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1

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents  

PubMed Central

Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Materials and Methods: Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica. PMID:24501443

Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; Balakrishnan, B. R.

2013-01-01

2

Study of the effect of aqueous extract of Grewia tenax fruit on iron absorption by everted gut sac.  

PubMed

Grewia tenax roots, leaves, juice and fruit decoctions have been used in Africa and Southeast Asiatic countries for a variety of medical purposes. In this investigation, we report the effect of aqueous extract of Grewia tenax fruit (AEGTF) on the variation in vitro of iron absorption. The incubation of freshly prepared rat everted gut sac (EGS) in Ringer medium containing FeSO(4) in the absence of AEGTF showed that in stomach there is iron absorption only at 15 min of incubation time, whereas, at duodenum and jejunum, iron uptake occurs just after 1 min of incubation time and the maximum of iron absorption is registered at 15 min of incubation time. Addition of AEGTF at different concentrations favors significantly this iron transfer from the mucous side toward the serous one. The maximum of iron absorption was carried out in the presence of AEGTF at 10 mg/ml and 5 min of incubation time in stomach, duodenum and jejunum. AEGTF used at high doses (20 and 30 mg/ml) reduced significantly iron uptake suggesting a probable toxic effect of this extract. Histological studies confirmed the presence of cytotoxic signs as multinucleated giant cells and the disappearance of enterocyte border brush. With the aim of elucidating the mechanism of action of AEGTF, we are attempting to isolate the active principles present in this extract. PMID:16169169

Khemiss, F; Ghoul-Mazgar, S; Moshtaghie, A A; Saidane, D

2006-01-01

3

Preformulation studies on grewia gum as a formulation excipient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grewia gum is a naturally occurring polysaccharide which has potential as a pharmaceutical excipient. Differential scanning\\u000a calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques were used to examine the thermal and molecular\\u000a behaviours, respectively, of mixtures of grewia gum with cimetidine, ibuprofen or standard excipients, to assess potential\\u000a interactions. No disappearance or broadening of the melting endotherm was seen with

Elijah I. NepBarbara; Barbara R. Conway

4

Centella asiatica in cosmetology  

PubMed Central

Centella asiatica known as Gotu Kola is a medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years as well as in scientifically oriented medicine. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acids. Centella asiatica is effective in improving treatment of small wounds, hypertrophic wounds as well as burns, psoriasis and scleroderma. The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Research results indicate that it can be used in the treatment of photoaging skin, cellulite and striae. PMID:24278045

Znajdek-Awi?e?, Paulina; Studzi?ska-Sroka, El?bieta; Brzezi?ska, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

5

Striga asiatica Control in Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Striga spp. are root parasites of many commercial crops in the tropics and sub-tropics. A field experiment was conducted during 1974–75 to assess the effectiveness in controlling Striga asiatica in sorghum of atrazine, 2,4-D and paraquat applied alone and in combination at different growth stages of the crop. All treatments involving the use of 2,4-D caused a significant reduction in

N. T. Yaduraju; M. M. Hosmani

1979-01-01

6

Grewia gum as a potential aqueous film coating agent. I: Some physicochemical characteristics of fractions of grewia gum  

PubMed Central

Background: Grewia gum has received attention as a polymeric pharmaceutical excipient in the recent times, being employed as a suspending, film coating, mucoadhesive, and binding agent. The low aqueous solubility, however, has limited its characterization and application. Objective: The purpose of this study was to fractionate and evaluate some physicochemical properties of the gum. Materials and Methods: Aqueous dispersion of the gum was treated at 80°C for 30 min in the presence of sodium chloride and was subsequently fractionated by successively centrifuging it at 3445 rpm for 30 min. Skeletal density, solubility, particle size, and rheological as well as thermal characteristics of the fractions were evaluated. The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and near infrared (NIR) profiles of the fractions were also investigated. The solubility of the gum increased up to fourfold while the viscosity decreased from 244 to as low as70 cP at 40 rpm with some fractions. Results: Grewia gum and the fractions showed good thermal stability exhibiting no thermal events, but charred irreversibly at 297°C irrespective of the fraction. The molecular weight averages by weight and by number of the fractions were between 233,100 and 235,000. The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed broad peaks. The NMR and NIR spectra suggested the presence of –OH and –OCH3 functional groups in this gum. Conclusion: The fractionation improved solubility and facilitated further investigations on its characteristics that may have implication on its processing, application, and optimization as a potential pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:23559825

Ogaji, Ikoni J.; Okafor, Ignatius S.; Hoag, Stephen W.

2013-01-01

7

Immunoblot Patterns of Taenia asiatica Taeniasis  

PubMed Central

Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica infection from other human taeniases by serology has been tested. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was applied to subjected human sera and tapeworm materials. Thirty-eight proteins reactive to serum IgG were observed between 121 and 10 kDa in adult worms, and more than 22 serum-reactive components between 97 kDa and 21.5 kDa were observed in eggs of T. asiatica. Antigens of adult T. asiatica revealed immunoblot bands between 120 and 21.5 kDa against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia saginata revealed 110-100, 66, 58-56, and 46 kDa immunoblot bands against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia solium also revealed 99-97, 68-66, and 46 kDa bands against T. asiatica infected sera. The immunoblot band of 21.5 kDa exhibited specificity to T. asiatica. PMID:19290097

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

2009-01-01

8

Barium Levels in Soils and Centella asiatica  

PubMed Central

In this study, Centella asiatica and surface soils were collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and the barium (Ba) concentrations were determined. The Ba concentration [?g/g dry weight (dw)] was 63.72 to 382.01 ?g/g in soils while in C. asiatica, Ba concentrations ranged from 5.05 to 21.88 ?g/g for roots, 3.31 to 11.22 ?g/g for leaves and 2.37 to 6.14 ?g/g for stems. In C. asiatica, Ba accumulation was found to be the highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. The correlation coefficients (r) of Ba between plants and soils were found to be significantly positively correlated, with the highest correlation being between roots-soils (r=0.922, p<005), followed by leaves-soils (r=0.890, p<005) and stems-soils (r=0.848, p<005). This indicates that these three parts of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. For the transplantation study, four sites were selected as unpolluted [(Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)], semi-polluted (Seri Kembangan and Balakong) and polluted sites (Juru). Based on the transplantation study under experimental field and laboratory conditions, Ba concentrations in C. asiatica were significantly (p<0.05) higher after three weeks of exposure at Seri Kembangan, Balakong and Juru. Thus, these experimental findings confirm that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica can reflect the Ba levels in the soils where this plant is found. Three weeks after back transplantation to clean soils, the Ba levels in C. asiatica were still higher than the initial Ba level even though Ba elimination occurred. In conclusion, the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. PMID:24575242

Ong, Ghim Hock; Yap, Chee Kong; Mahmood, Maziah; Tan, Soon Guan; Hamzah, Suhaimi

2013-01-01

9

Evaluation of morphological and molecular variation in Plantago asiatica var. densiuscula , with special reference to the systematic treatment of Plantago asiatica var. yakusimensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and molecular variations in Plantago asiatica L. var. densiuscula Pilg. were analyzed to evaluate the genetic basis for recognizing the dwarf variety P. asiatica var. yakusimensis (Masam.) Ohwi. Considerable variation in the leaf size of P. asiatica var. densiuscula was observed, and no morphological discontinuities were found between the dwarf types of P. asiatica var. densiuscula and P. asiatica

Naoko Ishikawa; Jun Yokoyama; Hiroshi Ikeda; Eriko Takabe; Hirokazu Tsukaya

2006-01-01

10

Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

2013-02-01

11

Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

2013-01-01

12

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

2014-01-01

13

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

2014-01-01

14

Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species  

PubMed Central

Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

2009-01-01

15

Effects of NaCl on surface properties, chlorophyll fluorescence and light remission, and cellular compounds of Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori and Tamarindus indica L. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings of the salt-tolerant plant grewia [Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori] and the moderately salt-tolerant tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) were grown under controlled conditions and treated daily with NaCl solutions to investigate mechanisms of tolerance to\\u000a salinity. Leaf micromorphology, cuticular wax load, chlorophyll fluorescence and light remission, as well as antioxidative\\u000a potential were evaluated. As confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis in

Mauricio Hunsche; Kathrin Bürling; Amina Sirag Saied; Michaela Schmitz-Eiberger; Muhammad Sohail; Jens Gebauer; Georg Noga; Andreas Buerkert

2010-01-01

16

Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

2013-07-01

17

Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

2013-01-01

18

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Cleome viscosa and Gmelina asiatica.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extracts of the leaves and flowers of Cleome viscosa and roots of Gmelina asiatica were tested for antimicrobial activity. The two plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly significative against Escherichia coli , Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaf extract of C. viscosa showed moderate activity against pathogenic fungi. PMID:16325351

Sudhakar, M; Rao, Ch V; Rao, P M; Raju, D B

2006-01-01

19

Description of Telamoptilia grewiae sp. n. and the consequences for the definition of the genera Telamoptilia and Spulerina (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The new species Telamoptilia grewiae, reared from leafmines on Grewia biloba (Malvaceae) is described with details on adult and immature stages. The larval head and the pupa are described for the first time in Telamoptilia Kumata & Kuroko, 1988, and are illustrated with scanning electron micrographs and line drawings. Photographs of adult habitus, wing venation, male and female genitalia, as well as host plant and mines are provided. The apomorphic adult and larval characters of the new species in Telamoptilia are discussed in relation to the recognition of the genera Telamoptilia and Spulerina Vári, 1961.

Liu, Tengteng; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Houhun

2015-01-01

20

Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

2013-01-01

21

Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

2013-02-01

22

Antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica Nakai.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica Nakai, its main constituents: 1,8-cineole and selin-11-en-4alpha-ol and monoterpene alcohols fraction were determined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Rhodotorula rubra and Aspergillus fumigatus. The oil exhibited a good inhibitory activity against bacteria and fungi. The monoterpene alcohols fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity. PMID:12164281

Kalemba, D; Kusewicz, D; Swiader, K

2002-05-01

23

Oxidative stress responses of submerged macrophyte Vallisneria asiatica to different concentrations of cyanobacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a 10-day aquarium experiment, this investigation examines macrophyte restoration in eutrophic Lake Taihu, the physiological effects of different plant biomass levels and of increasing natural cyanobacterial concentrations on a submerged macrophyte, Vallisneria asiatica. Cyanobacterial stress suppressed the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the plant's leaves and induced the catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities of its roots. The soluble protein content in V. asiatica decreased with an increase in natural cyanobacterial concentrations, whereas the malonaldehyde (MDA) increased significantly at chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations of 222 and 262 ?g/L in water. V. asiatica adapted to the stress caused by cyanobacterial concentrations by adjusting its antioxidant defense system to remove the excessive reactive oxygen species when the algal Chl a concentration was >109 ?g/L. Additionally, high biomass of V. asiatica (2 222 g FW/m2) can inhibit the reproduction of cyanobacteria more significantly than low biomass (1 111 g FW/m2). High biomass of V. asiatica increased the oxidative stress in an individual plant when the initial Chl a concentration in the water reached 222 and 262 ?g/L, as expressed by the increased MDA in leaves, compared with low biomass of V. asiatica. This provides a basis for controlling cyanobacterial concentrations and V. asiatica biomass for the recovery of V. asiatica in eutrophic Lake Taihu.

Kang, Caixia; Kuba, Takahiro; Hao, Aimin; Iseri, Yasushi; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Zhenjia

2014-11-01

24

Semagenesis and the parasitic angiosperm Striga asiatica William John Keyes1,,  

E-print Network

Semagenesis and the parasitic angiosperm Striga asiatica William John Keyes1,, , Andrew G. Palmer1 angiosperms, which naturally commit to virulence through the growth of new organs, depend on reduced oxygen asiatica, reactive oxygen species, xenognosis, parasitic angiosperms, host­ parasite interactions

Weeks, Eric R.

25

Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of Centella asiatica (L.) extract in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

In vitro study revealed that pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of C. asiatica extract was significantly higher than rutin but lower than orlistat, an anti-obesity drug. alpha-Amylase inhibitory activities of C. asiatica extract and rutin were significantly lower than acarbose, an anti-diabetic drug. Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase activity by C. asiatica extract, rutin, and acarbose was not different. The in vivo study substantiated the in vitro results. C. asiatica extract (1000 and 2000 mg/4 mL/kg), rutin (1000 mg/4 mL/kg), and orlistat (45 mg/4 mL/kg) significantly decreased plasma glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in lipid emulsion-induced hyperlipidemic rats at 3 h. However, plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels did not show significant change. The present work further supports that the C. asiatica extract and its bioactive rutin may help managing hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. PMID:25345245

Supkamonseni, Nattapon; Thinkratok, Aree; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Srisawat, Rungrudee

2014-10-01

26

Microwave induced synthesis of graft copolymer of binary vinyl monomer mixtures onto delignified Grewia optiva fiber: application in dye removal.  

PubMed

Grafting method, through microwave radiation technique is very effective in terms of time consumption, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Via this method, delignified Grewia optiva identified as a waste biomass, was graft copolymerized with methylmethacrylate (MMA) as an principal monomer in a binary mixture of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA) under microwave irradiation (MWR) using ascorbic acid/H2O2 as an initiator system. The concentration of the comonomer was optimized to maximize the graft yield with respect to the primary monomer. Maximum graft yield (86.32%) was found for dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) binary mixture as compared to other synthesized copolymer. The experimental results inferred that the optimal concentrations for the comonomers to the optimized primary monomer was observed to be 3.19 mol/L × 10(-1) for EMA and 2.76 mol/L × 10(-1) for EA. Delignified and graft copolymerized fiber were subjected to evaluation of physicochemical properties such as swelling behavior and chemical resistance. The synthesized graft copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermal stability of dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) was found to be more as compared to the delignified Grewia optiva fiber and other graft copolymers. Although the grafting technique was found to decrease percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index among the graft copolymers but there was significant increase in their acid/base and thermal resistance properties. The grafted samples have been explored for the adsorption of hazardous methylene dye from aqueous system. PMID:25157348

Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Pathania, Deepak; Priya, Bhanu; Singha, Amar Singh; Sharma, Gaurav

2014-01-01

27

Effect of auxins (IBA and NAA) and season on rooting of juvenile and mature hardwood cuttings of Robinia pseudoacacia and Grewia optiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile (2 year old trees) and mature hardwood (15 year old trees) cuttings of Robinia pseudoacacia and Grewia optiva were tested for their capacity to form roots. Cuttings were prepared in spring, monsoon and winter seasons and treated with different concentrations (250, 500 and 750 mg\\/l) of IBA and NAA. These were planted in a mist chamber maintained at 25?±?1?°C

S. L. Swamy; S. Puri; A. K. Singh

2002-01-01

28

Influence of milling time on fineness of Centella Asiatica particle size produced using planetary ball mill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centella Asiatica (C. Asiatica)contains asiaticoside as bioactive constituent which can be potentially used in skin healing process. Unfortunately, the normal powders are difficult to be absorbed by the body effectively. In order to improve the value of use, nano C. Asiatica powder was prepared. The influence of milling time was carried out at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours and 10 hours. The effect of ball milling at different times was characterized using particles size analysis and FTIR Spectroscopy. The fineness of ground product was evaluated by recording the z-Average (nm), undersize distribution and polydispersity index (PdI). The results show that the smallest size particles by mean is 233 nm while FTIR spectra shows that there is no changing in the major component in the C. Asiatica powders with milling time.

Borhan, M. Z.; Ahmad, R.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

2012-11-01

29

Centella asiatica Attenuates Diabetes Induced Hippocampal Changes in Experimental Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus has been reported to affect functions of the hippocampus. We hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a herb traditionally being used to improve memory, prevents diabetes-related hippocampal dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of C. asiatica on the hippocampus in diabetes. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced adult male diabetic rats received 100 and 200?mg/kg/day body weight (b.w) C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract for four consecutive weeks. Following sacrifice, hippocampus was removed and hippocampal tissue homogenates were analyzed for Na(+)/K(+)-, Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPases activity levels. Levels of the markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-?; interleukin, IL-6; and interleukin, IL-1?) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation product: LPO, superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, and glutathione peroxidase: GPx) were determined. The hippocampal sections were visualized for histopathological changes. Results. Administration of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract to diabetic rats maintained near normal ATPases activity levels and prevents the increase in the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus. Lesser signs of histopathological changes were observed in the hippocampus of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract treated diabetic rats. Conclusions. C. asiatica leaf protects the hippocampus against diabetes-induced dysfunction which could help to preserve memory in this condition. PMID:25161691

Giribabu, Nelli; Srinivasarao, Nelli; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

2014-01-01

30

Centella asiatica Attenuates Diabetes Induced Hippocampal Changes in Experimental Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus has been reported to affect functions of the hippocampus. We hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a herb traditionally being used to improve memory, prevents diabetes-related hippocampal dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of C. asiatica on the hippocampus in diabetes. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced adult male diabetic rats received 100 and 200?mg/kg/day body weight (b.w) C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract for four consecutive weeks. Following sacrifice, hippocampus was removed and hippocampal tissue homogenates were analyzed for Na+/K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPases activity levels. Levels of the markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-?; interleukin, IL-6; and interleukin, IL-1?) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation product: LPO, superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, and glutathione peroxidase: GPx) were determined. The hippocampal sections were visualized for histopathological changes. Results. Administration of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract to diabetic rats maintained near normal ATPases activity levels and prevents the increase in the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus. Lesser signs of histopathological changes were observed in the hippocampus of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract treated diabetic rats. Conclusions. C. asiatica leaf protects the hippocampus against diabetes-induced dysfunction which could help to preserve memory in this condition. PMID:25161691

Srinivasarao, Nelli; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Muniandy, Sekaran

2014-01-01

31

On the phytosociology and ecology of Isoëtes asiatica (Makino) Makino in oligotrophic water bodies of South Sakhalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, in the southeast of the Sakhalin Island and south of the village Okhotskoye, Isoëtes asiatica (Makino) Makino and I. beringensis Kom. were detected in 24 oligotrophic lakes for the first time on Sakhalin. These are stands of the community of Isoëtetum asiaticae ass. nov. which in the majority of the lakes form a characteristic pioneer vegetation of the

W. Pietsch

1991-01-01

32

Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.  

PubMed

Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

2012-04-01

33

Genetic characterization of Zostera asiatica on the Pacific Coast of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We gathered sequence information from the nuclear 5.8S rDNA gene and associated internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2 (5.8S rDNA/ITS), and the chloroplast maturase K (matK) gene, from Zostera samples collected from subtidal habitats in Monterey and Santa Barbara (Isla Vista) bays, California, to test the hypothesis that these plants are conspecific with Z. asiatica Miki of Asia. Sequences from approximately 520 base pairs of the nuclear 5.8S rDNA/ITS obtained from the subtidal Monterey and Isla Vista Zostera samples were identical to homologous sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California. Similarly, sequences from the matK gene from the subtidal Zostera samples were identical to matK sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California, but differed from Z. asiatica sequences accessioned into GenBank. This suggests the subtidal plants are conspecific with Z. marina, not Z. asiatica. However, we found that herbarium samples accessioned into the Kyoto University Herbarium, determined to be Z. asiatica, yielded 5.8S rDNA/ITS sequences consistent with either Z. japonica, in two cases, or Z. marina, in one case. Similar results were observed for the chloroplast matK gene; we found haplotypes that were inconsistent with published matK sequences from Z. asiatica collected from Japan. These results underscore the need for closer examination of the relationship between Z. marina along the Pacific Coast of North America, and Z. asiatica of Asia, for the retention and verification of specimens examined in scientific studies, and for assessment of the usefulness of morphological characters in the determination of taxonomic relationships within Zosteraceae.

Talbot, S.L.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.; Ward, D.H.; Rearick, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Chesney, B.; Phillips, R.C.

2006-01-01

34

Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against amyloid-? toxicity.  

PubMed

The accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) improves learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of A? accumulation. However the active compounds in CAW remain unknown. Here we used two in vitro models of A? toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect and identify several active constituents of the CAW extract. CAW reduced A?-induced cell death and attenuated A?-induced changes in tau expression and phosphorylation in both the MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. We confirmed and quantified the presence of several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in CAW using chromatographic separation coupled to mass spectrometry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Multiple dicaffeoylquinic acids showed efficacy in protecting MC65 cells against A?-induced cytotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acid A and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be the most abundant CQAs in CAW, and the most active in protecting MC65 cells from A?-induced cell death. Both compounds showed neuroprotective activity in MC65 and SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations comparable to their levels in CAW. Each compound not only mitigated A?-induced cell death, but was able to attenuate A?-induced alterations in tau expression and phosphorylation in both cell lines, as seen with CAW. These data suggest that CQAs are active neuroprotective components in CAW, and therefore are important markers for future studies on CAW standardization, bioavailability, and dosing. PMID:24448790

Gray, Nora E; Morré, Jeff; Kelley, Jeremiah; Maier, Claudia S; Stevens, Jan F; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

2014-01-01

35

Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against ?-amyloid toxicity  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) improves learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of A? accumulation. However the active compounds in CAW remain unknown. Here we used two in vitro models of A? toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect, and identify several active constituents of the CAW extract. CAW reduced A?-induced cell death and attenuated A?-induced changes in tau expression and phosphorylation in both the MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. We confirmed and quantified the presence of several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in CAW using chromatographic separation coupled to mass spectrometry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Multiple dicaffeoylquinic acids showed efficacy in protecting MC65 cells against A?-induced cytotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acid A and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be the most abundant CQAs in CAW, and the most active in protecting MC65 cells from A?-induced cell death. Both compounds showed neuroprotective activity in MC65 and SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations comparable to their levels in CAW. Each compound not only mitigated A?-induced cell death, but was able to attenuate A?-induced alterations in tau expression and phosphorylation in both cell lines, as seen with CAW. These data suggest that CQAs are active neuroprotective components in CAW, and therefore are important markers for future studies on CAW standardization, bioavailability and dosing. PMID:24448790

Gray, Nora E.; Morré, Jeff; Kelley, Jeremiah; Maier, Claudia S.; Stevens, Jan F.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

2014-01-01

36

Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

2013-07-01

37

Gene Expression Changes in the Human Fibroblast Induced by Centella asiatica Triterpenoids  

E-print Network

Gene Expression Changes in the Human Fibroblast Induced by Centella asiatica Triterpenoids transcription polymerase chain reaction (real- time RT-PCR) to quantify the expression of 1053 human genes principal triterpenoid components of Centella. TECA treat- ment effects the expression of genes involved

Sinskey, Anthony J.

38

X-ray absorption Studies of Zinc species in Centella asiatica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is a very important mineral present in a variety of vegetables. It is an essential element in cellular metabolism and several bodily functions. We used X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray Absorption near Edge structure(XANES) to study the amount of zinc present in several leafy vegetables as well as its chemical environment within the plant. Main absorption edge position of XANES is sensitive to the oxidation state of zinc and is useful when comparing the type of zinc present in different vegetables to the standard zinc present in supplements. Normalized main edge height is proportional to the amount of zinc present in the sample. Several leafy greens were used in this study, such as Spinacia oleracea, Basella alba, Brassica oleracea, Cardiospermum halicacabum and Centella asiatica. All of these plant leaves contained approximately the same amount of zinc in the leaf portion of the plant and a slightly lower amount in the stems, except Centella asiatica. Both leaves and stems of the plant Centella asiatica contained nearly two times the zinc compared to other plants. Further investigation of zinc's chemical environment within Centella asiatica could lead to a much more efficient dietary consumption of zinc.

Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, Tak; Hogan, Clayton; Agoudavi, Yao; Dehipawala, Sumudu

2013-03-01

39

Genetic Diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and Other Geographical Locations as Revealed by Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 Sequences  

PubMed Central

Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species. PMID:23467439

Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

2013-01-01

40

Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure-all  

PubMed Central

In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Centella asiatica is an important medicinal herb that is widely used in the orient and is becoming popular in the West. Triterpenoid, saponins, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica are manly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. Apart from wound healing, the herb is recommended for the treatment of various skin conditions such as leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, diarrhoea, fever, amenorrhea, diseases of the female genitourinary tract and also for relieving anxiety and improving cognition. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on pharmacology, mechanisms of action, various preclinical and clinical studies, safety precautions and current research prospects of the herb. At the same time, studies to evaluate the likelihood of interactions with drugs and herbs on simultaneous use, which is imperative for optimal and safe utilization of the herb, are discussed. PMID:21694984

Gohil, Kashmira J.; Patel, Jagruti A.; Gajjar, Anuradha K.

2010-01-01

41

Polysaccharide from seeds of Plantago asiatica L. affects lipid metabolism and colon microbiota of mouse.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. was given via oral administration to mice (0.4 g/kg body weight, 30 days) to observe its effects on mouse nutrient metabolism and colon microbiota. It was found the polysaccharide intake could lower the apparent absorption of lipid. Total triglyceride, cholesterol, and atherogenic index in blood serum with total lipid and cholesterol levels in liver of polysaccharide group mice were all significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect of the polysaccharide intake on mouse colon bacterial communities was investigated. Mice from the polysaccharide group showed a higher colon bacterial diversity than the control group. Bacteroides sp., Eubacterium sp., butyrate-producing bacteria Butyrivibrio sp., and probiotics Bifidobacterium bifidum , Lactobacillus fermentum , and Lactobacillus reuteri in mouse colon were all increased after polysaccharide intake. These indicated that the intake of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. could be beneficial for lipid metabolism and colon microbiota. PMID:24341731

Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Wu, Qi-Meng; Li, Chang; Fu, Zhi-Hong; Gong, Joshua; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

2014-01-01

42

A new method for preparing pentacyclic triterpene rich Centella asiatica extracts.  

