These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Characteristic Studies of Ligno-Cellulosic Fabric Grewia tenax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uniaxial natural fabric Grewia tenax was treated with sodium hydroxide, acetic acid, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and polycarbonate (PC) solutions, and characterized by a variety of techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry were used to characterize the thermal behavior of the fabric. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the fabric constituents. The morphology of the fabric was studied

C. Venkata Prasad; K. Chowdoji Rao; G. Venkata Reddy; T. Sobha Rani; B. Yerriswamy; M. C. S. Subha

2010-01-01

2

Barium Levels in Soils and Centella asiatica  

PubMed Central

In this study, Centella asiatica and surface soils were collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and the barium (Ba) concentrations were determined. The Ba concentration [?g/g dry weight (dw)] was 63.72 to 382.01 ?g/g in soils while in C. asiatica, Ba concentrations ranged from 5.05 to 21.88 ?g/g for roots, 3.31 to 11.22 ?g/g for leaves and 2.37 to 6.14 ?g/g for stems. In C. asiatica, Ba accumulation was found to be the highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. The correlation coefficients (r) of Ba between plants and soils were found to be significantly positively correlated, with the highest correlation being between roots-soils (r=0.922, p<005), followed by leaves-soils (r=0.890, p<005) and stems-soils (r=0.848, p<005). This indicates that these three parts of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. For the transplantation study, four sites were selected as unpolluted [(Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)], semi-polluted (Seri Kembangan and Balakong) and polluted sites (Juru). Based on the transplantation study under experimental field and laboratory conditions, Ba concentrations in C. asiatica were significantly (p<0.05) higher after three weeks of exposure at Seri Kembangan, Balakong and Juru. Thus, these experimental findings confirm that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica can reflect the Ba levels in the soils where this plant is found. Three weeks after back transplantation to clean soils, the Ba levels in C. asiatica were still higher than the initial Ba level even though Ba elimination occurred. In conclusion, the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. PMID:24575242

Ong, Ghim Hock; Yap, Chee Kong; Mahmood, Maziah; Tan, Soon Guan; Hamzah, Suhaimi

2013-01-01

3

Barium Levels in Soils and Centella asiatica.  

PubMed

In this study, Centella asiatica and surface soils were collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and the barium (Ba) concentrations were determined. The Ba concentration [?g/g dry weight (dw)] was 63.72 to 382.01 ?g/g in soils while in C. asiatica, Ba concentrations ranged from 5.05 to 21.88 ?g/g for roots, 3.31 to 11.22 ?g/g for leaves and 2.37 to 6.14 ?g/g for stems. In C. asiatica, Ba accumulation was found to be the highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. The correlation coefficients (r) of Ba between plants and soils were found to be significantly positively correlated, with the highest correlation being between roots-soils (r=0.922, p<005), followed by leaves-soils (r=0.890, p<005) and stems-soils (r=0.848, p<005). This indicates that these three parts of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. For the transplantation study, four sites were selected as unpolluted [(Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)], semi-polluted (Seri Kembangan and Balakong) and polluted sites (Juru). Based on the transplantation study under experimental field and laboratory conditions, Ba concentrations in C. asiatica were significantly (p<0.05) higher after three weeks of exposure at Seri Kembangan, Balakong and Juru. Thus, these experimental findings confirm that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica can reflect the Ba levels in the soils where this plant is found. Three weeks after back transplantation to clean soils, the Ba levels in C. asiatica were still higher than the initial Ba level even though Ba elimination occurred. In conclusion, the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. PMID:24575242

Ong, Ghim Hock; Yap, Chee Kong; Mahmood, Maziah; Tan, Soon Guan; Hamzah, Suhaimi

2013-08-01

4

Extraction of bioactive components from Centella asiatica using subcritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive components, asiatic acid and asiaticoside, were extracted from Centella asiatica using subcritical water as an extraction solvent. Extraction yields of asiatic acid and asiaticoside were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at temperatures from 100 to 250°C and pressures from 10 to 40MPa. As temperature or pressure increased, the extraction yield of asiatic acid and asiaticoside increased. At the

Wan-Joo Kim; Jaehoon Kim; Bambang Veriansyah; Jae-Duck Kim; Youn-Woo Lee; Seong-Geun Oh; Raymond R. Tjandrawinata

2009-01-01

5

Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

2013-01-01

6

Centella asiatica extracts modulate hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence in human dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) is a pharmacological plant in South Asia. It has been demonstrated that C. asiatica extracts containing various pentacyclic triterpenes exert healing effects, especially wound healing and collagen synthesis in skin. However, there are few studies on the effect of C. asiatica extracts on stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). To determine whether H(2) O(2) -induced senescence is affected by C. asiatica extracts, we performed senescence analysis on cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We also analysed whole gene expression level using microarrays and showed that 39 mRNAs are differentially expressed in H(2) O(2) -induced HDFs with and without treatment with C. asiatica extracts. These genes regulate apoptosis, gene silencing, cell growth, transcription, senescence, DNA replication and the spindle checkpoint. Differential expression of FOXM1, E2F2, MCM2, GDF15 and BHLHB2 was confirmed using semi-quantitative PCR. In addition, C. asiatica extracts rescued the H(2) O(2) -induced repression of replication in HDFs. Therefore, the findings presented here suggest that C. asiatica extracts might regulate SIPS by preventing repression of DNA replication and mitosis-related gene expression. PMID:22092576

Kim, Young Joo; Cha, Hwa Jun; Nam, Ki Ho; Yoon, Yeongmin; Lee, Hyunjin; An, Sungkwan

2011-12-01

7

[Anatomical and water physiological plasticity of Grewia biloba var. parviflora leaf and secondary xylem].  

PubMed

Based on the anatomical observations of leaf and secondary xylem as well as the measurements of leaf water physiological parameters, this paper studied the anatomical and water physiological plasticity of Grewia biloba var. parviflora growing in different succession stage communities. The results showed that G. biloba var. parviflora leaf was characterized by thin bifacial with thin cuticle and few stoma, indicating that it was mesophyte anatomically, while the secondary xylem had typical xeromorphic traits, such as short and thin vessel, high vessel frequency, low percentage single pores, and short fibers and rays. G. biloba var. parviflora had high plasticity in the anatomical structure and water physiological features of leaf and secondary xylem, and the plasticity index was in the order of secondary xylem anatomical structure (0. 24) > water physiological traits (0. 19) > leaf anatomical structure (0. 18). Compared with those growing in mixed forest and Platycladus orientalis forest, the individuals of G. biloba var. parviflora in shrub communities had the xeromorphic traits in the aspects of (1) their secondary xylem had shorter vessel elements, higher vessel frequency, less single porous percentage, lower rays, higher relative conductivity and lower vulnerability index, and (2) their leaf had lower water potential, lower water content and free water content, higher bound water content, high ratio of bound to free water content, and less specific leaf area. The phenotypic plasticity, both anatomical and physiological, made G. biloba var. parviflora tolerate to the drought at earlier succession stages and better adapt to the mesophytic condition at later stages, and consequently, become a widely distributed and dominant species in mixed forests. PMID:17209373

Shi, Gangrong; Cheng, Xuelian; Liu, Lei; Ma, Chengcang

2006-10-01

8

Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of Centella asiatica (L.) extract in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

In vitro study revealed that pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of C. asiatica extract was significantly higher than rutin but lower than orlistat, an anti-obesity drug. alpha-Amylase inhibitory activities of C. asiatica extract and rutin were significantly lower than acarbose, an anti-diabetic drug. Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase activity by C. asiatica extract, rutin, and acarbose was not different. The in vivo study substantiated the in vitro results. C. asiatica extract (1000 and 2000 mg/4 mL/kg), rutin (1000 mg/4 mL/kg), and orlistat (45 mg/4 mL/kg) significantly decreased plasma glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in lipid emulsion-induced hyperlipidemic rats at 3 h. However, plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels did not show significant change. The present work further supports that the C. asiatica extract and its bioactive rutin may help managing hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. PMID:25345245

Supkamonseni, Nattapon; Thinkratok, Aree; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Srisawat, Rungrudee

2014-10-01

9

On the phytosociology and ecology of Isoëtes asiatica (Makino) Makino in oligotrophic water bodies of South Sakhalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, in the southeast of the Sakhalin Island and south of the village Okhotskoye, Isoëtes asiatica (Makino) Makino and I. beringensis Kom. were detected in 24 oligotrophic lakes for the first time on Sakhalin. These are stands of the community of Isoëtetum asiaticae ass. nov. which in the majority of the lakes form a characteristic pioneer vegetation of the

W. Pietsch

1991-01-01

10

Centella asiatica Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice  

PubMed Central

D-galactose induced neurotoxicity is well known model for studying aging and related oxidative damage and memory impairment. Aging is a biological process, characterized by the gradual loss of physiological functions by unknown mechanism. Centella asiatica, Indian pennywort has been documented in the treatment of various neurological disorders including aging. Therefore, present study has been conducted in order to explore the possible role of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, oxidative and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Chronic administration of D-galactose (100?mg/kg s.c.) for a period of six weeks significantly impaired cognitive task (both in both Morris water maze and elevated plus maze) and oxidative defense (Increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and non-protein thiols) and impaired mitochondrial complex (I, II and III) enzymes activities as compared to sham group. Six weeks Centella asiatica (150 and 300?mg/kg, p.o) treatment significantly improved behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities as compared to contro l (D-galactose). Centella asiatica also attenuated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level in D-galactose senescence mice. Present study highlights the protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. PMID:21629743

Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Atish; Dogra, Samrita

2011-01-01

11

The centella asiatica juice effects on DNA damage, apoptosis and gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica on HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line). Centella asiatica is native to the Southeast Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. This study aims to determine the chemopreventive effects of the Centella asiatica juice on human HepG2 cell line. Methods Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells. Results The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells. Conclusions It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer. PMID:24444147

2014-01-01

12

Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn  

PubMed Central

Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

Kannan, R.; Prasant, K.; Babu, U. V.

2012-01-01

13

Prenylated coumarins: natural phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors from Toddalia asiatica.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the roots of Toddalia asiatica led to the isolation of seven new prenylated coumarins (1-7) and 14 known analogues (8-21). The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by combined chemical methods and chiral separation analysis. Compounds 1-5, named toddalin A, 3?-O-demethyltoddalin A, and toddalins B-D, represent an unusual group of phenylpropenoic acid-coupled prenylated coumarins. Compounds 1-21 and four modified analogues, 10a, 11a, 13a, and 17a, were screened by using tritium-labeled adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate ([3H]-cAMP) as substrate for their inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), which is a drug target for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compounds 3, 8, 10, 10a, 11, 11a, 12, 13, 17, and 21 exhibited inhibition with IC50 values less than 10 ?M. Toddacoumalone (8), the most active compound (IC50=0.14 ?M), was more active than the positive control, rolipram (IC50=0.59 ?M). In addition, the structure-activity relationship and possible inhibitory mechanism of the active compounds are also discussed. PMID:24597921

Lin, Ting-Ting; Huang, Yi-You; Tang, Gui-Hua; Cheng, Zhong-Bin; Liu, Xin; Luo, Hai-Bin; Yin, Sheng

2014-04-25

14

Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of Toddalia asiatica roots against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from roots of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. and the isolated constituents against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. Essential oil of T. asiatica roots was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 58 components of the essential oil of T. asiatica roots were identified. The essential oil has almost same content of (35.41 %) of sesquiterpenoids and monoterpenoids (31.87 %). The principal compounds in T. asiatica essential oil were geraniol (9.84 %), D-limonene (7.52 %), isopimpinellin (6.62 %), ?-gurjunene (6.25 %), and 4-vinylguaiacol (5.94 %). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, geraniol, D-limonene, and isopimpinellin were isolated from T. asiatica root essential oil. Geraniol, D-limonene, and isopimpinellin exhibited strong larvicidal activity against A. albopictus with LC(50) values of 30.13, 19.84, and 32.05 ?g/ml, respectively, while the essential oil of T. asiatica had an LC(50) value of 69.09 ?g/ml. The result indicated that the essential oil of T. asiatica roots and the three isolated constituents have potential for use in control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides. PMID:23271568

Liu, Xin Chao; Dong, Hui Wen; Zhou, Ligang; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Zhi Long

2013-03-01

15

Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep.  

PubMed

In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in comparison with cottonseed cake (CSC). Changes in the chemical composition of the leaves with progressive maturation (December to March) were studied. The leaves maintained a high CP content (>164 g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the prolonged maturation in the winter feed scarcity period. The leaves were rich in Ca (41 g/kg DM) and K (89 g/kg DM). The rate of degradation and effective degradability of CP were consistently higher (P < 0.001) in CSC than in G. oppositifolia. A balance trial in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four mature Ramghani wethers showed that DM intake, DM and CP digestibility, and N retention did not differ with the substitution of CSC with G. oppositifolia leaves, as a supplement to a basal diet of sorghum hay. Body weight (BW) gain and wool yield responses to the supplements were examined with 36 lambs (27 ± 3 kg BW; age 11 ± 1 months) for 15 weeks. The lambs were only grazed on local pasture (control group) or supplemented with CSC, G. oppositifolia leaves, and their mixture on iso-N basis. Addition of the supplements increased (P < 0.05) BW gain and wool yield, and the leaves were as effective as CSC. These results demonstrated that G. oppositifolia leaves provide good quality green fodder during the prolonged winter feed scarcity period, and that the leaves can be efficiently utilized as a CP supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep. PMID:22331457

Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Habib, Ghulam

2012-10-01

16

Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

Galan-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Marius Vicent

2013-01-01

17

Adriamycin induced myocardial failure in rats: Protective role of Centella asiatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in adriamycin induced cardiotoxicity.\\u000a Mitochondrial dysfunction is characterized by the accumulation of oxidized lipids, proteins and DNA, leading to disorganization\\u000a of mitochondrial structure and systolic failure. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Centella asiatica on the mitochondrial enzymes; mitochondrial antioxidant status in adriamycin induced myocardial

A. Gnanapragasam; S. Yogeeta; R. Subhashini; K. K. Ebenezar; V. Sathish; T. Devaki

2007-01-01

18

Process Improvement to Preserve the Color of Instant Pennywort Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method to maintain color of instant Pennywort (Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban or Buo-Bok) during processing was investigated. Two methods of preparation before juice extraction were studied: blanching the Buo-Bok at 95- 100oC for 0 to 10 minutes or blanching Buo-Bok at 95-100oC and then immersing it in 0.005% citric acid solution (pH 4.5) before extracting the juice and adding ZnCl2

Saiwarun Chaiwanichsiri; Narongchai Dharmsuriya; Nirachara Sonthornvit; Theeranun Janjarasskul

2000-01-01

19

An investigation of arsenic contamination in Peninsular Malaysia based on Centella asiatica and soil samples.  

PubMed

The first objective of this study was to provide data of arsenic (As) levels in Peninsular Malaysia based on soil samples and accumulation of As in Centella asiatica collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia. The second objective was to assess the accumulation of As in transplanted C. asiatica between control and semi-polluted or polluted sites. Four sites were selected which were UPM (clean site), Balakong (semi-polluted site), Seri Kembangan (semi-polluted site) and Juru (polluted site). The As concentrations of plant and soil samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The As levels ranged from 9.38 to 57.05 ?g/g dw in soils, 0.21 to 4.33 ?g/g dw in leaves, 0.18 to 1.83 ?g/g dw in stems and 1.32-20.76 ?g/g dw in roots. All sampling sites had As levels exceeding the CCME guideline (12 ?g/g dw) except for Kelantan, P. Pauh, and Senawang with P. Klang having the highest As in soil (57.05 ?g/g dw). In C. asiatica, As accumulation was highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. When the As level in soils were higher, the uptake of As in plants would also be increased. After the transplantation of plants to semi-polluted and polluted sites for 3 weeks, all concentration factors were greater than 50 % of the initial As level. The elimination factor was around 39 % when the plants were transplanted back to the clean sites for 3 weeks. The findings of the present study indicated that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are ideal biomonitors of As contamination. The present data results the most comprehensive data obtained on As levels in Malaysia. PMID:22821327

Ong, G H; Yap, C K; Maziah, M; Suhaimi, H; Tan, S G

2013-04-01

20

Successful plant regeneration from callus cultures of Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful procedure was established for in vitro plant regeneration from callus derived from stem and leaf explants of Centella asiatica on semisolid modified Murashige and Skoog's [7] medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L3 kinetin and 4.0 mg L3 a-naphthaleneacetic acid. The rate of shoot-bud regeneration was the highest (42.8 and 54.3 shoots\\/culture in stem and leaf derived callus respectively)

A. Patra; B. Rai; G. R. Rout; P. Das

1998-01-01

21

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Centella asiatica is partly mediated by carbohydrase inhibition and glucose-fiber binding  

PubMed Central

Background Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) was previously reported to have anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal diabetic model rats. However, its activity on organ and tissue level remains unstudied. Our study aims at exploring the possible effects, C. asiatica extract and insoluble fiber has on carbohydrate absorption, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization. Methods For primary evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic activity, we measured Fasting Blood Glucose and performed Glucose Tolerance Test, in type 2 diabetic rats. To further study the pancreatic effect and glucose utilization, plasma insulin concentration, insulin secreted from isolated rat islets and liver glycogen were assayed. Effect on carbohydrate break down was assayed using intestinal disaccharidase enzyme, ?-amylase inhibition assays and Six-Segment study of the GI tract. Effect of C. asiatica on glucose absorption was studied by an in-situ, perfused, intestinal model in rats and by glucose-fiber binding assay. Gastrointestinal motility was seen by a BaSO4 milk traverse test. Additionally, a complete lipid profile assay, after a chronic study, was conducted. Results C. asiatica showed no significant change in insulin secretion in-vivo and in isolated rat islets. Additionally, no effect of the extract was seen on liver glycogen deposition. Retarded glucose absorption was seen in the in-situ perfused rat intestinal model at a dose. The extract was also found to inhibit action of both intestinal disaccharidase and ?-amylase. This was confirmed, yet again, via the Six Segment study, where sucrose digestion was found to be inhibited throughout the length of the GI Tract. Significant glucose-fiber binding was demonstrated in the in-vitro models. During the chronic study, body mass of C. asiatica treated Type 2 diabetic rats returned to normal and their polydipsic and polyphagic conditions were also improved. Chronic treatment of C. asiatica also improved subject’s lipid profile. Conclusion A combination of in-vitro, in-vivo and in-situ tests confirmed the anti-hyperglycemic activity of C. asiatica and its tissue level mechanism. Further study is required to fully elucidate the effect this extract or the active compounds have on the individual glucose transporters and the precise mechanism of glucose-fiber binding. PMID:24438380

2014-01-01

22

Anthelmintic and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of fractions of methanol extract of Leea asiatica leaves  

PubMed Central

Leea asiatica, a folk medicinal plant of India, is used in the treatment of worm infection and other oxidative stress-related disorders, traditionally. In the present study, the in vitro anthelmintic and in vitro antioxidant activity of different fractions of the methanol extract from the Leea asiatica leaves were evaluated. The fraction displayed significant anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a better paralysis activity (13.99 ± 0.59), while the methanol fraction showed a better death time (63.76 ± 0.73 minutes), when compared with other fractions, at a dose of 50 mg/ml concentration. The anthelmintic activity of methanol and the ethyl acetate fraction were almost similar and comparable to the standard drug, piperazine citrate. The petroleum ether fraction did not produce a potent anthelmintic effect compared to the standard. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, lipid peroxidation assay, and the ferric thiocyanate method. The ethyl acetate fraction showed better antioxidant activity in all tested methods. The IC50 value of the ethyl acetate fraction in the DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, and lipid peroxidation assay were 9.5, 13.0, and 57.0 ?g/ml, respectively. The fractions significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the peroxidation of linoleic acid. The results confirmed the folk use of Leea asiatica in warm infection and the plant could be viewed as a potential source of natural anthelmintic and antioxidant compound. PMID:23284215

Sen, Saikat; De, Biplab; Devanna, N.; Chakraborty, Raja

2012-01-01

23

Antinocieptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Toddalia asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. The present study investigated the antinociceptive and the anti-inflammatory effects of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice. Methods The antinociceptive and the anti-inflammatory effects of T. asiatica were investigated using formalin-induced pain test and the carrageenin-induced oedema paw. The extract solvent (vehicle), aspirin and indomethacin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. Eight mice were used in each experiment. Results In the early phase of the formalin test, the 100mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity while the 200mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.01) antinociceptive activity. The 100 mg/kg dose showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.001) in the late phase of the formalin test while the 200mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity. A reduction in carragenin induced acute inflammation paw oedema was significant (p < 0.01) following administration of 100mg/kg dose but not with the 200mg/kg dose. Conclusion The present study therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful and inflammatory conditions. PMID:23734278

Kariuki, Hellen Nyambura; Kanui, Titus Ikusya; Yenesew, Abiy; Patel, Nilesh; Mbugua, Paul Mungai

2013-01-01

24

Use of Asiatic Pennywort Centella asiatica Aqueous Extract as a Bath Treatment to Control Columnaris in Nile Tilapia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen

P. Rattanachaikunsopon; P. Phumkhachorn

2010-01-01

25

Pharmacokinetics of plantamajoside and acteoside from Plantago asiatica in rats by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Plantago asiatica is a medicinal and dietary plant rich in polyphenolic compounds such as phenylpropanoid glycosides plantamajoside and acteoside. The aims of the present study were to develop a new and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of plantamajoside and acteoside and investigate their pharmacokinetic properties in rats. A sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was employed for quantification of two analytes in rat plasma. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.2-200ng/ml with correlation coefficient greater than 0.9983 for both analytes. The accuracy of plantamajoside and acteoside were between -4.2% and 8.1%, -3.8% and 8.9% relative error, respectively. Precision for the two analytes ranged from 2.7 to 10.2% relative standard deviation. The pharmacokinetic results showed plantamajoside and acteoside were quickly absorbed in rat with the time to maximum plasma concentration 16.7±2.8 and 13.3±2.8min, respectively. The elimination constants were 0.28±0.01 1h(-1) for plantamajoside and 0.47±0.03 1h(-1) for acteoside. The developed method and the pharmacokinetic data provide a basis for further studies on bioactivity of P. asiatica. PMID:24316425

Li, Yujuan; Gan, Lin; Li, George Q; Deng, Li; Zhang, Xinshi; Deng, Yulin

2014-02-01

26

A 90 day repeated oral toxicity study on plantamajoside concentrate from Plantago asiatica.  

PubMed

Plantago asiatica is distributed widely in East Asia. Since ancient times it has been used as a diuretic to treat acute urinary infections, and as an antiinflammatory, antiasthmatic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatitis drug. The major compound, plantamajoside from P. asiatica, which is used as a marker compound in chemotaxonomic studies, was reported to have antibacterial activity, inhibition activity against cAMP phosphodiesterase and 5-lipoxygenase and antioxidant activity. However, there are no reports on the safety of plantamajoside. This study assessed the toxic effects of plantamajoside concentrate (PC), the purity of which was above 80%, in rats following administration at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for 13 weeks, as recommended by the OECD guidelines. The results showed that there were no differences in body weight, food intake, water consumption, relative organ weight or the hematological and serum biochemical values among the different dosage groups. No death or abnormal clinical signs were observed during the experimental period. Therefore, the results suggested that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the PC in rats after oral administration is considered to be greater than 2000 mg/kg in rats under the conditions employed in this study. PMID:17622978

Park, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Chung-Oui; Won, Hye-Jin; Park, Ho-Young; Ryu, Yung-Sun; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kim, Kyoung-Heon; Park, Kuen-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Won

2007-12-01

27

Biological screening of selected flora of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of different parts of five medicinal plants, Ferula assafoetidaL. resin, Grewia asiaticaL. leaves, Ipomoea hederaceaJacq. seeds, Lepidium sativumL. seeds and Terminalia chebulaRetz. fruits were tested in vitrofor their cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal and anthelmintic activities. Ipomoea hederaceashowed very significant phytotoxic and cytotoxic activity, with 100% inhibition of Lemna minorgrowth and 100% death of Artemia salinaat concentrations of 1000 and 100 µg mL-1. Grewia asiaticaexhibited very weak activities while Lepidium sativumand Ferula assafoetidashowed moderate to good potential in all three bioassays. The results suggest screening of Ipomoea hederaceaseeds further for isolation of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for its toxic potential. PMID:23558994

Zia-Ul-Haq, M; Raza Shah, M; Qayum, Mughal; Ercisli, Sezai

2012-01-01

28

In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Florfenicol for Treatment of Francisella asiatica Infection in Tilapia ?  

PubMed Central

Francisella asiatica is a recently described, Gram-negative, facultative intracellular fish pathogen, known to be the causative agent of francisellosis in warm-water fish. Francisellosis outbreaks have increased in frequency among commercial aquaculture operations and have caused severe economic losses in every case reported. The lack of effective treatments for piscine francisellosis led us to investigate the potential efficacy of florfenicol for inhibition of F. asiatica in vitro and as an oral therapeutic agent in vivo. The MIC of florfenicol for F. asiatica, as determined by the broth dilution method, was 2 ?g/ml, which indicates its potential efficacy as a therapeutic agent for treatment of francisellosis. The intracellular susceptibility of the bacterium to florfenicol in tilapia head kidney-derived macrophages (THKDM) was also investigated. Addition of florfenicol to the medium at 10 ?g/ml was sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial loads in the THKDM in vitro. Cytotoxicity assays done in infected THKDM also demonstrated drug efficacy in vivo, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Levels of LDH released from infected THKDM were significantly lower in macrophages treated with florfenicol (P < 0.001) than in untreated cells. In medicated-feed trials, fish were fed 15 mg of florfenicol/kg of fish body weight for 10 days, and the feeding was initiated at either 1, 3, or 6 days postchallenge. Immersion challenges resulted in 30% mean percent survival in nontreated fish, and fish receiving medicated feed administered at 1 and 3 days postinfection showed higher mean percent survival (100% and 86.7%, respectively). A significant decrease (P < 0.001) in bacterial numbers (number of CFU/g of spleen tissue) was observed in treated groups compared to nontreated infected fish at both 1 and 3 days postchallenge. There were no differences in bacterial burden in the spleens between fish treated 6 days postchallenge and untreated controls. In conclusion, if florfenicol is administered during early stages of infection, it has the potential for effectively treating piscine francisellosis, including the capacity for intracellular penetration and bacterial clearance. PMID:20713674

Soto, Esteban; Endris, Richard G.; Hawke, John P.

2010-01-01

29

Impact of Temperature on Postdiapause and Diapause of the Asian Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica  

PubMed Central

Lymantria dispar asiatica (Vnukovskij) (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae) is one of three gypsy moth subspecies found in East Asia. Understanding the diapause and postdiapause phases of its eggs is important in characterizing its life cycle. The effects of different constant temperatures for different lengths of times on field-collected, postdiapause eggs were tested during the first year. In the second year, the effects of the same treatments on laboratory-raised eggs in diapause were investigated. The effects of temperature on percent egg hatching, time to hatching, and hatching duration were determined. When field-collected eggs were held at 0 and 5°C, they terminated postdiapause within 11 days. The percent hatching tended to decline with an increased duration of exposure at temperatures greater than 5°C. Diapause terminated slowly (> 37 days) and with a high percentage of hatching for postdiapause eggs held at 10°C. There was a positive correlation between temperature and the speed of postdiapause development for field-collected eggs held at constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C. However, the number of days to the first hatch was significantly longer than for eggs treated with lower temperatures before being transferred to 25°C. Freshly oviposited eggs treated at a constant 0 or 5°C for 200 days were unable to develop into pharate larva. However, eggs treated at a constant 20 or 25°C for 200 days developed into pharate larva but did not hatch even after a subsequent chill. This result suggests why L. dispar asiatica is not found in tropical areas and helps us to predict the distribution of the gypsy moth in China. PMID:25373152

Wei, Jing; Luo, You-Qing; Shi, Juan; Wang, Dei-Peng; Shen, Shao-Wei

2014-01-01

30

Comparative analysis of active constituents in Centella asiatica samples from Madagascar: application for ex situ conservation and clonal propagation.  

