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1

Centella asiatica in cosmetology  

PubMed Central

Centella asiatica known as Gotu Kola is a medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years as well as in scientifically oriented medicine. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acids. Centella asiatica is effective in improving treatment of small wounds, hypertrophic wounds as well as burns, psoriasis and scleroderma. The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Research results indicate that it can be used in the treatment of photoaging skin, cellulite and striae.

Znajdek-Awizen, Paulina; Studzinska-Sroka, Elzbieta; Brzezinska, Malgorzata

2013-01-01

2

Grewia gum as a potential aqueous film coating agent. I: Some physicochemical characteristics of fractions of grewia gum  

PubMed Central

Background: Grewia gum has received attention as a polymeric pharmaceutical excipient in the recent times, being employed as a suspending, film coating, mucoadhesive, and binding agent. The low aqueous solubility, however, has limited its characterization and application. Objective: The purpose of this study was to fractionate and evaluate some physicochemical properties of the gum. Materials and Methods: Aqueous dispersion of the gum was treated at 80°C for 30 min in the presence of sodium chloride and was subsequently fractionated by successively centrifuging it at 3445 rpm for 30 min. Skeletal density, solubility, particle size, and rheological as well as thermal characteristics of the fractions were evaluated. The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and near infrared (NIR) profiles of the fractions were also investigated. The solubility of the gum increased up to fourfold while the viscosity decreased from 244 to as low as70 cP at 40 rpm with some fractions. Results: Grewia gum and the fractions showed good thermal stability exhibiting no thermal events, but charred irreversibly at 297°C irrespective of the fraction. The molecular weight averages by weight and by number of the fractions were between 233,100 and 235,000. The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed broad peaks. The NMR and NIR spectra suggested the presence of –OH and –OCH3 functional groups in this gum. Conclusion: The fractionation improved solubility and facilitated further investigations on its characteristics that may have implication on its processing, application, and optimization as a potential pharmaceutical excipient.

Ogaji, Ikoni J.; Okafor, Ignatius S.; Hoag, Stephen W.

2013-01-01

3

Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

2013-01-01

4

New jujubogenin glycosides from Colubrina asiatica.  

PubMed

Three new jujubogenin glycosides, namely, 3' '-O-acetylcolubrin (1); 3' ',2' "-O-diacetylcolubrin (2), and 3' '-O-acetyl-6' '-O-trans-crotonylcolubrin (3), were isolated from the leaves of Colubrina asiatica, in addition to the known colubrin, rutin, and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. Compounds 1-3 were isolated and purified via a combination of chromatographic procedures, and determined structurally using spectroscopic methods. PMID:11087616

Lee, S S; Chen, W C; Chen, C H

2000-11-01

5

Effects of NaCl on surface properties, chlorophyll fluorescence and light remission, and cellular compounds of Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori and Tamarindus indica L. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings of the salt-tolerant plant grewia [Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori] and the moderately salt-tolerant tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) were grown under controlled conditions and treated daily with NaCl solutions to investigate mechanisms of tolerance to\\u000a salinity. Leaf micromorphology, cuticular wax load, chlorophyll fluorescence and light remission, as well as antioxidative\\u000a potential were evaluated. As confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis in

Mauricio Hunsche; Kathrin Bürling; Amina Sirag Saied; Michaela Schmitz-Eiberger; Muhammad Sohail; Jens Gebauer; Georg Noga; Andreas Buerkert

2010-01-01

6

Geographical distribution of Taenia asiatica and related species.  

PubMed

Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

2009-10-01

7

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Cleome viscosa and Gmelina asiatica.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extracts of the leaves and flowers of Cleome viscosa and roots of Gmelina asiatica were tested for antimicrobial activity. The two plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly significative against Escherichia coli , Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaf extract of C. viscosa showed moderate activity against pathogenic fungi. PMID:16325351

Sudhakar, M; Rao, Ch V; Rao, P M; Raju, D B

2006-01-01

8

Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica using multiplex PCR.  

PubMed

Taenia asiatica and T. saginata are frequently confused tapeworms due to their morphological similarities and sympatric distribution in Asian regions. To resolve this problem, a high-resolution multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish T. asiatica infections from infection with other human Taenia tapeworms. For molecular characterization, the species specificity of all materials used was confirmed by sequencing of the cox1 gene. Fifty-two samples were analyzed in this study, comprising 20 samples of T. asiatica genomic DNA from China, Korea, and the Philippines; 24 samples of T. saginata from Belgium, Chile, China, Ethiopia, France, Indonesia, Korea, Laos, the Philippines, Poland, Taiwan, Thailand, and Switzerland; and 10 samples of T. solium from Cape Verde, China, Honduras, and Korea. The diagnostic quality of the results obtained using PCR and species-specific primers designed from valine tRNA and NADH genes was equal to that based on the nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay was useful for the differentially diagnosing T. asiatica, T. saginata, and T. solium based on 706-, 629-, and 474-bp bands. PMID:19017531

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Kong, Yoon; Waikagul, Jitra; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

2009-02-01

9

Evaluation of morphological and molecular variation in Plantago asiatica var. densiuscula, with special reference to the systematic treatment of Plantago asiatica var. yakusimensis.  

PubMed

Morphological and molecular variations in Plantago asiatica L. var. densiuscula Pilg. were analyzed to evaluate the genetic basis for recognizing the dwarf variety P. asiatica var. yakusimensis (Masam.) Ohwi. Considerable variation in the leaf size of P. asiatica var. densiuscula was observed, and no morphological discontinuities were found between the dwarf types of P. asiatica var. densiuscula and P. asiatica var. yakusimensis. Morphological analysis of plants grown under standardized conditions revealed that both environmental plasticity and genetic differentiation contributed to the dwarfisms. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the SUC1 locus encoding a sucrose transporter revealed that P. asiatica var. yakusimensis was genetically unique although the differentiation level was low. From the above results, we concluded that P. asiatica var. yakusimensis should be reduced to a form of P. asiatica var. densiuscula. Furthermore, the geographic distribution of the SUC1 genotype suggested multiple origins of dwarves, and possible hypotheses for the origins of dwarves are discussed. PMID:16773281

Ishikawa, Naoko; Yokoyama, Jun; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Takabe, Eriko; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

2006-07-01

10

Screening legumes for integrated management of witchweeds (Alectra vogelii and Striga asiatica) in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Malawi the parasitic weeds (witchweeds) for cereals and legumes exist simultaneously. The predominant species for cereals is Striga asiatica, while for legumes it is Alectra vogelii, which causes damage in groundnuts (Arachis hypogea L.), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and soybeans (Glycine max.). Growing legumes is a control measure for S. asiatica in cereal crops. Studies were initiated in 2000\\/2001 at

V. Kabambe; L. Katunga; T. Kapewa; A. R. Ngwira

2008-01-01

11

Modulation of lipid metabolism by Centella asiatica in oxidative stress rats.  

PubMed

A study was carried out to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica leaf on lipid metabolism of oxidative stress rats. The rats were fed 0.1% hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with either 0.3% (w/w) C. asiatica extract, 5%C. asiatica powder (w/w), or 0.3% (w/w) alpha-tocopherol for 25 wk. Results of the study showed that C. asiatica powder significantly (P < 0.05) lowered serum low-density lipoprotein compared to that of control rats (rats fed H(2)O(2) only). At the end of the study C. asiatica-fed rats were also found to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher high-density lipoprotein and lower triglyceride level compared to rats fed only normal diet. However, cholesterol level of rats fed both C. asiatica extract and powder was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to that of control rats. It was interesting to note that consumption of C. asiatica significantly decreased body and liver weights of the rats. Histological examinations revealed no obvious changes in all rats studied. Quantitative analysis of C. asiatica leaf revealed high concentration of total phenolic compounds, in particular, catechin, quercetin, and rutin. PMID:19323754

Hussin, M; Hamid, A A; Mohamad, S; Saari, N; Bakar, F; Dek, S P

2009-03-01

12

Centella asiatica treatment during postnatal period enhances learning and memory in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present investigation was planned to evaluate the nootropic effect of Centella asiatica. Three months old male Swiss albino mice were injected orally with graded doses (200, 500, 700, 1000 mg\\/kg body weight) of C. asiatica aqueous extract for 15 days to select an effective dose for nootropic studies. Animals were tested in radial arm maze to assess the learning and

Sulochana B. Rao; M. Chetana; P. Uma Devi

2005-01-01

13

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine with Neuroprotective Potential  

PubMed Central

This paper covers the studies relevant to neuroprotective activity of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, also known as “Gotu Kola.” The plant is native to the Southeast Asia and has been used traditionally as brain tonic in ayurvedic medicine. The neuroprotective effect of C. asiatica has been searched using the key words “Centella, Centella asiatica, gotu kola, Asiatic pennywort, neuroprotection, and memory” through the electronic databases including Sciencedirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Google Scholar. According to the literature survey, C. asiatica (gotu kola) has been reported to have a comprehensive neuroprotection by different modes of action such as enzyme inhibition, prevention of amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease, dopamine neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease, and decreasing oxidative stress. Therefore, C. asiatica could be suggested to be a desired phytopharmaceutical with neuroprotective effect emerged from traditional medicine.

Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

2012-01-01

14

7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Peach. Fortunella japonica Chinese Orange, Kumquat Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach. Garcinia celebica Gourka Oriental. Garcinia mangostana Mangosteen Oriental. Grewia asiatica Phalsa Peach. Jubaea chilensis...

2012-01-01

15

Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep.  

PubMed

In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in comparison with cottonseed cake (CSC). Changes in the chemical composition of the leaves with progressive maturation (December to March) were studied. The leaves maintained a high CP content (>164 g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the prolonged maturation in the winter feed scarcity period. The leaves were rich in Ca (41 g/kg DM) and K (89 g/kg DM). The rate of degradation and effective degradability of CP were consistently higher (P < 0.001) in CSC than in G. oppositifolia. A balance trial in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four mature Ramghani wethers showed that DM intake, DM and CP digestibility, and N retention did not differ with the substitution of CSC with G. oppositifolia leaves, as a supplement to a basal diet of sorghum hay. Body weight (BW) gain and wool yield responses to the supplements were examined with 36 lambs (27 ± 3 kg BW; age 11 ± 1 months) for 15 weeks. The lambs were only grazed on local pasture (control group) or supplemented with CSC, G. oppositifolia leaves, and their mixture on iso-N basis. Addition of the supplements increased (P < 0.05) BW gain and wool yield, and the leaves were as effective as CSC. These results demonstrated that G. oppositifolia leaves provide good quality green fodder during the prolonged winter feed scarcity period, and that the leaves can be efficiently utilized as a CP supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep. PMID:22331457

Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Habib, Ghulam

2012-10-01

16

First Report of Nocardia asiatica Olecranon Bursitis in an Immunocompetent Traveler Returning to Austria  

PubMed Central

Nocardia spp. are rarely isolated in extrapulmonary clinical specimens. We describe the first case of olecranon bursitis caused by Nocardia asiatica. The patient, a traveler returning from Thailand, was successfully treated with linezolid.

Leitner, Eva; Valentin, Thomas; Lanz, Philipp; Flick, Holger; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Grisold, Andrea J.; Feierl, Gebhard; Krause, Robert

2013-01-01

17

First report of Nocardia asiatica olecranon bursitis in an immunocompetent traveler returning to Austria.  

PubMed

Nocardia spp. are rarely isolated in extrapulmonary clinical specimens. We describe the first case of olecranon bursitis caused by Nocardia asiatica. The patient, a traveler returning from Thailand, was successfully treated with linezolid. PMID:23637291

Leitner, Eva; Valentin, Thomas; Hoenigl, Martin; Lanz, Philipp; Flick, Holger; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Grisold, Andrea J; Feierl, Gebhard; Krause, Robert

2013-07-01

18

Ecological studies of Gracilaria asiatica and Gracilaria lemaneiformis in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural populations of G. asiatica Zhang & Xia and G. lemaneiformis (Bory) Weber van Bosse were studied during 1984 and 1986 in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao (36°4'N, 120° 21'E). Rapid growth (length, weight) of these plants occurred between mid-May and late June (water temperatures, 15-20°C). The major epiphyte of G. asiatica was Enteromorpha linza, while Punctaria latifolia was the major epiphyte

Susan H. Brawley; Fei Xiugeng

1988-01-01

19

Effect of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and elicitation on the asiaticoside production in cell cultures of Centella asiatica  

PubMed Central

Background: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae) is an important medicinal plant, and it has been using to prepare herbal medicines. The compounds responsible for the biological activity of C. asiatica are triterpenoids such as asiaticoside. Asiaticoside is also important as a marker for standardization of C. asiatica. Due to the low content, there is a need to enhance the production of asiaticoside of C. asiatica. The biotechnological approach is one of the methods that can be used to enhance its production. Objectives: This study was designed to enhance the production of asiaticoside from C. asiatica using A. rhizogenes and elicitation experiments. Materials and Methods: Callus cultures were initiated using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP). All media were supplemented with 4% (w/w) sucrose and solidified with 0.9% agar. Elicitations were done using pectin, methyl jasmonate, and Cu2+ ions. Transformed hairy root cultures were performed using A. rhizogenes. Results: Callus culture of C. asiatica was successfully initiated. Enhancement of the production of asiaticoside in the callus culture by elicitors pectin was up to 31%; methyl jasmonate (50 ?M) in cell suspension cultures at day 14 was up to 171% compared to explant and 494% compared to control callus; copper ion (25 ?M) at day 21 was up to 144% compared to explant, and 676% compared to control cell suspension cultures. While enhancement by genetic transformation using A. rhizogenes was 166-172% compare to untransformed roots Conclusion: Elicitation and genetically transformed hairy root cultures of C. asiatica produced asiaticoside up to 172% higher than untreated callus.

Ruslan, Komar; Selfitri, Anggrahaeni Dewi; Bulan, Shella A.; Rukayadi, Yaya; Elfahmi

2012-01-01

20

Centella asiatica Improves Physical Performance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Healthy Elderly Volunteer  

PubMed Central

Recently, oxidative stress has been reported to contribute an important role in the decline of physical function as age advances. Numerous antioxidants can improve both physical and psychological performances resulting in the increase of health-related quality of life (HQOL). Therefore, we hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a medicinal plant reputed for nerve tonic, strength improvement and antioxidant activity, could improve the physical performance and HQOL especially in the physical satisfaction aspect, of the healthy elderly volunteer. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Eighty healthy elderly were randomly assigned to receive placebo or standardized extract of C. asiatica at doses of 250, 500 and 750?mg once daily for 90 days. The subjects were evaluated to establish baseline data of physical performance using 30-s chair stand test, hand grip test and 6-min walk test. The health-related quality of life was assessed using SF-36. These assessments were repeated every month throughout the 3-month experimental period using the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, 1 month after the cessation of C. asiatica treatment, all subjects were also evaluated using these parameters again. The results showed that after 2 months of treatment, C. asiatica at doses of 500 and 750?mg per day increased lower extremity strength assessed via the 30-s chair stand test. In addition, the higher doses of C. asiatica could improve the life satisfaction subscale within the physical function subscale. Therefore, the results from this study appear to support the traditional reputation of C. asiatica on strength improvement, especially in the lower extremities of the elderly. C. asiatica also possesses the potential to be a natural resource for vigor and strength increase, in healthy elderly persons. However, further research is essential.

Mato, Lugkana; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyawatkul, Nawanant; Yimtae, Kwanchanok; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

2011-01-01

21

Environmental contaminants in white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica asiatica) from the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, USA.  

PubMed

Our study determined if white-winged doves (WWDs; Zenaida asiatica asiatica) breeding in locations where environmentally persistent contaminants occur in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas have levels of contaminants that can hinder reproduction. During summer 2003, 70 (32 males, 38 females) adult WWDs were collected from 8 at-risk sites. Liver tissues were analyzed for ten major and trace elements and muscle tissues were analyzed for 20 organochlorine compounds, 21 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and toxaphene. Samples were compared to ten (five male, five female) captive-raised control WWDs. Arsenic, chromium, and lead were not detected or were below the detection limit, whereas copper, zinc, selenium, mercury, nickel, cadmium, and silver were detected in 70 (100%), 70 (100%), 52 (74%), 21 (30%), 4 (6%), 1 (1%), and 1 (1%) WWDs, respectively. None of the detected elements had significant sampling site, bird gender, or Site x Gender interactions, and each occurred at background levels. Toxaphene and polychlorinated biphenyls were not detected, whereas DDE, dieldrin, gamma-BHC, and chlordane were detected in 13 (19%), 5 (7%), 2 (3%), and 1 (1%) field-collected WWDs, respectively, but all concentrations occurred at background levels. Concentrations of elements and compounds in field-collected WWDs did not significantly differ from those of the controls. Correlations between leukocyte counts and detectable contaminants generally indicated no correlation between each percentage of leukocyte type present and levels of selenium, copper, zinc, mercury, or DDE detected. One sample that had 0.072 mug/g dieldrin exhibited a low lymphocyte percentage (66%) out of only five samples. Comparisons could not be made with gamma-BHC, chlordane, or the other elements that had a low number of samples with detectable levels. Overall, concentrations of elements and organochlorines found in WWDs were below levels known to impair reproduction and survival in birds. PMID:19112559

Fredricks, Timothy B; Fedynich, Alan M; Benn, Steve; Ford, Larisa

2009-08-01

22

Cytotoxic and anti-tumour properties of certain taxa of Umbelliferae with special reference to Centella asiatica (L.) Urban  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) is commonly used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat various diseases. The present study examines the anti-tumour effect of the crude extract (CE) of Centella asiatica as well as its partially purified fractions (AF) from chromatographic procedures by both in vitro short and long term chemosensitivity and in vivo tumour model test systems.

T. D. Babu; G. Kuttan; J. Padikkala

1995-01-01

23

On the phytosociology and ecology of Isoëtes asiatica (Makino) Makino in oligotrophic water bodies of South Sakhalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, in the southeast of the Sakhalin Island and south of the village Okhotskoye, Isoëtes asiatica (Makino) Makino and I. beringensis Kom. were detected in 24 oligotrophic lakes for the first time on Sakhalin. These are stands of the community of Isoëtetum asiaticae ass. nov. which in the majority of the lakes form a characteristic pioneer vegetation of the

W. Pietsch

1991-01-01

24

The centella asiatica juice effects on DNA damage, apoptosis and gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica on HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line). Centella asiatica is native to the Southeast Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. This study aims to determine the chemopreventive effects of the Centella asiatica juice on human HepG2 cell line. Methods Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells. Results The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells. Conclusions It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer.

2014-01-01

25

Larvicidal activity of lignans identified in Phryma leptostachya Var. asiatica roots against three mosquito species.  

PubMed

The insecticidal activity of phytochemicals isolated from the roots of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica against third instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens, Aedes aegypti, and Ocheratatos togoi was examined. The two constituents of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots were identified as the leptostachyol acetate (I) and 8'-acetoxy-2,2',6-trimethoxy-3,4,4',5'-dimethylenedioxyphenyl-7,7'-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (II) by spectroscopic analysis. Compound I was lethal to C. pipiens pallens, A. aegypti, and O. togoi at 10 ppm. Compound II showed weak or no insecticidal activity against three mosquito species at 10 ppm. The LC(50) values of I against C. pipiens pallens, A. aegypti, and O. togoi were 0.41, 2.1, and 2.3 ppm, respectively. Naturally occurring P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential mosquito larval control agents or lead compounds. PMID:15713007

Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul; Kim, Chul-Su; Lee, Hak-Ju; Choi, Won-Sil; Ahn, Young-Joon

2005-02-23

26

Prenylated coumarins: natural phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors from Toddalia asiatica.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the roots of Toddalia asiatica led to the isolation of seven new prenylated coumarins (1-7) and 14 known analogues (8-21). The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by combined chemical methods and chiral separation analysis. Compounds 1-5, named toddalin A, 3?-O-demethyltoddalin A, and toddalins B-D, represent an unusual group of phenylpropenoic acid-coupled prenylated coumarins. Compounds 1-21 and four modified analogues, 10a, 11a, 13a, and 17a, were screened by using tritium-labeled adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate ([3H]-cAMP) as substrate for their inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), which is a drug target for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compounds 3, 8, 10, 10a, 11, 11a, 12, 13, 17, and 21 exhibited inhibition with IC50 values less than 10 ?M. Toddacoumalone (8), the most active compound (IC50=0.14 ?M), was more active than the positive control, rolipram (IC50=0.59 ?M). In addition, the structure-activity relationship and possible inhibitory mechanism of the active compounds are also discussed. PMID:24597921

Lin, Ting-Ting; Huang, Yi-You; Tang, Gui-Hua; Cheng, Zhong-Bin; Liu, Xin; Luo, Hai-Bin; Yin, Sheng

2014-04-25

27

Ecological studies of Gracilaria asiatica and Gracilaria lemaneiformis in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural populations ofG. asiatica Zhang & Xia andG. lemaneiformis (Bory) Weber van Bosse were studied during 1984 and 1986 in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao (36°4'N, 120° 21'E). Rapid growth (length,\\u000a weight) of these plants occurred between mid-May and late June (water temperatures, 15–20°C). The major epiphyte ofG. asiatica wasEnteromorpha linza, whilePunctaria latifolia was the major epiphyte ofG. lemaneiformis. Epiphytism declined throughout

Susan H. Brawley; Fei Xiugeng

1988-01-01

28

Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against ?-amyloid toxicity  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) improves learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of A? accumulation. However the active compounds in CAW remain unknown. Here we used two in vitro models of A? toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect, and identify several active constituents of the CAW extract. CAW reduced A?-induced cell death and attenuated A?-induced changes in tau expression and phosphorylation in both the MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. We confirmed and quantified the presence of several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in CAW using chromatographic separation coupled to mass spectrometry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Multiple dicaffeoylquinic acids showed efficacy in protecting MC65 cells against A?-induced cytotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acid A and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be the most abundant CQAs in CAW, and the most active in protecting MC65 cells from A?-induced cell death. Both compounds showed neuroprotective activity in MC65 and SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations comparable to their levels in CAW. Each compound not only mitigated A?-induced cell death, but was able to attenuate A?-induced alterations in tau expression and phosphorylation in both cell lines, as seen with CAW. These data suggest that CQAs are active neuroprotective components in CAW, and therefore are important markers for future studies on CAW standardization, bioavailability and dosing.

Gray, Nora E.; Morre, Jeff; Kelley, Jeremiah; Maier, Claudia S.; Stevens, Jan F.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

2014-01-01

29

Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against amyloid-? toxicity.  

PubMed

The accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) improves learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of A? accumulation. However the active compounds in CAW remain unknown. Here we used two in vitro models of A? toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect and identify several active constituents of the CAW extract. CAW reduced A?-induced cell death and attenuated A?-induced changes in tau expression and phosphorylation in both the MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. We confirmed and quantified the presence of several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in CAW using chromatographic separation coupled to mass spectrometry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Multiple dicaffeoylquinic acids showed efficacy in protecting MC65 cells against A?-induced cytotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acid A and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be the most abundant CQAs in CAW, and the most active in protecting MC65 cells from A?-induced cell death. Both compounds showed neuroprotective activity in MC65 and SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations comparable to their levels in CAW. Each compound not only mitigated A?-induced cell death, but was able to attenuate A?-induced alterations in tau expression and phosphorylation in both cell lines, as seen with CAW. These data suggest that CQAs are active neuroprotective components in CAW, and therefore are important markers for future studies on CAW standardization, bioavailability, and dosing. PMID:24448790

Gray, Nora E; Morré, Jeff; Kelley, Jeremiah; Maier, Claudia S; Stevens, Jan F; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

2014-01-01

30

Ecological studies of Gracilaria asiatica and Gracilaria lemaneiformis in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural populations of G. asiatica Zhang & Xia and G. lemaneiformis (Bory) Weber van Bosse were studied during 1984 and 1986 in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao (36°4'N, 120° 21'E). Rapid growth (length, weight) of these plants occurred between mid-May and late June (water temperatures, 15-20°C). The major epiphyte of G. asiatica was Enteromorpha linza, while Punctaria latifolia was the major epiphyte of G. lemaneiformis. Epiphytism declined throughout early summer, and epiphytes were rare after mid-July (1984); they did not reappear in late summer, although macrophyte growth declined abruptly after early July. Populations of G. asiatica varied during late spring-early summer between adjacent sandy and rocky portions of the intertidal zone; plants at the sandy site were larger and epiphyte-free. Amphipod densities were low on both species of Gracilaria, but the most abundant species were Ampithoe lacertosa, Caprella equilibra, C. krøyeri, C. scauraand Pontogeneia rostrata. Additional information on general community structure is provided for the G. asiatica zone.

Brawley, Susan H.; Xiugeng, Fei

1988-03-01

31

Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis.

Galan-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Marius Vicent

2013-01-01

32

In vitro and in vivo modulation of cartilage degradation by a standardized Centella asiatica fraction.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease in which focal cartilage destruction is one of the primary features. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of a Centella asiatica fraction on in vitro and in vivo cartilage degradation. Bovine cartilage explants and bovine chondrocytes cultured in alginate were stimulated with IL-1 beta in the presence or absence of different concentrations (2, 5 and 10 microg/ml) of a standardized Centella asiatica triterpenes (CAT) fraction. The CAT fraction inhibited the IL-1 beta-induced proteoglycan (PG) release and nitric oxide (NO) production by cartilage explants in a dose-dependent manner. The IL-1 beta-induced reduction in PG synthesis and proliferation of chondrocytes cultured in alginate were counteracted by the CAT fraction at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. In a zymosan-induced acute arthritis model, the CAT fraction inhibited PG depletion without modulating joint swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that the tested Centella asiatica fraction was able to inhibit the zymosan-induced cartilage degradation in vivo without affecting the zymosan-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and joint swelling. The in vitro data indicate that the cartilage protective activity might at least partially be induced by the inhibition of NO production. The overall results indicate a possible disease modifying osteoarthritic activity of the Centella asiatica fraction. PMID:19307458

Hartog, Anita; Smit, H Friso; van der Kraan, Peter M; Hoijer, Maarten A; Garssen, Johan

2009-06-01

33

Neuroprotective Effects of Centella asiatica against Intracerebroventricular Colchicine-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress appears to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage in rats. Colchicine (15??g/5??L) was administered intracerebroventricularly in the lateral ventricle of male wistar rats. Morris water maze and plus-maze performance tests were used to assess memory performance tasks. Various biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, nitrite, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, acetylcholinesterase were also assessed. ICV colchicine resulted marked memory impairment and oxidative damage. Chronic treatment with Centella asiatica extract (150 and 300?mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 25 days, beginning 4 days prior to colchicine administration, significantly attenuated colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage. Besides, Centella asiatica significantly reversed colchicines administered increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Thus, present study indicates protective effect of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative damage.

Kumar, Anil; Dogra, Samrita; Prakash, Atish

2009-01-01

34

Effects of Centella asiatica extract on dermal wound healing in rats.  

PubMed

Effects of oral and topical administration of an alcoholic extract of C. asiatica on rat dermal wound healing was studied. The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, protein and collagen content of granulation tissues. Quicker and better maturation and crosslinking of collagen was observed in the extract-treated rats, as indicated by the high stability of acid-soluble collagen and increase in aldehyde content and tensile strength. The extract treated wounds were found to epithelialise faster and the rate of wound contraction was higher, as compared to control wounds. The results show that C. asiatica produced different actions on the various phases of wound repair. PMID:9246912

Suguna, L; Sivakumar, P; Chandrakasan, G

1996-12-01

35

Elite genotypes\\/chemotypes, with high contents of madecassoside and asiaticoside, from sixty accessions of Centella asiatica of south India and the Andaman Islands: For cultivation and utility in cosmetic and herbal drug applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centella asiatica is a perennial herb with high utility in traditional medicines, herbal drugs and cosmeceutics. In India, owing to its high domestic and export demands, C. asiatica populations in the wild are overexploited at an uncontrolled rate. The aim of this study was to identify potential genotypes\\/chemotypes of C. asiatica from a wide geographical region in Peninsular India and

Munduvelil Thomas Thomas; Rajani Kurup; Anil John Johnson; Sreeja Purushothaman Chandrika; Paravanparampil Jacob Mathew; Mathew Dan; Sabulal Baby

2010-01-01

36

Conversion of 3-demethylthiocolchicine into thiocolchicoside by Centella asiatica suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exogenously supplied 3-demethylthiocolchicine was converted into 3-O-glucosylthiocolchicine (thiocolchicoside) by a cell suspension culture of Centella asiatica. Around 30% of 3-demethylthiocolchicine (136 ?M) was glucosylated after an 11-day incubation period. In vitro glucosylation by cell-free extracts demonstrated that the enzymatic reaction required specifically uridine diphosphate-d-glucose (UDPG1c) as a high energy glucose donor. Various endogenous phenolic compounds were assayed for their effect

N. Bouhouche; J. M. Solet; A. Simon-Ramiasa; J. Bonaly; L. Cosson

1998-01-01

37

Nuclear DNA content in different plant materials of Plantago asiatica L. cultured in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow cytometry was used to study the genome size and the cell cycle in different plant materials of Plantago asiatica (2n = 2C = 4x) cultured in vitro, including long-term callus lines. The nuclear DNA content varied from 2.97 to 3.45 pg\\/2C, depending on\\u000a the plant material analyzed. However, in most of the cases it was similar to that of the seedling (3.3 pg), the source material.

Joanna Makowczy?ska; Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec; Elwira Sliwinska

2008-01-01

38

Somatic embryogenesis in Centella asiatica L. an important medicinal and neutraceutical plant of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf segments excised from Centella asiatica, a medicinal and neutraceutical plant, produced abundant somaticembryoswhen cultured onMS mediumwith 9.29 µMkinetin in combination with 2.26 µM2,4-D. Granular, white,shiny clusters of callus developed after 1 week of culture, and then formed heart and cotyledonary stage embryoson the same medium after 4 weeks. Somatic embryos matured and germinated in the presence of MS mediumcontaining

Ch. Paramageetham; G. Prasad Babu; J. V. S. Rao

2004-01-01

39

Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness.

Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

2012-01-01

40

Effect of Centella asiatica on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Hyperlipidemic Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Hyperlipidemia and many other metabolic diseases are related to oxidative stress. Centella asiatica is a traditional Chinese medicine whose antioxidant effect in vitro has been reported. We are interested in whether it possesses this effect in vivo and hence modulates lipid metabolism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on mice and golden hamsters regarding its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. We observed that a fraction (CAF3) of the ethanol extract (CAE) of Centella asiatica had a cholesterol decrease of 79% and a triglyceride decrease of 95% in acute mice model, so CAF3 was further investigated in high-fat-fed hamster model. It was shown that CAF3 increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased MDA level, and it also improved TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, and ALT levels. L-CAT and SR-BI gene expression in hamsters were increased. Taken together, our data suggest that the CAF3 fraction of Centella asiatica has antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties.

Zhao, Yun; Shu, Ping; Zhang, Youzhi; Lin, Limin; Zhou, Haihong; Xu, Zhentian; Suo, Daqin; Xie, Anzhi; Jin, Xin

2014-01-01

41

Biological screening of selected flora of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of different parts of five medicinal plants, Ferula assafoetidaL. resin, Grewia asiaticaL. leaves, Ipomoea hederaceaJacq. seeds, Lepidium sativumL. seeds and Terminalia chebulaRetz. fruits were tested in vitrofor their cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal and anthelmintic activities. Ipomoea hederaceashowed very significant phytotoxic and cytotoxic activity, with 100% inhibition of Lemna minorgrowth and 100% death of Artemia salinaat concentrations of 1000 and 100 µg mL-1. Grewia asiaticaexhibited very weak activities while Lepidium sativumand Ferula assafoetidashowed moderate to good potential in all three bioassays. The results suggest screening of Ipomoea hederaceaseeds further for isolation of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for its toxic potential. PMID:23558994

Zia-Ul-Haq, M; Raza Shah, M; Qayum, Mughal; Ercisli, Sezai

2012-01-01

42

Centella asiatica attenuates the neurobehavioral, neurochemical and histological changes in transient focal middle cerebral artery occlusion rats.  