PubMed

This study evaluated microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for four pentacyclic triterpenes as well as developed a method for preparing a pentacyclic triterpenene rich extract from Centella asiatica. MAE was capable of increasing the yield of the pentacyclic triterpenes up to twice that produced by the heat reflux method, and it was also much less time consuming. The optimal conditions of MAE employed were extraction with absolute ethanol as solvent, an irradiation power of 600?W, at 75°C, four irradiation cycles and four extraction times. Here, we provide a simple method for the preparation of the pentacyclic triterpene rich C. asiatica extracts, which contained not less than 65%?w/w total pentacyclic triterpenes. The method involved a macroporous resin (Diaion® HP-20) column eluted with ethanol and a decolourisation step with activated charcoal. PMID:22577972

Puttarak, Panupong; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

2013-04-01

43

An investigation of arsenic contamination in Peninsular Malaysia based on Centella asiatica and soil samples.  

PubMed

The first objective of this study was to provide data of arsenic (As) levels in Peninsular Malaysia based on soil samples and accumulation of As in Centella asiatica collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia. The second objective was to assess the accumulation of As in transplanted C. asiatica between control and semi-polluted or polluted sites. Four sites were selected which were UPM (clean site), Balakong (semi-polluted site), Seri Kembangan (semi-polluted site) and Juru (polluted site). The As concentrations of plant and soil samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The As levels ranged from 9.38 to 57.05 ?g/g dw in soils, 0.21 to 4.33 ?g/g dw in leaves, 0.18 to 1.83 ?g/g dw in stems and 1.32-20.76 ?g/g dw in roots. All sampling sites had As levels exceeding the CCME guideline (12 ?g/g dw) except for Kelantan, P. Pauh, and Senawang with P. Klang having the highest As in soil (57.05 ?g/g dw). In C. asiatica, As accumulation was highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. When the As level in soils were higher, the uptake of As in plants would also be increased. After the transplantation of plants to semi-polluted and polluted sites for 3 weeks, all concentration factors were greater than 50 % of the initial As level. The elimination factor was around 39 % when the plants were transplanted back to the clean sites for 3 weeks. The findings of the present study indicated that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are ideal biomonitors of As contamination. The present data results the most comprehensive data obtained on As levels in Malaysia. PMID:22821327

Ong, G H; Yap, C K; Maziah, M; Suhaimi, H; Tan, S G

2013-04-01

44

Effect of Centella asiatica on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Hyperlipidemic Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Hyperlipidemia and many other metabolic diseases are related to oxidative stress. Centella asiatica is a traditional Chinese medicine whose antioxidant effect in vitro has been reported. We are interested in whether it possesses this effect in vivo and hence modulates lipid metabolism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on mice and golden hamsters regarding its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. We observed that a fraction (CAF3) of the ethanol extract (CAE) of Centella asiatica had a cholesterol decrease of 79% and a triglyceride decrease of 95% in acute mice model, so CAF3 was further investigated in high-fat-fed hamster model. It was shown that CAF3 increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased MDA level, and it also improved TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, and ALT levels. L-CAT and SR-BI gene expression in hamsters were increased. Taken together, our data suggest that the CAF3 fraction of Centella asiatica has antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24829618

Zhao, Yun; Shu, Ping; Zhang, Youzhi; Lin, Limin; Zhou, Haihong; Xu, Zhentian; Suo, Daqin; Xie, Anzhi; Jin, Xin

2014-01-01

45

Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness. PMID:22693530

Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

2012-01-01

46

Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes. PMID:25445590

Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

2014-10-14

47

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Centella asiatica is partly mediated by carbohydrase inhibition and glucose-fiber binding  

PubMed Central

Background Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) was previously reported to have anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal diabetic model rats. However, its activity on organ and tissue level remains unstudied. Our study aims at exploring the possible effects, C. asiatica extract and insoluble fiber has on carbohydrate absorption, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization. Methods For primary evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic activity, we measured Fasting Blood Glucose and performed Glucose Tolerance Test, in type 2 diabetic rats. To further study the pancreatic effect and glucose utilization, plasma insulin concentration, insulin secreted from isolated rat islets and liver glycogen were assayed. Effect on carbohydrate break down was assayed using intestinal disaccharidase enzyme, ?-amylase inhibition assays and Six-Segment study of the GI tract. Effect of C. asiatica on glucose absorption was studied by an in-situ, perfused, intestinal model in rats and by glucose-fiber binding assay. Gastrointestinal motility was seen by a BaSO4 milk traverse test. Additionally, a complete lipid profile assay, after a chronic study, was conducted. Results C. asiatica showed no significant change in insulin secretion in-vivo and in isolated rat islets. Additionally, no effect of the extract was seen on liver glycogen deposition. Retarded glucose absorption was seen in the in-situ perfused rat intestinal model at a dose. The extract was also found to inhibit action of both intestinal disaccharidase and ?-amylase. This was confirmed, yet again, via the Six Segment study, where sucrose digestion was found to be inhibited throughout the length of the GI Tract. Significant glucose-fiber binding was demonstrated in the in-vitro models. During the chronic study, body mass of C. asiatica treated Type 2 diabetic rats returned to normal and their polydipsic and polyphagic conditions were also improved. Chronic treatment of C. asiatica also improved subject’s lipid profile. Conclusion A combination of in-vitro, in-vivo and in-situ tests confirmed the anti-hyperglycemic activity of C. asiatica and its tissue level mechanism. Further study is required to fully elucidate the effect this extract or the active compounds have on the individual glucose transporters and the precise mechanism of glucose-fiber binding. PMID:24438380

2014-01-01

48

Anthelmintic and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of fractions of methanol extract of Leea asiatica leaves  

PubMed Central

Leea asiatica, a folk medicinal plant of India, is used in the treatment of worm infection and other oxidative stress-related disorders, traditionally. In the present study, the in vitro anthelmintic and in vitro antioxidant activity of different fractions of the methanol extract from the Leea asiatica leaves were evaluated. The fraction displayed significant anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a better paralysis activity (13.99 ± 0.59), while the methanol fraction showed a better death time (63.76 ± 0.73 minutes), when compared with other fractions, at a dose of 50 mg/ml concentration. The anthelmintic activity of methanol and the ethyl acetate fraction were almost similar and comparable to the standard drug, piperazine citrate. The petroleum ether fraction did not produce a potent anthelmintic effect compared to the standard. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, lipid peroxidation assay, and the ferric thiocyanate method. The ethyl acetate fraction showed better antioxidant activity in all tested methods. The IC50 value of the ethyl acetate fraction in the DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, and lipid peroxidation assay were 9.5, 13.0, and 57.0 ?g/ml, respectively. The fractions significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the peroxidation of linoleic acid. The results confirmed the folk use of Leea asiatica in warm infection and the plant could be viewed as a potential source of natural anthelmintic and antioxidant compound. PMID:23284215

Sen, Saikat; De, Biplab; Devanna, N.; Chakraborty, Raja

2012-01-01

49

Genetic variability of Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntz based on AFLP analysis and host-parasite interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLP analysis was used to estimate genetic variability within and among 14 populations of Striga asiaticaL. Kuntze collected from different locations within the Republic of Benin. The mean within-population genetic distances ranged\\u000a from 0.028 to 0.038, while the mean among-population genetic distances ranged from 0.019to 0.088, with an assumed minimum\\u000a genetic distance of0.01 in each case. Intra- and inter-population variation

Christopher J. Botanga; Jennifer G. Kling; Dana K. Berner; Michael P. Timko

2002-01-01

50

Use of Asiatic Pennywort Centella asiatica Aqueous Extract as a Bath Treatment to Control Columnaris in Nile Tilapia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen

P. Rattanachaikunsopon; P. Phumkhachorn

2010-01-01

51

Effect of Centella asiatica L (Umbelliferae) on Normal and Dexamethasone-Suppressed Wound Healing in Wistar Albino Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centella asiatica is a reputed medicinal plant used in the treatment of various skin diseases in the Indian system of medicine. The objective of the study presented in this article was to evaluate the wound-healing potential of the ethanolic extract of the plant in both normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing. The study was done on Wistar albino rats using incision,

B. Somashekar Shetty; S. L. Udupa; A. L. Udupa; S. N. Somayaji

2006-01-01

52

Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea  

PubMed Central

In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs, leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea. PMID:11775327

Rim, Han-Jong

2001-01-01

53

New phenomenon in early development of sporelings in Gracilaria asiatica Chang et Xia (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study on the early development of sporelings from carpospores of Gracilaria asiatica Chang et Xia was conducted indoors under controlled culture conditions. Besides normal development of sporelings, a new developmental phenomenon of filamentous frond was observed. It was composed of one or two rows of cells, and took place from the outmost brim of the basal disc. During the early disc stage of germinated carpospores, one or two filamentous fronds formed on about 10% basal discs. Simultaneously, young fronds began to arch slightly from the centers of single and coalescent discs; lately more filamentous fronds up to 80% appeared on the brims of basal discs. Meanwhile one or more upright fronds protuberated on the basal discs. Generally, filamentous fronds exhibited in self-existence or co-existence forms with normal young sporelings on the same basal disc, and single cell detached from filamentous fronds developed into a new filamentous frond. This new phenomenon exhibited a unique differentiation pathway during the early development of G. asiatica, which would be potential for the application in artificial sporelings nursery.

Zhao, Fengjuan; Wang, Aihua; Liu, Jidong; Duan, Delin

2006-12-01

54

Ultrastructure of the Blepharoplast and the Multilayered Structure in Spermatogenesis in Osmunda cinnamomea var. asiatica  

E-print Network

Abstract: The ultrastructure of the blepharoplast and the multilayered structure (MLS) in the fern Osmunda cinnamomea var. asiatica Fernald have been studied by electron microscopy with respect to spermatogenesis. The blepharoplast appears in the young spermatid. The differentiating blepharoplast is approximately a spherical body, which is composed of densely stained granular material in the center and some cylinders outside of it. The differentiated blepharoplast is also a sphere, but without the densely stained material in the center, consisting of scattered or radially arranged cylinders. The MLS seen in the spermatid lies between the basal bodies and the giant mitochondrion. In the early developmental stage, the MLS only consists of lamellar layers, each of which runs parallel to one another and forms a strip. In the mid stage, the MLS is composed of the microtubular ribbon (MTr), the lamellar layers and a layer of plaque. In the late stage, the MLS forms accessory band, osmiophilic crest and a layer of osmiophilic material. The MTr grows out from the MLS and extends along the surface of the nucleus to unite with the nuclear envelope in a complex. The basal body coming from the cylinder produces the axoneme of the flagella in the distal end and the wedge-shaped structure in the proximal end, respectively. In the present study, the ultrastructural features of blepharoplast and the MLS of the protoleptosporangiopsida fern, O. cinnamomea var. asiatica, have been described and compared with those of other kinds of pteridophytes in detail. The

Cao Jian-guo; Bao Wen-mei; Dai Shao-jun

55

Effects of acute gamma irradiation on physiological traits and flavonoid accumulation of Centella asiatica.  

PubMed

In the present study, two accessions of Centella asiatica (CA03 and CA23) were subjected to gamma radiation to examine the response of these accessions in terms of survival rate, flavonoid contents, leaf gas exchange and leaf mass. Radiation Sensitivity Tests revealed that based on the survival rate, the LD(50) (gamma doses that killed 50% of the plantlets) of the plantlets were achieved at 60 Gy for CA03 and 40 Gy for CA23. The nodal segments were irradiated with gamma rays at does of 30 and 40 Gy for Centella asiatica accession 'CA03' and 20 and 30 Gy for accession 'CA23. The nodal segment response to the radiation was evaluated by recording the flavonoid content, leaf gas exchange and leaf biomass. The experiment was designed as RCBD with five replications. Results demonstrated that the irradiated plantlets exhibited greater total flavonoid contents (in eight weeks) significantly than the control where the control also exhibited the highest total flavonoid contents in the sixth week of growth; 2.64 ± 0.02 mg/g DW in CA03 and 8.94 ± 0.04 mg/g DW in CA23. The total flavonoid content was found to be highest after eight weeks of growth, and this, accordingly, stands as the best time for leaf harvest. Biochemical differentiation based on total flavonoid content revealed that irradiated plantlets in CA23 at 20 and 30 Gy after eight weeks contained the highest total flavonoid concentrations (16.827 ± 0.02; 16.837 ± 0.008 mg/g DW, respectively) whereas in CA03 exposed to 30 and 40 Gy was found to have the lowest total flavonid content (5.83 ± 0.11; 5.75 ± 0.03 mg/g DW). Based on the results gathered in this study, significant differences were found between irradiated accessions and control ones in relation to the leaf gas. The highest PN and gs were detected in CA23 as control followed by CA23 irradiated to 20Gy (CA23G20) and CA23G30 and the lowest PN and gs were observed in CA03 irradiated to 40Gy (CA03G40). Moreover, there were no significant differences in terms of PN and gs among the irradiated plants in each accession. The WUE of both irradiated accessions of Centella asiatica were reduced as compared with the control plants (p < 0.01) while Ci and E were enhanced. There were no significant differences in the gas exchange parameters among radiated plants in each accession. Moreover, malondialdehyde (MDA) of accessions after gamma treatments were significantly higher than the control, however, flavonoids which were higher concentration in irradiated plants can scavenge surplus free radicals. Therefore, the findings of this study have proven an efficient method of in vitro mutagenesis through gamma radiation based on the pharmaceutical demand to create economically superior mutants of C. asiatica. In other words, the results of this study suggest that gamma irradiation on C. asiatica can produce mutants of agricultural and economical importance. PMID:21694666

Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Jaafar, Hawa; Ibrahim, Rusli; Rahmat, Asmah; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Philip, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

56

The effect of methyl jasmonate on triterpene and sterol metabolisms of Centella asiatica, Ruscus aculeatus and Galphimia glauca cultured plants.  

PubMed

Considering that exogenously applied methyl jasmonate can enhance secondary metabolite production in a variety of plant species and that 2,3-oxidosqualene is a common precursor of triterpenes and sterols in plants, we have studied Centella asiatica and Galphimia glauca (both synthesizing triterpenoid secondary compounds) and Ruscus aculeatus (which synthesizes steroidal secondary compounds) for their growth rate and content of free sterols and respective secondary compounds, after culturing with or without 100 microM methyl jasmonate. Our results show that elicited plantlets of G. glauca and to a higher degree C. asiatica (up to 152-times more) increased their content of triterpenoids directly synthesized from 2,3-oxidosqualene (ursane saponins and nor-seco-friedelane galphimines, respectively) at the same time as growth decreased. In contrast, the free sterol content of C. asiatica decreased notably, and remained practically unaltered in G. glauca. However, in the case of R. aculeatus, which synthesizes steroidal saponins (mainly spirostane type) indirectly from 2,3-oxidosqualene after the latter is converted to the plant phytosterol-precursor cycloartenol, while the growth rate and free sterol content clearly decreased, the spirostane saponine content was virtually unchanged (aerial part) or somewhat lower (roots) in presence of the same elicitor concentration. Our results suggest that while methyl jasmonate may be used as an inducer of enzymes involved in the triterpenoid synthesis downstream from 2,3-oxidosqualene in both C. asiatica and G. glauca plantlets, in those of C. asiatica and R. aculeatus it inhibited the enzymes involved in sterol synthesis downstream from cycloartenol. PMID:16876832

Mangas, Susana; Bonfill, Mercè; Osuna, Lidia; Moyano, Elisabeth; Tortoriello, Jaime; Cusido, Rosa M; Piñol, M Teresa; Palazón, Javier

2006-09-01

57

Inhibition of cPLA2 and sPLA2 activities in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons by Centella asiatica water extract.  

PubMed

Leaf extract of Centella asiatica has been used as an alternative medicine for memory improvement in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for a long time. Although several studies have revealed its effect in ameliorating the cognitive impairment in rat models of Alzheimer's disease, the molecular mechanism of C. asiatica on neuroprotection still remains unexplained. In this study, we investigated the effects of C. asiatica water extract on activity of subtypes of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons and quantified by HPLC a possible molecule responsible for the activity. The cPLA2 and sPLA2 activities were inhibited in vitro by asiaticoside present in the water extract of C. asiatica. This extract may be a candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative processes because of its pharmacological activity in the brain and its low toxicity, as attested by its long popular use as a natural product. PMID:22908561

Defillipo, Patrícia P; Raposo, André H; Fedoce, Alessandra G; Ferreira, Aline S; Polonini, Hudson C; Gattaz, Wagner F; Raposo, Nádia R B

2012-07-01

58

State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.  

PubMed

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

Flisser, Ana

2013-02-01

59

State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

2013-01-01

60

Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson var. asiatica (Boriss.) Rech. f. from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. var. asiatica (Boriss.) Rech. f. were isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The major constituents of the leaf oil were piperitone (67.6%), isomenthone (6.6%) and cis-piperitol (4.2 %), while the flower oil contained piperitone (55.7%), carvone (16.2%) and pulegone (4.1%).

K. Jaimand; M. B. Rezaee

2002-01-01

61

Systematic Evaluation of Isoëtes asiatica Makino (Isoëtaceae) based on AFLP, nrITS, and Chloroplast DNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and nucleotide sequence data from nuclear ribosomal internal\\u000a transcribed spacer (nrITS) and three chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL, cpITS, and trnS-psbC spacer), we investigated the species delimitation and the evolutionary lineage of Isoëtes asiatica from Hokkaido, Japan. The neighbor-joining (NJ) dendrogram based on AFLP markers revealed the well-defined clusters (bootstrap\\u000a value?=?100%) of

Changkyun Kim; Hye Ryun Na; Hyunchur Shin; Hong-Keun Choi

2009-01-01

62

Effect of Centella asiatica Leaf Extract on the Dietary Supplementation in Transgenic Drosophila Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The role of Centella asiatica L. leaf extract was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-?S) in the neurons. The leaf extract was prepared in acetone and was subjected to GC-MS analysis. C. asiatica extract at final concentration of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0??L/mL was mixed with the diet and the flies were allowed feeding on it for 24 days. The effect of extract was studied on the climbing ability, activity pattern, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, glutathione content, and glutathione-S-transferase activity in the brains of transgenic Drosophila. The exposure of extract to PD model flies results in a significant delay in the loss of climbing ability and activity pattern and reduced the oxidative stress (P < 0.05) in the brains of PD flies as compared to untreated PD flies. The results suggest that C. asiatica leaf extract is potent in reducing the PD symptoms in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25538856

Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Faisal, Mohammad

2014-01-01

63

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

64

Production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells in bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effects of some culture conditions on production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells cultured in 5-L bioreactor. Methods The centell cell suspension culture was conducted in 5-L bioreactor to investigate the growth and asiaticoside accumulation under various conditions. Asiaticoside content was determined by HPLC analysis. Results The results showed that the cell growth and asiaticoside accumulation peaked after 24 d of culture at an agitation speed of 150 r/min and aeration rate of 2.5 L/min. The cell biomass reached a maximum value of 302.45 g fresh weight (31.45 g dry weight) and growth index of 3.03 with inoculum size of 100 g. However, asiaticoside content was the highest (60.08 mg/g dry weight) when culture was initiated with an inoculum size of 50 g. Conclusions The present study found the suitable conditions for growth of centella cells and their asiaticoside production in bioreactor. PMID:24075346

Loc, Nguyen Hoang; Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy

2013-01-01

65

Exploring the role of "Brahmi" (Bocopa monnieri and Centella asiatica) in brain function and therapy.  

PubMed

It has been envisaged that in this century, disorders of the central nervous system will have a significant bearing on the healthcare concerns of the human population worldwide. Such neurological and psychiatric disorders are generally associated with loss of memory, cognitive deficits, impaired mental function etc. Due to the multi-factorial nature of these diseases, modern medicine based psychoactive drugs have met with limited success. Therefore, there is a growing demand for novel products that could target multiple pathways and improve the mental capabilities either independently or in combination with conventional drugs. In the recent times, herbal products based on traditional knowledge have been increasingly used both in developed and developing countries. According to "Ayurveda", the Indian traditional system of medicine, "medhyarasayanas" represent herbal therapeutics that boost memory, restore cognitive deficits and improve mental function. The current review deals with the components and application of such a traditional herb "Brahmi" that corresponds to two plants, Bacopa monnieri and Centella asiatica. Research evidences clearly indicate that both plants possess neuroprotective properties, have nootropic activity with therapeutic implications for patients with memory loss. The field has witnessed exciting patent activity with most inventions aiming at either (i) improving the methods of herbal extraction or (ii) enrichment and purification of novel compounds from brahmi or (iii) providing novel synergistic formulations for therapeutics in various human ailments. In this review, clinical trials related to the therapeutic properties of brahmi and current patents relevant to the preparation, composition and application have also been included. PMID:22074576

Shinomol, G K; Muralidhara; Bharath, Muchukunte M S

2011-01-01

66

Control of Germination in Striga asiatica: Chemistry of Spatial Definition 1  

PubMed Central

Striga asiatica (Scrophulariaceae), a member of a heterogeneous group known as the parasitic plants, is totally dependent on host root attachment for survival. In agar, Striga seeds germinated in high percentages within 5 millimeters of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) host root surface, and no germination was observed at distances greater than 1 centimeter. This spatially restricted germination may be explained by the chemistry of a single compound, 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-[8?Z, 11?Z)-8?, 11?, 14? -pentadecatriene]-p-hydroquinone, structure 1, which is exuded by sorghum roots. The presence of the compound was chemically imaged with pigments such as methylene blue. The use of methylene blue suggested that structure 1 was exuded along the entire surface of the root for long periods. This exudation and the inherent instability of structure 1 together establish an apparent steady state concentration gradient of the germination stimulant around the sorghum root. The Striga seed must be exposed to micromolar concentrations of 1 for ?5 hours before high germination percentages were observed. Such a requirement for a long term exposure to a steady state concentration of an inherently labile, exuded compound would provide an extra degree of resolution to signal detection and host commitment in Striga parasitism. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:16667436

Fate, Gwendolyn; Chang, Mayland; Lynn, David G.

1990-01-01

67

Highly hydroxylated guaianolides of Achillea asiatica and Middle European Achillea species.  

PubMed

From flower heads of Achillea asiatica (L.) Serg., three new guaianolides were isolated by repeated column chromatography and HPLC. The constitution and the stereochemistry of these new, labile compounds were determined by MS, one ((1)H, (13)C, selective (1)H-TOCSY and (1)H-NOESY) and two-dimensional NMR experiments ((1)H, (1)H-COSY, (1)H, (13)C-HSQC, (1)H, (13)C-HMBC). The substances were identified as 8 alpha-angeloxy-2 alpha, 4 alpha,10 beta-trihydroxy-6 beta H,7 alpha H, 11 beta H-1(5)-guaien-12,6 alpha-olide (1), 8 alpha-angeloxy-1 beta,2 beta:4 beta,5 beta-diepoxy-10 beta-hydroxy-6 beta H, 7 alpha H, 11 beta H-12,6 alpha-guaianolide (2) and 8 alpha-angeloxy-4 alpha,10 beta-dihydroxy-2-oxo-6 beta H,7 alpha H, 11 beta H-1(5)-guaien-12,6 alpha-olide (3). They were also detected in Middle European species (Achillea collina, Achillea ceretanica (2x and 4x), Achillea roseoalba, Achillea asplenifolia) by HPLC, TLC and off line MS and have not been described before. The possibility that these compounds might be products of an oxidation process is discussed. PMID:11738405

Glasl, S; Presser, A; Gunbilig, D; Werner, I; Narantuya, S; Haslinger, E; Jurenitsch, J; Kubelka, W

2001-12-01

68

Wound healing activities of different extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and burn wound models: an experimental animal study  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of Centella asiatica for incision and burn wounds are not fully understood. Here, we report the wound healing activities of sequential hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and partial-thickness burn wound models in rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into incision and burn wound groups. Each group was stratified into seven subgroups: (1) untreated; (2) NSS-; (3) Tween 20®- (vehicle control); (4) hexane extract-; (5) ethyl acetate extract-; (6) methanol extract-; and (7) aqueous extract-treated groups. The test substances were applied topically once daily. The tensile strength of the incision wound was measured on the seventh day after wound infliction. The general appearance and degree of wound healing of the burn wound were assessed on Days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after burn injury and prior to histopathological evaluation. Results On the seventh day after wound infliction, the tensile strength of incision wound in all extract-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the vehicle control (Tween 20®), but comparable to the NSS-treated group. The degrees of healing in the burn wound with the four extracts were significantly higher than that of the control on Days 3, 10 and 14. Histopathological findings on Day 14 after burn injury revealed prominent fibrinoid necrosis and incomplete epithelialization in the control and untreated groups, whereas fully developed epithelialization and keratinization were observed in all extract-treated groups. Analysis by thin layer chromatography demonstrated that the phyto-constituents ?-sitosterol, asiatic acid, and asiaticoside and madecassocide were present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to be the most active component for healing the wound. PMID:22817824

2012-01-01

69

Effects of temperature, algae biomass and ambient nutrient on the absorption of dissolved nitrogen and phosphate by Rhodophyte Gracilaria asiatica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gracilaria asiatica, being highly efficient in nutrient absorption, is cultivated in sea cucumber ponds to remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate. It was cultured in a laboratory simulating field conditions, and its nutrient absorption was measured to evaluate effects of environmental conditions. Ammonia nitrogen (AN), nitrate nitrogen (NN), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) uptake rate and removal efficiency were determined in a 4×2 factorial design experiment in water temperatures ( T) at 15°C and 25°C, algae biomass (AB) at 0.5 g/L and 1.0 g/L, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) at 30 ?mol/L and 60 ?mol/L, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) at 3 and 6 ?mol/L. AB and ambient TIN or SRP levels significantly affected uptake rate and removal efficiency of AN, NN, TIN, and SRP ( P< 0.001). G. asiatica in AB of 0.5 g/L showed higher uptake rate and lower removal efficiency relative to that with AB of 1.0 g/L. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rate rose with increasing ambient nutrient concentrations; nutrient removal efficiency decreased at higher environmental nutrient concentrations. The algae preferred to absorb AN to NN. Uptake rates of AN, NN, and SRP were significantly affected by temperature ( P < 0.001); uptake rate was higher for the 25°C group than for the 15°C group at the initial experiment stage. Only the removal efficiency of AN and SRP showed a significant difference between the two temperature groups ( P< 0.01). The four factors had significant interactive effects on absorption of N and P, implying that G. asiatica has great bioremedial potential in sea cucumber culture ponds.

