Zubik; Pratima Bose; Najwa Samman; John Proch

224

POSTHARVEST BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF AVOCADO FRUIT DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Bacillus subtilis on its own or integrated with prochloraz Tag-wax application was evaluated for control of avocado postharvest diseases anthracnose, Dothiorella\\/ Colletotrichum fruit rot complex (DCC) and stem-end rot (SE). Tag-waxed fruit and\\/ or fruit treated with prochloraz incorporated into Tag-wax, served as controls. The biological and integrated treatments were as effective as the prochloraz Tag-wax treatment in controlling

LISE KORSTEN; E. E VILLIERS

1993-01-01

225

Cell Wall Metabolism in Ripening Fruit  

PubMed Central

Mature `Bartlett' pear (Pyrus communis) fruits were ripened at 20 C. Fruits at different stages of ripeness were homogenized, and extracts of the low speed pellet (crude cell wall) were prepared. These extracts contained polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and activity against seven p-nitrophenyl glycoside substrates. Polygalacturonase, ?-galactosidase, and ?-mannosidase increased in activity as the fruit ripened. Cellulase and activities against pear wall xylan and arabinan were absent from the extracts.

Ahmed, Ahmed Elrayah; Labavitch, John M.

1980-01-01

226

Endoreduplication and Growth of Fleshy Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fruit is a specialized organ, which results from the development of the ovary after successful flower pollination and\\u000a fertilization, and provides a suitable environment for seed maturation and seed dispersal mechanisms. Due to their importance\\u000a in human nutrition and their economic inference, fleshy fruit species have been the subject of developmental studies, mostly\\u000a devoted to ovary formation, fruit set,

Matthieu Bourdon; Nathalie Frangne; Elodie Mathieu-Rivet; Mehdi Nafati; Catherine Cheniclet; Jean-Pierre Renaudin; Christian Chevalier

227

The use of wild fruits in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most peasant households in Zimbabwe use edible fruits of indigenous woody plants. Deforestation does not significantly affect\\u000a availability of selected fruits, because people tend not to cut selected trees when clearing land for cultivation. A different\\u000a range of species is used in the different natural regions of Zimbabwe. Fruit use mainly occurs in the periods of seasonal\\u000a food stress, even

B. M. Campbe

1987-01-01

228

Relationship between tomato fruit growth and fruit osmotic potential under salinity.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between fruit growth and fruit osmotic potential (Psi(s)) in salty conditions, a sensitive tomato cultivar (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and a tolerant accession of the wild species Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill. were grown in a greenhouse with 0 and 70 mM NaCl, and the growth of the fruit studied from 15 to 70 days after anthesis (DAA). L. pimpinellifolium did not reduce significantly fruit weight in salty conditions throughout the growth period, whereas L. esculentum fruit weights decreased significantly with salinity from 45 DAA. L. esculentum fruit fresh weight reductions resulted from both less dry matter and water accumulation, although the fruit water content was affected by salinity before the fruit weight. In both species, fruit osmotic potential (Psi(s)) decreased significantly with salinity during the rapid fruit growth phase, although the changes were different. Thus, fruits from L. pimpinellifolium salt treated plants showed a Psi(s) reduction at the beginning (15 DAA) twice as high as that found in L. esculentum. As the advanced growth stage (from 15 to 55 DAA), the Psi(s) reduction percentages induced by salinity were quite similar in L. pimpinellifolium fruits, while increased in L. esculentum. Under saline conditions, the solutes contributing to reduce the fruit Psi(s) during the first 55 DAA were the inorganic solutes in both species, while in the ripe fruits they were hexoses. L. esculentum fruits accumulated K(+) as the main osmoticum in salty conditions, while L. pimpinellifolium fruits were able to use not only K(+) but also the Na(+) provided by the salt. PMID:11337072

Bolarin, M C.; Estañ, M T.; Caro, M; Romero-Aranda, R; Cuartero, J

2001-05-01

229

The use of fruiting synchrony by foraging mangabey monkeys: a ‘simple tool’ to find fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that a considerable number of primates can remember the location and fruiting state of individual\\u000a trees in their home range. This enables them to relocate fruit or predict whether previously encountered fruit has ripened.\\u000a Recent studies, however, suggest that the ability of primates to cognitively map fruit-bearing trees is limited. In this study,\\u000a we investigated an

K. R. L. Janmaat; C. A. Chapman; R. Meijer; K. Zuberbühler

230

The influence of host fruit morphology on parasitization rates in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the host fruits of the Caribbean fruit fly there are a variety of sizes and shapes. These morphological differences\\u000a may influence the vulnerability of the larvae to parasites. In the laboratory, Caribbean fruit fly larvae placed in the smaller\\u000a of 2 different sizes of artificial ‘fruit’ (cloth spheres filled with a diet material) were parasitized at a higher rate

J. Sivinski

1991-01-01

231

Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar phenotype, i.e. seeded, bright red flesh, dark green rind, etc., determined that ethylene levels were highest during the green fruit stage followed by a decrease during the white and pink fruit stages. Additionally, quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to validate modulation of 127 ESTs that were differentially expressed in developing and ripening fruits based on array analysis. Conclusion This study identified numerous ESTs with putative involvement in the watermelon fruit developmental and ripening process, in particular the involvement of the vascular system and ethylene. The production of ethylene during fruit development in watermelon gives further support to the role of ethylene in fruit development in non-climacteric fruits.

Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

2008-01-01

232

WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only is Washington in the primary fruit producing region of the world, Washington State University (WSU) also has a website dedicated to the tree fruit sciences through their research and extension center, TFREC. The site highlights the "cooperative, multidisciplinary approach to tree fruit production in the 21st century" that the center features. Visitors will find multiple topics covered on the right hand menu, such as "Plant Breeding", "Integrated Pest Management", and "Orchard Management". "Popular Links", also found on the left hand side of the page, includes "Popular Tree Fruit Links", "Washington State University Web Sites", and "Other Washington Sites". Visitors can read tree fruit news featured on the homepage of the site, such as the release of the first apple cultivar from the WSU apple breeding program and a brief article on how the appearance of a new fruit pest, from the fruit fly family, is affecting Washington fruits, and how it differs from other pests in that it attacks healthy and ripening fruit.

233

Antisense inhibition of tomato fruit sucrose synthase decreases fruit setting and the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit.  

PubMed Central

The role of sucrose synthase (SuSy) in tomato fruit was studied in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing an antisense fragment of fruit-specific SuSy RNA (TOMSSF) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of the antisense RNA markedly inhibited SuSy activity in flowers and fruit pericarp tissues. However, inhibition was only slight in the endosperm and was undetectable in the embryo, shoot, petiole, and leaf tissues. The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in parallel with that of SuSy, but acid invertase activity did not increase in response to the reduced SuSy activity. The only effect on the carbohydrate content of young fruit was a slight reduction in starch accumulation. The in vitro sucrose import capacity of fruits was not reduced by SuSy inhibition at 23 days after anthesis, and the rate of starch synthesized from the imported sucrose was not lessened even when SuSy activity was decreased by 98%. However, the sucrose unloading capacity of 7-day-old fruit was substantially decreased in lines with low SuSy activity. In addition, the SuSy antisense fruit from the first week of flowering had a slower growth rate. A reduced fruit set, leading to markedly less fruit per plant at maturity, was observed for the plants with the least SuSy activity. These results suggest that SuSy participates in the control of sucrose import capacity of young tomato fruit, which is a determinant for fruit set and development.

D'Aoust, M A; Yelle, S; Nguyen-Quoc, B

1999-01-01

234

Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and

Bart J Janssen; Kate Thodey; Robert J Schaffer; Rob Alba; Lena Balakrishnan; Rebecca Bishop; Judith H Bowen; Ross N Crowhurst; Andrew P Gleave; Susan Ledger; Steve McArtney; Franz B Pichler; Kimberley C Snowden; Shayna Ward

2008-01-01

235

Why some fruits are green when they are ripe: carbon balance in fleshy fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits that are green upon ripening (“green-ripe”) tend to be dispersed by a limited range of frugivores, whereas those that are brightly colored (“bright-ripe”) are dispersed by a wide range of birds and mammals. Because green fruits are probably less conspicuous than other colors of fruits, their pigmentation cannot be attributed to the attraction of seed dispersers. Instead, we hypothesize

Martin L. Cipollini; Douglas J. Levey

1991-01-01

236

Influence of Color on Perception of Sweetness and Fruit Flavor of Fruit Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to study the effects of color on the perception of both sweetness and fruit flavor of different fruit (peach, orange, kiwifruit and berries) beverages. Four samples of each fruit beverage were prepared by adding different colorants but maintaining the same composition. Color was measured using a Hunter Lab colorimeter. Samples of each of the

S. Bayarri; C. Calvo; E. Costell; L. Durán

2001-01-01

237

Blueberry Fruit Quality and Antioxidants Capacity as Effected by Fruit Ripeness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rabbiteye blueberry fruit are sometimes commercially harvested at onset of ripening as determined visually in order to concentrate harvest, minimize picking times, and increase storage life. These fruit may not be fully ripe at picking, thus fruit quality and antioxidants levels may not have comple...

238

FRUIT AGE, STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND MATURITY EFFECTS ON HASS AVOCADO FRUIT QUALITY AND RIPENING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of storage temperature and duration of storage was previously investigated in two trials in the 2002\\/2003 season. The month during which 'Hass' avocado fruit were harvested affected fruit quality with the lowest levels of rots and chilling injury occurring in mid season harvested fruit. In the 2003\\/2004 season a study combining storage temperature and duration was conducted on

J. DIXON; D. B. SMITH; T. A. ELMSLY

239

"FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic fruits

Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

2011-01-01

240

Mechanics of plant fruit hooks.  

PubMed

Hook-like surface structures, observed in some plant species, play an important role in the process of plant growth and seed dispersal. In this study, we developed an elastic model and further used it to investigate the mechanical behaviour of fruit hooks in four plant species, previously measured in an experimental study. Based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the force-displacement relationship is derived, and its Young's modulus is obtained. The result agrees well with the experimental data. The model aids in understanding the mechanics of hooks, and could be used in the development of new bioinspired Velcro-like materials. PMID:23365190

Chen, Qiang; Gorb, Stanislav N; Gorb, Elena; Pugno, Nicola

2013-01-30

241

21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2013-04-01

242

21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2009-04-01

243

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened fruit jelly. 150.141 Section 150.141 Food...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products...

2010-04-01

244

21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2010-04-01

245

Dynamics of Fruiting Body Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Myxobacteria build their species-specific fruiting bodies by cell movement and then differentiate spores in specific places within that multicellular structure. New steps in the developmental aggregation of Myxococcus xanthus were discovered through a frame-by-frame analysis of a motion picture. The formation and fate of 18 aggregates were captured in the time-lapse movie. Still photographs of 600 other aggregates were also analyzed. M. xanthus has two engines that propel the gliding of its rod-shaped cells: slime-secreting jets at the rear and retractile pili at the front. The earliest aggregates are stationary masses of cells that look like three-dimensional traffic jams. We propose a model in which both engines stall as the cells' forward progress is blocked by other cells in the traffic jam. We also propose that these blockades are eventually circumvented by the cell's capacity to turn, which is facilitated by the push of slime secretion at the rear of each cell and by the flexibility of the myxobacterial cell wall. Turning by many cells would transform a traffic jam into an elliptical mound, in which the cells are streaming in closed orbits. Pairs of adjacent mounds are observed to coalesce into single larger mounds, probably reflecting the fusion of orbits in the adjacent mounds. Although fruiting bodies are relatively large structures that contain 105 cells, no long-range interactions between cells were evident. For aggregation, M. xanthus appears to use local interactions between its cells.

Kaiser, Dale; Welch, Roy

2004-01-01

246

Dynamics of fruiting body morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Myxobacteria build their species-specific fruiting bodies by cell movement and then differentiate spores in specific places within that multicellular structure. New steps in the developmental aggregation of Myxococcus xanthus were discovered through a frame-by-frame analysis of a motion picture. The formation and fate of 18 aggregates were captured in the time-lapse movie. Still photographs of 600 other aggregates were also analyzed. M. xanthus has two engines that propel the gliding of its rod-shaped cells: slime-secreting jets at the rear and retractile pili at the front. The earliest aggregates are stationary masses of cells that look like three-dimensional traffic jams. We propose a model in which both engines stall as the cells' forward progress is blocked by other cells in the traffic jam. We also propose that these blockades are eventually circumvented by the cell's capacity to turn, which is facilitated by the push of slime secretion at the rear of each cell and by the flexibility of the myxobacterial cell wall. Turning by many cells would transform a traffic jam into an elliptical mound, in which the cells are streaming in closed orbits. Pairs of adjacent mounds are observed to coalesce into single larger mounds, probably reflecting the fusion of orbits in the adjacent mounds. Although fruiting bodies are relatively large structures that contain 10(5) cells, no long-range interactions between cells were evident. For aggregation, M. xanthus appears to use local interactions between its cells. PMID:14761986

Kaiser, Dale; Welch, Roy

2004-02-01

247

COMPARATIVE FRUIT COLORATION IN WATERMELON AND TOMATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon exhibits a wide range of fruit flesh colour mutations. However, very little is known about carotenoid biosynthesis in watermelon fruits. To infer the molecular basis of lycopene and carotenoid biosynthesis data on carotenoid composition in yellow, orange and red flesh watermelon accessio...

248

The Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes some possibilities for heavy metals monitoring in fruits. The heavy metals concentrations have been determinated by AA spectrometry and electrochemical methods: i = f(E) voltammetry and selective ion electrode determinations with a Thermo Orion 710A+ apparatus. The determination of heavy metals concentration in fruits is very important to be known because they both represent a natural and

M. N. Stefanut; I. David; Z. Stanoiev; C. Macarie

249

HYPERSPECTRAL SCATTERING FOR ASSESSING PEACH FRUIT FIRMNESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Firmness is an important attribute in determining the overall eating quality of peach fruit. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral scattering to predict peach fruit firmness. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire scattering images from '...

250

Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 2009 Preliminary Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the 2009 preliminary summary of the acreage, yield, production, use, price and value of noncitrus fruit and nut crops by state. In 2009, the Nation's utilized production of the leading noncitrus fruit crops totaled 17.6 million tons, ...

2010-01-01

251

Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 2007 Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the 2007 annual summary of the acreage, yield, production, use, price and value of noncitrus fruit and nut crops by state. In 2007, the Nation's revised utilized production of the leading noncitrus fruit crops totaled 17.1 million ton...

2008-01-01

252

Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

253

Combined production of broilers and fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined production of broilers and fruit trees is a subject often discussed in organic fruit production in Denmark. Very little research has been carried out on this type of production system. In organic production in Denmark, nearly no pesticides are allowed, so the need for alternative pest control is large. Apple sawfly ( Hoplocampa testudinea ) and pear midge (Contarinia

H. Lindhard Pedersen; A. Olsen; K. Horsted; M. Korsgaard; B. Pedersen

254

Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)|

Liebl, Eric C.

1998-01-01

255

Unripe red fruits may be aposematic  

PubMed Central

The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation.

Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

2009-01-01

256

Efficiency of food utilization by fruit bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotropical fruit bats consume figs (Ficus spp.) and other fruit in small bites which they suck dry and drop as pellets. The swallowed juice transits the short digestive system in 0.5 h or less. The efficiency of this unusual mode of feeding was determined by comparing the nutritional content of pellets, feces and urine of captive Artibeus jamaicensis to that

Douglas W. Morrison

1980-01-01

257

Postharvest responses of Chinese bayberry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postharvest responses of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc.) at 20°C were investigated using three red cultivars, ‘Biqi’, ‘Hunanzhong’ and ‘Wuzhong’. Fruit from a single harvest for each cultivar were divided into three categories according to fruit colour, designated as ‘immature’, ‘mature’ and ‘ripe’. Respiration rate, ethylene production, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), fructose, glucose, sucrose

WangShu Zhang; KunSong Chen; Bo Zhang; ChongDe Sun; Chong Cai; ChunHua Zhou; WenPing Xu; WeiQing Zhang; Ian B Ferguson

2005-01-01

258

WAX-BASED COATINGS FOR FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of coatings on fruits was reviewed for the purpose of evaluating the potential use for organically produced commodities. Ingredients used in fruit coating formulations were reviewed including beeswax, carnauba, and candelilla waxes, and shellac and wood rosin resins. Fatty acids, m...

259

Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

260

Allergy to Rosaceae fruits without related pollinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rosaceae fruit allergy is frequently associated with birch pollinosis in Central and Northern Europe and with grass pollen allergy in Central Spain. The main cross-reactive structures involved for birch pollinosis are Bet v 1 and profilin, and for grass pollinosis they are profilin and carbohydrate determinants. Rosaceae fruit allergy can occasionally be observed in patients without pollinosis. Objective: We

Montserrat Fernández-Rivas; Ronald van Ree; Manuela Cuevas

1997-01-01

261

Automated fruit grading system using image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the operations and performance of an automated quality verification system for agricultural products and its main features. The system utilizes improved engineering designs and image-processing techniques to convey and grade products. Basically two inspection stages of the system can be identified: external fruit inspection and internal fruit inspection. Surface inspection is accomplished through processing of color CCD

John B. Njoroge; Kazunori Ninomiya; Naoshi Kondo; H. Toita

2002-01-01

262

Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening  

SciTech Connect

Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

1987-04-01

263

Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.  

PubMed

The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

2009-09-21

264

Ethylene regulation of fruit ripening: Molecular aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in ethylene regulating fruit ripening concerning itsperception and signal transduction and expression of ACC synthaseand ACC oxidase genes is reviewed. ACC synthase and ACC oxidasehave been characterized and their genes cloned from various fruittissues. Both ACC synthase and ACC oxidase are encoded bymultigene families, and their activities are associated withfruit ripening. In climacteric fruit, the transition toautocatalytic ethylene production

Yueming Jiang; Jiarui Fu

2000-01-01

265

Pomegranate fruit components modulate human thrombin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an important source of polyphenols with assessed antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were: (i) the characterization of the monomeric phenolic variability on each isolated fruit component (endocarp, mesocarp, aril); (ii) the study on the effect of pomegranate fruit components on human thrombin amidolytic activity. Collectively, our data show that pomegranate components contain bioactive metabolites

M. Cuccioloni; M. Mozzicafreddo; L. Sparapani; M. Spina; A. M. Eleuteri; E. Fioretti; M. Angeletti

2009-01-01

266

Poland?s fruit industry in transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the development of Poland?s fruit industry up to 1990, followed by the situation since that year, in which legislative reforms were introduced, mainly to break up state monopolies and to privatize state assets. Analyses the Polish fruit industry in the light of the resultant shift from a sellers? to a buyers? market, discussing the grower, wholesaling, processing and exporting

Uwe Faesel; Roy Hill

1995-01-01

267

Vinamilk: Fruit Juice for Kids in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case starts as brand manager Mr Nguyen Trong Tan, sets out to launch a new line of fruit juice for children in Vietnam. Vinamilk, the largest diary company in Vietnam, had identified this as a potential market and was interested in launching the new line under their minor fruit juice product line. The company, while relatively new to the

Adel Fawzi DIMIAN; Kevin Sproule

2012-01-01

268

Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (?M TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

2011-01-01

269

Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses  

PubMed Central

Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data.

Chan, Zhulong

2012-01-01

270

Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and

Ryohei Nakano; Emi Ogura; Yasutaka Kubo; Akitsugu Inaba

2003-01-01

271

Influence of fruit traits on the infestation of Dacus persicus in two fruit morphs of Calotropis procera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvae of Dacus (Leptoxyda) persicus (aak fruit fly) are key predispersal seed predators in Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae). Based on fruit characteristics, two morphs are distinguishable in C. procera viz., the soft-fruited morph (SF morph) and the hard-fruited morph (HF morph). The work reported here examined whether the\\u000a fruit characteristics influenced the infestation by the aak fruit fly and, if

Santosh Sharma; Dilip Amritphale

2008-01-01

272

Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.  

PubMed

The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

2003-01-01

273

Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.  

PubMed

With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. PMID:24151998

Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

2013-07-08

274

Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.  

PubMed

In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented. PMID:8841165

Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

1996-10-01

275

[Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].  

PubMed

The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23808277

Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Ba?kov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Ba?garin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar

2013-01-01

276

Laser speckle dynamic for monitoring fruits maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study is based on using a non-invasive technique, the bio-speckle technique, in order to follow the ripening of fruits during different stages: before and after the climacteric stage. To assess the impact of the ripening of fruits on their optical properties, speckle grain is measured and the variation of its dimensions is evaluated. In addition, and in order to correlate this observation with the degradation of chlorophylls, both a physical approach based on recording the fluorescence spectrum of chlorophylls, and a biochemical approach based on a pigmentation analysis, are used. We therefore show the efficiency of biospeckle metrology for monitoring fruit maturation.

Nassif, Rana; Pellen, Fabrice; Magne, Christian; Le Jeune, Bernard; Le Brun, Guy; Abboud, Marie

277

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries.  

PubMed

The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. PMID:3536313

Thomas, P

1986-01-01

278

Fruit flags in a temperate evergreen shrub Corokia cotoneaster (Escalloniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit flags are visual signals, other than fruits themselves, which attract frugivorous birds. In Corokia cotoneaster, an evergreen temperate New Zealand shrub, a scattering of leaves become coloured in autumn at the same time as the bird-dispersed fruits are mature; the leaves are similar to ripe fruit in shape and colour and may serve especially to attract birds to sparsely,

C. J. Webb

1985-01-01

279

Heat treatment of ‘Oroblanco’ citrus fruit to control insect infestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Oroblanco’ citrus fruit were heat treated with hot forced air at holding temperatures from 43 to 47°C for times from 10 to 90min. Unwaxed fruit developed heat damage at 47°C, while waxed fruit showed heat damage at 44°C. Thermal death kinetics of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), eggs, first and third instars were tested in a hot water system

Susan Lurie; Tomislav Jemric; Asya Weksler; Ruti Akiva; Yoav Gazit

2004-01-01

280

Regulatory Mechanisms of Textural Changes in Ripening Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture changes in ripening fruits influence consumer preference, fruit storability, transportability, shelf-life, and response to pathogen attack. Genetic regulatory factors as well as environmental conditions simultaneously affect texture changes in ripening fruit. Recent physiological and molecular studies provide insights into our knowledge and understanding of events and\\/or factors that contribute to changes in fruit texture, including softening and lignification. The

Xian Li; Changjie Xu; Schuyler S. Korban; Kunsong Chen

2010-01-01

281

Roles of gibberellins in increasing sink demand in Japanese pear fruit during rapid fruit growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous work demonstrated that exogenous gibberellins (GAs) applications during rapid fruit growth significantly increases\\u000a sink demand and results in a larger fruit in Japanese pear. In an attempt to unravel the mechanism of increased sink demand\\u000a by applied GAs, the histology, cell wall components of the flesh, and carbon accumulation in the fruit were assessed for Japanese\\u000a pear (Pyrus

Caixi Zhang; Kenji Tanabe; Fumio Tamura; Akihiro Itai; Masashi Yoshida

2007-01-01

282

Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

Janssen, Bart J; Thodey, Kate; Schaffer, Robert J; Alba, Rob; Balakrishnan, Lena; Bishop, Rebecca; Bowen, Judith H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Ledger, Susan; McArtney, Steve; Pichler, Franz B; Snowden, Kimberley C; Ward, Shayna

2008-01-01

283

Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), glucose, fructose and

S. Fanasca; A. Martino; E. Heuvelink; C. Stanghellini

2007-01-01

284

Fruit quality and production of cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruit clones selected for increased frost hardiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal limitation to cultivation of cactus for fruit in the south-western United States is lack of hardiness to freezing weather. This field trial compared 22Opuntiaclones selected for increased cold hardiness, fruit yield, and fruit quality, i.e. pH, sugar content and seed content. Mexican accessions 1380, 1277, 1281 and 1300 had the highest yields averaging between 2·5 and 5·2 kg

John Parish; Peter Felker

1997-01-01

285

Fruit yield and quality of strawberry plants transformed with a fruit specific strawberry pectate lyase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two transgenic strawberry lines (Pel 1 and Pel 3) containing the open reading frame of a fruit specific strawberry pectate lyase gene (FaplC) under the control of the CaMV35S promoter have been obtained to evaluate the role of this gene on fruit softening. Ripen fruits from both lines showed a significant down-regulation of FaplC, being the percentage of silencing of

Sabry M. Youssef; Silvia Jiménez-Bermúdez; M. Luz Bellido; Carmen Martín-Pizarro; Marta Barceló; Samia Abdallah Abdal-Aziz; José L. Caballero; José M. López-Aranda; Fernando Pliego-Alfaro; Juan Muñoz; Miguel A. Quesada; José A. Mercado

2009-01-01

286

Detectability and content as opposing signal characteristics in fruits.  

PubMed Central

Although often associated with consumers, fruit colours have rarely been assessed as signals. Here, we investigate the signal principles of 'detectability' and 'content' in bird-dispersed fruits. We determined detectability as the contrast between fruit and background and signal 'content' by correlating fruit colours and compounds. Red and black, the most common fruit colours globally, contrast more against background than other colours but do not indicate compounds. In other colours, 60% of the variation in long- to shortwave light correlated with protein, tannin and carbohydrate content. Because macronutrients stimulated fruit removal, while phenols, but not tannins, deterred it, signalling these macronutrients probably increases seed dispersal. Phenolic content was not signalled because it would reduce plants' fitness. Signalling tannins might be directed towards fruit pests rather than dispersers. In conclusion, plants may employ differential signalling strategies matching conspicuous signals in red and black fruits while other colours signal fruit quality. The latter implies that nutrient quality and fruit defence are communicated visually.

Schaefer, Hinrich Martin; Schmidt, Veronika

2004-01-01

287

Mitigation of severe water stress by fruit thinning in ‘O’Henry’ peach: Implications for fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit thinning can be used to relieve water stress in peach but it is not known how fruit quality will respond under water limited conditions. To elucidate this, we applied, over the growing seasons of 2003 and 2004, irrigation and fruit thinning treatments to ‘O’Henry’ peach at the onset of Stage III of fruit development. The treatments were full irrigation

G. Lopez; M. H. Behboudian; X. Vallverdu; M. Mata; J. Girona; J. Marsal

2010-01-01

288

Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During postharvest storage, pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruit commonly wilts (or shrivels) early because of rapid water loss combined with the hollow fruit’s limited water storage capacity, a condition that greatly reduces its shelf-life and market value. To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid comp...

289

Natural Enemies of True Fruit Flies (Tephritidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the development of a New Pest Response Guidelines for The Economic Fruit Flies, Family Tephritidae, by USDA, APHIS, PPQ, a comprehensive list of natural enemies of Tephritids was developed. This was recognized as a valuable source of information fo...

J. N. L. Stibick

2004-01-01

290

ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF BERRY FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Berry fruits are considered excellent functional foods because they contain high levels of natural antioxidants. Antioxidants can act as free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synergists. Therefore, antioxidants can delay or prev...

291

BERRIES AND FRUITS IN CANCER CHEMOPREVENTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants, including food plants (fruits and vegetables), synthesize a vast array of chemical compounds that are not involved in their primary metabolism. These 'secondary compounds' instead serve a variety of ecological functions, ultimately, to enhance the plant's survivability. Interestingly, these ...

292

Taste-Modifying Protein from Miracle Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet.

Kenzo Kurihara; Lloyd M. Beidler

1968-01-01

293

Cellular antioxidant activity of common fruits.  

PubMed

Measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important in the screening of fruits for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity in cell culture and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the cellular antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 25 fruits commonly consumed in the United States. Pomegranate and berries (wild blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry) had the highest CAA values, whereas banana and melons had the lowest. Apples were found to be the largest contributors of fruit phenolics to the American diet, and apple and strawberries were the biggest suppliers of cellular antioxidant activity. Increasing fruit consumption is a logical strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of cancer. PMID:18759450

Wolfe, Kelly L; Kang, Xinmei; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Qingyuan; Liu, Rui Hai

2008-08-30

294

Fruits and Vegetables: Color Your Plate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the foods they eat. The importance of a variety of fruits and vegetables to a healthy diet is the focus of the experience. Learners read a story book about fruits and vegetables, repeat a helpful riddle, and draw pictures of fruits/vegetables. These drawings are then cut out and taped to "color" a Healthy Choice bulletin board plate. Learners can also taste-test different fruits and vegetables at snack or lunch time. Learners are encouraged to try one new color each day. This activity is featured on pp. 12-13 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2012-06-26

295

Gravitropic bending of fruit bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes exhibit a unique mechanism of gravitropic bending, related to their specific architecture. The gravisensitive region of the stipe directly below the cap coincides with the bending zone. The hyphae of this region are equipped with the ability to generate positional information and translate it into differential growth. A model is introduced with the fundamental characteristics of agent-based modeling as it is applied in robotics and artificial intelligence. The hyphae are equivalent to autonomous decision-making agents on the basis of a simple set of rules. Repetitive interactions between the agents, i.e. the hyphae, permit the correct adjustment of the fruit body independent from its relative position in space. This model is based on the following structural as well as biochemical data derived from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. A statolith-mediated mechanism in each individual hypha of the gravisensitive region accounts for graviperception. Cell nuclei with a density of 1.22 g cm-3 are considered the most likely candidates for gravity-induced sedimentation (statoliths). The number of nuclei in this zone is increased from 2 to up to 10 individual nuclei within each hyphal compartment. The nuclei are suspended in a web of actin filaments anchored in the plasma membrane. Any shift from the vertical position is converted into a change in the gravitational pull exerted on the plasma membrane. This leads to a functional distinction of the upper and lower flanks of each hypha. Each hypha is equipped with the ability to generate and amplify a positional signal perpendicular to the axis of the gravisensitive zone. This signal coordinates different hyphal extension of the upper and lower flank of the stipe: upper flank hyphae grow slower than lower flank hyphae. Hyphal growth requires continued turgor pressure and depends on the expansion of the vacuolar compartment. This vacuolation is conspicuously increased in lower flank transition zone hyphae of a horizontally oriented stipe. Cells undergoing fast vacuolation have electron-translucent regions around their vacuoles. These regions are composed of small, light vesicle-like structures (microvesicles). They apparently fuse with the vacuole increasing their volume by subsequent osmotic water intake. Subcellular changes in response to a gravistimulus are already observed after 30 min.