PubMed

A comparative quantitative analysis of the active triterpenoids in Centella asiatica samples collected in different locations in Madagascar was carried out to evaluate the natural variability in triterpenoid content and to select elite samples for further ex situ germplasm conservation and clonal propagation. The highest asiaticoside content (6.42%) was measured in samples collected in Mangoro region. In vitro propagation of C. asiatica was successfully achieved in hormone-free medium. Although lower asiaticoside content was detected in 8-week-old vitro plants, the Mangoro sample still showed the highest content in this triterpenoid constituent (1.78%). Acetoxycentellynol, a C(15)-polyacetylene, was found to be accumulated up to 18 times more in in vitro plants as compared to plant material collected in situ. PMID:17560738

Randriamampionona, Denis; Diallo, Billo; Rakotoniriana, Francisco; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Cheuk, Kiban; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Mahillon, Jacques; Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher

2007-12-01

31

Melatonin and differential effect of l-thyroxine on immune system of Indian tropical bird Perdicula asiatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction of thyroxine and melatonin on immune status was noted in vivo and in vitro when peripheral melatonin was high and thyroxine low in plasma of male Perdicula asiatica during reproductively inactive phase. During this phase exogenous thyroxine (4?g\\/100g. Bwt.\\/day) and melatonin (25?g\\/100g. Bwt.\\/day) increased immune parameters (spleen weight, total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, percent stimulation ratio) and increased splenocyte

Shiv Shankar Singh; Chandana Haldar; Seema Rai

2006-01-01

32

Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal---Centella asiatica---extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ~180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w\\/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various

Panprung Sikareepaisan; Apichart Suksamrarn; Pitt Supaphol

2008-01-01

33

Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract  

PubMed Central

This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

2013-01-01

34

Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa. PMID:17610142

Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

2008-01-01

35

Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist. PMID:20540755

2010-01-01

36

Effects of temperature, algae biomass and ambient nutrient on the absorption of dissolved nitrogen and phosphate by Rhodophyte Gracilaria asiatica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gracilaria asiatica, being highly efficient in nutrient absorption, is cultivated in sea cucumber ponds to remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate. It was cultured in a laboratory simulating field conditions, and its nutrient absorption was measured to evaluate effects of environmental conditions. Ammonia nitrogen (AN), nitrate nitrogen (NN), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) uptake rate and removal efficiency were determined in a 4×2 factorial design experiment in water temperatures ( T) at 15°C and 25°C, algae biomass (AB) at 0.5 g/L and 1.0 g/L, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) at 30 ?mol/L and 60 ?mol/L, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) at 3 and 6 ?mol/L. AB and ambient TIN or SRP levels significantly affected uptake rate and removal efficiency of AN, NN, TIN, and SRP ( P< 0.001). G. asiatica in AB of 0.5 g/L showed higher uptake rate and lower removal efficiency relative to that with AB of 1.0 g/L. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rate rose with increasing ambient nutrient concentrations; nutrient removal efficiency decreased at higher environmental nutrient concentrations. The algae preferred to absorb AN to NN. Uptake rates of AN, NN, and SRP were significantly affected by temperature ( P < 0.001); uptake rate was higher for the 25°C group than for the 15°C group at the initial experiment stage. Only the removal efficiency of AN and SRP showed a significant difference between the two temperature groups ( P< 0.01). The four factors had significant interactive effects on absorption of N and P, implying that G. asiatica has great bioremedial potential in sea cucumber culture ponds.

Du, Rongbin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yongqiang

2013-03-01

37

Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) and an understory herbaceous plant Plantago asiatica.  

PubMed

We investigated communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the fine roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, and Plantago asiatica to consider the relationship between orchard trees and herbaceous plants in AMF symbioses. The AMF communities were analyzed on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), which were amplified using the AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the obtained AMF sequences were divided into 23 phylotypes. Among them, 12 phylotypes included AMF from both host plants, and most of the obtained sequences (689/811) were affiliated to them. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the host plant species did not have a significant effect on the distribution of AMF phylotypes, whereas the effects of sampling site, soil total C, soil total N and soil-available P were significant. It was also found that the mean observed overlaps of AMF phylotypes between the paired host plants in the same soil cores (27.1% of phylotypes shared) were significantly higher than the mean 1,000 simulated overlaps (14.2%). Furthermore, the same AMF sequences (100% sequence identity) were detected from both host plants in 8/12 soil cores having both roots. Accordingly, we concluded that Py. pyrifolia and Pl. asiatica examined shared some AMF communities, which suggested that understory herbaceous plants may function as AMF inoculum sources for orchard trees. PMID:23614902

Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

2013-01-01

38

Rodent model for long-term maintenance and development of the viable cysticerci of Taenia saginata asiatica  

PubMed Central

Although oncospheres of Taenia saginata asiatica can develop into cysticerci in immunodeficiency, immunosuppressed, and normal mice, no detailed information on the development features of these cysticerci from SCID mice is available. In the present study, the tumor-like cyst was found in the subcutaneous tissues of each of 10 SCID mice after 38-244 days inoculation with 39,000 oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. These cysts weighed 2.0-9.6 gm and were 1.5-4.3 cm in diameter. The number of cysticerci were collected from these cysts ranged from 125 to 1,794 and the cysticercus recovery rate from 0.3% to 4.6%. All cysticerci were viable with a diameter of 1-6 mm and 9 abnormal ones each with 2 evaginated protoscoleces were also found. The mean length and width of scolex, protoscolex, and bladder were 477 × 558, 756 × 727, and 1,586 × 1,615 µm, respectively. The diameters of suckers and rostellum were 220 µm and 70 µm, respectively. All cysticerci had two rows of rostellar hooks. These findings suggest that the SCID mouse model can be employed as a tool for long-term maintenance of the biological materials for advanced studies of immunodiagnosis, vaccine development, and evaluation of cestocidal drugs which would be most benefit for the good health of the livestocks. PMID:11138316

Wang, I.C.; Chung, W.C.; Lu, S.C.

2000-01-01

39

Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

2013-01-01

40

Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) and an Understory Herbaceous Plant Plantago asiatica  

PubMed Central

We investigated communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the fine roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, and Plantago asiatica to consider the relationship between orchard trees and herbaceous plants in AMF symbioses. The AMF communities were analyzed on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), which were amplified using the AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the obtained AMF sequences were divided into 23 phylotypes. Among them, 12 phylotypes included AMF from both host plants, and most of the obtained sequences (689/811) were affiliated to them. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the host plant species did not have a significant effect on the distribution of AMF phylotypes, whereas the effects of sampling site, soil total C, soil total N and soil-available P were significant. It was also found that the mean observed overlaps of AMF phylotypes between the paired host plants in the same soil cores (27.1% of phylotypes shared) were significantly higher than the mean 1,000 simulated overlaps (14.2%). Furthermore, the same AMF sequences (100% sequence identity) were detected from both host plants in 8/12 soil cores having both roots. Accordingly, we concluded that Py. pyrifolia and Pl. asiatica examined shared some AMF communities, which suggested that understory herbaceous plants may function as AMF inoculum sources for orchard trees. PMID:23614902

Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

2013-01-01

41

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

42

TECA (Titrated Extract of Centella Asiatica): new microcirculatory, biomolecular, and vascular application in preventive and clinical medicine. A status paper.  

PubMed

Plant-derived elements used for pharmacological applications constitute an increasing research field. Centella asiatica is widely used mainly as an extract (TECA). Triterpenic fractions, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica, produce a wide range of preventive and therapeutic effects. The modulation of collagen production and deposition in wound healing is of primary importance. TECA is also used to treat several microcirculatory problems, inflammatory skin conditions (leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis) and also intestinal problems, fever, amenorrhea and genitourinary conditions. Cognitive functions, anxiety and mental impairment may be also affected by TECA administration. New applications in neurology include nerve growth factor enhancement and applications in neurological degenerative conditions. Interaction with other products is also indicated in this document. The multiplicity of actions of TECA is associated to six important mechanisms, all inter-connected and modulating each other: 1) edema - and capillary filtration - control; 2) a strong antioxidant power, effective on several forms of oxidative stress associated to inflammation or infections and synergic with other antioxidant products; 3) an anti-inflammatory action; 4) a modulation of the collagen production avoiding slower scarring or faster, hyperthrophic scarring and cheloids; 5) a modulating action of local growth factors; 6) a modulation of angiogenesis. This "status" paper - resulting from an expert meeting held in Cobham, Surrey, indicates most of the therapeutic potential of TECA, still to be explored in further studies. The status paper constitutes the basis for a consensus document on TECA to be developed in the next future. This "status" paper opens a new window on an ancient but still partially unexplored product that may become an important value in prevention and treatment of several pre-clinical and risk conditions and in clinically significant disease both as a single products and in association with other 'natural' products. PMID:22108486

Belcaro, G; Maquart, F-X; Scoccianti, M; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Cesarone, M R; Luzzi, R; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A; Feragalli, B

2011-09-01

43

Multiple shoot regeneration and effect of sugars on growth and nitidine accumulation in shoot cultures of Toddalia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Background: Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae) is an important medicinal plant in traditional medicinal system of India and China. Nitidine production from callus cultures of the plant had been investigated, but in vitro multiplication and secondary metabolite production from shoot cultures is not reported. Objective: The aim of the present work is to establish protocol for in vitro multiple shoot regeneration of T. asiatica and to investigate the secondary metabolite, nitidine production from the shoot cultures. Materials and Methods: Different explants were used for shoot regeneration on MS supplemented with benzyl adenine (BA) either alone or in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in different combinations. Effect of different sugars and different concentrations of sucrose on biomass accumulation in shoot cultures in liquid medium was investigated. For in vitro rooting, shoots culture were inoculated to half strength MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of indole butyric acid. Quantitative analysis of shoot culture extracts was done for estimation of nitidine by HPTLC. Results: Shoot cultures were successfully initiated and established from nodal and shoot tip explants on MS medium supplemented with benzyl adenine and sucrose (3% w/v). Sucrose at a concentration of 3 % w/v was found to be optimum for growth and biomass accumulation. In vitro rooting of shoots was achieved on half strength MS medium supplemented with indole butyric acid 3 mg/l. Investigation of secondary metabolite production ability of the in vitro regenerated shoot cultures revealed their ability to biosynthesize nitidine. Conclusion: Shoot cultures were established and nitidine production has been observed. PMID:25298663

Praveena, Chinthala; Veeresham, Ciddi

2014-01-01

44

Asiatic Acid Isolated From Centella Asiatica Inhibits TGF-?1-induced Collagen Expression in Human Keloid Fibroblasts via PPAR-? Activation  

PubMed Central

Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by exuberant extracellular matrix deposition and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?/Smad pathway plays a pivotal role in keloid pathogenesis. Centella asiatica extract has been applied in scar management for ages. As one of its major components, asiatic acid (AA) has been recently reported to inhibit liver fibrosis by blocking TGF-?/Smad pathway. However, its effect on keloid remains unknown. In order to investigate the effects of AA on cell proliferation, invasion and collagen synthesis, normal and keloid fibroblasts were exposed to TGF-?1 with or without AA. Relevant experiments including 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay, Transwell invasion assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNA interference assay were conducted. As a result, keloid fibroblasts showed higher responsiveness to TGF-?1 stimulation than normal fibroblasts in terms of invasion and collagen synthesis. AA could suppress TGF-?1-induced expression of collagen type I, inhibit Smad 2/3 phosphorylation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression, while elevate Smad 7 protein level. Noteworthy, the effects of AA on keloid fibroblasts could be abrogated by PPAR-? antagonist GW9662 and by silencing of PPAR-?. The present study demonstrated that AA inhibited TGF-?1-induced collagen and PAI-1 expression in keloid fibroblasts through PPAR-? activation, which suggested that AA was one of the active constituents of C. asiatica responsible for keloid management, and could be included in the arsenal for combating against keloid. PMID:24250248

Bian, Difei; Zhang, Jizhou; Wu, Xin; Dou, Yannong; Yang, Yan; Tan, Qian; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Dai, Yue

2013-01-01

45

Asiatic acid isolated from Centella asiatica inhibits TGF-?1-induced collagen expression in human keloid fibroblasts via PPAR-? activation.  

PubMed

Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by exuberant extracellular matrix deposition and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?/Smad pathway plays a pivotal role in keloid pathogenesis. Centella asiatica extract has been applied in scar management for ages. As one of its major components, asiatic acid (AA) has been recently reported to inhibit liver fibrosis by blocking TGF-?/Smad pathway. However, its effect on keloid remains unknown. In order to investigate the effects of AA on cell proliferation, invasion and collagen synthesis, normal and keloid fibroblasts were exposed to TGF-?1 with or without AA. Relevant experiments including 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay, Transwell invasion assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNA interference assay were conducted. As a result, keloid fibroblasts showed higher responsiveness to TGF-?1 stimulation than normal fibroblasts in terms of invasion and collagen synthesis. AA could suppress TGF-?1-induced expression of collagen type I, inhibit Smad 2/3 phosphorylation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression, while elevate Smad 7 protein level. Noteworthy, the effects of AA on keloid fibroblasts could be abrogated by PPAR-? antagonist GW9662 and by silencing of PPAR-?. The present study demonstrated that AA inhibited TGF-?1-induced collagen and PAI-1 expression in keloid fibroblasts through PPAR-? activation, which suggested that AA was one of the active constituents of C. asiatica responsible for keloid management, and could be included in the arsenal for combating against keloid. PMID:24250248

Bian, Difei; Zhang, Jizhou; Wu, Xin; Dou, Yannong; Yang, Yan; Tan, Qian; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Dai, Yue

2013-01-01

46

Seroprevalence of antibodies against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum-Pullorum in wild doves ( Zenaida asiatica and Zenaida macroura) from the Northeast of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in order to determine the seroprevalence and to identify some factors associated with the presence of antibodies against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum-Pullorum in white-winged (Zenaida asiatica) and mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) from hunting areas of Northeast Mexico. From September to October 2006, 201 serum samples were analyzed with the seroagglutination test. The overall

Ángel Espinosa-Argüelles; Ned I. de la Cruz-Hernández; Fidel Infante-Rodríguez; José J. Flores-Maldonado; Jorge L. Zertuche-Rodríguez; Gerardo H. Flores-Gutiérrez

2010-01-01

47

Differences in Field Gas Exchange and Water Relations Between a C 3 Dicot ( Plantago Asiatica ) and a C 4 Monocot ( Eleusine Indica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field gas exchange and water potential in the leaves of a C3 dicot, Plantago asiatica L., and a C4 monocot, Eleusine indica Gaertn., which dominate in trampled vegetation in eastern Japan were surveyed during the growing periods for two consecutive\\u000a years. Net photosynthetic rate (P\\u000a N) of E. indica increased with photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and leaf temperature (TL).

T. Kobayashi; K. Okamoto; Y. Hori

1999-01-01

48

Regeneration of Centella asiatica plants from non-embryogenic cell lines and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal properties of regenerated calli and plants  

PubMed Central

Background The threatened plant Centella asiatica L. is traditionallyused for a number of remedies. In vitro plant propagation and enhanced metabolite production of active metabolites through biotechnological approaches has gained attention in recent years. Results Present study reveals that 6-benzyladenine (BA) either alone or in combination with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) supplemented in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at different concentrations produced good quality callus from leaf explants of C. asiatica. The calli produced on different plant growth regulators at different concentrations were mostly embryogenic and green. Highest shoot regeneration efficiency; 10 shoots per callus explant, from non-embryogenic callus was observed on 4.42 ?M BA with 5.37 ?M NAA. Best rooting response was observed at 5.37 and 10.74 ?M NAA with 20 average number of roots per explant. Calli and regenerated plants extracts inhibited bacterial growth with mean zone of inhibition 9-13 mm diameter when tested against six bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Agar tube dilution method for antifungal assay showed 3.2-76% growth inhibition of Mucor species, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium moliniformes. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that non-embryogenic callus can be turned into embryos and plantlets if cultured on appropriate medium. Furthermore, callus from leaf explant of C. asiatica can be a good source for production of antimicrobial compounds through bioreactor. PMID:21989222

2011-01-01

49

Melatonin and differential effect of L-thyroxine on immune system of Indian tropical bird Perdicula asiatica.  

PubMed

Interaction of thyroxine and melatonin on immune status was noted in vivo and in vitro when peripheral melatonin was high and thyroxine low in plasma of male Perdicula asiatica during reproductively inactive phase. During this phase exogenous thyroxine (4 microg/100g. Bwt./day) and melatonin (25 microg/100g. Bwt./day) increased immune parameters (spleen weight, total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, percent stimulation ratio) and increased splenocyte density in spleen. In vitro l-thyroxine (10(-6)M/ml) supplementation decreased the splenocyte proliferation which was reversed by melatonin (500 pg/ml) supplementation. In vivo l-thyroxine showed immunoenhancing effect while in vitro it decreased the splenocyte proliferation presenting a differential effect. In the absence of internal physiological conditions of the birds, T(4) showed a negative effect on splenocytes proliferation in vitro when treated alone. However, melatonin maintained its lymphoproliferative effect under both conditions. Thus, avian splenocyte exposed to different hormonal conditions in vitro might have produced different signal peptides other than in vivo, thereby making the result different. PMID:16243326

Singh, Shiv Shankar; Haldar, Chandana; Rai, Seema

2006-02-01

50

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

51

Star fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carambola or star fruit belongs to the Oxalidaceae family, species Averrhoa carambola. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star (Figure 1). It is believed to have originated in Ceylon and the Moluccas\\u000a but it has been cultivated in southeast Asia and Malaysia for many centuries. It is commonly grown in some provinces in southern\\u000a China, in

Miguel M. Neto; Ruither O. Carolino; Norberto P. Lopes; Norberto Garcia-Cairasco

52

Endogenous Viral Sequences from the Cape Golden Mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) Reveal the Presence of Foamy Viruses in All Major Placental Mammal Clades  

PubMed Central

Endogenous retroviruses provide important insights into the deep history of this viral lineage. Endogenous foamy viruses are thought to be very rare and only a few cases have been identified to date. Here we report a novel endogenous foamy virus (CaEFV) within the genome of the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica). The identification of CaEFV reveals the presence of foamy virus in the placental mammal superorder Afrotheria. Phylogenetic analyses place CaEFV basal to other foamy viruses of Eutherian origin, suggesting an ancient codivergence between foamy virus and placental mammals. These findings have implications for understanding the long-term evolution, diversity, and biology of retroviruses. PMID:24835242

Han, Guan-Zhu; Worobey, Michael

2014-01-01

53

Experimentally induced stress, oxidative load and changes in immunity in a tropical wild bird, Perdicula asiatica: involvement of melatonin and glucocorticoid receptors.  

PubMed

Throughout the year, birds encounter various environmental challenges such as extreme temperatures, rainfall and shortage of food. Here we report on the effect of stress on the general immunity of wild birds as measured by several assays including melatonin, an anti-stress hormone. We selected Perdicula asiatica, a wild tropical bird, and exposed them to experimental stressors such as water deprivation, food deprivation and immobilization, i.e., stressors that they would encounter in a natural environment. We measured the oxidative load in the spleen in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels. The immune status was judged by total leukocyte count (TLC), heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (H/L) and percent stimulation ratio of splenocytes (%SR). The peripheral levels of melatonin and corticosterone were also determined and correlated with the expression of melatonin (Mel(1a)/Mel(1b)) and glucocorticoid receptors. Our results showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in splenic SOD and catalase activity, while a significant (p < 0.05) increase in TBARS and a corticosterone level was observed. Stressful conditions also decreased the immune status as reflected by the low values of H/L ratios, TLC and %SR. In contrast, melatonin pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the oxidative stress and improved the immune parameters when compared to untreated control birds. This suggests that melatonin prevents/alleviates oxidative damage and suppresses the immune status induced by stressful conditions via its membrane receptor expression (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) in P. asiatica. PMID:25037646

Yadav, Sanjeev K; Haldar, Chandana

2014-08-01

54

Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

55

Anatomical and histological profile of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and localization of melatonin receptor types (Mel 1a and Mel 1b) in the lung-associated immune system of a tropical bird, Perdicula asiatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological distribution of the lung-associated immune system (LAIS) and the expressional pattern of melatonin receptors are still unknown in birds. The aim of the present study was to determine the localization of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT nodule) in a tropical bird, the Indian jungle bush quail, Perdicula asiatica. We also demonstrate the expression of melatonin receptor types (Mel1a

Rajesh Kumar Kharwar; Chandana Haldar

2011-01-01

56

The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  

PubMed

Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

2014-08-01

57

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

58

Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2013-10-01

59

Seroprevalence of antibodies against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar gallinarum-pullorum in wild doves (Zenaida asiatica and Zenaida macroura) from the northeast of Mexico.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in order to determine the seroprevalence and to identify some factors associated with the presence of antibodies against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum-Pullorum in white-winged (Zenaida asiatica) and mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) from hunting areas of Northeast Mexico. From September to October 2006, 201 serum samples were analyzed with the seroagglutination test. The overall seroprevalence of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum-Pullorum was 26.3%, and was similar for white-winged doves (26.4%) and mourning doves (26.1%), but higher for juveniles (30.8%) and females (34.6%). Seroprevalence was associated with the weight of the doves (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.52, P<0.0001) and the municipality where the doves were hunted (PR=1.31, P<0.0001). This survey study emphasizes the need to conduct similar studies on wild birds to determine the risk of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum-Pullorum to commercial flocks. In addition, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the serological evidence suggesting infection with S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum-Pullorum in wild white-winged and mourning doves. PMID:19800701

Espinosa-Argüelles, Angel; de la Cruz-Hernández, Ned I; Infante-Rodríguez, Fidel; Flores-Maldonado, José J; Zertuche-Rodríguez, Jorge L; Flores-Gutiérrez, Gerardo H

2010-01-01

60

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes.) Peanut or other nut butters Seeds (pumpkin, sunflower, sesame) Grains: Dry cereal (boxed or bagged

O'Toole, Alice J.

61

Non GMO fruit factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple structural and regulatory genes modulate biosynthetic pathways, such as those leading to the accumulation and profile of sugars and carotenoids in the mature tomato fruit. Natural genetic variation among wild relatives of the cultivated tomato provides an important, non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO), resource for improving both horticultural and fruit quality traits of elite tomato varieties. Unfortunately, this natural resource

Ilan Levin; Avraham Lalazar; Moshe Bar; Arthur A. Schaffer

2004-01-01

62

FRUIT & NUT Blackberries  

E-print Network

for harvesting fruit is very high, which restricts most commercial plant- ings to small acreage ventures. Machine climate crop and can be grown anywhere in USDA Hardi- ness Zone 7, 8, or 9. Regular irrigation is needed

Mukhtar, Saqib

63

Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits  

MedlinePLUS

... at breakfast At breakfast, top your cereal with bananas, peaches, or strawberries; add blueberries to pancakes; drink ... fruit at lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from ...

64

Individually packaged snacks (crackers, fruit, chips, fruit cups, etc)  

E-print Network

Supplies � Other Foil Febreeze Dishwasher Tablets Food Service Gloves Kleenex Cleaning/Laundry Supplies - Priority Clorox Wipes Laundry Detergent Fabric Softener Sheets Hand sanitizer Liquid HandFood Items Individually packaged snacks (crackers, fruit, chips, fruit cups, etc) Individually

Hutcheon, James M.

65

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-04-21

66

Home Fruit Production - Figs.  

E-print Network

TDOC Z TA245.7 B873 NO.1591 B-1591 Texas Agricultural Extension Service HOM? FRUIT PRODUCTION FIGS LIBRARY SEP 2 7 1988 ( A&M Univer it Texas Agricultural Extension Service. Zerle L. Carpenter, Director. The Texas A&M University System.... Dooryard trees can be grown in any section of Texas. Figs grow extremely well along the Texas Gulf Coast. However, trees require cold protection in the far northern and western areas and supplemental irrigation in the state's drier areas. The fig fruit...

Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

1987-01-01

67

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

bean/chick peas Dried/Canned Lentils Kidney or Black beans Soy Products (shelf-stable tofu, canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo

O'Toole, Alice J.

68

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

69

Classification of fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classifications for fruits and vegetables are most helpful for dietary assessment and guidance if they are based on the composition of these foods. This work determined whether levels of food components in fruits and vegetables correlated with classification criteria based on botanic family, color, part of plant, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A database of 104 commonly consumed fruits and

Jean A. T. Pennington; Rachel A. Fisher

2009-01-01

70

Fruits and vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-23

71

FRUIT & NUT Rabbiteye Blueberries  

E-print Network

.5 and the irrigation water has little to no calcium bicarbonate. Rabbiteye plants are also extremely sensitive or machines, with the majority of fruit grown in Texas picked by hand and sold for fresh consump- tion are shallow and fibrous, thus sandy soils pose problems with- out drip irrigation. Soil drying should be pre

Mukhtar, Saqib

72

Fruitful DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

Kalamuck, Karen; Exploratorium

2000-01-01

73

The citrus fruit proteome: insights into citrus fruit metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit development and ripening are key processes in the production of the phytonutrients that are essential for a balanced\\u000a diet and for disease prevention. The pathways involved in these processes are unique to plants and vary between species. Climacteric\\u000a fruit ripening, especially in tomato, has been extensively studied; yet, ripening of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood.\\u000a Although the different species

E. Katz; M. Fon; Y. J. Lee; B. S. Phinney; A. Sadka; E. Blumwald

2007-01-01

74

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

2007-08-02

75

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

76

Pollinating Fruit Crops Most tree fruits and many small fruits grown in New Hampshire require cross pollination to produce a  

E-print Network

-fruitful varieties are especially useful in home gardens where space available for growing fruit is often limited-fruitful. European types and Japanese types generally won't cross pollinate each other. Sweet Cherries Most sweet

New Hampshire, University of

77

The fruits of selectivity: how birds forage on Goupia glabra fruits of different ripeness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have been published on avian fruit selection, few have addressed the effects of fruit scarcity on the patterns of fruit choice. Here, we compared the consumption of seven bird species for six simultaneously present maturation stages of Goupia glabra fruits. Ripe G. glabra fruits contain more lipids, carbohydrates and energy, and fewer phenols, than unripe fruits. All

H. Martin Schaefer; Veronika Schaefer

2006-01-01

78

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

79

The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

Nyhuis, Jane

80

Fruits of two seabuckthorn varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of two varieties of Hippophae rhamnoides L. collected in Kyrgyzstan (I) and Uzbekistan (II) were investigated. Differences in their morphological and biochemical properties were demonstrated. Titrable acids, ascorbic acid, and protein dominated in the fruits of I. Pulp oil of II contained more free fatty acids (acid number 2.9 mg KOH) and carotinoids (419.3 mg%). The principal pulp acid

T. V. Chernenko; N. T. Ul’chenko; A. I. Glushenkova

2004-01-01

81

Thermophysical Properties of Stone Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophysical properties of the stone fruits plum, peach, and nectarine were modeled from experimental data as functions of moisture content. Samples were dried to preset moistures in a laboratory cabinet dryer, and the thermal conductivity, specific heat, apparent density, bulk density, and porosity of the fruit were determined. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were found to be linear

W. Phomkong; G. Srzednicki; R. H. Driscoll

2006-01-01

82

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

83

Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  

PubMed

It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin

2015-01-01

84

Meristematic sculpting in fruit development.  

PubMed

The diversity of shape in life is astounding, and this is particularly vivid when the varied forms observed in our fruit bowls are examined. How some of the tissues of the Arabidopsis fruit are moulded is starting to be understood, revealing how plants may sculpt plant form by modulating the degree of meristematic properties. In this fruit the KNOX I and BLH meristem identity genes promote medial tissue proliferation by maintaining these tissues in a 'quasi-meristematic' fate. The action of these genes is opposed by ASYMMETRIC LEAVES activity that promotes valve formation together with JAGGED/FILAMENTOUS FLOWER and FRUITFULL activities. This is reminiscent of the function of these genes in the shoot apical meristem and in leaf development. In this review, the aim is to present the medial tissues of the Arabidopsis fruit as a modified meristem and extrapolate our knowledge from other plant organs to fruit development. PMID:19246597

Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Ostergaard, Lars

2009-01-01

85

Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits  

SciTech Connect

Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

1989-04-01

86

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF GUAVA FRUIT: COMPARISON WITH SOME LOCAL FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two varieties of guava fruit were a nalyzed for total phenol contents, ascorbic ac id contents and antioxidant activities. The a ntioxidant activities were a ssessed b ased on the a bility of the fruit extracts in 50 % ethanol t o scavenge DPPH, reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to bind to Fe(II) ion. The results were compared to several

LIM YAU; LIM THENG; TENG TEE; JING JHI

87

Disturbance and the Dispersal of Fleshy Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of Prunus serotina, Phytolacca americana, and Vitis vulpina were placed during separate trials in forest sites that varied in the degree to which the forest canopy was disturbed. Removal rates of fruits were consistently faster in the forest edge and light gap sites than in sites under closed canopy. Rapid removal of fruits from species that ripen fruit in

John N. Thompson; Mary F. Willson

1978-01-01

88

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2010-04-01

89

Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening, fruits undergo many changes, which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances plus minerals and vitamins, the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening

Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-López

2011-01-01

90

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2010-04-01

91

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2013-04-01

92

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2014-04-01

93

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2012-04-01

94

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2011-04-01

95

Review article Tomato fruit quality in relation  

E-print Network

/ sugar concentration / acid concentration / BER / water status / fruit cracking Résumé ­ Qualité du fruit fruit / concentration en sucres / concentration en acide / nécrose apicale / BER / état hydriqueReview article Tomato fruit quality in relation to water and carbon fluxes Soraya GUICHARDa, Nadia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Fruiting organs of Cladosporium werneckii.  