Du, Rongbin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yongqiang

2013-03-01

70

Metagenome Analysis of a Complex Community Reveals the Metabolic Blueprint of Anammox Bacterium “Candidatus Jettenia asiatica”  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are key players in the global nitrogen cycle and responsible for significant global nitrogen loss. Moreover, the anammox process is widely implemented for nitrogen removal from wastewaters as a cost-effective and environment-friendly alternative to conventional nitrification-denitrification systems. Currently, five genera of anammox bacteria have been identified, together forming a deep-branching order in the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobium-Chlamydiae superphylum. Members of all genera have been detected in wastewater treatment plants and have been enriched in lab-scale bioreactors, but genome information is not yet available for all genera. Here we report the metagenomic analysis of a granular sludge anammox reactor dominated (?50%) by “Candidatus Jettenia asiatica.” The metagenome was sequenced using both Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. After de novo assembly 37,432 contigs with an average length of 571?nt were obtained. The contigs were then analyzed by BLASTx searches against the protein sequences of “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” and a set of 25 genes essential in anammox metabolism were detected. Additionally all reads were mapped to the genome of an anammox strain KSU-1 and de novo assembly was performed again using the reads that could be mapped on KSU-1. Using this approach, a gene encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase NirK was identified in the genome, instead of cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase (NirS, present in “Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” and “Ca. Scalindua profunda”). Finally, the community composition was investigated through MetaCluster analysis, 16S rRNA gene analysis and read mapping, which showed the presence of other important community members such as aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, methanogens, and the denitrifying methanotroph “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera”, indicating a possible active methane and nitrogen cycle in the bioreactor under the prevailing operational conditions. PMID:23112795

Hu, Ziye; Speth, D. R.; Francoijs, Kees-Jan; Quan, Zhe-Xue; Jetten, M. S. M.

2012-01-01

71

Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

2013-01-01

72

Microwave blanching and drying characteristics of Centella asiatica (L.) urban leaves using tray and heat pump-assisted dehumidified drying.  

PubMed

The appropriate stage of maturity of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban leaves was investigated. Mature leaves with large diameter contained high total phenolics and % inhibition. Microwave blanching for 30 s retained the highest total phenolics and the microwave blanching for 30 s and 45 s retained the highest % inhibition. Modified Henderson and Modified Chung-Pfost models showed the best fit to both fresh and blanched leaves for equilibrium moisture content, Xe = f(RHe, T) and equilibrium relative humidity, RHe = f(Xe, T), respectively. The Modified Page model was the most effective model in describing the leaf drying. All drying was in the falling rate period. The drying constant was related to drying air temperature using the Arrhenius model. Effective moisture diffusivities increased with increasing temperature and blanching treatments as well as dehumidification by heat pump-assisted dehumidified dryer. The heat pump-assited dehumidified drying incorporated by the microwave blanching could reduce the drying time at 40 °C by 31.2 % and increase % inhibition by 6.1 %. Quality evaluation by total phenolics, % inhibition and rehydration ratio showed the best quality for C. asiatica leaves pretreated by microwave blanching and dried at 40 °C in heat pump-assisted dehumidified dryer. PMID:25477629

Trirattanapikul, W; Phoungchandang, S

2014-12-01

73

What Do Mexican Fruit Flies Learn When They Experience Fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican fruit flies learn fruit characteristics that enable them to distinguish familiar fruits from novel fruits. We investigated whether mature Mexican fruit flies learn fruit color, size or odor. We found no evidence that female flies learn fruit color or size after experience with host fruit, including oviposition. However, green fruit and fruit models were more attractive than yellow and

David C. Robacker; Ivich Fraser

2005-01-01

74

De novo sequencing and assembly of Centella asiatica leaf transcriptome for mapping of structural, functional and regulatory genes with special reference to secondary metabolism.  

PubMed

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is an important medicinal plant and has been used since ancient times in traditional systems of medicine. C. asiatica mainly contains ursane skeleton based triterpenoid sapogenins and saponins predominantly in its leaves. This investigation employed Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS) strategy on a pool of three cDNAs from expanding leaf of C. asiatica and developed an assembled transcriptome sequence resource of the plant. The short transcript reads (STRs) generated and assembled into contigs and singletons, representing majority of the genes expressed in C. asiatica, were termed as 'tentative unique transcripts' (TUTs). The TUT dataset was analyzed with the objectives of (i) development of a transcriptome assembly of C. asiatica, and (ii) classification/characterization of the genes into categories like structural, functional, regulatory etc. based on their function. Overall, 68.49% of the 46,171,131 reads generated in the NGS process could be assembled into a total of 79,041 contigs. Gene ontology and functional annotation of sequences resulted into the identification of genes related to different sets of cellular functions including identification of genes related to primary and secondary metabolism. The wet lab validation of seventeen assembled gene sequences identified to be involved in secondary metabolic pathways and control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was established by semi-quantitative and real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The validation also included sequencing/size matching of a set of semi-quantitative PCR amplicons with their in silico assembled contig/gene. This confirmed the appropriateness of assembling the reads and contigs. Thus, the present study constitutes the largest report to date on C. asiatica transcriptome based gene resource that may contribute substantially to the understanding of the basal biological functions and biochemical pathways of secondary metabolites as well as the transcriptional regulatory elements and genetic markers. This work sets the stage for multi-faceted future improvement of the plant, through discovery of new genes, marker-assisted breeding or genetic engineering, on this species as well as for other species of Apiaceae and triterpene producing medicinal plants. PMID:23644021

Sangwan, Rajender S; Tripathi, Sandhya; Singh, Jyoti; Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

2013-08-01

75

The Fruit Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by fruit enthusiast Jeroen Goedhart, The Fruit Pages proclaim: "Everything you want to know about fruit." That claim may be a bit of a stretch, yet in over 150 pages, the Fruit Pages certainly serve up a sizeable amount of fruit information. From fruit nutrition facts to comparisons of acidic and sweet fruit to fruit selection, this website covers a fair amount of ground. Examples of website sections include: The Energy in Fruit, Fruit Sites For Kids, Fruit From All Over The World, and Fruit & Detoxification, just to name a few. A wide variety of individual fruits are profiled as well, with information about common, scientific, and family names, storage, recipes, and more.

Goedhart, Jeroen

76

Lesson 21: Fruits [Matunda  

E-print Network

/ matunda [fruit / fruits] penda [like] kula kununua hapendi hupendi [eat] [to buy] [he/she does not like fruits.] 2. Unapenda kununua matunda gani? [What fruits do you like to buy?] a). Ninapenda kununua ndizi. [I like to buy bananas.] b). Sipendi kununua matunda. [I do not like to buy fruits.] c). Sipendi

77

Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines by Gmelina asiatica roots  

PubMed Central

Low risk of breast cancer has been proposed to be associated with high intake of lignans. We have reported the presence of lignans in Gmelina asiatica roots. There are no scientific reports on the antiproliferative activity of G. asiatica roots. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract from G. asiatica roots (EGAR) on estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of EGAR on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay kit. The mode of cell death caused by EGAR was determined using dual apoptosis assay kit by observing the cells under fluorescent microscope. The quantification of apoptosis and necrosis in cells caused by EGAR was determined using cell death detection kit through ELISA. Down-regulation of the proliferative activity occurred in a clear dose-dependent response with IC50 values of 32.9 ± 3.8 ?g/mL in MCF-7 and 19.9 ± 2.3 ?g/mL in MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Treatment of breast cancer cells with EGAR resulted in significant apoptosis. The EGAR contain lignans and flavonoids. The antiproliferative activity of the extract is attributed to the presence of these secondary metabolites. The results suggest the efficacy of G. asiatica roots as antiproliferative agents on human breast cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that plants containing lignans have beneficial effects on human breast cancer. PMID:21808551

Balijepalli, Madhu Katyayani; Tandra, Satyanarayana; Pichika, Mallikarjuna Rao

2010-01-01

78

Characterisation of two phenotypes of Centella asiatica in Southern Africa through the composition of four triterpenoids in callus, cell suspensions and leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two morphologically distinct phenotypes of Centella asiatica (Type-1 and Type-2) in South Africa were compared in relation to the levels of triterpenoid saponins with the aim of assessing\\u000a their potential for biotechnological manipulation of triterpenoid synthesis. The metabolites investigated included madecassoside\\u000a and asiaticoside and their sapogenins madecassic—and asiatic acid; produced in cultured undifferentiated cells (cell suspensions\\u000a and calli) and leaves.

Jacinda T. James; Riaan Meyer; Ian A. Dubery

2008-01-01

79

Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.  

PubMed

Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed. PMID:22903452

Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

2013-01-01

80

FRUIT & NUT Blackberries  

E-print Network

principles. Blackberries have very high production poten- tial, and fresh fruit commands good prices, makingTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Blackberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Brambles or caneberries are fruits in the Ru- bus genus

Mukhtar, Saqib

81

Combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for the isolation and characterization of polar guaianolides from Achillea asiatica.  

PubMed

Four polar guaianolides, 8alpha-angeloxy-2alpha,4alpha, 10beta-trihydroxy-6betaH,7alphaH, 11betaH-1(5)-guaien- 12,6alpha-olide; 8alpha-angeloxy-1beta,2beta:4beta,5beta-diepoxy- 10beta-hydroxy-6betaH,7alphaH,11betaH-12,6alpha-guaianolide; 8alpha-angeloxy-4alpha, 10beta-dihydroxy-2-oxo-6betaH, 7alphaH, 11betaH- 1(5)-guaien- 12,6alpha-olide and 8-desacetyl-matricarin, were isolated from Achillea asiatica and characterized by TLC, MS, IR, HPLC and diode array detection. Purified extracts were separated by means of flash chromatography. HPLC separations were achieved using different methanol-water gradients as mobile phase and LiChrospher 100-RP8 5 microm or Zorbax SB-C8 3.5 microm as stationary phases. The chromatographical data are compared to those of the proazulene 8alpha-tigloxy-artabsin which shows antiinflammatory effects. By means of these characteristics the identification of the guaianolides with potential antiphlogistic properties is also possible from other sources. PMID:11761000

Glasl, S; Gunbilig, D; Narantuya, S; Werner, I; Jurenitsch, J

2001-11-30

82

Centelloside accumulation in leaves of Centella asiatica is determined by resource partitioning between primary and secondary metabolism while influenced by supply levels of either nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium.  

PubMed

In the present study we aimed to investigate the relevance of either N, P or K supply for herb and leaf yield and for centelloside concentrations in Centella asiatica L. Urban leaves. In this regard, we elucidated the causal relationship between assimilation rate, leaf N, P and K concentrations, herb and leaf production, and centelloside accumulation. The experiments were conducted consecutively in a greenhouse where C. asiatica was grown in hydroponic culture and fertigated with nutrient solutions at either 0, 30, 60, 100 or 150% of the N, P or K amount in a standard Hoagland solution. In general, the increase in N, P or K supply enhanced assimilation rate and herb and leaf yield. However, exceeding specific thresholds, the high availability of one single nutrient caused lower leaf N concentrations and a decline in assimilation rate and plant growth. Irrespective of N, P and K supply, the leaf centelloside concentrations were negatively associated with herb and leaf yield, which is in accordance with the assumptions of the carbon/nutrient balance and the growth differentiation balance hypotheses. Moreover, we found strong negative correlations between saponins and leaf N concentrations, while the respective sapogenins were negatively correlated with K concentrations. Using C. asiatica as model system, our experiments reveal for the first time that the accumulation of saponins and sapogenins is affected by resource allocation between primary and secondary metabolism and that besides carbon, also nutrient availability is relevant for the regulation of the centelloside synthesis. Finally, our results highlight the huge potential of optimized and carefully controlled mineral nutrition of medicinal plants for steering the bio-production of high-quality natural products. PMID:23608744

Müller, Viola; Lankes, Christa; Zimmermann, Benno F; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2013-09-01

83

Endogenous Viral Sequences from the Cape Golden Mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) Reveal the Presence of Foamy Viruses in All Major Placental Mammal Clades  

PubMed Central

Endogenous retroviruses provide important insights into the deep history of this viral lineage. Endogenous foamy viruses are thought to be very rare and only a few cases have been identified to date. Here we report a novel endogenous foamy virus (CaEFV) within the genome of the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica). The identification of CaEFV reveals the presence of foamy virus in the placental mammal superorder Afrotheria. Phylogenetic analyses place CaEFV basal to other foamy viruses of Eutherian origin, suggesting an ancient codivergence between foamy virus and placental mammals. These findings have implications for understanding the long-term evolution, diversity, and biology of retroviruses. PMID:24835242

Han, Guan-Zhu; Worobey, Michael

2014-01-01

84

Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

85

Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal—Centella asiatica—extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ~180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed.

Sikareepaisan, Panprung; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Supaphol, Pitt

2008-01-01

86

How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

87

FUTURE FRUIT EXPLORATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fruits of the earth have nurtured and intrigued humanity throughout history. Genome complexities of cultivated fruit species combined with people’s increased nutritional needs insure that the future will be no different. Prospecting for wild fruit will continue. The global nature of science and ...

88

BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

89

FRUIT & NUT Rabbiteye Blueberries  

E-print Network

or machines, with the majority of fruit grown in Texas picked by hand and sold for fresh consump- tionTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Rabbiteye Blueberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas, & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

Mukhtar, Saqib

90

The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  

PubMed

Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

2014-08-01

91

The influence of certain taxonomic and environmental parameters on biomass production and triterpenoid content in the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. from Madagascar.  

PubMed

Centella asiatica (Apiaceae family; Talapetraka in Malagasy) is a tropical and subtropical plant with leaves containing glycotriterpenoids (asiaticosides) used in traditional and modern medicine. C. asiatica is collected exclusively in natural stands. It is Madagascar's second most important indigenous plant export. The objective in this study is to provide data which will make it possible to optimize the harvest and thus effectively develop this resource. Two foliar morphotypes were identified: morphotype A with small reniform leaves (leaf area ca. 4.5 cm(2) ), found in the east of Madagascar, and morphotype B with large round leaves (up to 7.5 cm(2) ) found in the west, with sympatric zones in the central part of the island. Morphotype A produces a higher biomass, and is twice as rich in asiaticosides as morphotype B. Significant variations in biomass yield and asiaticoside content are observed depending on the date of collection: higher during the rainy season (December to April) and lower during the dry season (June to August). Inter-annual variations are also observed. Populations located at around 800-1400 m altitude on the eastern side of Madagascar, in a sub-humid climate, appeared to be more productive. These results provide more precise information to the economic sector, which confirms the empirical choices made by collectors. They represent the first elements towards sustainable management of the resource, and maybe even domestication. PMID:22344906

Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Raoseta, Soaharin'ny Ony Rakotondralambo; Roger, Edmond; Razafindrazaka, Harena; Pirotais, Sarah; Boucher, Marie; Danthu, Pascal

2012-02-01

92

Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?  

PubMed

The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112

Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

2012-08-01

93

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

94

Preserving Fresh Fruit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

2000-01-01

95

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

96

Home Fruit Production - Figs.  

E-print Network

-to-good crop on sucker wood the season after freeze injury. The fruit is medium to large with brown skin and light amber pulp. It is prominently swollen at the fruit base with a very open eye. Fruiting is spread over a long period if the tree is pruned... is yellow to green with seeds and amber pulp. The fruit is excellent canned or preserved. Do not plant this variety in drier areas of Texas. PLANTING Do not apply fertilizer at planting time. Fig trees survive better if set 2 to 4 inches deeper than...

Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

1987-01-01

97

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations and  

E-print Network

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations. The moths overwinter as full-grown larvae in cocoons in tree bark crevices, weed stems, trash on the ground. Are conditions right for Oriental fruit moth? Forecast models for Oriental fruit moth are available at Enviro

98

Non GMO fruit factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple structural and regulatory genes modulate biosynthetic pathways, such as those leading to the accumulation and profile of sugars and carotenoids in the mature tomato fruit. Natural genetic variation among wild relatives of the cultivated tomato provides an important, non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO), resource for improving both horticultural and fruit quality traits of elite tomato varieties. Unfortunately, this natural resource

Ilan Levin; Avraham Lalazar; Moshe Bar; Arthur A. Schaffer

2004-01-01

99

Fruiting of Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several enzymes were assayed in extracts from mycelium-colonised compost during growth and fruiting of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. Comparison of changes of enzyme levels in axenic and nonaxenic cultures and in cultures of non-fruiting strains indicated that they were associated directly with the fungal mycelium. Large changes were found in the amounts of laccase and cellulase which were correlated with

D. A. Wood; P. W. Goodenough

1977-01-01

100

Mutant Fruit Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

0000-00-00

101

Fresh Fruit Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practices recommended for the preservation of environmental quality and effective management of the bog physical plant (e. g., water control structures, erosion control, pesticide storage and handling) are universally applicable regardless of whether a bed is producing fruit for processing or for the fresh market. However, certain practices require modification to effectively produce abundant, high quality cranberries for fresh fruit.

Carolyn DeMoranville; Frank L. Caruso; Joseph DeVerna

2003-01-01

102

Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients  

E-print Network

instead of cups, making great "ice cubes" in fruit juice or diet soda. Try other fruits or juice. This material is partially funded by USDA's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program ­ SNAP. The Supple- mental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help you

Liskiewicz, Maciej

103

GROWTH HABITS IN STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit tree architecture is an increasingly important aspect of fruit production. Pomologists and fruit growers are looking to tree architecture as a way to address various production issues and increase profitability. Stone fruits, particularly peaches, have perhaps the widest range of described g...

104

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

1996-01-01

105

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

O'Toole, Alice J.

106

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

O'Toole, Alice J.

107

Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

108

Name That Fruit!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students, will read three informational texts about fruit. Students will identify key ideas and details in each text and use illustrations to help them identify the key ideas. This lesson also incorporates a science standard that asks students to sort objects by color, shape, and size. After reading each text, students will participate in several hands-on activities to sort fruit.

Lauri Christopher

2012-07-20

109

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2008-04-21

110

Home Fruit Production - Pears.  

E-print Network

System ? College Station, Texas (Blank Pa,ge -in Origi.aI BoHetiDl ' : . 1 r . .- HOME FRUIT PRODUCTION - PEARS John A. Upe, Calvin Lyons and Larry Stein* Pears are long-lived attractive trees for Texas land scapes. Selected varieties produce good... fruit with few management problems. The three basic types of pears grown in the United States are European or French pears, Oriental hybrids and Asian pears. The common pears include such popular varieties as Bartlett, Bosc and D...

Lipe, John A.; Lyons, Calvin; Stein, Larry

1988-01-01

111

Life history data on the fly parasitoids Aleochara nigra Kraatz and A. asiatica Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and their potential application in forensic entomology.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations. PMID:24053864

Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

2013-10-10

112

Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2013-10-01

113

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

114

Sensory properties of fruit skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory characteristics of fruit skins were determined for a range of produce including large fruit (apples, pears, and tomatoes) and small fruit (grapes, strawberries, blueberries, and cherry tomatoes). These results provided a context within which to study the sensory properties of skins from novel kiwifruit (Actinidia). The kiwifruit skins ranged from the edible skins of grape-sized Actinidia arguta through

Rachel L. Amos

2007-01-01

115

Fat Fruit Flies  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Breaking news from South Korea's hi-tech frontline. With the help of drosophila, or the fruit fly, scientists here have discovered strands of genetic material that control growth in the body. They're called micro-RNA and people...

Hacker, Randi

2010-08-11

116

Emerging fruit crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

117

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

Liskiewicz, Maciej

118

Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 Golden Delicious apples 2 Red Delicious apples 2 banana 1 1/2 cups Directions 1. Leave the skin on the apple and cut in half through the core. Then cut each piece in half again

Liskiewicz, Maciej

119

Dried Fruits and Nuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current control of postharvest insect pests of dried fruits and tree nuts relies heavily on fumigants such as methyl bromide or phosphine. There is mounting pressure against the general use of chemical fumigants due to atmospheric emissions, safety or health concerns, and an increased interest in or...

120

Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients  

E-print Network

Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients: non stick cooking spray 3 bananas 1 cup raisins 2 cups rolled oats. Peel and coarsely mash bananas in mixing bowl. 3. Add raisins, oats, apple butter, walnuts, oil and vanilla extract with bananas and stir to mix well. 4. Let stand for 10 minutes. 5. Drop by teaspoonful

Liskiewicz, Maciej

121

A necrosis-inducing elicitor domain encoded by both symptomatic and asymptomatic Plantago asiatica mosaic virus isolates, whose expression is modulated by virus replication.  

PubMed

Systemic necrosis is the most destructive symptom induced by plant pathogens. We previously identified amino acid 1154, in the polymerase domain (POL) of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), which affects PlAMV-induced systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana. By point-mutation analysis, we show that amino acid 1,154 alone is not sufficient for induction of necrotic symptoms. However, PlAMV replicons that can express only RdRp, derived from a necrosis-inducing PlAMV isolate, retain their ability to induce necrosis, and transient expression of PlAMV-encoded proteins indicated that the necrosis-eliciting activity resides in RdRp. Moreover, inducible-overexpression analysis demonstrated that the necrosis was induced in an RdRp dose-dependent manner. In addition, during PlAMV infection, necrotic symptoms are associated with high levels of RdRp accumulation. Surprisingly, necrosis-eliciting activity resides in the helicase domain (HEL), not in the amino acid 1,154-containing POL, of RdRp, and this activity was observed even in HELs of PlAMV isolates of which infection does not cause necrosis. Moreover, HEL-induced necrosis had characteristics similar to those induced by PlAMV infection. Overall, our data suggest that necrotic symptoms induced by PlAMV infection depend on the accumulation of a non-isolate specific elicitor HEL (even from nonnecrosis isolates), whose expression is indirectly regulated by amino acid 1,154 that controls replication. PMID:21190438

Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Shiraishi, Takuya; Neriya, Yutaro; Miura, Chihiro; Minato, Nami; Okano, Yukari; Sugawara, Kyoko; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

2011-04-01

122

Asiatic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene in Centella asiatica, attenuates glutamate-induced cognitive deficits in mice and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate whether asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpene in Centella asiatica, exerted neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo, and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used for in vitro study. Cell viability was determined with the MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry were used to examine the apoptosis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using fluorescent dye. PGC-1? and Sirt1 levels were examined using Western blotting. Neonatal mice were given monosodium glutamate (2.5 mg/g) subcutaneously at the neck from postnatal day (PD) 7 to 13, and orally administered with AA on PD 14 daily for 30 d. The learning and memory of the mice were evaluated with the Morris water maze test. HE staining was used to analyze the pyramidal layer structure in the CA1 and CA3 regions. Results: Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with AA (0.1–100 nmol/L) attenuated toxicity induced by 10 mmol/L glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. AA 10 nmol/L significantly decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS), stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and promoted the expression of PGC-1? and Sirt1. In the mice models, oral administration of AA (100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze test, and restored lipid peroxidation and glutathione and the activity of SOD in the hippocampus and cortex to the control levels. AA (50 and 100 mg/kg) also attenuated neuronal damage of the pyramidal layer in the CA1 and CA3 regions. Conclusion: AA attenuates glutamate-induced cognitive deficits of mice and protects SH-SY5Y cells against glutamate-induced apoptosis in vitro. PMID:22447225

Xu, Min-fang; Xiong, Yu-yun; Liu, Jian-kang; Qian, Jin-jun; Zhu, Li; Gao, Jing

2012-01-01

123

Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.  