PubMed

Centella asiatica has been used as psychoactive and antioxidant herbal medicine since ancient time. The present study was design to evaluate the preventive role of ethanolic extract of C. asiatica in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were gavaged orally with C. asiatica extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight once daily) for 21 days and thereafter subjected to right MCAO for 2 h followed by 22-h reperfusion. Brain injury was evaluated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Behavioural outcomes as neurological deficit, rota rod test, and grip strength were assessed. In addition, lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants were analyzed to assess the oxidative stress. Our results revealed that C. asiatica administration greatly improved neurobehavioral activity and diminished infarction volume along with the restored histological morphology of brain in MCAO rats. Furthermore, supplementation with this extract to MCAO group has reduced the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, restored glutathione content and augmented the activities of antioxidant enzymes-catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase in a dose-dependent manner in ischemic rats. The remarkable antioxidant activity of C. asiatica may be attributed to its bioactive triterpenes, asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassic acid and madecosside and may be translated to clinical level for prevention of ischemic stroke. PMID:22864972

Tabassum, Rizwana; Vaibhav, Kumar; Shrivastava, Pallavi; Khan, Andleeb; Ejaz Ahmed, Md; Javed, Hayate; Islam, Farah; Ahmad, Sayeed; Saeed Siddiqui, M; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

2013-06-01

43

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

We aimed to assess the efficacy of Centella asiatica for improvement of the signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). We searched 13 electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of Centella asiatica for CVI. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed the risks of bias of included studies and extracted data. The treatment effects of similar studies were pooled whenever appropriate. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooling of data of similar studies showed that Centella asiatica significantly improved microcirculatory parameters such as transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 and O2, rate of ankle swelling and venoarteriolar response. Three out of the eight studies did not provide quantitative data. However, these studies reported that patients treated with Centella asiatica showed significant improvement in CVI signs such as leg heaviness, pain and oedema. Our results show that Centella asiatica may be beneficial for improving signs and symptoms of CVI but this conclusion needs to be interpreted with caution as most of the studies were characterised by inadequate reporting and thus had unclear risks of bias, which may threaten the validity of the conclusions.

Chong, Nyuk Jet; Aziz, Zoriah

2013-01-01

44

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Centella asiatica is partly mediated by carbohydrase inhibition and glucose-fiber binding  

PubMed Central

Background Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) was previously reported to have anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal diabetic model rats. However, its activity on organ and tissue level remains unstudied. Our study aims at exploring the possible effects, C. asiatica extract and insoluble fiber has on carbohydrate absorption, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization. Methods For primary evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic activity, we measured Fasting Blood Glucose and performed Glucose Tolerance Test, in type 2 diabetic rats. To further study the pancreatic effect and glucose utilization, plasma insulin concentration, insulin secreted from isolated rat islets and liver glycogen were assayed. Effect on carbohydrate break down was assayed using intestinal disaccharidase enzyme, ?-amylase inhibition assays and Six-Segment study of the GI tract. Effect of C. asiatica on glucose absorption was studied by an in-situ, perfused, intestinal model in rats and by glucose-fiber binding assay. Gastrointestinal motility was seen by a BaSO4 milk traverse test. Additionally, a complete lipid profile assay, after a chronic study, was conducted. Results C. asiatica showed no significant change in insulin secretion in-vivo and in isolated rat islets. Additionally, no effect of the extract was seen on liver glycogen deposition. Retarded glucose absorption was seen in the in-situ perfused rat intestinal model at a dose. The extract was also found to inhibit action of both intestinal disaccharidase and ?-amylase. This was confirmed, yet again, via the Six Segment study, where sucrose digestion was found to be inhibited throughout the length of the GI Tract. Significant glucose-fiber binding was demonstrated in the in-vitro models. During the chronic study, body mass of C. asiatica treated Type 2 diabetic rats returned to normal and their polydipsic and polyphagic conditions were also improved. Chronic treatment of C. asiatica also improved subject’s lipid profile. Conclusion A combination of in-vitro, in-vivo and in-situ tests confirmed the anti-hyperglycemic activity of C. asiatica and its tissue level mechanism. Further study is required to fully elucidate the effect this extract or the active compounds have on the individual glucose transporters and the precise mechanism of glucose-fiber binding.

2014-01-01

45

Genetic variability of Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntz based on AFLP analysis and host-parasite interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLP analysis was used to estimate genetic variability within and among 14 populations of Striga asiaticaL. Kuntze collected from different locations within the Republic of Benin. The mean within-population genetic distances ranged\\u000a from 0.028 to 0.038, while the mean among-population genetic distances ranged from 0.019to 0.088, with an assumed minimum\\u000a genetic distance of0.01 in each case. Intra- and inter-population variation

Christopher J. Botanga; Jennifer G. Kling; Dana K. Berner; Michael P. Timko

2002-01-01

46

Chemistry, 13C-NMR Study and Pharmacology of Two Saponins from Colubrina asiatica.  

PubMed

From the leaves of COLUBRINA ASIATICA B RONGEN (Rhamnaceae) two saponins have been isolated and structurally elucidated, mainly by (13)C-NMR-spectroscopic methods, as jujubogenin-3-O-[2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-4-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-arabinoside] (colubrinoside) and jujubogenin-3-O- [2-O-acetyl -3-O- (2-O- beta -D- xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-arabinoside] (colubrin) respectively. Both saponins inhibit the spontaneous motility of mice, even at low doses (1 mg/ kg), they show an antagonistic effect on amphetamine and exert a synergistic activity on chlordiazepoxide. PMID:17404972

Wagner, H; Ott, S; Jurcic, K; Morton, J; Neszmelyi, A

1983-07-01

47

Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).  

PubMed

Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds. PMID:22065063

Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

2012-05-01

48

Antinocieptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Toddalia asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. The present study investigated the antinociceptive and the anti-inflammatory effects of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice. Methods The antinociceptive and the anti-inflammatory effects of T. asiatica were investigated using formalin-induced pain test and the carrageenin-induced oedema paw. The extract solvent (vehicle), aspirin and indomethacin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. Eight mice were used in each experiment. Results In the early phase of the formalin test, the 100mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity while the 200mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.01) antinociceptive activity. The 100 mg/kg dose showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.001) in the late phase of the formalin test while the 200mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity. A reduction in carragenin induced acute inflammation paw oedema was significant (p < 0.01) following administration of 100mg/kg dose but not with the 200mg/kg dose. Conclusion The present study therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful and inflammatory conditions.

Kariuki, Hellen Nyambura; Kanui, Titus Ikusya; Yenesew, Abiy; Patel, Nilesh; Mbugua, Paul Mungai

2013-01-01

49

Centella asiatica extract selectively decreases amyloid beta levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease animal model.  

PubMed

PSAPP mice expressing the 'Swedish' amyloid precursor protein and the M146L presenilin 1 mutations are a well-characterized model for spontaneous amyloid beta plaque formation. Centella asiatica has a long history of use in India as a memory enhancing drug in Ayurvedic literature. The study investigated whether Centella asiatica extract (CaE) can alter the amyloid pathology in PSAPP mice by administering CaE (2.5 or 5.0 g/kg/day) starting at 2 months of age prior to the onset of detectable amyloid deposition and continued for either 2 months or 8 months. A significant decrease in amyloid beta 1-40 and 1-42 was detectable by ELISA following an 8 month treatment with 2.5 mg/kg of CaE. A reduction in Congo Red stained fibrillar amyloid plaques was detected with the 5.0 mg/kg CaE dose and long-term treatment regimen. It was also confirmed that CaE functions as an antioxidant in vitro, scavenging free radicals, reducing lipid peroxidation and protecting against DNA damage. The data indicate that CaE can impact the amyloid cascade altering amyloid beta pathology in the brains of PSAPP mice and modulating components of the oxidative stress response that has been implicated in the neurodegenerative changes that occur with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19048607

Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Holcomb, Leigh A; Hitt, Angie R; Tharakan, Binu; Porter, Jami W; Young, Keith A; Manyam, Bala V

2009-01-01

50

Madecassoside isolated from Centella asiatica herbs facilitates burn wound healing in mice.  

PubMed

The current study was designed to investigate the effect of madecassoside, the major triterpene in CENTELLA ASIATICA, on burn wound healing and its possible mechanism of action. An oral administration of madecassoside (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) facilitated wound closure in a time-dependent manner and reached its peak effect, nearly completely wound closure, on day 20 in the group receiving the highest dose of 24 mg/kg of madecassoside. Further histopathological analysis revealed that madecassoside alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as enhanced epithelisation resulting from dermal proliferation of fibroblasts. Madecassoside at higher doses (12 and 24 mg/kg) decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the burn skin tissue. However, reduced glutathione (GSH) and hydroxyproline levels were increased in the same skin tissue. In addition, madecassoside promoted skin angiogenesis IN VIVO, correlating with our findings IN VITRO that it stimulated endothelial cell growth in a rat aortic ring assay. These data suggest that madecassoside has significant wound-healing activity and is one of the major reasons for the use of C. ASIATICA herbs in the successful treatment of burn injury. Moreover, the results from the present study indicate that the effect of madecassoside on wound healing may involve several mechanisms including antioxidative activity, collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. PMID:18484522

Liu, Mei; Dai, Yue; Li, Ying; Luo, Yubin; Huang, Fang; Gong, Zhunan; Meng, Qingyu

2008-06-01

51

Identification of Major Active Ingredients Responsible for Burn Wound Healing of Centella asiatica Herbs  

PubMed Central

Centella asiatica herbs have been prescribed as a traditional medicine for wound healing in China and Southeast Asia for a long time. They contain many kinds of triterpenoid compounds, mainly including glycosides (asiaticoside and madecassoside) and corresponding aglycones (asiatic acid and madecassic acid). To identify which is the major active constituent, a comprehensive and comparative study of these compounds was performed. In vitro, primary human skin fibroblasts, originating from healthy human foreskin samples, were treated with various concentrations of asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid, respectively. Cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, MMP-1/TIMP-1 balance, and TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo, mice were orally administered with the four compounds mentioned above for two weeks after burn injury. The speed and quality of wound healing, as well as TGF-?1 levels in skin tissues, were examined. Interestingly, in contrast to prevalent postulations, asiaticoside and madecassoside themselves, rather than their corresponding metabolites asiatic acid and madecassic acid, are recognized as the main active constituents of C. asiatica herbs responsible for burn wound healing. Furthermore, madecassoside is more effective than asiaticoside (P = 0.0446 for procollagen type III synthesis in vitro, P = 0.0057 for wound healing speed, and P = 0.0491 for wound healing pattern in vivo, correspondingly).

Wu, Fang; Bian, Difei; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Tan, Qian; Chen, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yue

2012-01-01

52

The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa.  

PubMed

Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) has been used by traditional health practitioners in East Africa for management of diseases, however, the extent of its usefulness has not been established to date. Fieldwork for this study was carried out in the Lake Victoria Basin between March and September 2006. The purpose was to collect ethnomedical information that will serve as a basis for further studies to establish current and potential medicinal uses. The ethnomedical information was obtained through interviews using semi-structured questionnaires. Consultative meetings were also conducted with traditional health practitioners and other members of the communities in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Results of this study show that Toddalia asiatica is collected in the wild, prepared mostly as decoctions or concoctions and administered orally. It is used for the management of a number of disease conditions. The most frequently cited diseases were stomach problems (78%) followed by malaria (25%). Cough (22%), chest pain (13%), food poisoning (8%), sore throat (7%), were also mentioned among other disease conditions treated. Validation studies of therapeutic claims will be carried out at a later date. PMID:17996412

Orwa, J A; Jondiko, I J O; Minja, R J A; Bekunda, M

2008-01-17

53

Effects of dietary Centella asiatica (L.) Urban on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood composition in piglets vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of Centella asiatica (L.) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood composition in piglets, 32 nursery pigs were fed 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% dietary C.?asiatica (L.) from 15 to 90?kg BW. At 30?kg BW, nutrient digestibility was measured and at 35?kg BW piglets were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Hematological parameters were checked at 40 and 80?kg BW. Compared with the control, growth performance was not affected. The ether extract, ash and calcium digestibility were lower at 0.5%, and dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, phosphorus and energy digestibility were lower at 1.0% (P?asiatica (L.) (P?asiatica (L.) could not improve growth performance but increased values of serum hematocrit and white blood cells, and mycoplasma immunity to M.?hyopneumoniae might suggest that C.?asiatica (L.) has no function to elevate body weight but has the potential to enhance innate immunity. PMID:24612418

Maneewan, Chamroon; Mekbungwan, Apichai; Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Yamauchi, Kohsho; Yamauchi, Koh-En

2014-05-01

54

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

55

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of florfenicol for treatment of Francisella asiatica infection in tilapia.  

PubMed

Francisella asiatica is a recently described, Gram-negative, facultative intracellular fish pathogen, known to be the causative agent of francisellosis in warm-water fish. Francisellosis outbreaks have increased in frequency among commercial aquaculture operations and have caused severe economic losses in every case reported. The lack of effective treatments for piscine francisellosis led us to investigate the potential efficacy of florfenicol for inhibition of F. asiatica in vitro and as an oral therapeutic agent in vivo. The MIC of florfenicol for F. asiatica, as determined by the broth dilution method, was 2 ?g/ml, which indicates its potential efficacy as a therapeutic agent for treatment of francisellosis. The intracellular susceptibility of the bacterium to florfenicol in tilapia head kidney-derived macrophages (THKDM) was also investigated. Addition of florfenicol to the medium at 10 ?g/ml was sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial loads in the THKDM in vitro. Cytotoxicity assays done in infected THKDM also demonstrated drug efficacy in vivo, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Levels of LDH released from infected THKDM were significantly lower in macrophages treated with florfenicol (P < 0.001) than in untreated cells. In medicated-feed trials, fish were fed 15 mg of florfenicol/kg of fish body weight for 10 days, and the feeding was initiated at either 1, 3, or 6 days postchallenge. Immersion challenges resulted in 30% mean percent survival in nontreated fish, and fish receiving medicated feed administered at 1 and 3 days postinfection showed higher mean percent survival (100% and 86.7%, respectively). A significant decrease (P < 0.001) in bacterial numbers (number of CFU/g of spleen tissue) was observed in treated groups compared to nontreated infected fish at both 1 and 3 days postchallenge. There were no differences in bacterial burden in the spleens between fish treated 6 days postchallenge and untreated controls. In conclusion, if florfenicol is administered during early stages of infection, it has the potential for effectively treating piscine francisellosis, including the capacity for intracellular penetration and bacterial clearance. PMID:20713674

Soto, Esteban; Endris, Richard G; Hawke, John P

2010-11-01

56

Shocking Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how a piece of fruit can act as an electrolyte, conducting electricity between two different metals. In this way, learners construct a simple battery and record their observations. Educators can use this activity to introduce circuits, electrodes, and electrolytes. After completing this activity, learners can explore other fruit and vegetable conductors.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

57

Asiaticoside, a component of Centella asiatica, inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma.  

PubMed

Melanogenesis is the process of generating pigmentation via melanin synthesis and delivery. Three key enzymes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase?related protein 1 (TRP1) and TRP2, metabolize melanin from L?tyrosine. Melanin synthesizing enzymes are regulated by microphthalmia?associated transcription factor (MITF). The titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) contains the major components asiatic acid, asiaticoside and madecassic acid. The present study revealed that TECA reduces the melanin content in melanocytes. Moreover, the asiaticoside contained in TECA modulated melanogenesis by inhibiting tyrosinase mRNA expression. The decrease in tyrosinase mRNA levels was mediated through MITF. Uniquely, asiaticoside inhibited MITF by decreasing its DNA binding affinity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that asiaticoside treatment may have beneficial effects in hyperpigmentation diseases or for skin whitening. PMID:24756377

Kwon, Ku Jung; Bae, Seunghee; Kim, Karam; An, In Sook; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

2014-07-01

58

State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

Flisser, Ana

2013-02-01

59

State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.

2013-01-01

60

Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract  

PubMed Central

This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine.

Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

2013-01-01

61

What Do Mexican Fruit Flies Learn When They Experience Fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican fruit flies learn fruit characteristics that enable them to distinguish familiar fruits from novel fruits. We investigated whether mature Mexican fruit flies learn fruit color, size or odor. We found no evidence that female flies learn fruit color or size after experience with host fruit, including oviposition. However, green fruit and fruit models were more attractive than yellow and

David C. Robacker; Ivich Fraser

2005-01-01

62

Production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells in bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effects of some culture conditions on production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells cultured in 5-L bioreactor. Methods The centell cell suspension culture was conducted in 5-L bioreactor to investigate the growth and asiaticoside accumulation under various conditions. Asiaticoside content was determined by HPLC analysis. Results The results showed that the cell growth and asiaticoside accumulation peaked after 24 d of culture at an agitation speed of 150 r/min and aeration rate of 2.5 L/min. The cell biomass reached a maximum value of 302.45 g fresh weight (31.45 g dry weight) and growth index of 3.03 with inoculum size of 100 g. However, asiaticoside content was the highest (60.08 mg/g dry weight) when culture was initiated with an inoculum size of 50 g. Conclusions The present study found the suitable conditions for growth of centella cells and their asiaticoside production in bioreactor.

Loc, Nguyen Hoang; Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy

2013-01-01

63

Mechanism of interactions between calcium and viscous polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at investigating the mechanism of interactions between calcium and the psyllium polysaccharide. Plantago asiatica L. crude polysaccharide (PLCP) was subjected to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to yield calcium-depleted polysaccharide named PLCP-E. There was essentially no difference in the structure between PLCP-E and PLCP. However, PLCP-E exhibited a much lower apparent viscosity compared to that of PLCP. PLCP was treated with sodium hydroxide to deplete ferulic acid. The resultant material was named PLCP-FAS, which also exhibited lower viscosity. Adding Ca(2+) could both increase apparent viscosity of PLCP-E and PLCP-FAS, but only PLCP-E could keep the high viscosity when dialysis was carried out to remove free Ca(2+) in the solution. Thermal analysis showed that the thermal stability of the polysaccharide was reduced after EDTA chelation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that PLCP-E was flaky and curly aggregation, while PLCP was mostly filamentous in appearance. The results suggested that there are strong interactions between Ca(2+) and the polysaccharide. The interactions contributed to the high viscosity, weak gelling property, and thermal stability of the polysaccharide. PMID:22813433

Yin, Jun-Yi; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Jing; Li, Chang; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

2012-08-15

64

Evaluation of comparative free-radical quenching potential of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and Mandookparni (Centella asiatica).  

PubMed

Ayurvedic texts describe rejuvenate measures called Rasayana to impart biological sustenance to bodily tissues. Rasayana acting specifically on brain are called Medhya Rasayana. Brahmi is one of the most commonly practiced herbs for the same. Yet there exist a controversy regarding the exact plant species among Bacopa monnieri L. Penn (BM) and Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (CA) to be used as Brahmi in the formulations. Though the current literature available has suggested a very good nootropic potential of both the drugs, none of the studies have been carried out on comparative potential of these herbs to resolve the controversy. Free-radical scavenging potential for these plants is studied to find out their comparative efficacy. The study revealed a very good in vitro free-radical scavenging properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both the plants as evidenced by FRAP, DPPH, reducing power, and antilipid peroxidation assays. It can be concluded from the studies that both the plants, although taxonomically totally different at family level, showed similar type of in vitro activities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also revealed a significant similarity in the two plants. The in vitro study supports the Ayurvedic concept of BM and CA having a similar potential. PMID:22408313

Mukherjee, Sourav; Dugad, Swapnil; Bhandare, Rahul; Pawar, Nayana; Jagtap, Suresh; Pawar, Pankaj K; Kulkarni, Omkar

2011-04-01

65

Statistical Analysis of Metal Chelating Activity of Centella asiatica and Erythroxylum cuneatum Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the extraction parameters and the metal chelating activity of Centella asiatica (CA) and Erythroxylum cuneatum (EC). The response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of methanolic extract of CA and EC with respect to the metal chelating activity. For CA, Run 17 gave optimum chelating activity with IC50 = 0.93?mg/mL at an extraction temperature of 25°C, speed of agitation at 200?rpm, ratio of plant material to solvent at 1?g?:?45?mL and extraction time at 1.5 hour. As for EC, Run 13 with 60°C, 200?rpm, 1?g?:?35?mL and 1 hour had metal chelating activity at IC50 = 0.3817?mg/mL. Both optimized extracts were further partitioned using a solvent system to evaluate the fraction responsible for the chelating activity of the plants. The hexane fraction of CA showed potential activity with chelating activity at IC50 = 0.090 and the ethyl acetate fraction of EC had IC50 = 0.120?mg/mL. The study showed that the response surface methodology helped to reduce the extraction time, temperature and agitation and subsequently improve the chelating activity of the plants in comparison to the conventional method.

Mohd Salim, R. J.; Adenan, M. I.; Amid, A.; Jauri, M. H.; Sued, A. S.

2013-01-01

66

Effects of temperature, algae biomass and ambient nutrient on the absorption of dissolved nitrogen and phosphate by Rhodophyte Gracilaria asiatica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gracilaria asiatica, being highly efficient in nutrient absorption, is cultivated in sea cucumber ponds to remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate. It was cultured in a laboratory simulating field conditions, and its nutrient absorption was measured to evaluate effects of environmental conditions. Ammonia nitrogen (AN), nitrate nitrogen (NN), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) uptake rate and removal efficiency were determined in a 4×2 factorial design experiment in water temperatures ( T) at 15°C and 25°C, algae biomass (AB) at 0.5 g/L and 1.0 g/L, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) at 30 ?mol/L and 60 ?mol/L, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) at 3 and 6 ?mol/L. AB and ambient TIN or SRP levels significantly affected uptake rate and removal efficiency of AN, NN, TIN, and SRP ( P< 0.001). G. asiatica in AB of 0.5 g/L showed higher uptake rate and lower removal efficiency relative to that with AB of 1.0 g/L. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rate rose with increasing ambient nutrient concentrations; nutrient removal efficiency decreased at higher environmental nutrient concentrations. The algae preferred to absorb AN to NN. Uptake rates of AN, NN, and SRP were significantly affected by temperature ( P < 0.001); uptake rate was higher for the 25°C group than for the 15°C group at the initial experiment stage. Only the removal efficiency of AN and SRP showed a significant difference between the two temperature groups ( P< 0.01). The four factors had significant interactive effects on absorption of N and P, implying that G. asiatica has great bioremedial potential in sea cucumber culture ponds.

Du, Rongbin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yongqiang

2013-03-01

67

Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) and an Understory Herbaceous Plant Plantago asiatica  

PubMed Central

We investigated communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the fine roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, and Plantago asiatica to consider the relationship between orchard trees and herbaceous plants in AMF symbioses. The AMF communities were analyzed on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), which were amplified using the AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the obtained AMF sequences were divided into 23 phylotypes. Among them, 12 phylotypes included AMF from both host plants, and most of the obtained sequences (689/811) were affiliated to them. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the host plant species did not have a significant effect on the distribution of AMF phylotypes, whereas the effects of sampling site, soil total C, soil total N and soil-available P were significant. It was also found that the mean observed overlaps of AMF phylotypes between the paired host plants in the same soil cores (27.1% of phylotypes shared) were significantly higher than the mean 1,000 simulated overlaps (14.2%). Furthermore, the same AMF sequences (100% sequence identity) were detected from both host plants in 8/12 soil cores having both roots. Accordingly, we concluded that Py. pyrifolia and Pl. asiatica examined shared some AMF communities, which suggested that understory herbaceous plants may function as AMF inoculum sources for orchard trees.

Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

2013-01-01

68

Effect of Centella asiatica L (Umbelliferae) on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing in Wistar Albino rats.  

PubMed

Centella asiatica is a reputed medicinal plant used in the treatment of various skin diseases in the Indian system of medicine. The objective of the study presented in this article was to evaluate the wound-healing potential of the ethanolic extract of the plant in both normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing. The study was done on Wistar albino rats using incision, excision, and dead space wounds models. The extract of C asiatica significantly increased the wound breaking strength in incision wound model compared to controls (P < .001). The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly increased as compared to control wounds (P < .001). Wet and dry granulation tissue weights, granulation tissue breaking strength, and hydroxyproline content in a dead space wound model also increased at statistically significant levels as shown. The extract of the leaves had the effect of attenuating the known effects of dexamethasone healing in all wound models (P < .001, P < .05). The results indicated that the leaf extract promotes wound healing significantly and is able to overcome the wound-healing suppressing action of dexamethasone in a rat model. These observations were supported by histology findings. PMID:16928669

Shetty, B Somashekar; Udupa, S L; Udupa, A L; Somayaji, S N

2006-09-01

69

Isolation of active compounds from methanol extracts of Toddalia asiatica against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish (Carassius auratus).  

PubMed

The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. The present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of the active components from Toddalia asiatica against I. multifiliis. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of compounds with antiparasitic activity were performed on the methanol extract of T. asiatica yielding two bioactive compounds: chelerythrine and chloroxylonine identified by comparing spectral data (NMR and ESI-MS) with literature values. Results from in vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that chelerythrine and chloroxylonine could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis at the concentration of 1.2 mg L(-1) and 3.5 mg L(-1), with the median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0.55 mg L(-1) and 1.90 mg L(-1) respectively. In vivo experiments demonstrated that fish treated with chelerythrine and chloroxylonine at the concentrations of 1.8 and 8.0 mg L(-1) carried significantly fewer parasites than the control (P<0.05). The acute toxicity (LC50) of chelerythrine for goldfish was 3.3 mg L(-1). PMID:24295957

Shan, Xiao-feng; Meng, Qing-feng; Kang, Yuan-huan; Bian, Yu; Gao, Yun-hang; Wang, Wei-li; Qian, Ai-dong

2014-01-31

70

Studies on abnormality of metacestodes and adult worms of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata asiatica in rodents and pigs.  

PubMed

Abnormalities are not uncommon in Taenia saginata and T. solium. After examining 328 mature proglottids from 2 adult worms from two experimentally infected hamsters, 13 (4.0%) were found to have no genital pore but with numerous testes and several vas efferents; 1 (0.3%) one genital pore with one reproductive system; 12 (3.7%) one on each side with two sets of reproductive system; 17 (5.2%) two on one side with 2 sets of reproductive system; 8 (2.4%) one on one side and two on the other side with 3 sets of reproductive system; 2 (0.6%) two on each side with 4 sets of reproductive system; 4 (1.2%) three on one side with 3 sets of reproductive system, and 4 one on one side and three on the other side with 4 sets of reproductive system. Nine evaginated abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from three experimentally infected SCID mice each had two protoscoleces and a big bladder. From two experimentally infected pigs, one abnormal cysticercus was observed to have two invaginated canals each in one end. Another one had a neck-band behind the scolex and a big bladder. This paper is not only the first report of abnormality of T. solium from hamster but also the first one of abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from pigs and mice. PMID:12041572

Fan, P C; Wan, I C; Chung, W C; Guo, J X; Ma, X Y; Xu, Z J

2001-01-01

71

Cherry Fruit Abscission  

PubMed Central

Initiation of abscission at the pedicel-fruit zone in the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) occurs near the transition of Stage II to Stage III of fruit growth. The preinitiation phase is characterized by a high fruit removal force (FRF) and explants prepared from fruits during this period do not undergo abscission as indexed by a reduction in FRF. Ethylene does not cause a significant reduction in FRF either in attached fruit or in explants prepared during this period. By contrast, after initiation (Stage III of fruit growth), there is a marked decrease in FRF with fruit development, explants prepared from fruits during this period undergo abscission, and ethylene markedly promotes the loss in break-strength. Neither the rate of evolution nor the internal concentration of ethylene in the fruit were correlated with fruit abscission. Similar abscission responses, as indexed by FRF and sensitivity to ethylene, were observed in attached fruit and in detached fruit explants.

Wittenbach, Vernon A.; Bukovac, Martin J.

1974-01-01

72

Mechanism of Fruit Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The making of a fruit is a developmental process unique to plants. It requires a complex network of interacting genes and\\u000a signaling pathways. In fleshy fruit, it involves three distinct stages, namely, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening.\\u000a Of these, ripening has received most attention from geneticists and breeders, as this important process activates a whole\\u000a set of biochemical

M. Bouzayen; A. Latché; P. Nath; J. C. Pech

73

Centella asiatica Extract Improves Behavioral Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Investigation of a Possible Mechanism of Action  

PubMed Central

Centella asiatica (CA), commonly named gotu kola, is an Ayurvedic herb used to enhance memory and nerve function. To investigate the potential use of CA in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined the effects of a water extract of CA (GKW) in the Tg2576 mouse, a murine model of AD with high ?-amyloid burden. Orally administered GKW attenuated ?-amyloid-associated behavioral abnormalities in these mice. In vitro, GKW protected SH-SY5Y cells and MC65 human neuroblastoma cells from toxicity induced by exogenously added and endogenously generated ?-amyloid, respectively. GKW prevented intracellular ?-amyloid aggregate formation in MC65 cells. GKW did not show anticholinesterase activity or protect neurons from oxidative damage and glutamate toxicity, mechanisms of current AD therapies. GKW is rich in phenolic compounds and does not contain asiatic acid, a known CA neuroprotective triterpene. CA thus offers a unique therapeutic mechanism and novel active compounds of potential relevance to the treatment of AD.

Soumyanath, Amala; Zhong, Yong-Ping; Henson, Edward; Wadsworth, Teri; Bishop, James; Gold, Bruce G.; Quinn, Joseph F.

2012-01-01

74

Melatonin regulates splenocytes proliferation via IP3-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) release in seasonally breeding bird, Perdicula asiatica.  

PubMed

Abstract Melatonin plays an important role in the immune regulation of birds. Both endogenous and exogenous melatonin modulates lymphocyte proliferation via its speci?c membrane receptors, Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c, though the mechanisms behind this process are poorly understood. We investigated the di?erences in melatonin membrane receptor Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c expression by western blot and reverse transcription reaction and the in vitro e?ect of melatonin on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca2+]i) in splenocytes of the Indian Jungle Bush Quail, Perdicula asiatica. We used a non-selective melatonin receptor antagonist for Mel1a and Mel1b, luzindole, and the selective Mel1b blocker, 4P-PDOT to check the specific role of melatonin receptor on ([Ca2+]i). The expression of Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c receptors mRNA and protein was upregulated by melatonin (10(-7)?M) with a significant high rise in ([Ca2+]i), which was differentially blocked by supplementation of antagonist, luzindole (10(-7)?M) and 4P-PDOT (10(-7)?M). Furthermore, we noted in vitro effect of melatonin and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a cell-permeable antagonist of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor to check the rise in ([Ca2+]i) through the IP3 pathway. Significantly low ([Ca2+]i) was noted in melatonin and 2-APB pretreated splenocytes when compared with splenocytes where 2-APB was absent. Thus, our data suggest that melatonin through its membrane receptor induced the elevation of ([Ca2+]i) via IP3-dependent pathway for splenocyte proliferation in P. asiatica. PMID:24512472

Kumar Yadav, Sanjeev; Haldar, Chandana; Kumar Singh, Sunil; Dash, Debabrata

2014-08-01

75

Asiatic Acid Isolated From Centella Asiatica Inhibits TGF-?1-induced Collagen Expression in Human Keloid Fibroblasts via PPAR-? Activation  

PubMed Central

Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by exuberant extracellular matrix deposition and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?/Smad pathway plays a pivotal role in keloid pathogenesis. Centella asiatica extract has been applied in scar management for ages. As one of its major components, asiatic acid (AA) has been recently reported to inhibit liver fibrosis by blocking TGF-?/Smad pathway. However, its effect on keloid remains unknown. In order to investigate the effects of AA on cell proliferation, invasion and collagen synthesis, normal and keloid fibroblasts were exposed to TGF-?1 with or without AA. Relevant experiments including 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay, Transwell invasion assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNA interference assay were conducted. As a result, keloid fibroblasts showed higher responsiveness to TGF-?1 stimulation than normal fibroblasts in terms of invasion and collagen synthesis. AA could suppress TGF-?1-induced expression of collagen type I, inhibit Smad 2/3 phosphorylation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression, while elevate Smad 7 protein level. Noteworthy, the effects of AA on keloid fibroblasts could be abrogated by PPAR-? antagonist GW9662 and by silencing of PPAR-?. The present study demonstrated that AA inhibited TGF-?1-induced collagen and PAI-1 expression in keloid fibroblasts through PPAR-? activation, which suggested that AA was one of the active constituents of C. asiatica responsible for keloid management, and could be included in the arsenal for combating against keloid.

Bian, Difei; Zhang, Jizhou; Wu, Xin; Dou, Yannong; Yang, Yan; Tan, Qian; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Dai, Yue

2013-01-01

76

TECA (Titrated Extract of Centella Asiatica): new microcirculatory, biomolecular, and vascular application in preventive and clinical medicine. A status paper.  