Hock, Bertold

296

Integrated Pest Management in Fruits – Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management practices used in several deciduous fruit crops are discussed. The chapter begins by noting the geographic\\u000a origin and approximate date of domestication of several fruit crops and the need for more fruit breeding programs to identify\\u000a and incorporate insect resistant genes into more fruit cultivars. It is assumed that fruit production probably began as small\\u000a plantings where growers

Donn T. Johnson

297

?- l-Arabinofuranosidase from cell walls of Japanese pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell wall-bound glycosidase activities were measured in pre-ripe and ripe fruits of Japanese pears (Pyrus serotina Rehd. var. culta. cv. Hosui). ?-l-Arabinofuranosidase (EC. 3.2.1.55) activity increased dramatically with fruit ripening and its activity was assayed during fruit development and ripening. After the fruit enlargement stage, cell wall-bound ?-l-arabinofuranosidase activity increased 15-fold with fruit ripening. The enzyme was solubilized from cell

Akira Tateishi; Yoshinori Kanayama; Shohei Yamaki

1996-01-01

298

Fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive model  

PubMed Central

Background and aims In most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. Understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. A causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather ?(i)? fruit transpiration ?(ii)? fruit calcium ?(iii)? fruit storage quality. This paper explores the first link of this hypothesis, ?(i)?, for Hayward kiwifruit using field measurements of fruit transpiration rate and concurrent meteorological recordings. The aims are to identify the key environmental variables driving fruit transpiration and develop a predictive fruit transpiration model. Methodology Fruit transpiration was determined hourly over several 24-h periods by recording weight loss of detached fruit, on Days 23, 35, 49, 65, 94 and 140 after full bloom. Meteorological records were made every 15 min throughout the season at an adjacent regional weather station. A model of fruit transpiration was developed in which the usual meteorological variables (radiation, temperature, windspeed and relative humidity) were incorporated in a Fick's Law transpiration flux equation. Principal results Fruit transpiration rate (i.e. the molar flux density, mmol cm?2 h?1) varied diurnally and decreased during the season. The dominant fruit variable governing transpiration rate was skin conductance and the dominant environmental variables were relative humidity and temperature. Radiation and windspeed were not significantly influential. Conclusions The model provides a good fit to the fruit transpiration rate measurements regardless of the time of day/night or the stage of fruit development. The model allows reasonably accurate and continuous predictions of fruit transpiration rate throughout fruit development based on standard meteorological recordings. It also allows estimates of cumulative fruit transpiration throughout the season.

Montanaro, Giuseppe; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Lang, Alexander

2012-01-01

299

Biochemical Induction of Fruiting in Schizophyllum  

PubMed Central

A diffusible substance was isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushrooms that induced haploid fruiting body formation in Schizophyllum commune. An efficient isolation procedure was developed. The fruiting-inducing substance was shown to be present in all stages of Agaricus mushroom development and there was no preferential accumulation of the activity in gill, cap, or stipe tissues. Some chemical and physical properties of the inducing factor are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6

Rusmin, Simon; Leonard, Thomas J.

1978-01-01

300

Some physical properties of fresh okro fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical properties often required for the designing of an okro slicer, chopper and or grater were determined for okro fruit at a moisture content of 11.42% (wet basis). The average fruit length, width and thickness were 54.60, 28.60 and 26.70 mm, respectively; while sphericity and aspect ratio were 64.00% and 53.31%, respectively. True density, bulk density and porosity were 743.6

O. K. Owolarafe; H. O. Shotonde

2004-01-01

301

Papaya Fruit Softening: Role of Hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars show a wide variation in fruit softening rates, a character that determines fruit quality and shelf life, and\\u000a thought to be the result of cell wall degradation. The activity of pectin methylesterase, ?-galactosidase, endoglucanase,\\u000a endoxylanase and xylosidase were correlated with normal softening, though no relationship was found between polygalacturonase\\u000a activity and softening. When softening was

Siwaporn Thumdee; Ashariya Manenoi; Nancy J. Chen; Robert E. Paull

2010-01-01

302

Proteomic analysis of apricot fruit during ripening.  

PubMed

Ripening of climacteric fruits involves a complex network of biochemical and metabolic changes that make them palatable and rich in nutritional and health-beneficial compounds. Since fruit maturation has a profound impact on human nutrition, it has been recently the object of increasing research activity by holistic approaches, especially on model species. Here we report on the original proteomic characterization of ripening in apricot, a widely cultivated species of temperate zones appreciated for its taste and aromas, whose cultivation is yet hampered by specific limitations. Fruits of Prunus armeniaca cv. Vesuviana were harvested at three ripening stages and proteins extracted and resolved by 1D and 2D electrophoresis. Whole lanes from 1D gels were subjected to shot-gun analysis that identified 245 gene products, showing preliminary qualitative differences between maturation stages. In parallel, differential analysis of 2D proteomic maps highlighted 106 spots as differentially represented among variably ripen fruits. Most of these were further identified by means of MALDI-TOF-PMF and nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS as enzymes involved in main biochemical processes influencing metabolic/structural changes occurring during maturation, i.e. organic acids, carbohydrates and energy metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, cell wall restructuring and stress response, or as protein species linkable to peculiar fruit organoleptic characteristics. In addition to originally present preliminary information on the main biochemical changes that characterize apricot ripening, this study also provides indications for future marker-assisted selection breeding programs aimed to ameliorate fruit quality. PMID:23178875

D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Rocco, Mariapina; Verrillo, Francesca; Novi, Gianfranco; Viscosi, Vincenzo; Marra, Mauro; Scaloni, Andrea

2012-11-23

303

Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.  

PubMed

Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits. PMID:12358484

Wybraniec, S?awomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

2002-10-01

304

Solubilisation of tomato fruit pectins by ascorbate: a possible non-enzymic mechanism of fruit softening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that endogenous ascorbate, released into the apoplast by membrane permeabilisation early in fruit ripening, could promote the solubilisation and depolymerisation of polysaccharides, and thus contribute to fruit softening. In vitro, ascorbate (1 mM), especially in the presence of traces of either Cu 2+ or H 2O 2, solubilised up to 40%

Jo C. Dumville; Stephen C. Fry

2003-01-01

305

Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

PubMed

We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588

Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

2008-06-01

306

Fruit aromas in mature fleshy fruits as signals of readiness for predation and seed dispersal.  

PubMed

The dispersal of seeds away from parent plants seems to be the underlying selective force in the evolution of fleshy fruits attractive to animals. Secondary metabolites, which are not essential compounds for plant survival, are involved in the interaction of fleshy fruits with seed dispersers and antagonists. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites that play important roles in biotic interactions and in abiotic stress responses. They are usually accumulated at high levels in specific plant tissues and organs, such as fleshy fruits. The study of VOCs emitted during fruit development and after different biotic challenges may help to determine the interactions of fleshy fruits not only with legitimate vertebrate dispersers, but also with insects and microorganisms. A knowledge of fruit VOCs could be used in agriculture to generate attraction or repellency to pests and resistance to pathogens in fruits. This review provides an examination of specific fruit VOC blends as signals for either seed dispersal or predation through simple or complex trophic chains, which may also have consequences for an understanding of the importance of biodiversity in wild areas. PMID:23127167

Rodríguez, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Peña, Leandro

2012-11-05

307

A novel attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens , from fermented host fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemicals from fermented chapote fruit were identified and evaluated as attractants for hungry adult Mexican fruit flies in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays. Twenty-eight chemicals identified from an attractive gas-chromatography fraction were as attractive as a chapote volatiles extract (CV) when mixed in the same amounts found in CV. Sixteen of the chemicals were slightly attractive to flies when tested individually.

D. C. Robacker; A. M. Tarshis Moreno; J. A. Garcia; R. A. Flath

1990-01-01

308

Finger Fruits: Pre-Sliced Fruit in Schools Increases Sales and Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laddering interviews indicate that a leading reason younger children do not select fruit is because braces and small mouths make it difficult to eat. Older children – especially females – avoid it because it is messy and makes them look unattractive when eating it. One solution for both sets of reservations would be to offer pre-sliced fruit. The purpose of

Brian Wansink; David R. Just; Andrew S. Hanks

2012-01-01

309

Forbidden Fruit Versus Tainted Fruit: Effects of Warning Labels on Attraction to Television Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under growing public and government pressure, the television networks have adopted warning labels for violent programs. Tainted fruit theory posits that warning labels will decrease interest in violent programs, whereas forbidden fruit theory posits that warning labels will increase interest in violent programs. In Experiment 1, it was found that warning labels increased interest in violent programs, especially when the

Brad J. Bushman; Angela D. Stack

1996-01-01

310

Antisense inhibition of pectate lyase gene expression in strawberry fruit: Characteristics of fruits processed into jam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed several quality parameters of strawberry jam prepared from transgenic fruits with reduced expression of a pectate lyase gene. Two independent lines showing a reduction in pectate lyase mRNA transcript level of 90% (Apel 14) and 99% (Apel 23) have been studied. At harvest, ripen fruits from these two lines were significantly firmer than control. Soluble solid content

R. Sesmero; M. A. Quesada; J. A. Mercado

2007-01-01

311

Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immersion of litchi fruit in 49ºC water for 20 min followed by hydrocooling in ambient (24 ± 4ºC) temperature water for 20 min was tested as a quarantine treatment against potential infestations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (...

312

Fruitful plans: adding targeted mental imagery to implementation intentions increases fruit consumption.  

PubMed

Forming implementation intentions ('If I encounter situation X, then I will perform behaviour Y!') increases the probability of carrying out goals. This study tested the hypothesis that mental imagery targeting key elements of implementation intentions further increases goal achievement. The residents of a student residence were assigned the goal of consuming extra portions of fruit every day for 7 days and randomly assigned to one of four conditions: control (active rehearsal), implementation intentions, goal intention mental imagery or mental imagery targeted to the implementation intentions. Among low fruit consumers, but not high fruit consumers, fruit consumption at follow-up was higher in the targeted mental imagery group than in the other group, with the lowest fruit consumption in the control group. The findings suggest that it may be beneficial to use targeted mental imagery when forming implementation intentions. PMID:21337259

Knäuper, Bärbel; McCollam, Amanda; Rosen-Brown, Ariel; Lacaille, Julien; Kelso, Evan; Roseman, Michelle

2011-02-18

313

Interconnected cavernous structure of bacterial fruiting bodies.  

PubMed

The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicellular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to limitations of different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) revealed previously unknown details of the internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative high and low spore density regions. To make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high-density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen in other biological systems such as dictyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions. PMID:23300427

Harvey, Cameron W; Du, Huijing; Xu, Zhiliang; Kaiser, Dale; Aranson, Igor; Alber, Mark

2012-12-27

314

Interconnected Cavernous Structure of Bacterial Fruiting Bodies  

PubMed Central

The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicellular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to limitations of different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) revealed previously unknown details of the internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative high and low spore density regions. To make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high-density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen in other biological systems such as dictyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions.

Harvey, Cameron W.; Du, Huijing; Xu, Zhiliang; Kaiser, Dale; Aranson, Igor; Alber, Mark

2012-01-01

315

Metabolic engineering of aroma components in fruits.  

PubMed

Plants have the ability to produce a diversity of volatile metabolites, which attract pollinators and seed dispersers and strengthen plant defense responses. Selection by plant breeders of traits such as rapid growth and yield leads, in many cases, to the loss of flavor and aroma quality in crops. How the aroma can be improved without affecting other fruit attributes is a major unsolved issue. Significant advances in metabolic engineering directed at improving the set of volatiles that the fruits emit has been aided by the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavor and aroma compounds in some fruits. However, before this technology can be successfully applied to modulate the production of volatiles in different crops, further basic research is needed on the mechanisms that lead to the production of these compounds in plants. Here we review the biosynthesis and function of volatile compounds in plants, and the attempts that have been made to manipulate fruit aroma biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. In addition, we discuss the possibilities that molecular breeding offers for aroma enhancement and the implications of the latest advances in biotechnological modification of fruit flavor and aroma. PMID:24019257

Aragüez, Irene; Valpuesta Fernández, Victoriano

2013-09-06

316

Asian plantain (Plantago asiatica) essential oils suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-co-enzyme A reductase expression in vitro and in vivo and show hypocholesterolaemic properties in mice.  

PubMed

Asian plantain (Plantago asiatica) essential oil (PAEO) contains multiple bioactive compounds, but its potential effects on lipid metabolism have not been examined. PAEO was found to be mostly composed of oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool as the major component (82.5 %, w/w), measured using GC-MS. Incubation of 0-200 microg PAEO/ml with HepG2 cells for 24 h resulted in no significant toxicity. Incubation with 0.2 mg PAEO/ml altered the expression of LDL receptor (+83 %; P < 0.05) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase ( - 37 %; P < 0.05), as assessed using RT-PCR. LDL oxidation was markedly inhibited by PAEO treatment due to the prevalence of linalool compounds in PAEO. Oral administration of PAEO for 3 weeks in C57BL/6 mice significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations by 29 and 46 %, respectively. The mRNA (+58 %; P < 0.05), but not protein, levels of the LDL receptor were significantly higher, whereas both mRNA and protein levels of HMG-CoA reductase were significantly lower ( - 46 and - 11 %, respectively; P < 0.05) in the liver of PAEO-fed than of control mice. The mRNA levels of CYP7A1 were marginally reduced in HepG2 cells, but not in mouse liver after PAEO treatment. Thus, PAEO may have hypocholesterolaemic effects by altering the expression of HMG-CoA reductase. Reduced TAG and oxidised LDL may provide additional cardiovascular protective benefits. PMID:17697428

Chung, Mi Ja; Park, Kuen Woo; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Baek, Jun Pill; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Choi, Young-Mi; Lee, Sung-Joon

2007-08-15

317

Carbohydrate requirements of peach fruit growth and respiration.  

PubMed

Data on the seasonal patterns of fruit growth and dark respiration of two peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars were combined with temperature data to calculate the carbohydrate requirements of an "average" peach fruit from bloom to harvest. The two peach cultivars used were June Lady (an early maturing (mid-June) cultivar) and O'Henry (a late maturing (early-August) cultivar). At harvest, the mean dry weight of the June Lady fruit was 17.8 g (139.7 g fresh weight) and of O'Henry fruits was 30.9 g (213.9 g fresh weight), and the times from full bloom to harvest were 107 and 154 days, respectively. The total calculated fruit respiration requirements were 132 and 300 mmol CO(2) fruit(-1) season(-1) for June Lady and O'Henry fruits, respectively. Total calculated carbohydrate requirements for fruit growth and respiration are 23.9 and 43.8 g CH(2)O fruit(-1) season(-1) for June Lady and O'Henry fruits, respectively. Fruit respiration accounted for 16.3% of the total carbohydrate requirements of June Lady fruits and 0.5% of the total carbohydrate requirements of O'Henry fruits. PMID:14972978

DeJong, T M; Walton, E F

1989-09-01

318

Phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus grayana) fruits and leaves and changes during fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Phenolics in the fruits and leaves of Crataegus grayana were identified by HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. The contents of these compounds and their changes during autumn were also analyzed. Epicatechin [1-7 mg/g dry mass (DM) in fruits and 1-10 mg/g DM in leaves), procyanidins B2 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM) and C1 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM), hyperoside (0.5-1 and 2-11 mg/g DM), and a quercetin-pentoside (0.3-0.5 and 2-6 mg/g DM) were the major phenolics in both fruits and leaves. C-Glycosyl flavones were present in leaves (2-5 mg/g DM), whereas only trace levels were found in fruits. Ideain and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were found only in fruits. An additional 11 phenolics were identified/tentatively identified. Total phenolic contents reached highest levels by the end of August in fruits and by the end of September in leaves. The compositional profiles of phenolics in fruits and leaves of C. grayana were different from those of other Crataegus species. PMID:21905654

Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

2011-09-26

319

What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells.  