PubMed

Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

2013-10-01

124

Science 101: How do fruits ripen?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people love to eat fresh fruits, and today there are dozens to choose from--from "standard" fruits like apple, orange, and banana to more exotic fruits like mango, star fruit, and lychee. But how exactly do fruits ripen to taste so good?

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

125

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

126

Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.  

PubMed

Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:24579376

Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

2013-12-01

127

Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Pseudocyrtohymena koreana n. g., n. sp. and Antarctic Neokeronopsis asiatica Foissner et al., 2010 (Ciliophora, Sporadotrichida), with a Brief Discussion of the Cyrtohymena Undulating Membranes Pattern.  

PubMed

We discovered a new brackish water oxytrichid Pseudocyrtohymena koreana n. g., n. sp. in South Korea and investigated the new species on the basis of morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The new genus has the 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri of typical oxytrichids with flexible body, cortical granules, Cyrtohymena undulating membranes (UM), and one left and one right marginal cirral row. Ontogenesis of the new species indicated that dorsal kinety anlage 3 stretches within the parental row without any fragmentations (Urosomoida pattern) and exclusively forms all caudal cirri. The new genus is morphologically similar to Cyrtohymena Foissner, 1989, but has the following distinctive features: (i) caudal cirri absent in dorsal kineties 1 and 2 (vs. present in Cyrtohymena); and (ii) dorsal kinety 3 nonfragmented (vs. fragmented in Cyrtohymena). Further, we collected an additional species Neokeronopsis asiatica Foissner et al. 2010, from King George Island, Antarctica, and the species shares the morphology of UM with Cyrtohymena. Herein, we describe the previously unidentified characteristics of N. asiatica (i.e., cortical granules, body flexibility, contractile vacuole, and 18S rRNA gene sequence). In addition, we obtained two 18S rRNA gene sequences from Cyrtohymena muscorum and Parasterkiella thompsoni to expand samples for phylogenetic analysis. Our 18S rRNA gene tree supports the hypothesis that the Cyrtohymena UM pattern might have evolved several times in hypotrichs (e.g., Neokeronopsidae, Oxytrichinae, and Stylonychinae). PMID:25231725

Jung, Jae-Ho; Park, Kyung-Min; Min, Gi-Sik

2014-09-18

128

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

2006-10-01

129

IONIZING RADIATION PROCESSING OF FRUITS AND FRUIT PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food irradiation is a physical treatment in which food is exposed to ionizing radiation, i.e., radiation of high enough energy to expel electrons from atoms and to ionize molecules. Irradiation may be used to control the physiology of fruits, or to eliminate harmful bacteria from fruit products. Thi...

130

Children's perception of fresh fruit and fruit snacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain children's perception of fruit and fruit snacks and the influences on their choice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – One hundred primary school children (the majority aged 7-11 years), from three schools, were surveyed or interviewed. A quota sample was taken with a balance of age and gender. A questionnaire survey (n = 50)

John A. Bower; Jessica Ferguson

2008-01-01

131

Fruit Xylophone: Fruit Salad Instrument of the Future!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a perfect summertime lunch activity! Pico Cricket is required (micro controller). First, get a bunch of cut up fruit, line them up, then plug a piece of fruit with a Pico Cricket sensor clip. Next, hold the other Pico Cricket sensor clip in your hand and touch each of the fruits with it to see what kind of music it makes! This activity contains the programming instructions you need to read the resistance in the fruit, which assigns that resistance number a sound. This activity is a great way to explore the conductivity of fruit and vegetables and their resistance. This activity is an easy programming activity for beginners. Note: an older version of the Pico Cricket is shown in this activity, please revise where necessary.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-26

132

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2014-04-01

133

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2012-04-01

134

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2013-04-01

135

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of the following citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus grandis, Osbeck, commonly called grapefruit, and (b) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called...

2010-01-01

136

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

137

Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  

PubMed

It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin

2015-01-01

138

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

139

Temperate fruit production in Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the adaptation, culture, and management of temperate fruit trees in the tropics of Guatemala are remarkable in comparison with fruit production developments observed in the tropical highlands of Mexico and other Central American countries. Several cultivars of apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica) have been adapted and form part of home

2006-01-01

140

Vegetables, Fruit, and Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon.

KRISTI A. STEINMETZ; JOHN D. POTTER

1996-01-01

141

Fruit Set and Yield Patterns in Six Capsicum Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit set and yield patterns were studied in detail in six pepper cultivars. Fruit set differed largely between the cultivars: cultivars with small fruits (fruit fresh weight 20 to 40 g) showed higher fruit set (50%) than cultivars with large fruits (fruit fresh weight 120 to 200 g; 11% to 19%). The former showed continuous fruit set (four to five

A. M. Wubs; Y. T. Ma; L. Hemerik; E. Heuvelink

2009-01-01

142

Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits  

SciTech Connect

Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

1989-04-01

143

Contribution of fruit research in the developments in Dutch fresh fruit chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the poor financial results of the fruit industry in the last decade, the changing trade structures and more consumer-driven fruit chains, Dutch fruit growers change their market behaviour. In these circumstances, the fruit industry itself and the applied fruit research are also changing. Applied Plant Research (PPO-Fruit) is involved in different projects related to consumer-driven fruit chain development

M. J. Groot; G. Peppelman

2004-01-01

144

Fruits and vegetables dehydration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

2015-01-01

145

Fruit Development in Trillium1  

PubMed Central

Leaves are the main source of carbon for fruit maturation in most species. However, in plants seeing contrasting light conditions such as some spring plants, carbon fixed during the spring could be used to support fruit development in the summer, when photosynthetic rates are low. We monitored carbohydrate content in the rhizome (a perennating organ) and the aboveground stem of trillium (Trillium erectum) over the entire growing season (May–November). At the beginning of the fruiting stage, stems carrying a developing fruit were harvested, their leaves were removed, and the leafless stems were maintained in aqueous solution under controlled conditions up to full fruit maturation. These experiments showed that stem carbohydrate content was sufficient to support fruit development in the absence of leaves and rhizome. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of complete fruit development sustained only by a temporary carbohydrate reservoir. This carbohydrate accumulation in the stem during the spring enables the plant to make better use of the high irradiances occurring at that time. Many other species might establish short-term carbohydrate reservoirs in response to seasonal changes in growing conditions. PMID:9576787

Lapointe, Line

1998-01-01

146

Physical properties of kumquat fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some physical properties of kumquat were investigated. Physical properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass, volume, projected area, density, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area. Bulk density, porosity and also packaging coefficient were calculated. Mechanical properties such as the elasticity modulus, rupture force and energy required for initial rupture have been determined. The experiments were carried out at moisture content of 82.6% (w.b.). The results show that the kumquat fruit is one of the smallest fruit in the citrus family.

Jaliliantabar, F.; Lorestani, A. N.; Gholami, R.

2013-01-01

147

Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

are expensive and they are not recommend- ed by any federal agency to clean fresh produce. Fruit and vegetable waxes Some fruits and vegetables may have waxy coatings to keep them fresh, to protect them from bruising and to prevent the growth of mold. Waxes... also make fruits and vegetables more at- tractive. These waxes are safe to eat. Washing fresh produce with water may not remove the wax, but soap should not be used to wash fresh produce. If you prefer, you can remove the waxed skin before eating...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

148

Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

*Program Specialist, The Texas A&M System Fresh fruits and vegetables provide vita- mins, minerals and fiber to help keep your body healthy. To make sure that your fruits and vegetables are safe to eat, it is important to know how to select good...-quality produce. Occasionally, fresh fruits and vegetables can become contaminated by harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. Produce can be contaminated at any...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

149

Fruit Salad with Light Whipped Topping Ingredients  

E-print Network

Fruit Salad with Light Whipped Topping Ingredients: 16 ounces fruit cocktail in juice 20 ounces fruit cocktail and pineapple chunks. 2. Place fruit in bowl. 3. Stir in yogurt and whipped topping. 4 Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex

Liskiewicz, Maciej

150

Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...

151

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2011-04-01

152

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2010-04-01

153

Electrochemical Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Freshness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits and vegetables are natural sources of electrolytes. A voltaic cell consisting of a fruit or vegetable and two dissimilar electrodes may show a detectable potential difference. Seven different fruits and vegetables are studied for analyzing their freshness. At first, a few experiments are conducted on the vegetables and fruits using two different sets of electrodes, copper-iron probe and gold-iron

MOHAMMAD N. AMIN; PRADIP PETER DEY

154

Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening, fruits undergo many changes, which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances plus minerals and vitamins, the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening

Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-López

2011-01-01

155

Fruit Quality: New Insights for Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development.

Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-lópez

2012-01-01

156

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

2012-01-01

157

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all...

2013-01-01

158

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2012-01-01

159

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all...

2011-01-01

160

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all...

2012-01-01

161

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all...

2014-01-01

162

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2011-01-01

163

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

2014-01-01

164

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

2013-01-01

165

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

2011-01-01

166

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2010-01-01

167

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2014-01-01

168

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2013-01-01

169

Bioclimatology Optimization of water for fruit trees  

E-print Network

Bioclimatology Optimization of water for fruit trees by a computerized irrigation system R. Assaf1 load (the ratio of reproductive to vegetative growth - kg fruit/cm2 trunk growth) and fruit size penetration, improve fruit quality, and lower the cost of production. This method will permit the planting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

170

Fungal fruit rots of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the symptoms, etiology, and control of the three main fungal fruit rots of kiwifruit in New Zealand is reviewed. Field rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, affects immature fruits on the vines. Storage rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, affects harvested fruits during cold storage. Ripe rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, affects harvested fruits during post-storage ripening.

S. R. Pennycook

1985-01-01

171

Fruiting body production in Basidiomycetes.  

PubMed

Mushroom cultivation presents an economically important biotechnological industry that has markedly expanded all over the world in the past few decades. Mushrooms serve as delicacies for human consumption and as nutriceuticals, as "food that also cures". Mushrooms, the fruiting bodies of basidiomycetous fungi, contain substances of various kinds that are highly valued as medicines, flavourings and perfumes. Nevertheless, the biological potential of mushrooms is probably far from exploited. A major problem up to now is that only a few species can be induced to fruit in culture. Our current knowledge on the biological processes of fruiting body initiation and development is limited and arises mostly from studies of selected model organisms that are accessible to molecular genetics. A better understanding of the developmental processes underlying fruiting in these model organisms is expected to help mushroom cultivation of other basidiomycetes in the future. PMID:10968625

Kües, U; Liu, Y

2000-08-01

172

A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation  

PubMed Central

The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O–H structure at 2940 cm?1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid). PMID:20814525

Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P.; Mukherjee, A.

2010-01-01

173

Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

Foster, Mercedes S.

2008-01-01

174

Trace elements in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation. PMID:22068730

Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

2012-05-01

175

Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

2013-01-01

176

Molecular regulation of fruit ripening  

PubMed Central

Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2013-01-01

177

Phloem unloading in tomato fruit  

SciTech Connect

To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and /sup 3/H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate.

Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

1986-04-01

178

Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of ... that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that ...

179

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fruit means any or all varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”;...

2010-01-01

180

How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales  

E-print Network

How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales phylogeny, color gamut, color space, constraints, flower color, fruit color diversity, null model, seed disperser. Summary The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals

Schaefer, Martin

181

Interrelations Among Leaf and Fruit Mineral Nutrients and Fruit Quality in 'Delicious' Apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships were studies between various leaf and fruit mineral nutrients and fruit and quality parameters at harvest and after storage in 'Redchief Delicious' and 'Redspur Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Barkh.). Trees with high yield had smaller fruit with lower soluble solid concentrations (SSC). Fruit color was correlated positively with SSC at harvest in 'Redchief Delicious' and after storage in both

Esmaeil Fallahi; Brenda R. Simons

1996-01-01

182

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF FRUIT MATURATION AND RIPENING  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The development,and maturation,of fruits has received considerable scientific scrutiny because,of both the uniqueness,of such processes to the biology of plants and the importance,of fruit as a significant component,of the human,diet. Mole- cular and genetic analysis of fruit development, and especially ripening of fleshy fruits, has resulted in significant gains in knowledge,over recent years. Great strides have been made

Jim Giovannoni

2001-01-01

183

Modeling Fruit Morphological Formation on Muskmelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modeling fruit morphological formation on muskmelon is of significant importance for realizing virtual and digital plant growth.\\u000a Two experiments were carried out for data acquisition, involving different organic fertilizer rates and cultivars. Time-course\\u000a observations were made on fruit morphological properties (fruit size, color and netted) on muskmelon plant under different\\u000a experiment conditions. The results showed that the fruit swelling process

Li-Ying Chang; Ming-Han Chi; Dan-Feng Huang

184

Edible Coatings for Fresh-Cut Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and\\/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have

G. I. Olivas; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2005-01-01

185

Les pe&ts fruits indignes  

E-print Network

#ts fruits, il est un super fruit! Bleuet de corymbe: c'est un format géantLes pe&ts fruits indigènes Préparé par Vicky Bérubé Avec l'aimable contribu les fleurs. C'est donc grâce à elles que l'on a de beaux fruits bleus en

Laval, Université

186

Nutritional Quality of Commercial Fruit Baby Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial fruit baby food is a preserved fruit product usually made with fruit purees, sugar, water and variable additives (thickening agents, antioxidants, etc.). As the foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses, baby foods for infants and young children conforms to a set of strict guidelines e.g. maximum levels for pesticide residues, microbiological contamination, addition of additives, labelling, etc. However, being

H. ?ížko Vá; R. Še; A. RAJCHl; M. Vold?

187

Penetrating ocular injury by durian fruit.  

PubMed

Durian may inflict severe body injury when it drops from the tree. This case report describes a patient who presented with facial and penetrating eye injury when a ripe durian fruit dropped onto her face while harvesting the fruits under the tree. The authors emphasized the importance of facial and eye protective devices during durian fruit harvesting season. PMID:20527280

Aziz, S; Asokumaran, T; Intan, G

2009-09-01

188

Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest

Huirong Xu; Yibin Ying

2004-01-01

189

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE AVOCADO FRUIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avocado fruit exhibits several unusual characteristics both physiological and morphological in nature. One prominent feature is the great quantity of oil which develops in the edible portion, a character comparable in few other fruits except the olive. Another rather unusual aspect is the fact that the fruit will not mature while firmly attached to the tree, hence it must

C. A. Schroeder

190

Growth and Water Transport in Fleshy Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit volumetric growth is primarily the result of water accumulation, and hence maintenance of fruit growth requires coordination between long- distance water and solute transport through the vascular tissue, and short-distance water and solute uptake at the level of individual cells. One hypothesized coordinating principle is that for fruit growth to occur, there must be a favorable difference in total

M. A. Matthews; K. A. Shackel

191

Fruit Ripening Phenomena–An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and

V. Prasanna; T. N. Prabha; R. N. Tharanathan

2007-01-01

192

Fresh Fruit Make your own platter  

E-print Network

Yogurt Baked Goods Fresh Fruit Make your own platter · Berries* · Apple or pear slices yogurt, granola/cereal, and/or fresh fruit for individual parfaits. Low- fat milk or almond milk can · Whole Foods · Costco · Berkeley Bowl Granola, Yogurt, and/or Fruit Parfaits Provide plain or vanilla

Jacobs, Lucia

193

Fresh Fruit with Cinnamon Yogurt Dip Ingredients  

E-print Network

Fresh Fruit with Cinnamon Yogurt Dip Ingredients: 1 apple 1 orange 1 banana 6 ounces nonfat yogurt slices. 2. Cut off both ends of orange. Starting at top, slide knife between skin and fruit and cut off into individual sections. 3. Peel banana, cut into slices. 4. Arrange fruit on a plate. Mix the yogurt

Liskiewicz, Maciej

194

Tropical Fruit Ambrosia Makes 6 servings  

E-print Network

Tropical Fruit Ambrosia Makes 6 servings 1 jar (26 oz.) mixed tropical fruit, drained 1 large banana, sliced 1 cup low-fat yogurt ¼ tsp. finely grated lime zest 2 Tbsp. fresh lime juice ¼ cup flaked coconut Lettuce leaves Directions: 1. In a large bowl, combine the tropical fruit and banana. 2

Florida, University of

195

Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawthorn fruit extract has been shown to have many health benefits including being cardiovascular protective, hypotensive and hypocholesterolemic. The present study was carried out to characterize further the antioxidants of hawthorn fruit and their effect on the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and ?-tocopherol. The dry hawthorn fruit was extracted successively with ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and water.

Zesheng Zhang; Qi Chang; Min Zhu; Yu Huang; Walter K. K. Ho; Zhen-Yu Chen

2001-01-01

196

Article original Fruits, vol. 64 (1) 19  

E-print Network

Article original Fruits, vol. 64 (1) 19 Characterization of the baobab tree fruit and study of its processing into nectar. Abstract ­­ Introduction. The baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) grows wild was quickly degraded. The survey carried out showed that the fruit pulp of the baobab tree is mainly used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

Review article Tomato fruit quality in relation  

E-print Network

Review article Tomato fruit quality in relation to water and carbon fluxes Soraya GUICHARDa, Nadia in the formation of tomato fruit quality. This approach has provided new insights that help in understanding and controlling some of the major variables of fruit quality. Variations in the concentration of dry matter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Protecting Garden Fruits from Spotted Wing Drosophila  

E-print Network

fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata) is much larger and typically has banded wings. You may have seen commonProtecting Garden Fruits from Spotted Wing Drosophila E M 9 0 2 6 · A p r i l 2 0 1 1 Drosophila S potted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii; SWD) is a new, invasive pest that attacks stone fruits

Tullos, Desiree

199

Lemon Fruit Pie in a Bag Ingredients  

E-print Network

Lemon Fruit Pie in a Bag Ingredients: 3 ounces vanilla low-fat yogurt 1 tablespoon pudding mix, lemon flavored 1 graham crackers, sheet 1/8 cup fruit Directions 1. In a sandwich bag, add 1/2 container vanilla yogurt, 1 tablespoon lemon flavored pudding mix, 1 sheet graham cracker, and 1/8 cup fruit. 2

Liskiewicz, Maciej

200

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

201

A fruit quality gene map of Prunus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus

Ebenezer A Ogundiwin; Cameron P Peace; Thomas M Gradziel; Dan E Parfitt; Fredrick A Bliss; Carlos H Crisosto

2009-01-01

202

2005 Season Review Small Fruit and Grapes  

E-print Network

1 INDEX 2005 Season Review Small Fruit and Grapes Tree Fruit Plant Pathology Entomology Indiana Horticultural Congress Horticultural Therapy FFF05-09 December, 2005 Small Fruit and Grapes: Blueberries Large, especially on flowers of Arkan- sas Primocane Fruiters. ·Potato leafhoppers, very severe damage this year

Ginzel, Matthew

203

Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these

W Patrick Wechter; Amnon Levi; Karen R Harris; Angela R Davis; Zhangjun Fei; Nurit Katzir; James J Giovannoni; Ayelet Salman-Minkov; Alvaro Hernandez; Jyothi Thimmapuram; Yaakov Tadmor; Vitaly Portnoy; Tova Trebitsh

2008-01-01

204

INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION IN FRUIT SHAPE: ALLOMETRY, PHYLOGENY, AND ADAPTATION TO  

E-print Network

must probablq be at- fruiting phenology, fruit s i x and color. nutritional tributed, in partINTERSPECIFIC VARIATION IN FRUIT SHAPE: ALLOMETRY, PHYLOGENY, AND ADAPTATION TO DISPERSAL AGENTS' 4 . Investigations on fruit and fruiting characteristics of animal-dispersed. fleshy- fruited

Herrera, Carlos M.

205

Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

206

Sustainability of Fresh Fruit Certifications: Willingness to Pay Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes sustainability of fresh fruit certifications using consumers' willingness-to-pay measures of 12 different kinds of fruits. Consumers tended to pay higher prices for fruit certifications when retail prices of fruits were relatively high. If certified fruits were purchased for gifts, purchasing quantities tended to be larger for fruits of high retail prices like wax apples, Indian jujubes, and

Jane Lu Hsu; Hung-Yi Chen; Carey Ming-Li Chen; Wei-Hsien Chang

2009-01-01

207

Furanoflavonoids from Pongamia pinnata fruits.  

PubMed

Fruits of Pongamia pinnata afforded four new furanoflavonoids, pongapinnol A-D (1-4), and a new coumestan, pongacoumestan (5) along with thirteen known compounds 6-18. Compounds 16 and 17 are isolated for the first time from this plant. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. PMID:14759538

Yadav, Prem P; Ahmad, Ghufran; Maurya, Rakesh

2004-02-01

208

Ripening of Fruits and Vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test the rate of ripening fruit and vegetables and use a chemical to inhibit the ripening process. After the experiment, learners measure the exposed surface area of the foods. This activity relates to how food is prepared for the Space Shuttle. This lesson plan includes background information, discussion questions, and extensions.

Nasa

2012-06-26

209

Cross-induction of fruit acceptance by the medfly Ceratitis capitata : The role of fruit size and chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann), were exposed for several days to one of three host fruit species. Oviposition-site acceptance behavior was subsequently assayed on five fruit species. Females accepted most often the fruit to which they were exposed. Females exposed to a small fruit, mock orange, accepted other fruit species less often as the size of the

Daniel R. Papaj; Susan B. Opp; Ronald J. Prokopy; Timothy T. Y. Wong

1989-01-01

210

Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.  

PubMed

The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation. PMID:19610403

Follett, Peter A

2009-06-01

211

Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones.

Popa, C.; Dumitras, D. C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.

2014-10-01

212

Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1  

PubMed Central

Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

2012-01-01

213

Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

2004-10-01

214

Automatic Grading of the Post-Harvest Fruit: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical fruit grading and automatic fruit grading have been detailed in this paper. The studies and applications of mechanical fruit grading, and computer visual and automatic fruit grading were also particularized. Computer vision technology for detecting fruit size, color, bruise and surface defects and evaluation of fruit overall quality were discussed. The primary problems and development in the future in application of automatic fruit grading in China were pointed out in the end.

Gao, Haisheng; Cai, Jinxing; Liu, Xiufeng

215

Inheritance of mature green fruit color in cucumber  

E-print Network

green fruit color in a Texas ASM University cucumber breeding line was found to be controlled by a single incompletely dominant gene. Crosses were made to cream and orange fruit colors of varieties 'Chipper' and 'SMR58' as well as orange fruit... of plant introductions 165509 and 163213. Dominance at the R locus, conditioning orange mature fruit color, masks the mature green trait The mature green trait appears to improve the color of immature fruit. Mature fruit color is not correlated to fruit...

Peterson, Gregory Calvin

1986-01-01

216

Why fruits go to the dark side  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

Schaefer, H. Martin

2011-11-01

217

Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Fruit Set and Fruit Shape of Parthenocarpic Apple Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, and gibberellin synthetic inhibitor to flowers of 'Ohrin', which is parthenocarpic, and 'Fuji', which is non-parthenocarpic, to elucidate the relationship between plant growth regulators and parthenocarpy in apple. The percentage of fruit set in gibberellin A3 (GA3) was about 60% in 'Ohrin' and about 7% in 'Fuji'. Forchlorfenuron (CPPU) combined with GA3 treatment increased the

Manabu Watanabe; Hideyuki Segawa; Masanobu Murakami; Satoru Sagawa; Sadao Komori

2008-01-01

218

Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

219

Berry antioxidants: small fruits providing large benefits.  