PubMed

Plant-derived elements used for pharmacological applications constitute an increasing research field. Centella asiatica is widely used mainly as an extract (TECA). Triterpenic fractions, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica, produce a wide range of preventive and therapeutic effects. The modulation of collagen production and deposition in wound healing is of primary importance. TECA is also used to treat several microcirculatory problems, inflammatory skin conditions (leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis) and also intestinal problems, fever, amenorrhea and genitourinary conditions. Cognitive functions, anxiety and mental impairment may be also affected by TECA administration. New applications in neurology include nerve growth factor enhancement and applications in neurological degenerative conditions. Interaction with other products is also indicated in this document. The multiplicity of actions of TECA is associated to six important mechanisms, all inter-connected and modulating each other: 1) edema - and capillary filtration - control; 2) a strong antioxidant power, effective on several forms of oxidative stress associated to inflammation or infections and synergic with other antioxidant products; 3) an anti-inflammatory action; 4) a modulation of the collagen production avoiding slower scarring or faster, hyperthrophic scarring and cheloids; 5) a modulating action of local growth factors; 6) a modulation of angiogenesis. This "status" paper - resulting from an expert meeting held in Cobham, Surrey, indicates most of the therapeutic potential of TECA, still to be explored in further studies. The status paper constitutes the basis for a consensus document on TECA to be developed in the next future. This "status" paper opens a new window on an ancient but still partially unexplored product that may become an important value in prevention and treatment of several pre-clinical and risk conditions and in clinically significant disease both as a single products and in association with other 'natural' products. PMID:22108486

Belcaro, G; Maquart, F-X; Scoccianti, M; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Cesarone, M R; Luzzi, R; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A; Feragalli, B

2011-09-01

77

Mark's Fruit Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

Rieger, Mark

78

Regeneration of Centella asiatica plants from non-embryogenic cell lines and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal properties of regenerated calli and plants  

PubMed Central

Background The threatened plant Centella asiatica L. is traditionallyused for a number of remedies. In vitro plant propagation and enhanced metabolite production of active metabolites through biotechnological approaches has gained attention in recent years. Results Present study reveals that 6-benzyladenine (BA) either alone or in combination with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) supplemented in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at different concentrations produced good quality callus from leaf explants of C. asiatica. The calli produced on different plant growth regulators at different concentrations were mostly embryogenic and green. Highest shoot regeneration efficiency; 10 shoots per callus explant, from non-embryogenic callus was observed on 4.42 ?M BA with 5.37 ?M NAA. Best rooting response was observed at 5.37 and 10.74 ?M NAA with 20 average number of roots per explant. Calli and regenerated plants extracts inhibited bacterial growth with mean zone of inhibition 9-13 mm diameter when tested against six bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Agar tube dilution method for antifungal assay showed 3.2-76% growth inhibition of Mucor species, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium moliniformes. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that non-embryogenic callus can be turned into embryos and plantlets if cultured on appropriate medium. Furthermore, callus from leaf explant of C. asiatica can be a good source for production of antimicrobial compounds through bioreactor.

2011-01-01

79

In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. In in vitro studies T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract showed very good scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC?? 605.34±2.62 ?g/ml), hydroxyl (IC?? 694.37±2.12 ?g/ml) and nitric oxide (IC?? 897.83±1.48 ?g/ml) radicals, as well as high reducing power. In Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats, oral treatment with T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract produced a significant (P?0.005) decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in comparison with hexane and methanol extracts. In high fat diet-fed hyperlipidemic rats, the ethyl acetate extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly altered the plasma and liver lipids levels to near normal. PMID:23891761

Irudayaraj, Santiagu Stephen; Sunil, Christudas; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2013-10-01

80

Use of asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control columnaris in Nile tilapia.  

PubMed

To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen Garcinia mangostana, pomegranate Punica granatum, and guava Psidium guajava), the aqueous extract of Asiatic pennywort exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against F. columnare; the minimal inhibitory concentration was 31.25 lg/mL. It was also found to have a bactericidal effect on F. columnare. When experimental bath exposures of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to F. columnare were performed, the median lethal dose was determined to be 2.37 x 10(5) colony forming units/mL. For in vivo trials, six different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) of Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract were used as bath treatments to control experimentally induced columnaris in Nile tilapia. The decrease in fish mortality was dose dependent, and at a concentration of 100 mg/L no mortality or adverse effects were noted in the infected fish. This study suggests that Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract has the potential to control disease caused by F. columnare. PMID:20575361

Rattanachaikunsopon, P; Phumkhachorn, P

2010-03-01

81

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

82

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

83

Optimization of an efficient semi-solid culture protocol for sterilization and plant regeneration of Centella asiatica (L.) as a medicinal herb.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the effects of different concentrations, as well as type of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and medium (MS, Duchefa) on the growth and development of Centella asiatica in semi-solid culture. In addition, a protocol for successful sterilization of C.asiatica explants prepared from field-grown plants highly exposed to fungal and bacterial contamination was determined. Results for sterilization treatments revealed that applying HgCl? and Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM) with cetrimide, bavistin and trimethoprim which were included after washing with tap water, followed by the addition of PPM in the medium, produced a very satisfactory result (clean culture 90 ± 1.33%) and TS5 (decon + cetrimide 1% + bavistin 150 mg/L + trimethoprim 50 mg/L + HgCl?0.1% + PPM 2% soak and 2 mL/L in medium) was hence chosen as the best method of sterilization for C.asiatica. The synergistic combination of 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in concentrations of 2 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, in Duchefa medium compared with MS induced the most optimal percentage of sprouted shoots (93 ± 0.667), number of shoots (5.2 ± 0.079) and nodes (4 ± 0.067) per explant, leaf per explant (14 ± 0.107) and shoot length (4.1 ± 0.67 cm). Furthermore, optimum rooting frequency (95.2 ± 0.81%), the number of roots/shoot (7.5 ± 0.107) and the mean root length (4.5 ± 0.133 cm) occurred for shoots that were cultured on full-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). In this study, the acclimatized plantlets were successfully established with almost 85% survival. The findings of this study have proven an efficient medium and PGR concentration for the mass propagation of C.asiatica. These findings would be useful in micropropagation and ex situ conservation of this plant. PMID:22439138

Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Jaafar, Hawa Binti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ibrahim, Rusli; Rahmat, Asmah Bt; Philip, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

84

Endogenous Viral Sequences from the Cape Golden Mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) Reveal the Presence of Foamy Viruses in All Major Placental Mammal Clades  

PubMed Central

Endogenous retroviruses provide important insights into the deep history of this viral lineage. Endogenous foamy viruses are thought to be very rare and only a few cases have been identified to date. Here we report a novel endogenous foamy virus (CaEFV) within the genome of the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica). The identification of CaEFV reveals the presence of foamy virus in the placental mammal superorder Afrotheria. Phylogenetic analyses place CaEFV basal to other foamy viruses of Eutherian origin, suggesting an ancient codivergence between foamy virus and placental mammals. These findings have implications for understanding the long-term evolution, diversity, and biology of retroviruses.

Han, Guan-Zhu; Worobey, Michael

2014-01-01

85

Mutant Fruit Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

0002-11-30

86

Centella asiatica (L.) Leaf Extract Treatment During the Growth Spurt Period Enhances Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization in Rats  

PubMed Central

Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping plant growing in damp places in India and other Asian countries. The leaves of CeA are used for memory enhancement in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternative system of medicine in India. In this study, we have investigated the effect during the rat growth spurt period of CeA fresh leaf extract treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions of the brain concerned with learning and memory. Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were fed with 2, 4 or 6 ml kg?1 body weight of fresh leaf extract of CeA for 2, 4 or 6 weeks. After the treatment period the rats were killed, their brains were removed and the hippocampal neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using a camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. These data were compared with data for age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in the dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in rats treated with 4 and 6 ml kg?1 body weight per day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that the constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf extract have a neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence, the extract can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and neurodegenerative and memory disorders.

Mohandas Rao, K. G.; Muddanna Rao, S.; Gurumadhva Rao, S.

2006-01-01

87

Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal—Centella asiatica—extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ~180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed.

Sikareepaisan, Panprung; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Supaphol, Pitt

2008-01-01

88

Antifeedant activity of aqueous extract of Gnidia glauca Gilg. and Toddalia asiatica Lam. on the gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hbn).  

PubMed

Aqueous leaf extracts of two plants namely Gnidia glauca Gilg. and Toddalia asiatica Lam., have been screened for their antifeedant activity against the sixth instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hbn) by applying the aqueous leaf extracts at various concentrations viz., 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 percent on young tomato leaves. The larval mortality of more than 50 percent at higher concentrations (0.8 and 1.0 percent) was observed in the aqueous extracts. Among the two aqueous leaf extracts tested, T. asiatica was found to show higher rate of mortality (86.1%) at 1.0 percent concentration. A reduction in the rate of food consumption and growth was observed in the larvae of H. armigera after 48 hours of treatments in both the aqueous extracts. Since this insect pest species have developed resistance and resurgence to synthetic insecticides, the only alternate is the usage of bio-pesticides for they are eco-friendly, pollution free and easily degradable. PMID:11480344

Sundararajan, G; Kumuthakalavalli, R

2001-01-01

89

Allergenic potency of kiwi fruit during fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergies, including kiwi fruit allergy, have been the subject of extensive research in the last few years. The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between the developmental stage of kiwi fruit and its allergenic potency. The protein and allergen patterns of kiwi fruit extracts in September, October, November and December fruit in the period from

Marija Gavrovic-Jankulovic; Natalija Polovic; Sladjana Prisic; Ratko M. Jankov; Marina Atanaskovic-Markovic; Olga Vuckovic; Tanja Cirkovic Velickovic

2005-01-01

90

Additions to the hyphomycete genus Veronaea as phytoparasitic species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species of Veronaea, V. ficina on Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae), V. grewiicola on Grewia asiatica L. (Tiliaceae), and V. hippocratiae on Hippocratia arborea Willd. (Celastraceae), collected from forests of Nepal and the Terai belt of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, are described, illustrated and compared with related taxa.

R. N. Kharwar; R. K. Singh

2004-01-01

91

Additions to the hyphomycete genus Veronaea as phytoparasitic species.  

PubMed

Three new species of Veronaea, V. ficina on Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae), V. grewiicola on Grewia asiatica L. (Tiliaceae), and V. hippocratiae on Hippocratia arborea Willd. (Celastraceae), collected from forests of Nepal and the Terai belt of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, are described, illustrated and compared with related taxa. PMID:15293943

Kharwar, R N; Singh, R K

2004-01-01

92

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

1996-01-01

93

Fruits and vegetables (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

94

Efficient foreign gene expression in planta using a plantago asiatica mosaic virus-based vector achieved by the strong RNA-silencing suppressor activity of TGBp1.  

PubMed

Plant virus expression vectors provide a powerful tool for basic research as well as for practical applications. Here, we report the construction of an expression vector based on plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), a member of the genus Potexvirus. Modification of a vector to enhance the expression of a foreign gene, combined with the use of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A peptide, allowed efficient expression of the foreign gene in two model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. Comparison with the widely used potato virus X (PVX) vector demonstrated that the PlAMV vector retains an inserted foreign gene for a longer period than PVX. Moreover, our results showed that the GFP expression construct PlAMV-GFP exhibits stronger RNA silencing suppression activity than PVX-GFP, which is likely to contribute to the stability of the PlAMV vector. PMID:24154949

Minato, Nami; Komatsu, Ken; Okano, Yukari; Maejima, Kensaku; Ozeki, Johji; Senshu, Hiroko; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

2014-05-01

95

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

96

A Bowl of Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem requires a sound understanding of the fraction relationship between part and whole and can be used for finding fractions of numbers and quantities. Students are given the fractional amount of apples in a fruit bowl and the specific number of other fruit in the bowl in order to figure out how many apples are in the bowl. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension, a link to a worksheet which provides student support, and a downloadable pdf of the puzzle.

2002-04-01

97

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-04-21

98

CULTURAL EFFECTS ON FRUIT QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avocado grown most commonly in New Zealand is the dark skinned variety, 'Hass'. Fungal rots are one of the most important factors which have a detrimental effect on post- harvest fruit quality, and in this variety are usually only apparent when the consumer cuts the fruit open preparatory to eating. Rot fungi have been shown to infect fruit in

Kerri R. Everett

99

Classification of fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classifications for fruits and vegetables are most helpful for dietary assessment and guidance if they are based on the composition of these foods. This work determined whether levels of food components in fruits and vegetables correlated with classification criteria based on botanic family, color, part of plant, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A database of 104 commonly consumed fruits and

Jean A. T. Pennington; Rachel A. Fisher

2009-01-01

100

Birds and Poisonous Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is naturally difficult to obtain direct evidence as to how birds rid themselves of the indigestible parts of the fruit they eat. It is a question to which I have given some attention from its bearing on the dispersal of seeds. I have found large quantities of the seeds of hawthorn, dog-rose, mistletoe, and ivy evidently voided by birds,

E. M. Langley

1898-01-01

101

Fruit Fly Trap!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, compare the effectiveness of different traps to catch fruit flies. Is apple cider vinegar or white vinegar better at trapping these little insects? Use this activity to practice the scientific method or as a science fair project. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

102

Latex-fruit syndrome.  

PubMed

Natural rubber latex immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity is probably one of the most relevant challenges that has been faced in the treatment of allergies during recent years. Additionally, allergen cross-reactivity has arisen as another very important problem, in the difficulty in diagnosing it and in its clinical implications. It is clear that some latex allergens cross-react with plant-derived food allergens, the so-called latex-fruit syndrome, with evident clinical consequences. Although the foods most frequently involved are banana, avocado, kiwi, and chestnut, several others are also implicated. Investigations point to a group of defense-related plant proteins, class I chitinases, which cross-react with a major latex allergen, hevein, as the panallergens responsible for the syndrome. This review focuses on our current understanding of the latex-fruit syndrome. PMID:12542994

Blanco, Carlos

2003-01-01

103

Science 101: How do fruits ripen?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people love to eat fresh fruits, and today there are dozens to choose from--from "standard" fruits like apple, orange, and banana to more exotic fruits like mango, star fruit, and lychee. But how exactly do fruits ripen to taste so good?

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

104

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

2007-08-02

105

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or...

2009-04-01

106

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or...

2010-04-01

107

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...combination. Each such fruit juice ingredient in any such...content of the fruit juice ingredient. (5...flavoring and artificial green coloring, in case the fruit juice ingredient or combination...ingredients is extracted from apple, crabapple,...

2010-04-01

108

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...combination. Each such fruit juice ingredient in any such...content of the fruit juice ingredient. (5...flavoring and artificial green coloring, in case the fruit juice ingredient or combination...ingredients is extracted from apple, crabapple,...

2009-04-01

109

Fruits of neutron research  

SciTech Connect

Car windshields that don`t break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources.

Krause, C.

1994-12-31

110

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

Sciencenter

2012-07-12

111

New wild Tetrahymena from Southeast Asia, China, and North America, including T. malaccensis, T. asiatica, T. nanneyi, T. caudata, and T. silvana n. spp.  

PubMed

Tetrahymena of the T. pyriformis complex collected from varied habitats in Malaysia, Thailand, and The People's Republic of China include strains of the micronucleate species T. americanis and T. canadensis and the amicronucleate T. pyriformis and T. elliotti. Two new breeding species are described-T. malaccensis from Malaysia and T. asiatica from China and Thailand. Two wild selfers from China and some of the amicronucleate strains from all three countries fall into isozymic groups similar to named micronucleate and amicronucleate species. The T. patula complex is represented by two groups of clones from Malaysia that fit the morphological description of T. vorax. They, however, have radically different isozymic electrophoretic patterns and both groups differ from those of previously described T. vorax. As their molecules indicate relationships to other "T. vorax" strains as distant as that between T. vorax and T. leucophrys, they are considered to be new species, T. caudata and T. silvana. A third new breeding species, T. nanneyi, was identified among strains previously collected in North America. Viable immature progeny were obtained from the new strains of the five breeding species. Maximum temperature tolerances were determined for the new strains of four of the breeding species. PMID:3989748

Simon, E M; Meyer, E B; Preparata, R M

1985-02-01

112

Fruit Xylophone: Fruit Salad Instrument of the Future!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a perfect summertime lunch activity! Pico Cricket is required (micro controller). First, get a bunch of cut up fruit, line them up, then plug a piece of fruit with a Pico Cricket sensor clip. Next, hold the other Pico Cricket sensor clip in your hand and touch each of the fruits with it to see what kind of music it makes! This activity contains the programming instructions you need to read the resistance in the fruit, which assigns that resistance number a sound. This activity is a great way to explore the conductivity of fruit and vegetables and their resistance. This activity is an easy programming activity for beginners. Note: an older version of the Pico Cricket is shown in this activity, please revise where necessary.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-26

113

Fruit thinning of peach trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review deals with the importance of fruit thinning in peach.The date of treatment, the severity and the criteria underlying the practiceare discussed. Methods of fruit thinning are described, with particularemphasis on the use of chemical treatment as an alternative to handthinning. Strategies for chemical thinning are advanced.

Guglielmo Costa; Giannina Vizzotto

2000-01-01

114

Usual Intake of Other fruits  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other fruits Table A4. Other fruits: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.6 (0.04) 0.2

115

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

116

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

117

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

118

Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits  

SciTech Connect

Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

1989-04-01

119

The citrus fruit proteome: insights into citrus fruit metabolism.  

PubMed

Fruit development and ripening are key processes in the production of the phytonutrients that are essential for a balanced diet and for disease prevention. The pathways involved in these processes are unique to plants and vary between species. Climacteric fruit ripening, especially in tomato, has been extensively studied; yet, ripening of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood. Although the different species share common pathways; developmental programs, physiological, anatomical, biochemical composition and structural differences must contribute to the operation of unique pathways, genes and proteins. Citrus has a non-climacteric fruit ripening behavior and has a unique anatomical fruit structure. For the last few years a citrus genome-wide ESTs project has been initiated and consists of 222,911 clones corresponding to 19,854 contigs and 37,138 singletons. Taking advantage of the citrus database we analyzed the citrus proteome. Using LC-MS/MS we analyzed soluble and enriched membrane fractions of mature citrus fruit to identify the proteome of fruit juice cells. We have identified ca. 1,400 proteins from these fractions by searching NCBI-nr (green plants) and citrus ESTs databases, classified these proteins according to their putative function and assigned function according to known biosynthetic pathways. PMID:17541628

Katz, E; Fon, M; Lee, Y J; Phinney, B S; Sadka, A; Blumwald, E

2007-09-01

120

Physical properties of kumquat fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some physical properties of kumquat were investigated. Physical properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass, volume, projected area, density, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area. Bulk density, porosity and also packaging coefficient were calculated. Mechanical properties such as the elasticity modulus, rupture force and energy required for initial rupture have been determined. The experiments were carried out at moisture content of 82.6% (w.b.). The results show that the kumquat fruit is one of the smallest fruit in the citrus family.

Jaliliantabar, F.; Lorestani, A. N.; Gholami, R.

2013-01-01

121

Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening, fruits undergo many changes, which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances plus minerals and vitamins, the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening

Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-López

2011-01-01

122

A necrosis-inducing elicitor domain encoded by both symptomatic and asymptomatic Plantago asiatica mosaic virus isolates, whose expression is modulated by virus replication.  

PubMed

Systemic necrosis is the most destructive symptom induced by plant pathogens. We previously identified amino acid 1154, in the polymerase domain (POL) of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), which affects PlAMV-induced systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana. By point-mutation analysis, we show that amino acid 1,154 alone is not sufficient for induction of necrotic symptoms. However, PlAMV replicons that can express only RdRp, derived from a necrosis-inducing PlAMV isolate, retain their ability to induce necrosis, and transient expression of PlAMV-encoded proteins indicated that the necrosis-eliciting activity resides in RdRp. Moreover, inducible-overexpression analysis demonstrated that the necrosis was induced in an RdRp dose-dependent manner. In addition, during PlAMV infection, necrotic symptoms are associated with high levels of RdRp accumulation. Surprisingly, necrosis-eliciting activity resides in the helicase domain (HEL), not in the amino acid 1,154-containing POL, of RdRp, and this activity was observed even in HELs of PlAMV isolates of which infection does not cause necrosis. Moreover, HEL-induced necrosis had characteristics similar to those induced by PlAMV infection. Overall, our data suggest that necrotic symptoms induced by PlAMV infection depend on the accumulation of a non-isolate specific elicitor HEL (even from nonnecrosis isolates), whose expression is indirectly regulated by amino acid 1,154 that controls replication. PMID:21190438

Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Shiraishi, Takuya; Neriya, Yutaro; Miura, Chihiro; Minato, Nami; Okano, Yukari; Sugawara, Kyoko; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

2011-04-01

123

Trap for tephritid fruit fly parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sticky trap for capturing the adults of tephritid fruit fly parasites was designed. This trap consisted of an outer and\\u000a inner cylinder made of hardware cloth. Host fruits of fruit flies were placed in the inner cylinder and the outer one was\\u000a sprayed with tanglefoot. Fruit fly adults and parasites attracted to the fruit were captured on the sticky

T. Nishida; B. Napompeth

1974-01-01

124

Mediterranean Fruit Fly Action Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This action plan provides guidelines and actions for the eradication of a Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) infestation. This action plan supplements information contained in the Medfly Program Manual, Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) Treatment Manual...

2004-01-01

125

Constituents of Coriaria ruscifolia fruits.  

PubMed

Corianin (1) and ellagic acid 3,3'-dimethylether (2) were obtained from the methanol extract of powdered fruits of Coriaria ruscifolia. Biological screening of both compounds and of the methanol extract revealed slight antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. PMID:11429254

Valencia, E; Valenzuela, E; Barros, E; Aedo, V; Gebauer, M T; García, C; González, A G; Bermejo, J

2001-06-01

126

Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

1997-01-01

127

Cultivo de Frutales (Fruit Growing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The essential techniques for the production of citric fruits (pineapple, maracuya, mango, avocado, papaya, and guayaba) are described. The types and varieties, climate and soil, fertilization, grafting, plagues and diseases, and harvest periods are given ...

L. Montenegro V F. Becerra

1972-01-01

128

Reciprocal interaction between melatonin receptors (Mel(1a), Mel(1b), and Mel(1c)) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in immunoregulation of a seasonally breeding bird, Perdicula asiatica: role of photoperiod.  

PubMed

Light is the major environmental stimulus affecting behaviour and physiology of avian species. Our study elaborates the photoperiodic regulation of melatonin (Mel1a, Mel1b, and Mel1c) and androgen receptor (AR) to elucidate its reciprocal interaction in regulation of general immunity in tropical wild bird, Perdicula asiatica. Effect of different photoperiodic exposures such as continuous light (LL), continuous dark (DD), long days (LD; 16 h light/day), short days (SD; 10h light/day) and normal day length (NDL) was accessed both on cellular and humoral immune parameters like per cent stimulation ratio (%SR), total leukocyte count (TLC), leukocyte count (LC), plasma interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), spleen and gonad weight, plasma melatonin, and testosterone level as well as their receptor expression on spleen and testis. Expression of melatonin receptor, Mel1a and Mel1b in spleen was high in SD experiencing bird as compared to LD birds. In all photoperiodic groups, AR expression was upregulated in spleen. In addition, our reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results support differentially localized mRNA Mel1b and Mel1c expression in spleen and testis. In sum, photoperiodically modulated level of melatonin via reciprocal regulation of Mel1a, Mel1b, and Mel1c, and AR in spleen as well as in testis modulates immunity, suggesting a compensatory mechanism between reproduction and immunity in a seasonally breeding bird, P. asiatica. PMID:23591144

Yadav, S K; Haldar, C

2013-05-01

129

Dielectric properties of polycarbonate coated natural fabric Grewia tilifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural fibers are emerging as low cost, lightweight and apparently environmentally superior alternatives to glass fibers in composites. With the increasing importance of environmental interactions, several innovations of the environmental performance are introduced in automotive industry. One aspect of innovation is an environmental material selection including renewable raw materials. The uses of cellulosic fibers have ranged from the construction industry

Ch. V. V. Ramana; Williem Clarke; J. Jayaramudu; Rotimi Sadiku; S. S. Ray

2011-01-01

130

Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

Foster, Mercedes S.

2008-01-01

131

Biomechanics of fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

The scope of fruit and vegetable biomechanics is reviewed. Sources of mechanical injury to produce in harvesting, processing, storage, packaging and transportation are briefly described. A survey of produce handling and transportation environments was conducted, whereby an envelope model encompassing composite spectra of trucks, railroad, marine and cargo aircraft is presented. The protective quality, i.e. strength of shipping containers is quantified in static and dynamic loading such as encountered in storage, handling and transportation. Mechanical response of fruits and vegetables in quasistatic and dynamic loading are formulated by a nonlinear rheological model, whereby a time and deformation dependent relaxation modulus is defined. A realistic link is established between the model and real fruits and vegetables by test procedures for determination of the parameters in the governing nonlinear equations. Based on the nonlinear relaxation modulus, mechanical damage of fruits and vegetables is quantified for static compression, transients and vibration loading as well as for combined static and dynamic loading, by equations of contact circle diameter, bruise depth and contact pressure. Distribution of loads over a maximal number of contact points per fruit is linked to geometrical patterns of produce packs. The application of Shock Damage Boundary techniques for produce-package testing is described along with a case study comparing the protective qualities of two types of apple packs. Produce damage quantification by direct fruit inspection in terms of a 'Bruise Index' is described, including a practical example, comparing the protective qualities of three types of apple packs in shipping tests. Indirect methods of mechanical injury evaluation, based on weight loss and CO2 emission differences between bruised and wholesome fruits are also briefly discussed. PMID:4077855

Peleg, K

1985-01-01

132

Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.  

PubMed

Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207

Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan

2007-01-01

133

Trace elements in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation. PMID:22068730

Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

2012-05-01

134

Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

2013-01-01

135

Constraints in the Kenyan Fruit Juice Processing Industry. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to identify problems facing Kenya's fruit juice industry, the study catalogued the economic, institutional, infrastructural, and technological constraints as perceived by fruit juice processors and fruit growers. For fruit processors, the main im...

M. D. Wenner W. Escudero

1993-01-01

136

Phloem unloading in tomato fruit  

SciTech Connect

To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and /sup 3/H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate.

Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

1986-04-01

137

Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough to imagine a ...

138

Using implicit associations towards fruit consumption to understand fruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit strength—fruit consumption relationship; stronger relationships were observed when implicit attitudes were more positive. Amongst those with strong fruit habits, more positive

Gert-Jan de Bruijn; Mario Keer; Mark Conner; Ryan E. Rhodes

2012-01-01

139

Edible Coatings for Fresh-Cut Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and\\/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have

G. I. Olivas; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2005-01-01

140

A fruit quality gene map of Prunus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus

Ebenezer A Ogundiwin; Cameron P Peace; Thomas M Gradziel; Dan E Parfitt; Fredrick A Bliss; Carlos H Crisosto

2009-01-01

141

Preparation of Snack Fruits and Berries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns the preparation of bite-size fruits by a process wherein the fruit is partially dehydrated, puffed, and then treated to obtain a crisp outer surface thereon. The fruit is puffed by immersing it in a pool of liquid carbon di...

K. Popper W. G. Schultz W. M. Camirand E. Hautala G. H. Robertson

1976-01-01

142

Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum

Lourival Costa Paraíba

2007-01-01

143

Penetrating ocular injury by durian fruit.  

PubMed

Durian may inflict severe body injury when it drops from the tree. This case report describes a patient who presented with facial and penetrating eye injury when a ripe durian fruit dropped onto her face while harvesting the fruits under the tree. The authors emphasized the importance of facial and eye protective devices during durian fruit harvesting season. PMID:20527280

Aziz, S; Asokumaran, T; Intan, G

2009-09-01

144

Furanoflavonoids from Pongamia pinnata fruits.  

PubMed

Fruits of Pongamia pinnata afforded four new furanoflavonoids, pongapinnol A-D (1-4), and a new coumestan, pongacoumestan (5) along with thirteen known compounds 6-18. Compounds 16 and 17 are isolated for the first time from this plant. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. PMID:14759538

Yadav, Prem P; Ahmad, Ghufran; Maurya, Rakesh

2004-02-01

145

Flavolignans of Silybum marianum Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of fruit from spotted milkweed [Silybum marianum(L.) Gaertn.] cultivated in Samara district was investigated using UV and1H-NMR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry. Chemical transformations identify the flavolignans silybin, silydianin, silychristin, and 2,3-dehydrosilybin. The last was first described for spotted milkweed cultivated in Russia and CIS countries.

V. A. Kurkin; G. G. Zapesochnaya; A. V. Volotsueva; E. V. Avdeeva; K. S. Pimenov

2001-01-01

146

Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature. The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and

U. G. AKPAN; A. S. KOVO

147

Tomato Fruit Cell Wall 1  

PubMed Central

Cell wall isolation procedures were evaluated to determine their effect on the total pectin content and the degree of methylesterification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cell walls. Water homogenates liberate substantial amounts of buffer soluble uronic acid, 5.2 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall. Solubilization appears to be a consequence of autohydrolysis mediated by polygalacturonase II, isoenzymes A and B, since the uronic acid release from the wall residue can be suppressed by homogenization in the presence of 50% ethanol followed by heating. The extent of methylesterification in heat-inactivated cell walls, 94 mole%, was significantly greater than with water homogenates, 56 mole%. The results suggest that autohydrolysis, mediated by cell wall-associated enzymes, accounts for the solubilization of tomato fruit pectin in vitro. Endogenous enzymes also account for a decrease in the methylesterification during the cell wall preparation. The heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was superior to the other methods studied since it reduces ?-elimination during heating and inactivates constitutive enzymes that may modify pectin structure. This heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was used in subsequent enzymatic analysis of the pectin structure. Purified tomato fruit polygalacturonase and partially purified pectinmethylesterase were used to assess changes in constitutive substrates during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase treatment of heat-inactivated cell walls from mature green and breaker stages released 14% of the uronic acid. The extent of the release of polyuronides by polygalacturonase was fruit development stage dependent. At the turning stage, 21% of the pectin fraction was released, a value which increased to a maximum of 28% of the uronides at the red ripe stage. Pretreatment of the walls with purified tomato pectinesterase rendered walls from all ripening stages equally susceptible to polygalacturonase. Quantitatively, the release of uronides by polygalacturonase from all pectinesterase treated cell walls was equivalent to polygalacturonase treatment of walls at the ripe stage. Uronide polymers released by polygalacturonase contain galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose. As a function of development, an increase in the release of galacturonic acid and rhamnose was observed (40 and 6% of these polymers at the mature green stage to 54 and 15% at the red ripe stage, respectively). The amount of galactose and arabinose released by exogenous polygalacturonase decreased during development (41 and 11% from walls of mature green fruit to 11 and 6% at the red ripe stage, respectively). Minor amounts of glucose and xylose released from the wall by exogenous polygalacturonase (4-7%) remained constant throughout fruit development.

Koch, James L.; Nevins, Donald J.

1989-01-01

148

Molecular and genetic regulation of fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Fleshy fruit undergo a novel developmental program that ends in the irreversible process of ripening and eventual tissue senescence. During this maturation process, fruit undergo numerous physiological, biochemical and structural alterations, making them more attractive to seed dispersal organisms. In addition, advanced or over-ripening and senescence, especially through tissue softening and eventual decay, render fruit susceptible to invasion by opportunistic pathogens. While ripening and senescence are often used interchangeably, the specific metabolic activities of each would suggest that ripening is a distinct process of fleshy fruits that precedes and may predispose the fruit to subsequent senescence. PMID:23585213

Gapper, Nigel E; McQuinn, Ryan P; Giovannoni, James J

2013-08-01

149

Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1  

PubMed Central

Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention.

Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

2012-01-01

150

Health Hazard Evaluation No. 78-59-616, Diamond Fruit Growers, Inc., Duckwall-Pooley Fruit Co., Stadelman Fruit, Inc., Hood River, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of wrapping paper were tested, and workers were given a dermatological questionnaire and examination to identify toxic exposures at the Diamond Fruit Growers, Inc., the Duckwall-Pooley Fruit Co., and Stadelman Fruit, Inc., in Hood River, Oregon on...

A. C. Apol J. A. Lybarger

1979-01-01

151

Gamma-irradiated dry fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPR spectra of dry, sugar containing fruits—raisins, sultanas, figs, dates, peaches, blue plums and chokeberry recorded before and after irradiation with gamma-rays, are reported. It is shown that weak singlet EPR line with 2.0031±0.0005 can be recorded before irradiation of seeds, stones or skin of chokeberry, figs and raisins as well as flesh of blue plum, raisins and peaches. EPR

Nicola D. Yordanov; Zdravka Pachova

2006-01-01

152

Dynamics of Fruiting Body Morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myxobacteria build their species-specific fruiting bodies by cell movement and then differentiate spores in specific places within that multicellular structure. New steps in the developmental aggregation of Myxococcus xanthus were discovered through a frame-by-frame analysis of a motion picture. The formation and fate of 18 aggregates were captured in the time-lapse movie. Still photographs of 600 other aggregates were also

Dale Kaiser; Roy Welch

2004-01-01

153

Ocular injuries by durian fruit  

PubMed Central

AIM To report various ocular injuries caused by durian fruit. METHODS Three cases of ocular injuries were described in young patients, due to accidental fall of durian fruit on the forehead and face, while they were taking rest/sleeping /playing under the durian tree. RESULTS The ocular injuries observed were lacerating injury of cornea with iris incarceration, hyphema, superficial penetrating injury of sclera and angle recession glaucoma in the right eye of first patient; lacerating injury of cornea with iris prolapse in the left eye of second patient; subconjunctival haemorrhage, traumatic mydriasis and superficial penetrating injury of sclera, commotion retinopathy and macular edema in the left eye of third patient. Vision improved to normal in all the eyes following surgical/ medical/optical treatment. CONCLUSION Evidence of penetrating injury (because of thorns) and blunt injury (because of weight) can be seen in the eyes when durian fruit falls on the face. Vision can be recovered fully with immediate and appropriate treatment in these cases. The ocular injuries can be prevented by educating the public to wear protective metal frame wide goggles and not to sleep/take rest under the durian tree.