PubMed

Fleshy fruit acidity is an important component of fruit organoleptic quality and is mainly due to the presence of malic and citric acids, the main organic acids found in most ripe fruits. The accumulation of these two acids in fruit cells is the result of several interlinked processes that take place in different compartments of the cell and appear to be under the control of many factors. This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development. The effects of agro-environmental factors, such as the source:sink ratio, water supply, mineral nutrition, and temperature, on citric and malic acid accumulation in fruit cells have been reported in several agronomic studies. This review sheds light on the interactions between these factors and the metabolism and storage of organic acids in the cell. PMID:23408829

Etienne, A; Génard, M; Lobit, P; Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Bugaud, C

2013-02-13

320

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2010-01-01

321

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2013-01-01

322

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2009-01-01

323

7 CFR 319.56-3 - General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables. 319.56-3 Section...FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-3 General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables. All fruits and...

2010-01-01

324

Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit  

PubMed Central

Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P?<0.05) (1748 genes) were studied by assigning a predicted function (when known) based on BLAST to the TAIR database. Among them several genes belong to cell wall, hormone metabolism and response (auxin in particular), and metabolism of sugars and lipids. Up-regulation of lipid transfer proteins and differential expression of several indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)- and ethylene-associated genes were observed in transgenic parthenocarpic fruits. Despite differences in several fatty acids, amino acids, and other metabolites, the fundamental metabolic profile remains unchanged. This work showed that parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable.

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Reagan, Russell L.; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M.; Gasser, Charles S.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2009-01-01

325

A fruit quality gene map of Prunus  

PubMed Central

Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the genetic architecture of fruit quality traits in Prunus crops.

2009-01-01

326

Zinc Treatment for Stabilizing Lightly Processed Fresh Fruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zinc chloride is an effective enzymatic browning inhibitor, and is more effective than calcium compounds in maintaining light color and firm texture of lightly processed fruits and fruit products. The method of this invention comprises treating exposed in...

H. R. Bolin

1988-01-01

327

Nutrition Information for Raw Fruits, Vegetables, and Fish  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... raw fruits, vegetables, and fish in the United States. ... published in the Federal Register of August 17, 2006 ... small PDF (463kb) (8.5 x 11 inches) Fruits ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

328

Gene expression profiling of peach fruit during stone development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The availability of seedless grapes and watermelons has energized these fruit markets and resulted in increased consumption. Seedless stone fruits including peaches, plums, and cherries would undoubtedly have similar positive impacts on these industries. However, this would require the elimination...

329

U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Like most food manufacturing subsectors, the fruit and vegetable processing subsector is in a dynamic era of change. Structural transformations of the fruit and vegetable processing subsector have been preceded by changes in technology, market conditions,...

K. C. Buckley S. R. Hamm B. Huang G. Zepp

1988-01-01

330

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a...artificially sweetened fruit cocktailâ. ...prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...pectinâ. When any organic salt or acid or...

2010-04-01

331

ConcepTest: Dried Fruit-Rock Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dried (dehydrated) fruit is made by evaporating water under warm temperatures causing the texture of the fruit to change. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. ...

332

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...made from a fruit juice ingredient as specified in paragraph...of this section and an artificial sweetening ingredient as specified in paragraph...fruit jelly. (c) The artificial sweetening ingredients referred to in...

2009-04-01

333

76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture (USDA) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...established the Committee in August 2001 to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable...

2011-02-02

334

75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture (USDA) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...established the Committee in August 2001 to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable...

2010-02-23

335

75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture (USDA) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...established the Committee in August 2001 to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable...

2010-08-06

336

Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

337

Fruit and Tree Nuts: Situation and Outlook Report, March 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tight domestic fresh fruit supplies this winter, a result of California's late-December freeze and this season's smaller apple crop, are putting upward pressure on grower and consumer prices for fresh fruit. Despite damages sustained in California during ...

1991-01-01

338

Agency Impact Analysis: Fruit Juice. The Perception of Ten Firms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agency Impact Analysis examines the aggregate effects of FDA activities on the fruit juice industry. It is based on the perceptions, opinions, and experiences reported by fruit juice company executives from ten firms. During meetings with FDA research...

F. H. Dworkin

1984-01-01

339

78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0579-AD56 Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...commercial shipments of litchi fruit from Australia into the continental United States...plant protection organization (NPPO) of Australia prior to departure and accompanied...

2013-09-23

340

MONITOR FOR FRUIT-EATING INSECTS TO PROTECT BERRY HARVEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just as berry fruits approach maturity and are ready to pick, there are fruit-eating insects that can re- duce the harvestable crop and contaminate the berry product. Some of the common fruit-eating insects ob- served in Utah include the stink bug, lygus bug, earwig, grasshopper, and several species of fruit-eating wasps. These insects suck or chew into the individual drupelets

Diane Alston; USU Entomologist

341

Tree vigour influences disease susceptibility of ‘Hass’ avocado fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in tree vigour as a result of feeder root destruction by Phytophthora cinnamomi were found to significantly (P < 0.05) influence disease susceptibility, fruit ripening rates and fruit size of ‘Hass’ avocado. Fruits from root rot-affected,\\u000a non-vigorous trees had less anthracnose and took longer to ripen. However, they were probably unmarketable due to their small\\u000a fruit size compared with

S. L. Willingham; L. M. Coates; A. W. Cooke; J. R. Dean

2004-01-01

342

Preharvest Strategies to Control Postharvest Diseases in Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Postharvest diseases on citrus and pome fruits are generally controlled by chemical treatments applied in packinghouses before\\u000a fruit storage. However, there are some points that make pre-harvest strategies interesting practices to control or reduce\\u000a postharvest rots. (a) Field practices and fruit manipulation in general can play an important role in fruit susceptibility\\u000a in front postharvest diseases. (b) In some cases,

N. Teixidó; J. Usall; C. Nunes; R. Torres; M. Abadias; I. Viñas

343

Facultative ripening in Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae): effects of fruit removal and rotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Costa Rica individual Hamelia patens trees produce fruit throughout the year and experience dramatic changes in rates of fruit removal and rotting. During some moths, most fruits rot because they are not removed. Rotting fruits increase the probability that other fruits on the same infructescence will rot. When removal rates are high, fruits are taken as soon as their

D. J. Levey

1987-01-01

344

Surface characteristics of sweet cherry fruit: stomata-number, distribution, functionality and surface wetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number, distribution, size, and function of stomata and wettability of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit surface were investigated. The number of stomata per fruit differed significantly among sweet cherry cultivars, ranging from 143±26 per fruit in ‘Adriana’ to 2124±142 per fruit in ‘Hedelfinger’. The number of stomata per fruit was not affected by fruit mass (‘Burlat’). For

Stefanie Peschel; Marco Beyer; Moritz Knoche

2003-01-01

345

Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

2006-01-01

346

'Hass' Avocado Carbohydrate Fluctuations. II. Fruit Growth and Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persea americana, perseitol, soluble sugar, starch ABSTRACT. Changes in soluble sugar and starch reserves in avocado ( Persea americana Mill. on 'Duke 7' rootstock) fruit were followed during growth and development and during low temperature storage and ripening. During the period of rapid fruit size expansion, soluble sugars accounted for most of the increase in fruit tissue biomass (peel: 17%

Xuan Liu; Paul W. Robinson; Monica A. Madore; Guy W. Witney; Mary Lu Arpaia

347

Some physical and nutritional properties of Juniperus drupacea fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the physical and nutritional properties of Juniperus drupacea fruit, which is used to produce pekmez (a traditional Turkish fruit concentrate), is necessary for the design of equipment for harvesting, transporting, sorting, cleaning, separating, smashing, extracting and processing it into different food. In this research, the nutritional properties of J. drupacea fruit and its concentrate were determined, and the

Ibrahim Akinci; Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz; Onder Kabas; Murad Canakci

2004-01-01

348

Detarium Microcarpum Polysaccharide as a Stabilizer in Processed Fruit Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detarium microcarpum (Dm) seed polysaccharide was evaluated as a stabilizer, thickening and gelling agent in processed fruit products such as mango beverage, orange beverage, orange squash, tomato sauce and pineapple jam. The functional properties of the Dm seed polysaccharide were studied with respect to pectin in these processed fruit products. The concentration of Dm polysaccharide in different processed fruit products

Jane C Onweluzo; M. R. Vijayalakshmi; P. Vijayanand; W. E. Eipeson

1999-01-01

349

Selected Mechanical Properties of Pomegranate Peel and Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical property data of pomegranate fruits are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the compression and cutting properties of whole fruit as well as the puncture strength of peel samples of fruit at different storage times. The results showed that storage time had a significant effect on all the properties studied in this work except for peel

Nader Ekrami-Rad; Javad Khazaei; Mohammad-Hadi Khoshtaghaza

2011-01-01

350

Price Trends Are Similar for Fruits, Vegetables, and Snack Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in the price of fruits and vegetables relative to less healthy foods could reduce consumers’ incentives to purchase fruits and vegetables and result in less healthy diets. Whether such a change in relative prices and incentives has occurred in the United States is difficult to prove because of substantial quality improvements in many fresh fruits and vegetables. For

Fred Kuchler; Hayden Stewart

2008-01-01

351

The effectiveness of grafting to improve tomato fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of applying grafting to improve fruit quality has been scarcely investigated. Different shoot tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes were grafted onto distinctly-different tomato rootstocks and the effect of the rootstock on two important fruit quality parameters, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), was studied under both non-saline and saline conditions. Increased SSC and TA in fruits from

Francisco B. Flores; Paloma Sanchez-Bel; María T. Estañ; María M. Martinez-Rodriguez; Elena Moyano; Belén Morales; Juan F. Campos; José O. Garcia-Abellán; María I. Egea; Nieves Fernández-Garcia; Félix Romojaro; María C. Bolarín

2010-01-01

352

Advances in understanding of enzymatic browning in harvested litchi fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a subtropical to tropical fruit of high commercial value in international trade. However, harvested litchi fruit rapidly lose their bright red skin colour. Peel browning of harvested litchi fruit has largely been attributed to rapid degradation of red anthocyanin pigments. This process is associated with enzymatic oxidation of phenolics by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and\\/or peroxidase

Yueming Jiang; Xuewu Duan; Daryl Joyce; Zhaoqi Zhang; Jianrong Li

2004-01-01

353

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEELING MACHINE FOR PERSIMMON FRUIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peeling operation affects directly the product quality in persimmon fruits process. The conventional peeling machines may not have persimmon fruits peeling perfectly. Compensation by manual operations is needed. The emphasis of this study is to develop a new peeling machine to improve the effect of persimmon fruits peeling. Applying the approach mold theory, this peeling machine provides a tensile force

Wen-Bin Chen

1999-01-01

354

HORTICULTURAL LESSONS WITHIN THE WILLIAM F. WHITMAN TROPICAL FRUIT PAVILION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly a century has passed since Dr. David Fairchild first wrote about the potential in the Americas of exotic tropical fruit. He and fellow tropical fruit pioneer Wilson Popenoe were enchanted by the allure of exotic tropical fruit; they foretold of their emergence in the mainstream United States marketplace. Many of David Fairchild's early articles in the proceedings of the

Richard J. Campbell; Noris Ledesma; Juan Valls

2006-01-01

355

An Abnormal Fruit of Opuntia Ficus-Indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE accompanying figure represents a fruit of Opuntia Ficus-Indica, which is wholly inclosed in one of the well-known flat branches of this plant; normally the fruits appear as exserted obovate bodies on the margin, or on either side, of the branches. The figure is exactly half natural size; the fruit is therefore full grown. There ia no interruption in the

A. Ernst

1882-01-01

356

FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) THERMOTOLERANCE AND QUARANTINE HEAT TREATMENTS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quarantine heat treatments, including hot-water immersion, vapor heat, and forced hot air, are used to prevent the spread of exotic fruit flies through marketing channels. Treating fruits infested with eggs, first instars, second instars, or third instars for multiple fruit fly species to develop t...

357

Sucrose Synthase, Starch Accumulation, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrasting evidence has accumulated regarding the role of acid invertase and sucrose synthase in tomato fruit sink establishment and maintenance. In this work the relationships among the activi- ties of sucrose synthase and acid invertase, Lycopersicon esculen- tum Mil1 cv UC-82B fruit growth, and starch accumulation were analyzed in fruit at O to 39 d after anthesis. Sucrose synthase, but

Fei Wang; Alan Smith

358

Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

2000-01-01

359

Enzymes associated with blackheart development in pineapple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of browning enzymes, polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in blackheart development was investigated in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus, Smooth Cayenne) following low temperature storage. An increase in PPO activity was related to the incidence of blackheart symptoms, both temporally and spatially. Fruit maturity significantly affected blackheart susceptibility; immature and over-mature fruits developed less blackheart injury

Yuchan Zhou; Janelle M Dahler; Steven J. R Underhill; Ron B. H Wills

2003-01-01

360

Fruit Juice Intake Is Not Related to Children's Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Excessive fruit juice intake (>12 ounces\\/day) has been reported to be associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children. Objective. To confirm whether excess fruit juice in- take was associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children, we assessed growth parameters and fruit juice intake in 105 white children, ages 24 to 36 months. Methodology. Mothers were

Jean D. Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; James Moran III; Kelly Houck; Frances Coletta

1999-01-01

361

Sucrose deficiency delays lycopene accumulation in tomato fruit pericarp discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is characterized by a massive accumulation of carotenoids (mainly lycopene) as chloroplasts change to chromoplasts. To address the question of the role of sugars in controlling carotenoid accumulation, fruit pericarp discs (mature green fruits) were cultured in vitro in the presence of various sucrose concentrations. A significant difference in soluble sugar content was achieved depending

Nadège Télef; Linda Stammitti-Bert; Anne Mortain-Bertrand; Mickaël Maucourt; Jean Pierre Carde; Dominique Rolin; Philippe Gallusci

2006-01-01

362

Identifying flavour targets for fruit breeding: A kiwifruit example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study illustrates that fruit breeding should not only target elite fruit that are significantly more liked than existing cultivars, but also target special unique fruit that create major new flavour niches. Breeding targets can be identified in terms of consumer preferences for new and defined flavours. A trained panel was used to assess the flavours of a wide

W. V. Wismer; F. R. Harker; F. A. Gunson; K. L. Rossiter; K. Lau; A. G. Seal; R. G. Lowe; R. Beatson

2005-01-01

363

Physiology of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The idea to pre-process fruits and vegetables in the fresh state started with fresh-cut salads and now has expanded to fresh-cut fruits and other vegetables. The fresh-cut portion of the fresh produce industry includes fruits, vegetables, sprouts, mushrooms and even herbs that are cut, cored, sliced...