PubMed

Small berry fruits are consumed because of their attractive colour and special taste, and are considered one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Their consumption has been linked to the prevention of some chronic and degenerative diseases. The term 'berry fruits' encompasses the so-called 'soft fruits', primarily strawberry, currants, gooseberry, blackberry, raspberry, blueberry and cranberry. The objective of this review is to highlight the nutraceutical value of berries and to summarize the factors affecting berry fruit antioxidants. Particular attention is given to postharvest and processing operation factors that may affect fruit phytochemical content. The structure-antioxidant relationships for phenolic compounds - the main group of antioxidants in this fruit group - are presented and major areas for future research are identified. PMID:24122646

Manganaris, George A; Goulas, Vlasios; Vicente, Ariel R; Terry, Leon A

2014-03-30

220

FRUITS OF YOUR LABOR A COOKBOOK FOR WINDBREAK FRUITS FROM THE  

E-print Network

the Cherry Dessert Cake recipe for this publication. Thank you. -- The CSFS Nursery CSFS #153-0898 #12 extract Prepare pulp of both fruits first by putting cooked fruit (unsweet- ened) through a sieve or food

221

FRUIT & NUT Jim Kamas, Monte Nesbitt& Larry Stein  

E-print Network

temperatures dur- ing fruit ripening are quite warm in Texas, poor fruit color on red varieties can be a prob the fruit a red- orange color. The flesh is crisp, dense, and aromatic with excel- lent quality that storesTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Jim Kamas, Monte Nesbitt& Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists

Mukhtar, Saqib

222

ORIGINAL PAPER Why are fruits colorful? The relative importance of  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Why are fruits colorful? The relative importance of achromatic and chromatic with artificial fruits of four different colors in a tropical forest. We displayed the fruits against two for the four fruit colors. The probability of detection was explained by the chromatic contrast between fruits

Schaefer, Martin

223

Dried Fruits: Excellent in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this work is to determine the amount and quality of phenol antioxidants in dried fruits and compare them with the corresponding fresh fruits; to compare the nutrients in fresh and dried fruits; to determine if figs are a source of in vivo antioxidants when eaten. Methods: Commercial samples of dried fruits and fresh fruits were compared

Joe A Vinson; Ligia Zubik; Pratima Bose; Najwa Samman; John Proch

224

Model Selection for Nondestructive Quantification of Fruit Growth in Pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying fruit growth can be desirable for several purposes (e.g., prediction of fruit yield and size, or for the use in crop simulation models). The goal of this article was to determine the best sigmoid function to describe fruit growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum) from nondestructive fruit growth measurements. The Richards, Gompertz, logistic, and beta growth functions were tested. Fruit

A. M. Wubs; Y. T. Ma; E. Heuvelink; L. Hemerik; L. F. M. Marcelis

2012-01-01

225

Carbon and water balances for young fruits of platyopuntias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions relating to transpired versus retained water for pected for CAM plants. The water potential of the young fruits, the xylem versus the phloem as water supplier to the fruits (average of 0.41 MPa) was higher than that of the fruits, and the importance of fruit photosynthesis for fruit cladodes (average of 0.60 MPa), indicating that water dry mass gain

Park S. Nobel; Erick De la Barrera

2000-01-01

226

Quality attributes of stored koubo ( Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller (koubo, also known as apple cactus) is a new fruit crop in Israel. When the fruit reach full maturity, they tend to crack due to uncoordinated growth of the different fruit tissues. This phenomenon normally causes heavy fruit losses, as much as 90% of the total yield. To prevent this problem, fruit are usually harvested before

Racheli Ninio; Efraim Lewinsohn; Yosef Mizrahi; Yaron Sitrit

2003-01-01

227

Carbon allocation during fruiting in Rubus chamaemorus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Rubus chamaemorus (cloudberry) is a herbaceous clonal peatland plant that produces an extensive underground rhizome system with distant ramets. Most of these ramets are non-floral. The main objectives of this study were to determine: (a) if plant growth was source limited in cloudberry; (b) if the non-floral ramets translocated carbon (C) to the fruit; and (c) if there was competition between fruit, leaves and rhizomes for C during fruit development. Methods Floral and non-floral ramet activities were monitored during the period of flower and fruit development using three approaches: gas exchange measurements, 14CO2 labelling and dry mass accumulation in the different organs. Source and sink activity were manipulated by eliminating leaves or flowers or by reducing rhizome length. Key Results Photosynthetic rates were lower in floral than in deflowered ramets. Autoradiographs and 14C labelling data clearly indicated that fruit is a very strong sink for the floral ramet, whereas non-floral ramets translocated C toward the rhizome but not toward floral ramets. Nevertheless, rhizomes received some C from the floral ramet throughout the fruiting period. Ramets with shorter rhizomes produced smaller leaves and smaller fruits, and defoliated ramets produced very small fruits. Conclusions Plant growth appears to be source-limited in cloudberry since a reduction in sink strength did not induce a reduction in photosynthetic activity. Non-floral ramets did not participate directly to fruit development. Developing leaves appear to compete with the developing fruit but the intensity of this competition could vary with the specific timing of the two organs. The rhizome appears to act both as a source but also potentially as a sink during fruit development. Further studies are needed to characterize better the complex role played by the rhizome in fruit C nutrition. PMID:19520701

Gauci, R.; Otrysko, B.; Catford, J.-G.; Lapointe, L.

2009-01-01

228

Prevalence and Functions of Anthocyanins in Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews possible visual, nutritional and physiological functions of anthocyanins in fruits. Merits of the various\\u000a functions are considered and discussed with reference to the prevalence of different fruit colours and the contribution of\\u000a anthocyanins thereto as well as anthocyanin accumulation in response to environmental factors, seed disperser visual systems\\u000a and fruit quality parameters. Blue, purple, black and most

W. J. Steyn

229

Tree Fruit Varieties in North Texas.  

E-print Network

variety for this section. Cherries have proved unadapted, having died from natural causes without fruiting. Peaches and plums are the most dependable tree fruits for this section. The success of either depends to a great extent on the proper selection... of varieties. The outstanding limiting factor is lack of hardiness to late spring freezes. A few varieties of both peaches and plums of bearing age have missed fruiting only once in seven years. The Dr. Burton peach has been outstanding in yields...

Brooks, L. E. (Lester E.)

1936-01-01

230

Studies on fruit cracking of tomatoes  

E-print Network

Types oi' Fruit Cracks Factors Affecting Fruit Cracking Moisture Temperature Physiological Age Pruning and Staking Chemistry . Fruit Structure 3 Nutrition III. MATERIALS AND METHODS Anatomy of Pericarp Number and Arrangement of Vascular... Tissue Effect of Calcium on Cracking IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Anatomy of Pericarp Varietal Similarieties Varietal Differences Vascular Anatomy Effect of Calcium on Cracking Naturally Occurring Cracks Total Cracking 15 15 15 15 31 31 37...

Cotner, Sam Don

2012-06-07

231

Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.  

PubMed

The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. PMID:25129425

Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

2015-02-01

232

Storage Experiments with Texas Citrus Fruit  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 446 k -. APRIL, 1932 a' -, ' 'FRUIT AGRICULTURAL... fruit in cold storage. ject of this work was to determine the principal causes of loss of ruit in cold storage under ValIey conditions, and to study the effect ain factors on the keeping quality of fruit. evident that pitting, scald, and stem-end rot...

Friend, W. H. (William Heartsill); Bach, Walter J. (Walter Johnson)

1932-01-01

233

Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar phenotype, i.e. seeded, bright red flesh, dark green rind, etc., determined that ethylene levels were highest during the green fruit stage followed by a decrease during the white and pink fruit stages. Additionally, quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to validate modulation of 127 ESTs that were differentially expressed in developing and ripening fruits based on array analysis. Conclusion This study identified numerous ESTs with putative involvement in the watermelon fruit developmental and ripening process, in particular the involvement of the vascular system and ethylene. The production of ethylene during fruit development in watermelon gives further support to the role of ethylene in fruit development in non-climacteric fruits. PMID:18534026

Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

2008-01-01

234

Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit  

PubMed Central

Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

Ró?alska, Anna; Ukleja-Soko?owska, Natalia; ?bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

2013-01-01

235

WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only is Washington in the primary fruit producing region of the world, Washington State University (WSU) also has a website dedicated to the tree fruit sciences through their research and extension center, TFREC. The site highlights the "cooperative, multidisciplinary approach to tree fruit production in the 21st century" that the center features. Visitors will find multiple topics covered on the right hand menu, such as "Plant Breeding", "Integrated Pest Management", and "Orchard Management". "Popular Links", also found on the left hand side of the page, includes "Popular Tree Fruit Links", "Washington State University Web Sites", and "Other Washington Sites". Visitors can read tree fruit news featured on the homepage of the site, such as the release of the first apple cultivar from the WSU apple breeding program and a brief article on how the appearance of a new fruit pest, from the fruit fly family, is affecting Washington fruits, and how it differs from other pests in that it attacks healthy and ripening fruit.

236

Response of Cell Division and Cell Expansion to Local Fruit Heating in Tomato Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve our understanding of fruit growth responses to temperature, it is important to analyze temperature effects on underlying fruit cellular processes. This study aimed at analyzing the response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit size to heating as affected by changes in cell number and cell expansion in different directions. Individual trusses were enclosed into cuvettes and heating was applied

J. Fanwoua; Visser de P. H. B; E. Heuvelink; G. C. Angenent; X. Yin; L. F. M. Marcelis; P. C. Struik

2012-01-01

237

Fruit fate, frugivory, and fruit characteristics: a study of the hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna (Rosaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of fruits from a population of European hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) in western Oregon, USA, was examined over a two-year period. Only one frugivore, the American robin (Turdus migratorius) foraged on the C. monogyna fruits, making this an unusually straightforward fruit-frugivore system. Dispersal efficiency was low, with an average 21% of seeds being dispersed (carried away from parent plants)

Rex Sallabanks

1992-01-01

238

INFLUENCE OF $gamma$IRRADIATION ON SOME KINDS OF FRUITS AND ON CANNED FRUIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some results of observations of changes in organoleptic properties of ; different fresh fruits, their juices, and canned fruit under the influence of ; gamma irradiation (Co⁶°) are given. Irradiation of green persimmons to ; 1.5 million roentgen at 8500 r\\/hr leads to the gradual artificial ripening of the ; fruits. They do not gain any strange taste and are

Sh. M. Khatiashvili; T. V. Tsetskhladze; L. I. Cherkezishvili

1960-01-01

239

Relationship between tomato fruit growth and fruit osmotic potential under salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between fruit growth and fruit osmotic potential (?s) in salty conditions, a sensitive tomato cultivar (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and a tolerant accession of the wild species Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill. were grown in a greenhouse with 0 and 70 mM NaCl, and the growth of the fruit studied from 15 to 70 days after anthesis (DAA). L.

Maria C Bolarin; Maria T Estañ; Manuel Caro; Remedios Romero-Aranda; Jesus Cuartero

2001-01-01

240

Characteristics of fleshy fruits in southeast Alaska: phylogenetic comparison with fruits from Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 30 species of fleshy-fruited plants are found in southeast Alaska. In this paper we examine traits such as plant growth form, phenology, fruit color, seed load, pulp dry weight, and pulp nutrient content and compare them with those of fruits from central Illinois. Two comparative methods (continuous time Markov model and phylo-Anova) were used to compare both qualitative and

Anna Traveset; Mary F. Willson; Miguel Verdú

2004-01-01

241

Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and

Bart J Janssen; Kate Thodey; Robert J Schaffer; Rob Alba; Lena Balakrishnan; Rebecca Bishop; Judith H Bowen; Ross N Crowhurst; Andrew P Gleave; Susan Ledger; Steve McArtney; Franz B Pichler; Kimberley C Snowden; Shayna Ward

2008-01-01

242

The role of bee diversity in pollination and fruit set of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa,  

E-print Network

) is widely cultivated in Brazil and its fruits are consumed fresh or used in the juice industry (Silva 2005The role of bee diversity in pollination and fruit set of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, especially to self-sterile crops as passion fruit, which depends on the large solitary bee for fruit set. We

243

Physical Aspects of Fruit Growth  

PubMed Central

The skin around a lenticel on a soft fruit has been modelled as a thin elastic plate with a rigid circular inclusion and applied tensile loads at the edges. A solution for the stress distribution in the skin has then been found using the linear theory of elasticity. From that solution the severity of the stress concentration and the location and form of initial cuticular failure have been deduced, the latter two being in broad agreement with observed crack initiation in the cuticle of grapes. PMID:16662254

Brown, Ken; Considine, John

1982-01-01

244

Northern Michigan FruitNet 2005 Weekly Update  

E-print Network

AT NWMHRS (8/23/05) Apple: Red Delicious: 69 mm fruit; Mac: 73 mm fruit Pear: 60 mm fruit Sweet Cherry flying, but numbers are declining from prior weeks. Peach harvest is underway, and pear harvest has also

245

7 CFR 906.120 - Fruit exempt from regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...it is not part of a shipment of fruit exceeding 400 pounds. (b...has been converted into sectioned fruit or into fresh juice, or preserved by any commercial...substances, or by fermentation. Fruit so processed, if handled in...

2010-01-01

246

76 FR 37312 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Document No. AMS-FV-11-0045] Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee...S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee...SUMMARY: The USDA intends to reestablish the Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory...

2011-06-27

247

7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not subject to regulation....

2013-01-01

248

29 CFR 780.922 - “Harvesting” of fruits or vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false âHarvestingâ of fruits or vegetables. 780.922 Section 780...FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation...b)(16) Exempt Transportation of Fruit Or Vegetable Harvest Employees §...

2011-07-01

249

29 CFR 780.907 - “Fruits or vegetables.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation; Exemption...Section 13(b)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.907 “Fruits or vegetables.” The exempt operations...

2010-07-01

250

7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not subject to regulation....

2010-01-01

251

7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Rules and Regulations § 906.123 Fruit for processing. (a) No person...

2013-01-01

252

29 CFR 780.922 - “Harvesting” of fruits or vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false âHarvestingâ of fruits or vegetables. 780.922 Section 780...FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation...b)(16) Exempt Transportation of Fruit Or Vegetable Harvest Employees §...

2014-07-01

253

7 CFR 906.120 - Fruit exempt from regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit exempt from regulations. 906.120...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Rules and Regulations § 906.120 Fruit exempt from regulations. (a)...

2012-01-01

254

7 CFR 906.120 - Fruit exempt from regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit exempt from regulations. 906.120...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Rules and Regulations § 906.120 Fruit exempt from regulations. (a)...

2013-01-01

255

29 CFR 780.922 - “Harvesting” of fruits or vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false âHarvestingâ of fruits or vegetables. 780.922 Section 780...FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation...b)(16) Exempt Transportation of Fruit Or Vegetable Harvest Employees §...

2010-07-01

256

7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Rules and Regulations § 906.123 Fruit for processing. (a) No person...

2014-01-01

257

7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Rules and Regulations § 906.123 Fruit for processing. (a) No person...

2012-01-01

258

29 CFR 780.922 - “Harvesting” of fruits or vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false âHarvestingâ of fruits or vegetables. 780.922 Section 780...FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation...b)(16) Exempt Transportation of Fruit Or Vegetable Harvest Employees §...

2013-07-01

259

7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not subject to regulation....

2012-01-01

260

Stone Fruit Carlos H. Crisosto, Susan Lurie, and Julio Retamales  

E-print Network

13 Stone Fruit Carlos H. Crisosto, Susan Lurie, and Julio Retamales CONTENTS 13.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 290 13.2.3 Fruit Biochemistry and Quality Attributes......................................................................................... 294 13.3.3 Fruit Biochemistry and Quality Attributes

Crisosto, Carlos H.

261

7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Rules and Regulations § 906.123 Fruit for processing. (a) No person...

2010-01-01

262

7 CFR 906.120 - Fruit exempt from regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit exempt from regulations. 906.120...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Rules and Regulations § 906.120 Fruit exempt from regulations. (a)...

2014-01-01

263

7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Rules and Regulations § 906.123 Fruit for processing. (a) No person...

2011-01-01

264

29 CFR 780.907 - “Fruits or vegetables.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation; Exemption...Section 13(b)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.907 “Fruits or vegetables.” The exempt operations...

2014-07-01

265

7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not subject to regulation....

2014-01-01

266

7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit not subject to regulation....

2011-01-01

267

29 CFR 780.922 - “Harvesting” of fruits or vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false âHarvestingâ of fruits or vegetables. 780.922 Section 780...FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation...b)(16) Exempt Transportation of Fruit Or Vegetable Harvest Employees §...

2012-07-01

268

NOTICE OF VACANCY Extension Tree Fruit Program Leader  

E-print Network

NOTICE OF VACANCY Extension Tree Fruit Program Leader Washington State University Search # 114569 WORKING TITLE: Extension Tree Fruit Program Leader 100% Extension OFFICIAL TITLE: Area Extension Educator State University (WSU) Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center (TFREC), Wenatchee, Washington

Collins, Gary S.

269

Yellow fruit from an unknown plant in Florida  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simple fruit results from a single flower with a single ovary. Fruits protect seeds. When animals eat the fruits, they spread the seeds in their feces. This is a unique adaptation for angiosperm seed dispersal.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

270

Comparative fruit colouration in watermelon and tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic red pigmentation of watermelon and tomato fruits is determined by accumulation of the carotenoid pigment lycopene and this phenotype is polyphyletic. Since several carotenoids are known to have health promoting activity, and watermelon can be a significant source of lycopene and other carotenoids, it is important to understand the genetic basis of watermelon fruit-specific carotenoid biosynthesis. Unlike tomato,

Y. Tadmor; S. King; A. Levi; A. Davis; A. Meir; B. Wasserman; J. Hirschberg; E. Lewinsohn

2005-01-01

271

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

272

Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides

Didier Ortelli; Patrick Edder; Claude Corvi

2005-01-01

273

Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

274

TRAITS AND GENES AFFECTING REPEAT FRUITING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many in the berry industry are interested in season extension through a combination of cultural practices and amenable cultivars. Several strawberry breeders are developing repeat fruiting cultivars while several bramble breeders are developing primocane-fruiting cultivars and learning much about th...

275

Development of advanced edible coatings for fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible coatings can provide an additional protective coating for fresh products and can also give the same effect as modified atmosphere storage in modifying internal gas composition. Recently, several edible coatings for preserving fruits such as oranges, apples, and grapefruits were successfully applied. But, in some cases, edible coatings were not successful. In fact, fruit quality was worse. The success

Hyun Jin Park

1999-01-01

276

Automated fruit grading system using image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the operations and performance of an automated quality verification system for agricultural products and its main features. The system utilizes improved engineering designs and image-processing techniques to convey and grade products. Basically two inspection stages of the system can be identified: external fruit inspection and internal fruit inspection. Surface inspection is accomplished through processing of color CCD

John B. Njoroge; Kazunori Ninomiya; Naoshi Kondo; H. Toita

2002-01-01

277

Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening  

SciTech Connect

Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

1987-04-01

278

Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. II. Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiologic literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and human cancer at a variety of sites was reviewed systematically in Part I.1 It was concluded that consumption of higher levels of vegetables and fruit is associated consistently, although not universally, with a reduced risk of cancer at most sites, and particularly with epithelial cancers of the alimentary

Kristi A. Steinmetz; John D. Potter

1991-01-01

279

Allergy to Rosaceae fruits without related pollinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rosaceae fruit allergy is frequently associated with birch pollinosis in Central and Northern Europe and with grass pollen allergy in Central Spain. The main cross-reactive structures involved for birch pollinosis are Bet v 1 and profilin, and for grass pollinosis they are profilin and carbohydrate determinants. Rosaceae fruit allergy can occasionally be observed in patients without pollinosis. Objective: We

Montserrat Fernández-Rivas; Ronald van Ree; Manuela Cuevas

1997-01-01

280

THE CLIMATIC ADAPTATION IN FRUIT CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits have varying amounts of climatic adaptation. Most grow only in either the tropical, subtropical, or temperate zones. For example, fruits such as mango and pineapple grow best in a tropical climate without frosts, citrus grows best in a subtropical climate without hard winter freezes, and ap...

281

Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

282

Efficiency of food utilization by fruit bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotropical fruit bats consume figs (Ficus spp.) and other fruit in small bites which they suck dry and drop as pellets. The swallowed juice transits the short digestive system in 0.5 h or less. The efficiency of this unusual mode of feeding was determined by comparing the nutritional content of pellets, feces and urine of captive Artibeus jamaicensis to that

Douglas W. Morrison

1980-01-01

283

Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.  

PubMed

The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

2008-02-27

284

Novel trends to revolutionize preservation and packaging of fruits/fruit products: microbiological and nanotechnological perspectives.  

PubMed

Fruit preservation and packaging have been practiced since ages to maintain the constant supply of seasonal fruits over lengthened periods round the year. However, health and safety issues have attracted attention in recent decades. The safety and quality assurance of packaged fruits/fruit products are vital concerns in present day world-wide-integrated food supply chains. The growing demand of minimally or unprocessed packaged fruits has further aggravated the safety concerns which fuelled in extensive research with objectives to develop novel techniques of food processing, preservation, and packaging as well as for rapid, accurate, and early detection of contaminant products/microbes. Nevertheless, fruits and fruit-based products have yet to observe a panoramic introduction. Tropics and subtropics are the stellar producers of a variety of fruits; majority if not all is perishable and prone to postharvest decay. This evoked the opportunity to critically review the global scenario of emerging and novel techniques for fruit preservation and packaging, hence providing insight for their future implementation. This review would survey key nanotechnology innovations applied in preservation, packaging, safety, and storage of fruits and fruit-based products. The challenges and pros and cons of wider application of these innovative techniques, their commercial potential, and consumer acceptability have also been discussed. PMID:24915398

Kalia, Anu; Parshad, Vir R

2015-01-01

285

REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL PREDICTS LONGEVITY OF FEMALE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLIES  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL PREDICTS LONGEVITY OF FEMALE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLIES (reproductive clock Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) and then to correlate those patterns with longevity. As it turns out

Müller, Hans-Georg

286

FCDD: A Database for Fruit Crops Diseases  

PubMed Central

Fruit Crops Diseases Database (FCDD) requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. The FCDD is a unique bioinformatics resource that compiles information about 162 details on fruit crops diseases, diseases type, its causal organism, images, symptoms and their control. The FCDD contains 171 phytochemicals from 25 fruits, their 2D images and their 20 possible sequences. This information has been manually extracted and manually verified from numerous sources, including other electronic databases, textbooks and scientific journals. FCDD is fully searchable and supports extensive text search. The main focus of the FCDD is on providing possible information of fruit crops diseases, which will help in discovery of potential drugs from one of the common bioresource-fruits. The database was developed using MySQL. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. FCDD is freely available. Availability http://www.fruitcropsdd.com/ PMID:25352729

Chauhan, Rupal; Jasrai, Yogesh; Pandya, Himanshu; Chaudhari, Suman; Samota, Chand Mal

2014-01-01

287

Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

2009-08-01

288

A fruitful endeavor: Modeling ALS in the fruit fly.  

PubMed

For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ALS complex pathogenesis. PMID:25289585

Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

2014-10-01

289

A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.  

PubMed

Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations. PMID:24957883

Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

2015-03-01

290

Fruit diet of Alouatta guariba and Brachyteles arachnoides in Southeastern Brazil: comparison of fruit type, color, and seed size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit is an important food resource for neotropical primates. In this study I compare the fruit diet of sympatric brown howlers\\u000a (Alouatta guariba) and southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Feeding behavior was studied over 12 months and fruit species consumed were identified and assigned to the categories fruit\\u000a type, fruit color, and seed size. Observed-fruit feeding records were compared with expected records

Milene Moura Martins

2008-01-01

291

http://www.jstor.org A Test of the Bicolored Fruit Display Hypothesis: Berry Removal with Artificial Fruit Flags  

E-print Network

infructescenses from pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) to wooden stakes wrapped with different colors of flagging words: fruit flags, bicolored fruit display, Phytolacca, seed dispersal, mutualism. It has been

Muchhala, Nathan

292

Model-Assisted Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Fruit Temperature and Transpiration Highlighting the Role of Fruit Development  

PubMed Central

Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology. PMID:24663687

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

2014-01-01

293

78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...fruit fly) and Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly); two moths, Cryptoblabes...56-58 would specify that trapping for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit...listed in the PPQ Treatment Manual for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American...

2013-02-06

294

A Non-Climacteric Fruit Gene CaMADS-RIN Regulates Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Biosynthesis in Climacteric Fruit  

PubMed Central

MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP) group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin) mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4) and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC) accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1–3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits. PMID:24751940

Dong, Tingting; Chen, Guoping; Tian, Shibing; Xie, Qiaoli; Yin, Wencheng; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli

2014-01-01

295

Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a disease of bone characterized by loss of bone matrix and deterioration of bone microstructure that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between higher fruit intake and higher bone mineral density. In this review, we evaluated animal and cellular studies of dried plum and citrus and berry fruits and bioactive compounds including lycopene, phenolics, favonoids, resveratrol, phloridzin, and pectin derived from tomato, grapes, apples, and citrus fruits. In addition, human studies of dried plum and lycopene were reviewed. Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed antioxidant-rich fruits have a pronounced effect on bone, as shown by higher bone mass, trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation through enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. Such osteoprotective effects seem to be mediated via antioxidant or anti-inflammatory pathways and their downstream signaling mechanisms, leading to osteoblast mineralization and osteoclast inactivation. In future studies, randomized controlled trials are warranted to extend the bone-protective activity of fruits and their bioactive compounds. Mechanistic studies are needed to differentiate the roles of phytochemicals and other constitutes in bone protection offered by the fruits. Advanced imaging technology will determine the effective doses of phytochemicals and their metabolites in improving bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which is a critical step in translating the benefits of fruit consumption on osteoporosis into clinical data. PMID:23244535

Shen, Chwan-Li; von Bergen, Vera; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Mo, Huanbiao; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

2012-12-01

296

6.RP, 6.EE Fruit Salad  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A fruit salad consists of blueberries, raspberries, grapes, and cherries. The fruit salad has a total of 280 pieces of fruit. There are twice as many r...

2013-05-15

297

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries  

SciTech Connect

The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

Thomas, P.