Reddy, Sagili Chandrasekhara

2012-01-01

154

Integrated methods for processing palm fruit bunches  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention is directed to an integrated method for the processing of palm fruit bunches to oil and other products. The method comprises inter alia separating palm fruit carrying bunches into fruits and lignocellulosic empty fruit bunches, processing the fruits to form palm oil, and at least one lignocellulosic processing coproduct; generating an aqueous stream; producing a non-oil, non-alcohol, non-fatty acid ester third product from the oil, the lignocellulosic processing coproduct, the aqueous stream or from a combination thereof; processing at least a portion of the lignocellulosic empty fruit bunches, lignocellulosic processing coproduct or a combination thereof into a fourth product and optionally producing at least one fifth conversion product from the fourth product; and using at least a portion of the fourth product or a product of its conversion or a combination thereof.

2012-09-18

155

Berry antioxidants: small fruits providing large benefits.  

PubMed

Small berry fruits are consumed because of their attractive colour and special taste, and are considered one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Their consumption has been linked to the prevention of some chronic and degenerative diseases. The term 'berry fruits' encompasses the so-called 'soft fruits', primarily strawberry, currants, gooseberry, blackberry, raspberry, blueberry and cranberry. The objective of this review is to highlight the nutraceutical value of berries and to summarize the factors affecting berry fruit antioxidants. Particular attention is given to postharvest and processing operation factors that may affect fruit phytochemical content. The structure-antioxidant relationships for phenolic compounds - the main group of antioxidants in this fruit group - are presented and major areas for future research are identified. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24122646

Manganaris, George A; Goulas, Vlasios; Vicente, Ariel R; Terry, Leon A

2014-03-30

156

Analysing fruit shape in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit shape in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) was described using an objective procedure based on image and regression analysis. Digitised images of individual fruit in front view (onto ventral suture) and side view were obtained by image analysis, the Cartesian coordinates of the fruit contour extracted and subsequently normalised for differing fruit size by dividing by fruit height. Normalised

M Beyer; R Hahn; S Peschel; M Harz; M Knoche

2002-01-01

157

Carbon allocation during fruiting in Rubus chamaemorus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Rubus chamaemorus (cloudberry) is a herbaceous clonal peatland plant that produces an extensive underground rhizome system with distant ramets. Most of these ramets are non-floral. The main objectives of this study were to determine: (a) if plant growth was source limited in cloudberry; (b) if the non-floral ramets translocated carbon (C) to the fruit; and (c) if there was competition between fruit, leaves and rhizomes for C during fruit development. Methods Floral and non-floral ramet activities were monitored during the period of flower and fruit development using three approaches: gas exchange measurements, 14CO2 labelling and dry mass accumulation in the different organs. Source and sink activity were manipulated by eliminating leaves or flowers or by reducing rhizome length. Key Results Photosynthetic rates were lower in floral than in deflowered ramets. Autoradiographs and 14C labelling data clearly indicated that fruit is a very strong sink for the floral ramet, whereas non-floral ramets translocated C toward the rhizome but not toward floral ramets. Nevertheless, rhizomes received some C from the floral ramet throughout the fruiting period. Ramets with shorter rhizomes produced smaller leaves and smaller fruits, and defoliated ramets produced very small fruits. Conclusions Plant growth appears to be source-limited in cloudberry since a reduction in sink strength did not induce a reduction in photosynthetic activity. Non-floral ramets did not participate directly to fruit development. Developing leaves appear to compete with the developing fruit but the intensity of this competition could vary with the specific timing of the two organs. The rhizome appears to act both as a source but also potentially as a sink during fruit development. Further studies are needed to characterize better the complex role played by the rhizome in fruit C nutrition.

Gauci, R.; Otrysko, B.; Catford, J.-G.; Lapointe, L.

2009-01-01

158

Prevalence and Functions of Anthocyanins in Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews possible visual, nutritional and physiological functions of anthocyanins in fruits. Merits of the various\\u000a functions are considered and discussed with reference to the prevalence of different fruit colours and the contribution of\\u000a anthocyanins thereto as well as anthocyanin accumulation in response to environmental factors, seed disperser visual systems\\u000a and fruit quality parameters. Blue, purple, black and most

W. J. Steyn

159

The influence of host fruit morphology on parasitization rates in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the host fruits of the Caribbean fruit fly there are a variety of sizes and shapes. These morphological differences\\u000a may influence the vulnerability of the larvae to parasites. In the laboratory, Caribbean fruit fly larvae placed in the smaller\\u000a of 2 different sizes of artificial ‘fruit’ (cloth spheres filled with a diet material) were parasitized at a higher rate

J. Sivinski

1991-01-01

160

Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar phenotype, i.e. seeded, bright red flesh, dark green rind, etc., determined that ethylene levels were highest during the green fruit stage followed by a decrease during the white and pink fruit stages. Additionally, quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to validate modulation of 127 ESTs that were differentially expressed in developing and ripening fruits based on array analysis. Conclusion This study identified numerous ESTs with putative involvement in the watermelon fruit developmental and ripening process, in particular the involvement of the vascular system and ethylene. The production of ethylene during fruit development in watermelon gives further support to the role of ethylene in fruit development in non-climacteric fruits.

Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

2008-01-01

161

Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.  

PubMed

A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango. PMID:20492197

Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

2010-01-01

162

Antisense inhibition of tomato fruit sucrose synthase decreases fruit setting and the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit.  

PubMed Central

The role of sucrose synthase (SuSy) in tomato fruit was studied in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing an antisense fragment of fruit-specific SuSy RNA (TOMSSF) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of the antisense RNA markedly inhibited SuSy activity in flowers and fruit pericarp tissues. However, inhibition was only slight in the endosperm and was undetectable in the embryo, shoot, petiole, and leaf tissues. The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in parallel with that of SuSy, but acid invertase activity did not increase in response to the reduced SuSy activity. The only effect on the carbohydrate content of young fruit was a slight reduction in starch accumulation. The in vitro sucrose import capacity of fruits was not reduced by SuSy inhibition at 23 days after anthesis, and the rate of starch synthesized from the imported sucrose was not lessened even when SuSy activity was decreased by 98%. However, the sucrose unloading capacity of 7-day-old fruit was substantially decreased in lines with low SuSy activity. In addition, the SuSy antisense fruit from the first week of flowering had a slower growth rate. A reduced fruit set, leading to markedly less fruit per plant at maturity, was observed for the plants with the least SuSy activity. These results suggest that SuSy participates in the control of sucrose import capacity of young tomato fruit, which is a determinant for fruit set and development.

D'Aoust, M A; Yelle, S; Nguyen-Quoc, B

1999-01-01

163

"FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic fruits among…

Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

2011-01-01

164

Evaluation of Methods to Estimate Understory Fruit Biomass  

PubMed Central

Fleshy fruit is consumed by many wildlife species and is a critical component of forest ecosystems. Because fruit production may change quickly during forest succession, frequent monitoring of fruit biomass may be needed to better understand shifts in wildlife habitat quality. Yet, designing a fruit sampling protocol that is executable on a frequent basis may be difficult, and knowledge of accuracy within monitoring protocols is lacking. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of 3 methods to estimate understory fruit biomass (Fruit Count, Stem Density, and Plant Coverage). The Fruit Count method requires visual counts of fruit to estimate fruit biomass. The Stem Density method uses counts of all stems of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. The Plant Coverage method uses land coverage of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. Using linear regression models under a censored-normal distribution, we determined the Fruit Count and Stem Density methods could accurately estimate fruit biomass; however, when comparing AIC values between models, the Fruit Count method was the superior method for estimating fruit biomass. After determining that Fruit Count was the superior method to accurately estimate fruit biomass, we conducted additional analyses to determine the sampling intensity (i.e., percentage of area) necessary to accurately estimate fruit biomass. The Fruit Count method accurately estimated fruit biomass at a 0.8% sampling intensity. In some cases, sampling 0.8% of an area may not be feasible. In these cases, we suggest sampling understory fruit production with the Fruit Count method at the greatest feasible sampling intensity, which could be valuable to assess annual fluctuations in fruit production.

Lashley, Marcus A.; Thompson, Jeffrey R.; Chitwood, M. Colter; DePerno, Christopher S.; Moorman, Christopher E.

2014-01-01

165

Yellow fruit from an unknown plant in Florida  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simple fruit results from a single flower with a single ovary. Fruits protect seeds. When animals eat the fruits, they spread the seeds in their feces. This is a unique adaptation for angiosperm seed dispersal.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

166

Water uptake through sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit pedicels: Influence of fruit surface water status and intact fruit skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified potometer consisting of a water-filled glass tube mounted in parallel with a metric scale and connected to a fruit was used to study water uptake into detached fruits of sweet cherry. Results describing quantities of imported water from some introductory studies were in the same range as in previously published studies conducted with alternative methods. Water uptake was

Kari Louise Hovland; Lars Sekse

2004-01-01

167

Fruit ripening phenomena--an overview.  

PubMed

Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life. Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated, genetically programmed, and an irreversible phenomenon involving a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes, that finally leads to the development of a soft edible ripe fruit with desirable quality attributes. Excessive textural softening during ripening leads to adverse effects/spoilage upon storage. Carbohydrates play a major role in the ripening process, by way of depolymerization leading to decreased molecular size with concomitant increase in the levels of ripening inducing specific enzymes, whose target differ from fruit to fruit. The major classes of cell wall polysaccharides that undergo modifications during ripening are starch, pectins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. Pectins are the common and major components of primary cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to the texture and quality of fruits. Their degradation during ripening seems to be responsible for tissue softening of a number of fruits. Structurally pectins are a diverse group of heteropolysaccharides containing partially methylated D-galacturonic acid residues with side chain appendages of several neutral polysaccharides. The degree of polymerization/esterification and the proportion of neutral sugar residues/side chains are the principal factors contributing to their (micro-) heterogeneity. Pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, lyase, and rhamnogalacturonase are the most implicated in fruit-tissue softening. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided a better understanding of the biochemistry of fruit ripening as well as providing a hand for genetic manipulation of the entire ripening process. It is desirable that significant breakthroughs in such related areas will come forth in the near future, leading to considerable societal benefits. PMID:17364693

Prasanna, V; Prabha, T N; Tharanathan, R N

2007-01-01

168

7 CFR 305.32 - Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate from areas quarantined for fruit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...interstate from areas quarantined for fruit flies. 305.32 Section 305.32...interstate from areas quarantined for fruit flies. Irradiation, carried out in...administering the approved dose for the fruit fly of concern listed in §...

2010-01-01

169

7 CFR 305.32 - Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate from areas quarantined for fruit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...interstate from areas quarantined for fruit flies. 305.32 Section 305.32...interstate from areas quarantined for fruit flies. Irradiation, carried out in...administering the approved dose for the fruit fly of concern listed in §...

2009-01-01

170

Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.  

PubMed

The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

2008-02-27

171

Automatic Fruits Identification System Using Hybrid Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a combination of artificial neural network (ANN), Fourier descriptors (FD) and spatial domain analysis (SDA) has been proposed for the development of an au- tomatic fruits identification and sorting system. Fruits images are captured using digital camera inclined at different angles to the horizontal. Segmentation is used for the classification of the preprocessed images into two non-overlapping

A. M. Aibinu; M. J. E. Salami; A. A. Shafie; N. Hazali; N. Termidzi

2011-01-01

172

Carotenoid Content of Selected Indonesian Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carotenoid content of 18 fruits (apple, banana, guava, jackfruit, kedondong, kemang, mango, mangosteen, orange, papaya, pineapple, rambutan, salak, sawo, starfruit, tangerine, red watermelon, and yellow watermelon) commonly consumed by children in West Java, Indonesia was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. These fruits were purchased in supermarkets in urban areas, small stores in rural areas, and outdoor markets. The cryptoxanthin, lycopene,

Budi Setiawan; Ahmad Sulaeman; David W. Giraud; Judy A. Driskell

2001-01-01

173

Fruit and vegetable-derived compositions  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention provides fruit and vegetable-derived compositions comprising a fruit or vegetable derivative of inter alia, at least one Beta, Capsicum and Malus species, wherein the composition is at a pH in the range of about 3 to about 6.5. The invention further provides for process for the production of the same and uses thereof.

2014-03-18

174

Doubled haploid production in fruit crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest of fruit breeders in haploids and doubled haploids (DH), lies in the possibility of shortening the time needed to produce homozygous lines compared to conventional breeding. Haplo-diploidization through gametic embryogenesis allows single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents. In a conventional breeding programme, a pure line is developed after several generations of selfing. With fruit crops,

2006-01-01

175

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

176

Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.  

PubMed

The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

2009-09-01

177

Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 2008 Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the 2008 summary of the acreage, yield, production, use, price and value of noncitrus fruit and nut crops by state. In 2008, the Nation's utilized production of the leading noncitrus fruit crops totaled 17.6 million tons, up 3 percent...

2009-01-01

178

Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 2007 Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the 2007 annual summary of the acreage, yield, production, use, price and value of noncitrus fruit and nut crops by state. In 2007, the Nation's revised utilized production of the leading noncitrus fruit crops totaled 17.1 million ton...

2008-01-01

179

Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts, 2011 Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts Summary for 2011. In 2011, the Nations utilized production of the leading noncitrus fruit crops totaled 18.0 million tons, up 1 percent from the 2010 utilized production. Utilized production increased from 2010 for ap...

2012-01-01

180

Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 2009 Preliminary Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the 2009 preliminary summary of the acreage, yield, production, use, price and value of noncitrus fruit and nut crops by state. In 2009, the Nation's utilized production of the leading noncitrus fruit crops totaled 17.6 million tons, ...

2010-01-01

181

Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 2008 Preliminary Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the 2008 preliminary summary of the acreage, yield, production, use, price and value of noncitrus fruit and nut crops by state. In 2008, the Nation's utilized production of the leading noncitrus fruit crops totaled 17.7 million tons, ...

2009-01-01

182

Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

Liebl, Eric C.

1998-01-01

183

Biosynthesis of Citric Acid in Citrus Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

NO detailed study has so far been made to find out the mechanism of the formation and accumulation of citric acid in citrus fruits even though studies on the change of acidity and pH during ripening have been reported1. Investigations are in progress in this laboratory to study the biosynthesis of citric acid in citrus fruit (Citrus acida), as a

T. N. Sekhara Varma; C. V. Ramakrishnan

1956-01-01

184

A Study of Germination Inhibition in Fruits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method for the extraction and bioassay of natural germination inhibitors, requiring only inexpensive equipment and minimal experimental skill. The method has been used to demonstrate qualitative/quantitative differences in germination inhibitor levels in a variety of different fruits or in different tissues within a single fruit.…

Gill, John

1982-01-01

185

Dynamics of fruiting body morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Myxobacteria build their species-specific fruiting bodies by cell movement and then differentiate spores in specific places within that multicellular structure. New steps in the developmental aggregation of Myxococcus xanthus were discovered through a frame-by-frame analysis of a motion picture. The formation and fate of 18 aggregates were captured in the time-lapse movie. Still photographs of 600 other aggregates were also analyzed. M. xanthus has two engines that propel the gliding of its rod-shaped cells: slime-secreting jets at the rear and retractile pili at the front. The earliest aggregates are stationary masses of cells that look like three-dimensional traffic jams. We propose a model in which both engines stall as the cells' forward progress is blocked by other cells in the traffic jam. We also propose that these blockades are eventually circumvented by the cell's capacity to turn, which is facilitated by the push of slime secretion at the rear of each cell and by the flexibility of the myxobacterial cell wall. Turning by many cells would transform a traffic jam into an elliptical mound, in which the cells are streaming in closed orbits. Pairs of adjacent mounds are observed to coalesce into single larger mounds, probably reflecting the fusion of orbits in the adjacent mounds. Although fruiting bodies are relatively large structures that contain 10(5) cells, no long-range interactions between cells were evident. For aggregation, M. xanthus appears to use local interactions between its cells. PMID:14761986

Kaiser, Dale; Welch, Roy

2004-02-01

186

Influence of between-year variation in the density of Rhus trichocarpa fruits on the removal of fruit by birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruiting phenology and fruit removal patterns of Rhus trichocarpa Miq. (Anacardiaceae) were investigated in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Mature fruits of this species are dispersed by birds. Effects of fruit display size and canopy openness on fruit removal were investigated in years with different fruit densities (i.e., masting and non-masting years). Moreover, effects of increased canopy openness

Noriyuki Osada

2005-01-01

187

Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses  

PubMed Central

Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data.

Chan, Zhulong

2012-01-01

188

A Non-Climacteric Fruit Gene CaMADS-RIN Regulates Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Biosynthesis in Climacteric Fruit  

PubMed Central

MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP) group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin) mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4) and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC) accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1–3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits.

Dong, Tingting; Chen, Guoping; Tian, Shibing; Xie, Qiaoli; Yin, Wencheng; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli

2014-01-01

189

Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.  

PubMed

The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

2003-01-01

190

Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.  

PubMed

With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. PMID:24151998

Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

2013-11-01

191

Fruit pomace compositions and uses thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention is based on the discovery that fruit pomace, the solid waste presscake left behind after fruit processing, can be used as a growth substrate for microorganisms that inhibit plant pathogens or degrade pollutants, or both. A composition can be made from fruit pomace by adding nitrogen, adjusting the pH, inoculating the pomace with a selected microorganism, and allowing the microorganism to grow in the pomace. The pomace composition is then used as a vehicle for suppression of plant pathogens or bioremediation.

1999-03-16

192

6.RP, 6.EE Fruit Salad  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A fruit salad consists of blueberries, raspberries, grapes, and cherries. The fruit salad has a total of 280 pieces of fruit. There are twice as many r...

193

[Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) toxic encephalopathy].  

PubMed

Ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) can induce severe intoxication in subjects with chronic renal failure. Oxalate plays a key role in the neurotoxicity of star fruit. We report the cases of two patients with unknown chronic renal insufficiency who developed severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit. The two patients developed intractable hiccups, vomiting, impaired consciousness and status epilepticus. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed cortical and thalamic hyperintense lesions related to epileptic status. They improved after being submitted to continuous hemofiltration which constitutes the most effective treatment during the acute phase. PMID:18755486

Signaté, A; Olindo, S; Chausson, N; Cassinoto, C; Edimo Nana, M; Saint Vil, M; Cabre, P; Smadja, D

2009-03-01

194

OXIDATION AND PEROXIDATION OF POSTHARVEST BANANA FRUIT DURING SOFTENING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Softening is a characteristic of fruit ripening caused by oxidative action. The oxidized degree of membrane lipids and proteins in relation to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of postharvest banana fruit during softening were investigated. Firmness as an indictor of softening of banana fruit was also measured. Banana fruit firmness decreased markedly after 4 days of storage, which indicated

SHAOYU YANG; XINGUO SU; K. NAGENDRA PRASAD; BAO YANG; GUIPING CHENG; YULONG CHEN; EN YANG; YUEMING JIANG

2008-01-01

195

The positive effect of skin transpiration in peach fruit growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fruit transpiration on the mechanisms driving peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) daily growth was investigated. In peach, fruit water losses increase during the season and might play a key role in determining fruit growth. Skin transpiration was reduced during the cell expansion stage by enclosing fruit in plastic bags fitted with holes. In the first year, diameter

Brunella Morandi; Luigi Manfrini; Pasquale Losciale; Marco Zibordi; Luca Corelli-Grappadelli

2010-01-01

196

Modeling of Dropping Time of Kiwi Fruit in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the dropping time of Hayward kiwi fruit was theoretically formulated and then determined experimentally using water column. Some effective characters of kiwi fruit on rising time were determined using standard methods. The best model for dropping time of Hayward kiwi fruit was found as: with R = 0.96. The difference of fruit density minus the density of

Kamran Kheiralipour; Ahmad Tabatabaeefar; Hossein Mobli; Shahin Rafiee; Ali Rajabipour; Ali Jafari; Esmaieel Mirzaee

2010-01-01

197

Daily Polyphenol Intake in France from Fruit and Vegetables1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were

Pierre Brat; Stephane George; Annick Bellamy; Laure Du Chaffaut; Augustin Scalbert; Louise Mennen; Nathalie Arnault; Marie Josephe Amiot

198

Regulatory Mechanisms of Textural Changes in Ripening Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture changes in ripening fruits influence consumer preference, fruit storability, transportability, shelf-life, and response to pathogen attack. Genetic regulatory factors as well as environmental conditions simultaneously affect texture changes in ripening fruit. Recent physiological and molecular studies provide insights into our knowledge and understanding of events and\\/or factors that contribute to changes in fruit texture, including softening and lignification. The

Xian Li; Changjie Xu; Schuyler S. Korban; Kunsong Chen

2010-01-01

199

Developments and Trends in Fruit Bar Production and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits

C. E. ORREGO; N. SALGADO; C. A. BOTERO

2012-01-01

200

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries  

SciTech Connect

The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

Thomas, P.

1986-01-01

201

Transcript profiling of papaya fruit reveals differentially expressed genes associated with fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit has a short shelf life due to fast ripening induced by ethylene, but little is known about the genetic control of ripening and attributes of fruit quality. Therefore, we identified ripening-related genes affected by ethylene using cDNA-AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of cDNA). Transcript profiling of non-induced and ethylene-induced fruit samples was performed, and 71

João Paulo Fabi; Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli Mendes; Franco Maria Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

2010-01-01

202

Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center: Organic & Integrated Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

203

Fruit size, crop mass, and plant height explain differential fruit choice of primates and birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dispersal by animals is an important ecological process shaping plant regeneration. In general, seed dispersers are highly\\u000a variable and often opportunistic in their fruit choice. Despite much research, the factors that can explain patterns of fruit\\u000a consumption among different animal groups remain contentious. Here, we analysed the interactions between 81 animal species\\u000a feeding on the fruits of 30 plant

Martina Flörchinger; Julius Braun; Katrin Böhning-Gaese; H. Martin Schaefer

2010-01-01

204

Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

Janssen, Bart J; Thodey, Kate; Schaffer, Robert J; Alba, Rob; Balakrishnan, Lena; Bishop, Rebecca; Bowen, Judith H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Ledger, Susan; McArtney, Steve; Pichler, Franz B; Snowden, Kimberley C; Ward, Shayna

2008-01-01

205

Effects of parentage, prior fruit set and pollen load on fruit and seed production in Campanula americana L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a controlled crossing experiment to examine the effects of maternal and paternal parentage, the size of the pollen load, and prior fruit production on the proportion of flowers that set fruit, seed number per fruit and seed weight in a natural population of Campanula americana. Effects due to the maternal parent were large for all measures of fruit

Thomas E. Richardson; Andrew G. Stephenson

1991-01-01

206

Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia  

PubMed Central

While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia.

Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-chang

2014-01-01

207

Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia.  

PubMed

While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia. PMID:25033283

Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-Chang

2014-01-01

208

Integrated Pest Management in Fruits – Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management practices used in several deciduous fruit crops are discussed. The chapter begins by noting the geographic\\u000a origin and approximate date of domestication of several fruit crops and the need for more fruit breeding programs to identify\\u000a and incorporate insect resistant genes into more fruit cultivars. It is assumed that fruit production probably began as small\\u000a plantings where growers

Donn T. Johnson

209

Most Kids Eat Fruit, Veggies Daily: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Most Kids Eat Fruit, Veggies Daily: CDC Survey finds 3 out of 4 are getting ... Samara Joy Nielsen, a nutritional epidemiologist with the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). "We weren' ...

210

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...i) Determine the percent of soluble solids in the optional fruit ingredient by the method for soluble solids referred to in paragraph (d)(3...the weight of any nutritive sweetener solids or other added solids; and (v)...

2014-04-01

211

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...i) Determine the percent of soluble solids in such fruit juice ingredient by the method for soluble solids referred to in paragraph (d)(3...weight of any added saccharine ingredient solids or other added solids; and (v)...

2014-04-01

212

Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 2010 Preliminary Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2010, the Nation's utilized production of the leading noncitrus fruit crops totaled 17.0 million tons, down 6 percent from the 2009 utilized production. Utilized production increased from 2009 for bananas, cultivated blueberries, kiwifruit, nectarines,...

2011-01-01

213

Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook, June 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provides current intelligence and forecasts the effects of changing conditions in the U.S. fruit and tree nuts sector. Topics include production, consumption, shipments, prices received, and more. This seasons Southern Hemisphere blueberry shipments to th...

A. Perez K. Plattner

2012-01-01

214

Biochemistry of fruit softening: an overview.  

PubMed

Softening is a developmentally programmed ripening process, associated with biochemical changes in cell wall fractions involving hydrolytic processes resulting in breakdown of cell-wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectin etc. Various hydrolytic reactions are brought about by polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase, rhamnogalacturonase, cellulase and ?-galactosidase etc. Besides these enzymes, expansin protein also plays an important role in softening. Textural changes during ripening help in determining the shelf life of a fruit. An understanding of these changes would help in formulating procedures for controlling fruit softening vis-à-vis enhancing shelf life of fruits. In the present review an attempt has been made to coalesce recent findings on biochemistry of fruit softening. PMID:23572919

Payasi, Anurag; Mishra, Nagendra Nath; Chaves, Ana Lucia Soares; Singh, Randhir

2009-04-01

215

Fruits and Vegetables: Color Your Plate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the foods they eat. The importance of a variety of fruits and vegetables to a healthy diet is the focus of the experience. Learners read a story book about fruits and vegetables, repeat a helpful riddle, and draw pictures of fruits/vegetables. These drawings are then cut out and taped to "color" a Healthy Choice bulletin board plate. Learners can also taste-test different fruits and vegetables at snack or lunch time. Learners are encouraged to try one new color each day. This activity is featured on pp. 12-13 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2012-06-26

216

Fruits and Vegetables: Color Your Plate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the foods they eat. The importance of a variety of fruits and vegetables to a healthy diet is the focus of the experience. Learners read a story book about fruits and vegetables, repeat a helpful riddle, and draw pictures of fruits/vegetables. These drawings are then cut out and taped to "color" a Healthy Choice bulletin board plate. Learners can also taste-test different fruits and vegetables at snack or lunch time. Learners are encouraged to try one new color each day. This activity is featured on pp. 12-13 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2014-04-30

217

Hydraulic resistance of developing Actinidia fruit  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Xylem flows into most fruits decline as the fruit develop, with important effects on mineral and carbohydrate accumulation. It has been hypothesized that an increase in xylem hydraulic resistance (RT) contributes to this process. This study examined changes in RT that occur during development of the berry of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), identified the region within the fruit where changes were occurring, and tested whether a decrease in irradiance during fruit development caused an increase in RT, potentially contributing to decreased mineral accumulation in shaded fruit. Methods RT was measured using pressure chamber and flow meter methods, the two methods were compared, and the flow meter was also used to partition RT between the pedicel, receptacle and proximal and distal portions of the berry. Dye was used as a tracer for xylem function. Artificial shading was used to test the effect of light on RT, dye entry and mineral accumulation. Key Results RT decreased during the early phase of rapid fruit growth, but increased again as the fruit transitioned to a final period of slower growth. The most significant changes in resistance occurred in the receptacle, which initially contributed 20 % to RT, increasing to 90 % later in development. Dye also ceased moving beyond the receptacle from 70 d after anthesis. The two methods for measuring RT agreed in terms of the direction and timing of developmental changes in RT, but pressure chamber measurements were consistently higher than flow meter estimates of RT, prompting questions regarding which method is most appropriate for measuring fruit RT. Shading had no effect on berry growth but increased RT and decreased dye movement and calcium concentration. Conclusions Increased RT in the receptacle zone coincides with slowing fresh weight growth, reduced transpiration and rapid starch accumulation by the fruit. Developmental changes in RT may be connected to changes in phloem functioning and the maintenance of water potential gradients between the stem and the fruit. The effect of shade on RT extends earlier reports that shading can affect fruit vascular differentiation, xylem flows and mineral accumulation independently of effects on transpiration.

Mazzeo, Mariarosaria; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Clearwater, Michael J.; Montanaro, Giuseppe; Xiloyannis, Cristos

2013-01-01

218

High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits.  

PubMed

Interest in the nonthermal method of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for food preservation has increased recently due to the possibility of inactivating microorganisms and enzymes while maintaining product sensorial and nutritional properties. This work deals with HHP use for the preservation of tropical fruit products. HHP is shown to be a practical approach to obtaining high-quality tropical fruit products that are both nutritive and safe. PMID:20233363

Lopes, Maria Lúcia M; Valente Mesquita, Vera L; Chiaradia, Ana Cristina N; Fernandes, Antônio Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2010-02-01

219

Applied Research - Fruit & Vegetable Screener in CHIS  

Cancer.gov

Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods (e.g. 24-hour recalls). However, validation research suggests that the estimates may be useful to characterize a population's median intakes, to discriminate among individuals or populations with regard to higher vs.

220

Growth, ripening and storage of tomato fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publication IA non-destructive, automated, fast and portable softness measuring device is described. The non-destructivity of the meter was established.Factors that might influence the variation in softness-readings, e.g., temperature, relative humidity, the point of compression on the fruit, sampling in the greenhouse, and fruit size were experimentally investigated.It was concluded that, although all these factors influence the dispersion of the softness

N. Stenvers

1976-01-01

221

Viscoelastic Properties of Tarocco Orange Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the rheometrical behaviour of Tarocco orange fruit was assessed via stress–relaxation testing under constant\\u000a engineering strain (?\\u000a z) in the range of 5–20% of the initial fruit height, each test being prolonged for 15 min and replicated 20 times. The time\\u000a course of the experimental dimensionless relaxation modulus (G*) was typical of a viscoelastic solid and was reconstructed

Mauro Moresi; Federico Pallottino; Corrado Costa; Paolo Menesatti

222

1-Methylcyclopropene treatment affects strawberry fruit decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strawberry cv. Everest fruit were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at various concentrations from 0 to 1000 nl\\/l for 2 h at 20°C. They were then kept individually in closed but vented containers for 3 days in the dark at 20°C and 95–100% relative humidity. 1-MCP treatment tended to maintain strawberry fruit firmness and colour. However, disease development was accelerated in

Yueming Jiang; Daryl C Joyce; Leon A Terry

2001-01-01

223

Papaya Fruit Softening: Role of Hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars show a wide variation in fruit softening rates, a character that determines fruit quality and shelf life, and\\u000a thought to be the result of cell wall degradation. The activity of pectin methylesterase, ?-galactosidase, endoglucanase,\\u000a endoxylanase and xylosidase were correlated with normal softening, though no relationship was found between polygalacturonase\\u000a activity and softening. When softening was

Siwaporn Thumdee; Ashariya Manenoi; Nancy J. Chen; Robert E. Paull

2010-01-01

224

Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.  

PubMed

The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability. PMID:17092536

Paraíba, Lourival Costa

2007-01-01

225

Fleshy-fruits phenology: temporal variability on quantity and quality of animal-dispersed fruits in a cerrado-savanna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time and quantity and quality of fruits and seeds produced are limiting factors for the recruitment of new individuals and maintenance plant species. Furthermore, species that produced fruits dispersed by animals have an important role as a source of food for different groups of animals and relay on them to dispersed their seeds. In most of the Brazilian cerrado-savanna, as in others tropical vegetations, there is a predominance of animal-dispersed species, however there is a lack of information about fruit production and its availability over time on tropical savannas. Beyond the comprehension of fruiting patterns and their relation to biotic and abiotic factors, the fruit production over time can be associated with data on fruit quality such as the fruit color and nutritional content. Those combined informations allow us to evaluate the quantity and quality of resources available in a plant community for frugivores and seed predators. For a cerrado-savanna woody community in southeastern Brazil, subjected to a marked seasonal climate, we intended to describe: (i) fruit availability over time (in number and biomass); (ii) nutritional content; and (ii) fruit color patterns over a year. We counted fortnightly the number of ripe fruits and estimated fruit biomass over a year. For the nutritional content, we evaluated the percentage of protein, lipids and carbohydrates in the pulp or aril of fleshy-fruits. We classified fruit colors in red, black, yellow, dark-red, blue and multicolored (when the fruit display is composed by a combination of two non-green colors or more). We observed a period of the highest fruit production in the wet season, with two peaks of production, and a decline in the dry season, a possible period of scarcity. As expected, fruit nutritional content followed mainly the fruiting pattern in biomass. For lipids there was a different seasonal pattern in which lipid-rich fruits were produced mainly at the end of the wet season while fruits with less lipid were fruiting in the first part of the wet season. Fruits of different colors were not equally produced along the year, with black and red fruits more restricted to the wet season, while yellow and multicolour fruits were also observed in the dry season. The cerrado-savanna woody community showed a relevant fruit production in quantity and quality with a high production in biomass of fruits and mainly in the amount of lipids in the pulp. Despite the strong correlation with the seasonal weather, there were differences in the timing of fruit production according to fruit colors.

de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Cazetta, Eliana; Schaefer, Martin; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

2014-05-01

226

7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Argentina Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Australia (Tasmania only) Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Austria Asparagus, white Asparagus officinalis...