364

The Response of Avocado Fruits to Different Storage Temperatures1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional index words. Persea americana Abstract. The response of fruits of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) to various temperatures was found to differ in the range 0° to 25°C. This temperature range was divided into 3 groups: 1) between 10° and 25°, the fruit softened at a rate which increases with increasing temperature; 2) between 5° and 8°C, fruit softening was

G. Zauberman; Mina Schiffmann-Nadel; U. Yanko

1977-01-01

365

An Assessment of Impact Damage to Fresh Tomato Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An impact damage assessment of fresh tomato fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of drop height, impact surfaces, maturity and size of fruits on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely, cardboard (A), wood (B), metal (C), Plastic (D) and Foam (E) were used on the platform of the equipment. Tomato fruits of two maturity

P. A. Idah; E. S. A. Ajisegiri; M. G. Yisa

366

Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

367

Microbiological quality of fruit juices sold in Tripoli–Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit juices are becoming an important part of the modern diet in many communities. Data regarding the microbiological quality of foods, particularly fruit juices, sold in Libya and the neighboring North African countries are few if not lacking. Using standard microbiological procedures, 146 fruit juice samples sold in Tripoli were examined. Total bacterial counts (TBC) of samples examined ranged between

Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh; Khalifa Belhaj; Widad B. El-Amin; Saleha E. El-Nefathi; Ali Zalmum

2005-01-01

368

Comparison of antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was undertaken to explore the potential of fruit waste materials as sources of powerful natural antioxidants. The peels of eight kinds of fruits commonly consumed and grown in Thailand were used. The ethanolic fruit peel extracts were subjected to the scavenging tests of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Results from both assays were in good agreement that the top

Siriporn Okonogi; Chadarat Duangrat; Songyot Anuchpreeda; Suganya Tachakittirungrod; Sombat Chowwanapoonpohn

2007-01-01

369

Factors Affecting Latent Infection of Prune Fruit by Monilinia fructicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luo, Y., and Michailides, T. J. 2001. Factors affecting latent infection of prune fruit by Monilinia fructicola. Phytopathology 91:864-872. Experiments were conducted in three prune orchards in California. In each orchard, inoculations with Monilinia fructicola, the causal agent of brown rot of stone fruits, were performed on branches of trees at bloom and fruit developmental stages. Five inoculum concentrations were

Yong Luo; Themis J. Michailides

2001-01-01

370

Chondroprotective Potential of Fruit Extracts of Phyllanthus emblica in Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for effective nutraceuticals for osteoarthritis care. The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica is used as a powerful rejuvenator in Ayurvedic medicine. This study measured the chondroprotective potential of P. emblica ('Amalaki') fruits in vitro. We used aqueous extracts of unprocessed P. emblica fruit powder (powder A), and the powder obtained after hot water extraction and drying of

Venil N. Sumantran; Asavari Kulkarni; Rucha Chandwaskar; Abhay Harsulkar; Bhushan Patwardhan; Arvind Chopra; Ulhas V. Wagh

2008-01-01

371

Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.  

PubMed

More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

2010-01-27

372

Preliminary inventory of parasitoids associated with fruit flies in mangoes, guavas, cashew pepper and wild fruit crops in Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit flies are pests of great economic importance due to their quarantine pest status and losses recorded in West Africa.\\u000a An inventory of parasitoids associated with fruit flies in mangoes, guavas, cashew, pepper and major wild fruit crops was\\u000a carried out in northern-central Benin in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Tephritid parasitoids reared from field-collected fruits belonged\\u000a to three families: Braconidae

Jean-François Vayssières; Robert Wharton; Appolinaire Adandonon; Antonio Sinzogan

2011-01-01

373

Beta -carotene content of postharvest orange-fleshed muskmelon fruit: Effect of cultivar, growing location and fruit size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of two growing locations (soil types), six fruit sizes, and two years on the postharvestBeta-carotene content of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) fruit was studied with two different cultivars. Fully abscised commercial size fruit: 9, 12, 15, 18, 23, and 30 (fruit\\/0.04 M3 shipping box) had highly variableBeta-carotene contents (5.3 to 33.8 µg\\/g fresh weight) that

G. E. Lester; F. Eischen

1996-01-01

374

NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS IN SELECT FLORIDA TROPICAL FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), total fib...

375

MEDITERRANEAN FRUITS: ANCIENT HISTORY AND MODERN PROMISE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Davis, California is home of the national collections of most Mediterranean-adapted fruits and nuts (including fig, olive and pomegranate), while the NCGR at Riverside, CA maintains the dates and citrus. Our missions are to acquire, preserve, charac...

376

Preparation of a Homogeneous Tomato Fruit Peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Walters) peroxidase was purified to apparent homogeneity by a three step procedure: hydrophobic chromatography, DEAE Sephacel chromatography and semi-preparative electrophoresis. A purification of 71 fold and a yield of 52% relative to crude extract were obtained. The pure enzyme was brown in color and showed a molecular weight of 45,000 as estimated from SDS

Ronnie L. Thomas; Joseph J. Jen

1980-01-01

377

Vacuum Impregnation Viability of Some Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of applying vacuum impregnation to modify fruits and vegetable composition and structure for a number of industrial uses (minimal processing, freezing or drying pretreatments, etc.). Vacuum impregnation technology consists in the immersion of vegetable products, characterized through high porosity (apple, quince, strawberries, apricots, peaches, peppers, mushrooms, etc), in solutions which

Claudiu Ursachi; Rodica Segal; Claudia Muresan

378

DETECTION OF PATHOGENS IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the past two decades, there has been an increase in human illnesses linked to the consumption of fresh produce, sprouts, and fruit juices contaminated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and hepatiti...

379

Modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified atmospheres (MA), i.e., elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and reduced levels of oxygen and ethylene, can be useful supplements to provide optimum temperature and relative humidity in maintaining the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables after harvest. MA benefits include reduced respiration, ethylene production, and sensitivity to ethylene; retarded softening and compositional changes; alleviation of certain physiological disorders; and

Adel A. Kader; Devon Zagory; Eduardo L. Kerbel; Chien Yi Wang

1989-01-01

380

Glycerogalactolipids from the fruit of Lycium barbarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four glycerogalactolipids (1–4), together with 11 other previously known homologues were isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum. Their structures were elucidated by chemical analyses including regio-selective enzymatic, alkaline and acidic hydrolyses and spectroscopic methods involving GCMS, HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR, respectively.

Zengping Gao; Zulfiqar Ali; Ikhlas A. Khan

2008-01-01

381

Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous vertebrates. Even though plant reproduction largely depends on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurr...

382

HYPERSPECTRAL SCATTERING FOR ASSESSING PEACH FRUIT FIRMNESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Firmness is an important quality parameter in determining optimal harvest time and appropriate postharvest handling and marketing strategies. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral scattering to predict peach fruit firmness. A hyperspectral imaging sy...

383

Expression and Polymorphism of Watermelon Fruit ESTs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over 8,000 ESTs were generated for watermelon and were assembled into 4,700 EST-unigenes (http://www.icugi.org). Microarray and Real-Time PCR analyses were used to examine differential expression of 832 of these EST-unigenes in developing and ripening watermelon fruit. RNA was isolated from waterm...

384

FLUXES OF NITROGEN WITHIN DECIDUOUS FRUIT TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) nutrition is a major means of controlling growth and fruiting of trees. In EU Countries, society's expectations and political decisions have pushed for the adoption of sustainable ways to manage orchards. Guidelines for N management aim to limit fertiliser applications under threshold limits, in order to reduce N losses. Increasing the effectiveness of the recycling of the N

Massimo Tagliavini; Peter Millard

2005-01-01

385

Strawberry breeding selections for postharvest fruit decay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit from the annual replicated yield assessments for the USDA-ARS strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) breeding program at Beltsville, MD in 2010 were evaluated for postharvest decay development after storage at 5 °C. A statistically significant correlation between percentage decay o...

386

Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus ) is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya frui ts but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximat e

Ruzainah Ali Jaafar; Ahmad Ridhwan; R. Vasudevan

2009-01-01

387

Plums in temperate fruit crop breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book is slanted towards molecular biologists working with fruit crops. The chapter on plums describes the characteristics and biology of European and Japanese type plums. Current status of molecular work on these crops is described. In general plums are amenable to regeneration and transform...

388

Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Infusions of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries, but to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken so far to determine the possible mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic properties of the fruit. The present study was designed to investigate whether these fruits possess insulinotropic effects. For this purpose, different extracts of Citrullus colocynthis seed components were obtained: RN II (crude extract), RN VI (hydro-alcoholic extract), RN X (purified extract) and RN XVII (beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine), the major free amino acid present in the seeds. The insulin secretory effects of these different extracts were evaluated in vitro in the isolated rat pancreas and isolated rat islets in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. All tested extracts, when perfused for 20 min at 0.1 mg/ml, immediately and significantly stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was transient. In addition, the purified extract (RN X) provoked a clear dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated islets. Moreover, a significant and persistant increase in pancreatic flow rate appeared during RN VI, RN X and RN XVII perfusions. In conclusion, our results show that different Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts have an insulinotropic effect which could at least partially account for the antidiabetic activities of these fruits. PMID:10909260

Nmila, R; Gross, R; Rchid, H; Roye, M; Manteghetti, M; Petit, P; Tijane, M; Ribes, G; Sauvaire, Y

2000-06-01

389

Still Life with Fruit and Seashell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Henri Matisse's painting, "Sideboard," opens the door to the author's first-grade students' lesson on still life. This lesson is about the process of designing, the act of making decisions, and the knowledge of one's own preferences. In this article, the author describes how the students made still life with fruit and seashells.|

Gojeski, Laura

2011-01-01

390

Psychosocial Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption were studied in an adult Dutch population (n=367) based on the ASE model of attitudes, social influence and self-efficacy. Attitudes were a summation of beliefs about taste, different health consequences, and costs in time and money. Social influences were measured through the social stimulation respondents expected to get from important others to consume

JOHANNES BRUG; LILIAN LECHNER; HEIN DE VRIES

1995-01-01

391

Antimicrobial Ellagitannin From Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethyl acetate extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits was fractionated by chromatographic techniques to afford the ellagitannin punicalagin. The substance was found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and was identified by HPLC\\/UV and HNMR. The antibacterial assays that guided the isolation of the tannin were conducted using the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was

Amit Parashar; Charu Gupta; S. K. Gupta; Ashok Kumar

2009-01-01

392

SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION SYSTEMS REGULATING FRUIT RIPENING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We show that ethylene and light signal transduction play important roles in regulating ripening and nutrient composition of tomato fruit. Ethylene signaling components have been defined in tomato including a CTR1-like gene (LeCTR1) that was shown through complementation of an Arabidopsis ctr1 mutan...

393

Making Prints From Fruits and Vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students may be familiar with eating fruits and vegetables, but have they ever taken a really close look at the anatomy of those specimens? In this activity, students have an opportunity to explore aspects of the internal and external anatomy of produce b

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

394

Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

1980-06-01

395

Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be

Margit Laimer; Duarte Mendonça; Fatemeh Maghuly; Gorji Marzban; Stephan Leopold; Mahmood Khan; Ildiko Balla; Hermann Katinger

2005-01-01

396

In vitro Fruiting of 'Armillaria' Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fruiting of Armillaria is sporadic in the interior forests of Western North America, where the most highly pathogenic species of Armillaria occur. If single spores are not available, the species must be determined by haploid/diploid pairings, which may le...

J. L. Reaves M. McWilliams

1991-01-01

397

Sink Metabolism in Tomato Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

Fruit of domesticated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) accumulate primarily glucose and fructose, whereas some wild tomato species, including Lycopersicon chmielewskii, accumulate sucrose. Genetic analysis of progeny resulting from a cross between L. chmielewskii and L. esculentum indicated that the sucrose-accumulating trait could be stably transferred and that the trait was controlled by the action of one or two recessive genes. Biochemical analysis of progeny resulting from this cross indicated that the sucrose-accumulating trait was associated with greatly reduced levels of acid invertase, but normal levels of sucrose synthase. Invertase from hexose-accumulating fruit was purified and could be resolved into three isoforms by chromatofocusing, each with isoelectric points between 5.1 and 5.5. The invertase isoforms showed identical polypeptide profiles on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, consisting of a primary 52 kilodalton polypeptide and two lower molecular mass polypeptides that appear to be degradation products of the 52 kilodalton polypeptide. The three invertase isoforms were indistinguishable based on pH, temperature, and substrate concentration dependence. Immunological detection of invertase indicated that the low level of invertase in sucrose-accumulating fruit was due to low levels of invertase protein rather than the presence of an invertase inhibitor. Based on comparison of genetic and biochemical data we speculate that a gene either encoding tomato fruit acid invertase or one required for its expression, plays an important role in determining sucrose accumulation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 10

Yelle, Serge; Chetelat, Roger T.; Dorais, Martin; DeVerna, Joseph W.; Bennett, Alan B.

1991-01-01

398

Caribbean Fruits and Vegetables (on Diskette).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The product contains the market characteristics for U.S. imports of selected fruits and vegetables from the Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico for 1975-87. Includes annual and monthly supply, use, and trade data as well as monthly wholesale prices for...

1991-01-01

399

Availability, Accessibility, and Preferences for Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables Influence Children's Dietary Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among home fruit (F), 100% fruit juice (J), and vegetable (V) availability and accessibility separately, as reported by 225 fourth- through sixth-grade children and their parents (n = 88), separately, and FJV preferences to child-reported FJV consumption were assessed. For girls, child-reported FJV availability and accessibility accounted for 35% of the variability in FJV consumption. Child-reported availability and

Karen Weber Cullen; Tom Baranowski; Emiel Owens; Tara Marsh; Latroy Rittenberry; Carl de Moor

2003-01-01

400

Passion Fruit Green Spot Virus Vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Passion Fruit in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of So Paulo,\\u000a Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2–5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves.\\u000a The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by

E. W. Kitajima; J. A. M. Rezende; J. C. V. Rodrigues

2003-01-01

401

Phloem bleeding from legume fruits—A technique for study of fruit nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleeding from phloem of cut distal tips of attached fruits was demonstrated in the genera Spartium, Genista, Lupinus and Jacksonia. Bleeding occurred over a 2–25 min period enabling 0.5–10 µl of sap to be collected from a fruit. A detailed study of Lupinus albus L. showed that exudation rate declined exponentially after cutting, but without any change with time in

J. S. Pate; P. J. Sharkey; O. A. M. Lewis

1974-01-01

402

Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), attraction to host fruit and host kairomones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 22 fruits were tested for their attractancy toAnastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly. Box-orange, calamondin, carambola, cattley guava, loquat, and Surinam-cherry were about equal in attractiveness to males and females. Nine synthetic chemicals, including four found in box-orange ripe seed, were attractive to females. Five synthetic chemicals, including two in box-orange ripe seed, were attractive to males.

H. N. Nigg; L. L. Mallory; S. E. Simpson; S. B. Callaham; J. P. Toth; S. Fraser; M. Klim; S. Nagy; J. L. Nation; J. A. Attaway

1994-01-01

403

BACKYARD COMPOSTING OF INFESTED FRUIT: A POTENTIAL PATHWAY FOR INTRODUCTION OF ANASTREPHA FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) INTO FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Disposal of infested fruit directly into the environment is a potential pathway for pest introduction. This study estimated the likelihood of exotic fruit flies entering south Florida through backyard composting. Grapefruits infested with Caribbean fruit fly larvae, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), wer...