PubMed

Submerged mycelia of a strain of Cladosporium werneckii isolated from tinea nigra palmaris, when cultured on enriched corn-meal agar media, developed fruiting bodies resembling perithecia. PMID:986694

Volcán, G; Godoy, G A; Battistini, F; Alvarez, A

1976-07-01

97

Constituents from Piper marginatum fruits.  

PubMed

The hexane extract of the dried fruits of Piper marginatum yielded 1-(1Z-propenyl)-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene, a new natural product, besides 3-farnesyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:12385887

de Oliveira Chaves, M C; de Oliveira Santos, B V

2002-10-01

98

Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

time. Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Amanda Scott* E-197 9/08 This publication was sponsored by a grant from the Initiative for Future Agriculture Food Systems, a program of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, which... time. Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Amanda Scott* E-197 9/08 This publication was sponsored by a grant from the Initiative for Future Agriculture Food Systems, a program of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, which...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

99

Internal breakdown, mineral element concentration, and weight of mango fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal breakdown in mango fruit is a disorder often attributed to a nutrient deficiency, particularly of calcium (Ca), in the fruit. The relationship between internal breakdown in mango fruit and fruit mineral element concentrations and fresh weight was investigated. Fruit were collected weekly from a commercial orchard beginning 4 weeks after fruit set (WAFS) until the fruit were ripe. The

Luc Raymond; Bruce Schaffer; Jeffrey K. Brecht; Edward A. Hanlon

1998-01-01

100

Disturbance and the dispersal of fleshy fruits.  

PubMed

Fruits of Prunus serotina, Phytolacca americana, and Vitis vulpina were placed during separate trials in forest sites that varied in the degree to which the forest canopy was disturbed. Removal rates of fruits were consistently faster in the forest edge and light gap sites than in sites under closed canopy. Rapid removal of fruits from species that ripen fruit in summer and early fall is selectively advantageous to the plants because it minimizes the probability that fruits will be destroyed by invertebrates before dispersal. Disturbances probably play an important role in interactions between temperate fruits and birds and in community organization. PMID:17745107

Thompson, J N; Willson, M F

1978-06-01

101

Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.  

PubMed

Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207

Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan

2007-01-01

102

Molecular regulation of fruit ripening  

PubMed Central

Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2013-01-01

103

Phloem unloading in tomato fruit  

SciTech Connect

To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and /sup 3/H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate.

Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

1986-04-01

104

Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

2013-01-01

105

Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

. Also wash and sanitize all countertops, cutting boards and utensils (including fruit/ vegetable brushes) with a mixture of 1 teaspoon chlorine bleach in 1 quart of water. Do this before and after preparing food. When washing fresh produce... and vegetables before preparing them ? even if the skin or rind will not be eaten. This prevents patho- gens from being transferred from the rind or skin to the inside of the fruit or vegetable when it is cut. To prevent spoilage and mold growth during...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

106

Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon  

E-print Network

for symptoms. Although this approach screens out heavily contaminated seed, it is not 100 per- cent reliable, as cases of BFB have been docu- mented from screened seed. Disease development Seed is the most important way to spread the BFB pathogen to areas where... it has not occurred before. Most commercial watermelon seed is routinely tested for the BFB pathogen. L-5222 6/99 Bacterial fruit blotch on mature fruit. However, very low populations of bacteria on seed, below detection limits, can increase and spread...

Isakeit, Thomas

1999-06-28

107

Fruit size, crop mass, and plant height explain differential fruit choice of primates and birds.  

PubMed

Seed dispersal by animals is an important ecological process shaping plant regeneration. In general, seed dispersers are highly variable and often opportunistic in their fruit choice. Despite much research, the factors that can explain patterns of fruit consumption among different animal groups remain contentious. Here, we analysed the interactions between 81 animal species feeding on the fruits of 30 plant species in Kakamega Forest, Kenya, during 840 h of observations. Our aim was to determine whether plant characteristics, fruit morphology, fruit colours and/or fruit compounds such as water, sugar, phenols and tannins explained the relative importance of fruit consumption by the two most important consumer groups, primates and birds. We found significant differences in fruit choice between both groups. Primates fed on larger fruits and on higher trees that had larger fruit crops, whereas birds were observed feeding on smaller fruits and on smaller plants producing fewer fruits. Fruit colours did not differ between fruits consumed by primates and those consumed by birds. However, differences in the fruit choice among frugivorous birds were associated with differences in fruit colours. Smaller plants with smaller fruits produced red fruits which contrasted strongly with the background; these fruits were dispersed by a distinct set of bird species. The contents of water, sugar, phenols and tannins did not differ between fruits eaten by primates and those eaten by birds. Some phylogenetic patterns were apparent; primates fed preferentially on a phylogenetically restricted subsample of large plants with large fruits of the subclass Rosidae. We discuss why the observed primate dispersal syndrome is most likely explained by a process of ecological fitting. PMID:20490552

Flörchinger, Martina; Braun, Julius; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schaefer, H Martin

2010-09-01

108

Edible Coatings for Fresh-Cut Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and\\/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have

G. I. Olivas; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2005-01-01

109

Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?  

PubMed

Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening. PMID:24723405

Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

2014-08-01

110

Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawthorn fruit extract has been shown to have many health benefits including being cardiovascular protective, hypotensive and hypocholesterolemic. The present study was carried out to characterize further the antioxidants of hawthorn fruit and their effect on the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and ?-tocopherol. The dry hawthorn fruit was extracted successively with ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and water.

Zesheng Zhang; Qi Chang; Min Zhu; Yu Huang; Walter K. K. Ho; Zhen-Yu Chen

2001-01-01

111

California Fruit & Vegetable Intake Calibration Study  

E-print Network

FRUIT JUICE/PAPAYA/ SPINACH FRUIT JUICE/PASSION FRUIT/MANGOSPINACH/TOMATO ON SANDWICH SPROUTS SPROUTS ON SANDWICH SQUASH STRAWBERRY STRAWBERRY JUICEJUICE TOMATO/LETTUCE TOMATO/LETTUCE ON SANDWICH TOMATO/MUSHROOM ON SANDWICH TOMATO/ONION TOMATO/ONION ON SANDWICH TOMATO/SPINACH

DiSogra, Charles; Hudes, Mark

2005-01-01

112

Development of a Commercial Fruit Firmness Sorter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorting of fruits and vegetables by firmness and maturity is essential for marketing uniform high quality produce. In the US and in Europe, supermarkets increasingly demand high quality and uniform produce. Although machines for sorting fruits by size and external appearance are commercially available, a machine for sorting fruits by firmness and maturity does not exist.This paper describes the development

Kalman Peleg

1999-01-01

113

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

114

Ripening of Fruits and Vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test the rate of ripening fruit and vegetables and use a chemical to inhibit the ripening process. After the experiment, learners measure the exposed surface area of the foods. This activity relates to how food is prepared for the Space Shuttle. This lesson plan includes background information, discussion questions, and extensions.

Nasa

2012-06-26

115

Facts for Fancy Fruit FFF01-14  

E-print Network

occurred in June resulting in very poor fruit set on some grape varieties, especially in the northern part that destroyed fruit 2001 Season Review Tree Fruits Tree Fruit Diseases Fruit Insects Small Fruit and Grapes Tax crop loss due to winter freezes. Warm temperatures in August resulted in poor coloring of many summer

Ginzel, Matthew

116

Why are Some Fruits Toxic? Glycoalkaloids in Solanum and Fruit Choice by Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of secondary metabolites (glycoalkaloids) of Solanum fruits on fruit consumption by seed dispersers and seed predators. Our goal was to determine the degree to which secondary metabolites might explain fruit-frugivore in- teractions that heretofore have not been explained by other fruit-related variables (e.g., color, nutrient content, seediness, etc.). Using feeding trails with real fruits and artificial

Martin L. Cipollini; Douglas J. Levey

1997-01-01

117

Photosynthetic performance of Jatropha curcas fruits.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas (L.) trees under north Indian conditions (Lucknow) produce fruits in two major flushes, once during autumn-winter (October-December). The leaves at this time are at the senescence stages and already shedding. The second flush of fruit setting occurs during the summer (April-June) after the leaves have formed during spring (March-April). Photosynthetic performance of detached jatropha fruits was studied at three developmental stages, immature, mature and ripe fruits. Studies were made in both winter and summer fruits in response to light, temperature and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) under controlled conditions to assess the influence of these environmental factors on the photosynthetic performance of jatropha fruits. Immature fruits showed high light saturating point of around 2000 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). High VPD did not show an adverse effect on the fruit A. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) showed an inverse behaviour to increasing VPD, however, transpiration (E) was not restricted by the increasing VPD in both seasons. During winter in absence of leaves on the jatropha tree the fruits along with the bark contributes maximum towards photoassimilation. Dark respiration rates (R(d)) monitored in fruit coat and seeds independently, showed maximum R(d) in seeds of mature fruit and these were about five times more than its fruit coat, reflecting the higher energy requirement of the developing fruit during maximum oil synthesis stage. Photosynthesis and fluorescence parameters studied indicate that young jatropha fruits are photosynthetically as efficient as its leaves and play a paramount role in scavenging the high concentration of CO(2) generated by the fruit during respiration. PMID:22305068

Ranjan, Sanjay; Singh, Ruchi; Soni, Devendra K; Pathre, Uday V; Shirke, Pramod A

2012-03-01

118

The effect of unripe fruits on ripe fruit removal by birds in Pistacia terebinthus: flag or handicap?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrub Pistacia terebinthus produces crowded infructescences with up to several hundred fruits, which are bright red when unripe and turn green when ripe. Most fruits contain an empty seed and never reach maturity. More ripe fruits were removed by birds from experimental bicolored fruit displays (consisting of infructescences with ten ripe fruits and stripped of unripe fruits, paired with

Marcelino Fuentes

1995-01-01

119

Ocular injuries by durian fruit  

PubMed Central

AIM To report various ocular injuries caused by durian fruit. METHODS Three cases of ocular injuries were described in young patients, due to accidental fall of durian fruit on the forehead and face, while they were taking rest/sleeping /playing under the durian tree. RESULTS The ocular injuries observed were lacerating injury of cornea with iris incarceration, hyphema, superficial penetrating injury of sclera and angle recession glaucoma in the right eye of first patient; lacerating injury of cornea with iris prolapse in the left eye of second patient; subconjunctival haemorrhage, traumatic mydriasis and superficial penetrating injury of sclera, commotion retinopathy and macular edema in the left eye of third patient. Vision improved to normal in all the eyes following surgical/ medical/optical treatment. CONCLUSION Evidence of penetrating injury (because of thorns) and blunt injury (because of weight) can be seen in the eyes when durian fruit falls on the face. Vision can be recovered fully with immediate and appropriate treatment in these cases. The ocular injuries can be prevented by educating the public to wear protective metal frame wide goggles and not to sleep/take rest under the durian tree. PMID:22937520

Reddy, Sagili Chandrasekhara

2012-01-01

120

Why fruits go to the dark side  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

Schaefer, H. Martin

2011-11-01

121

Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set.  

PubMed

Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies. PMID:22776090

Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R

2012-11-01

122

Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

123

Berry antioxidants: small fruits providing large benefits.  

PubMed

Small berry fruits are consumed because of their attractive colour and special taste, and are considered one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Their consumption has been linked to the prevention of some chronic and degenerative diseases. The term 'berry fruits' encompasses the so-called 'soft fruits', primarily strawberry, currants, gooseberry, blackberry, raspberry, blueberry and cranberry. The objective of this review is to highlight the nutraceutical value of berries and to summarize the factors affecting berry fruit antioxidants. Particular attention is given to postharvest and processing operation factors that may affect fruit phytochemical content. The structure-antioxidant relationships for phenolic compounds - the main group of antioxidants in this fruit group - are presented and major areas for future research are identified. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24122646

Manganaris, George A; Goulas, Vlasios; Vicente, Ariel R; Terry, Leon A

2014-03-30

124

Tree Fruit Varieties in North Texas.  

E-print Network

variety for this section. Cherries have proved unadapted, having died from natural causes without fruiting. Peaches and plums are the most dependable tree fruits for this section. The success of either depends to a great extent on the proper selection... of varieties. The outstanding limiting factor is lack of hardiness to late spring freezes. A few varieties of both peaches and plums of bearing age have missed fruiting only once in seven years. The Dr. Burton peach has been outstanding in yields...

Brooks, L. E. (Lester E.)

1936-01-01

125

Prevalence and Functions of Anthocyanins in Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews possible visual, nutritional and physiological functions of anthocyanins in fruits. Merits of the various\\u000a functions are considered and discussed with reference to the prevalence of different fruit colours and the contribution of\\u000a anthocyanins thereto as well as anthocyanin accumulation in response to environmental factors, seed disperser visual systems\\u000a and fruit quality parameters. Blue, purple, black and most

W. J. Steyn

126

Cell Wall Metabolism in Ripening Fruit  

PubMed Central

Mature `Bartlett' pear (Pyrus communis) fruits were ripened at 20 C. Fruits at different stages of ripeness were homogenized, and extracts of the low speed pellet (crude cell wall) were prepared. These extracts contained polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and activity against seven p-nitrophenyl glycoside substrates. Polygalacturonase, ?-galactosidase, and ?-mannosidase increased in activity as the fruit ripened. Cellulase and activities against pear wall xylan and arabinan were absent from the extracts. PMID:16661276

Ahmed, Ahmed Elrayah; Labavitch, John M.

1980-01-01

127

Carbon and water balances for young fruits of platyopuntias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions relating to transpired versus retained water for pected for CAM plants. The water potential of the young fruits, the xylem versus the phloem as water supplier to the fruits (average of 0.41 MPa) was higher than that of the fruits, and the importance of fruit photosynthesis for fruit cladodes (average of 0.60 MPa), indicating that water dry mass gain

Park S. Nobel; Erick De la Barrera

2000-01-01

128

FRUIT & NUT Larry Stein, Monte Nesbitt & Jim Kamas  

E-print Network

season when fewer fruit crops are ripe. The fruit is very delicious when properly ripened and is highTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Persimmons Larry Stein, Monte Nesbitt & Jim Kamas Extension Fruit to most of Texas. The tree, leaves, and fruit are free from serious insect and disease problems which make

Mukhtar, Saqib

129

Prairie Fruit Summary, 2010 Some key considerations for the homeowner  

E-print Network

, less chance of frost damage + Fruits hold onto bushes and won't drop easily when ripe. Fruit can dry years - Fruits drop quickly when ripe #12;3 Cherry Plum + Can be beautiful in flower and in fruit1 Prairie Fruit Summary, 2010 Some key considerations for the homeowner by Bob Bors The following

Peak, Derek

130

Quality attributes of stored koubo ( Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller (koubo, also known as apple cactus) is a new fruit crop in Israel. When the fruit reach full maturity, they tend to crack due to uncoordinated growth of the different fruit tissues. This phenomenon normally causes heavy fruit losses, as much as 90% of the total yield. To prevent this problem, fruit are usually harvested before

Racheli Ninio; Efraim Lewinsohn; Yosef Mizrahi; Yaron Sitrit

2003-01-01

131

Last Issue of 1999 Season Review -Tree Fruits  

E-print Network

had low sugars and high pH due to the excessive heat. Fruit diseases were rare with the exception1 Last Issue of 1999 Season Review - Tree Fruits Season Review - Small Fruits and Grapes Season Review - Tree Fruit Diseases Season Review - Tree Fruit Insects Cider Contest China Assessed 55% Duty

Ginzel, Matthew

132

Regulation of carotenoid formation during tomato fruit ripening and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation during tomato fruit development and ripening is a complex process that occurs alongside the differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts and changes to the organoleptic properties of the fruit. Unusually for plants, the ripe tomato fruit accumulates large amounts of lycopene, as the pattern of gene expres- sion found in green fruit changes during fruit ripening.

Peter M. Bramley

2010-01-01

133

Analysing fruit shape in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit shape in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) was described using an objective procedure based on image and regression analysis. Digitised images of individual fruit in front view (onto ventral suture) and side view were obtained by image analysis, the Cartesian coordinates of the fruit contour extracted and subsequently normalised for differing fruit size by dividing by fruit height. Normalised

M Beyer; R Hahn; S Peschel; M Harz; M Knoche

2002-01-01

134

Why some fruits are green when they are ripe: carbon balance in fleshy fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits that are green upon ripening (“green-ripe”) tend to be dispersed by a limited range of frugivores, whereas those that are brightly colored (“bright-ripe”) are dispersed by a wide range of birds and mammals. Because green fruits are probably less conspicuous than other colors of fruits, their pigmentation cannot be attributed to the attraction of seed dispersers. Instead, we hypothesize

Martin L. Cipollini; Douglas J. Levey

1991-01-01

135

Characteristics of fleshy fruits in southeast Alaska: phylogenetic comparison with fruits from Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 30 species of fleshy-fruited plants are found in southeast Alaska. In this paper we examine traits such as plant growth form, phenology, fruit color, seed load, pulp dry weight, and pulp nutrient content and compare them with those of fruits from central Illinois. Two comparative methods (continuous time Markov model and phylo-Anova) were used to compare both qualitative and

Anna Traveset; Mary F. Willson; Miguel Verdú

2004-01-01

136

Physical Aspects of Fruit Growth  

PubMed Central

The skin around a lenticel on a soft fruit has been modelled as a thin elastic plate with a rigid circular inclusion and applied tensile loads at the edges. A solution for the stress distribution in the skin has then been found using the linear theory of elasticity. From that solution the severity of the stress concentration and the location and form of initial cuticular failure have been deduced, the latter two being in broad agreement with observed crack initiation in the cuticle of grapes. PMID:16662254

Brown, Ken; Considine, John

1982-01-01

137

The role of bee diversity in pollination and fruit set of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa,  

E-print Network

The role of bee diversity in pollination and fruit set of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, especially to self-sterile crops as passion fruit, which depends on the large solitary bee for fruit set. We there was any association with crop yield. We recorded 27 bee species on passion fruit flowers in commercial

138

"FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic fruits among…

Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

2011-01-01

139

Water uptake through sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit pedicels: Influence of fruit surface water status and intact fruit skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified potometer consisting of a water-filled glass tube mounted in parallel with a metric scale and connected to a fruit was used to study water uptake into detached fruits of sweet cherry. Results describing quantities of imported water from some introductory studies were in the same range as in previously published studies conducted with alternative methods. Water uptake was

Kari Louise Hovland; Lars Sekse

2004-01-01

140

Evaluation of Methods to Estimate Understory Fruit Biomass  

PubMed Central

Fleshy fruit is consumed by many wildlife species and is a critical component of forest ecosystems. Because fruit production may change quickly during forest succession, frequent monitoring of fruit biomass may be needed to better understand shifts in wildlife habitat quality. Yet, designing a fruit sampling protocol that is executable on a frequent basis may be difficult, and knowledge of accuracy within monitoring protocols is lacking. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of 3 methods to estimate understory fruit biomass (Fruit Count, Stem Density, and Plant Coverage). The Fruit Count method requires visual counts of fruit to estimate fruit biomass. The Stem Density method uses counts of all stems of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. The Plant Coverage method uses land coverage of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. Using linear regression models under a censored-normal distribution, we determined the Fruit Count and Stem Density methods could accurately estimate fruit biomass; however, when comparing AIC values between models, the Fruit Count method was the superior method for estimating fruit biomass. After determining that Fruit Count was the superior method to accurately estimate fruit biomass, we conducted additional analyses to determine the sampling intensity (i.e., percentage of area) necessary to accurately estimate fruit biomass. The Fruit Count method accurately estimated fruit biomass at a 0.8% sampling intensity. In some cases, sampling 0.8% of an area may not be feasible. In these cases, we suggest sampling understory fruit production with the Fruit Count method at the greatest feasible sampling intensity, which could be valuable to assess annual fluctuations in fruit production. PMID:24819253

Lashley, Marcus A.; Thompson, Jeffrey R.; Chitwood, M. Colter; DePerno, Christopher S.; Moorman, Christopher E.

2014-01-01

141

GrowingProduce.com | 27 Tree Fruit Expert  

E-print Network

there working in and for the industry. Over the first six months I want to start building relationships interested in fruit and the fruit industry since I was a teenager and worked on local fruit farms while

Duchowski, Andrew T.

142

Unripe red fruits may be aposematic  

PubMed Central

The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

2009-01-01

143

Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

Liebl, Eric C.

1998-01-01

144

Fruit ripeness monitoring using an Electronic Nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the use of an Electronic Nose for non-destructively monitoring the fruit ripening process is presented. Based on a tin oxide chemical sensor array and neural network-based pattern recognition techniques, the olfactory system designed is able to classify fruit samples into three different states of ripeness (green, ripe and overripe) with very good accuracy. Measures done with peaches

J Brezmes; E Llobet; X Vilanova; G Saiz; X Correig

2000-01-01

145

Page 1 of 4 Canning Fruits  

E-print Network

slices and hot syrup or water. Pint or Quarts 20 Minutes Applesauce Wash, peel, core. Slice into antiPage 1 of 4 Canning Fruits & Tomatoes In a Boiling Water Bath Canner General Directions: Follow indicated. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a boiling water bath canner. Fruit

New Hampshire, University of

146

Vinamilk: Fruit Juice for Kids in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case starts as brand manager Mr Nguyen Trong Tan, sets out to launch a new line of fruit juice for children in Vietnam. Vinamilk, the largest diary company in Vietnam, had identified this as a potential market and was interested in launching the new line under their minor fruit juice product line. The company, while relatively new to the

Adel Fawzi DIMIAN; Kevin Sproule

2012-01-01

147

Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening  

SciTech Connect

Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

1987-04-01

148

Doubled haploid production in fruit crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest of fruit breeders in haploids and doubled haploids (DH), lies in the possibility of shortening the time needed to produce homozygous lines compared to conventional breeding. Haplo-diploidization through gametic embryogenesis allows single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents. In a conventional breeding programme, a pure line is developed after several generations of selfing. With fruit crops,

2006-01-01

149

Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)  

PubMed Central

Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant–animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity. PMID:20679219

Lomascolo, Silvia B.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Alborn, Hans T.

2010-01-01

150

Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.  

PubMed

The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

2009-09-01

151

Development of advanced edible coatings for fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible coatings can provide an additional protective coating for fresh products and can also give the same effect as modified atmosphere storage in modifying internal gas composition. Recently, several edible coatings for preserving fruits such as oranges, apples, and grapefruits were successfully applied. But, in some cases, edible coatings were not successful. In fact, fruit quality was worse. The success

Hyun Jin Park

1999-01-01

152

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

153

FCDD: A Database for Fruit Crops Diseases  

PubMed Central

Fruit Crops Diseases Database (FCDD) requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. The FCDD is a unique bioinformatics resource that compiles information about 162 details on fruit crops diseases, diseases type, its causal organism, images, symptoms and their control. The FCDD contains 171 phytochemicals from 25 fruits, their 2D images and their 20 possible sequences. This information has been manually extracted and manually verified from numerous sources, including other electronic databases, textbooks and scientific journals. FCDD is fully searchable and supports extensive text search. The main focus of the FCDD is on providing possible information of fruit crops diseases, which will help in discovery of potential drugs from one of the common bioresource-fruits. The database was developed using MySQL. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. FCDD is freely available. Availability http://www.fruitcropsdd.com/

Chauhan, Rupal; Jasrai, Yogesh; Pandya, Himanshu; Chaudhari, Suman; Samota, Chand Mal

2014-01-01

154

Protective potential of fruits against diabetes and its complications.  

E-print Network

??Abstract Fruits have been increasingly studied for health-promoting properties and recent studies suggest that fruit compounds may provide protection against diabetes and its complications. Wild… (more)

Kraft, Tristan F.

2010-01-01

155

Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.  

PubMed

Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology. PMID:24663687

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

2014-01-01

156

Model-Assisted Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Fruit Temperature and Transpiration Highlighting the Role of Fruit Development  

PubMed Central

Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology. PMID:24663687

Nordey, Thibault; Lechaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Genard, Michel

2014-01-01

157

Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.  

PubMed

The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

2003-01-01

158

Comparative evolution of flower and fruit morphology  

PubMed Central

Angiosperm diversification has resulted in a vast array of plant morphologies. Only recently has it been appreciated that diversification might have proceeded quite differently for the two key diagnostic structures of this clade, flowers and fruits. These structures are hypothesized to have experienced different selective pressures via their interactions with animals in dispersal mutualisms, resulting in a greater amount of morphological diversification in animal-pollinated flowers than in animal-dispersed fruits. I tested this idea using size and colour traits for the flowers and fruits of 472 species occurring in three floras (St John, Hawaii and the Great Plains). Phylogenetically controlled analyses of nearest-neighbour distances in multidimensional trait space matched the predicted pattern: in each of the three floras, flowers were more divergent from one another than were fruits. In addition, the spacing of species clusters differed for flowers versus fruits in the flora of St John, with clusters in flower space more divergent than those in fruit space. The results are consistent with the idea that a major driver of angiosperm diversification has been stronger selection for divergent floral morphology than for divergent fruit morphology, although genetic, physiological and ecological constraints may also play a role. PMID:19474045

Whitney, Kenneth D.

2009-01-01

159

Cell Wall Metabolism in Ripening Fruit  

PubMed Central

`Bartlett' pear (Pyrus communis) fruits were picked at the mature, green stage and ripened at 20 C. Fruits at different stages of ripeness (based on flesh firmness) were homogenized, and the sugar and uronic acid contents of cell wall and soluble polysaccharides were determined. Substantial amounts of galacturonic acid and arabinose were lost from the wall fraction as the fruit ripened. Most of this cell wall material was recovered, in an 80% (volume/volume) ethanol-insoluble form, from the soluble fraction of tissue homogenates. Structural analysis of ethanol-precipitable material indicates that it is an acidic (pectic) polymer-bearing side groups containing variously-linked arabinosyl residues. PMID:16661275

Ahmed, Ahmed Elrayah; Labavitch, John M.

1980-01-01

160

6.RP, 6.EE Fruit Salad  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A fruit salad consists of blueberries, raspberries, grapes, and cherries. The fruit salad has a total of 280 pieces of fruit. There are twice as many r...

161

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries  

SciTech Connect

The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

Thomas, P.

1986-01-01

162

There's more than one way to skin a fruit: formation and functions of fruit cuticles.  