2013-01-01

227

7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Argentina Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Australia (Tasmania only) Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Austria Asparagus, white Asparagus officinalis...

2011-01-01

228

7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.  

...comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Argentina Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Australia (Tasmania only) Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Austria Asparagus, white Asparagus officinalis...

2014-01-01

229

7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Argentina Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Australia (Tasmania only) Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Austria Asparagus, white Asparagus officinalis...

2012-01-01

230

7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Argentina Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Australia (Tasmania only) Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Austria Asparagus, white Asparagus officinalis...

2010-01-01

231

Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

PubMed

We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588

Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

2008-06-01

232

A novel attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens , from fermented host fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemicals from fermented chapote fruit were identified and evaluated as attractants for hungry adult Mexican fruit flies in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays. Twenty-eight chemicals identified from an attractive gas-chromatography fraction were as attractive as a chapote volatiles extract (CV) when mixed in the same amounts found in CV. Sixteen of the chemicals were slightly attractive to flies when tested individually.

D. C. Robacker; A. M. Tarshis Moreno; J. A. Garcia; R. A. Flath

1990-01-01

233

Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss. PMID:21510205

Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

2011-04-01

234

Fruit cuticle lipid composition during development in tomato ripening mutants.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that fruit cuticle is an important contributing factor to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit shelf life and storability. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that variation in fruit cuticle composition may underlie differences in traits such as fruit resistance to desiccation and microbial infection. To gain a better understanding of cuticle lipid composition diversity during fruit ontogeny and to assess if there are common features that correlate with ripening, we examined developmental changes in fruit cuticle wax and cutin monomer composition of delayed-ripening tomato fruit mutants, ripening inhibitor (rin) and non-ripening (nor) and delayed-ripening landrace Alcobaça. Previous reports show that fruit ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production, cell wall degradation and color change are significantly delayed, or do not occur, in these lines. In the study presented here, however, we show that fruits from rin, nor and Alcobaça have cuticle lipid compositions that differ significantly from normal fruits of Ailsa Craig (AC) even at very early stages in fruit development, with continuing impacts throughout ripening. Moreover, rin, nor and the Alcobaça lines show quite different wax profiles from AC and each other throughout fruit development. Although cutin monomer composition differed much less than wax composition among the genotypes, all delayed-ripening lines possessed higher relative amounts of C(18) monomers than AC. Together, these results reveal new genetic associations between cuticle and fruit development processes and define valuable genetic resources to further explore the importance of cuticle in fruit shelf life. PMID:20028482

Kosma, Dylan K; Parsons, Eugene P; Isaacson, Tal; Lü, Shiyou; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Jenks, Matthew A

2010-05-01

235

The positive effect of skin transpiration in peach fruit growth.  

PubMed

The effect of fruit transpiration on the mechanisms driving peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) daily growth was investigated. In peach, fruit water losses increase during the season and might play a key role in determining fruit growth. Skin transpiration was reduced during the cell expansion stage by enclosing fruit in plastic bags fitted with holes. In the first year, diameter changes of bagged and control fruit were precisely monitored for 15 days, and percentage dry matter and soluble solids content were determined during the experiment and at harvest. In the second year, midday fruit water potential, daily patterns of fruit growth and of vascular and transpiration flows were monitored. Bagging reduced fruit daily growth on some days, and negatively affected both fruit dry matter percentage and soluble solids content. Fruit transpiration rate was reduced during the midday hours, thus increasing midday fruit water potential and lowering xylem inflows. In accordance with the Münch hypothesis on traslocation, these conditions likely decreased the necessary gradient needed for the transport of phloem sap to sink organs, as in the afternoon, bagged fruit showed lower phloem inflows. These data suggest that skin transpiration in peach has a positive effect on fruit growth, as it enhances fruit phloem import. PMID:20417987

Morandi, Brunella; Manfrini, Luigi; Losciale, Pasquale; Zibordi, Marco; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca

2010-09-01

236

Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.  

PubMed

Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2013-12-01

237

[Studies on the chemical constituents of rutaceous plants. LXVII. The chemical constituents of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. aculeata Pers). Examination of coumarins using supercritical fluid and soxhlet extraction. Is toddalolactone a genuine natural coumarin?].  

PubMed

It is well known that toddalolactone (1) is a main component of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. aculeata Pers.) (Rutaceae). However, supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction of the plant by using CO2 showed that a main component of the extract was not 1, but aculeatin (2), a coumarin having an epoxy ring on the side chain. The same result was obtained from Soxhlet extraction by using aprotic solvents. On the other hand, Soxhlet extraction by using methanol yielded 13, corresponding to a methanol adduct of 2, as an additional component, which was able to be also produced in 50.2% yield only by heating pure 2 in methanol, indicating that the epoxy ring in 2 can be easily attacked by a weak nucleophile like methanol. These facts strongly suggested that 1, corresponding to the hydrate of 2, was an artefact derived from 2 during extraction. SCF extraction under various conditions was examined in detail by quantitative analyses of 1 and 2 by high performance liquid chromatography and the optimum condition extracting the both components was found to be at 40 degrees C and at 300 kg/cm2. The condition was applied to the plant treated with aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate in order to remove any acidic substances and 1 was still detected in the extract. Thus, it is conclude that 1 should be a genuine natural coumarin but that previous isolation of 1 as a main component resulted in an isolation of an artefact derived from 2. SCF extraction was suggested to be a useful extraction method. PMID:1783986

Ishii, H; Tan, S; Wang, J P; Chen, I S; Ishikawa, T

1991-07-01

238

Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.  

PubMed

Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment. PMID:24744425

Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

2014-04-15

239

Metabolic engineering of aroma components in fruits.  

PubMed

Plants have the ability to produce a diversity of volatile metabolites, which attract pollinators and seed dispersers and strengthen plant defense responses. Selection by plant breeders of traits such as rapid growth and yield leads, in many cases, to the loss of flavor and aroma quality in crops. How the aroma can be improved without affecting other fruit attributes is a major unsolved issue. Significant advances in metabolic engineering directed at improving the set of volatiles that the fruits emit has been aided by the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavor and aroma compounds in some fruits. However, before this technology can be successfully applied to modulate the production of volatiles in different crops, further basic research is needed on the mechanisms that lead to the production of these compounds in plants. Here we review the biosynthesis and function of volatile compounds in plants, and the attempts that have been made to manipulate fruit aroma biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. In addition, we discuss the possibilities that molecular breeding offers for aroma enhancement and the implications of the latest advances in biotechnological modification of fruit flavor and aroma. PMID:24019257

Aragüez, Irene; Valpuesta, Victoriano

2013-10-01

240

Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses.  

PubMed

Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data. PMID:23335934

Chan, Zhulong

2012-01-01

241

A brief history of fruits and frugivores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we briefly review the evolutionary history of the mutualistic interaction between angiosperms that produce fleshy fruits and their major consumers: frugivorous birds and mammals. Fleshy fruits eaten by these vertebrates are widely distributed throughout angiosperm phylogeny. Similarly, a frugivorous diet has evolved independently many times in birds and mammals. Bird dispersal is more common than mammal-dispersal in all lineages of angiosperms, and we suggest that the evolution of bird fruits may have facilitated the evolution of frugivory in primates. The diets of fruit-eating bats overlap less with those of other kinds of frugivorous vertebrates. With a few exceptions, most families producing vertebrate-dispersed fruit appeared substantially earlier in earth history than families of their vertebrate consumers. It is likely that major radiations of these plants and animals have occurred in the past 30 Ma, in part driven by geological changes and also by the foraging behavior of frugivores in topographically complex landscapes. Overall, this mutualistic interaction has had many evolutionary and ecological consequences for tropical plants and animals for most of the Cenozoic Era. Loss of frugivores and their dispersal services will have a strong negative impact on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of tropical and subtropical communities.

Fleming, Theodore H.; John Kress, W.

2011-11-01

242

Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

2013-12-01

243

Interconnected Cavernous Structure of Bacterial Fruiting Bodies  

PubMed Central

The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicellular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to limitations of different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) revealed previously unknown details of the internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative high and low spore density regions. To make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high-density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen in other biological systems such as dictyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions.

Harvey, Cameron W.; Du, Huijing; Xu, Zhiliang; Kaiser, Dale; Aranson, Igor; Alber, Mark

2012-01-01

244

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from olive fruit and leaf.  

PubMed

This work establishes a new procedure for the extraction and analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes, with which fruits and leaves from three Spanish olive cultivars ("Picual", "Hojiblanca", and "Arbequina") has been studied. The leaf contains important amounts of oleanolic acid (3.0-3.5% DW), followed by significant concentrations of maslinic acid and minor levels of ursolic acid, erythrodiol, and uvaol. The abundance and profile of triterpenoids change during the leaf ontogeny. In the fruit, triterpenes are exclusively located in the epicarp at concentrations 30-fold lower than that in the leaf. Maslinic acid is the main triterpenoid, only accompanied of oleanolic acid. Along the ripening the levels of these triterpenes decreased. All the analyzed leaves and fruits come from the same agricultural estate, with identical climate and culturing conditions. For this reason, the found differences could majorly be attributable to the genetic factors of the olive cultivars. PMID:20712364

Guinda, Angeles; Rada, Mirela; Delgado, Teresa; Gutiérrez-Adánez, Pilar; Castellano, José María

2010-09-01

245

What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells.  

PubMed

Fleshy fruit acidity is an important component of fruit organoleptic quality and is mainly due to the presence of malic and citric acids, the main organic acids found in most ripe fruits. The accumulation of these two acids in fruit cells is the result of several interlinked processes that take place in different compartments of the cell and appear to be under the control of many factors. This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development. The effects of agro-environmental factors, such as the source:sink ratio, water supply, mineral nutrition, and temperature, on citric and malic acid accumulation in fruit cells have been reported in several agronomic studies. This review sheds light on the interactions between these factors and the metabolism and storage of organic acids in the cell. PMID:23408829

Etienne, A; Génard, M; Lobit, P; Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Bugaud, C

2013-04-01

246

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual (01/2010-93).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual provides the background, procedures, and reference tables for regulating imported articles of fresh, usable parts of plants such as fruits, stems, leaves, roots, and flowers (herbs and vegetables). These imported ar...

2010-01-01

247

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual (12/2009-91).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual provides the background, procedures, and reference tables for regulating imported articles of fresh, usable parts of plants such as fruits, stems, leaves, roots, and flowers (herbs and vegetables). These imported ar...

2011-01-01

248

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual (08/2004-01).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual provides the background, procedures, and reference tables for regulating imported articles of fresh, usable parts of plants such as fruits, stems, leaves, roots, and flowers (herbs and vegetables). These imported ar...

2004-01-01

249

Increased U.S. Imports of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. imports of fresh fruit and vegetables have increased substantially, particularly since the 1990s. Dominant suppliers are the North American Free Trade Agreement region for fresh vegetables, the Southern Hemisphere countries for off-season fresh fruit...

K. Huang S. Huang

2007-01-01

250

Zinc Treatment for Stabilizing Lightly Processed Fresh Fruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zinc chloride is an effective enzymatic browning inhibitor, and is more effective than calcium compounds in maintaining light color and firm texture of lightly processed fruits and fruit products. The method of this invention comprises treating exposed in...

H. R. Bolin

1988-01-01

251

Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits  

MedlinePLUS

... creative with your baked goods. Add apples, bananas, blueberries, or pears to your favorite muffin recipe for ... a tasty fruit smoothie. For dessert, blend strawberries, blueberries, or raspberries with frozen bananas and 100% fruit ...

252

ConcepTest: Dried Fruit-Rock Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dried (dehydrated) fruit is made by evaporating water under warm temperatures causing the texture of the fruit to change. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. ...

253

How Many Fruits and Vegetables Do You Need?  

MedlinePLUS

... for Everyone Introduction Nutrition Basics Food Groups Water Dietary Fat Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated Fats Carbohydrates Protein Vitamins and Minerals Fruits and Vegetables Nutrition Information How Many Fruits ...

254

Practical Course in Storage and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Evaluation of quality and chemical composition of potatoes, vegetables, fruit, and processed products--Commercial and organoleptic quality evaluation of potatoes, vegetables, fruit, and processed products; Physicochemical methods of evaluating f...

E. P. Shirokov

1968-01-01

255

Eating More Fruit May Lower Your Risk of Lethal Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... had a 25 percent lower risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm than those who ate the least fruit. While ... fruit daily had a lower risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm than those who ate the least amount of ...

256

A fruit quality gene map of Prunus  

PubMed Central

Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the genetic architecture of fruit quality traits in Prunus crops.

2009-01-01

257

Responses of banana fruit to treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine levels of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) exposure needed to prevent ethylene-stimulated banana fruit ripening, characterise responses of ethylene-treated fruit to subsequent treatment with 1-MCP, and to test effects of subsequent ethylene treatment on 1-MCP-treated fruit softening. Fruit softening was measured at 20°C and 90% relative humidity. One hour exposure at 20°C to 1000 nl 1-MCP\\/l essentially eliminated

Yueming Jiang; Daryl C. Joyce; Andrew J. Macnish

1999-01-01

258

Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate  

PubMed Central

Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among-population structuring. These effects could be extended to other plant species dispersed by large vertebrates in present-day, defaunated communities.

Guimaraes, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

2008-01-01

259

Probabilistic Model of Fruit Removal during Vibratory Morello Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity of the fruit removed under specified harvest conditions and duration of the vibratory impact on a fruit-bearing tree are analysed in the present study, considering the harvest duration as a random variable. Defined are basic probabilistic-statistical characteristics of the removal of a fruit set belonging to a fruit-bearing tree subjected to vibrations, thus establishing a probabilistic model describing

L. M Mateev; G. D Kostadinov

2004-01-01

260

Surface characteristics of sweet cherry fruit: stomata-number, distribution, functionality and surface wetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number, distribution, size, and function of stomata and wettability of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit surface were investigated. The number of stomata per fruit differed significantly among sweet cherry cultivars, ranging from 143±26 per fruit in ‘Adriana’ to 2124±142 per fruit in ‘Hedelfinger’. The number of stomata per fruit was not affected by fruit mass (‘Burlat’). For

Stefanie Peschel; Marco Beyer; Moritz Knoche

2003-01-01

261

Genetic control of fruit shape acts prior to anthesis in melon ( Cucumis melo L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic control of fruit shape in Cucumis melo was studied using QTL analysis in two Recombinant Inbred (RI) populations consisting of 163 and 63 individuals, respectively, obtained by crossing the same round-fruited parent with two different elongated-fruit lines. Fruit shape is mainly explained by fruit length in these two populations. Most QTLs for fruit shape and ovary shape detected were

C. Périn; L. Hagen; N. Giovinazzo; D. Besombes; C. Dogimont; M. Pitrat

2002-01-01

262

Insecticidal activity of Citrus aurantium fruit, leaf, and shoot extracts against adult olive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Solvent extracts of differing polarity from Citrus aurantium (L.) (Rutaceae) fruit, leaves, and shoots were evaluated for biological activity against adults of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using a petri dish residual exposure bioassay, we found that the petroleum ether extract from fruit alone showed insecticidal activity against the flies. The extract of the three fruit tissues (flavedo [peel], albedo, and flesh) indicated that bioactivity was limited to the flavedo, and this activity was significantly higher than that of the whole fruit extract. The most effective extract was obtained when fresh flavedo was used, whereas extracts of oven-dried flavedo were inactive. Fruit maturity also affected bioactivity; extracts of ripe fruit were more effective than those of unripe fruit. Our results suggest that C. aurantium flavedo contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against B. oleae adults. PMID:17849873

Siskos, E P; Konstantopoulou, M A; Mazomenos, B E; Jervis, M

2007-08-01

263

Spatial Organization of Myxococcus xanthus during Fruiting Body Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcinematography was used to examine fruiting body development of Myxococcus xanthus. Wild-type cells progress through three distinct phases: a quiescent phase with some motility but little aggregation (0 to 8 h), a period of vigorous motility leading to raised fruiting bodies (8 to 16 h), and a period of maturation during which sporulation is initiated (16 to 48 h). Fruiting

Patrick D. Curtis; Rion G. Taylor; Roy D. Welch; Lawrence J. Shimkets

2007-01-01

264

Comparison of antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was undertaken to explore the potential of fruit waste materials as sources of powerful natural antioxidants. The peels of eight kinds of fruits commonly consumed and grown in Thailand were used. The ethanolic fruit peel extracts were subjected to the scavenging tests of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Results from both assays were in good agreement that the top

Siriporn Okonogi; Chadarat Duangrat; Songyot Anuchpreeda; Suganya Tachakittirungrod; Sombat Chowwanapoonpohn

2007-01-01

265

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF TOTAL MANGOSTINS IN GARCINIA MANGOSTANA FRUIT RIND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (mangosteen) is very popular in Thailand. The fruit rind contains mangostins of which a major constituent is ?-mangostin. The fruit rind extract and mangostin have been known to possess antibacterial causing acne. In Thailand, the extract is popularly used in herbal cosmetics for anti-acne effect. Thus quality assessment of this plant needs to be

Werayut Pothitirat; Wandee Gritsanapan

2008-01-01

266

Composition of the cuticle of developing sweet cherry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of wax and cutin from developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit was studied by GC–MS between 22 and 85 days after full bloom (DAFB). In this and our previous study, fruit mass and surface area increased in a sigmoidal pattern with time, but mass of the cuticular membrane (CM) per unit fruit surface area decreased. On a whole

Stefanie Peschel; Rochus Franke; Lukas Schreiber; Moritz Knoche

2007-01-01

267

Fruit Juice Intake Is Not Related to Children's Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Excessive fruit juice intake (>12 ounces\\/day) has been reported to be associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children. Objective. To confirm whether excess fruit juice in- take was associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children, we assessed growth parameters and fruit juice intake in 105 white children, ages 24 to 36 months. Methodology. Mothers were

Jean D. Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; James Moran III; Kelly Houck; Frances Coletta

1999-01-01

268

Some physical and nutritional properties of Juniperus drupacea fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the physical and nutritional properties of Juniperus drupacea fruit, which is used to produce pekmez (a traditional Turkish fruit concentrate), is necessary for the design of equipment for harvesting, transporting, sorting, cleaning, separating, smashing, extracting and processing it into different food. In this research, the nutritional properties of J. drupacea fruit and its concentrate were determined, and the

Ibrahim Akinci; Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz; Onder Kabas; Murad Canakci

2004-01-01

269

Opalescent and Cloudy Fruit Juices: Formation and Particle Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Ronald Wrolstad, Department of Food Science and Technology, Wiegand Hall 100, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-6692 Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate

Tom Beveridge

2002-01-01

270

Ethylene-induced proliferation of avocado fruit lenticel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene enhances the proliferation of lenticels of avocado fruit stored in polyethylene bags under low oxygen concentration and high humidity; CO2 has no effect in this respect. The effect of ethylene is exerted both on fruits still attached to the tree and on those already harvested. Photographs of fruits of three avocado cultivars with proliferated lenticels and scanning electron micrographs

Giora Zauberman; Naomi Kislev; Asia Weksler; Zvi Shoshani; Yoram Fuchs

1989-01-01

271

A survey of fruit machine gambling in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit machine gambling among children and young people in the United Kingdom has attracted increasing interest. Since 1985 a number of questionnaire surveys have been conducted attempting to assess the incidence of adolescent fruit machine use and to explore its relationship with delinquency. Data yielded by these surveys have been somewhat inconsistent. Estimates of the prevalence of fruit machine gambling

Justine Huxley; Douglas Carroll

1992-01-01

272

Novel System for Monitoring and Controlling the Papaya Fruit Fly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus for monitoring and controlling the papaya fruit fly are described. The novel system is a combination of the male papaya fruit fly sex pheromone, 2-methyl-6-vinyl-pyrazine, and a fruit mimic. Chemical synthesis of the phenomena is de...

P. J. Landolt R. R. Heath H. R. Agee

1988-01-01

273

Modeling of clarified tropical fruit juice deacidification by electrodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodialysis (ED) using two-stack configurations with homopolar or bipolar membranes was investigated for deacidification of tropical fruit juices (passion fruit, mulberry, naranjilla). The objective was to develop a mathematical treatment for ED to predict the behavior of a fruit juice at industrial scale from ED performances at laboratory scale. From parameters such as current efficiency, electric resistance of the anion

Edwin Vera; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Manuel Dornier; Jenny Ruales

2009-01-01

274

Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.  

PubMed

More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

2010-01-27

275

Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that fruit consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through blood pressure (BP)–lowering effects; little is known on the independent effect of raw fruit and fruit juice on BP. Objective: The objective was to quantify associations of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with BP by using cross-sectional data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) of 4680 men and women aged 40–59 y from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Design: During 4 visits, 8 BP, four 24-h dietary recalls, and two 24-h urine samples were collected. Country-specific multivariate-controlled linear regression coefficients, including adjustment for urinary sodium excretion, were estimated and pooled, weighted by inverse of their variance. Results: The average total raw fruit consumption varied from a mean ± SD of 52 ± 65 g/1000 kcal in the United States to 68 ± 70 g/1000 kcal in China. Individual raw fruit intake was not associated with BP in pooled analyses for all countries or in participants from Western countries, although a positive association with diastolic BP was observed in East Asian participants (per 50 g/1000 kcal; 0.37 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.71). Positive relationships with diastolic BP were found for citrus fruit intake in Western consumers (per 25 g/1000 kcal; 0.47 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.81) and for apple intake in East Asian consumers (0.40 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.78). Among East Asian banana consumers, banana intake was inversely associated with diastolic BP (?1.01 mm Hg; 95% CI: ?1.88, ?0.02). Fruit juice intake, which was negligible in Asia, was not related to BP in Western countries. Conclusion: Consistent associations were not found between raw fruit and fruit juice consumption of individuals and BP. This observational study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271.

Oude Griep, Linda M; Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Van Horn, Linda; Steffen, Lyn M; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okuda, Nagako; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Elliott, Paul

2013-01-01

276

Differential gene expression in ripening banana fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

During banana (Musa acuminata L.) fruit ripening ethylene pro- duction triggers a developmental cascade that is accompanied by a massive conversion of starch to sugars, an associated burst of re- spiratory activity, and an increase in protein synthesis. Differential screening of cDNA libraries representing banana pulp at ripening stages 1 and 3 has led to the isolation of 11 nonredundant

Stephanie K. Clendennen; Cregory D. May

1997-01-01

277

Pregnane glycosides from fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the mesocarp of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits, two pregnane glycosides were isolated. One is new and identified as pregn-5-ene-3?,16?,20(R)-triol 3-O-(2,6-di-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-d-glucopyranoside (balagyptin), while the other is known and assigned as pregn-5-ene-3?,16?,20(R)-triol 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside.

M. S. Kamel; A. Koskinen

1995-01-01

278

Sink Metabolism in Tomato Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

Fruit of domesticated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) accumulate primarily glucose and fructose, whereas some wild tomato species, including Lycopersicon chmielewskii, accumulate sucrose. Genetic analysis of progeny resulting from a cross between L. chmielewskii and L. esculentum indicated that the sucrose-accumulating trait could be stably transferred and that the trait was controlled by the action of one or two recessive genes. Biochemical analysis of progeny resulting from this cross indicated that the sucrose-accumulating trait was associated with greatly reduced levels of acid invertase, but normal levels of sucrose synthase. Invertase from hexose-accumulating fruit was purified and could be resolved into three isoforms by chromatofocusing, each with isoelectric points between 5.1 and 5.5. The invertase isoforms showed identical polypeptide profiles on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, consisting of a primary 52 kilodalton polypeptide and two lower molecular mass polypeptides that appear to be degradation products of the 52 kilodalton polypeptide. The three invertase isoforms were indistinguishable based on pH, temperature, and substrate concentration dependence. Immunological detection of invertase indicated that the low level of invertase in sucrose-accumulating fruit was due to low levels of invertase protein rather than the presence of an invertase inhibitor. Based on comparison of genetic and biochemical data we speculate that a gene either encoding tomato fruit acid invertase or one required for its expression, plays an important role in determining sucrose accumulation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 10

Yelle, Serge; Chetelat, Roger T.; Dorais, Martin; DeVerna, Joseph W.; Bennett, Alan B.

1991-01-01

279

Making Prints From Fruits and Vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students may be familiar with eating fruits and vegetables, but have they ever taken a really close look at the anatomy of those specimens? In this activity, students have an opportunity to explore aspects of the internal and external anatomy of produce b

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

280

The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. PMID:23881410

Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

2014-01-15

281

Applied Research - Fruit & Vegetable Screener in CHIS  

Cancer.gov

The Fruit and Vegetable Screener used in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) was derived from the Multifactor Screener in the 2000 NHIS Cancer Control Supplement (CCS). The CHIS screener asks respondents for information about how frequently they consume foods in eight categories. No portion size questions are asked.

282

Modeling Condensation and Evaporation on Fruit Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rewarming of fruits and vegetables after cooling is characterized by heat and mass transfer processes, which leads commonly to condensation of water on the produce surface at temperatures below the dew point. This effect may affect the produce quality due to microbial growth at unfavorable environmental conditions. The amount of condensed water is a function of the produce surface temperature

K. Gottschalk; M. Linke; Cs. Mészáros; I. Farkas

2007-01-01

283

Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. I. Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiologic literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and human cancer at a variety of sites is reviewed systematically. A total of 13 ecologic studies, nine cohort studies, and 115 case-control studies are included. Cancer of all sites, cancers of lung, breast, colon, rectum, esophagus, larynx, oral cavity and pharynx, stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, ovary, endometrium, cervix,

Kristi A. Steinmetz; John D. Potter

1991-01-01

284

Lignans from the fruits of Forsythia suspensa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the fruits of Forsythia suspensa Vahl has led to the isolation of two new monoepoxylignans, forsythialan A (1) and B (2), together with a known tetrahydrofurofuran lignan, phillyrin (3). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activities of these lignans have been assessed by evaluating their

Xiang-Lan Piao; Moon Hee Jang; Jian Cui; Xiangshu Piao

2008-01-01

285

Furanoflavonoid glycosides from Pongamia pinnata fruits.  

PubMed

Pongamia pinnata fruits afforded three new furanoflavonoid glucosides, pongamosides A-C (1-3), and a new flavonol glucoside, pongamoside D (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies. This is the first time that furanoflavone glucosides have been found as naturally occurring compounds. PMID:15081295

Ahmad, Ghufran; Yadav, Prem P; Maurya, Rakesh

2004-04-01

286

Applied Research - Fruit & Vegetable Screener in CHIS  

Cancer.gov

Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

287

Method for Coloring Fruits and Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The color of fruits and vegetables is enhanced by applying thereto a compound which has the ability to cause the accumulation of lycopene in the tissues of the treated produce. Examples of compounds used in accordance with the invention are: 4-(beta-(diet...

H. Yokoyama W. J. Hsu S. M. Poling

1975-01-01

288

Manipulating avocado fruit ripening with 1-methylcyclopropene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit have focussed mainly on improving storage life by reducing the severity of disorders causing discolouration of the flesh. Development of 1-MCP and ethylene treatments, which also help control the time to reach the eating ripe stage, may confer additional practical benefits. In this context, the current study investigated the

Matthew F. Adkins; Peter J. Hofman; Barbara A. Stubbings; Andrew J. Macnish

2005-01-01

289

Attractant for Male Mediterranean Fruit Fly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention concerns a method for attracting male Mediterranean fruit flies. The attractant substance is methyl (E)-6-nonenoate and it may be used alone or in combination with (E)-6-nonen-1-o1 and mixtures of fatty acids to enhance its activity and long...

K. Ohinata M. Jacobson S. Nakagawa

1978-01-01

290

Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

1980-06-01

291

The Fruit Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating plenty of servings of fruit. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and…

Frost, Helen

292

Monohybrid Fruit Fly Crosses: A Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment uses a computer simulation of fruit fly genetics to have students design and interpret monohybrid crosses of a trait with simple dominant and recessive alleles. Detailed instructions with animated examples, background material, a sample report and a rubric are included.

Bell, Jeff

293

Phloem bleeding from legume fruits—A technique for study of fruit nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleeding from phloem of cut distal tips of attached fruits was demonstrated in the genera Spartium, Genista, Lupinus and Jacksonia. Bleeding occurred over a 2–25 min period enabling 0.5–10 µl of sap to be collected from a fruit. A detailed study of Lupinus albus L. showed that exudation rate declined exponentially after cutting, but without any change with time in

J. S. Pate; P. J. Sharkey; O. A. M. Lewis

1974-01-01

294

Availability, Accessibility, and Preferences for Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables Influence Children's Dietary Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among home fruit (F), 100% fruit juice (J), and vegetable (V) availability and accessibility separately, as reported by 225 fourth- through sixth-grade children and their parents (n = 88), separately, and FJV preferences to child-reported FJV consumption were assessed. For girls, child-reported FJV availability and accessibility accounted for 35% of the variability in FJV consumption. Child-reported availability and

Karen Weber Cullen; Tom Baranowski; Emiel Owens; Tara Marsh; Latroy Rittenberry; Carl de Moor

2003-01-01

295

Solubilisation of tomato fruit pectins by ascorbate: a possible non-enzymic mechanism of fruit softening.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that endogenous ascorbate, released into the apoplast by membrane permeabilisation early in fruit ripening, could promote the solubilisation and depolymerisation of polysaccharides, and thus contribute to fruit softening. In vitro, ascorbate (1 mM), especially in the presence of traces of either Cu2+ or H2O2, solubilised up to 40% of the total pectin from the alcohol-insoluble residue of mature-green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit. Solubilisation was due to the action of ascorbate-generated hydroxyl radicals (*OH), which can cause non-enzymic scission of polysaccharides. The pectins solubilised by ascorbate in vitro were polydisperse (4-1,000 kDa), partially esterified and galactose-rich. Excised pieces of living tomato fruit released ascorbate into the medium (apoplast); the ability of different tissues to do this increased in the order pericarp < placenta < locule. In all three tissues, but especially in the locule, the ability to release ascorbate increased during ripening. The Cu content of each tissue also increased during ripening, whereas neither Fe nor Mn showed a similar trend. We suggest that progressively increasing levels of Cu and ascorbate in the fruit apoplast would lead to elevated *OH production there and thus to non-enzymic scission of pectins during ripening. Such scission could contribute to the natural softening of the fruit. De-esterified citrus pectin was more susceptible to ascorbate-induced scission in vitro than methylesterified pectin, suggesting a possible new significance for pectin methylesterase activity in fruit ripening. In conclusion, non-enzymic mechanisms of fruit softening should be considered alongside the probable roles of hydrolases, xyloglucan endotransglucosylases and expansins. PMID:12838420

Dumville, Jo C; Fry, Stephen C

2003-10-01

296

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

Daniel García

1998-01-01

297

The making of a bell pepper-shaped tomato fruit: identification of loci controlling fruit morphology in Yellow Stuffer tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heirloom tomato cultivar Yellow Stuffer produces fruit that are similar in shape and structure to fruit produced by the bell pepper varieties of garden pepper. To determine the genetic basis of this extreme fruit type in tomato, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on an F2 population derived from a cross between Yellow Stuffer and the related species,

E. van der Knaap; S. D. Tanksley

2003-01-01

298

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau ( Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and\\/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The

Loveness K. Nyanga; Martinus J. R. Nout; Tendekayi H. Gadaga; Bart Theelen; Teun Boekhout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2007-01-01

299

Validation of a solid-phase microextraction method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in fruits and fruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (diazinon, fenitrothion, fenthion, quinalphos, triazophos, phosalon and pyrazophos) in fruit (pears) and fruit juice samples was developed and validated. The samples were diluted with water, extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) using a flame photometric detector in phosphorous mode. Limits of detection of the method for fruit

Ana Lu??sa Simpl??cio; Lu??s Vilas Boas

1999-01-01

300

Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.  

PubMed

Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities. PMID:23210991

Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

2012-12-01

301

Cooccurrence of latex and fruit allergies.  

PubMed

Clinically significant allergic reactions to latex have recently been reported with increasing frequency. Most instances of latex allergy have been noted in adults who are atopic and are in the healthcare or latex manufacturing industries. Relatively few cases of latex allergy occur in pediatric patients and in these an atopic diathesis is usually also recognized. The exception are the spina bifida children who have frequent mucosal exposure to latex medical items. The cooccurrence of hypersensitivity to certain fruits in latex-allergic patients was reported by M'Rahai et al. in 1991, and this observation has since been amply confirmed in the literature. The objective was to describe a 6-year-old Caucasian boy without known atopy who presented with a history of cutaneous and respiratory reactions to banana and avocado and from whom a history of adverse reactions to common latex products was also elicited. The results of the allergy evaluation of this patient are presented. MEDLINE was searched for reports in English of latex allergy and of latex plus fruit allergy in adults and children from 1979 through 1995. In the patient presented here, immediate hypersensitivity to latex and fruit was assayed by RAST and skin tests. The RAST to latex was strongly positive, equivocal to avocado and chestnut, and negative to banana and kiwi fruit. The prick skin test was positive for banana, avocado and chestnut. Clinically significant allergy to latex and to certain fruit cooccurs. If one component of the dyad is present, the other should be sought and evaluated. PMID:9134065

Freeman, G L

1997-01-01

302

Exposure to captan in fruit growing.  