404

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

Daniel García

1998-01-01

405

Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

406

Development of Flavor Descriptors for Pawpaw Fruit Puree: A Step Toward the Establishment of a Native Tree Fruit Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a native tree fruit with potential as a high-value niche crop for farmers in fresh-market and processing ventures. With a flavor resembling a combination of banana, mango, and pineapple, this fruit could compete with exported specialty fruits in the United States such as mango and papaya. The study objective was to develop a descriptive language

Melani W. Duffrin; Kirk W. Pomper

2006-01-01

407

Supplemental Foliar Potassium Applications during Muskmelon Fruit Development Can Improve Fruit Quality, Ascorbic Acid, and Beta-carotene Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. (Reticulatus Group)) fruit sugar content is directly related to potassium (K)- mediated phloem transport of sucrose into the fruit. However, during fruit growth and maturation, soil fertilization alone is often inadequate (due to poor root uptake and competitive uptake inhibition from calcium and magnesium) to satisfy the numerous K-dependent processes, such as photosynthesis, phloem transport, and

Gene E. Lester; John L. Jifon; Gordon Rogers

408

Oviposition behaviour of two tephritid fruit flies, Dacus tryoni and Dacus jarvisi , as influenced by the presence of larvae in the host fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

When offered a choice, females of the fruit flies Dacus tryoni (Frogg.) and D. jarvisi (Tryon) strongly preferred to lay in fruits without larvae rather than fruits which already contained larvae. Fruits which contained even low densities of larvae, including newly hatched ones, received many fewer eggs than control fruits. This preference was not influenced by the species of larvae

Gary P. Fitt

1984-01-01

409

Infection frequency of mature apple fruit with Erwinia amylovora deposited on pedicels and its survival in the fruit stored at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infection frequency of mature apple fruit by Erwinia amylovora and the survival of E. amylovora in the fruit stored at low temperature were investigated. The fruit stems (pedicels) of 460 mature apple fruit were inoculated with 105 or 104?cfu of bioluminescent E. amylovora, tagged with lux genes. Nine days after inoculation, 43% and 27% of the fruit inoculated with

Takanori Tsukamoto; Koji Azegami; Takayuki Matsuura; Tatsuji Ohara; Yasuhiro Inoue; Akifumi Mizuno; Kouji Yoshida; Hideo Bessho; Shigeru Kimura; Masao Goto

2005-01-01

410

Influence of postharvest temperatures and the rate of fruit ripening on internal postharvest rots and disorders of New Zealand ‘Hass’ avocado fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest rots and internal disorders of ‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana) fruit develop during the latter stages of fruit ripening, with symptoms first appearing when fruit are minimally ripe but often becoming quite severe before the fruit are oversoft. Fruit ripened at 20°C and assessed at the same stage of ripeness, just before the flesh becomes oversoft, had fewer postharvest rots

G. Hopkirk; A. White; D. J. Beever; S. K. Forbes

1994-01-01

411

[Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables].  

PubMed

Strong opinion about reducing vitamin C content in traditional cultivars of fruits and vegetables as a result of intensive farming practices, on the one hand, and depletion of soil, waste of fertilizers, on the other hand, takes place. The aim of the study was to assess changes in vitamin C content in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the 40s of last century to the present. Available national and foreign data from official tables of the chemical composition tables published in different years, including the most typical values, based on the results conducted in a number of research institutes, laboratories and university departments, as well as some original investigations and unpublished own results were used to analyze possible changes of vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables. For comparison we take into consideration only results from the most common and affordable since the last century method of visual titration, which has a relative error of 20%. Analysis of vitamin C content conducted according 5-58 studies from the 40s of the last century to the present, for 32 types of greens and vegetables (potatoes, various types of cabbage and onion, garlic, carrot, turnip, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, peas, turnip, garden radish, parsnip, rhubarb, parsley, dill, lettuce, onion, spinach, sorrel), and according to 6-50 studies of 24 sorts of fruits (apple, pear, mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, black currant, red and white) has been done. It was found that the average content of vitamin varies slightly. Deviations from the average for all the years of research do not exceed the standard deviation. Analysis of longitudinal data did not confirm a vitamin C decrease. This means that vitamin value C of fruits and vegetables remains approximately constant, due to the successful selection of new varieties with increased vitamin value. Thus, the view of reducing the C-vitamin value in cultivars produce proved unfounded. PMID:24006751

Kosheleva, O V; Kodentsova, V M

2013-01-01

412

Small-Scale Fruit Production: A Comprehensive Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Penn State University Agricultural Services, this guide is a resource for "people who wish to produce fruit on a small scale (on one acre or less) and who are not legally licensed to use pesticides." The guide discusses topics such as getting started, pruning and training fruit trees, pests and pesticides, and controlling wildlife damage. It also includes individual chapters for each fruit type (pome, stone, grapes, berries, kiwi, etc.). Each of these includes fruit-specific information on planting, nutrition, harvest, and pest management, among other topics. All in all, this is a well-organized and very handy resource for anyone planning or maintaining a fruit garden.

2001-01-01

413

What causes size coupling in fruit--frugivore interaction webs?  

PubMed

The simplest and arguably the most ubiquitous pattern in seed dispersal mutualisms is size coupling: large frugivores tend to consume larger fruits and small frugivores tend to consume smaller fruits. Despite the simplicity of this pattern, the potential mechanisms responsible for fruit--frugivore size coupling are mechanistically divergent and poorly resolved. Size coupling could arise deterministically, if large frugivores actively seek out larger fruits to maximize their foraging efficiency. Alternatively, size coupling could also arise passively, if frugivores forage randomly, but are able to consume only those fruit species that are smaller than their gape width. I observed birds forage for fruits in a New Zealand forest reserve at approximately five-day intervals for six years to test for fruit--frugivore size coupling. I then derived a suite of network analyses to establish whether fruit--frugivore size coupling was best explained by active or passive foraging by frugivores. Results showed a strikingly strong pattern in size coupling; the average size of fruits consumed by each frugivore species increased with their maximum gape width. Simulation analyses revealed that over 70% of variation in interaction frequencies in the observed fruit-frugivore web could be explained by a size-constrained, passive, foraging model. Foraging models in which birds foraged actively for different-sized fruits to improve their foraging efficiency performed more poorly. Results were therefore consistent with the hypothesis that apparently nonrandom patterns in seed dispersal mutualisms can sometimes arise from simple stochastic processes. PMID:23691648

Burns, K C

2013-02-01

414

Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. Then there was obvious difference between apple fruit temperature and environment temperature. Compared to the change of environment temperature, a long hysteresis phenomenon happened to the temperature of apple fruit body. That is to say, there was a significant temperature change of apple fruit body in a period of time after environment temperature dropping. And then the change of temerature of apple fruit body in the cooling process became slower and slower. This can explain the time delay phenomenon of biology. After that, the temperature differences of every layer increased from centre to surface of apple fruit gradually. That is to say, the minimum temperature differences closed to centre of apple fruit body and the maximum temperature differences closed to the surface of apple fruit body. Finally, the temperature of every part of apple fruit body will tend to consistent and be near to the environment temperature in the cooling process. It was related to the metabolism heat of plant body at any time.

Zhang, Min; Yang, Le; Zhao, Huizhong; Zhang, Leijie; Zhong, Zhiyou; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Jianhua

415

Attraction of Phlebotomus papatasi to common fruit in the field.  

PubMed

Sand flies have been reported feeding on various plant organs including stems, leaves, and flowers but the attraction of sand flies to sugar-rich fruits has received little attention. In this study, we tested 24 commercially available fruits for their attractiveness to sand flies, and found that the top three attractive fruits were nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina), cactus fruit, (Opuntia ficus-indica), and guava (Psidium guajava). These fruits were fed upon equally by both males and females. There were slight differences in the order of preference to the less-attractive fruits by males and females, but these were not statistically significant. The knowledge of fruit preference may help to improve existing methods that use plant phytochemicals to attract and kill biting flies. PMID:21366776

Junnila, Amy; Müller, Günter C; Schlein, Yosef

2011-03-01

416

Abscisic acid triggers whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms to increase fruit calcium uptake and prevent blossom end rot development in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

Calcium (Ca) uptake into fruit and leaves is dependent on xylemic water movement, and hence presumably driven by transpiration and growth. High leaf transpiration is thought to restrict Ca movement to low-transpiring tomato fruit, which may increase fruit susceptibility to the Ca-deficiency disorder, blossom end rot (BER). The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of reduced leaf transpiration in abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants on fruit and leaf Ca uptake and BER development. Tomato cultivars Ace 55 (Vf) and AB2 were grown in a greenhouse environment under Ca-deficit conditions and plants were treated weekly after pollination with water (control) or 500 mg l(-1) ABA. BER incidence was completely prevented in the ABA-treated plants and reached values of 30-45% in the water-treated controls. ABA-treated plants had higher stem water potential, lower leaf stomatal conductance, and lower whole-plant water loss than water-treated plants. ABA treatment increased total tissue and apoplastic water-soluble Ca concentrations in the fruit, and decreased Ca concentrations in leaves. In ABA-treated plants, fruit had a higher number of Safranin-O-stained xylem vessels at early stages of growth and development. ABA treatment reduced the phloem/xylem ratio of fruit sap uptake. The results indicate that ABA prevents BER development by increasing fruit Ca uptake, possibly by a combination of whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms. PMID:21282326

de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Shackel, Kenneth A; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

2011-01-31

417

Is a mango just a mango? Testing within-fruit oviposition site choice and larval performance of a highly polyphagous fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

For fruit flies, fully ripe fruit is preferred for adult oviposition and is superior for offspring performance over unripe\\u000a or ripening fruit. Because not all parts of a single fruit ripen simultaneously, the opportunity exists for adult fruit flies\\u000a to selectively choose riper parts of a fruit for oviposition and such selection, if it occurs, could positively influence\\u000a offspring performance.

Wigunda Rattanapun; Weerawan Amornsak; Anthony R. Clarke

2010-01-01

418

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

419

[Maturity qualitative discrimination of small watermelon fruit].  

PubMed

Dividing watermelons into two categories as not complete mature and fully mature by cluster analyzing the 10 indicators associated with maturity, the two modeling methods PCADA and PLSDA were used, and through the near-infrared spectroscopy, the maturity of small watermelon fruit JINGXIU was qualitatively determined. The PCADA model is the best. Modeling at the top position is better than that of the equatorial parts of the melon. The two models both have a miscarriage of justice, and exists the same sample with a miscarriage of justice. Fruit samples of different physical and chemical composition and structure will have an impact on the spectral information, resulting in miscarriage of justice. Near-infrared diffuse transmittance technique can get better results in detection of small watermelon maturity. But the prediction model should be established to select the appropriate parts of the spectrum acquisition and modeling methods. PMID:22870632

Li, Yong-Yu; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Chang, Dong; Han, Dong-Hai

2012-06-01

420

Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Spore formation by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has long been studied as a model for cellular differentiation, but predominantly as a single cell. When analyzed within the context of highly structured, surface-associated communities (biofilms), spore formation was discovered to have heretofore unsuspected spatial organization. Initially, motile cells differentiated into aligned chains of attached cells that eventually produced aerial structures, or fruiting bodies, that served as preferential sites for sporulation. Fruiting body formation depended on regulatory genes required early in sporulation and on genes evidently needed for exopolysaccharide and surfactin production. The formation of aerial structures was robust in natural isolates but not in laboratory strains, an indication that multicellularity has been lost during domestication of B. subtilis. Other microbial differentiation processes long thought to involve only single cells could display the spatial organization characteristic of multicellular organisms when studied with recent natural isolates.

Branda, Steven S.; Gonzalez-Pastor, Jose Eduardo; Ben-Yehuda, Sigal; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

2001-01-01

421

Regulatory peptides in fruit fly midgut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory peptides were immunolocalized in the midgut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Endocrine cells were found to produce six different peptides: allatostatins A, B and C, neuropeptide F, diuretic hormone 31,\\u000a and the tachykinins. Small neuropeptide-F (sNPF) was found in neurons in the hypocerebral ganglion innervating the anterior\\u000a midgut, whereas pigment-dispersing factor was found in nerves on the most posterior

Jan A. Veenstra; Hans-Jürgen Agricola; Azza Sellami

2008-01-01

422

Freeze-Drying Characteristics of Tropical Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to experimentally determine physical properties such as apparent densities, real densities, and porosity of freeze-dried tropical fruits pulps such as pineapple, Barbados cherry, guava, papaya, and mango, and to carry out nutritional analysis of vitamin C, calcium, and phosphorus in the freeze-dried and in natura pulps. The freeze-dried pulps presented low apparent density and

Ana M. Silveira; José T. Freire

2006-01-01

423

SPRAY DRYING OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spray dryers were tested to obtain powders from concentrated juices of blackcurrant, apricot, raspberry, with different maltodextrins as drying-aid agents. Composition of fruit juices and dextrose equivalent for maltodextrin are considered. Best results were obtained for a ratio juice to maltodextrin DE6 of 65\\/35 for blackcurrant, of 60\\/40 for apricot and 55\\/45 for raspberry, and low air temperatures (160–90°C).

B. R. Bhandari; A. Senoussi; E. D. Dumoulin; A. Lebert

1993-01-01

424

Hepatoprotective pyrrole derivatives of Lycium chinense fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of our search for hepatoprotective compounds from Lycium chinense fruits, three new pyrrole derivatives (1–3) were isolated. These compounds and a related synthetic methylated compound (4) were evaluated for their biological activity and structure–activity relationship, and compounds 1 and 2 showed hepatoprotective effects comparable to silybin at the concentration of 0.1 ?M (64.4 and 65.8%, respectively).

Young-Won Chin; Song Won Lim; Seok-Ho Kim; Dong-Yun Shin; Young-Ger Suh; Yang-Bae Kim; Young Choong Kim; Jinwoong Kim

2003-01-01

425

Market diseases of fresh fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bruising, crushing, and other mechanical injuries cause very serious losses during the handling, transportation, storage,\\u000a and marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables. Spoilage caused by molds and bacteria exacts a heavy toll. Freezing, chilling\\u000a injury, and various physiological disorders add to the consumer cost of living. Careful handling, proper refrigeration, good\\u000a marketing practices, and the use of safe, approved chemical

B. A. Friedmans

1958-01-01

426

Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits  

PubMed Central

A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding.

Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J. Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Wang, Z. Jim; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

2011-01-01

427

Secondary metabolites of Peucedanum tauricum fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the essential oil of fruits of Peucedanum tauricum Bieb., two guaiane type sesquiterpene hydrocarbons guaia-1(10),11-diene (1) and guaia-9,11-diene (2) were identified. The structures of 1 and 2 were assigned by 1D and 2D NMR analysis. The relative configurations of the compounds were established by 2D-NOESY experiments while the absolute configurations were deduced through chemical correlations with (+)-?-gurjunene (9) and

Hailemichael Tesso; Wilfried A. König; Karl-Heinz Kubeczka; Magdalena Bartnik; Kazimierz Glowniak

2005-01-01

428

Early Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Our goal was to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding and dietary experi- ences on acceptance of a fruit and a green vegetable by 4- to 8-month-old infants. METHODS.Forty-five infants, 44% of whom were breastfed, were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group was fed green beans, and the other was fed green beans and then peaches at

Catherine A. Forestell; Julie A. Mennella

2007-01-01

429

Wolbachia in Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous\\u000a parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies

Virginia E. Coscrato; Antônio S. K. Braz; André L. P. Perondini; Denise Selivon; Celso L. Marino

2009-01-01

430

Gene expression during fruit ripening in avocado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poly(A) +RNA populations from avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill cv. Hass) at four stages of ripening were isolated by two cycles of oligo-dT-cellulose chromatography and examined by invitro translation, using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of the resulting translation products. Three mRNAs increased dramatically

Rolf E. Christoffersen; Erich Warm; George G. Laties

1982-01-01

431

Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits.  