1986-01-01

298

Wavelet-based feature extraction technique for fruit shape classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For export, papaya fruit should be free of defects and damages. Abnormality in papaya fruit shape represents a defective fruit and is used as one of the main criteria to determine suitability of the fruit to be exported. This paper describes a wavelet-based technique used to perform feature extraction to extract unique features which are then used in the classification

Slamet Riyadi; A. J. Ishak; M. M. Mustafa; A. Hussain

2008-01-01

299

Speedy Fruit Yogurt Pudding Makes four cup servings  

E-print Network

Speedy Fruit Yogurt Pudding Makes four ½ cup servings 1 16-ounce can mixed fruit, unsweetened pudding and drain the juice from the fruit before combining the fruit and pudding. Nutrition information Cooperative Extension Service offers it programs to all eligible persons regardless of race, color, national

Florida, University of

300

agbioresearch.msu.edu Northern Michigan FruitNet 2013  

E-print Network

-harvest fruit drop. This problem is exasperated when fruits are left to hang for better red color to meet market demands and fruit drop often occurs when waiting for red color to develop. #12;3 agbioresearch1 agbioresearch.msu.edu Northern Michigan FruitNet 2013 Northwest Michigan Horticultural Research

301

Ascorbic acid in exotic fruits: a liquid chromatographic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of ascorbic acid (AA) have been measured by means of an HPLC method in 11 different exotic fruits (avocado pear, babaco, feijoa, grapefruit, kiwi, kumquat, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit, pineapple) and, for comparative purposes, in two citrus fruits (lemon and orange). They were measured in the exotic fruits at two different stages of ripening: (i) immediately after

Giovanni Ruggieri

1995-01-01

302

Developments and Trends in Fruit Bar Production and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits

C. E. ORREGO; N. SALGADO; C. A. BOTERO

2012-01-01

303

Scientific Notes 649 LEPIDOPTERA ASSOCIATED WITH AVOCADO FRUIT IN GUATEMALA  

E-print Network

imports of fresh avocado fruit from areas where this plant is native. The estimated amount of fruitScientific Notes 649 LEPIDOPTERA ASSOCIATED WITH AVOCADO FRUIT IN GUATEMALA MARK S. HODDLE1 of armored scales on imported avocado fruit entering Califor- nia from Mexico of which 3 were new species

Hoddle, Mark S.

304

FRUIT & NUT Monte Nesbitt, Larry Stein & Jim Kamas  

E-print Network

, Texas AgriLife Extension Avocados Introduction Avocado is a widely consumed fresh fruit in TexasTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Monte Nesbitt, Larry Stein & Jim Kamas Extension Fruit Specialists households, due in part to the popularity of "Tex-Mex" cuisine. Avocado fruit is a large berry with unique

Mukhtar, Saqib

305

Tansley review Improving the flavor of fresh fruits  

E-print Network

Tansley review Improving the flavor of fresh fruits: genomics, biochemistry, and biotechnology It is generally accepted that the flavor quality of many fruits has significantly declined over recent decades of tomato's unique role as a model for fruit development, the review emphasizes advances in this fruit

Klee, Harry J.

306

Recognition of Fruit Fly Wings Vibration Sound Based on HMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper classifies and recognizes three different strains of fruit fly by their wings vibration sounds. It uses Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient to extract features of fruit fly wings vibration sound, then applies Hidden Markov Model to establish models of three different strains of fruit fly wings vibration sound and recognize three strains of fruit fly. Experiment shows that the recognition

Ningxian Zhang; Min Guo

2010-01-01

307

Regulatory Mechanisms of Textural Changes in Ripening Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture changes in ripening fruits influence consumer preference, fruit storability, transportability, shelf-life, and response to pathogen attack. Genetic regulatory factors as well as environmental conditions simultaneously affect texture changes in ripening fruit. Recent physiological and molecular studies provide insights into our knowledge and understanding of events and\\/or factors that contribute to changes in fruit texture, including softening and lignification. The

Xian Li; Changjie Xu; Schuyler S. Korban; Kunsong Chen

2010-01-01

308

Improving ‘Bing’ sweet cherry fruit quality with plant growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Final fruit diameter is the prime determinant of sweet cherry fruit value. Previous research has shown that mesocarp cell size accounts predominantly for variability in final fruit size, within a genotype. Our research program evaluated the potential to improve sweet cherry fruit size\\/weight with growth regulators to affect cell division and\\/or cell expansion stages. In the current study we screened

Caixi Zhang; Matthew D. Whiting

2011-01-01

309

Fruit size, crop mass, and plant height explain differential fruit choice of primates and birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dispersal by animals is an important ecological process shaping plant regeneration. In general, seed dispersers are highly\\u000a variable and often opportunistic in their fruit choice. Despite much research, the factors that can explain patterns of fruit\\u000a consumption among different animal groups remain contentious. Here, we analysed the interactions between 81 animal species\\u000a feeding on the fruits of 30 plant

Martina Flörchinger; Julius Braun; Katrin Böhning-Gaese; H. Martin Schaefer

2010-01-01

310

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN RATES ON DRY MATTER AND NITROGEN ACCUMULATION IN CITRUS FRUITS AND FRUIT YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit growth patterns and nitrogen (N) accumulation in fruit over the growth period were studied on ‘Valencia’, ‘Parson Brown’, ‘Hamlin’, and ‘Sunburst’ cultivars which received either 168, 224, or 280 kgNhayr as broadcast applications of N:P:K dry soluble granular fertilizer. Over a 4-year period, fruit yields of all cultivars did not respond to N rates during low production years. The

A. K. Alva; S. Paramasivam; K. H. Hostler; G. W. Easterwood; J. E. Southwell

2001-01-01

311

Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development. PMID:18279528

Janssen, Bart J; Thodey, Kate; Schaffer, Robert J; Alba, Rob; Balakrishnan, Lena; Bishop, Rebecca; Bowen, Judith H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Ledger, Susan; McArtney, Steve; Pichler, Franz B; Snowden, Kimberley C; Ward, Shayna

2008-01-01

312

Fruit quality and production of cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruit clones selected for increased frost hardiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal limitation to cultivation of cactus for fruit in the south-western United States is lack of hardiness to freezing weather. This field trial compared 22Opuntiaclones selected for increased cold hardiness, fruit yield, and fruit quality, i.e. pH, sugar content and seed content. Mexican accessions 1380, 1277, 1281 and 1300 had the highest yields averaging between 2·5 and 5·2 kg

John Parish; Peter Felker

1997-01-01

313

Fresh Fruits: Getting the Most Nutrition for Your Money  

E-print Network

at room tempera- ture. Those fruits will ripen in 2 to 5 days, depending on the variety. Fruits that will continue to ripen after they are picked include avocados, kiwi, plums, bananas, nectarines, tomatoes, cantaloupe, peaches, honeydew and pears. Fruits... is okay if the label says 100 percent fruit juice. Sugar in your cold adding ripe fruit breakfast cereal such as strawberries peaches or bananas. Cookies, chips and snacking on fruit. candy as a snack Make sure the fruit is kept in sight and within...

Anding, Jenna

2000-05-05

314

Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia.  

PubMed

While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia. PMID:25033283

Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-chang

2014-01-01

315

Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia  

PubMed Central

While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia. PMID:25033283

Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-chang

2014-01-01

316

Tetrahydroalstonine from Fruits of Rhazya stricta.  

PubMed

An indole alkaloid isolated from the fruits of RHAZYA STRICTA Dec., has been identified as tetrahydroalstonine on the basis of spectroscopic studies and by comparison with the authentic sample. PMID:17340319

Malik, S

1984-06-01

317

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...c) The following safe and suitable optional ingredients may be used: (1) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. (2) Spice. (3) Flavoring (other than artificial flavoring). (4) Salt. (5) Acidifying agents. (6) Fruit juice...

2010-04-01

318

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...c) The following safe and suitable optional ingredients may be used: (1) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. (2) Spice. (3) Flavoring (other than artificial flavoring). (4) Salt. (5) Acidifying agents. (6) Fruit juice...

2013-04-01

319

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...c) The following safe and suitable optional ingredients may be used: (1) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. (2) Spice. (3) Flavoring (other than artificial flavoring). (4) Salt. (5) Acidifying agents. (6) Fruit juice...

2011-04-01

320

Cellular antioxidant activity of common fruits.  

PubMed

Measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important in the screening of fruits for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity in cell culture and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the cellular antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 25 fruits commonly consumed in the United States. Pomegranate and berries (wild blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry) had the highest CAA values, whereas banana and melons had the lowest. Apples were found to be the largest contributors of fruit phenolics to the American diet, and apple and strawberries were the biggest suppliers of cellular antioxidant activity. Increasing fruit consumption is a logical strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of cancer. PMID:18759450

Wolfe, Kelly L; Kang, Xinmei; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Qingyuan; Liu, Rui Hai

2008-09-24

321

Safe Storage of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Proper storage of fresh fruits and vegetables can help consumers avoid foodborne illness. This publication explains how to safely store apples, bananas, berries, beets, broccoli, carrots, corn, grapes, herbs, lettuce and greens, melons, nectarines...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

322

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...carbohydrate sweeteners. (2) Spice. (3) Acidifying agents. (4) Pectin, in a quantity which reasonably compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural pectin content of the fruit juice ingredient. (5) Buffering agents....

2012-04-01

323

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...carbohydrate sweeteners. (2) Spice. (3) Acidifying agents. (4) Pectin, in a quantity which reasonably compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural pectin content of the fruit juice ingredient. (5) Buffering agents....

2014-04-01

324

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...carbohydrate sweeteners. (2) Spice. (3) Acidifying agents. (4) Pectin, in a quantity which reasonably compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural pectin content of the fruit juice ingredient. (5) Buffering agents....

2013-04-01

325

Fruits and Vegetables: Color Your Plate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the foods they eat. The importance of a variety of fruits and vegetables to a healthy diet is the focus of the experience. Learners read a story book about fruits and vegetables, repeat a helpful riddle, and draw pictures of fruits/vegetables. These drawings are then cut out and taped to "color" a Healthy Choice bulletin board plate. Learners can also taste-test different fruits and vegetables at snack or lunch time. Learners are encouraged to try one new color each day. This activity is featured on pp. 12-13 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2014-04-30

326

ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF BERRY FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Berry fruits are considered excellent functional foods because they contain high levels of natural antioxidants. Antioxidants can act as free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synergists. Therefore, antioxidants can delay or prev...

327

Structure of anthocyanins from Eugenia jambolana fruit.  

PubMed

The purple color of the ripe Eugenia jambolana fruit is attributed to anthocyanins, a class of plant pigments that has attracted immense attention due to the potential health benefits of these compounds. There is disagreement in the literature on whether E. jambolana fruit anthocyanins are found as 3,5- or 3-diglucosides. Therefore, we used a combination of HPLC-UV, tandem LC-MS, and NMR techniques to identify the structures of anthocyanins present in E. jambolana fruit collected in the U.S.A. and India. Our results indicate that the anthocyanins from both locations occur as 3,5-, but not 3-diglucosides, of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin. This is the first report to use a combination of spectrometric and spectroscopic methods to identify unequivocally the structures of E. jambolana fruit anthocyanins. PMID:19370926

Li, Liya; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P

2009-02-01

328

Gravitropic bending of fruit bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes exhibit a unique mechanism of gravitropic bending, related to their specific architecture. The gravisensitive region of the stipe directly below the cap coincides with the bending zone. The hyphae of this region are equipped with the ability to generate positional information and translate it into differential growth. A model is introduced with the fundamental characteristics of agent-based modeling as it is applied in robotics and artificial intelligence. The hyphae are equivalent to autonomous decision-making agents on the basis of a simple set of rules. Repetitive interactions between the agents, i.e. the hyphae, permit the correct adjustment of the fruit body independent from its relative position in space. This model is based on the following structural as well as biochemical data derived from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. A statolith-mediated mechanism in each individual hypha of the gravisensitive region accounts for graviperception. Cell nuclei with a density of 1.22 g cm-3 are considered the most likely candidates for gravity-induced sedimentation (statoliths). The number of nuclei in this zone is increased from 2 to up to 10 individual nuclei within each hyphal compartment. The nuclei are suspended in a web of actin filaments anchored in the plasma membrane. Any shift from the vertical position is converted into a change in the gravitational pull exerted on the plasma membrane. This leads to a functional distinction of the upper and lower flanks of each hypha. Each hypha is equipped with the ability to generate and amplify a positional signal perpendicular to the axis of the gravisensitive zone. This signal coordinates different hyphal extension of the upper and lower flank of the stipe: upper flank hyphae grow slower than lower flank hyphae. Hyphal growth requires continued turgor pressure and depends on the expansion of the vacuolar compartment. This vacuolation is conspicuously increased in lower flank transition zone hyphae of a horizontally oriented stipe. Cells undergoing fast vacuolation have electron-translucent regions around their vacuoles. These regions are composed of small, light vesicle-like structures (microvesicles). They apparently fuse with the vacuole increasing their volume by subsequent osmotic water intake. Subcellular changes in response to a gravistimulus are already observed after 30 min.

Hock, Bertold

329

76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly...interstate movement of Hass avocados from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the...to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

2011-04-04

330

76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly...interstate movement of Hass avocados from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the...to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

2011-05-09

331

76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly...interstate movement of Hass avocados from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the...to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

2011-07-22

332

Crop Size and Fruit Neighborhood Effects on Bird Visitation to Fruiting Schefflera morototoni Trees in Puerto Rico1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of zoochorous seed dispersal systems often consider crop size, yet seldom consider the kinds and amounts of fruits surrounding parent plants (the fruit neighborhood) when attempting to explain among-plant variation in fruit removal. We studied avian frugivory at 24 Schefflera morototoni trees from February to May 1998 in central Puerto Rico. The number of fruits removed by avian seed

James F. Saracco; Jaime A. Collazo; Martha J. Groom; A. Carlo

333

Fruit selection by birds in relation to fruit abundance and appearance in the naturalised shrub Berberis darwinii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of three forms of fruit damage were tested on avian selection of the fleshy fruits of Darwin’s barberry (Berberis darwinii) from plastic trays, and compared with the abundance of fruits and their removal rates from nearby bushes, in December-January near Dunedin, New Zealand. Ripe fruits were removed from bushes by four bird species: blackbird (Turdus merula), song thrush

R. B. Allen; W. G. Lee

1992-01-01

334

Hydraulic resistance of developing Actinidia fruit  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Xylem flows into most fruits decline as the fruit develop, with important effects on mineral and carbohydrate accumulation. It has been hypothesized that an increase in xylem hydraulic resistance (RT) contributes to this process. This study examined changes in RT that occur during development of the berry of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), identified the region within the fruit where changes were occurring, and tested whether a decrease in irradiance during fruit development caused an increase in RT, potentially contributing to decreased mineral accumulation in shaded fruit. Methods RT was measured using pressure chamber and flow meter methods, the two methods were compared, and the flow meter was also used to partition RT between the pedicel, receptacle and proximal and distal portions of the berry. Dye was used as a tracer for xylem function. Artificial shading was used to test the effect of light on RT, dye entry and mineral accumulation. Key Results RT decreased during the early phase of rapid fruit growth, but increased again as the fruit transitioned to a final period of slower growth. The most significant changes in resistance occurred in the receptacle, which initially contributed 20 % to RT, increasing to 90 % later in development. Dye also ceased moving beyond the receptacle from 70 d after anthesis. The two methods for measuring RT agreed in terms of the direction and timing of developmental changes in RT, but pressure chamber measurements were consistently higher than flow meter estimates of RT, prompting questions regarding which method is most appropriate for measuring fruit RT. Shading had no effect on berry growth but increased RT and decreased dye movement and calcium concentration. Conclusions Increased RT in the receptacle zone coincides with slowing fresh weight growth, reduced transpiration and rapid starch accumulation by the fruit. Developmental changes in RT may be connected to changes in phloem functioning and the maintenance of water potential gradients between the stem and the fruit. The effect of shade on RT extends earlier reports that shading can affect fruit vascular differentiation, xylem flows and mineral accumulation independently of effects on transpiration. PMID:23658370

Mazzeo, Mariarosaria; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Clearwater, Michael J.; Montanaro, Giuseppe; Xiloyannis, Cristos

2013-01-01

335

Gibberellins Increase Cuticle Deposition in Developing Tomato Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the gibberellins A4+7(GA4+7) and A3(GA3), benzyladenine (BA) and forchlorfenuron (CPPU) on deposition of the cuticular membrane (CM) in developing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit were investigated. Growth regulators were applied when fruit development within trusses ranged from the flower\\u000a to the mature stage. Developmental stage of fruit at the time of application was indexed by fruit diameter. Fruit

Moritz Knoche; Stefanie Peschel

2007-01-01

336

Fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive model  

PubMed Central

Background and aims In most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. Understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. A causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather ?(i)? fruit transpiration ?(ii)? fruit calcium ?(iii)? fruit storage quality. This paper explores the first link of this hypothesis, ?(i)?, for Hayward kiwifruit using field measurements of fruit transpiration rate and concurrent meteorological recordings. The aims are to identify the key environmental variables driving fruit transpiration and develop a predictive fruit transpiration model. Methodology Fruit transpiration was determined hourly over several 24-h periods by recording weight loss of detached fruit, on Days 23, 35, 49, 65, 94 and 140 after full bloom. Meteorological records were made every 15 min throughout the season at an adjacent regional weather station. A model of fruit transpiration was developed in which the usual meteorological variables (radiation, temperature, windspeed and relative humidity) were incorporated in a Fick's Law transpiration flux equation. Principal results Fruit transpiration rate (i.e. the molar flux density, mmol cm?2 h?1) varied diurnally and decreased during the season. The dominant fruit variable governing transpiration rate was skin conductance and the dominant environmental variables were relative humidity and temperature. Radiation and windspeed were not significantly influential. Conclusions The model provides a good fit to the fruit transpiration rate measurements regardless of the time of day/night or the stage of fruit development. The model allows reasonably accurate and continuous predictions of fruit transpiration rate throughout fruit development based on standard meteorological recordings. It also allows estimates of cumulative fruit transpiration throughout the season. PMID:23136639

Montanaro, Giuseppe; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Lang, Alexander

2012-01-01

337

Growth, ripening and storage of tomato fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publication IA non-destructive, automated, fast and portable softness measuring device is described. The non-destructivity of the meter was established.Factors that might influence the variation in softness-readings, e.g., temperature, relative humidity, the point of compression on the fruit, sampling in the greenhouse, and fruit size were experimentally investigated.It was concluded that, although all these factors influence the dispersion of the softness

N. Stenvers

1976-01-01

338

Proteomic analysis of apricot fruit during ripening.  

PubMed

Ripening of climacteric fruits involves a complex network of biochemical and metabolic changes that make them palatable and rich in nutritional and health-beneficial compounds. Since fruit maturation has a profound impact on human nutrition, it has been recently the object of increasing research activity by holistic approaches, especially on model species. Here we report on the original proteomic characterization of ripening in apricot, a widely cultivated species of temperate zones appreciated for its taste and aromas, whose cultivation is yet hampered by specific limitations. Fruits of Prunus armeniaca cv. Vesuviana were harvested at three ripening stages and proteins extracted and resolved by 1D and 2D electrophoresis. Whole lanes from 1D gels were subjected to shot-gun analysis that identified 245 gene products, showing preliminary qualitative differences between maturation stages. In parallel, differential analysis of 2D proteomic maps highlighted 106 spots as differentially represented among variably ripen fruits. Most of these were further identified by means of MALDI-TOF-PMF and nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS as enzymes involved in main biochemical processes influencing metabolic/structural changes occurring during maturation, i.e. organic acids, carbohydrates and energy metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, cell wall restructuring and stress response, or as protein species linkable to peculiar fruit organoleptic characteristics. In addition to originally present preliminary information on the main biochemical changes that characterize apricot ripening, this study also provides indications for future marker-assisted selection breeding programs aimed to ameliorate fruit quality. PMID:23178875

D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Rocco, Mariapina; Verrillo, Francesca; Novi, Gianfranco; Viscosi, Vincenzo; Marra, Mauro; Scaloni, Andrea

2013-01-14

339

Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.  

PubMed

Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits. PMID:12358484

Wybraniec, S?awomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

2002-10-01

340

Fleshy-fruits phenology: temporal variability on quantity and quality of animal-dispersed fruits in a cerrado-savanna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time and quantity and quality of fruits and seeds produced are limiting factors for the recruitment of new individuals and maintenance plant species. Furthermore, species that produced fruits dispersed by animals have an important role as a source of food for different groups of animals and relay on them to dispersed their seeds. In most of the Brazilian cerrado-savanna, as in others tropical vegetations, there is a predominance of animal-dispersed species, however there is a lack of information about fruit production and its availability over time on tropical savannas. Beyond the comprehension of fruiting patterns and their relation to biotic and abiotic factors, the fruit production over time can be associated with data on fruit quality such as the fruit color and nutritional content. Those combined informations allow us to evaluate the quantity and quality of resources available in a plant community for frugivores and seed predators. For a cerrado-savanna woody community in southeastern Brazil, subjected to a marked seasonal climate, we intended to describe: (i) fruit availability over time (in number and biomass); (ii) nutritional content; and (ii) fruit color patterns over a year. We counted fortnightly the number of ripe fruits and estimated fruit biomass over a year. For the nutritional content, we evaluated the percentage of protein, lipids and carbohydrates in the pulp or aril of fleshy-fruits. We classified fruit colors in red, black, yellow, dark-red, blue and multicolored (when the fruit display is composed by a combination of two non-green colors or more). We observed a period of the highest fruit production in the wet season, with two peaks of production, and a decline in the dry season, a possible period of scarcity. As expected, fruit nutritional content followed mainly the fruiting pattern in biomass. For lipids there was a different seasonal pattern in which lipid-rich fruits were produced mainly at the end of the wet season while fruits with less lipid were fruiting in the first part of the wet season. Fruits of different colors were not equally produced along the year, with black and red fruits more restricted to the wet season, while yellow and multicolour fruits were also observed in the dry season. The cerrado-savanna woody community showed a relevant fruit production in quantity and quality with a high production in biomass of fruits and mainly in the amount of lipids in the pulp. Despite the strong correlation with the seasonal weather, there were differences in the timing of fruit production according to fruit colors.

de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Cazetta, Eliana; Schaefer, Martin; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

2014-05-01

341

Place fruit in a microwaveable container and fill with water until fruit are covered.  

E-print Network

a brown sugar solution (4 cups brown sugar, 1 gallon water) and add enough sugar water to the bag to coverBoil Test: · Place fruit in a microwaveable container and fill with water until fruit are covered. · Heat in microwave until water boils for 1 minute. · Pour through 0.25 inch hardware cloth onto a dark

342

Fathers, fruits and photosynthesis: pollen donor effects on fruit photosynthesis in wild parsnip  

E-print Network

LETTER Fathers, fruits and photosynthesis: pollen donor effects on fruit photosynthesis in wild@uiuc.edu Abstract Chlorophyll is frequently present in plant reproductive tissues and indicates that photosynthesis is occurring in these parts. Photosynthesis by a reproductive organ can contribute as much as 65% to its own

DeLucia, Evan H.

343

Fruit detection and discrimination by small fruit-eating bats (Phyllostomidae): echolocation call design and olfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the role of echolocation and other sensory cues in two small frugivorous New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae: Artibeus watsoni and Vampyressa pusilla) feeding on different types of fig fruit. To test which cues the bats need to find these fruit, we conducted behavioral experiments in a flight cage with ripe and similar-sized figs where we selectively excluded vision,

Carmi Korine; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko

2005-01-01

344

Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immersion of litchi fruit in 49ºC water for 20 min followed by hydrocooling in ambient (24 ± 4ºC) temperature water for 20 min was tested as a quarantine treatment against potential infestations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (...

345

Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss. PMID:21510205

Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

2011-04-01

346

Modeling effects of weather and source-sink relationships on mango fruit growth.  

PubMed

We modeled the effects of weather and source-sink factors on mango fruit growth. The peach fruit-growth model "Cashoo" was adapted for mango fruit. The model accounts for the main processes of fruit growth, i.e., leaf photosynthesis, fruit demand, fruit respiration, and storage and mobilization of leaf and stem reserves. Simulations for three successive years and for various leaf-to-fruit ratio treatments showed good agreement with observed fruit growth data. Simulations of fruit growth under different climatic conditions, especially with contrasting temperature and radiation, and for different values of initial fruit dry mass and leaf-to-fruit ratio, showed that variations in fruit growth among years can be partly explained by climatic variations through their effects on leaf photosynthesis, fruit demand and fruit growth rate. However, climatic changes contribute substantially less to observed variability in fruit growth than to initial fruit dry mass and leaf-to-fruit ratio. PMID:15741151

Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise; Urban, Laurent; Jannoyer, Magalie

2005-05-01

347

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.  

PubMed

Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion. PMID:12452674

Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

2002-12-01

348

Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

2013-12-01

349

A brief history of fruits and frugivores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we briefly review the evolutionary history of the mutualistic interaction between angiosperms that produce fleshy fruits and their major consumers: frugivorous birds and mammals. Fleshy fruits eaten by these vertebrates are widely distributed throughout angiosperm phylogeny. Similarly, a frugivorous diet has evolved independently many times in birds and mammals. Bird dispersal is more common than mammal-dispersal in all lineages of angiosperms, and we suggest that the evolution of bird fruits may have facilitated the evolution of frugivory in primates. The diets of fruit-eating bats overlap less with those of other kinds of frugivorous vertebrates. With a few exceptions, most families producing vertebrate-dispersed fruit appeared substantially earlier in earth history than families of their vertebrate consumers. It is likely that major radiations of these plants and animals have occurred in the past 30 Ma, in part driven by geological changes and also by the foraging behavior of frugivores in topographically complex landscapes. Overall, this mutualistic interaction has had many evolutionary and ecological consequences for tropical plants and animals for most of the Cenozoic Era. Loss of frugivores and their dispersal services will have a strong negative impact on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of tropical and subtropical communities.

Fleming, Theodore H.; John Kress, W.