PubMed

This study characterized occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growing in The Netherlands to assess determinants of exposure. Large-scale exposure surveys were carried out during application of pesticides and during reentry activities. Data on contamination inside the fruit growers' homes were obtained, and total potential exposure for the fruit grower and his family during the growing and harvesting season was estimated. Repeated measurements on the same subject were collected to study components of exposure variability. Relative contribution of the respiratory route and different skin sites to total exposure were assessed. Captan was used as a marker for exposure. Inhalable dust exposure was measured with a personal monitor and potential dermal exposure with skin pads and hand rinsing. Dislodgeable foliar residue was measured by taking leaf punches. For respiratory exposure and potential dermal exposure, differences were observed between several tasks. Workers were categorized according to tasks performed depending on the exposure measure(s) (e.g., hands, forehead, inhalable dust) considered relevant for a specific study purpose. In general, within-worker variability of all exposure measurements was larger than between-worker variability. Variability in dermal exposure on the same body location was small relative to variability between different body locations. Differences in total exposure, including exposure inside the home, between the fruit grower and the son were small. Exposure of the wife was two to three times lower than for the fruit grower and the son. As exposure per unit of time was in the same order of magnitude for different tasks, individual time spent on these tasks is crucial for estimating total potential exposure. Repeated measurements are necessary to estimate individual exposure accurately because of the large within-worker variability. PMID:9530801

de Cock, J; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Boleij, J S; Hoek, F; Wegh, H; Tjoe Ny, E

1998-03-01

303

Flower bud differentiation and development in fruiting and non-fruiting shoots in relation to fruit set in apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situations of high flower bud drop and low fruit set without apparent causes are common in fruit trees. The term flower quality\\u000a has been coined to explain differences among flowers in their capacity to set fruit, but the causes underpinning these differences\\u000a are largely unknown. This lack of knowledge is based on the fact that these differences are established a

Carme Julian; Maria Herrero; Javier Rodrigo

2010-01-01

304

Attraction of Phlebotomus papatasi to common fruit in the field.  

PubMed

Sand flies have been reported feeding on various plant organs including stems, leaves, and flowers but the attraction of sand flies to sugar-rich fruits has received little attention. In this study, we tested 24 commercially available fruits for their attractiveness to sand flies, and found that the top three attractive fruits were nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina), cactus fruit, (Opuntia ficus-indica), and guava (Psidium guajava). These fruits were fed upon equally by both males and females. There were slight differences in the order of preference to the less-attractive fruits by males and females, but these were not statistically significant. The knowledge of fruit preference may help to improve existing methods that use plant phytochemicals to attract and kill biting flies. PMID:21366776

Junnila, Amy; Müller, Günter C; Schlein, Yosef

2011-03-01

305

Abscisic acid triggers whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms to increase fruit calcium uptake and prevent blossom end rot development in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

Calcium (Ca) uptake into fruit and leaves is dependent on xylemic water movement, and hence presumably driven by transpiration and growth. High leaf transpiration is thought to restrict Ca movement to low-transpiring tomato fruit, which may increase fruit susceptibility to the Ca-deficiency disorder, blossom end rot (BER). The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of reduced leaf transpiration in abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants on fruit and leaf Ca uptake and BER development. Tomato cultivars Ace 55 (Vf) and AB2 were grown in a greenhouse environment under Ca-deficit conditions and plants were treated weekly after pollination with water (control) or 500 mg l(-1) ABA. BER incidence was completely prevented in the ABA-treated plants and reached values of 30-45% in the water-treated controls. ABA-treated plants had higher stem water potential, lower leaf stomatal conductance, and lower whole-plant water loss than water-treated plants. ABA treatment increased total tissue and apoplastic water-soluble Ca concentrations in the fruit, and decreased Ca concentrations in leaves. In ABA-treated plants, fruit had a higher number of Safranin-O-stained xylem vessels at early stages of growth and development. ABA treatment reduced the phloem/xylem ratio of fruit sap uptake. The results indicate that ABA prevents BER development by increasing fruit Ca uptake, possibly by a combination of whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms. PMID:21282326

de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Shackel, Kenneth A; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

2011-05-01

306

How fruit developmental biology makes use of flow cytometry approaches.  

PubMed

Fleshy fruit species such as tomato are important because of their nutritional and economic value. Several stages of fruit development such as ovary formation, fruit set, and fruit maturation have already been the subject of many developmental studies. However, fruit growth per se has been much less addressed. Fruit growth like all plant organs depends upon the developmental processes of cell division and cell expansion. The activity of cell divisions sets the number of cells that will compose the fruit; the cell expansion activity then determines its final size. Among the various mechanisms that may influence the determination of cell size, endopolyploidy by the means of endoreduplication, i.e. genome amplification in the absence of mitosis, appears to be of great importance in fleshy fruits. In tomato fruit, endoreduplication is associated with DNA-dependent cell expansion: cell size can reach spectacular levels such as hundreds of times its initial size (e.g. >0.5 mm in diameter), with as much as a 256-fold increase in nuclear DNA content. Using tomato fruit development as a model, recent investigations combining the use of flow cytometry, cellular imaging and molecular analyses have provided new data in favor of the long-standing karyoplasmic ratio theory, stating that cells tend to adjust their cytoplasmic volume to the nuclear DNA content. By establishing a highly structured cellular system where multiple physiological functions are integrated, endoreduplication acts as a morphogenetic factor supporting cell growth during tomato fruit development. In the context of plant breeding, deciphering the mechanisms controlling fruit growth, in particular those connecting the process of nuclear endoreduplication with modulation of gene expression, the regulation of cell size and final fruit size and composition, is necessary to understand better the establishment of fleshy fruit quality traits. PMID:24273206

Pirrello, Julien; Bourdon, Matthieu; Cheniclet, Catherine; Bourge, Mickaël; Brown, Spencer C; Renaudin, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie; Chevalier, Christian

2014-02-01

307

Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.  

PubMed

The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence mechanisms. These food-health concepts would probably spur the large-scale oil palm (and monoculture) plantations, which are already seen to be a major cause of deforestation and replacement of diverse ecosystems in many countries. However, the environmental advantages of palm phytonutrients are that they are prepared from the readily available raw material from palm oil milling processes. Palm fruit, one of only a few fatty fruits, is likely to have an increasingly substantiated place in human health, not only through the provision of acceptable dietary fats, but also its characteristic protective phytonutrients. PMID:14506002

Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

2003-01-01

308

Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.  

PubMed

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit <1 cm3 shortly after fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard. PMID:17195675

Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

2006-12-01

309

Reversible Inhibition of Tomato Fruit Gene Expression at High Temperature (Effects on Tomato Fruit Ripening).  

PubMed

The reversible inhibition of three ripening-related processes by high-temperature treatment (38[deg]C) was examined in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Daniella) fruit. Ethylene production, color development, and softening were inhibited during heating and recovered afterward, whether recovery took place at 20[deg]C or fruit were first held at chilling temperature (2[deg]C) after heating and then placed at 20[deg]C. Ethylene production and color development proceeded normally in heated fruit after 14 d of chilling, whereas the unheated fruit had delayed ethylene production and uneven color development. Levels of mRNA for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, phytoene synthase, and polygalacturonase decreased dramatically during the heat treatment but recovered afterward, whereas the mRNA for HSP17 increased during the high-temperature treatment and then decreased when fruit were removed from heat. As monitored by western blots, the HSP17 protein disappeared from fruit tissue after 3 d at 20[deg]C but remained when fruit were held at 2[deg]C. The persistence of heat-shock proteins at low temperature may be relevant to the protection against chilling injury provided by the heat treatment. Protein levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase and polygalacturonase also did not closely follow the changes in their respective mRNAs. This implied both differences in relative stability and turnover rates of mRNA compared to protein and nontranslation of the message that accumulated in low temperature. The results suggest that high temperature inhibits ripening by inhibiting the accumulation of ripening-related mRNAs. Ripening processes that depend on continuous protein synthesis including ethylene production, lycopene accumulation, and cell-wall dissolution are thereby diminished. PMID:12226253

Lurie, S.; Handros, A.; Fallik, E.; Shapira, R.

1996-04-01

310

Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Spore formation by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has long been studied as a model for cellular differentiation, but predominantly as a single cell. When analyzed within the context of highly structured, surface-associated communities (biofilms), spore formation was discovered to have heretofore unsuspected spatial organization. Initially, motile cells differentiated into aligned chains of attached cells that eventually produced aerial structures, or fruiting bodies, that served as preferential sites for sporulation. Fruiting body formation depended on regulatory genes required early in sporulation and on genes evidently needed for exopolysaccharide and surfactin production. The formation of aerial structures was robust in natural isolates but not in laboratory strains, an indication that multicellularity has been lost during domestication of B. subtilis. Other microbial differentiation processes long thought to involve only single cells could display the spatial organization characteristic of multicellular organisms when studied with recent natural isolates. PMID:11572999

Branda, S S; González-Pastor, J E; Ben-Yehuda, S; Losick, R; Kolter, R

2001-09-25

311

Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Spore formation by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has long been studied as a model for cellular differentiation, but predominantly as a single cell. When analyzed within the context of highly structured, surface-associated communities (biofilms), spore formation was discovered to have heretofore unsuspected spatial organization. Initially, motile cells differentiated into aligned chains of attached cells that eventually produced aerial structures, or fruiting bodies, that served as preferential sites for sporulation. Fruiting body formation depended on regulatory genes required early in sporulation and on genes evidently needed for exopolysaccharide and surfactin production. The formation of aerial structures was robust in natural isolates but not in laboratory strains, an indication that multicellularity has been lost during domestication of B. subtilis. Other microbial differentiation processes long thought to involve only single cells could display the spatial organization characteristic of multicellular organisms when studied with recent natural isolates.

Branda, Steven S.; Gonzalez-Pastor, Jose Eduardo; Ben-Yehuda, Sigal; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

2001-01-01

312

Effect of salt stress on tomato fruit antioxidant systems depends on fruit development stage.  

PubMed

The effects of different levels of salt stress on the oxidative parameters (H2O2 and MDA), the total pool sizes of ascorbate, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the activities and relative transcript levels of the enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle; ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) were studied in fruits of tomato. Plants were treated by three concentrations of NaCl (50, 100 and 150 mM) and fruits at different development stages were harvested after 3 and 6 days of stress. The concentrations of ascorbate (AsA) and dehydroascorbate (DHA) generally changed with salt stress treatments. Moreover, changes in SOD and CAT activities and DHAR, MDHAR, APX and GR activities and relative transcript levels were dependent on the fruit development stage and the intensity and duration of salt stress. These results suggest that the response of antioxidant systems of tomato fruits to oxidative stress induced by salt stress treatments was different depending on the fruit development stage. PMID:24554835

Murshed, Ramzi; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Sallanon, Huguette

2014-01-01

313

Spotting fruit versus picking fruit as the selective advantage of human colour vision  

PubMed Central

The spatiochromatic properties of the red–green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy) is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy). We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and “normal” trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference) of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach.

Bompas, Aline; Kendall, Grace; Sumner, Petroc

2013-01-01

314

Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology  

PubMed Central

In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970–2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function.

Kauserud, Havard; Heegaard, Einar; Buntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Damon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Norden, Jenni; H?iland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C.

2012-01-01

315

Biotechnological Potential of Fruit Processing Industry Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit juices and derived products such as nectars and drinks have experienced growing popularity within the last years. Orange\\u000a waste, apple pomace and grape pomace are the solid by-products derived from processing of oranges, apples and grapes, respectively.\\u000a Due to increasing production, their disposal represents a growing problem since the plant material is usually prone to microbial\\u000a spoilage, thus limiting

Diomi Mamma; Evangelos Topakas; Christina Vafiadi; Paul Christakopoulos

316

Fruit trees in a Malaysian rain forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inventory was made of 50 ha of primary lowland rain forest in Peninsular Malaysia, in which ca. 340,000 trees 1 cm dbh\\u000a or larger were measured and identified to species. Out of a total plot tree flora of 820 species, 76 species are known to\\u000a bear edible fruit. Especially diverse were the wild species of mango (Mangifera, Anacardiaceae, 12

L. G. Saw; J. V. LaFrankie; K. M. Kochummen; S. K. Yap

1991-01-01

317

Pregnane glycosides from fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca.  

PubMed

From the mesocarp of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits, two pregnane glycosides were isolated. One is new and identified as pregn-5-ene-3 beta,16 beta,20(R)-triol 3-O-(2,6-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (balagyptin), while the other is known and assigned as pregn-5-ene-3 beta,16 beta,20(R)-triol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:8590640

Kamel, M S; Koskinen, A

1995-12-01

318

Market diseases of fresh fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bruising, crushing, and other mechanical injuries cause very serious losses during the handling, transportation, storage,\\u000a and marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables. Spoilage caused by molds and bacteria exacts a heavy toll. Freezing, chilling\\u000a injury, and various physiological disorders add to the consumer cost of living. Careful handling, proper refrigeration, good\\u000a marketing practices, and the use of safe, approved chemical

B. A. Friedmans

1958-01-01

319

Limonoids from the fruits of Khaya ivorensis.  

PubMed

Two new limonoids, namely 14,15-didehydroruageanin A (1) and 3-O-methyl- butyrylseneganolide A (2), were isolated from the fruits of Khaya ivorensis along with six known limonoids: seneganolide A (3), 1,3-dideacetylkhivorin (4), 7-deacetylkhivorin (5), 3-deacetylkhivorin (6), 1-deacetylkhivorin (7), and 3-deacetyl-7-oxokhivorin (8). All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines. PMID:24609020

Ji, Kai-Long; Liao, Shang-Gao; Zheng, Xiao-Ling; Na, Zhi; Hu, Hua-Bin; Zhang, Ping; Xu, You-Kai

2014-01-01

320

SPRAY DRYING OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spray dryers were tested to obtain powders from concentrated juices of blackcurrant, apricot, raspberry, with different maltodextrins as drying-aid agents. Composition of fruit juices and dextrose equivalent for maltodextrin are considered. Best results were obtained for a ratio juice to maltodextrin DE6 of 65\\/35 for blackcurrant, of 60\\/40 for apricot and 55\\/45 for raspberry, and low air temperatures (160–90°C).

B. R. Bhandari; A. Senoussi; E. D. Dumoulin; A. Lebert

1993-01-01

321

Regulatory peptides in fruit fly midgut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory peptides were immunolocalized in the midgut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Endocrine cells were found to produce six different peptides: allatostatins A, B and C, neuropeptide F, diuretic hormone 31,\\u000a and the tachykinins. Small neuropeptide-F (sNPF) was found in neurons in the hypocerebral ganglion innervating the anterior\\u000a midgut, whereas pigment-dispersing factor was found in nerves on the most posterior

Jan A. Veenstra; Hans-Jürgen Agricola; Azza Sellami

2008-01-01

322

[Fruits and vegetables: can they be dangerous?].  

PubMed

Fruits, vegetables and spices are found in our everyday food consumption. However, some contain potentially toxic substances, particularly when consumed in large amounts. These risks may be greater for certain susceptible individuals and may depend on how the ingredients are prepared. Food poisoning is generally speaking self-limiting, but may be life threatening. This article discusses the possible toxic effects of certain common foodstuffs, as described in the current medical literature. PMID:24024394

Pasquier, M; Dami, F; Yersin, B

2013-08-14

323

Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits  

PubMed Central

A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding.

Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J. Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Wang, Z. Jim; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

2011-01-01

324

Lipoxygenase activity in olive ( Olea europaea ) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was designed to characterize lipoxygenase activity in olive fruit pulp, in order to determine its significance\\u000a in the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma. Lipoxygenase activity has been detected in particulate fractions of enzyme\\u000a extracts from olive pulp subjected to differential centrifugation. The activity in different membrane fractions showed similar\\u000a properties, with optimal pH in the range

Joaquín J. Salas; Mark Williams; John L. Harwood; Juan Sánchez

1999-01-01

325

Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (strawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after ?-treatment, a weak triplet ( aH?30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, rapsberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time.

Raffi, Jacques J.; Agnel, Jean-Pierre L.

326

Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chemistry and specificity of sex pheromones in two subfamilies of the lepidopterous family Tortricidae1,2 have been studied because of the large number of economically important insects included. We identified the pheromone structure of the red-banded leaf roller moth, Argyrotaenia velutinana (subfamily Tortricinae), as cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate3, and now report the pheromone structure of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (subfamily

Wendell L. Roelofs; André Comeau; Robert Selle

1969-01-01

327

Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.  

PubMed

Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases. PMID:24188234

Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

2014-01-01

328

Sink Metabolism in Tomato Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

Analysis of [3H]-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast followed by extracellular hydrolysis. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49, and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in the tomato fruit pericarp tissue. Hexose concentrations were at least four-fold greater than sucrose at all developmental stages. Short-term uptake of [14C]sucrose, -glucose, and -fructose in tomato pericarp disks showed first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake rate of [14C]-(glucosyl)-1?-fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of [14C]sucrose uptake, suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Together these results suggest that although sucrose is at least partially hydrolyzed in the apoplast, sucrose may enter the metabolic carbohydrate pool directly. In addition, sugar uptake across the plasma membrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato fruit is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast.

Damon, Sue; Hewitt, John; Nieder, Matt; Bennett, Alan B.

1988-01-01

329

Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.  

PubMed

Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of ?-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including ?-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid ?-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with ?-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with ? rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated. PMID:23692772

Murillo, Enrique; Giuffrida, Daniele; Menchaca, Dania; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Meléndez-Martinez, Antonio J; Mondello, Luigi

2013-10-15

330

Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. PMID:22859681

Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; McGhie, Tony K; Andre, Christelle M; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

2012-09-01

331

Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains.  

PubMed

Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20-10?ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

Janssen, S; Schmitt, K; Blanke, M; Bauersfeld, M L; Wöllenstein, J; Lang, W

2014-01-01

332

Insulin secretion stimulating effects of mogroside V and fruit extract of luo han kuo (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle) fruit extract..  

PubMed

Luo han kuo fruit (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle), a fruit native to China, has been used as a natural sweetening agent for centuries and has been reported to be beneficial for diabetic population. However, limited research has been conducted to elucidate the relationship between the sweetening action and biological parameters that may be related to potential health benefits of LHK fruit (Luo Han Kuo fruit). The present study examined the effect of LHK fruit and its chemical components on insulin secretion using an in vitro cell model system. Mogroside V is the most abundant and the sweetest chemical component among the mogrosides in LHK fruit. The experimental data demonstrated that the crude LHK extract stimulated the secretion of insulin in pancreatic beta cells; furthermore, pure mogroside V isolated from LHK fruit also exhibited a significant activity in stimulating insulin secretion by the beta cells, which could partially be responsible for the insulin secretion activity of LHK fruit and fruit extract. The current study supports that LHK fruit/extract has the potential to be natural sweetener with a low glycemic index, and that mogroside V, possible other related mogrosides, can provide a positive health impact on stimulating insulin secretion. PMID:21351724

Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Yan; Ebersole, Jeff; Huang, Chi-fu

2009-11-01

333

Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.  

PubMed

Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (?-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest ?-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid. PMID:25065829

Antonious, George F

2014-10-01

334

Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.  

PubMed

Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the reproducibility of KI calculations can vary by several index units. A series of programs and graphical interfaces were therefore developed to compare calculated KIs among samples in a semi-automated fashion. These programs reduce the time required for chromatogram analysis of large data sets and minimize the potential for misinterpretation of the data when chromatograms are not perfectly aligned. We present a method for rapid volatile compound analysis in fruit. Sample preparation, data acquisition and handling procedures are also discussed. PMID:22491160

Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

2012-01-01

335

Fruit Volatile Analysis Using an Electronic Nose  

PubMed Central

Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables1. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors2-4. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple5; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango6; aroma profiling of thymus species7; C6 volatile compounds in grape berries8; characterization of vegetable oil9 and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil10. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the reproducibility of KI calculations can vary by several index units11. A series of programs and graphical interfaces were therefore developed to compare calculated KIs among samples in a semi-automated fashion. These programs reduce the time required for chromatogram analysis of large data sets and minimize the potential for misinterpretation of the data when chromatograms are not perfectly aligned. We present a method for rapid volatile compound analysis in fruit. Sample preparation, data acquisition and handling procedures are also discussed.

Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W.; Ebeler, Susan E.; Zakharov, Florence

2012-01-01

336

Metabolic changes in fruits of the tomato dx mutant.  

PubMed

The tomato DWARF cytochrome P450 protein catalyzes the C-6 oxidation of 6-deoxo-castasterone to castasterone. The d(x) mutant does not produce a functional DWARF enzyme, and d(x) shoots display severe symptoms of brassinosteroid-deficiency. However, fruits express the CYP85A3 protein which compensates for the deficiency of the DWARF protein and produce bioactive brassinosteroids. Here, we report on the metabolic characterization of d(x) fruits. Fruit size, fresh weight, and pigment content were not altered. However, d(x) fruits showed reduced dry mass content. Levels of starch and various sugars were reduced, amino acid levels were elevated. BR application to d(x) leaves partially normalized dry mass content, sugar and amino acid levels in d(x) fruits. The data demonstrate that brassinosteroid in shoots is required for fruit development in tomato. PMID:16930643

Lisso, Janina; Altmann, Thomas; Müssig, Carsten

2006-10-01

337

Sugar metabolism in relation to chilling tolerance of loquat fruit.  

PubMed

The relationship between chilling injury and sugar metabolism was investigated in loquat fruit stored at 1°C for 35days. No symptoms of chilling injury occurred in the fruit, of 'Ninghaibai' cultivar, during the whole storage whereas, in 'Dahongpao' fruit, severe chilling symptoms were observed after 20days of storage at 1°C. 'Ninghaibai' fruit had higher levels of glucose and fructose and higher activities of sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes, such as sucrose synthase-cleavage and invertase, than had 'Dahongpao'. Furthermore, the chilling resistant 'Ninghaibai' fruit also showed higher activities of hexokinase and fructokinase, involved in hexose phoshorylation and sugar signal generation. These results suggest that the higher content of hexoses and activities of hexose sensors were likely part of the mechanism for chilling tolerance of loquat fruit. PMID:23017404

Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Zheng, Yonghua

2013-01-01

338

Technology of classification on fruit defects based on infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bruise, scratch, decay and insect pest are the most common defects in thin skin fruits. To detect these defects with the use of infrared thermography, the mathematic model of spherical shaped fruits based on heat transfer theory is developed and a further classification research is carried out. By using a commercial infrared thermal imaging camera, the radiation temperature on the fruit surface of various defect tissues can be observed after thermal excitation. Both model and experimental studies reveal that the cooling rate of specimen is related to the fruit thermal properties and fruit size, and the logarithmic temperature is directly proportional to detection time. Bruise has a steeper cooling slope than other defects and sound tissue, while insect pest performs poor during the fruit cooling range from 29 oC to 24 oC, this may be related to their more cracked wax layer and higher amount of lenticels.

Zhou, Jianmin; Zhou, Qixian; Liu, Juanjuan; Xu, Dongdong; Shu, Lili

2010-05-01

339

Postharvest physiology and technology of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit.  

PubMed

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical evergreen tree whose fruit is consumed both fresh and processed. Loquat fruit is a good source of minerals and carotenoids, while the kernel is rich in protein and carbohydrates. It has been considered a non-climacteric fruit, but there is evidence that some cultivars have a ripening pattern similar to that of climacteric fruits. The fruit has a short postharvest life at ambient temperatures and is susceptible to physical and mechanical damage, loss of moisture and nutrients, and decay. Low-temperature storage extends the shelf life of loquat fruit, but some cultivars are severely affected by chilling injury and flesh browning during cold storage. Purple spot, browning and leatheriness are major postharvest disorders. The shelf life of loquat can be extended by modified or controlled atmosphere storage as well as by postharvest treatment with 1-methyl cyclopropene or methyl jasmonate. PMID:24395491

Pareek, Sunil; Benkeblia, Noureddine; Janick, Jules; Cao, Shifeng; Yahia, Elhadi M

2014-06-01

340

??????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? ? ????????????????? Maturity and Quality of Dragon Fruit of two Hylocereus species under Ubon Ratchathani Growing Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maturity and quality of Dragon fruit of two Hylocereus species grown in a commercial orchard in Warinchamrap district, Ubon Ratchathani provice were studies. It was found that fruit size increased rapidly 23-29 days after anthesis before gradually increased there after with H. undatus fruit being bigger and heavier than H. polyrhizus fruit. Fruit skin color changed from green to red

Uraiwan Saenghuachang; Raywat Chairat

341

Engineering Melon Plants with Improved Fruit Shelf Life Using the TILLING Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes

Fatima Dahmani-Mardas; Christelle Troadec; Adnane Boualem; Sylvie Lévêque; Abdullah A. Alsadon; Abdullah A. Aldoss; Catherine Dogimont; Abdelhafid Bendahmane; Mohammed Bendahmane

2010-01-01

342

A Simple Model for Rapid and Nondestructive Estimation of Bell Pepper Fruit Volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional index words. Capsicum annuum, fruit shape, yield prediction, equation, water displacement Abstract. Nondestructive estimates of fruit volume are used for yield prediction. They are also used to study the relationship between fruit expansion rate and susceptibility to diseases or physiological disorders such as fruit cracking. A model relating bell pep- per (Capsicum annuum) fruit diameter and length to its

Mathieu Ngouajio; William Kirk

343

Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

2011-08-01

344

An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant capacity of a group of fruits obtained in the Singapore markets was investigated. A total of 27 fruit pulps were tested for their general antioxidant capacity based on their ability to scavenge 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical. The contribution of l-ascorbic acid (AA) to the total antioxidant activity of fruits was investigated by using RP-HPLC. The antioxidant capacity

L. P Leong; G Shui

2002-01-01

345

Light versus Dark Carbon Metabolism in Cherry Tomato Fruits  

PubMed Central

The photosynthetic properties of the internal and peripheral tissues of the cherry tomato fruit (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiforme Dun A. Gray) were investigated. Whole fruit and their isolated tissues evolve large amounts of CO2 in darkness. In the light, this evolution decreases but nevertheless remains a net evolution; 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea abolishes the effects of light. Incorporation of 14CO2 by leaves and fruit tissues demonstrates that the outer region of the fruit has the highest photosynthetic efficiency on a chlorophyll basis; the internal fruit tissue, richer in chlorophyll, has a much lower efficiency. The identification of intermediates following short term incubations with 14CO2 shows that in darkness the fruit accumulates the majority of label in malate. In the light, leaf tissue exhibits a pattern of incorporation characteristic of C-3 metabolism, whereas fruit tissue exhibits a decreased labeling of malate with a concomitant appearance of label in Calvin cycle intermediates. This is in agreement with the levels and types of carboxylating activities demonstrated in vitro; especially noteworthy is the very low ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity in the internal fruit tissue. The photosynthetic potential, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity, and quantities of malate accumulated by fruit tissues are parallel to their chlorophyll content during growth and maturation.

Laval-Martin, Danielle; Farineau, Jack; Diamond, Jeffrey

1977-01-01

346

Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were artichokes, parsley, and brussels sprouts [>250 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh edible portion (FEP)]; fruits with the highest concentrations were strawberries, lychees, and grapes (>180 mg of GAE/100 g FEP). Conversely, melons (Cantaloupe cv.) and avocados had the lowest polyphenol concentration for fruits and vegetables, respectively. Based on fruit consumption data, apples and strawberries are the main sources of polyphenols in the French diet, whereas potatoes, lettuces, and onions are the most important vegetable sources. Total polyphenol intake from fruit is about 3 times higher than from vegetables, due to the lower polyphenol concentration in vegetables. The calculation of polyphenol intake, based on both assessment methods used [(Société d'Etudes de la Communication, Distribution et Publicité (SECODIP) and Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX)], showed that apples and potatoes provide approximatively half of the total polyphenol intake from fruit and vegetables in the French diet. PMID:16920856

Brat, Pierre; Georgé, Stéphane; Bellamy, Annick; Du Chaffaut, Laure; Scalbert, Augustin; Mennen, Louise; Arnault, Nathalie; Amiot, Marie Josèphe

2006-09-01

347

IS THE POOR QUALITY OF LATE SEASON NEW ZEALAND 'HASS' AVOCADO FRUIT RELATED TO FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS AT HARVEST?  

Microsoft Academic Search

gradual decline over the first 3 harvests for fruit from Orchard 1, but no consistent change for Orchard 2. Total sugars were higher in fruit from Orchard 1 (9-16mg\\/mL) than Orchard 2 (7-9 mg\\/mL) with a discrete peak in Orchard 1 but a gradual decline in fruit from Orchard 2. The most a b u n d a n t

N. Lallu; J. Burdon; G. Haynes; K. Francis; D. B. Smith; J. Dixon; J. G. M. Cutting

348

Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1  

PubMed Central

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production.

Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

2003-01-01

349

Polyphenol oxidase and its relationship with oleuropein concentration in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea) cv. 'Picual' trees during fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Oleuropein, the main phenolic compound of olive fruit, has important antioxidant properties that are responsible for some of the nutritional properties of fruits and the defence mechanism of leaves. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity changes during fruit ripening in many plants. We studied the kinetics and molecular properties of PPO in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. 'Picual' trees and the relationship between PPO and oleuropein concentration during fruit ripening. Polyphenol oxidase showed hyperbolic kinetics in fruits and leaves. Significant increases in PPO specific activity, V(max), K(m )and catalytic efficiency occurred during fruit ripening. Based on SDS-PAGE under partially denaturing conditions and in-gel staining with DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, PPO activity was found in one major protein of 55 and 50 kDA in fruits and leaves, respectively. During the last stages of fruit maturation, a second 36 kDa protein was observed in fruits but not in leaves, indicating that this protein could serve as a marker of the final phase of fruit maturation. Under fully denaturing conditions, only one 27.7 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in fruits. Both the amount of PPO activity and the amount of PPO protein increased significantly during fruit maturation. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that PPO is located in the epidermis, parenchyma and companion vascular cells of leaves as well as in the epidermis of fruit. During fruit maturation, oleuropein concentration measured by HPLC significantly decreased in fruits and increased in leaves. PMID:17938113

Ortega-García, Francisca; Blanco, Santos; Peinado, M Angeles; Peragón, Juan

2008-01-01

350

Effects of forest edges, fruit display size, and fruit colour on bird seed dispersal in a New Zealand mistletoe, Alepis flavida  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how forest edges, fruit display size, and fruit colour influenced rates of seed dispersal in an endemic, bird-dispersed, New Zealand mistletoe species, Alepis flavida. To examine rates of seed dispersal, fruit removal rates were compared between plants growing on forest edges and in forest interior, and also between two morphs of plants with different coloured fruits. Two

Catherine E. Bach; Dave Kelly

351

Using mobile fruit vendors to increase access to fresh fruit and vegetables for schoolchildren. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

This study explored the extent to which schoolchildren purchased precut and bagged fruits and vegetables from a mobile fruit vendor (frutero). During 14 days in fall 2008, a frutero sold fruits and vegetables at the entrance of an elementary school; 59% of the frutero's 233 consumers of 248 items were elementary-school students. With each successive day, an average of 1 additional bag of fruits and vegetables was sold by the frutero and 1.5 fewer nonnutritious foods by a competing vendor.

352

Effect of Antisense Suppression of Endopolygalacturonase Activity on Polyuronide Molecular Weight in Ripening Tomato Fruit and in Fruit Homogenates.  

PubMed

Fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in which endopolygalacturonase (PG) activity had been suppressed to <1% of wild-type levels were slightly firmer than nontransgenic controls later in ripening. Enzymically inactive cell walls were prepared from these ripening fruit using Tris-buffered phenol. When extracted with chelator followed by Na2CO3, the amounts of pectin solubilized from cell walls of nontransgenic control or from transgenic antisense PG fruit were similar. Size-exclusion chromatography analysis showed that, relative to controls, in antisense PG fruit polyuronide depolymerization was delayed in the chelator-soluble fraction throughout ripening and reduced in the Na2CO3-soluble fraction at the overripe stage. Reduced pectin depolymerization rather than altered extractability thus may have contributed to enhanced fruit firmness. Substantially larger effects of suppressed PG activity were detected in tomato fruit homogenates processed to paste. In control paste the majority of the polyuronide was readily soluble in water and was very highly depolymerized. In antisense PG paste the proportion of polyuronide solubilized by water was reduced, and polyuronides retained a high degree of polymerization. The suppression of fruit PG activity thus has a small effect on polyuronide depolymerization in the fruit but a much larger effect in paste derived from these fruit. This indicates that in the cell wall PG-mediated degradation of polyuronide is normally restricted but that in tissue homogenates or in isolated cell walls this restriction is removed and extensive pectin disassembly results unless PG is inactivated. PMID:12223839

Brummell, D. A.; Labavitch, J. M.