PubMed

A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic methods (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. PMID:21163339

Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B; Wang, Z Jim; Fong, Harry H S; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

2010-12-13

432

Multiple forms of polygalacturonase from banana fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three multiple forms of polygalacturonase (PG) in ripe and two in unripe banana (Musa acuminata) fruits were separated by DEAE-cellulose and further purified using Sephadex G-150 chromatography. The multiple forms can be differentiated from each other on the basis of their properties. PG1 and PG3 were identified as endo-PG and PG2 as exo-PG on the basis of decrease in viscosity,

Neelam Pathak; G. G. Sanwal

1998-01-01

433

Ferula gummosa Fruits: An Aromatic Antimicrobial Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae) fruit volatile oil was analyzed by GC\\/MS. Seventy-three components (96.89%) were identified, and the major components were ?-pinene (43.78%), ?-pinene (27.27%), and myrcene (3.37%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested on three strains of Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, and Bacillus subtilis), three strains of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi,

Y. Ghasemi; P. Faridi; I. Mehregan; A. Mohagheghzadeh

2005-01-01

434

Ethylene and volatile accumulation in citrus fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and molecular evidence supported the autocatalytic ethylene production in young “Star Ruby” grapefruit and “Murcott”\\u000a mandarins, and the autoinhibitory ethylene production in mature fruit. Ethylene upregulated expression of pyruvate decarboxylase\\u000a (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in both fruitlets and mature “Star Ruby”, and increased acetaldehyde (AA) and ethanol production, while ethylene action\\u000a inhibitors counteracted the effect. N2 not only

J. Shi; R. Porat; E. Goldschmidt; S. Chen; N. Gollop; U. Ravid; R. Goren

435

[Fruits and vegetables: can they be dangerous?].  

PubMed

Fruits, vegetables and spices are found in our everyday food consumption. However, some contain potentially toxic substances, particularly when consumed in large amounts. These risks may be greater for certain susceptible individuals and may depend on how the ingredients are prepared. Food poisoning is generally speaking self-limiting, but may be life threatening. This article discusses the possible toxic effects of certain common foodstuffs, as described in the current medical literature. PMID:24024394

Pasquier, M; Dami, F; Yersin, B

2013-08-14

436

Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology  

PubMed Central

In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970–2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function.

Kauserud, Havard; Heegaard, Einar; Buntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Damon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Norden, Jenni; H?iland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C.

2012-01-01

437

Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.  

PubMed

The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate. PMID:16968082

Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta

2006-09-20

438

Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

2010-03-01

439

Pointillist structural color in Pollia fruit.  

PubMed

Biological communication by means of structural color has existed for at least 500 million years. Structural color is commonly observed in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in plants. We present a striking example of multilayer-based strong iridescent coloration in plants, in the fruit of Pollia condensata. The color is caused by Bragg reflection of helicoidally stacked cellulose microfibrils that form multilayers in the cell walls of the epicarp. We demonstrate that animals and plants have convergently evolved multilayer-based photonic structures to generate colors using entirely distinct materials. The bright blue coloration of this fruit is more intense than that of any previously described biological material. Uniquely in nature, the reflected color differs from cell to cell, as the layer thicknesses in the multilayer stack vary, giving the fruit a striking pixelated or pointillist appearance. Because the multilayers form with both helicoidicities, optical characterization reveals that the reflected light from every epidermal cell is polarized circularly either to the left or to the right, a feature that has never previously been observed in a single tissue. PMID:23019355

Vignolini, Silvia; Rudall, Paula J; Rowland, Alice V; Reed, Alison; Moyroud, Edwige; Faden, Robert B; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Glover, Beverley J; Steiner, Ullrich

2012-09-10

440

Solid state biomethanation of fruit wastes.  

PubMed

Overtones of fruit wastes accumulate daily in the city of Chennai, India and there is an urgent need to develop, assess and use ecofriendly methods to dispose them. Presently an attempt has been made to study solid state biomethanation of fruit wastes using a laboratory scale anaerobic digester Fruit wastes containing 3%, 4% and 5% solids were used for experimentation. Daily and cumulative production of biogas produced during the study was recorded. Increase in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the feed was observed during the digestion. During the study the biogas generation increased with increase in total solids. While the gas generation was 0.006 m3/day/m3 of the reactor volume when the solid content was 3% the corresponding values for 4% and 5% solids were 0.27and 0.35 m3 respectively Varying TS 3% to 4% has no effect on fermentation stability and pH remained between 6.8 and 7.4, but an inhibition of methanogenic bacteria was observed for TS 5%. The overall performance of the reactor was depressed by changing feed concentration from 3% to 5%. Experiments with 4% initial solid contend was ideal for solid-state biomethanation. PMID:18405106

Banu, J Rajesh; Raj, Essaki; Kaliappan, S; Beck, Dieter; Yeom, Ick-Tae

2007-10-01

441

Arabidopsis AtNAP regulates fruit senescence.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis has been used as a model system to study many aspects of plant growth and development. However, fruit senescence in Arabidopsis has been less investigated and the underlying molecular and hormonal (especially ethylene) regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. It is reported here that the Arabidopsis silique has characteristics of a climacteric fruit, and that AtNAP, a NAC family transcription factor gene whose expression is increased with the progression of silique senescence, plays an important role in its senescence. Silique senescence was delayed for 4-5 d in the atnap knockout mutant plants. The ethylene climacteric was delayed for 2 d in the atnap silique and the associated respiratory climacteric was suppressed. Exogenous ethylene stimulated respiration in the wild type, but not in the atnap mutant. The decoupling of the ethylene and respiratory climacterics in the atnap mutant suggests that AtNAP is required for ethylene stimulation of respiration. qPCR analyses revealed that the expression patterns of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, perception, and signalling, ACS2, ETR1, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, and ERF1, were also altered in the atnap mutant. The effects of exogenous ABA, SA, 6-BA, and NAA on ethylene production and respiration in siliques of the wild type and atnap mutant were also investigated. A model involving ABA-AtNAP-controlled stomatal opening in regulating ethylene-stimulated respiration in fruit senescence is presented. PMID:23066145

Kou, Xiaohong; Watkins, Christopher B; Gan, Su-Sheng

2012-10-12

442

Arabidopsis AtNAP regulates fruit senescence  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis has been used as a model system to study many aspects of plant growth and development. However, fruit senescence in Arabidopsis has been less investigated and the underlying molecular and hormonal (especially ethylene) regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. It is reported here that the Arabidopsis silique has characteristics of a climacteric fruit, and that AtNAP, a NAC family transcription factor gene whose expression is increased with the progression of silique senescence, plays an important role in its senescence. Silique senescence was delayed for 4–5 d in the atnap knockout mutant plants. The ethylene climacteric was delayed for 2 d in the atnap silique and the associated respiratory climacteric was suppressed. Exogenous ethylene stimulated respiration in the wild type, but not in the atnap mutant. The decoupling of the ethylene and respiratory climacterics in the atnap mutant suggests that AtNAP is required for ethylene stimulation of respiration. qPCR analyses revealed that the expression patterns of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, perception, and signalling, ACS2, ETR1, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, and ERF1, were also altered in the atnap mutant. The effects of exogenous ABA, SA, 6-BA, and NAA on ethylene production and respiration in siliques of the wild type and atnap mutant were also investigated. A model involving ABA-AtNAP-controlled stomatal opening in regulating ethylene-stimulated respiration in fruit senescence is presented.

Gan, Su-Sheng

2012-01-01

443

Evaluation of fruit authenticity and determination of the fruit content of fruit products using FT-NIR spectroscopy of cell wall components  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical procedure using Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics with multivariate techniques for the rapid determination of the fruit authenticity and for the quantification of the fruit content was developed, based on the cell wall constituents (alcohol-insoluble residue, AIR, and hemicellulose, HC). The contents of rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose in the hemicellulose fraction

Christina Kurz; Martin Leitenberger; Reinhold Carle; Andreas Schieber

2010-01-01

444

Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.  

PubMed

Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the reproducibility of KI calculations can vary by several index units. A series of programs and graphical interfaces were therefore developed to compare calculated KIs among samples in a semi-automated fashion. These programs reduce the time required for chromatogram analysis of large data sets and minimize the potential for misinterpretation of the data when chromatograms are not perfectly aligned. We present a method for rapid volatile compound analysis in fruit. Sample preparation, data acquisition and handling procedures are also discussed. PMID:22491160

Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

2012-03-30

445

Fruit Volatile Analysis Using an Electronic Nose  

PubMed Central

Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables1. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors2-4. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple5; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango6; aroma profiling of thymus species7; C6 volatile compounds in grape berries8; characterization of vegetable oil9 and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil10. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the reproducibility of KI calculations can vary by several index units11. A series of programs and graphical interfaces were therefore developed to compare calculated KIs among samples in a semi-automated fashion. These programs reduce the time required for chromatogram analysis of large data sets and minimize the potential for misinterpretation of the data when chromatograms are not perfectly aligned. We present a method for rapid volatile compound analysis in fruit. Sample preparation, data acquisition and handling procedures are also discussed.

Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W.; Ebeler, Susan E.; Zakharov, Florence

2012-01-01

446

Genotype effects on internal gas gradients in apple fruit.  

PubMed

A permeation-diffusion-reaction model was applied to study gas exchange of apple fruit (Kanzi, Jonagold, and Braeburn) as effected by morphology and respiratory metabolism. The gas exchange properties and respiration parameters of the fruit organ tissues were measured. The actual internal tissue geometry of the fruit was reconstructed from digital fruit images and the model was solved over this geometry using the finite element method. The model was validated based on measurements of internal gas concentrations and the gas flux of the fruit to its environment. Both measurements and an in silico study revealed that gradients of metabolic gases exist in apple fruit, depending on diffusion properties and respiration of the different cultivars. Macroscale simulation confirmed that Jonagold has large potential for controlled atmosphere (CA) storage while low diffusion properties of cortex tissue in Braeburn indicated a risk of storage disorder development. Kanzi had less O(2) anoxia at CA storage compared with Braeburn. PMID:20448049

Ho, Q Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E; Schenk, Ann; Delele, Mulugeta A; Rolletschek, Hardy; Vercammen, Jef; Nicolaï, Bart M

2010-05-06

447

Technology of classification on fruit defects based on infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bruise, scratch, decay and insect pest are the most common defects in thin skin fruits. To detect these defects with the use of infrared thermography, the mathematic model of spherical shaped fruits based on heat transfer theory is developed and a further classification research is carried out. By using a commercial infrared thermal imaging camera, the radiation temperature on the fruit surface of various defect tissues can be observed after thermal excitation. Both model and experimental studies reveal that the cooling rate of specimen is related to the fruit thermal properties and fruit size, and the logarithmic temperature is directly proportional to detection time. Bruise has a steeper cooling slope than other defects and sound tissue, while insect pest performs poor during the fruit cooling range from 29 oC to 24 oC, this may be related to their more cracked wax layer and higher amount of lenticels.

Zhou, Jianmin; Zhou, Qixian; Liu, Juanjuan; Xu, Dongdong; Shu, Lili

2010-05-01

448

Fungicide management strategies for control of strawberry fruit rot diseases in Louisiana and Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen fungicide treatments were evaluated for control of strawberry fruit diseases in five fungicide studies conducted at Hammond, LA and Poplarville, MS during the 2002, 2003 and 2005 fruiting seasons. The most frequent fruit rots at harvest were anthracnose fruit rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, stem-end rot caused by Gnomonia comari, and Botrytis fruit rot caused by Botrytis cinerea. Fungicides

David E. Wedge; Barbara J. Smith; Joey P. Quebedeaux; Roysell J. Constantin

2007-01-01

449

Engineering Melon Plants with Improved Fruit Shelf Life Using the TILLING Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes

Fatima Dahmani-Mardas; Christelle Troadec; Adnane Boualem; Sylvie Lévêque; Abdullah A. Alsadon; Abdullah A. Aldoss; Catherine Dogimont; Abdelhafid Bendahmane; Mohammed Bendahmane

2010-01-01

450

Colour development and quality of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening and after harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit changes from green to purple black after harvest as the fruit ripens, and is used as a quality guide for growers and consumers. We determined the relationship between anthocyanin composition and content during fruit colour development in relation to fruit maturity and postharvest quality. Fruit at different stages of maturity (light greenish

Y. Palapol; S. Ketsa; D. Stevenson; J. M. Cooney; A. C. Allan; I. B. Ferguson

2009-01-01

451

Floral Synomone of a Wild Orchid, Bulbophyllum cheiri , Lures Bactrocera Fruit Flies for Pollination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major fruit fly attractant component in the floral fragrance of Bulbophyllum cheiri (fruit fly orchid) is methyl eugenol (ME). In the lowland rain forest of Malaysia, the solitary and nonresupinate flowers of the fruit fly orchid attract only males of the ME-sensitive fruit fly species (Bactrocera carambolae, B. papayae, and B. umbrosa. During the morning, the fruit fly orchid

Keng-Hong Tan; Ritsuo Nishida; Yock-Chai Toong

2002-01-01

452

Characterizing culturable microflora of nectarines: bacteria and their potential for biological control of postharvest fruit decay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microorganisms isolated from fruit surfaces have been used to control postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine fruit surfaces during fruit ...