PubMed

As with all aerial plant organs, fleshy fruits are encased in a hydrophobic cuticle that must fulfil multiple functions, including limiting desiccation and preventing microbial infection, which in the case of fruits maintains palatability and promotes seed dispersal. Fruit cuticles have many features in common with those of vegetative organs, but also have unique characteristics, including the fact that they are often astomatous, thicker than those of most leaves, and can be relatively easily isolated. These attributes provide a valuable experimental system to address questions related to cuticle structure, function, and the relationships between composition, architecture, permeability, and biomechanical properties. Here we provide an overview of insights into cuticle biology that have resulted from studies of those of fleshy fruits, as well as the diversity and dynamic nature of fruit cuticle composition and architecture, the environmental factors that influence those features, and the roles that they play in fruit ontogeny. PMID:25028557

Martin, Laetitia B B; Rose, Jocelyn K C

2014-08-01

163

Facts for Fancy Facts for Fancy Fruit 2002-11  

E-print Network

indicator of optimum fruit ripeness for winegrapes. In- stead, a combination of soluble solids, titratable1 Facts for Fancy Fruit INDEX Facts for Fancy Fruit 2002-11 August 7, 2002 Crop Conditions: Hot occasional rains. These conditions are not all that bad for fruit growers. Disease problems are minimal

Ginzel, Matthew

164

Analysis of Fruit Aroma of Different Crabapple (Malus sp.) Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective) The aim of this experiment was to analyze the fruit aroma of different crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars and the changes of main volatiles of ripe fruits, and summarize a effective method to search new idioplasms with particular fruit aroma in Malus.(Method)Volatiles of ripe crabapple fruits of six varieties ('Red splender', 'Strawberry parifit', 'Pink Spire', 'Radiant', 'Sparkler', 'Flame') were analyzed

165

ORIGINAL PAPER Tai chimpanzees use botanical skills to discover fruit  

E-print Network

Introduction Ripe fruits are ephemeral. They only appear at certain times in the year, and when they do, many etal. 2006). Ripe fruit availabilityfluctuates in time, and the percentage of rainforest trees carrying ripe fruit can be as low as 0.2 % (Chapman et al. 2005). A low percentage of (ripe) fruit in a diet

166

OXIDATION AND PEROXIDATION OF POSTHARVEST BANANA FRUIT DURING SOFTENING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Softening is a characteristic of fruit ripening caused by oxidative action. The oxidized degree of membrane lipids and proteins in relation to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of postharvest banana fruit during softening were investigated. Firmness as an indictor of softening of banana fruit was also measured. Banana fruit firmness decreased markedly after 4 days of storage, which indicated

SHAOYU YANG; XINGUO SU; K. NAGENDRA PRASAD; BAO YANG; GUIPING CHENG; YULONG CHEN; EN YANG; YUEMING JIANG

2008-01-01

167

FRUIT & NUT Jim Kamas, Monte Nesbitt& Larry Stein  

E-print Network

prefer deep, well drained soil with a pH between 6.5 and 7.0. In north central Texas and the Hill Country temperatures dur- ing fruit ripening are quite warm in Texas, poor fruit color on red varieties can be a probTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Jim Kamas, Monte Nesbitt& Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists

Mukhtar, Saqib

168

Developments and Trends in Fruit Bar Production and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits

C. E. ORREGO; N. SALGADO; C. A. BOTERO

2012-01-01

169

HLB related fruit drop Fall 2013 PGR trials  

E-print Network

for fruit thinning Gibberellic acid � delays peel color change & retains firmness (delays senescenceHLB related fruit drop � Fall 2013 PGR trials L.G. Albrigo Professor Emeritus Citrus Research & Education Center #12;#12;Background � Fruit Drop Fruit drop very high in 2012-13 Weak trees (HLB?) more loss

Florida, University of

170

Improved fruit retention, yield and fruit quality in mango with exogenous application of polyamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1mM) of PAs (putrescine, spermine, spermidine) containing a surfactant ‘Tween 20’ were sprayed onto panicles of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensington Pride) at final fruit set (FFS) stage (when all flowers abscised but remain attached to the panicle) during 1999–2001 to investigate their effects on fruit retention, yield, size, and fruit quality. The optimum

Aman Ullah Malik; Zora Singh

2006-01-01

171

Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center: Organic & Integrated Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

172

Gravitropic bending of fruit bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes exhibit a unique mechanism of gravitropic bending, related to their specific architecture. The gravisensitive region of the stipe directly below the cap coincides with the bending zone. The hyphae of this region are equipped with the ability to generate positional information and translate it into differential growth. A model is introduced with the fundamental characteristics of agent-based modeling as it is applied in robotics and artificial intelligence. The hyphae are equivalent to autonomous decision-making agents on the basis of a simple set of rules. Repetitive interactions between the agents, i.e. the hyphae, permit the correct adjustment of the fruit body independent from its relative position in space. This model is based on the following structural as well as biochemical data derived from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. A statolith-mediated mechanism in each individual hypha of the gravisensitive region accounts for graviperception. Cell nuclei with a density of 1.22 g cm-3 are considered the most likely candidates for gravity-induced sedimentation (statoliths). The number of nuclei in this zone is increased from 2 to up to 10 individual nuclei within each hyphal compartment. The nuclei are suspended in a web of actin filaments anchored in the plasma membrane. Any shift from the vertical position is converted into a change in the gravitational pull exerted on the plasma membrane. This leads to a functional distinction of the upper and lower flanks of each hypha. Each hypha is equipped with the ability to generate and amplify a positional signal perpendicular to the axis of the gravisensitive zone. This signal coordinates different hyphal extension of the upper and lower flank of the stipe: upper flank hyphae grow slower than lower flank hyphae. Hyphal growth requires continued turgor pressure and depends on the expansion of the vacuolar compartment. This vacuolation is conspicuously increased in lower flank transition zone hyphae of a horizontally oriented stipe. Cells undergoing fast vacuolation have electron-translucent regions around their vacuoles. These regions are composed of small, light vesicle-like structures (microvesicles). They apparently fuse with the vacuole increasing their volume by subsequent osmotic water intake. Subcellular changes in response to a gravistimulus are already observed after 30 min.

Hock, Bertold

173

Safe Storage of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Proper storage of fresh fruits and vegetables can help consumers avoid foodborne illness. This publication explains how to safely store apples, bananas, berries, beets, broccoli, carrots, corn, grapes, herbs, lettuce and greens, melons, nectarines...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

174

Chemical composition of Capparis spinosa fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The known compounds cappariloside A and stachydrin, an adenosine nucleoside, and for the first time from plants of the Capparidaceae\\u000a family the known compounds hypoxanthine and uracil were isolated from Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae) fruit.

X. P. Fu; H. A. Aisa; M. Abdurahim; A. Yili; S. F. Aripova; B. Tashkhodzhaev

2007-01-01

175

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2011-04-01

176

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2014-04-01

177

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2012-04-01

178

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2013-04-01

179

Fruits and Vegetables: Color Your Plate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the foods they eat. The importance of a variety of fruits and vegetables to a healthy diet is the focus of the experience. Learners read a story book about fruits and vegetables, repeat a helpful riddle, and draw pictures of fruits/vegetables. These drawings are then cut out and taped to "color" a Healthy Choice bulletin board plate. Learners can also taste-test different fruits and vegetables at snack or lunch time. Learners are encouraged to try one new color each day. This activity is featured on pp. 12-13 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2014-04-30

180

Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia.  

PubMed

While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia. PMID:25033283

Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-chang

2014-01-01

181

Hydraulic resistance of developing Actinidia fruit  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Xylem flows into most fruits decline as the fruit develop, with important effects on mineral and carbohydrate accumulation. It has been hypothesized that an increase in xylem hydraulic resistance (RT) contributes to this process. This study examined changes in RT that occur during development of the berry of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), identified the region within the fruit where changes were occurring, and tested whether a decrease in irradiance during fruit development caused an increase in RT, potentially contributing to decreased mineral accumulation in shaded fruit. Methods RT was measured using pressure chamber and flow meter methods, the two methods were compared, and the flow meter was also used to partition RT between the pedicel, receptacle and proximal and distal portions of the berry. Dye was used as a tracer for xylem function. Artificial shading was used to test the effect of light on RT, dye entry and mineral accumulation. Key Results RT decreased during the early phase of rapid fruit growth, but increased again as the fruit transitioned to a final period of slower growth. The most significant changes in resistance occurred in the receptacle, which initially contributed 20 % to RT, increasing to 90 % later in development. Dye also ceased moving beyond the receptacle from 70 d after anthesis. The two methods for measuring RT agreed in terms of the direction and timing of developmental changes in RT, but pressure chamber measurements were consistently higher than flow meter estimates of RT, prompting questions regarding which method is most appropriate for measuring fruit RT. Shading had no effect on berry growth but increased RT and decreased dye movement and calcium concentration. Conclusions Increased RT in the receptacle zone coincides with slowing fresh weight growth, reduced transpiration and rapid starch accumulation by the fruit. Developmental changes in RT may be connected to changes in phloem functioning and the maintenance of water potential gradients between the stem and the fruit. The effect of shade on RT extends earlier reports that shading can affect fruit vascular differentiation, xylem flows and mineral accumulation independently of effects on transpiration. PMID:23658370

Mazzeo, Mariarosaria; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Clearwater, Michael J.; Montanaro, Giuseppe; Xiloyannis, Cristos

2013-01-01

182

1-Methylcyclopropene treatment affects strawberry fruit decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strawberry cv. Everest fruit were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at various concentrations from 0 to 1000 nl\\/l for 2 h at 20°C. They were then kept individually in closed but vented containers for 3 days in the dark at 20°C and 95–100% relative humidity. 1-MCP treatment tended to maintain strawberry fruit firmness and colour. However, disease development was accelerated in

Yueming Jiang; Daryl C Joyce; Leon A Terry

2001-01-01

183

Heritability of fruit shape in pears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heritabilities for each of three different height and width ratios describing fruit shape were estimated from measurements\\u000a on a population of seedlings comprising 17 families of European and Asian pear parentage in the Hort Research pear cultivar\\u000a breeding programme. In families with European cultivars as parents, the pyriform curvature in the upper, or stem end, half\\u000a of the fruit was

Allan G. White; Peter A. Alspach; Rosemary H. Weskett; Lester R. Brewer

2000-01-01

184

Studies on fruit cracking of tomatoes  

E-print Network

STUDIES ON FRUIT CRACKING OF TOMATOES A Thesis Sam Don Cotner Submitted to the Graduate College of' ths Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements i' or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January~ 1966 Major Subject...: Horticulture STUDlES ON FRUIT CRACKING OF TOMATOES A Thesis Sam Dcn Cotnsr Approved as to style and content by; (Chairman of tes Member (Head o Department) mbsr) January 1966 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. INTRODUCTION . II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Page...

Cotner, Sam Don

2012-06-07

185

Gibberellins Increase Cuticle Deposition in Developing Tomato Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the gibberellins A4+7(GA4+7) and A3(GA3), benzyladenine (BA) and forchlorfenuron (CPPU) on deposition of the cuticular membrane (CM) in developing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit were investigated. Growth regulators were applied when fruit development within trusses ranged from the flower\\u000a to the mature stage. Developmental stage of fruit at the time of application was indexed by fruit diameter. Fruit

Moritz Knoche; Stefanie Peschel

2007-01-01

186

?- l-Arabinofuranosidase from cell walls of Japanese pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell wall-bound glycosidase activities were measured in pre-ripe and ripe fruits of Japanese pears (Pyrus serotina Rehd. var. culta. cv. Hosui). ?-l-Arabinofuranosidase (EC. 3.2.1.55) activity increased dramatically with fruit ripening and its activity was assayed during fruit development and ripening. After the fruit enlargement stage, cell wall-bound ?-l-arabinofuranosidase activity increased 15-fold with fruit ripening. The enzyme was solubilized from cell

Akira Tateishi; Yoshinori Kanayama; Shohei Yamaki

1996-01-01

187

Fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive model  

PubMed Central

Background and aims In most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. Understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. A causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather ?(i)? fruit transpiration ?(ii)? fruit calcium ?(iii)? fruit storage quality. This paper explores the first link of this hypothesis, ?(i)?, for Hayward kiwifruit using field measurements of fruit transpiration rate and concurrent meteorological recordings. The aims are to identify the key environmental variables driving fruit transpiration and develop a predictive fruit transpiration model. Methodology Fruit transpiration was determined hourly over several 24-h periods by recording weight loss of detached fruit, on Days 23, 35, 49, 65, 94 and 140 after full bloom. Meteorological records were made every 15 min throughout the season at an adjacent regional weather station. A model of fruit transpiration was developed in which the usual meteorological variables (radiation, temperature, windspeed and relative humidity) were incorporated in a Fick's Law transpiration flux equation. Principal results Fruit transpiration rate (i.e. the molar flux density, mmol cm?2 h?1) varied diurnally and decreased during the season. The dominant fruit variable governing transpiration rate was skin conductance and the dominant environmental variables were relative humidity and temperature. Radiation and windspeed were not significantly influential. Conclusions The model provides a good fit to the fruit transpiration rate measurements regardless of the time of day/night or the stage of fruit development. The model allows reasonably accurate and continuous predictions of fruit transpiration rate throughout fruit development based on standard meteorological recordings. It also allows estimates of cumulative fruit transpiration throughout the season. PMID:23136639

Montanaro, Giuseppe; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Lang, Alexander

2012-01-01

188

Metabolic regulation underlying tomato fruit development.  

PubMed

The development and maturation of tomato fruits has received considerable attention because of both the uniqueness of such processes to the biology of plants and the importance of these fruits as a component of the human diet. Molecular and genetic analysis of fruit development, and especially ripening of fleshy fruits, has resulted in significant gains in knowledge over recent years. A large amount of knowledge has been gathered on ethylene biosynthesis and response, cell wall metabolism, and environmental factors, such as light, that impact ripening. Considerably less attention has been paid directly to the general metabolic shifts that underpin these responses. Given the vast complexity of fruit metabolism, the focus chosen for this review is on primary metabolites and those secondary metabolites that are important with respect to fruit quality. Here, recent advances in dissecting tomato metabolic pathways are reviewed. Also discussed are recent examples in which the combined application of metabolic and transcriptional profiling, aimed at identifying candidate genes for modifying metabolite contents, was used. PMID:16449380

Carrari, Fernando; Fernie, Alisdair R

2006-01-01

189

Evaluating Frugivore-fruit Interactions Using Avian Eye Modelling  

PubMed Central

Fruit phenotypes are often hypothesised to be affected by selection by frugivores. Here, we tested two hypotheses concerning frugivore-fruit interactions from the perspective of fruit colours. We measured the spectral properties of 26 fruits and the associated leaves of plants from 2 islands in New Zealand. Visual observations were also performed to record the birds that fed on the fruits. First, we tested the fruit-foliage hypothesis, where fruit colours are assumed to be evolutionarily constrained by their own leaf colour to maximise colour contrast and fruit conspicuousness. We ran a null model analysis comparing fruit colour contrast using an avian eye model. Second, we tested the frugivore specificity hypothesis, where specific fruit colours are thought to be connected with a specific bird frugivore. We performed a regression on the number of bird visits against the fruit colour in tetrahedral colour space based on an avian eye calculation using Mantel’s test. The results show that fruit colours are not constrained by their own leaf colours. There is also no relationship or pattern suggesting a link between a specific fruit colour and specific bird visitors. We suggest that although fruit colour is one of the most highly discussed components, it is not the most important single deciding factor in frugivore fruit selection. PMID:24575247

Fadzly, Nik; Burns, Kevin C.; Zuharah, Wan Fatma

2013-01-01

190

Fleshy-fruits phenology: temporal variability on quantity and quality of animal-dispersed fruits in a cerrado-savanna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time and quantity and quality of fruits and seeds produced are limiting factors for the recruitment of new individuals and maintenance plant species. Furthermore, species that produced fruits dispersed by animals have an important role as a source of food for different groups of animals and relay on them to dispersed their seeds. In most of the Brazilian cerrado-savanna, as in others tropical vegetations, there is a predominance of animal-dispersed species, however there is a lack of information about fruit production and its availability over time on tropical savannas. Beyond the comprehension of fruiting patterns and their relation to biotic and abiotic factors, the fruit production over time can be associated with data on fruit quality such as the fruit color and nutritional content. Those combined informations allow us to evaluate the quantity and quality of resources available in a plant community for frugivores and seed predators. For a cerrado-savanna woody community in southeastern Brazil, subjected to a marked seasonal climate, we intended to describe: (i) fruit availability over time (in number and biomass); (ii) nutritional content; and (ii) fruit color patterns over a year. We counted fortnightly the number of ripe fruits and estimated fruit biomass over a year. For the nutritional content, we evaluated the percentage of protein, lipids and carbohydrates in the pulp or aril of fleshy-fruits. We classified fruit colors in red, black, yellow, dark-red, blue and multicolored (when the fruit display is composed by a combination of two non-green colors or more). We observed a period of the highest fruit production in the wet season, with two peaks of production, and a decline in the dry season, a possible period of scarcity. As expected, fruit nutritional content followed mainly the fruiting pattern in biomass. For lipids there was a different seasonal pattern in which lipid-rich fruits were produced mainly at the end of the wet season while fruits with less lipid were fruiting in the first part of the wet season. Fruits of different colors were not equally produced along the year, with black and red fruits more restricted to the wet season, while yellow and multicolour fruits were also observed in the dry season. The cerrado-savanna woody community showed a relevant fruit production in quantity and quality with a high production in biomass of fruits and mainly in the amount of lipids in the pulp. Despite the strong correlation with the seasonal weather, there were differences in the timing of fruit production according to fruit colors.

de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Cazetta, Eliana; Schaefer, Martin; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

2014-05-01

191

Fathers, fruits and photosynthesis: pollen donor effects on fruit photosynthesis in wild parsnip  

E-print Network

LETTER Fathers, fruits and photosynthesis: pollen donor effects on fruit photosynthesis in wild@uiuc.edu Abstract Chlorophyll is frequently present in plant reproductive tissues and indicates that photosynthesis is occurring in these parts. Photosynthesis by a reproductive organ can contribute as much as 65% to its own

DeLucia, Evan H.

192

Finger Fruits: Pre-Sliced Fruit in Schools Increases Sales and Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laddering interviews indicate that a leading reason younger children do not select fruit is because braces and small mouths make it difficult to eat. Older children – especially females – avoid it because it is messy and makes them look unattractive when eating it. One solution for both sets of reservations would be to offer pre-sliced fruit. The purpose of

Brian Wansink; David R. Just; Andrew S. Hanks

2012-01-01

193

Nutrition of a Developing Legume Fruit  

PubMed Central

The economy of functioning of the developing fruit of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is assessed quantitatively in relation to intake and usage of carbon, nitrogen, and water. Of every 100 units of carbon imported from the parent plant, 52 are incorporated into seeds, 37 into nonmobilizable material of the pod, and the remaining 11 lost as CO2 to the atmosphere. An illuminated fruit can make net gains of CO2 from the atmosphere during the photoperiods of all but the last 2 weeks of its life, suggesting that it is active in assimilation of CO2 respired from pods and seeds. This conservation activity is important to carbon economy. Phloem supplies 98% of the fruit's carbon and 89% of its nitrogen. Most of the xylem's contribution enters early in development. Xylem and phloem supply similar sets of amino compounds, amides predominating. Ninety-six per cent of the fruit's nitrogen becomes incorporated into seeds. Sixteen per cent of the seed's nitrogen is mobilized from the senescing pod. The transpiration ratio of the fruit is 22.5 ml per gram dry matter accumulated. Xylem supplies 60% of a fruit's total water requirement and the equivalent of two-thirds of its transpiration loss. Phloem becomes prominent as a water donor once the seeds start to fill. The fruit exhibits a 31% conversion by weight of organic imports into food reserves of seeds. This entails an intake through vascular channels of 1756 mg sucrose and 384 mg amino compounds and an accumulation in seeds of 412 mg protein, 132 mg oil, and 110 mg perchloric acid-soluble carbohydrate. PMID:16659881

Pate, John S.; Sharkey, Patrick J.; Atkins, Craig A.

1977-01-01

194

Fruitful plans: adding targeted mental imagery to implementation intentions increases fruit consumption.  

PubMed

Forming implementation intentions ('If I encounter situation X, then I will perform behaviour Y!') increases the probability of carrying out goals. This study tested the hypothesis that mental imagery targeting key elements of implementation intentions further increases goal achievement. The residents of a student residence were assigned the goal of consuming extra portions of fruit every day for 7 days and randomly assigned to one of four conditions: control (active rehearsal), implementation intentions, goal intention mental imagery or mental imagery targeted to the implementation intentions. Among low fruit consumers, but not high fruit consumers, fruit consumption at follow-up was higher in the targeted mental imagery group than in the other group, with the lowest fruit consumption in the control group. The findings suggest that it may be beneficial to use targeted mental imagery when forming implementation intentions. PMID:21337259

Knäuper, Bärbel; McCollam, Amanda; Rosen-Brown, Ariel; Lacaille, Julien; Kelso, Evan; Roseman, Michelle

2011-05-01

195

Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.  

PubMed

Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2013-12-01

196

Dried fruits quality assessment by hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dried fruits products present different market values according to their quality. Such a quality is usually quantified in terms of freshness of the products, as well as presence of contaminants (pieces of shell, husk, and small stones), defects, mould and decays. The combination of these parameters, in terms of relative presence, represent a fundamental set of attributes conditioning dried fruits humans-senses-detectable-attributes (visual appearance, organolectic properties, etc.) and their overall quality in terms of marketable products. Sorting-selection strategies exist but sometimes they fail when a higher degree of detection is required especially if addressed to discriminate between dried fruits of relatively small dimensions and when aiming to perform an "early detection" of pathogen agents responsible of future moulds and decays development. Surface characteristics of dried fruits can be investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). In this paper, specific and "ad hoc" applications addressed to propose quality detection logics, adopting a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based approach, are described, compared and critically evaluated. Reflectance spectra of selected dried fruits (hazelnuts) of different quality and characterized by the presence of different contaminants and defects have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with two HSI systems working in two different spectral ranges: visible-near infrared field (400-1000 nm) and near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The spectra have been processed and results evaluated adopting both a simple and fast wavelength band ratio approach and a more sophisticated classification logic based on principal component (PCA) analysis.

Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

2012-05-01

197

Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses  

PubMed Central

Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data. PMID:23335934

Chan, Zhulong

2012-01-01

198

Pectate lyase activity during ripening of banana fruit.  

PubMed

Pectate lyase (PEL) activity was demonstrated in ripe banana fruits on supplementing the homogenizing medium with cysteine and Triton X-100. The enzyme was characterized on the basis of alkaline pH optimum, elimination of the activity by EDTA and activation by Ca(2+). PEL activity was not detected in preclimacteric banana fruits. PEL activity increased progressively from early climacteric and reached maximum level at climacteric peak and declined in post climacteric and over ripened fruits. Replacing pectate with pectin in PEL assay manifested enzyme activity even in preclimacteric fruits. In contrast to PEL, polygalacturonase activity progressively increased during fruit ripening even in postclimacteric fruits. PMID:12737974

Payasi, Anurag; Sanwal, G G

2003-06-01

199

Safe Handling of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

storage. Instead, wash them when you are ready to use them. If the produce is very dirty, rinse it and then dry it well before storing it. Safe Handling of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Amanda Scott* E-198 9/08 ? Keep your storage areas clean and pest... storage. Instead, wash them when you are ready to use them. If the produce is very dirty, rinse it and then dry it well before storing it. Safe Handling of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Amanda Scott* E-198 9/08 ? Keep your storage areas clean and pest...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

200

A fruit quality gene map of Prunus  

PubMed Central

Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the genetic architecture of fruit quality traits in Prunus crops. PMID:19995417

2009-01-01

201

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2012-01-01

202

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2011-01-01

203

GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT TRAY STORAGE ROOM (STRUCTURE 11), WITH FRUIT DRYING AREA AND TRAM TRACKS IN FOREGROUND, FROM NORTHWEST - Stevens Ranch Complex, State Route 101, Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

204

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2014-04-01

205

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2011-04-01

206

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2012-04-01

207

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2010-04-01

208

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2013-04-01

209

7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The handling to any...

2010-01-01

210

Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate  

PubMed Central

Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among-population structuring. These effects could be extended to other plant species dispersed by large vertebrates in present-day, defaunated communities. PMID:18320062

Guimaraes, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

2008-01-01

211

Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSome neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a

Paulo R. Guimarães; Mauro Galetti; Pedro Jordano; Dennis Marinus Hansen

2008-01-01

212

Effects of naphthaleneacetic acid on fruit in 'Jiefangzhong' loquat  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Effects of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on fruit quality of 'Jiefangzhong' loquat were studied. NAA at different concentrations was sprayed at the full-bloom stage and young fruit stage, respectively. The results showed that the fruit quality was improved by spraying 20 mg\\/l naphthaleneacetic acid at full-bloom stage, and there was no significant effect on fruit quality when treated with

J. Wu; S. Lin

213

Fruit Juice Intake Is Not Related to Children's Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Excessive fruit juice intake (>12 ounces\\/day) has been reported to be associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children. Objective. To confirm whether excess fruit juice in- take was associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children, we assessed growth parameters and fruit juice intake in 105 white children, ages 24 to 36 months. Methodology. Mothers were

Jean D. Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; James Moran III; Kelly Houck; Frances Coletta

1999-01-01

214

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine Effects on Late-Season Apple Fruit Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) inhibits 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, and thus blocks ethylene synthesis. Preharvest foliar application of AVG to apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit retards several key events of maturation including climacteric ethylene production, starch conversion to sugars, fruit softening, and abscission zone development. Although the impact of AVG on apple fruit maturation is well known, the biochemical basis of these

F. Paul Silverman; Peter D. Petracek; Michael R. Noll; Prem Warrior

2004-01-01

215

Processing of fruit and vegetables: effect on carotenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the potential impact of processing procedures on carotenoid form and content. Fruit and vegetables, in particular, are abundant sources of carotenoids in the diet. Many fruit and vegetables are subjected to various types of processing prior to consumption. Fruit may be canned, dried or processed into juices, while vegetables may be blanched, dehydrated, frozen, canned and also processed into

Christopher Thane; Sheela Reddy

1997-01-01

216

Correlates of Fruit and Vegetable Intakes in US Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the current intakes of fruits and vegetables compared to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in US children and adolescents and identify factors related to low fruit and vegetable intake. This descriptive study examined differences in fruit and vegetable intakes by age, sex, ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, and

Barbara A. Lorson; Hugo R. Melgar-Quinonez; Christopher A. Taylor

2009-01-01

217

Effects of Bloom-Thinning Chemicals on Peach Fruit Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothall, pelargonic acid (Thinex), YI-1066, sulfcarba-mide (Wilthin), ammonium thiosulfate (ATS; Thinset), and Armothin, applied as single airblast sprays to peach trees at full bloom, inhibited fruit set, increased fruit diameter, were not injurious to fruit appearance, and were considered acceptable blossom thinners. Thinning rates of these chemicals usually caused some injury to foliage or flowers, but this was not considered

Ross E. Byers

1999-01-01

218

Fruit machine addiction in adolescence: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of the research on adolescent fruit machine gambling has been survey type studies concentrating on incidence, demographics and quantitative analysis of motivations, subjective feelings and negative consequences of fruit machine addiction. The data from this study are reported as a case study of an 18 year old former adolescent fruit machine addict with additional information from the addict's

Mark Griffiths

1993-01-01

219

Northern Michigan FruitNet 2005 Weekly Update  

E-print Network

catches are still high at this time. At the NWMHRS we have only captured one apple maggot fly thus far AT NWMHRS (8/23/05) Apple: Red Delicious: 69 mm fruit; Mac: 73 mm fruit Pear: 60 mm fruit Sweet Cherry REPORT Apple harvest is underway here in the northwest. EarliGold harvest is in full swing, while

220

Jim Kamas, Monte Nesbitt & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists,  

E-print Network

, is characterized by melting flesh fruit with an aromatic quality and a noticeable sugar/acid balance. Com- monJim Kamas, Monte Nesbitt & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension TEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Pears Introduction There are a number of types of pears grown around the world

Mukhtar, Saqib

221

Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

2000-01-01

222

State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease prevention. Supporting…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

2009-01-01

223

Composition of the cuticle of developing sweet cherry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of wax and cutin from developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit was studied by GC–MS between 22 and 85 days after full bloom (DAFB). In this and our previous study, fruit mass and surface area increased in a sigmoidal pattern with time, but mass of the cuticular membrane (CM) per unit fruit surface area decreased. On a whole

Stefanie Peschel; Rochus Franke; Lukas Schreiber; Moritz Knoche

2007-01-01

224

Stone Fruit Carlos H. Crisosto, Susan Lurie, and Julio Retamales  

E-print Network

13 Stone Fruit Carlos H. Crisosto, Susan Lurie, and Julio Retamales CONTENTS 13.1 Introduction, with a limited postharvest life potential. Botanically, stone fruits are drupes. A drupe is a fleshy fruit) and a hard inner ovary wall that is highly lignified (endocarp), and is com- monly referred as a stone or pit

Crisosto, Carlos H.