1997-10-01

353

Effect of Antisense Suppression of Endopolygalacturonase Activity on Polyuronide Molecular Weight in Ripening Tomato Fruit and in Fruit Homogenates.  

PubMed Central

Fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in which endopolygalacturonase (PG) activity had been suppressed to <1% of wild-type levels were slightly firmer than nontransgenic controls later in ripening. Enzymically inactive cell walls were prepared from these ripening fruit using Tris-buffered phenol. When extracted with chelator followed by Na2CO3, the amounts of pectin solubilized from cell walls of nontransgenic control or from transgenic antisense PG fruit were similar. Size-exclusion chromatography analysis showed that, relative to controls, in antisense PG fruit polyuronide depolymerization was delayed in the chelator-soluble fraction throughout ripening and reduced in the Na2CO3-soluble fraction at the overripe stage. Reduced pectin depolymerization rather than altered extractability thus may have contributed to enhanced fruit firmness. Substantially larger effects of suppressed PG activity were detected in tomato fruit homogenates processed to paste. In control paste the majority of the polyuronide was readily soluble in water and was very highly depolymerized. In antisense PG paste the proportion of polyuronide solubilized by water was reduced, and polyuronides retained a high degree of polymerization. The suppression of fruit PG activity thus has a small effect on polyuronide depolymerization in the fruit but a much larger effect in paste derived from these fruit. This indicates that in the cell wall PG-mediated degradation of polyuronide is normally restricted but that in tissue homogenates or in isolated cell walls this restriction is removed and extensive pectin disassembly results unless PG is inactivated.

Brummell, D. A.; Labavitch, J. M.

1997-01-01

354

Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.  

PubMed

Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. PMID:24388515

Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

2014-02-01

355

Pomological and nutraceutical properties in apricot fruit: cultivation systems and cold storage fruit management.  

PubMed

We have investigated the effect of cultivation systems and fruit post-harvest management on the antioxidant properties of apricot fruits. Trees of five cultivars 'Tyrinthos', 'Cafona', 'Bella d'Italia', 'Vitillo' and 'Pellecchiella' were cultivated under integrated and organic systems. Fruits were collected at full maturity stage and analyzed either immediately or after storage at 4+/-0.5 degrees C and 85% of relative humidity for seven and 14 days. The main pomological traits (weight, colour, flesh firmness, total soluble sugars, titratable acidity) and antioxidant properties were analyzed. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC by TEAC method), total phenols content (TP by Folin-Ciocalteu method) and carotenoid content by HPLC-DAD were monitored. Cultivar characterization by principal component analysis (PCA) indicated a large variability on pomological and antioxidant properties of apricot fruits. 'Bella d'Italia' showed better TAC and TP values compared to the other cultivars. ANOVA interactions between cultivar and cultivation system (organic/integrated) were found for the antioxidant properties. These interactions may help to select a set of genotypes with better performances under organic system, which in our study might be indicated in 'Cafona' and 'Bella d'Italia'. PMID:20198441

Leccese, Annamaria; Bureau, Sylvie; Reich, Maryse; Renard, M G C Catherine; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Mennone, Carmelo; Bartolini, Susanna; Viti, Raffaella

2010-06-01

356

Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Commercial Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content of 13 commercially available fruit juices and juice drinks, selected to represent the most popular juice flavors in the United Kingdom, were analyzed using the Folin- Ciocalteu assay. Individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-PDA- MS2. The catechin content and degree of polymerization of proanthocyanidins were also analyzed. Purple grape juice contained the largest

William Mullen; Serena C. Marks; Alan Crozier

2007-01-01

357

Early Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Acceptance  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Our goal was to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding and dietary experiences on acceptance of a fruit and a green vegetable by 4- to 8-month-old infants. METHODS Forty-five infants, 44% of whom were breastfed, were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group was fed green beans, and the other was fed green beans and then peaches at the same time of day for 8 consecutive days. Acceptance of both foods, as determined by a variety of measures, was assessed before and after the home-exposure period. RESULTS During the initial exposure, infants ate more calories from peaches than from green beans. Breastfed infants showed greater liking of peaches, as did their mothers, who ate more fruits in general than did mothers who formula fed. Although formula-feeding mothers ate more green beans, there was no difference in their infants’ acceptance of this vegetable. For breastfed and formula-fed infants, repeated dietary exposure to green beans, with or without peaches, resulted in greater consumption of green beans (56.8 vs 93.6 g). Only infants who experienced green beans with peaches displayed fewer facial expressions of distaste during feeding. Mothers were apparently unaware of these changes in acceptance. CONCLUSIONS Breastfeeding confers an advantage in initial acceptance of a food, but only if mothers eat the food regularly. Once weaned, infants who receive repeated dietary exposure to a food eat more of it and may learn to like its flavor. However, because infants innately display facial expressions of distaste in response to certain flavors, caregivers may hesitate to continue offering these foods. Mothers should be encouraged to provide their infants with repeated opportunities to taste fruits and vegetables and should focus not only on their infants’ facial expressions but also on their willingness to continue feeding.

Forestell, Catherine A.; Mennella, Julie A.

2008-01-01

358

Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

2011-05-01

359

7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations...Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations...If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on...

2009-01-01

360

7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations...Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations...If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on...

2010-01-01

361

76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PPQ) Treatment Manual \\1\\ for fruits, vegetables, and articles to prevent...cherries and certain species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into the United...irradiation dose for Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) of 100 gray. Our...

2011-03-30

362

7 CFR 319.56-4 - Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for importation. 319.56-4 Section...FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-4 Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for importation. (a)...

2010-01-01

363

7 CFR 319.56-4 - Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for importation. 319.56-4 Section...FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-4 Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for importation. (a)...

2009-01-01

364

Isolation and Biophysical Study of Fruit Cuticles  

PubMed Central

The cuticle, a hydrophobic protective layer on the aerial parts of terrestrial plants, functions as a versatile defensive barrier to various biotic and abiotic stresses and also regulates water flow from the external environment.1 A biopolyester (cutin) and long-chain fatty acids (waxes) form the principal structural framework of the cuticle; the functional integrity of the cuticular layer depends on the outer 'epicuticular' layer as well as the blend consisting of the cutin biopolymer and 'intracuticular' waxes.2 Herein, we describe a comprehensive protocol to extract waxes exhaustively from commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticles or to remove epicuticular and intracuticular waxes sequentially and selectively from the cuticle composite. The method of Jetter and Schäffer (2001) was adapted for the stepwise extraction of epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from the fruit cuticle.3,4 To monitor the process of sequential wax removal, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy was used in parallel with atomic force microscopy (AFM), providing molecular-level structural profiles of the bulk materials complemented by information on the microscale topography and roughness of the cuticular surfaces. To evaluate the cross-linking capabilities of dewaxed cuticles from cultivated wild-type and single-gene mutant tomato fruits, MAS 13C NMR was used to compare the relative proportions of oxygenated aliphatic (CHO and CH2O) chemical moieties. Exhaustive dewaxing by stepwise Soxhlet extraction with a panel of solvents of varying polarity provides an effective means to isolate wax moieties based on the hydrophobic characteristics of their aliphatic and aromatic constituents, while preserving the chemical structure of the cutin biopolyester. The mechanical extraction of epicuticular waxes and selective removal of intracuticular waxes, when monitored by complementary physical methodologies, provides an unprecedented means to investigate the cuticle assembly: this approach reveals the supramolecular organization and structural integration of various types of waxes, the architecture of the cutin-wax matrix, and the chemical composition of each constituent. In addition, solid-state 13C NMR reveals differences in the relative numbers of CHO and CH2O chemical moieties for wild-type and mutant red ripe tomato fruits. The NMR techniques offer exceptional tools to fingerprint the molecular structure of cuticular materials that are insoluble, amorphous, and chemically heterogeneous. As a noninvasive surface-selective imaging technique, AFM furnishes an effective and direct means to probe the structural organization of the cuticular assembly on the nm-?m length scale.

Chatterjee, Subhasish; Sarkar, Sayantani; Oktawiec, Julia; Mao, Zhantong; Niitsoo, Olivia; Stark, Ruth E.

2012-01-01

365

Monoterpenes from the fruits of Amomum kravanh.  

PubMed

Two new monoterpenes, (7S)-p-cymene-2,7,8-triol (1) and (3R,4R,6S)-p-menth-1-ene-3,6,10-triol (2), were isolated from the fruits of Amomum kravanh. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of the 7,8-diol moiety in 1 was assigned by CD data after addition of Mo2(OAc)4 in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak activity of anti-platelet aggregation in vitro. PMID:24749561

Luo, Jian-Guang; Yin, Hong; Kong, Ling-Yi

2014-05-01

366

Suberin production by isolated tomato fruit protoplasts.  

PubMed

The multilamellar wall secreted by protoplasts isolated from locule tissue of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was purified, and an extract was obtained after depolymerization with BF(3)-methanol. Analysis of this extract using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, dicarboxylic acid dimethyl esters, and omega-hydroxy acid methyl esters. These components were quantified using an Iatroscan thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection system. The different chain lengths in each group were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. The results clearly indicated the presence of suberin. PMID:16663693

Rao, G S; Willison, J H; Ratnayake, W M

1984-07-01

367

Fruit shape classification using Zernike moments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method along with Zernike moments for classify fruit shape is developed, the image is first subjected to a normalization process using its regular moments to obtain scale and translation invariance, the rotation invariant Zernike features are then extracted from the scale and translation normalized images and the numbers of features are decided by primary component analysis (PCA), at last, these features are input to support vector machine (SVM) classifier. This method performs better than traditional approaches because of their orthogonal base and rotation invariance of the defined features on them, which is verified by experiments on Zernike moments and Fourier descriptors.

Gui, Jiangsheng; Zhou, Weida

2010-08-01

368

Diurnal Water Balance of the Cowpea Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

The vascular network of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) fruit exhibits the anatomical potential for reversible xylem flow between seeds, pod, and parent plant. Feeding of cut shoots with the apoplast marker acid fuchsin showed that fruits imported regularly via xylem at night, less frequently in early morning, and only rarely in the afternoon. The dye never entered seeds or inner dorsal pod strands connecting directly to seeds. Root feeding (early morning) of intact plants with 32PO4 or 3H2O rapidly (20 min) labeled pod walls but not seeds, consistent with uptake through xylem. Weak subsequent (4 hours) labeling of seeds suggested slow secondary exchange of label with the phloem stream to the fruit. Vein flap feeding of subtending leaves with [14C]sucrose, 3H2O, and 32PO4 labeled pod and seed intensely, indicating mass flow in phloem to the fruit. Over 90% of the 14C and 3H of fruit cryopuncture phloem sap was as sucrose and water, respectively. Specific 3H activities of transpired water collected from fruits and peduncles were assayed over 4 days after feeding 3H2O to roots, via leaf flaps, or directly to fruits. The data indicated that fruits transpired relatively less xylem-derived (apoplastic) water than did peduncles, that fruit and peduncle relied more heavily on phloem-derived (symplastic) water for transpiration in the day than at night, and that water diffusing back from the fruit was utilized in peduncle transpiration, especially during the day. The data collectively support the hypothesis of a diurnally reversing xylem flow between developing fruit and plant. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Pate, John S.; Peoples, Mark B.; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Kuo, John; Atkins, Craig A.

1985-01-01

369

Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits  

PubMed Central

Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening and non-climacteric fruit ripening in general.

2012-01-01

370

Mediterranean Fruit Fly as a Potential Vector of Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a cosmopolitan pest of hundreds of species of commercial and wild fruits. It is considered a major economic pest of commercial fruits in the world. Adult Mediterranean fruit flies feed on all sorts of protein sources, including animal excreta, in order to develop eggs. After reaching sexual maturity and copulating, female flies lay eggs in fruit by puncturing the skin with their ovipositors and injecting batches of eggs into the wounds. In view of the increase in food-borne illnesses associated with consumption of fresh produce and unpasteurized fruit juices, we investigated the potential of Mediterranean fruit fly to serve as a vector for transmission of human pathogens to fruits. Addition of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Escherichia coli to a Mediterranean fruit fly feeding solution resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the fly's bacterial load. Flies exposed to fecal material enriched with GFP-tagged E. coli were similarly contaminated and were capable of transmitting E. coli to intact apples in a cage model system. Washing contaminated apples with tap water did not eliminate the E. coli. Flies inoculated with E. coli harbored the bacteria for up to 7 days following contamination. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the majority of fluorescent bacteria were confined along the pseudotrachea in the labelum edge of the fly proboscis. Wild flies captured at various geographic locations were found to carry coliforms, and in some cases presumptive identification of E. coli was made. These findings support the hypothesis that the common Mediterranean fruit fly is a potential vector of human pathogens to fruits.

Sela, Shlomo; Nestel, David; Pinto, Riky; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Bar-Joseph, Moshe

2005-01-01

371

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops.

2014-01-01

372

Few Associations between Income and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the association between income and the consumption of fruits and vegetables using the poverty income ratio (PIR). Design: Association between PIR and intake of fruits and vegetables combined. The PIR was divided into 5 groups ranging from less than poverty threshold (PT) to greater than or equal to 400% PT. Participants:…

Middaugh, Amanda L.; Fisk, Paul S.; Brunt, Ardith; Rhee, Yeong S.

2012-01-01

373

Maturity sorting index of dragon fruit: Hylocereus polyrhizus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to investigate maturity prediction of red flesh dragon fruit based on non-destructive measures. Specific weight, sphericity, color value L, a, b and light reflectance spectrum were linearly combined by partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis. The PLSR models could predict days after fruit set, weight ratio and total soluble solids relatively well with standard

Jaitip Wanitchang; Anupun Terdwongworakul; Padungsak Wanitchang; Sirinad Noypitak

2010-01-01

374

Postharvest water relationships and tissue browning of rambutan fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water status of excised spinterns or spintern plus pericarp and attached endocarp of rambutan fruits was measured three times during storage at 20 °C. Changes in fruit colour were also recorded. The development of browning was preceded by water loss and concomitant declines in water potential of spinterns and skin. As water potential decreased cell turgor also declined. There

M. Landrigan; S. C. Morris; D. Eamus; W. B. McGlasson

1996-01-01

375

Does genome size in Dasypyrum villosum vary with fruit colour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dasypyrum villosum (2n=14), a Mediterranean grass species of the Triticeae, exhibits intraindividual fruit colour polymorphism from pale yellow to almost black. Several studies have reported differences between the plants emerging from pale and dark fruits. They include histone content in root meristem nuclei, cell cycle duration, heterochromatin banding pattern, frequency of a tandemly repeated sequence, and nuclear genome size. In

R Obermayer; J Greilhuber

2005-01-01

376

Consumer perception of crispness and crunchiness in fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crispy and crunchy textures are desirable qualities and contribute to our enjoyment of foods, and this is particularly true in the case of fruits and vegetables. However, most of the literature on crispness and crunchiness focuses on dry foods, and little work has been carried out on wet foods such as fruits and vegetables. The study presented here was designed

Laurence Fillion; David Kilcast

2002-01-01

377

Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in an Elderly Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a national nutrition education program aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (5-A-Day for Better Health) has been ongoing since 1991, it has not targeted the elderly to date. This article presents results from a survey done to assess knowledge about and current consumption level of fruit and vegetables via a 7-item food frequency questionnaire administered to senior center

Sheldon McBee; Nancy Cotugna; Connie E. Vickery

2001-01-01

378

Proteomic analysis of ripening tomato fruit infected by Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea, a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes gray mold as it infects different organs on more than 200 plant species, is a significant contributor to postharvest rot in fresh fruit and vegetables, including tomatoes. By describing host and pathogen proteomes simultaneously in infected tissues, the plant proteins that provide resistance and allow susceptibility and the pathogen proteins that promote colonization and facilitate quiescence can be identified. This study characterizes fruit and fungal proteins solubilized in the B. cinerea-tomato interaction using shotgun proteomics. Mature green, red ripe wild type and ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit were infected with B. cinerea B05.10, and the fruit and fungal proteomes were identified concurrently 3 days postinfection. One hundred eighty-six tomato proteins were identified in common among red ripe and red ripe-equivalent ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit infected by B. cinerea. However, the limited infections by B. cinerea of mature green wild type fruit resulted in 25 and 33% fewer defense-related tomato proteins than in red and rin fruit, respectively. In contrast, the ripening stage of genotype of the fruit infected did not affect the secreted proteomes of B. cinerea. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their role in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:22364583

Shah, Punit; Powell, Ann L T; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo

2012-04-01

379

Lipid Transfer Proteins from Fruit: Cloning, Expression and Quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are stable, potentially life-threatening allergens in fruits and many other vegetable foods. The aim of this study was to clone and express recombinant apple LTP (Mal d 3), as has previously been done for peach LTP (Pru p 3) and set up quantitative tests for measuring fruit LTPs. Methods: cDNA for Mal d 3 and

Laurian Zuidmeer; W. Astrid van Leeuwen; Ilona Kleine Budde; Jessica Cornelissen; Ingrid Bulder; Ilona Rafalska; Noèlia Telléz Besolí; Jaap H. Akkerdaas; Riccardo Asero; Montserrat Fernandez Rivas; Eloina Gonzalez Mancebo; Ronald van Ree

2005-01-01

380

Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An Emerging Medicinal Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits

Praveen K. Vayalil

2012-01-01

381

Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An Emerging Medicinal Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits

Praveen K. Vayalil

2011-01-01

382

Bird damage to tropical fruit in south Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dade County, Florida, the production of tropical fruit is a major component of the agricultural industry with total sales amounting to $73.5 million in the 1997-1998 season. Two types of fruit in particular, lychee (Litchi chinensis) and longan (Euphoria longana), are rapidly emerging in economic importance with a combined annual value of over $19 million. For many lychee and

Eric A. Tillman; Annamaria Van Doom; Michael L. Avery

2000-01-01

383

Anaphylaxis and generalized urticaria from eating Chinese bayberry fruit.  

PubMed

Chinese bayberry Myrica rubra is a very popular fruit in southeastern China. In spite of its wide consumption, no allergies to this fruit have been reported previously. Here we report on a 40-year-old woman suffering from anaphylaxis to Chinese bayberry fruit. Prick-prick skin tests revealed strong reactions to fresh Chinese bayberry fruits as well as to peach, and weaker reactions to some other fruits including apple, melon, and banana. ImmunoCAP analysis revealed identical titers of specific IgE (4.3 kU(A)/L) to peach extract and its lipid transfer protein (LTP, rPru p 3), which was confirmed by detection of a 9 kD band following immunoblotting. Immunoblot analysis with Chinese bayberry extract gave bands of 22, 45, and 90 kD, but no 9 kD band was recognized. There was also no evidence of LTP recognition for loquat (36 kD) or melon (24 kD). This first report of a severe allergic reaction to Chinese bayberry fruit in a patient with LTP-mediated peach allergy indicates that other as yet unidentified non-pollen related fruit allergens are involved in this new severe fruit allergy. PMID:23024053

Wang, Hui-ying; Gao, Zhong-shan; Yang, Zhao-wei; Shao, Jing-xin; Zhao, Xiu-zhen; Dai, Yu; Van Ree, Ronald

2012-10-01

384

Anaphylaxis and generalized urticaria from eating Chinese bayberry fruit*  

PubMed Central

Chinese bayberry myrica rubra is a very popular fruit in southeastern China. In spite of its wide consumption, no allergies to this fruit have been reported previously. Here we report on a 40-year-old woman suffering from anaphylaxis to Chinese bayberry fruit. Prick-prick skin tests revealed strong reactions to fresh Chinese bayberry fruits as well as to peach, and weaker reactions to some other fruits including apple, melon, and banana. ImmunoCAP analysis revealed identical titers of specific IgE (4.3 kUA/L) to peach extract and its lipid transfer protein (LTP, rPru p 3), which was confirmed by detection of a 9 kD band following immunoblotting. Immunoblot analysis with Chinese bayberry extract gave bands of 22, 45, and 90 kD, but no 9 kD band was recognized. There was also no evidence of LTP recognition for loquat (36 kD) or melon (24 kD). This first report of a severe allergic reaction to Chinese bayberry fruit in a patient with LTP-mediated peach allergy indicates that other as yet unidentified non-pollen related fruit allergens are involved in this new severe fruit allergy.

Wang, Hui-ying; Gao, Zhong-shan; Yang, Zhao-wei; Shao, Jing-xin; Zhao, Xiu-zhen; Dai, Yu; Van Ree, Ronald

2012-01-01

385

Large-scale patterns of fruiting seasonality across the Neotropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organisms have different phases during their life cycles and their timing of occurrence is affected by a combination of both abiotic and biotic factors. In the case of plants, the timing of fruiting is very sensitive to environmental factors and subjected to a variable degree of seasonality (i.e. intra-annual changes), but we still lack of a clearer understanding of the triggers of their phenology over large geographic scales. This is particularly true for the tropics, where the high diversity of species magnifies the spectrum of phenological patterns. It has been pointed out that fruit production in the tropics is predominantly aseasonal, favoring that frugivore animals get resources all over the year. We present here the results of an extensive review of fruiting phenology all over the Neotropics based upon more than 200 datasets collected in different vegetation types, combining both published and unpublished data. Contrary to the hypothesis that fruiting in the tropics is commonly aseasonal, our results showed a marked seasonality for the majority of vegetation types, although there was a high degree of variability in fruiting patterns. Ongoing research is elucidating the latitudinal correlation of fruiting seasonality with climatic variables such as rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration, irradiance or daylength. The detection of the periods of fruits scarcity and abundance has a capital importance for the conservation of frugivore animals. A better understanding of the correlates between fruiting seasonality and climate helps in the forecasting of species' phenological responses to ongoing climate change

Mendoza, Irene; Peres, Carlos A.; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

2014-05-01

386

Streptomycin residues and natural antibacterial compounds in fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit-disc samples were assayed microbiologically to determine streptomycin residues on the skin and in the flesh of peach, plum, apricot, apple, and pear fruits taken from trees which had received four to five sprays of ‘Agrimycin 17’ containing 100 ppm streptomycin. The sampling and assay method employed allows quantitative measurements to be made quickly on large numbers of samples. It

M. H. Dye; D. W. Mossop

1974-01-01

387

Mechanisms of star fruit-induced acute renal failure.  

PubMed

We have previously discovered that star fruit can induce oliguric acute renal failure. To investigate the mechanisms of star fruit-associated acute oxalate nephropathy, the nephrotoxic effect of star fruit was examined in both cellular experiments and animal models. We evaluated renal function, pathological changes in kidney tissues and apoptotic effects using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay in four groups of rats -- a control group (CG), fed with tap water (1); a star fruit group (SG), fed with star fruit juice naturally containing 0.2M oxalate (2); and oxalate groups (OxG), fed with 0.2M (3) or 0.4M (4) oxalate solution. The effects of both star fruit juice and oxalate on MDCK cells were also analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that the mean creatinine clearance was significantly lower in the SG, 0.2M OxG and 0.4M OxG. Dose-dependent apoptotic effects were evident from the TUNEL assay, and flow cytometry analysis of treated MDCK cells showed dose- and time-dependent effects. Our findings suggest that star fruit juice produces acute renal injury, not only through the obstructive effect of calcium oxalate crystals, but also by inducing apoptosis of renal epithelial cells, which may be caused by the levels of oxalate in the fruit. PMID:18294746

Fang, Hua-Chang; Lee, Po-Tsang; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chang, Tsu-Yuan; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Chung, Hsiao-Min; Chou, Kang-Ju

2008-05-01

388

Determination of lower oxygen limits for apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the lower oxygen limit (LOL) is critical for optimising the gaseous storage environment for fruits. The optimum storage atmosphere occurs just above the LOL at which aerobic respiration is at the lowest level which can be achieved without development of anaerobic metabolism. Measures of LOL based on a fruit's internal atmosphere, rather than external or package atmospheres, estimate

Christopher W. Yearsley; Nigel H. Banks; Siva Ganesh; Donald J. Cleland

1996-01-01

389

Breeding system and fruit development in Persoonia juniperina (Proteaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental hand pollinations were used to examine factors that influence fruit production in Persoonia juniperina (Proteaceae). Assessment of the breeding system indicated no clear pre-zygotic barriers to self-fertilisation. Rates of pollen tube growth and numbers of pollen tubes were similar after selfing and outcrossing. Plants also clearly had the capacity to produce fruit from selfing, although there was some evidence

Briony Cadzow; Susan M. Carthew

390

Papaya Fruit Quality Management during the Postharvest Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has a sweet, exotic flavor and is rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has not emerged as a major traded fruit. Papayas are highly susceptible to qualitative and

Dharini Sivakumar; Marisa M. Wall

2012-01-01

391

Postharvest responses to high fruit temperatures in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact on postharvest responses, of preharvest exposure of fruit and vegetables to direct sunlight, with associated high tissue temperatures, is reviewed. Fruit and vegetable flesh temperatures well above 40°C have been recorded in direct sunlight in a wide range of crops in both hot and temperate climates. These high temperatures, both in terms of diurnal fluctuations and long-term exposure,

A. B. Woolf; I. B. Ferguson

2000-01-01

392

High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a minimal thermal technology is a valuable tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruit and vegetable production. Microorganisms and deteriorative enzymes can be inhibited or inactivated depending on the amount of pressure and time applied to the product. The resistance of microorganisms and enzymes to pressure in fruit and vegetable products also is dependent on

José A. Guerrero-Beltrán; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas; Barry G. Swanson

2005-01-01

393

Picky Eaters: Relating Parental Perceptions in Fruit and Vegetables Consumption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although consuming five servings each day of fruits and vegetables has been designed as a national nutritional goal, there have been few studies of fruit and vegetable intake among 3- to 5-year-olds, even though this age group may benefit from nutrition intervention and education. This study examined the views of 55 Head Start families and 75…

Worobey, Harriet S.; Cohen, Sherry; Kempner, Carol; Worobey, John

394

[Chemical constituents of Osmanthus fragrans fruits].  

PubMed

By Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and other materials for isolation and purification and by physicochemical methods and spectral analysis for structural identification, 23 compounds were isolated and identified from ethyl acetate portion of alcohol extract solution of Osmanthus fragrans fruits. Their structures were identified as nicotinamide (1), D-allitol (2), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde (3), acetyloleanolic acid (4), benzoic acid (5), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (6), beta-sitosterol (7), borreriagenin (8), cerevistero (9), c-veratroylglycol (10), methyl-2-O-beta-glucopyranosylbenzoate (11), 3', 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavon (12), umbelliferone (13), caffeic acid methyl ester (14), oleanolic acid (15), (-) -chicanine (16), dillapiol (17), 3beta,5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxyergosta-7-22-dien-6-one (18), 2alpha-hydroxy-oleanolic acid (19), betulinic acid (20), betulin (21), 3, 3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (22), and lupeol (23). All compounds were isolated from the osmanthus fruit for the first time. Except for compounds 4, 7, 15, 19, 23, the rest ones were isolated from the this plant for the first time. PMID:24791540

Yin, Wei; Liu, Jin-Qi; Zhang, Guo-Sheng

2013-12-01

395

Antiinflammatory activity of Lindera erythrocarpa fruits.  

PubMed

In this study, in vitro and in vivo antiinflammatory activities of fruits from Lindera erythrocarpa Makino were evaluated. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction derived from the ethanol extract of L. erythrocarpa fruits inhibited significantly nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced NO in the murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) assay, the EC(50) being 16.35 microg/mL. Four compounds, including lucidone (1), cis/trans-methylludicone (2), methyl linderone (3) and linderone (4) were identified from the active fraction based on the bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure. Of these lucidone possessed the strongest NO inhibitory activity with an EC(50) value of 4.22 microg/mL. Furthermore, results from the protein expression assay demonstrated that lucidone suppressed iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Lucidone also provided antiinflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema assay. When it was applied topically at a dosage of 0.5 and 1 mg per ear, the percent edema reduction in treated mice was 44% and 25%, respectively. The results obtained in this study indicated that lucidone has a good potential to be developed as an antiinflammation agent. PMID:17726736

Wang, Sheng-Yang; Lan, Xing-Yu; Xiao, Jun-Hong; Yang, Jeng-Chung; Kao, Yi-Ting; Chang, Shang-Tzen

2008-02-01

396

Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

2009-05-01

397

Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango", "anaphylaxis", "contact dermatitis", "cross-reactivity", "food hypersensitivity", "oral allergy syndrome" and "urticaria". The bibliographies of all papers thus located were searched for further relevant articles. A total of 17 reports describing 22 patients were documented, including ten patients with immediate hypersensitivity reaction and twelve patients with delayed hypersensitivity reaction to mango. Ten of these patients (four with immediate reaction; six with delayed reaction) were from geographical areas cultivating mango, whereas twelve patients (six with immediate reaction; six with delayed reaction) were from the countries where large scale mango cultivation does not occur. The clinical features, pathogenesis and diagnostic modalities of both these presentations are highlighted. The fruit mango can cause immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, as also "oral allergy syndrome". Although rare, it can even result in a life threatening event. Reactions may even occur in individuals without prior exposure to mango, owing to cross reactivity. It is imperative to recognize such a phenomenon early so as to avoid potentially severe clinical reactions in susceptible patients.

Sareen, Richa

2011-01-01

398

Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.  

PubMed

Numerous compounds, many of them osmolytes, were quantified in natural juices and in frozen concentrate juices from fruits of plants of the Citrus genus. L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline (hygric acid), N,N-dimethyl-L-proline (stachydrine), 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine (betonicine), 4-hydroxy-L-proline, ?-aminobutyric acid (Gaba), 3-carboxypropyltrimethylammonium (GabaBet), N-methylnicotinic acid (trigonelline), and choline in the fruit juices of yellow orange, blood orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), and grapefruit were analyzed by sensitive HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry procedure. It was found that the most represented osmolytes in the juices, that is, L-proline, stachydrine, and betonicine, can be quantified with minimal sample preparation and short analysis time (about 1 min) also by flow injection analysis (FIA) ESI-MS/MS with the same results as obtained by HPLC ESI-MS/MS. In all of the juices, discrete amounts of choline and trigonelline were present. Conversely, GabaBet was always below detection limits. Notably, N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine, which were discovered for the first time in the juice of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit), are also present in all of the citrus juices examined. PMID:21838291

Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Bata-Csere, Andrea; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

2011-09-14

399

Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

2012-01-01

400

The Evolution of Fruit Tree Productivity: A Review.  

PubMed

The Evolution of Fruit Tree Productivity: A Review. Domestication of fruit trees has received far less attention than that of annual crop plants. In particular, very little is known about the evolution of fruit tree productivity. In the wild, most tree species reach reproductive maturity after a long period of juvenility and even then, sexual reproduction appears sporadically, often in a mode of masting. Environmental constraints limit trees' reproductive activity in their natural, wild habitats, resulting in poor, irregular productivity. Early fructification and regular, high rates of productivity have been selected by people, unconsciously and consciously. The reviewed evidence indicates an evolutionary continuum of productivity patterns among trees of wild habitats, intermediary domesticates, and the most advanced domesticates. Alternate bearing appears to represent an intermediate step in the fruit tree evolutionary pathway. The existence of a molecular, genetic mechanism that controls trees' sexual reproduction and fruiting pattern is suggested. PMID:23538880

Goldschmidt, Eliezer E

2013-03-01

401

[Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].  

PubMed

The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function. PMID:25055366

Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flávio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam José; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

2014-04-01

402

Detection of a resistance gradient to Passion fruit woodiness virus and selection of ‘yellow’ passion fruit plants under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity of 'yellow' passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa O. Deg.) is reduced by infection with Cowpea aphid- borne mosaic virus (CABMV). We examined resistance in 72 yellow passion fruit plants grown from open-pollinated commercial seed. Plants were mechanically inoculated with CABMV virus and maintained in the field in order to select contrasting genotypes for resistance. Isolates were obtained

C. B. M. Cerqueira-Silva; C. N. Moreira; A. R. Figueira; R. X. Correa; A. C. Oliveira

2008-01-01

403

Proteomic analysis of up-accumulated proteins associated with fruit quality during autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening is a complex phenomenon that makes berries attractive and also determines their nutritional value. Autumn olive ( Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) fruit is a rich source of many human health-related nutrients. The changes in pericarp color are initiated at early developmental stages, coinciding with the fast increase in fruit size. Fruit quality traits with special emphasis on soluble sugars, organic acids, lycopene, and total protein contents were assayed during the fruit ripening. In the fully ripe fruit, glucose and fructose were the principal sugars, malic acid was the most abundant organic acid, and lycopene concentration was extremely high. A proteomic analysis was used to identify up-accumulated proteins induced by the ripening. Among 63 up-accumulated protein spots, 43 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. All 43 proteins were novel for autumn olive, and 8 were first reported in the fruit. Twenty-one proteins of known function were involved in sugar metabolism, citric acid cycle, isoprenoid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and protein hydrolysis. The possible roles of these 21 accumulated proteins in autumn olive fruit quality are discussed. PMID:21175188

Wu, Man-Cheng; Hu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Li; Yang, Ling

2011-01-26

404

Effect of Fresh Fruit Availability at Worksites on the Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of Low-Wage Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the impact of fresh fruit availability at worksites on the fruit and vegetable consumption and related psychosocial determinants of low-wage employees. Design: A prospective, randomized block experimental design. Setting: Seven apparel manufacturing and 2 food processing worksites. Participants: A convenience sample of 391…

Backman, Desiree; Gonzaga, Gian; Sugerman, Sharon; Francis, Dona; Cook, Sara

2011-01-01

405

Pollen quantity and quality affect fruit abortion in small populations of a rare fleshy-fruited shrub  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about changed rates of fruit abortion due to pollen limitation or inbreeding in small and isolated populations of flowering plants. We report on a pollination experiment with the fleshy-fruited tall-shrub Prunus mahaleb at the margin of its distributional range, where re- production might be especially limiting. Two small and isolated populations in northern Switzerland were studied for

Kaspar Pflugshaupt; Johannes Kollmann; Markus Fischer; Barbara Roy

2002-01-01

406

The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: a review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits.  