453

Appressoria of Gloeosporium musarum Cke. and Massee on Banana Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gloeosporium musarum is one of the most important fungi causing rotting of banana fruits during transport and storage1,2. Although the fungus is of greatest commercial concern when acting as a post-harvest wound parasite, it also infects unwounded immature fruit in the field2-4. These early infections do not become manifest until the fruit starts to ripen after harvest; such infections are

D. S. Meredith

1964-01-01

454

Fruit body formation of Tylopilus castaneiceps in pure culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit bodies of Tylopilus castaneiceps were formed on Ohta medium in pure culture. The mycorrhizal status of T. castaneiceps was confirmed by DNA analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of mycorrhizae collected beneath its fruit bodies.\\u000a However, fruiting ability was lost within 1 year of isolation, as has been reported for most of the other ectomycorrhizal\\u000a species that produce

Kensuke Kikuchi; Norihisa Matsushita; Kazuo Suzuki

2009-01-01

455

Effect of 1-MCP on postharvest quality of loquat fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. Luoyangqing) is a fruit with a limited postharvest life. Postharvest treatments of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP: 0.5, 5 and 50?L\\/L) and ethylene (100?L\\/L) were applied to loquat fruit and their effects on postharvest fruit quality during 8d storage at 20°C, and 0°C for 39d plus 5d at 20°C, were investigated. Of the three concentrations, 5?L\\/L 1-MCP had

Chong Cai; KunSong Chen; WenPing Xu; WangShu Zhang; Xian Li; Ian Ferguson

2006-01-01

456

Microwave\\/vacuum drying of model fruit gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined microwave (MW)\\/vacuum drying of fruit materials has a promising potential for high-quality dehydrated products. A better knowledge of the drying kinetics of fruit products could improve the design and operation of efficient dehydration systems.A laboratory MW\\/vacuum drier was used for drying kinetics experiments with model fruit gels, simulating orange juice concentrate. The system was operated in the vacuum range

A. E Drouzas; E Tsami; G. D Saravacos

1999-01-01

457

FRUIT QUALITY AND CONSUMPTION BY SONGBIRDS DURING AUTUMN MIGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.—Seasonal fruits are an important food resource for small songbirds during autumn,migration in southern New England. Therefore, conservation and management of important stopover sites used by mi- grating birds requires knowledge,about nutritional requirements of songbirds and nutritional composition,of commonly,consumed,fruits. We measured,nutrient composition,and energy density of nine common,fruits on Block Island, Rhode Island, and conducted a field experiment to estimate consumption

SUSAN B. SMITH; KATHLEEN H. McPHERSON; JEFFREY M. BACKER; BARBARA J. PIERCE; DAVID W. PODLESAK; SCOTT R. McWILLIAMS

2007-01-01

458

Preserved fruit image classification using visual contents of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preserved Fruits are one of the famous and traditional Chinese agriculture foods. In this paper, we propose a method that utilizes color and texture features s for Preserved Fruits image classification. We use color moments and subband's statistics of wavelet decomposition as color and texture features respectively. A wide range of Preserved Fruits images are tested to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the scheme has produced promising results.

Jian, Muwei; Zhang, Chaoqin; Liu, Lei; Yin, Cheng

2009-07-01

459

Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Activities of Randia echinocarpa Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report for the first time the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of fractions from Randia echinocarpa fruit, which is a Rubiaceae plant native to Sinaloa, Mexico. This fruit has been traditionally used in the prevention or treatment of cancer, among other\\u000a diseases. The pulp of the fruit was sequentially extracted with solvents of different polarity (i.e. hexane, chloroform, methanol\\u000a and

María Elena Santos-Cervantes; María Emilia Ibarra-Zazueta; Guadalupe Loarca-Piña; Octavio Paredes-López; Francisco Delgado-Vargas

2007-01-01

460

Utilization of fluted pumpkin fruit ( Telfairia occidentalis) in marmalade manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marmalade was produced from fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis) fruit. The fruit was pulped, boiled and filtered to obtain pectin extract. The extract was boiled at 102 °C for 30 min with the pH and sugar levels adjusted to 3.2 and 68.5 °Brix, respectively. Fruit shreds were added towards the end of boiling. Results of analyses showed that the pulp

M. K. Egbekun; E. O. Nda-Suleiman; O. Akinyeye

1998-01-01

461

Ascorbic acid content of some Nigerian local fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid contents of some common local fruits and vegetables was determined. The ascorbic acid contents of the fruits ranged from 21.8 to 98.0 mg per 100 g sample while that of vegetables ranged from 21.3 to 98.8 mg per 100 g sample. The traditional processing of some of the fruits resulted in losses of ascorbic acid of between 43

S. C. Achinewhu

1983-01-01

462

Characterization of Ethylene Biosynthesis Associated with Ripening in Banana Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. (AAA group, Caven- dish subgroup) cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production

Xuejun Liu; Shinjiro Shiomi; Akira Nakatsuka; Yasutaka Kubo; Reinosuke Nakamura; Akitsugu Inaba

1999-01-01

463

Molecular cloning and characterization of lipoxygenase from ripening tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climacteric fruit ripening and senescence are characterized by physiological and biochemical changes associated with altered gene expression. A 94 kD protein that predominately accumulates during tomato fruit ripening was purified and antibodies raised against this purified protein were used to isolate its clones from a red-ripe fruit cDNA library. Sequence analysis of these cDNAs identified the 94 kD protein as

Kurt David Kausch

1996-01-01

464

[Activity of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein of banana fruit tissues].  

PubMed

The activity of polygalacturonase and the protein inhibiting this enzyme, which affected polygalacturonases of phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Gloesporium musarium, were detected in banana (Musa acumthata L.) fruit of cultivars Cavendish and Korolevskii. The polygalacturonase from banana fruit was inhibited by the preparations of the protein inhibitor not only from bananas but also from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit. PMID:15977788

Bulantseva, E A; Thang, Nguen; Buza, N L; Krinitsyna, A A; Protsenko, M A

465

Cytokinin Activity in Avocado Seeds during Fruit Development.  

PubMed

The soybean callus bioassay was used to determine levels of cytokinin activity in avocado (Persea americana) seeds.In the embryo, levels are high during the early stages of development, but diminish as the fruit grows. The level of cytokinin activity in the endosperm is very high throughout the period that this tissue exists. The seed coats have very high activity levels while the fruit is young, reaching values comparable with those found in the endosperm. The activity level falls as the rate of fruit growth slows down and disappears completely by the time the seed coats shrivel at approximately the same time the fruit reaches "horticultural maturity". PMID:16657459

Blumenfeld, A; Gazit, S

1970-08-01

466

Depressed pollination in habitat fragments causes low fruit set.  

PubMed Central

In central New South Wales, Australia, flowers of Acacia brachybotrya and Eremophila glabra plants growing in linear vegetation remnants received less pollen than conspecifics in nearby reserves. Pollen supplementation increased fruit production by both species, indicating pollen limitation of fruit set. Together these observations explain why fruit production by these species was depressed in linear-strip populations relative to nearby reserves. This study confirms that habitat fragmentation can lead to decline in pollination and subsequent fruit set in wild plant populations. Disrupted pollination interactions of the kind documented in this study may offer a substantial challenge to the conservation of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes.

Cunningham, S A

2000-01-01

467

Consideration of Design Parameters of Ultrasonic Transducer for Fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to develop the ultrasonic transducers for non-destructive contact measurement of fruits. The design parameters for ultrasonic transducer such as acoustical impedance of fruits, kinds of piezoelectric materials, ultrasonic wave frequency, and transducer diameter were investigated. In order to match the impedance between piezoelectric material and fruit, various materials were evaluated. And to control the bandwidth of ultrasonic wave of the transducer, various backing materials were fabricated and evaluated. Especially, the wear plate of the transducer was designed and fabricated considering curvature of fruit. Finally, the ultrasonic transducer having 100 kHz of central frequency were fabricated and tested.

Kim, K. B.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, S. D.; Choi, M. Y.

2005-04-01

468

Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.  

PubMed

It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its ?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-?-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon. PMID:20630986

Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

2010-07-14

469

7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...56-47 Certain fruits from Thailand. Litchi (Litchi chinensis ), longan (Dimocarpus longan ), mango (Mangifera indica ), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus ), and rambutan (Nephelium...

2009-01-01

470

Forest Fruit Production Is Higher on Sumatra Than on Borneo  

PubMed Central

Background Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands.

Wich, Serge A.; Vogel, Erin R.; Larsen, Michael D.; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Leighton, Mark; Yeager, Carey P.; Brearley, Francis Q.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Marshall, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

471

New insights into the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruits.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are important health-promoting pigments that make a major contribution to the quality of fruits. The biosynthetic pathway leading to anthocyanins is well known and the key regulatory genes controlling the pathway have been isolated in many species. Recently, a considerable amount of new information has been gathered on the developmental and environmental regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruits, specifically the impact of regulation through light. New discoveries have begun to reveal links between the developmental regulatory network and the specific regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis during fruit ripening. In this opinion article, a simplified model for the different regulatory networks involved with anthocyanin production in fruit is proposed. PMID:23870661

Jaakola, Laura

2013-07-17

472

Impact of Ozonated Water on the Quality and Shelflife of Fresh Citrus Fruit, Stone Fruit, and Table Grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spores of fungi that cause postharvest decay of fresh fruit die rapidly in ozonated water. We determined the impact of sporocidal or higher O3 doses on fruit shelf-life and quality. Green mold and sour rot on citrus fruit, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, respectively, were not reduced by 20 min immersion in 10 ppm O3. These fungi infect through wounds;

J. L. Smilanick; D. M. Margosan; F. Mlikota Gabler

2002-01-01

473

Fruiting Phenology and the Survival of Insect Fruit Predators: A Case Study from the South-East Asian Dipterocarpaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanophyes shoreae is a pre-dispersal weevil fruit-predator of some species in the Dipterocarpaceae. The dipterocarps typically mass flower at supra-annual intervals, with sporadic flowering events involving a few trees of a reduced number of species in the intervening periods. The hypothesis is tested that N. shoreae populations are maintained between mass-fruiting events by recruitment during sporadic fruiting. A record of

Robin J. Toy; Adrian G. Marshall; Tho Yow Pong

1992-01-01

474

Multisensory flavor perception: Assessing the influence of fruit acids and color cues on the perception of fruit-flavored beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study designed to investigate the influence of fruit acids (in particular, citric and malic acid) on people’s perception of the identity and the intensity of a variety of different fruit-flavored solutions. Participants had to identify the flavor of fruit-flavored drinks that were colored yellow, grey, orange, red, or else were presented as colorless solutions. The participants also

Massimiliano Zampini; Emma Wantling; Nicola Phillips; Charles Spence

2008-01-01

475

Does individual variation in fruit profitability override color differences in avian choice of red or white Ilex serrata fruits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although avian color preferences have been studied and documented in controlled experiments, they have not been demonstrated\\u000a under natural conditions in most cases. We hypothesized that avian fruit choice reflects intraspecific variation in fruit\\u000a characteristics other than color, rather than fruit color differences. By planting one Ilex serrata Thunb. (red form) and one I. serrata forma leucocarpa Beissner (white form),

Kaori Tsujita; Shinjiro Sakai; Kihachiro Kikuzawa

2008-01-01

476

Genetic control of fruit vitamin C contents.  

PubMed

An F(1) progeny derived from a cross between the apple (Malus x domestica) cultivars Telamon and Braeburn was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to the vitamin C (l-ascorbate [l-AA]) contents of fruit skin and flesh (cortex) tissues. We identified up to three highly significant QTLs for both the mean l-AA and the mean total l-AA contents of fruit flesh on both parental genetic linkage maps, confirming the quantitative nature of these traits. These QTLs account for up to a maximum of 60% of the total population variation observed in the progeny, and with a maximal individual contribution of 31% per QTL. QTLs common to both parents were identified on linkage groups (LGs) 6, 10, and 11 of the Malus reference map, while each parent also had additional unique QTLs on other LGs. Interestingly, one strong QTL on LG-17 of the Telamon linkage map colocalized with a highly significant QTL associated with flesh browning, and a minor QTL for dehydroascorbate content, supporting earlier work that links fruit l-AA contents with the susceptibility of hardfruit to postharvest browning. We also found significant minor QTLs for skin l-AA and total l-AA (l-AA + dehydroascorbate) contents in Telamon. Currently, little is known about the genetic determinants underlying tissue l-AA homeostasis, but the presence of major, highly significant QTL in both these apple genotypes under field conditions suggests the existence of common control mechanisms, allelic heterozygosity, and helps outline strategies and the potential for the molecular breeding of these traits. PMID:16844833

Davey, Mark W; Kenis, Katrien; Keulemans, Johan

2006-07-14

477

Feasibility study of utilizing simplified near infrared imaging for detecting fruit fly larvae in intact fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following the previous research to classify intact mangoes infested with oriental fruit fly from the control ones using near infrared (NIR) spectra acquired by a spot-type handheld NIR instrument, an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the system by employing NIR imaging technology was conducted. ...

478

Chromatographic determination of the mycotoxin patulin in fruit and fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several fungal species of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, but principally by Penicillium expansum on fruit such as apples. The occurrence of patulin as a natural contaminant of apple juice is a worldwide problem and international recommendations and regulations have been made for maximum levels permitted in consumer products. This paper reviews currently available

Gordon S Shephard; Norma L Leggott

2000-01-01

479

Watermelon Fruit Age and Development of Phytophthora fruit rot on resistant and susceptible lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of the southeast U.S. The disease has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers, especially in GA, SC, and NC. It is considered an important problem by the National Watermelon As...

480

Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Commercial Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content of 13 commercially available fruit juices and juice drinks, selected to represent the most popular juice flavors in the United Kingdom, were analyzed using the Folin- Ciocalteu assay. Individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-PDA- MS2. The catechin content and degree of polymerization of proanthocyanidins were also analyzed. Purple grape juice contained the largest

William Mullen; Serena C. Marks; Alan Crozier

2007-01-01

481

Correlations among fruit traits and evolution of different fruits within Melastomataceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy and morphology of nearly mature fruits in 85 mainly palaeotropical species of Melastomataceae were examined using microtome- and hand-sectioning, and differential staining. Much structural heterogeneity was observed in both capsules and berries. Multivariate analyses of 31 of the 52 characters recorded for each species, revealed that indehiscence is associated with fusion of ovary and hypanthium tissues, placenta persistence,

GUDRUN CLAUSING; KARSTEN MEYER; SUSANNE S. RENNER

2000-01-01

482

BLUEBERRY FRUIT VOLATILES AS A POTENTIAL MARKER FOR SUPPRESSION OF ANTHRACNOSE FRUIT ROT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various volatile natural products are known to have antifungal activities. Blueberry fruit produce aromatic volatiles including trans-2-hexenal that may confer resistance to Anthracnose Ripe Rot, an important postharvest disease caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. To test the hypothesis that aromatic...

483

Flavonoids from the fruits of Murraya paniculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an investigation of the peel and pulp of the fresh ripe fruits of Murraya paniculata nine flavonoids: 5,7,3?,4?,5?-pentamethoxyflavanonol, 5,6,7,3?,4?,5?-hexamethoxyflavone, 3,5,6,7,3?,4?,5?-heptamethoxyflavone, 5,7,8,3?,4?,5?-hexamethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,8,3?,4?,5?-heptamethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,8,3?,4?-hexamethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8,3?,4?-pentamethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8,3?,4?,5?-hexamethoxyflavone and 8-hydroxy-3,5,7,3?,4?,5?-hexamethoxyflavone, were identified. The latter two compounds appear to be novel.

Ricardo J. Ferracin; M. Fátima das G. F. da Silva; João B. Fernandes; Paulo C. Vieira

1998-01-01

484

Isolation and Biophysical Study of Fruit Cuticles  

PubMed Central

The cuticle, a hydrophobic protective layer on the aerial parts of terrestrial plants, functions as a versatile defensive barrier to various biotic and abiotic stresses and also regulates water flow from the external environment.1 A biopolyester (cutin) and long-chain fatty acids (waxes) form the principal structural framework of the cuticle; the functional integrity of the cuticular layer depends on the outer 'epicuticular' layer as well as the blend consisting of the cutin biopolymer and 'intracuticular' waxes.2 Herein, we describe a comprehensive protocol to extract waxes exhaustively from commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticles or to remove epicuticular and intracuticular waxes sequentially and selectively from the cuticle composite. The method of Jetter and Schäffer (2001) was adapted for the stepwise extraction of epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from the fruit cuticle.3,4 To monitor the process of sequential wax removal, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy was used in parallel wi