225

Factors affecting fruit and seed production in Dactylorhiza maculata (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that some of resources needed for fruit and seed production in terrestrial orchids originate from storage in underground biomass. Resources for female reproductive traits may also originate from current photosynthesis. Orchid mycorrhiza may also influence fruit and seed production. The extent to which current photosynthetic activity and nutrient uptake via mycorrhizal fungi affect fruit and seed

ELISA VALLIUS

2001-01-01

226

Whole surface image reconstruction for machine vision inspection of fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated imaging systems offer the potential to inspect the quality and safety of fruits and vegetables consumed by the public. Current automated inspection systems allow fruit such as apples to be sorted for quality issues including color and size by looking at a portion of the surface of each fruit. However, to inspect for defects and contamination, the whole surface

D. Y. Reese; A. M. Lefcourt; M. S. Kim; Y. M. Lo

2007-01-01

227

ABORTED FRUITS OF OPUNTIA MICRODASYS (CACTACEAE): INSURANCE AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE  

E-print Network

ABORTED FRUITS OF OPUNTIA MICRODASYS (CACTACEAE): INSURANCE AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE 1 N, but plantlet provenance did not. The high fruit abortion rate resulting from environmental and maternal effects provided suitable conditions for establishment of plantlets. Key words: clonal propagation; fruit abortion

Mandujano, María del Carmen

228

Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

2006-01-01

229

Fruit & Yogurt Parfait; 2 cups grapes, berries or peach slices  

E-print Network

, vanilla or Fruit-flavored 2 medium bananas 1 cup dry, crunchy cereal (granola type) Wash, peel and slice, drain and add to the bowl. Peel and slice bananas. Pour the milk over the fruit.While slowly stirring the bananas. Wash and prepare other fruit. Place about ½ cup of grapes (or berries or peaches) in each of four

Florida, University of

230

Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Infusions of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries, but to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken so far to determine the possible mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic properties of the fruit. The present study was designed to investigate whether these fruits possess insulinotropic effects. For this purpose, different extracts of Citrullus colocynthis seed components were obtained: RN II (crude extract), RN VI (hydro-alcoholic extract), RN X (purified extract) and RN XVII (beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine), the major free amino acid present in the seeds. The insulin secretory effects of these different extracts were evaluated in vitro in the isolated rat pancreas and isolated rat islets in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. All tested extracts, when perfused for 20 min at 0.1 mg/ml, immediately and significantly stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was transient. In addition, the purified extract (RN X) provoked a clear dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated islets. Moreover, a significant and persistant increase in pancreatic flow rate appeared during RN VI, RN X and RN XVII perfusions. In conclusion, our results show that different Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts have an insulinotropic effect which could at least partially account for the antidiabetic activities of these fruits. PMID:10909260

Nmila, R; Gross, R; Rchid, H; Roye, M; Manteghetti, M; Petit, P; Tijane, M; Ribes, G; Sauvaire, Y

2000-06-01

231

Fruit and Nut Production. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach the fruit and nut production component of a competency-based horticulture course that is intended to provide students with technical skills and the basic business skills to run a successful operation or be a productive employee. The following topics are covered in the 12…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

232

The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. PMID:23881410

Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

2014-01-15

233

Storage Experiments with Texas Citrus Fruit  

E-print Network

for the storage of grapefruit under the con- of these experiments. Environmental influences, especially rain the maturation period, apparently exert a greater influence on : quality than does age or ripeness of the fruit. itorage treatments such as wrapping... on keeping quality __._----___----.--------.------------------.------.. 19 Effect of pre-storage treatments on keeping quality ..._-_---__-----------.---.----.-... 21 Varietal differences and fertilizer treatment as related to keeping quality 24 Changes...

Friend, W. H. (William Heartsill); Bach, Walter J. (Walter Johnson)

1932-01-01

234

Glycerogalactolipids from the fruit of Lycium barbarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four glycerogalactolipids (1–4), together with 11 other previously known homologues were isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum. Their structures were elucidated by chemical analyses including regio-selective enzymatic, alkaline and acidic hydrolyses and spectroscopic methods involving GCMS, HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR, respectively.

Zengping Gao; Zulfiqar Ali; Ikhlas A. Khan

2008-01-01

235

Differential gene expression in ripening banana fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

During banana (Musa acuminata L.) fruit ripening ethylene pro- duction triggers a developmental cascade that is accompanied by a massive conversion of starch to sugars, an associated burst of re- spiratory activity, and an increase in protein synthesis. Differential screening of cDNA libraries representing banana pulp at ripening stages 1 and 3 has led to the isolation of 11 nonredundant

Stephanie K. Clendennen; Cregory D. May

1997-01-01

236

Fresh Fruit Make your own platter  

E-print Network

version or cut into small portions. Recommended Brands · Stonyfield · Wallaby Organic · 365 (Whole Foods · Whole Foods · Costco · Berkeley Bowl Granola, Yogurt, and/or Fruit Parfaits Provide plain or vanilla · Neufchatel* (Organic Valley) · Natural nut butters (almond, cashew, peanut*) · Veggies for bagels (tomato

Jacobs, Lucia

237

Harvesting the High-Hanging Fruit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, higher education institutions have been harvesting the low-hanging fruit when it comes to budget reductions and adjustments. Easier changes have often been made--such as cutting administration, using more adjunct faculty, contracting out inefficient or non effective auxiliary operations and so forth. Until recently such strategies,…

Kenton, Jay D.

2014-01-01

238

Modeling Condensation and Evaporation on Fruit Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rewarming of fruits and vegetables after cooling is characterized by heat and mass transfer processes, which leads commonly to condensation of water on the produce surface at temperatures below the dew point. This effect may affect the produce quality due to microbial growth at unfavorable environmental conditions. The amount of condensed water is a function of the produce surface temperature

K. Gottschalk; M. Linke; Cs. Mészáros; I. Farkas

2007-01-01

239

Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.  

PubMed

A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods. PMID:25011059

Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

2014-10-01

240

Applied Research - Fruit & Vegetable Screener in CHIS  

Cancer.gov

Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

241

Applied Research - Fruit & Vegetable Screener in CHIS  

Cancer.gov

The Fruit and Vegetable Screener used in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) was derived from the Multifactor Screener in the 2000 NHIS Cancer Control Supplement (CCS). The CHIS screener asks respondents for information about how frequently they consume foods in eight categories. No portion size questions are asked.

242

Making Prints From Fruits and Vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students may be familiar with eating fruits and vegetables, but have they ever taken a really close look at the anatomy of those specimens? In this activity, students have an opportunity to explore aspects of the internal and external anatomy of produce b

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

243

Design of a frozen fruit smoothie machine  

E-print Network

A smoothie machine known as the FruziFridge is being deterministically designed to dispense frozen fruit smoothies. The design is scalable so it can be made available in homes as a built-in module of a refrigerator or in ...

Toussaint, Teddy A. (Teddy Antoine)

2013-01-01

244

Two Promising Fruit Plants for Northern Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I chose the two plants described here for the quality of their fruits and their adaptability in low-maintenance situations. Many other plants deserve equal attention, including the juneberry, flowering quince, hazelnut, walnut, mulberry, elderberry, hickory, pine nut, grape, and various Prunus species. Three major climatic factors must be considered in growing woody food plants in the Northeast: minimum winter temperatures,

EDWARD GOODELL

245

The Fruit Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating plenty of servings of fruit. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and…

Frost, Helen

246

Tropical Fruit Ambrosia Makes 6 servings  

E-print Network

coconut Lettuce leaves Directions: 1. In a large bowl, combine the tropical fruit and banana. 2 and toss until evenly coated. 4. Sprinkle with the coconut. 5. Line a serving bowl with lettuce leaves and spoon in the salad. 6. Sprinkle with the coconut and serve. Nutritional Facts per serving: 150 calories

Florida, University of

247

Surface characteristics of sweet cherry fruit: stomata-number, distribution, functionality and surface wetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number, distribution, size, and function of stomata and wettability of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit surface were investigated. The number of stomata per fruit differed significantly among sweet cherry cultivars, ranging from 143±26 per fruit in ‘Adriana’ to 2124±142 per fruit in ‘Hedelfinger’. The number of stomata per fruit was not affected by fruit mass (‘Burlat’). For

Stefanie Peschel; Marco Beyer; Moritz Knoche

2003-01-01

248

Facultative ripening in Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae): effects of fruit removal and rotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Costa Rica individual Hamelia patens trees produce fruit throughout the year and experience dramatic changes in rates of fruit removal and rotting. During some moths, most fruits rot because they are not removed. Rotting fruits increase the probability that other fruits on the same infructescence will rot. When removal rates are high, fruits are taken as soon as their

D. J. Levey

1987-01-01

249

Fruit characteristics and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe fruiting characteristics for 12 species in a community of strangler figs (Moraceae: Urostigma) studied in Panama.\\u000a We quantify diurnal and nocturnal removal rates and proportions of fruits removed, and relate them to the activities of the\\u000a main dispersers of the figs: bats and birds. These results combined with previous studies show that there are clear differences\\u000a between fig

Carmi Korine; E. K. V. Kalko; E. A. Herre

2000-01-01

250

Passion Fruit Green Spot Virus Vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Passion Fruit in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of So Paulo,\\u000a Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2–5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves.\\u000a The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by

E. W. Kitajima; J. A. M. Rezende; J. C. V. Rodrigues

2003-01-01

251

QualiTree, a virtual fruit tree to study the management of fruit quality. I. Model development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents QualiTree, a generic fruit tree model that can simulate the effects of various cultivation practices\\u000a on the development and within-tree variability of fruit quality. These practices include fruit thinning, summer and winter\\u000a pruning, irrigation and tree training. Combining both agronomic and physiology viewpoints, the model describes the tree as\\u000a a set of objects—fruiting units organised into a

Françoise Lescourret; Nicolas Moitrier; Pierre Valsesia; Michel Génard

2011-01-01

252

Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Key Mitochondrial Respiratory Enzymes in 'Hass' Avocado Fruit and Fruit Disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. Persea americana, cytochrome oxidase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ethylene production, O2 uptake ABSTRACT . Preclimacteric avocado (Persea americana (Mill.) cv. Hass) fruit or fruit disks as well as fruit harvested in either June (midseason) or August (late season) and partially ripened were kept in air (21% O2 + 78% N2), 20% CO2 + 17% O2 (63% N2), or 40%

Diana L. Lange; Adel A. Kader

253

http://www.jstor.org A Test of the Bicolored Fruit Display Hypothesis: Berry Removal with Artificial Fruit Flags  

E-print Network

hypothesized that plants produce visual signals, other than ripe fruits, to create vivid displays that mayhttp://www.jstor.org A Test of the Bicolored Fruit Display Hypothesis: Berry Removal with Artificial Fruit Flags Author(s): Jennifer M. Cramer, Maria L. Cloud, Nathan C. Muchhala, Anastasia E. Ware

Muchhala, Nathan

254

Supplemental Foliar Potassium Applications during Muskmelon Fruit Development Can Improve Fruit Quality, Ascorbic Acid, and Beta-carotene Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. (Reticulatus Group)) fruit sugar content is directly related to potassium (K)- mediated phloem transport of sucrose into the fruit. However, during fruit growth and maturation, soil fertilization alone is often inadequate (due to poor root uptake and competitive uptake inhibition from calcium and magnesium) to satisfy the numerous K-dependent processes, such as photosynthesis, phloem transport, and

Gene E. Lester; John L. Jifon; Gordon Rogers

255

Relationships Between Leaf and Fruit Nutrients and Fruit Quality Attributes in Golden Smoothee Apples Using Multivariate Regression Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between leaf and fruit nutrients in “Golden Smoothee” apples (Malus domestica Borkh. L) were analyzed using partial least squares regressions (PLS). The aim of the study is to identify the most relevant concentration nutrients for fruit quality in leaves (l) and fruits (f), and to work out the correlation among them and also in relation with some apple

T. Casero; A. Benavides; J. Puy; I. Recasens

2005-01-01

256

The making of a bell pepper-shaped tomato fruit: identification of loci controlling fruit morphology in Yellow Stuffer tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heirloom tomato cultivar Yellow Stuffer produces fruit that are similar in shape and structure to fruit produced by the bell pepper varieties of garden pepper. To determine the genetic basis of this extreme fruit type in tomato, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on an F2 population derived from a cross between Yellow Stuffer and the related species,

E. van der Knaap; S. D. Tanksley

2003-01-01

257

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

Daniel García

1998-01-01

258

Effects of fruit load on partitioning of 15 N and 13 C , respiration, and growth of grapevine roots at different fruit stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different fruit loads on the root activity and growth of roots and shoots in large potted grapevines (Vitis labruscana, var. Aki-queen) were investigated, heavy fruit load (HFL, two bunches per new bearing shoot), medium fruit load (MFL, one bunch per new bearing shoot, which was the standard fruit load), and no fruit load (NFL), in an unheated

Kunihisa Morinaga; Shunji Imai; Hiroshi Yakushiji; Yoshiko Koshita

2003-01-01

259

Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.  

PubMed

Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. PMID:23553505

Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

2013-08-15

260

Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.  

PubMed

The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence mechanisms. These food-health concepts would probably spur the large-scale oil palm (and monoculture) plantations, which are already seen to be a major cause of deforestation and replacement of diverse ecosystems in many countries. However, the environmental advantages of palm phytonutrients are that they are prepared from the readily available raw material from palm oil milling processes. Palm fruit, one of only a few fatty fruits, is likely to have an increasingly substantiated place in human health, not only through the provision of acceptable dietary fats, but also its characteristic protective phytonutrients. PMID:14506002

Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

2003-01-01

261

Physiological Responses and Fruit Retention of Carambola Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) Induced by 2,4-D and GA3  

E-print Network

One of the problems in cultivation of carambola fruit is the high of flower and fruit drop during fruit development. To understand these problems and to improve fruit retention, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and total sugar in carambola fruit and leaves were analysed in response to application of gibberellic acid (GA3) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The experiments used 1,5 year old of carambola plants (Averrhoa carambola L. var Dewi) grown in polybag of

Bekti Kurniawati

2009-01-01

262

Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

2014-10-01

263

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any fruit characteristics; however, pulp suckers tended to be more abundant in plants with low pulp: seed ratios and high fruit-water content. In addition, fruits with high levels of pulp-sucker attack tended to have higher water content. A multi-factor ANOVA, considering the identity of the plant and the attack of the different pests as factors, showed that plant identity accounts for most of the variation in fruit characteristics. The viability of seeds tended to be lower in plants strongly attacked by both pests. Fruits attacked by seed predators showed significantly lower proportions of viable and unviable seeds than did unattacked fruits. Seed viability was also lower in those fruits heavily attacked by pulp suckers, but this pattern is strongly mediated by plant identity. Pest activity proved to be clearly associated with a direct decrease in juniper reproductive capacity. This loss involved a reduction of the viable-seed number, mainly related to the seed predator, as well as a reduction of fruit attractiveness to frugivorous dispersers, related to the pulp sucker.

García, Daniel

1998-12-01

264

Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Spore formation by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has long been studied as a model for cellular differentiation, but predominantly as a single cell. When analyzed within the context of highly structured, surface-associated communities (biofilms), spore formation was discovered to have heretofore unsuspected spatial organization. Initially, motile cells differentiated into aligned chains of attached cells that eventually produced aerial structures, or fruiting bodies, that served as preferential sites for sporulation. Fruiting body formation depended on regulatory genes required early in sporulation and on genes evidently needed for exopolysaccharide and surfactin production. The formation of aerial structures was robust in natural isolates but not in laboratory strains, an indication that multicellularity has been lost during domestication of B. subtilis. Other microbial differentiation processes long thought to involve only single cells could display the spatial organization characteristic of multicellular organisms when studied with recent natural isolates. PMID:11572999

Branda, Steven S.; Gonzalez-Pastor, Jose Eduardo; Ben-Yehuda, Sigal; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

2001-01-01

265

Molecular characterization of tomato fruit polygalacturonase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the expression vector ?gt11 and immunological detection, cDNA clones of an endopolygalacturonase gene of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were isolated and sequenced. The 1.6 kb cDNA sequence predicts a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 457 amino acids. The PG2A isoform of tomato fruit endopolygalacturonase was purified and 80% of the amino acid sequence determined. The amino

Raymond E. Sheehy; Judith Pearson; Colin J. Brady; William R. Hiatt

1987-01-01

266

Early Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Our goal was to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding and dietary experi- ences on acceptance of a fruit and a green vegetable by 4- to 8-month-old infants. METHODS.Forty-five infants, 44% of whom were breastfed, were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group was fed green beans, and the other was fed green beans and then peaches at

Catherine A. Forestell; Julie A. Mennella

2007-01-01

267

Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (strawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after ?-treatment, a weak triplet ( aH?30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, rapsberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time.

Raffi, Jacques J.; Agnel, Jean-Pierre L.

268

Lipoxygenase activity in olive ( Olea europaea ) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was designed to characterize lipoxygenase activity in olive fruit pulp, in order to determine its significance\\u000a in the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma. Lipoxygenase activity has been detected in particulate fractions of enzyme\\u000a extracts from olive pulp subjected to differential centrifugation. The activity in different membrane fractions showed similar\\u000a properties, with optimal pH in the range

Joaquín J. Salas; Mark Williams; John L. Harwood; Juan Sánchez

1999-01-01

269

Hepatoprotective pyrrole derivatives of Lycium chinense fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of our search for hepatoprotective compounds from Lycium chinense fruits, three new pyrrole derivatives (1–3) were isolated. These compounds and a related synthetic methylated compound (4) were evaluated for their biological activity and structure–activity relationship, and compounds 1 and 2 showed hepatoprotective effects comparable to silybin at the concentration of 0.1 ?M (64.4 and 65.8%, respectively).

Young-Won Chin; Song Won Lim; Seok-Ho Kim; Dong-Yun Shin; Young-Ger Suh; Yang-Bae Kim; Young Choong Kim; Jinwoong Kim

2003-01-01

270

Ferula gummosa Fruits: An Aromatic Antimicrobial Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae) fruit volatile oil was analyzed by GC\\/MS. Seventy-three components (96.89%) were identified, and the major components were ?-pinene (43.78%), ?-pinene (27.27%), and myrcene (3.37%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested on three strains of Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, and Bacillus subtilis), three strains of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi,

Y. Ghasemi; P. Faridi; I. Mehregan; A. Mohagheghzadeh

2005-01-01

271

Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits  

PubMed Central

A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. PMID:21163339

Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J. Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Wang, Z. Jim; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

2011-01-01

272

Spotting fruit versus picking fruit as the selective advantage of human colour vision  

PubMed Central

The spatiochromatic properties of the red–green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy) is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy). We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and “normal” trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference) of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach. PMID:23755352

Bompas, Aline; Kendall, Grace; Sumner, Petroc

2013-01-01

273

Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.  

PubMed

Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds. PMID:16175241

Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

2005-01-01

274

Arabidopsis AtNAP regulates fruit senescence.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis has been used as a model system to study many aspects of plant growth and development. However, fruit senescence in Arabidopsis has been less investigated and the underlying molecular and hormonal (especially ethylene) regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. It is reported here that the Arabidopsis silique has characteristics of a climacteric fruit, and that AtNAP, a NAC family transcription factor gene whose expression is increased with the progression of silique senescence, plays an important role in its senescence. Silique senescence was delayed for 4-5 d in the atnap knockout mutant plants. The ethylene climacteric was delayed for 2 d in the atnap silique and the associated respiratory climacteric was suppressed. Exogenous ethylene stimulated respiration in the wild type, but not in the atnap mutant. The decoupling of the ethylene and respiratory climacterics in the atnap mutant suggests that AtNAP is required for ethylene stimulation of respiration. qPCR analyses revealed that the expression patterns of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, perception, and signalling, ACS2, ETR1, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, and ERF1, were also altered in the atnap mutant. The effects of exogenous ABA, SA, 6-BA, and NAA on ethylene production and respiration in siliques of the wild type and atnap mutant were also investigated. A model involving ABA-AtNAP-controlled stomatal opening in regulating ethylene-stimulated respiration in fruit senescence is presented. PMID:23066145

Kou, Xiaohong; Watkins, Christopher B; Gan, Su-Sheng

2012-10-01

275

Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

2010-03-01

276

Pointillist structural color in Pollia fruit  

PubMed Central

Biological communication by means of structural color has existed for at least 500 million years. Structural color is commonly observed in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in plants. We present a striking example of multilayer-based strong iridescent coloration in plants, in the fruit of Pollia condensata. The color is caused by Bragg reflection of helicoidally stacked cellulose microfibrils that form multilayers in the cell walls of the epicarp. We demonstrate that animals and plants have convergently evolved multilayer-based photonic structures to generate colors using entirely distinct materials. The bright blue coloration of this fruit is more intense than that of any previously described biological material. Uniquely in nature, the reflected color differs from cell to cell, as the layer thicknesses in the multilayer stack vary, giving the fruit a striking pixelated or pointillist appearance. Because the multilayers form with both helicoidicities, optical characterization reveals that the reflected light from every epidermal cell is polarized circularly either to the left or to the right, a feature that has never previously been observed in a single tissue. PMID:23019355

Vignolini, Silvia; Rudall, Paula J.; Rowland, Alice V.; Reed, Alison; Moyroud, Edwige; Faden, Robert B.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Steiner, Ullrich

2012-01-01

277

Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits  

PubMed Central

Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern.

Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Haggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

2014-01-01

278

Nutritional quality of 18 date fruit varieties.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the chemical and physical properties of 18 varieties of the date fruits from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), which are regarded as popular fruit commodities among the populace of the Middle Eastern peninsula. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients (micro-elements and macro-elements) and physical properties (weight, length, and density) of the selected 18 leading varieties of dates cultivated in the United Arab Emirates-namely Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit saif, Jabri, Khodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe-were determined and compared. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the measured parameters were observed among the different varieties. However, the results depict that date fruits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macro-elements and micro-elements. The macro-elements measured are calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and magnesium, while the essential micro-elements and the possibly essential micro-elements are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt and molybdenum, and aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, respectively. PMID:21495898

Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

2011-08-01

279

Detectability and content as opposing signal characteristics in fruits.  

PubMed Central

Although often associated with consumers, fruit colours have rarely been assessed as signals. Here, we investigate the signal principles of 'detectability' and 'content' in bird-dispersed fruits. We determined detectability as the contrast between fruit and background and signal 'content' by correlating fruit colours and compounds. Red and black, the most common fruit colours globally, contrast more against background than other colours but do not indicate compounds. In other colours, 60% of the variation in long- to shortwave light correlated with protein, tannin and carbohydrate content. Because macronutrients stimulated fruit removal, while phenols, but not tannins, deterred it, signalling these macronutrients probably increases seed dispersal. Phenolic content was not signalled because it would reduce plants' fitness. Signalling tannins might be directed towards fruit pests rather than dispersers. In conclusion, plants may employ differential signalling strategies matching conspicuous signals in red and black fruits while other colours signal fruit quality. The latter implies that nutrient quality and fruit defence are communicated visually. PMID:15504021

Schaefer, Hinrich Martin; Schmidt, Veronika

2004-01-01

280

Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.  

PubMed

Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases. PMID:24188234

Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

2014-01-01

281

Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.  

PubMed

Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (?3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits to better understand the ecology of ant-fruit interactions in variable ecological settings, including human-disturbed landscapes. PMID:24587341

Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

2014-01-01

282

Assessing the Impact of Deforestation of the Atlantic Rainforest on Ant-Fruit Interactions: A Field Experiment Using Synthetic Fruits  

PubMed Central

Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic ‘seed’ covered by a lipid-rich ‘pulp’), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (?3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits to better understand the ecology of ant-fruit interactions in variable ecological settings, including human-disturbed landscapes. PMID:24587341

Bieber, Ana Gabriela D.; Silva, Paulo S. D.; Sendoya, Sebastian F.; Oliveira, Paulo S.

2014-01-01

283

Metabolic changes in fruits of the tomato dx mutant.  

PubMed

The tomato DWARF cytochrome P450 protein catalyzes the C-6 oxidation of 6-deoxo-castasterone to castasterone. The d(x) mutant does not produce a functional DWARF enzyme, and d(x) shoots display severe symptoms of brassinosteroid-deficiency. However, fruits express the CYP85A3 protein which compensates for the deficiency of the DWARF protein and produce bioactive brassinosteroids. Here, we report on the metabolic characterization of d(x) fruits. Fruit size, fresh weight, and pigment content were not altered. However, d(x) fruits showed reduced dry mass content. Levels of starch and various sugars were reduced, amino acid levels were elevated. BR application to d(x) leaves partially normalized dry mass content, sugar and amino acid levels in d(x) fruits. The data demonstrate that brassinosteroid in shoots is required for fruit development in tomato. PMID:16930643

Lisso, Janina; Altmann, Thomas; Müssig, Carsten

2006-10-01

284

Fresh Fruits: Getting the Most Nutrition for Your Money  

E-print Network

that should be ripe when purchased are apples, grapes, strawberries, berries, lemons, tangerines, cherries, limes, water- melon, grapefruit and pineapple. Be Safe! M any fresh fruits have a naturally occurring protective cover. Once washed, the fruit is more...&M University System. avoid introducing dirt and possible bacteria into the refrigerator. Use as soon as possible for best quality. Never use detergents to clean fresh fruit, as the residues from some deter- gents can be poisonous. If you are concerned about...

Anding, Jenna

2000-05-05

285

Forbidden Fruit and the Prediction of Cigarette Smoking  

PubMed Central

The concept of “forbidden fruit” has been popularly associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in the US. However, only a few empirical studies have been conducted to investigate how this construct operates among adolescents. We examined the concurrent and prospective relationships between two related concepts of forbidden fruit and adolescent cigarette smoking behavior and intention. We found some support for forbidden fruit attitudes as concurrent and longitudinal predictors of smoking and intention to smoke. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20590380

SUSSMAN, STEVE; GRANA, RACHEL; POKHREL, PALLAV; ROHRBACH, LOUISE A.; SUN, PING

2011-01-01

286

Quantitative analysis of mycoflora on commercial domestic fruits in Japan.  

PubMed

A comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the mycoflora on the surface of commercial fruit was performed. Nine kinds of fruits grown in Japan were tested. Overall fungal counts on the fruits ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 log CFU/g. The mean percentages of the total yeast counts were higher than those of molds in samples of apples, Japanese pears, and strawberries, ranging from 58.5 to 67.0%, and were lower than those of molds in samples of the other six fruits, ranging from 9.8 to 48.3%. Cladosporium was the most frequent fungus and was found in samples of all nine types of fruits, followed by Penicillium found in eight types of fruits. The fungi with the highest total counts in samples of the various fruits were Acremonium in cantaloupe melons (47.6% of the total fungal count), Aspergillus in grapes (32.2%), Aureobasidium in apples (21.3%), blueberries (63.6%), and peaches (33.6%), Cladosporium in strawberries (38.4%), Cryptococcus in Japanese pears (37.6%), Penicillium in mandarins (22.3%), and Sporobolomyces in lemons (26.9%). These results demonstrated that the mycoflora on the surfaces of these fruits mainly consists of common pre- and postharvest inhabitants of the plants or in the environment; fungi that produce mycotoxins or cause market diseases were not prominent in the mycoflora of healthy fruits. These findings suggest fruits should be handled carefully with consideration given to fungal contaminants, including nonpathogenic fungi, to control the quality of fruits and processed fruit products. PMID:21902918

Watanabe, Maiko; Tsutsumi, Fumiyuki; Konuma, Rumi; Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kawarada, Kensuke; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu; Takatori, Kosuke; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

2011-09-01

287

DOMESTICATING INDIGENOUS FRUIT TREES AS A CONTRIBUTION TO POVERTY REDUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution that domesticated indigenous fruit trees make to many farmers' livelihoods is often not acknowledged in either national- or international-level poverty reduction strategies. Current agricultural data tend to be restricted to a narrow range of exotic fruit (e.g. mango, avocado, citrus). Existing data on indigenous fruit are often not presented in the kinds of income-related terms used in the

K. SCHRECKENBERG; A. AWONO; A. DEGRANDE; C. MBOSSO; O. NDOYE; Z. TCHOUNDJEU

2006-01-01

288

SUSPENDED TRAY PACKAGE FOR PROTECTING SOFT FRUIT FROM MECHANICAL DAMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new suspended fruit packaging system for damage-free transport of soft fruit was developed and laboratory tested. Transit vibration tests simulating a continental U.S. cross-country trip of approximately 4,500 km showed that this suspended fruit system prevents nearly all transport vibration damage to pears when used with a plastic clamshell package and to avocados when used with a plastic clamshell

J. F. Thompson; D. C. Slaughter; M. L. Arpaia

289

FRUIT QUALITY AND CONSUMPTION BY SONGBIRDS DURING AUTUMN MIGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.—Seasonal fruits are an important food resource for small songbirds during autumn,migration in southern New England. Therefore, conservation and management of important stopover sites used by mi- grating birds requires knowledge,about nutritional requirements of songbirds and nutritional composition,of commonly,consumed,fruits. We measured,nutrient composition,and energy density of nine common,fruits on Block Island, Rhode Island, and conducted a field experiment to estimate consumption

SUSAN B. SMITH; KATHLEEN H. McPHERSON; JEFFREY M. BACKER; BARBARA J. PIERCE; DAVID W. PODLESAK; SCOTT R. McWILLIAMS

2007-01-01

290

WEEK ONE MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY MORNING SNACK Fresh fruit with milk or  

E-print Network

WEEK ONE MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY MORNING SNACK Fresh fruit with milk or water to drink. Fresh fruit with milk or water to drink Fresh fruit with milk or water to drink Fresh fruit with milk or water to drink Fresh fruit with milk or water to drink MAIN COURSE Spaghetti Bolognese (minced

Mumby, Peter J.