PubMed

The nutritional jujube ( Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruit belonging to the Rhamnaceous family grows mostly in Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and Australia, especially the inland region of northern China. Jujube has a long history of usage as a fruit and remedy. The main biologically active components are vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenic acids, and polysaccharides. Recent phytochemical studies of jujube fruits have shed some light on their biological effects, such as the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, immunostimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and gastrointestinal protective activities and inhibition of foam cell formation in macrophages. A stronger focus on clinical studies and phytochemical definition of jujube fruits will be essential for future research efforts. This review may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses and potential drug or food interactions and may be beneficial for people living where the jujube fruits are prevalent and health care resources are scarce. PMID:23480594

Gao, Qing-Han; Wu, Chun-Sen; Wang, Min

2013-04-10

407

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts  

SciTech Connect

In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.

Thomas, P.

1988-01-01

408

Caribbean fruit fly,Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), attraction to host fruit and host kairomones.  

PubMed

Extracts of 22 fruits were tested for their attractancy toAnastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly. Box-orange, calamondin, carambola, cattley guava, loquat, and Surinam-cherry were about equal in attractiveness to males and females. Nine synthetic chemicals, including four found in box-orange ripe seed, were attractive to females. Five synthetic chemicals, including two in box-orange ripe seed, were attractive to males. Farnesol,?-phellandrene, and 3-carene were highest in attractiveness to both males and females. Females were more attracted than males to 12 synthetic chemicals. These data suggest that host chemicals serve as attractants and that female and male specific attractants and traps could be developed from host kairomone data. These data also suggest that the volatilization of chemicals from water may play an important role in kairomone biology. PMID:24242123

Nigg, H N; Mallory, L L; Simpson, S E; Callaham, S B; Toth, J P; Fraser, S; Klim, M; Nagy, S; Nation, J L; Attaway, J A

1994-03-01

409

Alginate Coatings Preserve Fruit Quality and Bioactive Compounds during Storage of Sweet Cherry Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet cherry fruits harvested at commercial maturity stage were treated with an edible coating based on sodium alginate at\\u000a several concentrations (1%, 3% or 5% w\\/v). The coatings were effective on delaying the evolution of the parameters related to postharvest ripening, such as colour,\\u000a softening and loss of acidity, and reducing respiration rate. In addition, the edible coatings showed a

Huertas M. Díaz-Mula; María Serrano; Daniel Valero

410

Diarylheptanoids and phenylphenalenones from Musa itinerans fruits.  

PubMed

Two diarylheptanoids, musaitinerins A and B, one heterodimeric phenylphenalenone musaitinerone and four known phenylphenalenones, identified as 4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-9-phenyl-1H-phenalen-1-one, musanolone E, hydroxyanigorufone and irenolone were isolated from the fruits of Musa itinerans Cheesm. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic analyses. The antimicrobial activity of these compounds was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans; the cytotoxic activity of these compounds was also evaluated against human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K562) and human alveolar carcinoma epithelial (A549) cell lines, respectively. Musaitinerone and musanolone E exhibited weak effects against the A549 cell line, as compared with adriamycin. However, these two compounds did not exhibit any growth inhibition against K562 cells, S. aureus, E. coli or C. albicans. The other compounds were inactive against all of the tested cell lines and microorganisms, even at concentrations as high as 50?M. PMID:24766994

Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian-Yun; Yang, Fu-Mei; Gu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Wang, Yue-Hu; Long, Chun-Lin

2014-07-01

411

The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project designer Janet Haven of the University of Virginia American Studies Program presents the construction of the Hoover Dam as an alternative narrative to the devastation of the Great Depression in her photoessay, The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful. Five slide shows created in Flash2 cover the construction from diverting the Colorado River to pouring concrete and adding the final touches to a completed dam. The slide shows are prefaced by historical background, including short essays on topics such as the Dam as the "Machine in the Desert" and the text of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Dedication Speech upon completion, September 30, 1935. Images of maps and plans are linked throughout, and a list of Works Consulted gives concise source descriptions as well as ideas for further reading.

1998-01-01

412

[The antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels].  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties of freeze-dried citrus fruit peels (orange, lemon, grapefruit) and methanolic extracts from the peel were studied. Freeze-dried orange peel showed the highest, lemon peel somewhat less and grapefruit peel the lowest but still remarkable antioxidant activity. This could be significantly improved by preparing methanolic extracts of the peels. Comparative examinations and autoxidation studies with the flavanon glycosides hesperidin and naringin as well as with their aglycones hesperetin and naringenin showed that the former are mainly responsible for the antioxidative activity of the citrus peel and extracts. In order to compare their antioxidative activity with that of the commercially available natural antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and ascorbylpalmitate, the freeze-dried citrus peels and their methanolic extracts should be used in higher concentrations, in consideration of their peculiar properties and complex natural composition. Furthermore, aspects of the correlation between antioxidant activity and molecular structure of the flavanones were discussed. PMID:3727631

Kroyer, G

1986-03-01

413

Anthraquinones from the fruits of Vismia laurentii.  

PubMed

Phytochemical study of the fruits of Vismia laurentii resulted in the isolation of five structurally related compounds. Three of them are constituents, namely, laurentiquinone A (1) (methyl 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-methyl-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-carboxylate), laurentiquinone B (2) (methyl 5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,9-trimethyl-6,11-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-2H-anthra[2,3-b]pyran-8-carboxylate) and laurentiquinone C (3) (methyl 9-(ethanoyloxymethyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6,11-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-2H-anthra[2,3-b]pyran-8-carboxylate) and two are known compounds, emodin (4) and isoxanthorin (5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means. Crude extracts of hexane and EtOAc showed anti-plasmodial activity against the W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:18067931

Noungoue, Diderot Tchamo; Antheaume, Cyril; Chaabi, Mehdi; Lenta Ndjakou, Bruno; Ngouela, Silvère; Lobstein, Annelise; Tsamo, Etienne

2008-02-01

414

Anthraquinones from the fruits of Vismia laurentii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical study of the fruits of Vismia laurentii resulted in the isolation of five structurally related compounds. Three of them are constituents, namely, laurentiquinone A (1) (methyl 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-methyl-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-carboxylate), laurentiquinone B (2) (methyl 5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,9-trimethyl-6,11-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-2H-anthra[2,3-b]pyran-8-carboxylate) and laurentiquinone C (3) (methyl 9-(ethanoyloxymethyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6,11-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-2H-anthra[2,3-b]pyran-8-carboxylate) and two are known compounds, emodin (4) and isoxanthorin (5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means. Crude extracts of hexane

Diderot Tchamo Noungoue; Cyril Antheaume; Mehdi Chaabi; Bruno Lenta Ndjakou; Silvère Ngouela; Annelise Lobstein; Etienne Tsamo

2008-01-01

415

Antiproliferative effect of Angelica archangelica fruits.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the antiproliferative effect of a tincture from fruits of Angelica archangelica and the active components using the human pancreas cancer cell line PANC-1 as a model. Significant dose-dependent antiproliferative activity was observed in the tincture with an EC50 value of 28.6 microg/ml. Strong antiproliferative activity resulted from the two most abundant furanocoumarins in the tincture, imperatorin and xanthotoxin. The contribution of terpenes to this activity was insignificant. Imperatorin and xanthotoxin proved to be highly antiproliferative, with EC50 values of 2.7 microg/ml and 3.7 microg/ml, respectively, equivalent to 10 and 17 microM. The results indicate that furanocoumarins account for most of the antiproliferative activity of the tincture. PMID:15813373

Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

2004-01-01

416

Effectiveness of a bacteriophage in reducing Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut fruits and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen and new strategies to control it in food are needed. Among them, bacteriophages hold attributes that appear to be attractive. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the bacteriophage Listex P100 to control L. monocytogenes growth on melon, pear and apple products (juices and slices) stored at 10 °C. L. monocytogenes grew well in untreated fruit slices. In juices, the pathogen grew in untreated melon, survived in untreated pear and decreased in untreated apple. Phage treatment was more effective on melon followed by pear, but no effect on apple products was observed. Reductions of about 1.50 and 1.00 log cfu plug(-1) for melon and pear slices were found, respectively. In juices, higher reductions were obtained in melon (8.00 log cfu mL(-1)) followed by pear (2.10 log cfu mL(-1)) after 8 days of storage. L. monocytogenes in apple juice was unaffected by phage treatment in which the phage decreased to almost undetectable numbers. These results highlight that Listex P100 could avoid pathogen growth on fresh-cut and in fruit juices with high pH during storage at 10 °C. The combination with other technologies may be required to improve the phage application on high acidity fruits. PMID:24290636

Oliveira, M; Viñas, I; Colàs, P; Anguera, M; Usall, J; Abadias, M

2014-04-01

417

Barcoding Queensland Fruit Flies (Bactrocera tryoni): impediments and improvements.  

PubMed

Identification of adult fruit flies primarily involves microscopic examination of diagnostic morphological characters, while immature stages, such as larvae, can be more problematic. One of the Australia's most serious horticultural pests, the Queensland Fruit Fly (Bactrocera tryoni: Tephritidae), is of particular biosecurity/quarantine concern as the immature life stages occur within food produce and can be difficult to identify using morphological characteristics. DNA barcoding of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene could be employed to increase the accuracy of fruit fly species identifications. In our study, we tested the utility of standard DNA barcoding techniques and found them to be problematic for Queensland Fruit Flies, which (i) possess a nuclear copy (a numt pseudogene) of the barcoding region of COI that can be co-amplified; and (ii) as in previous COI phylogenetic analyses closely related B. tryoni complex species appear polyphyletic. We found that the presence of a large deletion in the numt copy of COI allowed an alternative primer to be designed to only amplify the mitochondrial COI locus in tephritid fruit flies. Comparisons of alternative commonly utilized mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome Oxidase II and Cytochrome b, revealed a similar level of variation to COI; however, COI is the most informative for DNA barcoding, given the large number of sequences from other tephritid fruit fly species available for comparison. Adopting DNA barcoding for the identification of problematic fly specimens provides a powerful tool to distinguish serious quarantine fruit fly pests (Tephritidae) from endemic fly species of lesser concern. PMID:22369549

Blacket, Mark J; Semeraro, Linda; Malipatil, Mallik B

2012-05-01

418

Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content. PMID:22518928

Abu-Zahra, T R

2011-09-15

419

Effect of Salinity on Tomato Fruit Ripening 1  

PubMed Central

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants from various cultivars growing on half-strength Hoagland solution were exposed at anthesis to 3 or 6 grams per liter NaCl. Salinity shortened the time of fruit development by 4 to 15%. Fruits of salt-treated plants were smaller and tasted better than did fruits of control plants. This result was obtained both for ripe fruits tested on the day of picking and for those picked at 100% development and allowed to ripen at room temperature for 9 days. Percentage of dry weight, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity; content of reducing sugars, Cl?, Na+, and various pericarp pigments; and electrical conductivity of the juice were higher in fruits of saline-treated plants than they were in those of control plants, while the pH was lower. Ethylene and CO2 evolution rates during ripening; as well as the activities of pectin methyl esterase, polymethylgalacturonase, and polygalacturonase; were also higher in fruits of the saline-treated plants. The treatment with 6 grams per liter NaCl shortened the fruit shelf life considerably.

Mizrahi, Yosef

1982-01-01

420

Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

2014-10-01

421

Composition of the cuticle of developing sweet cherry fruit.  

PubMed

The composition of wax and cutin from developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit was studied by GC-MS between 22 and 85 days after full bloom (DAFB). In this and our previous study, fruit mass and surface area increased in a sigmoidal pattern with time, but mass of the cuticular membrane (CM) per unit fruit surface area decreased. On a whole fruit basis, mass of CM increased up to 36 DAFB and remained constant thereafter. At maturity, triterpenes, alkanes and alcohols accounted for 75.6%, 19.1% and 1.2% of total wax, respectively. The most abundant constituents were the triterpenes ursolic (60.0%) and oleanolic acid (7.5%), the alkanes nonacosane (13.0%) and heptacosane (3.0%), and the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol (1.1%). In developing fruit triterpenes per unit area decreased, but alkanes and alcohols remained essentially constant. The cutin fraction of mature fruit consisted of mostly C16 (69.5%) and, to a lower extent, C18 monomers (19.4%) comprising alkanoic, omega-hydroxyacids, alpha,omega-dicarboxylic and midchain hydroxylated acids. The most abundant constituents were 9(10),16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic acid (53.6%) and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic acid (7.8%). Amounts of C16 and C18 monomers per unit area decreased in developing fruit, but remained approximately constant on a whole fruit basis. Within both classes of monomers, opposing changes occurred. Amounts of hexadecandioic, 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic, 9(10)-hydroxy-hexadecane-1,16-dioic and 9,10-epoxy-octadecane-1,18-dioic acids increased, but 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecenoic acids decreased. There were no qualitative and minor quantitative differences in wax and cutin composition between cultivars at maturity. Our data indicate that deposition of some constituents of wax and cutin ceased during early fruit development. PMID:17328933

Peschel, Stefanie; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Knoche, Moritz

2007-04-01

422

Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality.

2012-01-01

423

S-methylmethionine sulfonium in fruits of citrus hybrids.  

PubMed

The S-methylmethionine sulfonium (MMS) concentrations in fruits of citrus hybrids were measured, and found to increase during ripening of the fruit. However, there of eleven hybrids of 'Seto unshiu' crossed with 'Morita ponkan' and four of 9 hybrids of 'Murcott' tangor crossed with 'Seto unshiu' had low MMS concentrations even at late harvest stage. Crossbreeding is useful in producing new citrus fruits that have juices with the desirable characteristics of their parents without formation of dimethyl sulfide which is an off-flavor. PMID:8987599

Sakamoto, K; Inoue, A; Nakatani, M; Kozuka, H; Ohta, H; Osajima, Y

1996-09-01

424

Toxic metals in imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of lead, cadmium, and mercury in 134 samples of imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace and the cold vapor technique. Results obtained showed that the concentration of these metal ions in most cases did not exceed the maximum permissible concentration of metals in fresh fruits and vegetables as restricted by some countries. Only a few samples of fruits and vegetables contained levels of mercury, cadmium, and lead which exceeded these maximum permissible levels.

Husain, A.; Baroon, Z.; Al-Khalafawi, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)] [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1995-12-31

425

A Wearable Mobile Sensor Platform to Assist Fruit Grading  

PubMed Central

Wearable computing is a form of ubiquitous computing that offers flexible and useful tools for users. Specifically, glove-based systems have been used in the last 30 years in a variety of applications, but mostly focusing on sensing people's attributes, such as finger bending and heart rate. In contrast, we propose in this work a novel flexible and reconfigurable instrumentation platform in the form of a glove, which can be used to analyze and measure attributes of fruits by just pointing or touching them with the proposed glove. An architecture for such a platform is designed and its application for intuitive fruit grading is also presented, including experimental results for several fruits.

Aroca, Rafael V.; Gomes, Rafael B.; Dantas, Rummennigue R.; Calbo, Adonai G.; Goncalves, Luiz M. G.

2013-01-01

426

Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole in tomato fruits and soil.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to understand the residue and persistence behaviour of new insecticide chlorantraniliprole in tomato fruit and soil samples. Its residue was analyzed by HPLC and it dissipated in tomato fruit and soil following first order kinetics. The results showed half life (t(1/2)) value of 3.30 and 3.66 days for chlorantraniliprole in tomato fruit and soil, respectively. According to maximum residue limit (MRL) the pre-harvest interval (PHI) of chlorantraniliprole on tomato was 8-days after the treatment. PMID:22086181

Malhat, Farag; Abdallah, Hend; Hegazy, Islam

2012-03-01

427

Stomatal Density and Responsiveness of Banana Fruit Stomates  

PubMed Central

Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf. It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host. Images

Johnson, Barbara E.; Brun, W. A.

1966-01-01

428

Stomatal density and responsiveness of banana fruit stomates.  

PubMed

Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf.It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host. PMID:16656239

Johnson, B E; Brun, W A

1966-01-01

429

Field Infestation of Rambutan Fruits by Internal-Feeding Pests in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental

Grant T. McQuate; Peter A. Follett; Judy M. Yoshimoto

2000-01-01

430

Taï chimpanzees use botanical skills to discover fruit: what we can learn from their mistakes.  

PubMed

Fruit foragers are known to use spatial memory to relocate fruit, yet it is unclear how they manage to find fruit in the first place. In this study, we investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park make use of fruiting synchrony, the simultaneous emergence of fruit in trees of the same species, which can be used together with sensory cues, such as sight and smell, to discover fruit. We conducted observations of inspections, the visual checking of fruit availability in trees, and focused our analyses on inspections of empty trees, so to say "mistakes". Learning from their "mistakes", we found that chimpanzees had expectations of finding fruit days before feeding on it and significantly increased inspection activity after tasting the first fruit. Neither the duration of feeding nor density of fruit-bearing trees in the territory could account for the variation in inspection activity, which suggests chimpanzees did not simply develop a taste for specific fruit on which they had fed frequently. Instead, inspection activity was predicted by a botanical feature-the level of synchrony in fruit production of encountered trees. We conclude that chimpanzees make use of the synchronous emergence of rainforest fruits during daily foraging and base their expectations of finding fruit on a combination of botanical knowledge founded on the success rates of fruit discovery, and a categorization of fruit species. Our results provide new insights into the variety of food-finding strategies employed by primates and the adaptive value of categorization capacities. PMID:23576098

Janmaat, Karline R L; Ban, Simone D; Boesch, Christophe

2013-11-01

431

Suitability of Lychee Fruits On and Off the Tree for Cryptophlebia spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptophlebia illepida and C. ombrodelta larval establishment was studied in lychee fruit on and off the tree under field conditions. The proportion of larvae establishing from hatched eggs and the proportion of fruit with at least one larva estab- lishing were significantly higher for C. illepida in fruit detached from the tree com- pared with fruit on the tree. The

Peter A. Follett; Shannon DeLuz; Robert A. Lower; Donald K. Price

2003-01-01

432

Modeling dietary selectivity by Bornean orangutans: Evidence for integration of multiple criteria in fruit selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food patch visitation was compared to the availability of fruit patches of different species during 2 years in a Bornean lowland forest to examine orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) diet selectivity. Feeding on both the pulp and the seeds of nonfig fruit varied directly with fruit patch availability, demonstrating preference for these foods over fig fruit or other plant parts (bark or

Mark Leighton

1993-01-01

433

Some Fruit Traits of Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Genetic Resources from Malatya, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawthorns (Crataegus spp.) are native to Turkey. It is possible to see wild hawthorn bushes or trees in every regions of Turkey. This study deals with evaluating fruit characteristics of 42 genotypes belonging to five different hawthorn species collected from Malatya (eastern Turkey). The mean values of fruit height, fruit diameter, fruit weight, seed height and seed diameter differed statistically

M. Fikret Balta; F. Çelik; N. Turkoglu; K. Ozrenk; F. Ozgokçe

434

Quality and volatile attributes of attached and detached ‘Pluk Mai Lie’ papaya during fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘Pluk Mai Lie’ papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a promising cultivated fruit for use in fresh and processed products due to its firm flesh, but the aroma it releases is flat. Changes in quality and volatile profiles were analyzed during on- and off-tree fruit ripening. Detached fruit ripened faster than attached fruit, accumulating high internal ethylene levels. Aside from

P. Fuggate; C. Wongs-Aree; S. Noichinda; S. Kanlayanarat

2010-01-01

435

Ethylene-regulation of fruit softening and softening-related genes in peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of ethylene in peach fruit softening during ripening, stony hard peach fruit, in which ethylene production is suppressed during ripening, were treated with various concentrations of ethylene. There was no noticeable decrease in flesh firmness without ethylene treatment, while applied ethylene, in the range 0.1-100 m ll 21, resulted in fruit softening. Furthermore, the fruit softened

Hiroko Hayama; Takehiko Shimada; Hiroshi Fujii; Akiko Ito; Yoshiki Kashimura

2006-01-01

436

Effect of preharvest bagging on fruit quality and postharvest physiology of pears (Pyrus communis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preharvest bagging of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L. ‘Doyenne du Comice') with micro?perforated polyethylene bags c. 30 days after full bloom did not affect fruit size and weight, density, maturity, and flesh content of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. Bagged fruit had a greener and lighter skin colour than non?bagged fruit, whereas the development of blush on the sunny

Cassandro Amarante; Nigel H. Banks; Shane Max

2002-01-01

437

Distinctive Exotic Flavour and Aroma Compounds of Some Exotic Tropical Fruits and Berries: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic flavour of exotic tropical fruits is one of the most attractive attributes to consumers. In this chapter, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavours is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are

Ola Lasekan; Kassim Abbas

2011-01-01

438

Distinctive Exotic Flavor and Aroma Compounds of some Exotic Tropical Fruits and Berries: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are

Ola Lasekan; Kassim A. Abbas

2012-01-01

439

Characterization of gibberellin-signalling elements during plum fruit ontogeny defines the essentiality of gibberellin in fruit development.  

PubMed

Fruit growth is a coordinated, complex interaction of cell division, differentiation and expansion. Gibberellin (GA) involvement in the reproductive events is an important aspect of GA effects. Perennial fruit-trees such as plum (Prunus salicina L.) have distinct features that are economically important and provide opportunities to dissect specific GA mechanisms. Currently, very little is known on the molecular mechanism(s) mediating GA effects on fruit development. Determination of bioactive GA content during plum fruit ontogeny revealed that GA1 and GA4 are critical for fruit growth and development. Further, characterization of several genes involved in GA-signalling showed that their transcriptional regulation are generally GA-dependent, confirming their involvement in GA-signalling. Based on these results, a model is presented elucidating how the potential association between GA and other hormones may contribute to fruit development. PslGID1 proteins structure, Y2H and BiFC assays indicated that plum GA-receptors can form a complex with AtDELLA-repressors in a GA-dependent manner. Moreover, phenotypical-, molecular- and GA-analyses of various Arabidopsis backgrounds ectopically expressing PslGID1 sequences provide evidence on their role as active GA-signalling components that mediate GA-responsiveness. Our findings support the critical contribution of GA alone or in association with other hormones in mediating plum fruit growth and development. PMID:24142379

El-Sharkawy, Islam; Sherif, Sherif; El Kayal, Walid; Mahboob, Abdullah; Abubaker, Kamal; Ravindran, Pratibha; Jyothi-Prakash, Pavithra A; Kumar, Prakash P; Jayasankar, Subramanian

2014-03-01

440

Detection of a resistance gradient to Passion fruit woodiness virus and selection of 'yellow' passion fruit plants under field conditions.  

PubMed

Productivity of 'yellow' passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa O. Deg.) is reduced by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). We examined resistance in 72 yellow passion fruit plants grown from open-pollinated commercial seed. Plants were mechanically inoculated with CABMV virus and maintained in the field in order to select contrasting genotypes for resistance. Isolates were obtained from symptomatic leaves of yellow passion fruit plants from field production in Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia state and were characterized by sequencing the viral coat protein gene. Severity of leaf symptoms of the disease, evaluated through a global leaf disease index, was measured during the eighth month of growth. Morpho-agronomic variables of fruit were evaluated from months 10 to 12. Significant linear regressions between the quantification of the leaf symptoms and the morpho-agronomic characteristics related to productivity were detected (5.17% fruit productivity, severity of leaf symptoms of the disease, and the application of a selection index of 10%, four contrasting groups of 'yellow' passion fruit plants considered as "resistant", "mildly resistant", "susceptible" and "extremely susceptible" in their reaction to CABMV (0.0001 < p < 0.024) were selected. These plants could be useful for genetic studies and for breeding yellow passion fruit plants resistant to this disease. PMID:19048500

Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Moreira, C N; Figueira, A R; Corrêa, R X; Oliveira, A C

2008-01-01

441

Changes in distribution of cell wall polysaccharides in floral and fruit abscission zones during fruit development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).  

PubMed

After fruit development has been triggered by pollination, the abscission zone (AZ) in the pedicel strengthens its adhesion to keep the fruit attached. Unpollinated flowers are shed at their respective AZs, whereas an enlargement of the same tissue is observed in pollinated flowers. After the fruit has developed and is fully ripened, shedding occurs easily at the AZ, indicating an acceleration of abscission. Cell wall degradation and synthesis may play important roles in these processes; however, little is understood. In this report, we have visualized changes in polysaccharide distribution in the AZs of pollinated versus unpollinated flowers and in the ripened fruits using immunohistochemistry. During floral abscission, a large increase was observed in LM15 labeling of xyloglucan specifically at the AZ in the abscising pedicel. LM5 and LM6 labeling of galactan and arabinan, respectively, also increased-LM5 throughout the pedicel and LM6 at the basal side of the AZ. The results suggest that xyloglucan, pectic galactan and arabinan play key roles in the abscission process. During fruit abscission, unlike in floral abscission, no AZ-specific cell wall polysaccharide deposition was observed; however, high autofluorescence was seen in the AZ of over-ripe fruit pedicels, suggesting secondary cell wall synthesis and lignification of the AZ prior to fruit abscission. PMID:23124772

Iwai, Hiroaki; Terao, Azusa; Satoh, Shinobu

2013-05-01

442

Pollination biology of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants and the role of flower-visiting insects in fruit-set  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In the UK, the flowers of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants provide a succession of pollen and nectar for flower-visiting insects for much of the year. The fruits of hedgerow plants are a source of winter food for frugivorous birds on farmland. It is unclear whether recent declines in pollinator populations are likely to threaten fruit-set and hence food supply for birds. The present study investigates the pollination biology of five common hedgerow plants: blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), dog rose (Rosa canina), bramble (Rubus fruticosus) and ivy (Hedera helix). Methods The requirement for insect pollination was investigated initially by excluding insects from flowers by using mesh bags and comparing immature and mature fruit-set with those of open-pollinated flowers. Those plants that showed a requirement for insect pollination were then tested to compare fruit-set under two additional pollination service scenarios: (1) reduced pollination, with insects excluded from flowers bagged for part of the flowering period, and (2) supplemental pollination, with flowers hand cross-pollinated to test for pollen limitation. Key Results The proportions of flowers setting fruit in blackthorn, hawthorn and ivy were significantly reduced when insects were excluded from flowers by using mesh bags, whereas fruit-set in bramble and dog rose were unaffected. Restricting the exposure of flowers to pollinators had no significant effect on fruit-set. However, blackthorn and hawthorn were found to be pollen-limited, suggesting that the pollination service was inadequate in the study area. Conclusions Ensuring strong populations of insect pollinators may be essential to guarantee a winter fruit supply for birds in UK hedgerows.

Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Clark, Suzanne J.; Denholm, Ian; Goulson, Dave; Stoate, Chris; Osborne, Juliet L.

2009-01-01

443

Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.  

PubMed

The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits. PMID:1852726

Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

1991-04-01

444

Schools Add More Fruits, Veggies to the '3 Rs'  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Schools Add More Fruits, Veggies to the '3 Rs' ... March 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Nutrition School Health TUESDAY, March 4 (HealthDay News) -- Under new ...

445

Phenolic and antioxidant profiles of rowan (Sorbus L.) fruits.  

PubMed

Fruits of different Sorbus L. species have been traditionally used in food production and in the treatment of various ailments. Besides common antioxidant active phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, tocopherols and carotenoids, fruits are rich in phenolic compounds that are of particular interest. In this study, profiles of separate antioxidant active compounds (reducing and radical-scavenging activities) were investigated using online assays with post-column reactions. Significant variations in phenolic acids and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity values were observed in the fruits of Sorbus L. species studied. Neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids were determined as markers of antioxidant activity. Characteristic patterns of antioxidant profiles obtained using HPLC post-column FRAP and ABTS assays significantly depend on specific Sorbus L. species and are suitable for equivalency research of Sorbus L. fruits. PMID:24628690

Raudonis, Raimondas; Raudon?, Lina; Gaivelyt?, Kristina; Viškelis, Pranas; Janulis, Valdimaras

2014-08-01

446

20. Detail of 8" square solid wood column at fruit ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Detail of 8" square solid wood column at fruit and vegetable storage room; note ledger plates bolted to top of column - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

447

Studies of tropical fruit ripening using three different spectroscopic techniques.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. We present a noninvasive method to study fruit ripening. The method is based on the combination of reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopies, as well as gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS). Chlorophyll and oxygen are two of the most important constituents in the fruit ripening process. Reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to quantify the changes of chlorophyll and other chromophores. GASMAS, based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, was used to measure free molecular oxygen in the fruit tissue at 760 nm, based on the fact that the free gases have much narrower spectral imprints than those of solid materials. The fruit maturation and ripening processes can be followed by studying the changes of chlorophyll and oxygen contents with these three techniques. PMID:24887745

Zhang, Hao; Huang, Jing; Li, Tianqi; Wu, Xiuxiang; Svanberg, Sune; Svanberg, Katarina

2014-06-01

448

Tissue culture and top-fruit tree species.  

PubMed

The commercial cultivation of rosaceous fruit trees (e.g., pear, apple, cherry, peach, plum) relies heavily upon the quality and performance of the rootstocks. This is even more the case now that self-rooted scions produce larger trees with a longer juvenile phase (1). It would, therefore, be of special interest for the fruit breeder to have general purpose rootstocks with a wide ecophysiological adaptation and high compatibility coupled with early cropping. In addition, many of the older and highly adapted scion varieties of fruit trees could benefit greatly from the introduction of stable, yet minor changes in their genome. Fruit trees are generally highly heterozygous, outbreeding, and thus are asexually propagated (see Chapter 10 , this vol.). Consequently, genetic improvement is likely to be based on protoplast technology, and achieved mainly through somatic methods, such as somaclonal variation or somatic hybridization. PMID:21390607

Ochatt, S J; Davey, M R; Power, J B

1990-01-01

449

Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.  

PubMed

Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. PMID:24360417

Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

2014-05-01

450

Cell-wall regeneration by isolated tomato-fruit protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using both light microscopy and electron microscopy of thin sections, and surface replicas, it has been shown that isolated tomato fruit locule tissue protoplasts regenerate a new cell wall when maintained in suitable culture media.

E. Pojnar; J. H. M. Willison; E. C. Cocking

1967-01-01

451

[Exogenous allergic alveolitis in a fruit refrigeration worker].  

PubMed

The causes for an exogenic allergic alveolitis are very multifarious. On the basis of a casuistics is referred to the development of such a disease by the contact with fruit mould in cold-storage plants. PMID:3400297

Mder, I; Liebetrau, G; Treutler, D

1988-04-15

452

Fruits and Seeds of Genera in the Subfamily Mimosoideae (Fabaceae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical identification of fruits and seeds of the economically important legume plant family (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) is often required of U.S. Department of Agriculture personnel and other agricultural scientists. This Bulletin provides relevant infor...

C. R. Gunn

1984-01-01

453

Fruits and Veggies May Reduce Death Risk, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Fruits and Veggies May Reduce Death Risk, Study Suggests Large 12-year review found ... and vegetables may substantially cut your risk of death. Researchers analyzed the eating habits of more than ...

454

Secoiridoid constituents from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum.  

PubMed

Two secoiridoid glucosides, lucidumosides A and B, as well as six known glucosides, oleoside dimethyl ester, ligustroside, oleuropein, nuezhenide, isonuezhenide, and neonuezhenide, were isolated from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:11249095

He, Z D; Dong, H; Xu, H X; Ye, W C; Sun, H D; But, P P

2001-02-01

455

FRUIT CANNERY WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE AS A CATTLE FEED INGREDIENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of sludge disposal, from a fruit processing waste activated sludge treatment system, by dewatering and using the dewatered biological sludge solids as cattle feed was evaluated by Snokist Growers at Yakima, Washington. Dewatering of the biological sludge utilizing...

456

Mechanisms Modulating Postharvest Pathogen Colonization of Decaying Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As biotrophs, insidious fungal infections of postharvest pathogens remain quiescent during fruit growth while at a particular\\u000a phase during fruit ripening and senescence the pathogens transform to necrotrophs causing typical decay symptoms. Exposure\\u000a of unripe hosts to pathogens (hemi-biotroph or necrotrophs), initiates defensive signal-transduction cascades that limit fungal\\u000a growth and development. Exposure to the same pathogens during ripening and storage