2011-11-01

350

Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit  

PubMed Central

Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P?<0.05) (1748 genes) were studied by assigning a predicted function (when known) based on BLAST to the TAIR database. Among them several genes belong to cell wall, hormone metabolism and response (auxin in particular), and metabolism of sugars and lipids. Up-regulation of lipid transfer proteins and differential expression of several indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)- and ethylene-associated genes were observed in transgenic parthenocarpic fruits. Despite differences in several fatty acids, amino acids, and other metabolites, the fundamental metabolic profile remains unchanged. This work showed that parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable. PMID:19700496

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Reagan, Russell L.; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M.; Gasser, Charles S.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2009-01-01

351

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2013-01-01

352

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2011-01-01

353

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2012-01-01

354

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2014-01-01

355

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2010-01-01

356

7 CFR 319.56-3 - General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables. 319.56-3 Section...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-3 General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables. All fruits...

2013-01-01

357

7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12 Section...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits...

2012-01-01

358

7 CFR 319.56-3 - General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables. 319.56-3 Section...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-3 General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables. All fruits...

2011-01-01

359

7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12 Section...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits...

2011-01-01

360

7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12 Section...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits...

2014-01-01

361

7 CFR 319.56-3 - General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables. 319.56-3 Section...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-3 General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables. All fruits...

2014-01-01

362

7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12 Section...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits...

2013-01-01

363

7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12 Section...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits...

2010-01-01

364

7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319.56-10 Section 319.56-10...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and vegetables grown in Canada . Fruits and vegetables grown...

2011-01-01

365

7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319.56-10 Section 319.56-10...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and vegetables grown in Canada . Fruits and vegetables grown...

2012-01-01

366

7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319.56-10 Section 319.56-10...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and vegetables grown in Canada . Fruits and vegetables grown...

2010-01-01

367

7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319.56-10 Section 319.56-10...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and vegetables grown in Canada . Fruits and vegetables grown...

2013-01-01

368

7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319.56-10 Section 319.56-10...Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and vegetables grown in Canada . Fruits and vegetables grown...

2014-01-01

369

A fruit quality gene map of Prunus  

PubMed Central

Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the genetic architecture of fruit quality traits in Prunus crops. PMID:19995417

2009-01-01

370

Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

371

ConcepTest: Dried Fruit-Rock Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dried (dehydrated) fruit is made by evaporating water under warm temperatures causing the texture of the fruit to change. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. ...

372

REARING FOPIUS ARISANUS (SONAN) (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) IN MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The egg-larval parasitoid Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (= Opius oophilus Fullaway) (Hymenotera: Braconidae) is the most effective parasitoid of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: tephritidae)and Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Dipter...

373

I Have Braces: How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies?  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Food & Nutrition > I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? Print ...

374

Eating More Fruit May Lower Your Risk of Lethal Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... had a 25 percent lower risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm than those who ate the least fruit. While ... fruit daily had a lower risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm than those who ate the least amount of ...

375

13C-photosynthate accumulation in Japanese pear fruit during the period of rapid fruit growth is limited by the sink strength of fruit rather than by the transport capacity of the pedicel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japanese pear, the application of GA314 during the period of rapid fruit growth resulted in a marked in- crease in pedicel diameter and bigger fruit at harvest. To elucidate the relationship between pedicel capacity and fruit growth and to determine the main factor responsible for larger fruit size at harvest, fruit growth and pedicel vascularization after GA application were

Caixi Zhang; Kenji Tanabe; Fumio Tamura; Kazuhiro Matsumoto; Akira Yoshida

2005-01-01

376

Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate  

PubMed Central

Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among-population structuring. These effects could be extended to other plant species dispersed by large vertebrates in present-day, defaunated communities. PMID:18320062

Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

2008-01-01

377

Modeling Study of Fruit Morphological Formation in Melon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of fruit morphological formation in melon is important for realizing virtual and digital plant growth. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes in patterns of fruit growth characters during plant development. In cultivar experiments, a high-resolution wireless vision sensor network has been developed to realize non-contact automatic uninterrupted measurement of the fruit shape micro-change (fruit size,

Li-ying CHANG; Qing-liang NIU; Yu-bin MIAO; San-peng HE; Chong CUI; Dan-feng HUANG

2011-01-01

378

Fruit chromaticity: A maturity index in Tinospora cordifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination response of seeds of Tinospora cordifolia as influenced by different stages of fruit ripening based on pericarp colour was studied under nursery conditions at the Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore. Maximum germination of 57.5% was observed in red fruits (ripe) followed by yellow 27.5% (partially ripe) and green 17.5% (unripe) fruits. Measurements on fruit and seed

Rekha R Warrier; B Gurudev Singh; R Sivalingam; R Anandalakshmi; V Sivakumar

379

Fruit and Spice Park Park n r a n  

E-print Network

1 Fruit and Spice Park Park n r a n 24801 S.W. 187th Avenue Homestead, Florida 33031 Main: 305 of the Redland is a non-pro t group formed to promote exo c fruits and the Miami- ade Count Fruit & Spice Park. The Societ originated in 1981 when a small group of enthusiasts egan mee ng regularl at the Fruit & Spice

Koptur, Suzanne

380

Protein expression during Flammulina velutipes fruiting body formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of the Flammulina velutipes fruiting body can be induced by lowering the ambient temperature (first treatment) in complete darkness. Fruiting bodies\\u000a formed under these conditions elongate without pileus formation (pinhead fruiting body), suggesting that they cannot mature\\u000a in complete darkness. However, after light treatment of the pinhead fruiting body (second treatment), a pileus develops immediately,\\u000a and the stipe also

Yuichi Sakamoto

2010-01-01

381

Socially facilitated egglaying behavior in Mediterranean fruit flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the behavior of individual mature female Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), transferred from a holding cage without fruit to a clean host kumquat fruit already occupied by another medfly\\u000a female engaged in ovipositional behavior. A significantly greater proportion of transferred (=test) ovipositionally naive\\u000a females initiated ovipositor boring into a fruit in the presence than in the

Ronald J. Prokopy; Jian J. Duan

1998-01-01

382

Responses of banana fruit to treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine levels of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) exposure needed to prevent ethylene-stimulated banana fruit ripening, characterise responses of ethylene-treated fruit to subsequent treatment with 1-MCP, and to test effects of subsequent ethylene treatment on 1-MCP-treated fruit softening. Fruit softening was measured at 20°C and 90% relative humidity. One hour exposure at 20°C to 1000 nl 1-MCP\\/l essentially eliminated

Yueming Jiang; Daryl C. Joyce; Andrew J. Macnish

1999-01-01

383

Physiology of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The idea to pre-process fruits and vegetables in the fresh state started with fresh-cut salads and now has expanded to fresh-cut fruits and other vegetables. The fresh-cut portion of the fresh produce industry includes fruits, vegetables, sprouts, mushrooms and even herbs that are cut, cored, sliced...

384

GrowingProduce.com | 27 Tree Fruit Expert  

E-print Network

at Washington State University (WSU) as a new endowed chair created by funding from the state's tree fruit industry. Layne will work out of WSU's Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center in Wenatchee. In this Q&A, we talk to Layne about how he plans to work with tree fruit growers in the Pacific Northwest, as well

Duchowski, Andrew T.

385

Recent advances in fruit development and ripening: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the Journal of Experimental Botany Special Issue on Fruit Development and Ripening. It reports that significant progress is being made in identifying genes control- ling the development of dry dehiscent fruits in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. In plants with fleshy fruits, a major focus has been the dissec- tion of biochemical and

Philip J. White

2010-01-01

386

Fruit Set, Nectar Reward, and Rarity in the Orchidaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of comparative levels of reproductive success among nectariferous and nectarless orchids worldwide was compiled from a comprehensive survey of fruit set from 117 orchid species in the literature and from our own field studies. It confirms the hypothesis that nectariferous orchids are more successful in setting fruit than are nectarless species. Overall fruit set figures for nectarless and

Mary Ruth M. Neiland; Christopher C. Wilcock

1998-01-01

387

The ASHS outstanding fruit cultivar award: a 25 year retrospective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Outstanding Fruit Cultivar Award is a medal presented annually by the Fruit Breeding Working Group of the American Society Horticultural Science (ASHS) for noteworthy new fruits released over the previous 35 years. Since 1987, 31 cultivars have been recognized with medals presented at the Annual...

388

AN IMPROVED MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEM FOR APPLE FRUIT FIRMNESS PREDICTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Firmness is an important internal quality attribute of fruits. Nondestructive measurement of fruit firmness will help the industry provide better fruit for the consumer. The objective of this research was to improve the multispectral imaging system used in our previous studies and refine scattering ...

389

FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) THERMOTOLERANCE AND QUARANTINE HEAT TREATMENTS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quarantine heat treatments, including hot-water immersion, vapor heat, and forced hot air, are used to prevent the spread of exotic fruit flies through marketing channels. Treating fruits infested with eggs, first instars, second instars, or third instars for multiple fruit fly species to develop t...

390

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF ORIENTING FRUIT USING STABILITY PROPERTIES DURING ROTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Described is the potential use of a stability property of fruit to allow fruit to be oriented along the stem/calyx axis. Inspection using machine vision offers the potential for improved safety and quality of foods. However, effectiveness of fruit inspection has been limited by the difficulty of dif...

391

PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF FRUIT GERMPLASM EXPLORATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fruits of the earth have healed, nurtured, and intrigued humanity throughout history. Genome complexities of cultivated fruit species combined with people’s increased nutritional needs insure that the future will be no different. Prospecting for wild fruit species will continue. The global natur...

392

Fruit abscission by Physalis species as defense against frugivory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit abscission as a response to herbivory is well-documented in many plant species, but its effect on further damage by mobile herbivores that survive fruit abscission is relatively unstudied. Physalis plants abscise fruit containing feeding larvae of their main frugivore, Heliothis subflexa Guen...

393

Processing of fruit and vegetables: effect on carotenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the potential impact of processing procedures on carotenoid form and content. Fruit and vegetables, in particular, are abundant sources of carotenoids in the diet. Many fruit and vegetables are subjected to various types of processing prior to consumption. Fruit may be canned, dried or processed into juices, while vegetables may be blanched, dehydrated, frozen, canned and also processed into

Christopher Thane; Sheela Reddy

1997-01-01

394

Pointillist structural color in Pollia fruit Silvia Vignolinia  

E-print Network

is likely to be the main function. By imitating the appearance of a fresh nutritious fruit, plants may have avoid the energy cost of producing fresh pulp. Structural color gives the fruit a brilliant and intensePointillist structural color in Pollia fruit Silvia Vignolinia , Paula J. Rudallb , Alice V

Steiner, Ullrich

395

Continental Breakfast $10 Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit Juices  

E-print Network

#12;Continental Breakfast $10 Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit Juices Seasonal Sliced Fresh Fruit Assortment of Freshly Baked Pastries Fresh Brewed Starbucks Coffee, Decaffeinated & Assorted Tazo Juices Seasonal Sliced Fresh Fruit Farm Fresh Cage Free Scrambled Eggs Crisp Applewood Smoked Bacon

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

396

Modelling the South African fresh fruit export supply chain  

E-print Network

Modelling the South African fresh fruit export supply chain Frank Gerald Ortmann Thesis presented university for a degree. Signature: Date: #12;#12;Abstract The process of modelling the fruit export infrastructure capacity of South Africa formed part of a larger project called the "Fruit Logistics

van Vuuren, Jan H.

397

Economic Impacts of Losing the Fruit Fly Trapping Program  

E-print Network

would result in major crop losses and price reductions for Texas fresh citrus. Fumigation of fruit wouldEconomic Impacts of Losing the Fruit Fly Trapping Program CNAS Issue Brief 2011-01 March 10, 2011 Introduction Mexican fruit fly infests parts of Mexico and Central America. Oranges and grapefruit

398

FRUIT & NUT Jim Kamas, Larry Stein & Monte Nesbitt  

E-print Network

TEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Peaches Jim Kamas, Larry Stein & Monte Nesbitt Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Peaches are the leading deciduous fruit crop grown in Texas remains good, and the future appears bright for the industry. The potential for grow- ing fresh peaches

Mukhtar, Saqib

399

Prairie Fruit Summary, 2010 Some key considerations for the homeowner  

E-print Network

if taken care of + Low lying shrub, often with nice fall colour and glossy leaves - Fresh fruit usually1 Prairie Fruit Summary, 2010 Some key considerations for the homeowner by Bob Bors The following list highlights some key positive (+), negative (-) and variable ( ± ) attributes for growing fruit

Peak, Derek

400

Modelling the South African fresh fruit export supply chain  

E-print Network

Modelling the South African fresh fruit export supply chain Frank Gerald Ortmann Thesis presented it at any university for a degree. Signature: Date: #12; #12; Abstract The process of modelling the fruit export infrastructure capacity of South Africa formed part of a larger project called the ``Fruit

van Vuuren, Jan H.

401

Competition between fruit and vegetative growth in Hayward kiwifruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit dry matter content (DM) of kiwifruit, defined as the fruit dry weight (DW) expressed as a percentage of the fresh weight (FW), is used as an indicator of eating quality. A high DM at harvest results in increased consumer satisfaction. To determine the role of carbohydrate availability and sink competition in altering fruit size and DM at commercial harvest,

PEH Minchin; WP Snelgar; P. Blattmann; AJ Hall

2010-01-01

402

75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-10-0017; FV-09-378] Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee...Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee...the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry and to provide...

2010-02-23

403

7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The handling to any...

2011-01-01

404

7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The handling to any...

2012-01-01

405

75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0064] Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee...Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee...the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry and to provide...

2010-08-06

406

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Combining high-throughput sequencing with fruit  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Combining high-throughput sequencing with fruit body surveys reveals contrasting communities were mostly confined to fruit bodies, whereas mycelial interactions were studied in the laboratory. Here we combine high-throughput sequencing with a fruit body inventory to study simultaneously mycelial

Bruns, Tom

407

The evolution of fruit in Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae (Apiaceae)  

E-print Network

The evolution of fruit in Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae (Apiaceae) Krzysztof Spalik, Aneta and combined analyses of fruit morphology and anatomy and nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Phylogenetic trees inferred from analysis of 35 fruit characters were not congruent

Downie, Stephen R.

408

7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into...

2010-01-01

409

76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0096] Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee...Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee...the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry and to provide...

2011-02-02

410

Perspectives in Practice A Garden Pilot Project Enhances Fruit and  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Perspectives in Practice A Garden Pilot Project Enhances Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Children STEPHANIE HEIM, MPH, RD; JAMIE STANG, PhD, MPH, RD; MARJORIE IRELAND, PhD ABSTRACT Fruit a strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable intake in chil- dren. A 12-week pilot intervention was designed

Maxwell, Bruce D.

411

7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The handling to any...

2013-01-01

412

The inheritance of fruit colour in apple (Malus pumila Mill.)  

E-print Network

The inheritance of fruit colour in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) Allan G. WHITE Yves LESPINASSE that red fruit colour was determined by two dominant complementary genes. Blush and red colour did key words : Skin colour, hybridization. R�SUM� Hérédité de la couleur du fruit chez le pommier (Malus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into...

2012-01-01

414

7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into...

2013-01-01

415

7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The handling to any...

2014-01-01

416

A REVIEW OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE DETECTION FOR FRUIT QUALITY  

E-print Network

A REVIEW OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE DETECTION FOR FRUIT QUALITY Haisheng Gao, Fengmei Zhu, Jinxing Cai-harvest fruit was presented in this paper, and the research and application were discussed. This paper elaborated the fruit quality detection methods which were based on one of the following properties: optical

417

7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The handling to any...

2010-01-01

418

Colour, design and reward: phenotypic integration of fleshy fruit displays  

E-print Network

Colour, design and reward: phenotypic integration of fleshy fruit displays A. VALIDO*, H. M pivot around complex structures such as flowers and fruits, a central question is to what extent.g. Murren, 2002; Herrera et al., 2002; Pe´rez-Barrales et al., 2007; Pe´rez et al., 2007). Fleshy fruits

Jordano, Pedro

419

7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into...

2011-01-01

420

7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into...

2014-01-01

421

BUILDING A BETTER MODEL OF FRUIT FLY WING DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

BUILDING A BETTER MODEL OF FRUIT FLY WING DEVELOPMENT Rick Dilling CTMS Graduate Fellow (summer/ventral) (see Fig. 1) that both feed into a common mechanism. Fig. 1: A developing fruit fly wing (face 2010) Advisors: Fred Nijhout (Biology), Tom Witelski (Mathematics) The fruit fly, Drosophila

Wolpert, Robert L

422

Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations  

E-print Network

and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beatPredicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations Song Changa and Z. Jane Wangb and actuation. Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time

Wang, Z. Jane

423

The Response of Avocado Fruits to Different Storage Temperatures1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional index words. Persea americana Abstract. The response of fruits of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) to various temperatures was found to differ in the range 0° to 25°C. This temperature range was divided into 3 groups: 1) between 10° and 25°, the fruit softened at a rate which increases with increasing temperature; 2) between 5° and 8°C, fruit softening was

G. Zauberman; Mina Schiffmann-Nadel; U. Yanko

1977-01-01

424

Parent outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and vegetables: a validation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: To validate four scales – outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and for purchasing vegetables, and comparative outcome expectancies for purchasing fresh fruit and for purchasing fresh vegetables versus other forms of fruit and vegetables (F&V). Design: Survey instruments were administ...

425

CULTURAL SYSTEM AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN STRAWBERRIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) vs. matted row (MR)] and genotypes interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid and citric acid content were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also ...

426

Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

2006-01-01

427

Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits: 10 Tips for Affordable Vegetables and Fruits  

MedlinePLUS

... Go to www.ChooseMyPlate.gov for more information. smart shopping for veggies and fruits 10 tips It ... information on starting a garden. plan and cook smart Prepare and freeze vegetable soups, stews, or other ...

428

Carotenoids of the rind of citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied in detail the composition of the carotenoids of the rinds of mandarins of the Unshiu shirokolistnyi variety and oranges of the Mestnyi variety, the large-scale harvesting of which amounts to 90% of the total crop of this citrus fruits. The sum of the carotenoids of these samples were separated by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography [2] into

G. M. Fishman; D. M. Chikovani

1987-01-01

429

Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Infusions of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries, but to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken so far to determine the possible mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic properties of the fruit. The present study was designed to investigate whether these fruits possess insulinotropic effects. For this purpose, different extracts of Citrullus colocynthis seed components were obtained: RN II (crude extract), RN VI (hydro-alcoholic extract), RN X (purified extract) and RN XVII (beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine), the major free amino acid present in the seeds. The insulin secretory effects of these different extracts were evaluated in vitro in the isolated rat pancreas and isolated rat islets in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. All tested extracts, when perfused for 20 min at 0.1 mg/ml, immediately and significantly stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was transient. In addition, the purified extract (RN X) provoked a clear dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated islets. Moreover, a significant and persistant increase in pancreatic flow rate appeared during RN VI, RN X and RN XVII perfusions. In conclusion, our results show that different Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts have an insulinotropic effect which could at least partially account for the antidiabetic activities of these fruits. PMID:10909260

Nmila, R; Gross, R; Rchid, H; Roye, M; Manteghetti, M; Petit, P; Tijane, M; Ribes, G; Sauvaire, Y

2000-06-01

430

Micro irrigation of tropical fruit crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In most tropical regions, tropical fruits are grown either in wet-and-dry climates characterized by erratic rainfall patterns and prolonged dry periods or in fertile but semiarid lands under irrigation. Little is known about water requirements of tropical crops grown in the tropics. This book chapt...

431

Regional Fruit Grower Newsletter February 2010  

E-print Network

IFTA Conference Amway Grand Plaza Hotel 3/1 Application for "Certified Organic Farm Registry" Due 3/9 Farm Route to Prosperity Summit Black Star Farms 4/16 Spring Grape IPM Kick-off NWMHRS 4/19 Tree Fruit

432

Structural fruit coloration in Delarbrea michieana (Araliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brilliant blue fruit color of Delarbrea michieana (F. Muell.) F. Muell. (Araliaceae), a Queensland understory rain forest tree, is caused by iridisomes (structures) in the epidermal cells that are produced beneath the cell wall and probably outside of the cytoplasm. Layers within these iridisomes are of such a thickness that they interfere constructively with light at 420–440 nm and

David W. Lee; George T. Taylor; Anthony K. Irvine

2000-01-01

433

INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR FRUIT COLOR GRADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external appearance is one of the most important factors that affects the value of the fruits. Consumers have developed distinct correlations between color and the overall quality of the specific product. In the case of apples, for example, the consumers are attracted by the color hue and its distribution on the surface. Such aspects are in general empirically graded

Paolo Gay; Remigio Berruto

434

ANTIOXIDATIVE POTENTIAL OF EDIBLE WILD BULGARIAN FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and aqueous-methanolic extracts from six Bulgarian wild edible fruits have been studied for their antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS cation radical decolorization assay and presented as Uric Acid Equivalents (UAE) per gram dry weight. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined using Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and calculated as Quercetin

Y. Kiselova; S. Marinova; D. Ivanov; D. Gerov; B. Galunska; T. Chervenkov; T Yankova

435

MEDITERRANEAN FRUITS: ANCIENT HISTORY AND MODERN PROMISE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Davis, California is home of the national collections of most Mediterranean-adapted fruits and nuts (including fig, olive and pomegranate), while the NCGR at Riverside, CA maintains the dates and citrus. Our missions are to acquire, preserve, charac...

436

Furanoflavonoid glycosides from Pongamia pinnata fruits.  

PubMed

Pongamia pinnata fruits afforded three new furanoflavonoid glucosides, pongamosides A-C (1-3), and a new flavonol glucoside, pongamoside D (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies. This is the first time that furanoflavone glucosides have been found as naturally occurring compounds. PMID:15081295

Ahmad, Ghufran; Yadav, Prem P; Maurya, Rakesh

2004-04-01

437

Ascorbic Acid Content of Baobab Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Hausa-speaking farmers and Fulani cattle owners who live in the savannah regions of Northern Nigeria make free use of the leaves and fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata Linn.). The leaves, either fresh or dried and pulverized, are used in the soup which is poured over the dish of porridge made from guineacorn (sorghum) or millet (pennisetum and

Bruce M. Nicol

1957-01-01

438

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or without added water, and screening out...multiply the percent so found by the weight...reference, except that no correction is made for water-insoluble...preceded by the words “Mixed fruit...label shall bear the words “prepared from”...

2012-04-01

439

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...or without added water, and screening out...multiply the percent so found by the weight...reference, except that no correction is made for water-insoluble...preceded by the words “Mixed fruit...label shall bear the words “prepared from”...

2014-04-01

440

Applied Research - Fruit & Vegetable Screener in CHIS  

Cancer.gov

Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

441

The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. PMID:23881410

Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

2014-01-15

442

Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

443

Sanitizer competency and fruit surface topography  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All sanitizers and sanitizing protocols are not created equal. For the fresh produce market the lack of a comprehensive disinfection method is problematic especially in the face of the increasing recalls of fresh fruit, vegetables and unpasteurized juices. Research has shown that sanitizers and how ...

444

Design of a frozen fruit smoothie machine  

E-print Network

A smoothie machine known as the FruziFridge is being deterministically designed to dispense frozen fruit smoothies. The design is scalable so it can be made available in homes as a built-in module of a refrigerator or in ...

Toussaint, Teddy A. (Teddy Antoine)

2013-01-01

445

Monohybrid Fruit Fly Crosses: A Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment uses a computer simulation of fruit fly genetics to have students design and interpret monohybrid crosses of a trait with simple dominant and recessive alleles. Detailed instructions with animated examples, background material, a sample report and a rubric are included.

Bell, Jeff

446

Quantitative determination of procyanidins in hawthorn fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative determination of procyanidins in hawthorn fruits by spectrophotometry is described. The method is characterized\\u000a by high accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility and does not require standard samples. The proposed procedure can be\\u000a used for the analysis of both raw plant material and ready-to-use preparations.

O. M. Khishova; G. N. Buzuk

2006-01-01

447

Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

448

NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS IN SELECT FLORIDA TROPICAL FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), total fib...

449

Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. I. Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiologic literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and human cancer at a variety of sites is reviewed systematically. A total of 13 ecologic studies, nine cohort studies, and 115 case-control studies are included. Cancer of all sites, cancers of lung, breast, colon, rectum, esophagus, larynx, oral cavity and pharynx, stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, ovary, endometrium, cervix,

Kristi A. Steinmetz; John D. Potter

1991-01-01

450

Liquid Larval Diet for Fruit Flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit fly liquid larvae diet has been developed for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in small and large scales and is ready for technology transfer into factory scale. The most appropriate rearing conditions using liquid diet up-to-date have been identified as follows: (1) basic diet fo...

451

Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An electronic nose (e-nose) composed of eighteen different metal oxide gas sensors was used to characterize the volatile patterns of ‘Strawberry Festival’ and ‘Florida Radiance’ strawberry fruit at five developmental stages: white, half red, three-quarter red, full ripe, and overripe. Strawberry sam...

452

GENETIC ENHANCEMENT OF TOMATO FRUIT NUTRITIVE VALUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the twentieth century, plant breeding and genetics have improved the nutritive value of horticultural and agronomic crops. Tomatoes are a major dietary source of vitamins A and C and lycopene. In addition to these well-known vitamins and antioxidants, other compounds in tomato fruit with an...