291

Quantitative descriptors of variation in the fruits and seeds of Irvingia gabonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods were developed to quantify variation in the fruit, nut and kernel traits using the fruits from four trees of Irvingia gabonensis, an indigenous fruit tree of west and central Africa. The measurement of 18 characteristics of 16–32 fruits per tree identified significant variation in fruit, nut and kernel size and weight, and flesh depth. Differences were also identified in

R. R. B. Leakey; J.-M. Fondoun; A. Atangana; Z. Tchoundjeu

2000-01-01

292

Seed predation heterogeneity in the loculate fruits of a Mediterranean bushy plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the number of locules per fruit on seed predation in a Mediterranean woody plant (Cistus ladanifer) were analysed. Plants produced fruits with a similar number of locules (fruits with a small, intermediate or large number of locules). Nevertheless, there were no differences in the number of fruits produced or predated per plant. Different types of fruits did

Juan A. Delgado; José M. Serrano; Francisco López; Francisco J. Acosta

2007-01-01

293

Fruit maturation patterns of Carya spp. (Juglandaceae): an intra-crown analysis of growth and reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit survival patterns, from fertilization to maturation, were examined for Carya ovata and C. tomentosa in a New Jersey USA forest. We observed fruiting and shoot growth characteristics over a 3-yr period to determine: (1) the patterns of fruit survivorship (from initiation to maturity) within and among years, (2) the relationships between shoot growth, fruit initiation, and fruit survival to

Brian C. McCarthy; James A. Quinn

1992-01-01

294

Depressed pollination in habitat fragments causes low fruit set.  

PubMed Central

In central New South Wales, Australia, flowers of Acacia brachybotrya and Eremophila glabra plants growing in linear vegetation remnants received less pollen than conspecifics in nearby reserves. Pollen supplementation increased fruit production by both species, indicating pollen limitation of fruit set. Together these observations explain why fruit production by these species was depressed in linear-strip populations relative to nearby reserves. This study confirms that habitat fragmentation can lead to decline in pollination and subsequent fruit set in wild plant populations. Disrupted pollination interactions of the kind documented in this study may offer a substantial challenge to the conservation of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes. PMID:10885521

Cunningham, S A

2000-01-01

295

Research of pesticide residues on fruit by terahertz spectroscopy technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pesticide residues on the fruit skin are measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in 0.2-1.3THz. Pesticide is mainly residues for fruit, which threatens health of human, so the research about the fruit residues is absolutely important. In the experiment, a kind of pesticide carbendazim, orange, and the mixture of them are measured by THz-TDS, and then calculate absorption spectrums through Fourier transform and Fresnel formula. Experiment results indicate that THz-TDS is an effective tool for the measurement of pesticide residues on the fruit skin.

Ma, Yehao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Huali

2011-11-01

296

Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits.  

PubMed

In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. All the three extracts of Terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts which were earlier, necrosed by alloxan. PMID:12902049

Nagappa, A N; Thakurdesai, P A; Venkat Rao, N; Singh, Jiwan

2003-09-01

297

Isolation and biophysical study of fruit cuticles.  

PubMed

The cuticle, a hydrophobic protective layer on the aerial parts of terrestrial plants, functions as a versatile defensive barrier to various biotic and abiotic stresses and also regulates water flow from the external environment. A biopolyester (cutin) and long-chain fatty acids (waxes) form the principal structural framework of the cuticle; the functional integrity of the cuticular layer depends on the outer 'epicuticular' layer as well as the blend consisting of the cutin biopolymer and 'intracuticular' waxes. Herein, we describe a comprehensive protocol to extract waxes exhaustively from commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticles or to remove epicuticular and intracuticular waxes sequentially and selectively from the cuticle composite. The method of Jetter and Schäffer (2001) was adapted for the stepwise extraction of epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from the fruit cuticle. To monitor the process of sequential wax removal, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) (13)C NMR spectroscopy was used in parallel with atomic force microscopy (AFM), providing molecular-level structural profiles of the bulk materials complemented by information on the microscale topography and roughness of the cuticular surfaces. To evaluate the cross-linking capabilities of dewaxed cuticles from cultivated wild-type and single-gene mutant tomato fruits, MAS (13)C NMR was used to compare the relative proportions of oxygenated aliphatic (CHO and CH(2)O) chemical moieties. Exhaustive dewaxing by stepwise Soxhlet extraction with a panel of solvents of varying polarity provides an effective means to isolate wax moieties based on the hydrophobic characteristics of their aliphatic and aromatic constituents, while preserving the chemical structure of the cutin biopolyester. The mechanical extraction of epicuticular waxes and selective removal of intracuticular waxes, when monitored by complementary physical methodologies, provides an unprecedented means to investigate the cuticle assembly: this approach reveals the supramolecular organization and structural integration of various types of waxes, the architecture of the cutin-wax matrix, and the chemical composition of each constituent. In addition, solid-state (13)C NMR reveals differences in the relative numbers of CHO and CH(2)O chemical moieties for wild-type and mutant red ripe tomato fruits. The NMR techniques offer exceptional tools to fingerprint the molecular structure of cuticular materials that are insoluble, amorphous, and chemically heterogeneous. As a noninvasive surface-selective imaging technique, AFM furnishes an effective and direct means to probe the structural organization of the cuticular assembly on the nm-?m length scale. PMID:22490984

Chatterjee, Subhasish; Sarkar, Sayantani; Oktawiec, Julia; Mao, Zhantong; Niitsoo, Olivia; Stark, Ruth E

2012-01-01

298

Place fruit in a microwaveable container and fill with water until fruit are covered.  

E-print Network

(such as a reusable coffee filter), and look at remaining sifted contents under a microscope. Sampling berries for spotted wing drosophila larvae Salt Test: · Place fruit in a gallon Ziplock bag and lightly to the bag to cover the berries. Add food coloring to liquid for more contrast. · Seal bag, removing as much

299

Multisensory flavor perception: Assessing the influence of fruit acids and color cues on the perception of fruit-flavored beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study designed to investigate the influence of fruit acids (in particular, citric and malic acid) on people’s perception of the identity and the intensity of a variety of different fruit-flavored solutions. Participants had to identify the flavor of fruit-flavored drinks that were colored yellow, grey, orange, red, or else were presented as colorless solutions. The participants also

Massimiliano Zampini; Emma Wantling; Nicola Phillips; Charles Spence

2008-01-01

300

Survival of salmonella on dried fruits and in aqueous dried fruit homogenates as affected by temperature.  

PubMed

A study was done to determine the ability of Salmonella to survive on dried cranberries, raisins, and strawberries and in date paste, as affected by storage temperature. Acid-adapted Salmonella, initially at 6.57 to 7.01 log CFU/g, was recovered from mist-inoculated cranberries (water activity [aw] 0.47) and raisins (aw 0.46) stored at 25°C for 21 days but not 42 days, strawberries (aw 0.21) for 42 days but not 84 days, and date paste (aw 0.69) for 84 days but not 126 days. In contrast, the pathogen was detected in strawberries stored at 4°C for 182 days (6 months) but not 242 days (8 months) and in cranberries, date paste, and raisins stored for 242 days. Surface-grown cells survived longer than broth-grown cells in date paste. The order of rate of inactivation at 4°C was cranberry > strawberry > raisin > date paste. Initially at 2.18 to 3.35 log CFU/g, inactivation of Salmonella on dry (sand)&ndash inoculated fruits followed trends similar to those for mist-inoculated fruits. Survival of Salmonella in aqueous homogenates of dried fruits as affected by fruit concentration and temperature was also studied. Growth was not observed in 10% (aw 0.995 to 0.999) and 50% (aw 0.955 to 0.962) homogenates of the four fruits held at 4°C, 50% homogenates at 25°C, and 10% cranberry and strawberry homogenates at 25°C. Growth of the pathogen in 10% date paste and raisin homogenates stored at 25°C was followed by rapid inactivation. Results of these studies suggest the need to subject dried fruits that may be contaminated with Salmonella to a lethal process and prevent postprocess contamination before they are eaten out-of-hand or used as ingredients in ready-to-eat foods. Observations showing that Salmonella can grow in aqueous homogenates of date paste and raisins emphasize the importance of minimizing contact of these fruits with high-moisture environments during handling and storage. PMID:24988015

Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

2014-07-01

301

Changes in the distribution of cell wall polysaccharides in early fruit pericarp and ovule, from fruit set to early fruit development, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).  

PubMed

During fruit development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), cell proliferation and rapid cell expansion occur after pollination. Cell wall synthesis, alteration, and degradation play important roles during early fruit formation, but cell wall composition and the extent of cell wall synthesis/degradation are poorly understood. In this study, we used immunolocalization with a range of specific monoclonal antibodies to examine the changes in cell wall composition during early fruit development in tomato. In exploring early fruit development, the -1 day post-anthesis (DPA) ovary and fruits at 1, 3, and 5 DPA were sampled. Paraffin sections were prepared for staining and immunolabeling. The 5 DPA fruit showed rapid growth in size and an increase in both methyl-esterified pectin and de-methyl-esterified pectin content in the pericarp, suggesting rapid synthesis and de-methyl esterification of pectin during this growth period. Labeling of pectic arabinan with LM6 antibody and galactan with LM5 antibody revealed abundant amounts of both, with unique distribution patterns in the ovule and premature pericarp. These results suggest the presence of rapid pectin metabolism during the early stages of fruit development and indicate a unique distribution of pectic galactan and arabinan within the ovule, where they may be involved in embryogenesis. PMID:23455617

Terao, Azusa; Hyodo, Hiromi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

2013-09-01

302

'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology. PMID:24994760

Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

2014-09-01

303

Effect of Calcium Nitrate and Boric Acid Sprays on Fruit Set, Yield and Fruit Quality of cv. Amhat Date Palm  

E-print Network

Abstract: The objective of the present study is to investigate the impact of spraying boric acid and/or calcium nitrate on fruit set, yield and fruit of cv. Amhat date palm. The present study was carried out during 2011/2012 growing seasons. Palms were sprayed with boric acid at 250 and 500 ppm and calcium nitrate at 1 and 2 % as individual application or in a combination between boric acid and calcium nitrate concentrations treatments. In general, results indicated that spraying date palm inflorescence with both boric acid and/or calcium nitrate had a significant effect on fruit set, yield and fruit physical and chemical characteristics of Amhat date palm. The superior treatment concerning yield and fruit quality was spraying boric acid at 500 ppm combined with calcium nitrate at 2 % in the two experimental seasons. Key words: Date palm Fruit set Yield Fruit quality Boric acid Calcium nitrate INTRODUCTION synthesis, transport of sugars and carbohydrate metabolism [12]. Calcium is conceder as one of the most Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is concerned as important minerals determining the quality of fruit since it one of the important crops in arid and semi-arid regions of is required for cell elongation and cell division [13]. Till the world. Date palm is one of the ancient domestic fruit now, a little attention have been paid towards nutrient

S. M. A. Sarrwy; E. G. Gadalla; E. A. M. Mostafa

304

Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. Results We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Conclusions Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit development in this species, also inhibit ethylene production and the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes. A model is presented that discusses the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin in the control of fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash. PMID:24053311

2013-01-01

305

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2007-11-30

306

Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits  

PubMed Central

Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening and non-climacteric fruit ripening in general. PMID:23245313

2012-01-01

307

[Chemical constituents of Osmanthus fragrans fruits].  

PubMed

By Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and other materials for isolation and purification and by physicochemical methods and spectral analysis for structural identification, 23 compounds were isolated and identified from ethyl acetate portion of alcohol extract solution of Osmanthus fragrans fruits. Their structures were identified as nicotinamide (1), D-allitol (2), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde (3), acetyloleanolic acid (4), benzoic acid (5), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (6), beta-sitosterol (7), borreriagenin (8), cerevistero (9), c-veratroylglycol (10), methyl-2-O-beta-glucopyranosylbenzoate (11), 3', 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavon (12), umbelliferone (13), caffeic acid methyl ester (14), oleanolic acid (15), (-) -chicanine (16), dillapiol (17), 3beta,5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxyergosta-7-22-dien-6-one (18), 2alpha-hydroxy-oleanolic acid (19), betulinic acid (20), betulin (21), 3, 3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (22), and lupeol (23). All compounds were isolated from the osmanthus fruit for the first time. Except for compounds 4, 7, 15, 19, 23, the rest ones were isolated from the this plant for the first time. PMID:24791540

Yin, Wei; Liu, Jin-Qi; Zhang, Guo-Sheng

2013-12-01

308

The expanded tomato fruit volatile landscape.  

PubMed

The present review aims to synthesize our present knowledge about the mechanisms implied in the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in the ripe tomato fruit, which have a key role in tomato flavour. The difficulties in identifiying not only genes or genomic regions but also individual target compounds for plant breeding are addressed. Ample variability in the levels of almost any volatile compound exists, not only in the populations derived from interspecific crosses but also in heirloom varieties and even in commercial hybrids. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for all tomato aroma volatiles have been identified in collections derived from both intraspecific and interspecific crosses with different wild tomato species and they (i) fail to co-localize with structural genes in the volatile biosynthetic pathways and (ii) reveal very little coincidence in the genomic regions characterized, indicating that there is ample opportunity to reinforce the levels of the volatiles of interest. Some of the identified genes may be useful as markers or as biotechnological tools to enhance tomato aroma. Current knowledge about the major volatile biosynthetic pathways in the fruit is summarized. Finally, and based on recent reports, it is stressed that conjugation to other metabolites such as sugars seems to play a key role in the modulation of volatile release, at least in some metabolic pathways. PMID:24692651

Rambla, José L; Tikunov, Yury M; Monforte, Antonio J; Bovy, Arnaud G; Granell, Antonio

2014-08-01

309

Cherry fruit abscission: evidence for time of initiation and the involvement of ethylene.  

PubMed

Initiation of abscission at the pedicel-fruit zone in the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) occurs near the transition of Stage II to Stage III of fruit growth. The preinitiation phase is characterized by a high fruit removal force (FRF) and explants prepared from fruits during this period do not undergo abscission as indexed by a reduction in FRF. Ethylene does not cause a significant reduction in FRF either in attached fruit or in explants prepared during this period. By contrast, after initiation (Stage III of fruit growth), there is a marked decrease in FRF with fruit development, explants prepared from fruits during this period undergo abscission, and ethylene markedly promotes the loss in break-strength. Neither the rate of evolution nor the internal concentration of ethylene in the fruit were correlated with fruit abscission. Similar abscission responses, as indexed by FRF and sensitivity to ethylene, were observed in attached fruit and in detached fruit explants. PMID:16658915

Wittenbach, V A; Bukovac, M J

1974-10-01

310

27 CFR 24.130 - Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations...Establishment § 24.130 Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations...change in the process employed to produce volatile fruit-flavor concentrate...

2010-04-01

311

27 CFR 24.113 - Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations...Application § 24.113 Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. Each applicant intending to produce volatile fruit-flavor concentrate...

2010-04-01

312

Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava  

PubMed Central

Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID:25373154

Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

2014-01-01

313

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops. PMID:24655934

2014-01-01

314

Regulation of the Fruit-Specific PEP Carboxylase SlPPC2 Promoter at Early Stages of Tomato Fruit Development  

PubMed Central

The SlPPC2 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31) gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is differentially and specifically expressed in expanding tissues of developing tomato fruit. We recently showed that a 1966 bp DNA fragment located upstream of the ATG codon of the SlPPC2 gene (GenBank AJ313434) confers appropriate fruit-specificity in transgenic tomato. In this study, we further investigated the regulation of the SlPPC2 promoter gene by analysing the SlPPC2 cis-regulating region fused to either the firefly luciferase (LUC) or the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, using stable genetic transformation and biolistic transient expression assays in the fruit. Biolistic analyses of 5? SlPPC2 promoter deletions fused to LUC in fruits at the 8th day after anthesis revealed that positive regulatory regions are mostly located in the distal region of the promoter. In addition, a 5? UTR leader intron present in the 1966 bp fragment contributes to the proper temporal regulation of LUC activity during fruit development. Interestingly, the SlPPC2 promoter responds to hormones (ethylene) and metabolites (sugars) regulating fruit growth and metabolism. When tested by transient expression assays, the chimeric promoter:LUC fusion constructs allowed gene expression in both fruit and leaf, suggesting that integration into the chromatin is required for fruit-specificity. These results clearly demonstrate that SlPPC2 gene is under tight transcriptional regulation in the developing fruit and that its promoter can be employed to drive transgene expression specifically during the cell expansion stage of tomato fruit. Taken together, the SlPPC2 promoter offers great potential as a candidate for driving transgene expression specifically in developing tomato fruit from various tomato cultivars. PMID:22615815

Guillet, Carine; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Le Menn, Aline; Viron, Nicolas; Pribat, Anne; Germain, Veronique; Just, Daniel; Baldet, Pierre; Rousselle, Patrick; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; Rothan, Christophe

2012-01-01

315

Lipid Transfer Proteins from Fruit: Cloning, Expression and Quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are stable, potentially life-threatening allergens in fruits and many other vegetable foods. The aim of this study was to clone and express recombinant apple LTP (Mal d 3), as has previously been done for peach LTP (Pru p 3) and set up quantitative tests for measuring fruit LTPs. Methods: cDNA for Mal d 3 and

Laurian Zuidmeer; W. Astrid van Leeuwen; Ilona Kleine Budde; Jessica Cornelissen; Ingrid Bulder; Ilona Rafalska; Noèlia Telléz Besolí; Jaap H. Akkerdaas; Riccardo Asero; Montserrat Fernandez Rivas; Eloina Gonzalez Mancebo; Ronald van Ree

2005-01-01

316

May 2008 Regional Fruit Grower Newsletter CALENDAR OF EVENTS  

E-print Network

Peninsula 5/10 Season Extension Methods for Vegetables & Fruit Black Star Farms 5/13 Tree Fruit IPM Updates Training Ends 6/28- Sleeping Bear Dunes Barn Restoration Workshop 29 Port Oneida Rural Historic District 7 currently serves as the Utah Extension Integrated Pest Management Coordinator at the Utah Agricultural

317

Characterization of juice in fruits of different Chaenomeles species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juice in fruits of 21 genotypes of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), 1 genotype of Chinese quince (C. cathayensis), 1 genotype of flowering quince (C. speciosa) and 1 genotype of a hybrid taxon (C. ×superba), representing plant breeding material, was extracted and characterized. The content of juice in the fruits varied between 41% and 52%, on fresh weight basis. The

J. M. Ros; J. Laencina; P. Hell??n; M. J. Jordán; R. Vila; K. Rumpunen

2004-01-01

318

July 2008 Regional Fruit Grower Newsletter CALENDER OF EVENTS  

E-print Network

July 2008 Regional Fruit Grower Newsletter CALENDER OF EVENTS 7/1 Enrollment Begins for USDA SAFE. Putney planted 60 saskatoon plants in the spring of 2005. This will be the first significant fruiting season for these plants. There is no charge for this educational program. Berries should be ripe enough

319

Pectate lyase activity during ripening of banana fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectate lyase (PEL) activity was demonstrated in ripe banana fruits on supplementing the homogenizing medium with cysteine and Triton X-100. The enzyme was characterized on the basis of alkaline pH optimum, elimination of the activity by EDTA and activation by Ca2+. PEL activity was not detected in preclimacteric banana fruits. PEL activity increased progressively from early climacteric and reached maximum

Anurag Payasi; G. G Sanwal

2003-01-01

320

Fruit Quality of New Early Ripening Strawberry Cultivars in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this research fruit quality of seven early ripening strawberry cultivars (Clerry, Maya, Alba, Miss, Camarosa, Queen Elisa and Elsanta) during successive harvesting pe- riods has been investigated. The following quality parameters were determined in the har- vested fruits: dry matter, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, total acidity (TA), TSS\\/TA ratio, re- ducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, total anthocyanins,

Nadica Dobricevic; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Boris Duralija

2008-01-01

321

Food component profiles for fruit and vegetable subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be of practical use to nutrition professionals and consumers, subgroup classifications for fruits and vegetables should be based on similarity in food composition and on easily identifiable classification characteristics. The means and standard deviations (SDs) for 24 food components (including total antioxidant capacity) in previously identified subgroups for fruits and vegetables were determined. The subgroups (dark green leafy vegetables;

Jean A. T. Pennington; Rachel A. Fisher

2010-01-01

322

December 2006 Regional Fruit Grower Newsletter CALENDAR OF EVENTS  

E-print Network

with the general session on the first day. #12;The tree fruit session will include topics in pest management, Tasmania, Australia 3/2-3 Farm it Forward KBS 3/4-7 5th Int'l Organic Tree Fruit Research Symposium East Hall, Ellsworth December 12, Northwest Michigan Horticultural Research Station 9:00 a.m. to 12

323

75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit...August 2001 to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit...address, and phone number to Ms. Pamela Stanziani at: Pamela...members representing a broad spectrum of persons interested in...

2010-02-23

324

76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable...Committee in August 2001 to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable...e-mail address, and phone number to Ms. Pamela Stanziani at:...

2011-02-02

325

75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable...Committee in August 2001 to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable...e-mail address, and phone number to Ms. Pamela Stanziani at:...

2010-08-06

326

AMERICAN ROBIN DEFENDS FRUIT RESOURCE AGAINST CEDAR WAXWINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In central Minnesota an American Robin (Turdus migratorius) defended a fruit- bearing crabapple tree successfully against up to 15 Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) during the first 2 wks of April. Defense of the tree against larger groups was unsuccessful. Such defense of fruit by birds may be more common than the literature suggests. PETIROJO (TURDUS MIGRATORIUS) DEFIENDE RECURSOS ALIMENTICIOS DE

J. PIETZ

327

U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, demographics, technology, government regulation, and the expanding interdependence of world markets, the United States fruit and vegetable processing industries must operate in a constantly changing and uncertain economic environment. U.S. per capita use of processed fruits and vegetables is…

Buckley, Katharine C.; And Others

328

Polysaccharides Isolated from Açaí Fruit Induce Innate Immune Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Açaí (Acai) fruit is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly enhances immune system function. These anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing immune responses to the Acai polyphenol fraction. Previously, we characterized ?? T cell responses to both polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions from several plant-derived nutritional supplements. Similar polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions are found in Acai fruit. Thus,

Jeff Holderness; Igor A. Schepetkin; Brett Freedman; Liliya N. Kirpotina; Mark T. Quinn; Jodi F. Hedges; Mark A. Jutila; Jacques Zimmer

2011-01-01

329

Bird damage to tropical fruit in south Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dade County, Florida, the production of tropical fruit is a major component of the agricultural industry with total sales amounting to $73.5 million in the 1997-1998 season. Two types of fruit in particular, lychee (Litchi chinensis) and longan (Euphoria longana), are rapidly emerging in economic importance with a combined annual value of over $19 million. For many lychee and

Eric A. Tillman; Annamaria Van Doom; Michael L. Avery

2000-01-01

330

Northern Michigan FruitNet 2003 Weekly Update  

E-print Network

Position Vacant Bill Klein District Horticulturist District Fruit IPM Agent Farm Mgr, NWMHRS Duke Elsner 1, 2003 Please send any comments or suggestions regarding this site to: Bill Klein, kleinw Research Station Jim Nugent Position Vacant Bill Klein District Horticulturist District Fruit IPM Agent

331

Northern Michigan FruitNet 2004 Weekly Update  

E-print Network

Position Vacant Bill Klein District Horticulturist District Fruit IPM Agent Farm Mgr, NWMHRS Duke Elsner, 2004 Please send any comments or suggestions regarding this site to: Bill Klein, kleinw@msu.edu Last FruitNet 2004 Weekly Update NW Michigan Horticultural Research Station Jim Nugent Position Vacant Bill

332

Multiple Paternity in Fruits of Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different mechanisms can result in multiple paternity within fruits: deposition of a mixed pollen load due to carryover of pollen from flower to flower and multiple pollinator visits in close succession. I investigated the extent of multiple paternity within fruits of Ipompsis aggregata containing from 2 to 14 seeds. A paternity analysis based on ten polymorphic isozyme markers revealed

Diane R. Campbell

1998-01-01

333

Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An Emerging Medicinal Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits

Praveen K. Vayalil

2011-01-01

334

Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An Emerging Medicinal Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits

Praveen K. Vayalil

2012-01-01

335

Traditional Processing of Masau Fruits (Ziziphus Mauritiana) in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the traditional processing techniques of masau was conducted using a questionnaire and two focus group discussions in Mudzi, Mt. Darwin, and Muzarabani districts in Zimbabwe. Masau fruits form part of the family diet and generate additional income by selling at local markets. Surplus fruits are sun dried and can be transformed into various products such as porridge,

Loveness K. Nyanga; Martinus J. R. Nout; Tendekayi H. Gadaga; Teun Boekhout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2008-01-01

336

Anaphylaxis and generalized urticaria from eating Chinese bayberry fruit.  

PubMed

Chinese bayberry Myrica rubra is a very popular fruit in southeastern China. In spite of its wide consumption, no allergies to this fruit have been reported previously. Here we report on a 40-year-old woman suffering from anaphylaxis to Chinese bayberry fruit. Prick-prick skin tests revealed strong reactions to fresh Chinese bayberry fruits as well as to peach, and weaker reactions to some other fruits including apple, melon, and banana. ImmunoCAP analysis revealed identical titers of specific IgE (4.3 kU(A)/L) to peach extract and its lipid transfer protein (LTP, rPru p 3), which was confirmed by detection of a 9 kD band following immunoblotting. Immunoblot analysis with Chinese bayberry extract gave bands of 22, 45, and 90 kD, but no 9 kD band was recognized. There was also no evidence of LTP recognition for loquat (36 kD) or melon (24 kD). This first report of a severe allergic reaction to Chinese bayberry fruit in a patient with LTP-mediated peach allergy indicates that other as yet unidentified non-pollen related fruit allergens are involved in this new severe fruit allergy. PMID:23024053

Wang, Hui-ying; Gao, Zhong-shan; Yang, Zhao-wei; Shao, Jing-xin; Zhao, Xiu-zhen; Dai, Yu; Van Ree, Ronald

2012-10-01

337

Northern Michigan FruitNet 2005 Weekly Update  

E-print Network

an average of 12 moths/trap. We captured our first apple maggot at the NWMHRS this week, but reports of apple reserves. GROWTH STAGES AT NWMHRS (8/2/05) Apple: Red Delicious: 56mm fruit; Mac: 56 mm fruit Pear: 46 mm Elsner, Agricultural Educator, Grand Traverse Co. Apples: With the rain we have had in the last week

338

upated on 3/15/2010 Fruit Referral Notebook  

E-print Network

://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource000541_Rep563.pdf Apple Maggot and Its Control http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2041.html Beneficialupated on 3/15/2010 Fruit Referral Notebook A Home Fruit Garden Choosing the Right Apple Rootstock http://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource000583_Rep605.pdf Dwarf Apple Trees for Home Gardens

New Hampshire, University of

339

Northern Michigan FruitNet 2003 Weekly Update  

E-print Network

cover sprays for codling moth has been almost continuous this summer. Apple maggot adult flight has yet relatively cool for this time of year. GROWTH STAGES at NWMHRS Apple: Red Delicious ­ 49mm fruit Pear week throughout the area. There is still a risk of egg laying and maggots in fruit in late Montmorency

340

Learning of apple fruit biotypes by apple maggot flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we showed that after a female apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella,arrives on a host hawthorn or apple fruit, its propensity to accept (bore into) or reject that fruit prior to egg deposition can be modified by previous ovipositional experience with one or the other species and, hence, involves learning. Here, we present both field and laboratory evidence indicating that

Ronald J. Prokopy; Daniel R. Papaj

1988-01-01

341

Perspectives in Practice A Garden Pilot Project Enhances Fruit and  

E-print Network

activities. Participation in the "seed to table" experience of eating may help promote healthful eating;109:1220-1226. A lthough evidence suggests that eating fruits and vegetables promotes health and prevents several chronic (2,3). A review of 21 studies on fruit and vegetable consumption in children found preference

Maxwell, Bruce D.