453

Coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coatings (waxes) are applied to apples, citrus, stone fruits, avocados, tomatoes and cucumbers prior to marketing in order to reduce water loss and shrinkage, create a modified atmosphere inside the produce, slow down senescence and ageing, impart shine, and allow for better quality and marketing pr...

454

Berry fruit enhances beneficial signaling in brain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of pre-clinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antio...

455

Differential gene expression in ripening banana fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

During banana (Musa acuminata L.) fruit ripening ethylene pro- duction triggers a developmental cascade that is accompanied by a massive conversion of starch to sugars, an associated burst of re- spiratory activity, and an increase in protein synthesis. Differential screening of cDNA libraries representing banana pulp at ripening stages 1 and 3 has led to the isolation of 11 nonredundant

Stephanie K. Clendennen; Cregory D. May

1997-01-01

456

Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that fruit consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through blood pressure (BP)–lowering effects; little is known on the independent effect of raw fruit and fruit juice on BP. Objective: The objective was to quantify associations of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with BP by using cross-sectional data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) of 4680 men and women aged 40–59 y from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Design: During 4 visits, 8 BP, four 24-h dietary recalls, and two 24-h urine samples were collected. Country-specific multivariate-controlled linear regression coefficients, including adjustment for urinary sodium excretion, were estimated and pooled, weighted by inverse of their variance. Results: The average total raw fruit consumption varied from a mean ± SD of 52 ± 65 g/1000 kcal in the United States to 68 ± 70 g/1000 kcal in China. Individual raw fruit intake was not associated with BP in pooled analyses for all countries or in participants from Western countries, although a positive association with diastolic BP was observed in East Asian participants (per 50 g/1000 kcal; 0.37 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.71). Positive relationships with diastolic BP were found for citrus fruit intake in Western consumers (per 25 g/1000 kcal; 0.47 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.81) and for apple intake in East Asian consumers (0.40 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.78). Among East Asian banana consumers, banana intake was inversely associated with diastolic BP (?1.01 mm Hg; 95% CI: ?1.88, ?0.02). Fruit juice intake, which was negligible in Asia, was not related to BP in Western countries. Conclusion: Consistent associations were not found between raw fruit and fruit juice consumption of individuals and BP. This observational study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271. PMID:23553162

Oude Griep, Linda M; Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Van Horn, Linda; Steffen, Lyn M; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okuda, Nagako; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Elliott, Paul

2013-01-01

457

The shaded side of apple fruit becomes more sensitive to photoinhibition with fruit development.  

PubMed

Developmental changes of photochemical and non-photochemical processes and the antioxidant system in the shaded peel vs the sun-exposed peel of 'Gala' apple and their responses to sudden exposure of high light were determined to understand the susceptibility of the shaded peel to high light damage with fruit development. As fruit developed, actual PSII efficiency of the shaded peel decreased, whereas non-photochemical quenching (mainly the slow component) increased at any given PFD. Photochemical quenching coefficient of the shaded peel decreased at any given PFD with fruit development. As fruit developed, the activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and dehydroascorbate reductase and the level of reduced ascorbate and total ascorbate decreased; the activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase remained low, whereas catalase activity and the level of reduced glutathione and total glutathione increased in the shaded peel. Exposure to high light (1500 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) for 2 h significantly decreased the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F(V)/F(M)) in the shaded peel at each developmental stage, with the decrease being larger with fruit development. The F(V)/F(M) of the sun-exposed peel was also decreased by the high light treatment, but the decrease was much smaller than that in the shaded peel at each developmental stage. We conclude that the shaded peel of apple fruit becomes more sensitive to photoinhibition with fruit development, and this increased sensitivity is apparently related to the decease in the overall capacity for photosynthesis and photoprotection of the shaded peel with fruit development. PMID:18494860

Li, Pengmin; Cheng, Lailiang

2008-10-01

458

Effects of CPPU on fruit set and fruit growth in Japanese persimmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hand-pollination and spraying with N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N?-phenylurea (CPPU) on fruit set and fruit growth of ‘Matsumoto-Wase-Fuyu’, which is a member of the pollination-constant, non-astringent group of persimmons (PCNA) were investigated. Staminate flowers of pollinizers in the orchard were eliminated before anthesis. Hand-pollination was carried out at full bloom (FB). Without prior hand-pollination, CPPU at 5 or 10 mg 1?1

N. Sugiyama; Y. T. Yamaki

1995-01-01

459

Hormonal regulation of fruit set, parthenogenesis induction and fruit expansion in Japanese pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of applied gibberellins (GAs), GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 with a cytokinin, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N?-phenylurea (CPPU) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on fruit set, parthenogenesis induction and fruit expansion of a number\\u000a of Rosaceae species were assessed. These included Japanese pear cv. ‘Akibae’ (self-compatible) and cv. ‘Iwate yamanashi’ (a\\u000a seedless cultivar). Other Rosaceae species (Pyrus communis, Chaenomeles sinensis, Cydonia oblonga, and

Caixi Zhang; Ugyong Lee; Kenji Tanabe

2008-01-01

460

LEAF-MACRONUTRIENT STATUS AND FRUIT YIELD OF BIOFERTILIZED YELLOW PASSION FRUIT PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofertilizers instead of synthetic chemicals are known to improve plant growth through the supply of plant nutrients and they may help sustaining environmental health and soil productivity. An experiment was carried out to evaluate fruit yield and macronutrient foliar contents of yellow passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis) as a function of biofertilizers and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P-K) fertilizing in Brazil (2005–2007). The

Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante; Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante; Francisco Rodolfo Júnior; Márkilla Zunete Beckmann-Cavalcante; Gaudêncio Pereira dos Santos

2012-01-01

461

[Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables].  

PubMed

Strong opinion about reducing vitamin C content in traditional cultivars of fruits and vegetables as a result of intensive farming practices, on the one hand, and depletion of soil, waste of fertilizers, on the other hand, takes place. The aim of the study was to assess changes in vitamin C content in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the 40s of last century to the present. Available national and foreign data from official tables of the chemical composition tables published in different years, including the most typical values, based on the results conducted in a number of research institutes, laboratories and university departments, as well as some original investigations and unpublished own results were used to analyze possible changes of vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables. For comparison we take into consideration only results from the most common and affordable since the last century method of visual titration, which has a relative error of 20%. Analysis of vitamin C content conducted according 5-58 studies from the 40s of the last century to the present, for 32 types of greens and vegetables (potatoes, various types of cabbage and onion, garlic, carrot, turnip, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, peas, turnip, garden radish, parsnip, rhubarb, parsley, dill, lettuce, onion, spinach, sorrel), and according to 6-50 studies of 24 sorts of fruits (apple, pear, mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, black currant, red and white) has been done. It was found that the average content of vitamin varies slightly. Deviations from the average for all the years of research do not exceed the standard deviation. Analysis of longitudinal data did not confirm a vitamin C decrease. This means that vitamin value C of fruits and vegetables remains approximately constant, due to the successful selection of new varieties with increased vitamin value. Thus, the view of reducing the C-vitamin value in cultivars produce proved unfounded. PMID:24006751

Kosheleva, O V; Kodentsova, V M

2013-01-01

462

Smallholder-based fruit seedling supply system for sustainable fruit production in Ethiopia: Lessons from the IPMS experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethiopia has a diverse agroecology and many areas are suitable for growing temperate, sub- tropical or tropical fruits. Substantial areas receive sufficient rainfall and many lakes, rivers and streams could also be used to support fruit production. Despite this potential, the total land area under fruits is very small and mainly smallholder-based. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural

Kahsay Berhe; Yigzaw Dessalegn; Worku Teka; Dirk Hoekstra; Azage Tegegne

463

Effects of fruit bagging on coloring and related physiology, and qualities of red Chinese sand pears during fruit maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) are particular to China. In order to determine the effects of fruit bagging treatments (including bag types, bag removal patterns and dates) on fruit qualities and to understand the mechanism of coloring of red Chinese sand pears, two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, fruit of ‘Meirensu’ were firstly covered by

Chunhui Huang; Bo Yu; Yuanwen Teng; Jun Su; Qun Shu; Zaiquan Cheng; Liqiong Zeng

2009-01-01

464

The making of a bell pepper-shaped tomato fruit: identification of loci controlling fruit morphology in Yellow Stuffer tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heirloom tomato cultivar Yellow Stuffer produces fruit that are similar in shape and structure to fruit produced by the bell pepper varieties of garden pepper. To determine the genetic basis of this extreme fruit type in tomato, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on an F2 population derived from a cross between Yellow Stuffer and the related species,

E. van der Knaap; S. D. Tanksley

2003-01-01

465

Effects of fruit position on fruit mass and seed germination in the alien species Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae)  

E-print Network

Effects of fruit position on fruit mass and seed germination in the alien species Heracleum of position of fruit on a plant affects the germination characteristics of seed of Heracleum mantegazzianum diameter) were recorded. Percentage germination and germination rate (time to when 50% of the seeds had

Kratochvíl, Lukas

466

ANTISENSE SUPPRESSION OF A BETA-GALACTOSIDASE GENE (TBG6) IN TRANSGENIC TOMATO FRUIT INCREASES FRUIT CRACKING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antisense suppression of a tomato beta-galactosidase gene (TBG6) was used to study its role in fruit development, cell wall modification, and fruit firmness. TBG6 mRNA is highly abundant during the early stages of fruit development, but the levels decline sharply after the breaker stage and the star...

467

Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

468

Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. Then there was obvious difference between apple fruit temperature and environment temperature. Compared to the change of environment temperature, a long hysteresis phenomenon happened to the temperature of apple fruit body. That is to say, there was a significant temperature change of apple fruit body in a period of time after environment temperature dropping. And then the change of temerature of apple fruit body in the cooling process became slower and slower. This can explain the time delay phenomenon of biology. After that, the temperature differences of every layer increased from centre to surface of apple fruit gradually. That is to say, the minimum temperature differences closed to centre of apple fruit body and the maximum temperature differences closed to the surface of apple fruit body. Finally, the temperature of every part of apple fruit body will tend to consistent and be near to the environment temperature in the cooling process. It was related to the metabolism heat of plant body at any time.

Zhang, Min; Yang, Le; Zhao, Huizhong; Zhang, Leijie; Zhong, Zhiyou; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Jianhua

469

Ecophysiological analysis of genotypic variation in peach fruit growth.  

PubMed

Cultivated varieties generally differ greatly from wild genotypes of the same closely related species. However, the processes responsible for these differences have not been elucidated. To analyse variations in fruit mass, fruit growth was characterized in a peach cultivar, a wild related species non-cultivated, and four hybrids derived by crossing them. These genotypes offer a wide range of agronomic values. An ecophysiological model of peach fruit growth in dry mass was used. This model simulates carbon partitioning at the 'shoot-bearing fruit' level by considering three compartments: fruits, 1-year-old stems and leafy shoots. The experimental measurements showed considerable variation between genotypes for fruit mass at maturity, fruit growth and source activity. The parameters of the ecophysiological model for each genotype were estimated from experimental data,. The model made it possible to account for genotypic variations in fruit growth and for genotype x fruit load interactions. Using the model, it was shown that the main processes explaining fruit growth variations among the genotypes studied were differences in potential fruit growth. PMID:12096100

Quilot, B; Génard, M; Kervella, J; Lescourret, F

2002-07-01

470

Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.  

PubMed

Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. PMID:23553505

Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

2013-08-15

471

Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.  

PubMed

Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134)?=?6.09, p?<0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134)?=?4.16, p?<0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134)?=?5.98, p?<0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134)?=?3.29, p?<0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134)?=?4.36, p?<0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4?mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. PMID:25278432

Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

2015-01-01

472

Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.  

PubMed

Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies. PMID:15384335

Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

2004-08-01

473

How fruit developmental biology makes use of flow cytometry approaches.  

PubMed

Fleshy fruit species such as tomato are important because of their nutritional and economic value. Several stages of fruit development such as ovary formation, fruit set, and fruit maturation have already been the subject of many developmental studies. However, fruit growth per se has been much less addressed. Fruit growth like all plant organs depends upon the developmental processes of cell division and cell expansion. The activity of cell divisions sets the number of cells that will compose the fruit; the cell expansion activity then determines its final size. Among the various mechanisms that may influence the determination of cell size, endopolyploidy by the means of endoreduplication, i.e. genome amplification in the absence of mitosis, appears to be of great importance in fleshy fruits. In tomato fruit, endoreduplication is associated with DNA-dependent cell expansion: cell size can reach spectacular levels such as hundreds of times its initial size (e.g. >0.5 mm in diameter), with as much as a 256-fold increase in nuclear DNA content. Using tomato fruit development as a model, recent investigations combining the use of flow cytometry, cellular imaging and molecular analyses have provided new data in favor of the long-standing karyoplasmic ratio theory, stating that cells tend to adjust their cytoplasmic volume to the nuclear DNA content. By establishing a highly structured cellular system where multiple physiological functions are integrated, endoreduplication acts as a morphogenetic factor supporting cell growth during tomato fruit development. In the context of plant breeding, deciphering the mechanisms controlling fruit growth, in particular those connecting the process of nuclear endoreduplication with modulation of gene expression, the regulation of cell size and final fruit size and composition, is necessary to understand better the establishment of fleshy fruit quality traits. PMID:24273206

Pirrello, Julien; Bourdon, Matthieu; Cheniclet, Catherine; Bourge, Mickaël; Brown, Spencer C; Renaudin, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie; Chevalier, Christian

2014-02-01

474

Reversible Inhibition of Tomato Fruit Gene Expression at High Temperature (Effects on Tomato Fruit Ripening).  

PubMed

The reversible inhibition of three ripening-related processes by high-temperature treatment (38[deg]C) was examined in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Daniella) fruit. Ethylene production, color development, and softening were inhibited during heating and recovered afterward, whether recovery took place at 20[deg]C or fruit were first held at chilling temperature (2[deg]C) after heating and then placed at 20[deg]C. Ethylene production and color development proceeded normally in heated fruit after 14 d of chilling, whereas the unheated fruit had delayed ethylene production and uneven color development. Levels of mRNA for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, phytoene synthase, and polygalacturonase decreased dramatically during the heat treatment but recovered afterward, whereas the mRNA for HSP17 increased during the high-temperature treatment and then decreased when fruit were removed from heat. As monitored by western blots, the HSP17 protein disappeared from fruit tissue after 3 d at 20[deg]C but remained when fruit were held at 2[deg]C. The persistence of heat-shock proteins at low temperature may be relevant to the protection against chilling injury provided by the heat treatment. Protein levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase and polygalacturonase also did not closely follow the changes in their respective mRNAs. This implied both differences in relative stability and turnover rates of mRNA compared to protein and nontranslation of the message that accumulated in low temperature. The results suggest that high temperature inhibits ripening by inhibiting the accumulation of ripening-related mRNAs. Ripening processes that depend on continuous protein synthesis including ethylene production, lycopene accumulation, and cell-wall dissolution are thereby diminished. PMID:12226253

Lurie, S.; Handros, A.; Fallik, E.; Shapira, R.

1996-04-01

475

Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption?  

PubMed Central

Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n?=?732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. PMID:25451584

Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

2015-01-01

476

Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.  

PubMed

The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region. PMID:19323850

Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

2009-12-01

477

Fruit-specific suppression of the ethylene receptor LeETR4 results in early-ripening tomato fruit.  

PubMed

Tomato is an economically important crop and a significant dietary source of important phytochemicals, such as carotenoids and flavonoids. Although it has been known for many years that the plant hormone ethylene is essential for the ripening of climacteric fruits, its role in fruit growth and maturation is much less well understood. In this study, data are presented which indicate that fruit-specific suppression of the ethylene receptor LeETR4 causes early ripening, whereas fruit size, yield and flavour-related chemical composition are largely unchanged. Early fruit ripening is a highly desirable and valuable trait, and the approach demonstrated here should be applicable to any fruit species requiring ethylene to ripen. These results demonstrate that ethylene receptors probably act as biological clocks regulating the onset of tomato fruit ripening. PMID:18086233

Kevany, Brian M; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J

2008-04-01

478

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

479

Is a mango just a mango? Testing within-fruit oviposition site choice and larval performance of a highly polyphagous fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

For fruit flies, fully ripe fruit is preferred for adult oviposition and is superior for offspring performance over unripe\\u000a or ripening fruit. Because not all parts of a single fruit ripen simultaneously, the opportunity exists for adult fruit flies\\u000a to selectively choose riper parts of a fruit for oviposition and such selection, if it occurs, could positively influence\\u000a offspring performance.

Wigunda Rattanapun; Weerawan Amornsak; Anthony R. Clarke

2010-01-01

480

Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chemistry and specificity of sex pheromones in two subfamilies of the lepidopterous family Tortricidae1,2 have been studied because of the large number of economically important insects included. We identified the pheromone structure of the red-banded leaf roller moth, Argyrotaenia velutinana (subfamily Tortricinae), as cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate3, and now report the pheromone structure of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (subfamily

Wendell L. Roelofs; André Comeau; Robert Selle

1969-01-01

481

Synthesis of polygalacturonase during tomato fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell wall degrading enzyme polygalacturonase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) is not detectable in green tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Activity appears at the onset of ripening and in ripe fruit it is one of the major cell-wall-bound proteins. Radioimmunoassay results, employing an antibody against purified polygalacturonase, suggest that during ripening the enzyme is synthesised de novo. Radioimmunoassay data also show that the

Gregory A. Tucker; Donald Grierson

1982-01-01

482

Gene expression during fruit ripening in avocado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poly(A) +RNA populations from avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill cv. Hass) at four stages of ripening were isolated by two cycles of oligo-dT-cellulose chromatography and examined by invitro translation, using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of the resulting translation products. Three mRNAs increased dramatically

Rolf E. Christoffersen; Erich Warm; George G. Laties

1982-01-01

483

SPRAY DRYING OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spray dryers were tested to obtain powders from concentrated juices of blackcurrant, apricot, raspberry, with different maltodextrins as drying-aid agents. Composition of fruit juices and dextrose equivalent for maltodextrin are considered. Best results were obtained for a ratio juice to maltodextrin DE6 of 65\\/35 for blackcurrant, of 60\\/40 for apricot and 55\\/45 for raspberry, and low air temperatures (160–90°C).

B. R. Bhandari; A. Senoussi; E. D. Dumoulin; A. Lebert

1993-01-01

484

Market diseases of fresh fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bruising, crushing, and other mechanical injuries cause very serious losses during the handling, transportation, storage,\\u000a and marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables. Spoilage caused by molds and bacteria exacts a heavy toll. Freezing, chilling\\u000a injury, and various physiological disorders add to the consumer cost of living. Careful handling, proper refrigeration, good\\u000a marketing practices, and the use of safe, approved chemical

B. A. Friedmans

1958-01-01

485

Volatile Constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi L. Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit were isolated by steam distillation with subsequent extraction of the distillate with dichloromethane. The concentrated extract was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty-three components were identified, aliphatic acids accounting for 47.8% of the total volatiles with hexadecanoic acid (20.4%) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid predominating. Among the 12 esters found butyl nicotinate (1.6%)

K. C. Wong; S. N. Wong

1995-01-01

486

Elucidating the neurotoxicity of the star fruit.  

PubMed

Caramboxin: Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease are frequently intoxicated after ingesting star fruit. The main symptoms of this intoxication are named in the picture. Bioguided chemical procedures resulted in the discovery of caramboxin, which is a phenylalanine-like molecule that is responsible for intoxication. Functional experiments in?vivo and in?vitro point towards the glutamatergic ionotropic molecular actions of caramboxin, which explains its convulsant and neurodegenerative properties. PMID:24281890

Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Del Vecchio, Flavio; Oliveira, José A C; dos Santos, Francisco L; Castro, Olagide W; Arisi, Gabriel M; Dantas, Márcio; Carolino, Ruither O G; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Dagostin, Andre L A; Rodrigues, Marcelo C A; Leão, Ricardo M; Quintiliano, Samir A P; Silva, Luiz F; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto P

2013-12-01

487

A Comprehensive Survey of Fruit Grading Systems for Tropical Fruits of Maharashtra.  

PubMed

Abstract It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz. about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step towards evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms. PMID:24915312

Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

2013-10-21

488

Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.  

PubMed

Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds. PMID:16175241

Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

2005-01-01

489

Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains.  

PubMed

Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20-10?ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

Janssen, S; Schmitt, K; Blanke, M; Bauersfeld, M L; Wöllenstein, J; Lang, W

2014-06-13

490

Pointillist structural color in Pollia fruit.  

PubMed

Biological communication by means of structural color has existed for at least 500 million years. Structural color is commonly observed in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in plants. We present a striking example of multilayer-based strong iridescent coloration in plants, in the fruit of Pollia condensata. The color is caused by Bragg reflection of helicoidally stacked cellulose microfibrils that form multilayers in the cell walls of the epicarp. We demonstrate that animals and plants have convergently evolved multilayer-based photonic structures to generate colors using entirely distinct materials. The bright blue coloration of this fruit is more intense than that of any previously described biological material. Uniquely in nature, the reflected color differs from cell to cell, as the layer thicknesses in the multilayer stack vary, giving the fruit a striking pixelated or pointillist appearance. Because the multilayers form with both helicoidicities, optical characterization reveals that the reflected light from every epidermal cell is polarized circularly either to the left or to the right, a feature that has never previously been observed in a single tissue. PMID:23019355

Vignolini, Silvia; Rudall, Paula J; Rowland, Alice V; Reed, Alison; Moyroud, Edwige; Faden, Robert B; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Glover, Beverley J; Steiner, Ullrich

2012-09-25

491

Pointillist structural color in Pollia fruit  

PubMed Central

Biological communication by means of structural color has existed for at least 500 million years. Structural color is commonly observed in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in plants. We present a striking example of multilayer-based strong iridescent coloration in plants, in the fruit of Pollia condensata. The color is caused by Bragg reflection of helicoidally stacked cellulose microfibrils that form multilayers in the cell walls of the epicarp. We demonstrate that animals and plants have convergently evolved multilayer-based photonic structures to generate colors using entirely distinct materials. The bright blue coloration of this fruit is more intense than that of any previously described biological material. Uniquely in nature, the reflected color differs from cell to cell, as the layer thicknesses in the multilayer stack vary, giving the fruit a striking pixelated or pointillist appearance. Because the multilayers form with both helicoidicities, optical characterization reveals that the reflected light from every epidermal cell is polarized circularly either to the left or to the right, a feature that has never previously been observed in a single tissue. PMID:23019355

Vignolini, Silvia; Rudall, Paula J.; Rowland, Alice V.; Reed, Alison; Moyroud, Edwige; Faden, Robert B.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Steiner, Ullrich

2012-01-01

492

Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.  

PubMed

The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate. PMID:16968082

Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta

2006-09-20

493

Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

2010-03-01

494

Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology  

PubMed Central

In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970–2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function. PMID:22908273

Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Büntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Dämon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Nordén, Jenni; Høiland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C.

2012-01-01

495

Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.  

PubMed

Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases. PMID:24188234

Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

2014-01-01

496

Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.  

PubMed

Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (?-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest ?-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid. PMID:25065829

Antonious, George F

2014-01-01

497

Assessing the Impact of Deforestation of the Atlantic Rainforest on Ant-Fruit Interactions: A Field Experiment Using Synthetic Fruits  

PubMed Central

Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic ‘seed’ covered by a lipid-rich ‘pulp’), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (?3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits to better understand the ecology of ant-fruit interactions in variable ecological settings, including human-disturbed landscapes. PMID:24587341

Bieber, Ana Gabriela D.; Silva, Paulo S. D.; Sendoya, Sebastián F.; Oliveira, Paulo S.

2014-01-01

498

Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.  

PubMed

Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (?3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits to better understand the ecology of ant-fruit interactions in variable ecological settings, including human-disturbed landscapes. PMID:24587341

Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

2014-01-01

499

Postharvest physiology and technology of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit.  

PubMed

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical evergreen tree whose fruit is consumed both fresh and processed. Loquat fruit is a good source of minerals and carotenoids, while the kernel is rich in protein and carbohydrates. It has been considered a non-climacteric fruit, but there is evidence that some cultivars have a ripening pattern similar to that of climacteric fruits. The fruit has a short postharvest life at ambient temperatures and is susceptible to physical and mechanical damage, loss of moisture and nutrients, and decay. Low-temperature storage extends the shelf life of loquat fruit, but some cultivars are severely affected by chilling injury and flesh browning during cold storage. Purple spot, browning and leatheriness are major postharvest disorders. The shelf life of loquat can be extended by modified or controlled atmosphere storage as well as by postharvest treatment with 1-methyl cyclopropene or methyl jasmonate. PMID:24395491

Pareek, Sunil; Benkeblia, Noureddine; Janick, Jules; Cao, Shifeng; Yahia, Elhadi M

2014-06-01

500

Freezing Fruits and Vegetables Renee R. Boyer, Extension Specialist, Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

of enzymes that change the color and appearance of the fruit. If no sugar is added, the fruit will not remainFreezing Fruits and Vegetables Renee R. Boyer, Extension Specialist, Food Science and Technology storage. Only vegetables can be blanched before freezing. If fruit is blanched, and then frozen, the fruit

Liskiewicz, Maciej