342

Proteomic analysis of ripening tomato fruit infected by Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea, a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes gray mold as it infects different organs on more than 200 plant species, is a significant contributor to postharvest rot in fresh fruit and vegetables, including tomatoes. By describing host and pathogen proteomes simultaneously in infected tissues, the plant proteins that provide resistance and allow susceptibility and the pathogen proteins that promote colonization and facilitate quiescence can be identified. This study characterizes fruit and fungal proteins solubilized in the B. cinerea-tomato interaction using shotgun proteomics. Mature green, red ripe wild type and ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit were infected with B. cinerea B05.10, and the fruit and fungal proteomes were identified concurrently 3 days postinfection. One hundred eighty-six tomato proteins were identified in common among red ripe and red ripe-equivalent ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit infected by B. cinerea. However, the limited infections by B. cinerea of mature green wild type fruit resulted in 25 and 33% fewer defense-related tomato proteins than in red and rin fruit, respectively. In contrast, the ripening stage of genotype of the fruit infected did not affect the secreted proteomes of B. cinerea. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their role in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:22364583

Shah, Punit; Powell, Ann L T; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo

2012-04-01

343

RESEARCH PAPER Pollen dispersal and fruit production in Vaccinium oxycoccos  

E-print Network

RESEARCH PAPER Pollen dispersal and fruit production in Vaccinium oxycoccos and comparison with its pollen quantity, but also quality, e.g. the balance of essential amino acids (Roulston et al. 2000 display; flower colour; fluorescent dye; fruit production; insect pollination; pollen dispersal; spectral

Rasmont, Pierre

344

NW Michigan Regional Fruit Grower Newsletter August 2005  

E-print Network

& Equipment Show 9/24 Pesticide Collection 9/27 Trevor Nichols Fields Day 1-5 p.m., Fennville 12/6-8 Great just before the July 4 rain. Fruit shrinks because the tree uses the fruit moisture to meet its need

345

The participatory domestication of West African indigenous fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study obtained quantitative data on fruit and nut traits from two indigenous fruit trees in West Africa (Irvingia gabonensis and Dacryodes edulis), which have led to the identification of trees meeting ideotypes based on multiple morphological, quality and food property traits desirable in putative cultivars. The same data also indicates changes in population structure that provide pointers to

R. R. B. Leakey; K. Schreckenberg; Z. Tchoundjeu

2003-01-01

346

Autonomous Fruit Picking Machine: A Robotic Apple Harvester  

E-print Network

Autonomous Fruit Picking Machine: A Robotic Apple Harvester Johan Baeten1 , Kevin Donn´e2 , Sven the construction and functionality of an Au- tonomous Fruit Picking Machine (AFPM) for robotic apple harvesting technologies to automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. apple harvest- ing [2, 10]. This paper describes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

agbioresearch.msu.edu MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report  

E-print Network

1 agbioresearch.msu.edu MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report Northwest Region Reports - 2005 Jim Project GREEEN Michigan State Horticulture Society Michigan Apple Research Committee Michigan apple sites: www.ams.usda.gov/marketnews.htm www.bhfm.com NW Michigan Pome Fruit Code-a-phone/Apple Maturity

348

agbioresearch.msu.edu MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report  

E-print Network

1 agbioresearch.msu.edu MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report Northwest Region Reports - 2006 Jim Project GREEEN Michigan State Horticulture Society Michigan Apple Research Committee Michigan apple sites: www.ams.usda.gov/marketnews.htm www.bhfm.com NW Michigan Pome Fruit Code-a-phone/Apple Maturity

349

agbioresearch.msu.edu MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report  

E-print Network

1 agbioresearch.msu.edu MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report Northwest Region Reports - 2007 Nikki Horticulture Society Michigan Apple Research Committee Michigan apple Shippers MSU Extension MSU Ag Pome Fruit Code-a-phone/Apple Maturity Line (231) 947-3063 NW MICHIGAN APPLE MATURITY REPORT #1 August

350

agbioresearch.msu.edu MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report  

E-print Network

1 agbioresearch.msu.edu MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report Northwest Region Reports - 2008 Michigan Apple Research Committee Michigan apple Shippers MSU Extension MSU AgBioResearch Current pricing information can be obtained at the following web sites: http://www.bhfm.com/ NW Michigan Pome Fruit Code-a-phone/Apple

351

Effects of Bloom-Thinning Chemicals on Apple Fruit Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

When applied in either single or multiple airblast treatments in bloom, Endothall, pelargonic acid, YI-1066, Wilthin, and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) inhibited fruit set. Treatments made in the later stages of bloom (90% open flowers) caused more fruit russetting or marking, but were more effective than those applied at earlier stages. Chemicals that caused more injury to petals, leaves, and new

Ross E. Byers

1998-01-01

352

Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of  

E-print Network

Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance Lucas A. Garibaldi,1,23 Neal Williams,37 Alexandra M. Klein13 The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit

Vermont, University of

353

Currently, children are not eating enough fruits and vegetables.  

E-print Network

reported that they were noticing some healthy changes in their children's eating. "One parent told us she1 Key Points Currently, children are not eating enough fruits and vegetables. The Farm. Currently, children are not eating enough fruits and vegetables, as the average child in the US eats less

Almor, Amit

354

Phenolic compounds from the fruit of Garcinia dulcis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dulcinoside (1), dulcisisoflavone (2), dulcisxanthone A (3) and sphaerobioside acetate (6) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the green fruit of G. dulcis. Dulcisflavan (4), dulcisxanthone B (5) and isonormangostin (7) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the ripe fruit. Compounds 6 and 7 were synthetic known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The

S. Deachathai; W. Mahabusarakam; S. Phongpaichit

2005-01-01

355

High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a minimal thermal technology is a valuable tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruit and vegetable production. Microorganisms and deteriorative enzymes can be inhibited or inactivated depending on the amount of pressure and time applied to the product. The resistance of microorganisms and enzymes to pressure in fruit and vegetable products also is dependent on

José A. Guerrero-Beltrán; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas; Barry G. Swanson

2005-01-01

356

Lipids and lipophilic components of Viburnum opulus fruits during maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of the composition of neutral and polar lipids and lipophilic components during maturation of guelder rose (V. opulus L., fam. Caprifoliaceae) fruits was investigated. During fruit ripening, all lipid groups are accumulated, the highest accumulation rate being observed in the first period of maturation. In nonpolar lipids, this is due to a substantial increase in the content of

A. R. Karimova; S. G. Yunusova; E. G. Galkin; N. I. Fedorov; M. S. Yunusov

2004-01-01

357

Anaphylaxis and generalized urticaria from eating Chinese bayberry fruit*  

PubMed Central

Chinese bayberry myrica rubra is a very popular fruit in southeastern China. In spite of its wide consumption, no allergies to this fruit have been reported previously. Here we report on a 40-year-old woman suffering from anaphylaxis to Chinese bayberry fruit. Prick-prick skin tests revealed strong reactions to fresh Chinese bayberry fruits as well as to peach, and weaker reactions to some other fruits including apple, melon, and banana. ImmunoCAP analysis revealed identical titers of specific IgE (4.3 kUA/L) to peach extract and its lipid transfer protein (LTP, rPru p 3), which was confirmed by detection of a 9 kD band following immunoblotting. Immunoblot analysis with Chinese bayberry extract gave bands of 22, 45, and 90 kD, but no 9 kD band was recognized. There was also no evidence of LTP recognition for loquat (36 kD) or melon (24 kD). This first report of a severe allergic reaction to Chinese bayberry fruit in a patient with LTP-mediated peach allergy indicates that other as yet unidentified non-pollen related fruit allergens are involved in this new severe fruit allergy. PMID:23024053

Wang, Hui-ying; Gao, Zhong-shan; Yang, Zhao-wei; Shao, Jing-xin; Zhao, Xiu-zhen; Dai, Yu; Van Ree, Ronald

2012-01-01

358

Molecular cloning and characterisation of banana fruit polyphenol oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) is the enzyme thought to be responsible for browning in banana [Musa cavendishii (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Williams] fruit. Banana flesh was high in PPO activity throughout growth and ripening. Peel showed high levels of activity early in development but activity declined until ripening started and then remained constant. PPO activity in fruit was

Paul S. Gooding; Colin Bird; Simon P. Robinson

2001-01-01

359

Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review  

PubMed Central

Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23769545

Kadell, Andria R.

2013-01-01

360

Modelling chlorophyll fluorescence of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).  

PubMed

Kiwi fruit displays chlorophyll fluorescence. A physical model was developed to reproduce the observed original fluorescence for the whole fruit, from the emission of the different parts of the kiwi fruit. The spectral distribution of fluorescence in each part of the fruit, was corrected to eliminate distortions due to light re-absorption and it was analyzed in relation to photosystem II-photosystem I ratio. Kiwi fruit also displays variable chlorophyll-fluorescence, similar to that observed from leaves. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)), the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (?(PSII)), and the photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (q(P) and q(NP) respectively) were determined and discussed in terms of the model developed. The study was extended by determining the photosynthetic parameters as a function of the storage time, at both 4 °C and room temperature for 25 days. PMID:22337099

Novo, Johanna Mendes; Iriel, Analia; Lagorio, M Gabriela

2012-04-01

361

[Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].  

PubMed

The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function. PMID:25055366

Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flávio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam José; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

2014-01-01

362

The strawberry fruit Fra a allergen functions in flavonoid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The strawberry Fra a 1 allergen is a homolog of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. It is synthesized by red ripe fruits of Fragaria x ananassa while white fruits of a mutant genotype, which is known to be tolerated by individuals affected by allergy, are devoid of it. Proteomic analyses have shown that Fra a 1 is down-regulated in the tolerated white-fruited genotype along with enzymes of the anthocyanin pigment pathway. In this study, we report the spatial and temporal expression of three Fra a genes that encode different isoforms, and the transient RNAi-mediated silencing of the Fra a genes in strawberry fruits of the red-fruited cultivar Elsanta with an ihpRNA construct. As a consequence of reduced levels of Fra a mRNAs, fruits were obtained that produced significantly decreased levels of anthocyanins and upstream metabolites. This effect is consistent with the parallel down-regulation of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (FaPAL) and to a lesser extent of the chalcone synthase (FaCHS) transcript levels also found in these fruits. In naturally occurring white-fruited genotypes of F. chiloensis and F. vesca, Fra a transcript levels are higher than those of the red-fruited varieties, likely to compensate for the low expression levels of FaPAL and FaCHS in these mutant genotypes. The results demonstrate that Fra a expression is directly linked to flavonoid biosynthesis and show that the Fra a allergen has an essential biological function in pigment formation in strawberry fruit. PMID:19969523

Muñoz, Cristina; Hoffmann, Thomas; Escobar, Nieves Medina; Ludemann, Felix; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Schwab, Wilfried

2010-01-01

363

The fruit of Bursera: structure, maturation and parthenocarpy  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The deterioration of seasonally tropical dry forests will stop with the implementation of management plans for this ecosystem. To develop these plans, we require information regarding aspects such as germination and the presence of ‘empty seeds’ of representative species—like, for example, Bursera, a genus with a high number of endemic species of the Mesoamerican Hotspot—that would enable us to propagate its species. The main purpose of this study is to describe the phenological and structural characteristics of fruits of 12 Bursera species and provide useful data for future studies on germination and seed dispersal, and to acquire new and useful information to understand the phylogenetic relationships of the Burseraceae family. Methodology We described the phenology of fruit ripening in 12 species of Bursera. Fruits were collected from the study sites in three different stages of development. The histochemical and anatomical characteristics of fruits of all species were described with the use of inclusion techniques and scanning microscopy. Principal results There is a time gap between the development of the ovary and the development of the ovule in the 12 studied species. The exposed pseudoaril during the dispersion stage is an indicator of the seed's maturity and the fruit's viability. The Bursera fruit shows the same structural pattern as that of Commiphora, as well as many similarities with species of the Anacardiaceae family. All species develop parthenocarpic fruits that retain the structural characteristics of the immature fruits: soft tissues rich in nitrogen compounds and few chemical and physical defences. Insects were found mainly inside the parthenocarpic fruits in eight species of Bursera. Conclusions The dispersion unit in Bursera consists of a seed, a lignified endocarp that protects the seed, and a pseudoaril that helps attract seed dispersers. The production of parthenocarpic fruits is energy saving; however, it is necessary to evaluate the potential benefits of this phenomenon. PMID:23115709

Ramos-Ordonez, Maria F.; Arizmendi, M. del Coro; Marquez-Guzman, Judith

2012-01-01

364

Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification  

PubMed Central

Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 ?g iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs. PMID:23818889

Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

2013-01-01

365

Impact on fruit removal and seed predation of a secondary metabolite, emodin, in Rhamnus alaternus fruit pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two contradictory approaches to explaining the presence of secondary metabolites in ripe fruits. One holds that they evolved toward enhancing dispersal success (adaptive approach); the other claims that they evolved primarily to deter herbivores from eating leaves and seeds and that their presence in ripe fruits is a byproduct of that function (non-adaptive approach). We tested the validity

Ella Tsahar; Jacob Friedman; Ido Izhaki

2002-01-01

366

Proteomic analysis of up-accumulated proteins associated with fruit quality during autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening is a complex phenomenon that makes berries attractive and also determines their nutritional value. Autumn olive ( Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) fruit is a rich source of many human health-related nutrients. The changes in pericarp color are initiated at early developmental stages, coinciding with the fast increase in fruit size. Fruit quality traits with special emphasis on soluble sugars, organic acids, lycopene, and total protein contents were assayed during the fruit ripening. In the fully ripe fruit, glucose and fructose were the principal sugars, malic acid was the most abundant organic acid, and lycopene concentration was extremely high. A proteomic analysis was used to identify up-accumulated proteins induced by the ripening. Among 63 up-accumulated protein spots, 43 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. All 43 proteins were novel for autumn olive, and 8 were first reported in the fruit. Twenty-one proteins of known function were involved in sugar metabolism, citric acid cycle, isoprenoid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and protein hydrolysis. The possible roles of these 21 accumulated proteins in autumn olive fruit quality are discussed. PMID:21175188

Wu, Man-Cheng; Hu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Li; Yang, Ling

2011-01-26

367

Fruit-specific suppression of the ethylene receptor LeETR4 results in early-ripening tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tomato is an economically important crop and a significant dietary source of important phytochemicals, such as carotenoids and flavonoids. Although it has been known for many years that the plant hormone ethylene is essential for the ripening of climacteric fruits, its role in fruit growth and maturation is much less well understood. In this study, data are presented which

Brian M. Kevany; Mark G. Taylor; Harry J. Klee

2008-01-01

368

Detection of a resistance gradient to Passion fruit woodiness virus and selection of ‘yellow’ passion fruit plants under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity of 'yellow' passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa O. Deg.) is reduced by infection with Cowpea aphid- borne mosaic virus (CABMV). We examined resistance in 72 yellow passion fruit plants grown from open-pollinated commercial seed. Plants were mechanically inoculated with CABMV virus and maintained in the field in order to select contrasting genotypes for resistance. Isolates were obtained

C. B. M. Cerqueira-Silva; C. N. Moreira; A. R. Figueira; R. X. Correa; A. C. Oliveira

2008-01-01

369

Pollen quantity and quality affect fruit abortion in small populations of a rare fleshy-fruited shrub  

E-print Network

with the fleshy-fruited tall-shrub Prunus mahaleb at the margin of its distributional range, where re- production Bestäubungsexperiment mit dem endozoochoren Strauch Prunus mahaleb an der Verbreitungs- grenze der Art, wo sexuelle ­ fruit abortion ­ inbreeding depression ­ margin of distribution ­ Prunus mahaleb ­ relict populations

Oregon, University of

370

The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.  

PubMed

Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages. PMID:24840207

Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato

2014-09-01

371

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.  

PubMed

Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

2011-01-01

372

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts  

SciTech Connect

In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.

Thomas, P.

1988-01-01

373

The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project designer Janet Haven of the University of Virginia American Studies Program presents the construction of the Hoover Dam as an alternative narrative to the devastation of the Great Depression in her photoessay, The Hoover Dam: Lonely Lands Made Fruitful. Five slide shows created in Flash2 cover the construction from diverting the Colorado River to pouring concrete and adding the final touches to a completed dam. The slide shows are prefaced by historical background, including short essays on topics such as the Dam as the "Machine in the Desert" and the text of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Dedication Speech upon completion, September 30, 1935. Images of maps and plans are linked throughout, and a list of Works Consulted gives concise source descriptions as well as ideas for further reading.

1998-01-01

374

Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.  

PubMed

Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease. PMID:14756419

Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V

2003-01-01

375

Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption  

E-print Network

Submitted to Appetite 9th September 2014 Under Review scale): households score 1 for the respondent, 0.5 for each additional adult and 0.3 for each child) 136 were also collected. 137 138 Food categories 139 The three categories - fresh fruit, cheese... knowledge (Ball et al., 2006; McLeod, 57 Campbell, & Hesketh, 2011), stressors and psychological resources (Mulder, de Bruin, Schreurs, van 58 Ameijden, & van Woerkum, 2011), diet cost (Aggarwal, Monsivais, Cook, & Drewnowski, 2011) and 59 higher...

Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Marteau, Theresa

2014-01-01

376

Multiple forms of polygalacturonase from banana fruits.  

PubMed

Three multiple forms of polygalacturonase (PG) in ripe and two in unripe banana (Musa acuminata) fruits were separated by DEAE-cellulose and further purified using Sephadex G-150 chromatography. The multiple forms can be differentiated from each other on the basis of their properties. PG1 and PG3 were identified as endo-PG and PG2 as exo-PG on the basis of decrease in viscosity, increase in reducing sugar and the reaction product. PG2 and PG3 increased with the ripening of fruits. PG1, PG2 and PG3 exhibited optimum activity at pH 3.3, 3.7 and 4.3, respectively. Complete loss of PG2 and PG1 activities occurred at 60 and 70 degrees, but PG3 retained 60 and 50% activity respectively. The three forms showed a different response towards divalent metal ions. Ca2+ activated PG1 activity only. Teepol 0.1%, inhibited PG1 activity by 25%, but PG2 and PG3 activities were completely inhibited. CTAB, 0.1%, had no effect on PG1 and PG2 activities, but inhibited PG3 activity by 40%. 2-ME stimulated PG2 and PG3 activities but had no effect on PG1 activity. Gel filtration through Sephacryl indicated M(r) of 23,200, 58,000 and 130,000, respectively, for PG1, PG2 and PG3. The substrate saturation curve for PG1 and PG2 were Michaelian, while PG3 showed biphasic curve. The Km values of PG1 and PG2 were 0.22% and 0.14%, respectively. PMID:9637063

Pathak, N; Sanwal, G G

1998-05-01

377

Studies on preparation of mixed fruit toffee from Fig and Guava fruits.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed fruit toffee from fig and guava fruit pulp and to evaluate the changes in quality of prepared toffees during storage under ambient as well as refrigerated conditions for 180 days. Among the various combinations of fig and guava fruit pulp, toffee prepared from75:25 w/w (fig: guava) ratios was found better than other combinations in respect to yield, organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The cost of toffee prepared from higher level of fig pulp i.e. 75:25 (fig:guava) ratio was higher (Rs. 71.84/kg). The storage studies of toffees packed in 200 gauge polyethylene bags indicated that the TSS, reducing and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture and acidity content decreased. The rate of reactions was relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. Though the sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 180 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated condition yet the toffees were found to be acceptable even after 180 days at both the conditions. PMID:25190884

Kohinkar, S N; Chavan, U D; Pawar, V D; Amarowicz, R

2014-09-01

378

Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

2014-10-01

379

Optimum Conditions for Artificial Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps cardinalis.  

PubMed

Stromatal fruiting bodies of Cordyceps cardinalis were successfully produced in cereals. Brown rice, German millet and standard millet produced the longest-length of stromata, followed by Chinese pearl barley, Indian millet, black rice and standard barley. Oatmeal produced the shortest-length of fruiting bodies. Supplementation of pupa and larva to the grains resulted in a slightly enhanced production of fruiting bodies; pupa showing better production than larva. 50~60 g of brown rice and 10~20 g of pupa mixed with 50~60 mL of water in 1,000 mL polypropylene (PP) bottle was found to be optimum for fruiting body production. Liquid inoculation of 15~20 mL per PP bottle produced best fruiting bodies. The optimal temperature for the formation of fruiting bodies was 25?, under conditions of continuous light. Few fruiting bodies were produced under the condition of complete darkness, and the fresh weight was considerable low, compared to that of light condition. PMID:23956641

Kim, Soo-Young; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

2010-06-01

380

Fruit pod extracts as a source of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components. PMID:23052712

Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina

2012-01-01

381

Using short-wave infrared imaging for fruit quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality evaluation of agricultural and food products is important for processing, inventory control, and marketing. Fruit size and surface quality are two important quality factors for high-quality fruit such as Medjool dates. Fruit size is usually measured by length that can be done easily by simple image processing techniques. Surface quality evaluation on the other hand requires more complicated design, both in image acquisition and image processing. Skin delamination is considered a major factor that affects fruit quality and its value. This paper presents an efficient histogram analysis and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time surface quality evaluation of Medjool dates. This approach, based on short-wave infrared imaging, provides excellent image contrast between the fruit surface and delaminated skin, which allows significant simplification of image processing algorithm and reduction of computational power requirements. The proposed quality grading method requires very simple training procedure to obtain a gray scale image histogram for each quality level. Using histogram comparison, each date is assigned to one of the four quality levels and an optimal threshold is calculated for segmenting skin delamination areas from the fruit surface. The percentage of the fruit surface that has skin delamination can then be calculated for quality evaluation. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production and proven to be efficient and accurate.

Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

2013-12-01

382

Hepatotoxicity and subchronic toxicity tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been approved as a safe food in many nations. A few cases of hepatitis in people who had been drinking noni juice have been reported, even though no causal link could be established between the liver injury and ingestion of the juice. To more fully evaluate the hepatotoxic potential of noni fruit juice, in vitro hepatotoxicity tests were conducted in human liver cells, HepG2 cell line. A subchronic oral toxicity test of noni fruit was also performed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to provide benchmark data for understanding the safety of noni juice, without the potential confounding variables associated with many commercial noni juice products. Freeze-dried filtered noni fruit puree did not decrease HepG2 cell viability or induce neutral lipid accumulation and phospholipidosis. There were no histopathological changes or evidence of dose-responses in hematological and clinical chemistry measurements, including liver function tests. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for freeze-dried noni fruit puree is greater than 6.86 g/kg body weight, equivalent to approximately 90 ml of noni fruit juice/kg. These findings corroborate previous conclusions that consumption of noni fruit juice is unlikely to induce adverse liver effects. PMID:19797868

West, Brett J; Su, Chen X; Jensen, C Jarakae

2009-10-01

383

Optimum Conditions for Artificial Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps cardinalis  

PubMed Central

Stromatal fruiting bodies of Cordyceps cardinalis were successfully produced in cereals. Brown rice, German millet and standard millet produced the longest-length of stromata, followed by Chinese pearl barley, Indian millet, black rice and standard barley. Oatmeal produced the shortest-length of fruiting bodies. Supplementation of pupa and larva to the grains resulted in a slightly enhanced production of fruiting bodies; pupa showing better production than larva. 50~60 g of brown rice and 10~20 g of pupa mixed with 50~60 mL of water in 1,000 mL polypropylene (PP) bottle was found to be optimum for fruiting body production. Liquid inoculation of 15~20 mL per PP bottle produced best fruiting bodies. The optimal temperature for the formation of fruiting bodies was 25?, under conditions of continuous light. Few fruiting bodies were produced under the condition of complete darkness, and the fresh weight was considerable low, compared to that of light condition. PMID:23956641

Kim, Soo-Young; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

2010-01-01

384

Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality. PMID:22963618

2012-01-01

385

Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. P spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)-Catechin was the most abundant compound in A. unedo (13.51 mg/100 g) and R. canina (3.59 mg/100 g) fruits. A. unedo fruits presented the highest concentration in flavan-3-ols (36.30 mg/100 g). Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was found in all the studied fruits, being the major anthocyanin in most of them, with the exception of P. spinosa samples, in which cyaniding 3-O-rutinoside and peonidin 3-O-rutinoside predominated; P. spinosa fruit presented the more complex anthocyanin profile among the analysed fruits and also the highest anthocyanin concentrations, which was coherent with its greater pigmentation. All in all, P. spinosa presented the highest levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavonols and flavones, although no flavan-3-ols could be identified in its fruits. The present study represents a contribution to the chemical characterisation of phenolic compounds from wild fruits with acknowledged antioxidant activity and traditionally used for several folk medicinal applications. PMID:23993541

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-12-15

386

Molecular programme of senescence in dry and fleshy fruits.  

PubMed

Fruits of angiosperms can be divided into dry and fleshy fruits, depending on their dispersal strategies. Despite their apparently different developmental programmes, researchers have attempted to compare dry and fleshy fruits to establish analogies of the distinct biochemical and physiological processes that occur. But what are the common and specific phenomena in both biological strategies? Is valve dehiscence and senescence of dry fruits comparable to final ripening of fleshy fruits, when seeds become mature and fruits are competent for seed dispersal, or to over-ripening when advanced senescence occurs? We briefly review current knowledge on dry and fleshy fruit development, which has been extensively reported recently, and is the topic of this special issue. We compare the processes taking place in Arabidopsis (dry) and tomato (fleshy) fruit during final development steps using transcriptome data to establish possible analogies. Interestingly, the transcriptomic programme of Arabidopsis silique shares little similarity in gene number to tomato fruit ripening or over-ripening. In contrast, the biological processes carried out by these common genes from ripening and over-ripening programmes are similar, as most biological processes are shared during both programmes. On the other hand, several biological terms are specific of Arabidopsis and tomato ripening, including senescence, but little or no specific processes occur during Arabidopsis and tomato over-ripening. These suggest a closer analogy between silique senescence and ripening than over-ripening, but a major common biological programme between Arabidopsis silique senescence and the last steps of tomato development, irrespective of its distinction between ripening and over-ripening. PMID:24874021

Gómez, María Dolores; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A

2014-08-01

387

Composition of the cuticle of developing sweet cherry fruit.  

PubMed

The composition of wax and cutin from developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit was studied by GC-MS between 22 and 85 days after full bloom (DAFB). In this and our previous study, fruit mass and surface area increased in a sigmoidal pattern with time, but mass of the cuticular membrane (CM) per unit fruit surface area decreased. On a whole fruit basis, mass of CM increased up to 36 DAFB and remained constant thereafter. At maturity, triterpenes, alkanes and alcohols accounted for 75.6%, 19.1% and 1.2% of total wax, respectively. The most abundant constituents were the triterpenes ursolic (60.0%) and oleanolic acid (7.5%), the alkanes nonacosane (13.0%) and heptacosane (3.0%), and the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol (1.1%). In developing fruit triterpenes per unit area decreased, but alkanes and alcohols remained essentially constant. The cutin fraction of mature fruit consisted of mostly C16 (69.5%) and, to a lower extent, C18 monomers (19.4%) comprising alkanoic, omega-hydroxyacids, alpha,omega-dicarboxylic and midchain hydroxylated acids. The most abundant constituents were 9(10),16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic acid (53.6%) and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic acid (7.8%). Amounts of C16 and C18 monomers per unit area decreased in developing fruit, but remained approximately constant on a whole fruit basis. Within both classes of monomers, opposing changes occurred. Amounts of hexadecandioic, 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic, 9(10)-hydroxy-hexadecane-1,16-dioic and 9,10-epoxy-octadecane-1,18-dioic acids increased, but 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecanoic and 9,10,18-trihydroxy-octadecenoic acids decreased. There were no qualitative and minor quantitative differences in wax and cutin composition between cultivars at maturity. Our data indicate that deposition of some constituents of wax and cutin ceased during early fruit development. PMID:17328933

Peschel, Stefanie; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Knoche, Moritz

2007-04-01

388

Toxic metals in imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of lead, cadmium, and mercury in 134 samples of imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace and the cold vapor technique. Results obtained showed that the concentration of these metal ions in most cases did not exceed the maximum permissible concentration of metals in fresh fruits and vegetables as restricted by some countries. Only a few samples of fruits and vegetables contained levels of mercury, cadmium, and lead which exceeded these maximum permissible levels.

Husain, A.; Baroon, Z.; Al-Khalafawi, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)] [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1995-12-31

389

Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneficial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents.

Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Memon, Mushtaq A.; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Akbar, Mohammed

2014-01-01

390

Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit  

SciTech Connect

Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

Robbins, C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Mulcahy, F. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Somayajula, K. (Coca-Cola Co., Atlanta, GA); Edenborn, H.M.

2006-10-01

391

Characterization of gibberellin-signalling elements during plum fruit ontogeny defines the essentiality of gibberellin in fruit development.  

PubMed

Fruit growth is a coordinated, complex interaction of cell division, differentiation and expansion. Gibberellin (GA) involvement in the reproductive events is an important aspect of GA effects. Perennial fruit-trees such as plum (Prunus salicina L.) have distinct features that are economically important and provide opportunities to dissect specific GA mechanisms. Currently, very little is known on the molecular mechanism(s) mediating GA effects on fruit development. Determination of bioactive GA content during plum fruit ontogeny revealed that GA1 and GA4 are critical for fruit growth and development. Further, characterization of several genes involved in GA-signalling showed that their transcriptional regulation are generally GA-dependent, confirming their involvement in GA-signalling. Based on these results, a model is presented elucidating how the potential association between GA and other hormones may contribute to fruit development. PslGID1 proteins structure, Y2H and BiFC assays indicated that plum GA-receptors can form a complex with AtDELLA-repressors in a GA-dependent manner. Moreover, phenotypical-, molecular- and GA-analyses of various Arabidopsis backgrounds ectopically expressing PslGID1 sequences provide evidence on their role as active GA-signalling components that mediate GA-responsiveness. Our findings support the critical contribution of GA alone or in association with other hormones in mediating plum fruit growth and development. PMID:24142379

El-Sharkawy, Islam; Sherif, Sherif; El Kayal, Walid; Mahboob, Abdullah; Abubaker, Kamal; Ravindran, Pratibha; Jyothi-Prakash, Pavithra A; Kumar, Prakash P; Jayasankar, Subramanian

2014-03-01

392

Observation of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii, larvae in young apple fruit by dedicated micro-magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Infestation of young apple fruits by the larvae of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), was studied by a small dedicated micro-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparatus using the three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo method and the two-dimensional (2D) and 3D spin-echo methods. Changes from a young larva at 1.8 mm in length to a mature one ready to leave the fruit were observed in relation to the progression of infestation of the fruit tissues. The trace of larva intrusion was demonstrated by a series of sliced images in the 3D image data of an infested fruit, where it entered from outside the calyx, and migrated to near the vasculature around the carpel through the core. The small, dedicated MRI device was proven useful for ecological studies of the growth and movement of insect larvae in their food fruits. It can also be applied to detect the infestation of small fruits by insect larvae. PMID:21070179

Koizumi, Mika; Ihara, Fumio; Yaginuma, Katsuhiko; Kano, Hiromi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

2010-01-01

393

Detection of a resistance gradient to Passion fruit woodiness virus and selection of 'yellow' passion fruit plants under field conditions.  

PubMed

Productivity of 'yellow' passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa O. Deg.) is reduced by infection with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). We examined resistance in 72 yellow passion fruit plants grown from open-pollinated commercial seed. Plants were mechanically inoculated with CABMV virus and maintained in the field in order to select contrasting genotypes for resistance. Isolates were obtained from symptomatic leaves of yellow passion fruit plants from field production in Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia state and were characterized by sequencing the viral coat protein gene. Severity of leaf symptoms of the disease, evaluated through a global leaf disease index, was measured during the eighth month of growth. Morpho-agronomic variables of fruit were evaluated from months 10 to 12. Significant linear regressions between the quantification of the leaf symptoms and the morpho-agronomic characteristics related to productivity were detected (5.17% fruit productivity, severity of leaf symptoms of the disease, and the application of a selection index of 10%, four contrasting groups of 'yellow' passion fruit plants considered as "resistant", "mildly resistant", "susceptible" and "extremely susceptible" in their reaction to CABMV (0.0001 < p < 0.024) were selected. These plants could be useful for genetic studies and for breeding yellow passion fruit plants resistant to this disease. PMID:19048500

Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Moreira, C N; Figueira, A R; Corrêa, R X; Oliveira, A C

2008-01-01

394

Pollination biology of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants and the role of flower-visiting insects in fruit-set  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In the UK, the flowers of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants provide a succession of pollen and nectar for flower-visiting insects for much of the year. The fruits of hedgerow plants are a source of winter food for frugivorous birds on farmland. It is unclear whether recent declines in pollinator populations are likely to threaten fruit-set and hence food supply for birds. The present study investigates the pollination biology of five common hedgerow plants: blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), dog rose (Rosa canina), bramble (Rubus fruticosus) and ivy (Hedera helix). Methods The requirement for insect pollination was investigated initially by excluding insects from flowers by using mesh bags and comparing immature and mature fruit-set with those of open-pollinated flowers. Those plants that showed a requirement for insect pollination were then tested to compare fruit-set under two additional pollination service scenarios: (1) reduced pollination, with insects excluded from flowers bagged for part of the flowering period, and (2) supplemental pollination, with flowers hand cross-pollinated to test for pollen limitation. Key Results The proportions of flowers setting fruit in blackthorn, hawthorn and ivy were significantly reduced when insects were excluded from flowers by using mesh bags, whereas fruit-set in bramble and dog rose were unaffected. Restricting the exposure of flowers to pollinators had no significant effect on fruit-set. However, blackthorn and hawthorn were found to be pollen-limited, suggesting that the pollination service was inadequate in the study area. Conclusions Ensuring strong populations of insect pollinators may be essential to guarantee a winter fruit supply for birds in UK hedgerows. PMID:19770165

Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Clark, Suzanne J.; Denholm, Ian; Goulson, Dave; Stoate, Chris; Osborne, Juliet L.

2009-01-01

395

http://agbioresearch.msu.edu/centers/nwmihort Northern Michigan FruitNet 2014  

E-print Network

still have quite a few cherry orchards with ripe fruit that need to be protected from SWD where1 http://agbioresearch.msu.edu/centers/nwmihort Northern Michigan FruitNet 2014 Northwest Michigan a regular-interval spray program to protect fruit from SWD and cherry fruit fly infestation. Growers should

396

The intersection between cell wall disassembly, ripening, and fruit susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea  

E-print Network

properties and softening of the ripe fruit (10). The tomato fruit CW is comprised of two interactingThe intersection between cell wall disassembly, ripening, and fruit susceptibility to Botrytis, 2007 (received for review October 15, 2007) Fruit ripening is characterized by processes that modify

Labavitch, John

397

A MULTI-YEAR STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING FRUIT PRODUCTION IN ARISTOLOCHIA PAUCINERVIS  

E-print Network

A MULTI-YEAR STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING FRUIT PRODUCTION IN ARISTOLOCHIA PAUCINERVIS-pollination seems to be a decisive factor in fruit production because the number of germinated pollen and the fruit can be the first factor limiting fruit production (Schemske, 1980; Howell and Roth, 1981; Arista et al

Herrera, Carlos M.

398

Consumption of fruit and vegetables: how to motivate the population to change their behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the discrepancy between two methods to assess fruit and vegetable consumption in a Dutch adult population (N = 367). The consumption of fruit and vegetables was assessed by using a food frequency method (the number of grams of fruit and vegetables subjects ate every day) and by assessing subjects' own estimates of their fruit and vegetable intake.

Lilian Lechner; Johannes Brug

1997-01-01

399

Distinctive Exotic Flavour and Aroma Compounds of Some Exotic Tropical Fruits and Berries: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic flavour of exotic tropical fruits is one of the most attractive attributes to consumers. In this chapter, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavours is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are

Ola Lasekan; Kassim Abbas

2011-01-01

400

Distinctive Exotic Flavor and Aroma Compounds of some Exotic Tropical Fruits and Berries: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are

Ola Lasekan; Kassim A. Abbas

2012-01-01

401

Attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies to odor of coffee fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

On potted nonfruiting host trees in outdoor field cages, we evaluated attraction of released mature laboratory-cultured or wild-origin Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) to odor of freshly picked fruit of host and nonhost plants. Odor of ripe intact or crushed coffee fruit (the presumed ancestral host of medflies) was significantly more attractive than odor of ripe intact or crushed fruit of

Roger I. Vargas

1996-01-01

402

Phenotypic and fine genetic characterization of the D locus controlling fruit acidity in peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acidity is an essential component of the organoleptic quality of fleshy fruits. However, in these fruits, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that control fruit acidity remain unclear. In peach the D locus controls fruit acidity; low-acidity is determined by the dominant allele. Using a peach progeny of 208 F2 trees, the D locus was mapped to the proximal end

Karima Boudehri; Abdelhafid Bendahmane; Gaëlle Cardinet; Christelle Troadec; Annick Moing; Elisabeth Dirlewanger

2009-01-01

403

Maturation of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) under Spanish growing conditions and its postharvest performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Changes in fruit colour, acidity, soluble solids content, respiration rate and ethylene production were determined in loquat fruit cv. Algerie, throughout maturation and during postharvest storage at 2ºC. Maturation- associated changes appeared not to be coordinated, since fruit colour progressively increased, but the decline in fruit acidity was initiated latter than the increase in soluble solids content. The

L. González; M. T. Lafuente; L. Zacarías

404

Artibeus lituratus, the Great Fruit Bat, Feeding on the Infructescences of Cecropia sp.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artibeus lituratus, the great fruit bat, feeding on the infructescences of Cecropia sp. Species of Artibeus are important dispersers of Cecropia. Morphological and anatomical study has revealed that the dispersal unit of Cecropia is the entire fruit, not just the seed. Bats consume the fleshy floral parts surrounding the fruits and disperse the fruits.

Tuttle, Merlin D.

2004-03-09

405

Taï chimpanzees use botanical skills to discover fruit: what we can learn from their mistakes.  

PubMed

Fruit foragers are known to use spatial memory to relocate fruit, yet it is unclear how they manage to find fruit in the first place. In this study, we investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park make use of fruiting synchrony, the simultaneous emergence of fruit in trees of the same species, which can be used together with sensory cues, such as sight and smell, to discover fruit. We conducted observations of inspections, the visual checking of fruit availability in trees, and focused our analyses on inspections of empty trees, so to say "mistakes". Learning from their "mistakes", we found that chimpanzees had expectations of finding fruit days before feeding on it and significantly increased inspection activity after tasting the first fruit. Neither the duration of feeding nor density of fruit-bearing trees in the territory could account for the variation in inspection activity, which suggests chimpanzees did not simply develop a taste for specific fruit on which they had fed frequently. Instead, inspection activity was predicted by a botanical feature-the level of synchrony in fruit production of encountered trees. We conclude that chimpanzees make use of the synchronous emergence of rainforest fruits during daily foraging and base their expectations of finding fruit on a combination of botanical knowledge founded on the success rates of fruit discovery, and a categorization of fruit species. Our results provide new insights into the variety of food-finding strategies employed by primates and the adaptive value of categorization capacities. PMID:23576098

Janmaat, Karline R L; Ban, Simone D; Boesch, Christophe

2013-11-01

406

Corchorus pascuorum: Transmission of Chemically Induced Fruit Formation with Environmental Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Corchorus pascuorum (Tiliaceae), native to Australia, was grown in the arid region of West Pakistan, it flowered abundantly but produced no fruit. It was induced to form fruit by treatment with 25 percent sucrose solution containing indolebutyric acid (300 parts per million). When plants were raised from the induced fruits, they fruited without any further treatment and retained the

A. S. Islam; R. Mughal

1969-01-01

407

ORIGINAL PAPER Tomato fruit weight 11.3 maps close to fasciated on the bottom  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Tomato fruit weight 11.3 maps close to fasciated on the bottom of chromosome 11. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), fruit weight is controlled by many loci, some of which have a major effect and selection of tomato (Solanum lycoper- sicum) led to dramatically increased fruit mass compared with fruit

van der Knaap, Esther

408

Avocado Fruit Skin Fluorescence following Hot Water Treatments and Pretreatments1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. Fruit ripening, Persea americana, photosynthesis, heat treatments, postharvest physiology, shelf life, fruit quality ABSTRACT. Longitudinal halves of freshly harvested avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. 'Hass') were pretreated at 38°C for 1 hour in a water bath, while the other half remained at 20°C in air. Then the entire fruit was either treated from 1 to10 minute at

Allan B. Woolf; William A. Laing

1996-01-01

409

AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 Is a Negative Regulator of Fruit Initiation in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit and seed formation in plants is normally initiated after pollination and fertilization, and, in the absence of fertilization, flowers senesce. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant fruit without fertilization, a mutation in AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 (ARF8) results in the uncoupling of fruit development from pollination and fertilization and gives rise to seedless (parthenocarpic) fruit. Parthenocarpy was confirmed in two additional

Marc Goetz; Adam Vivian-Smith; Susan D. Johnson; Anna M. Koltunow

2006-01-01

410

Characterization of the antioxidant composition of strawberry tree ( Arbutus unedo L.) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruits of the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) are consumed mainly as processed product, but may be a good source of antioxidants if consumed as fresh fruit. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the antioxidant components present in strawberry tree fruits, including flavonoids, vitamins C and E and carotenoids. The fruits are a very

K. Pallauf; J. C. Rivas-Gonzalo; M. D. del Castillo; M. P. Cano; S. de Pascual-Teresa

2008-01-01

411

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

E-print Network

and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene devastating effects on fruit production. Citation: Martinelli F, Uratsu SL, Albrecht U, Reagan RL, Phu ML, et

D'Souza, Raissa

412

Chromosomal duplications in bacteria, fruit flies, and humans  

SciTech Connect

Tandem duplication of chromosomal segments has been recognized as a frequent mutational mechanism in several genetic model systems. In bacteria, fruit flies, and humans, duplications form by similar molecular mechanisms and appear to be important in genome evolution. 80 refs.

Lupski, J.R.; Weinstock, G.M. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); Roth, J.R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-01-01

413

76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Celeste Sickles, APHIS' Information Collection Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests, Quarantine, Reporting and recordkeeping...

2011-12-28

414

78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Celeste Sickles, APHIS' Information Collection Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests, Quarantine, Reporting and recordkeeping...

2013-09-23

415

Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

Ehiem, J.; Simonyan, K.

2012-02-01

416

Safe Storage of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (Spanish)  

E-print Network

Proper storage of fresh fruits and vegetables can help consumers avoid foodborne illness. This publication explains how to safely store apples, bananas, berries, beets, broccoli, carrots, corn, grapes, herbs, lettuce and greens, melons, nectarines...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

417

Northern Michigan FruitNet 2004 Weekly Update  

E-print Network

Nikki Rothwell Bill Klein District Horticulturist District Fruit IPM Agent Farm Mgr, NWMHRS Duke Elsner this site to: #12;Please send any comments or suggestions regarding this site to: Bill Klein, kleinw

418

Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits  

MedlinePLUS

... 8be creative with your baked goods. Add apples, bananas, blueberries, or pears to your favorite muffin recipe ... dessert, blend strawberries, blueberries, or raspberries with frozen bananas and 100% fruit juice for a delicious frozen ...

419

Gas-exchange properties of developing cotton fruit  

SciTech Connect

Field studies were conducted to document the photosynthetic and respiratory properties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fruit during ontogeny. Dark respiration by the developing boll averaged {minus}18.7 {mu}mol per meter squared per second for the first six days after anthesis and gradually declined to less than 16% of this value after 40 days. Diurnal patterns of respiration were age dependent and closely correlated with stomatal conductance of the capsule wall. Stomata of young fruit were highly responsive to diurnal signals but lost this capacity with increasing age. Radio-labeled carbon dioxide injected into the fruit was rapidly assimilated by the outer capsule wall in the light, while fiber and seed fixed significant carbon-14 activity in both the light and dark. These data indicate that cotton fruit are sites of carbon dioxide evolution, but also serve a role in the reassimilation of carbon dioxide and thereby, function as important sources of assimilate for reproductive development.

Wullschleger, S.D.; Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (USA))

1990-05-01

420

Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.  

PubMed

The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

2012-09-01

421

19. Detail of builtup 5" x 13" column at fruit ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Detail of built-up 5" x 13" column at fruit and vegetable storage room; note ledger plates bolted to top of column - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

422

Fruit-induced FPIES masquerading as hereditary fructose intolerance.  

PubMed

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) symptoms develop at first introduction of fruit during weaning. We report on an infant with suspected HFI who presented with repeated episodes of vomiting and hypotension after ingestion of fruit-containing meals. The first episode occurred at age 4 months. Despite negative genetic testing for HFI, strict avoidance of fruit ingestion resulted in lack of recurrence of symptoms. Oral-fructose-tolerance testing conducted with an apple mousse did not determine hypoglycemia or fructosuria but caused severe hypotension. Allergy evaluations were negative, and the history was diagnostic for fruit-induced food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Because this non-immunoglobulin E-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity manifests as profuse, repetitive vomiting, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration and lethargy, it may be misinterpreted as HFI. We advise pediatricians to consider food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the differential diagnosis when there is a suspicion of HFI. PMID:25002667

Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Cotugno, Giovanna; Koch, Pierluigi; Dahdah, Lamia

2014-08-01

423

February 2006 Regional Fruit Grower Newsletter CALENDAR OF EVENTS  

E-print Network

/7 Upper Hudson/Champlain Commercial Tree-Fruit School Lake George, NY Contact: Kevin Iungerman, 518 persons with direct marketing experience: Tim Young (Food for Thought), Mike Werp (Werp Farms) and Diane

424

Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive. PMID:12165338

Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

2002-08-01

425

Blueberry estimated harvest from seven new cultivars: fruit and anthocyanins.  

PubMed

This study compares the yields, weights and anthocyanin contents of fruit from a group of seven new cultivars released from the New Zealand blueberry breeding programme and selected for the longest possible combined harvest season. The measured factors were primarily influenced by cultivar, and seasonal variations had relatively minor effects. The late-ripening cultivars 'Velluto Blue' and 'Centra Blue' had the highest fruit yields, anthocyanin contents and estimated total anthocyanin harvestable from a given area. 'Blue Moon' and 'Sky Blue' had the largest fruit sizes. The early-ripening cultivars 'Blue Bayou', 'Blue Moon' and 'Sunset Blue' had the lowest anthocyanin contents. The yield, fruit size and total anthocyanin content results obtained from any single year were highly correlated with the average of the three years, which makes pursuing the evaluation for these traits from a single year and at an early stage of plant development a practical proposition. PMID:23561076

Scalzo, Jessica; Stevenson, David; Hedderley, Duncan

2013-08-15

426

Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.  

PubMed

Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. PMID:24360417

Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

2014-05-01

427

Kiwifruit: taking its place in the global fruit bowl.  

PubMed

While the world total production of kiwifruit has increased by over 50% during the last decade, the kiwifruit remains a niche fruit, taking up an estimated 0.22% of the global fruit bowl, which is dominated by apples, oranges, and bananas. Even though kiwifruit's share of the global fruit bowl has remained largely unchanged over the past 15 years, the scope for growth in the category is significant, with the nutritional and production characteristics of kiwifruit being on the right side of key global consumer trends around health and sustainability. Taking advantage of these consumer trends is one of two key challenges for the global kiwifruit industry. The second challenge is to harness the diverse natural and cultivated range of kiwifruit varieties (colors, flavors, sizes, and shapes) to stimulate the interest of consumers and grow the share of kiwifruit in the fruit basket through selecting cultivars that can develop meaningful market segments and meet consumer demand. PMID:23394979

Ward, Carol; Courtney, David

2013-01-01

428

FRUIT CANNERY WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE AS A CATTLE FEED INGREDIENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of sludge disposal, from a fruit processing waste activated sludge treatment system, by dewatering and using the dewatered biological sludge solids as cattle feed was evaluated by Snokist Growers at Yakima, Washington. Dewatering of the biological sludge utilizing...

429

NOTICE OF VACANCY Extension Tree Fruit Program Leader  

E-print Network

. The Washington tree fruit industry contributes more than $6 billion of annual impact to the state's economy. One positions in breeding and genomics, automation and mechanization, and integrated pest management, as well

Collins, Gary S.

430

Brief communication: a preliminary study on the influence of physical fruit traits on fruit handling and seed fate by white-handed Titi monkeys (Callicebus lugens).  

PubMed

Callicebus and the pitheciins are closely related; however, differences in their diets and dental morphology suggest that they differ in the use of mechanically protected food. We describe physical traits of fruits consumed by white-handed titi monkeys (Callicebus lugens) and determine their influence on fruit part selection and immediate seed fate after fruit handling. We tested two hypotheses about the effects of mechanical fruit traits on fruit part selection and seed fate: (1) fruits selected for seed consumption are harder than fruits selected for their fleshy parts and (2) consumed seeds are softer than seeds with other fates. In addition, we analyzed the influence of other physical fruit traits on fruit part selection and seed fate. C. lugens included 69 species in its diet, from which it mainly consumed their fleshy parts. It also consumed seeds, alone or with fleshy fruit parts, but most of them ended up close to parent trees after being dropped or spat out. The first hypothesis was supported while the second was rejected, indicating that C. lugens tends to rely on hard fruits for obtaining seeds, while seed hardness had no influence on fruit part selection and seed fate, contrasting with the pattern reported for Pithecia and Chiropotes in other studies. Ripeness was the most influential factor for fruit part and seed fate discrimination. Results suggest a tendency to sclerocarpic foraging in C. lugens when feeding on seeds. PMID:22282198

Alvarez, Silvia J; Heymann, Eckhard W

2012-03-01

431

Predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood  

PubMed Central

Few young adults meet national recommendations to consume at least two cups of fruit and two to three cups of vegetables daily. Effective strategies and messaging are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on fruit and vegetable intake during young adulthood has been limited and primarily cross-sectional. This study was conducted to identify five-year and 10-year longitudinal predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood. The sample included 476 males and 654 females enrolled in a population-based cohort study (Projects EAT-I, II, and III). Participants completed surveys and food frequency questionnaires in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota high school classrooms in 1998–1999 (mean age=15.8, “adolescence”) and follow-up measures in 2003–2004 (mean age=20.4, “emerging adulthood”) and 2008–2009 (mean age=26.2, “young adulthood”). In young adulthood, average daily intake was 0.9 servings of fruit (excluding juice) and 1.8 servings of vegetables (excluding potatoes). Factors examined in adolescence and in emerging adulthood that were predictive of both fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood included favorable taste preferences, fewer perceived time barriers to healthy eating, higher home availability of fruits and vegetables, and limited home availability of unhealthy foods. Analyses also identified additional factors that were specifically relevant to fruit (e.g., breakfast patterns) or vegetable intake (e.g., home food preparation) and of particular relevance during emerging adulthood (e.g., significant other’s healthy eating attitudes). Findings suggest individual and socio-environmental factors, particularly food preferences and home food availability, during adolescence and emerging adulthood may influence fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood. PMID:22698924

Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

432

Polyamine-induced prolongation of storage in tomato fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) of cv. ‘Rutgers’ and the line ‘Alcobaca-red’ were vacuum infiltrated with solutions of polyamines, their precursors and metabolites, and other compounds which might affect ripening and\\/or storage duration. Putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), spermidine, spermine, diaminopropane, ?-aminobutyric acid and methionine were found to increase the storage life of these fruit after vacuum infiltration of the test

David M. Law; Peter J. Davies; Martha A. Mutschler

1991-01-01

433

Mechanisms Modulating Postharvest Pathogen Colonization of Decaying Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As biotrophs, insidious fungal infections of postharvest pathogens remain quiescent during fruit growth while at a particular\\u000a phase during fruit ripening and senescence the pathogens transform to necrotrophs causing typical decay symptoms. Exposure\\u000a of unripe hosts to pathogens (hemi-biotroph or necrotrophs), initiates defensive signal-transduction cascades that limit fungal\\u000a growth and development. Exposure to the same pathogens during ripening and storage

Dov Prusky; Noam Alkan; Itay Miyara; Shiri Barad; Maayan Davidzon; Ilana Kobiler; Sigal Brown-Horowitz; Amnon Lichter; Amir Sherman; Robert Fluhr

434

Regulation of Growth and Fruit Maturation with 2-Chloroethanephosphonic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE new growth regulator, 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid (CEP), is active in forcing flowering of pineapple1, as a fruit ripening agent2, for promoting petiole and fruit abscission3 and inducing swelling of pea stems4. (CEP had been released as G-996 in a formulation identified as Amchem 66-329. Previous published reports have referred to it with these designations.) It has been suggested that the

L. J. Edgerton; G. D. Blanpied

1968-01-01

435

Wounding, wound healing and staining of mature pear fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidence of wounding in commercially-harvested `d'Anjou' and `Bosc' pear fruit, healing of wounds to decrease decay caused by Botrytis cinerea, Mucor piriformis, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium solitum at ?1°C, 20°C, and 28°C, and formation of compounds potentially involved in resistance were determined. Use of a blue food coloring to make wounds on fruit more visible on packinghouse lines was evaluated.

Robert A Spotts; Peter G Sanderson; Cheryl L Lennox; David Sugar; Louis A Cervantes

1998-01-01

436

Ripening in papaya fruit is altered by ACC oxidase cosuppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a very important crop in many tropical countries but it is highly susceptible to parasitic diseases, physiological disorders,\\u000a mechanical damage and fruit overripening. Here we report a study on ACC oxidase cosuppression and its effects on papaya fruit\\u000a ripening. Papaya ACC oxidase was isolated using PCR and embriogenic cells transformed by biolistic using the CaMV 35S

Rodolfo López-Gómez; Jose Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Luis Jorge Saucedo-Arias; Lorena Carreto-Montoya; Ramon Villanueva-Arce; Juan Carlos Díaz-Perez; Miguel Angel Gómez-Lim; Luis Herrera-Estrella

2009-01-01

437

The isolation of RNA from raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous attempts to extract high-quality, total RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits using published protocols have proven to be unsuccessful. Even the use of protocols developed for the extraction\\u000a of RNA from other fruit tissue has resulted in low yields (1) or the isolation of degraded RNA (2). Here, we report on the development of a quick and simple method

Chris S. Jones; Pietro P. M. Iannetta; Mary Woodhead; Howard V. Davies; Ronnie J. McNicol; Mark A. Taylor

1997-01-01

438

Effects of superatmospheric oxygen on strawberry fruit quality and decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of elevated O2 alone or in combination with elevated CO2 atmospheres for postharvest decay control on strawberry fruit (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) were assessed. In vitro and in vivo growth of Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. and the effects on fruit quality were determined under eight atmospheres: air, 40, 60, 80, 90 and 100 kPa O2, 40 kPa O2+15 kPa CO2 and

A. L. Wszelaki; E. J. Mitcham

2000-01-01

439

Pineapple organic acid metabolism and accumulation during fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental changes in pineapple (Ananas Comosus (L.) Merrill) fruit acidity was determined for a ‘Smooth Cayenne’ high acid clone PRI#36-21 and a low acid clone PRI#63-555. The high acid clone gradually increased in fruit acidity from 1.4meq\\/100ml 6 weeks from flowering, and peaked a week before harvest at ca 10meq\\/100ml. In contrast, the low acid clone increased in acidity 6

Parson Saradhuldhat; Robert E. Paull

2007-01-01

440

Colour and flavour changes during osmotic dehydration of fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav., dark-red strain) fruit were separately submitted to osmotic dehydration with three different osmotic agents: sucrose (70%), sucrose (70%)-glycerol (65%) 1:1, and ethanol. This process decreased the water activity in the fruits and promoted the transfer of main pigments (anthocyanins) and flavour constituents to the osmotic solutions. Tristimulus colorimetry was applied

Coralia Osorio; Martha Sofía Franco; Maria Paola Castaño; Maria Lourdes González-Miret; Francisco J. Heredia; Alicia Lucía Morales

2007-01-01

441

Patterns of fruit and seed production in Bauhinia ungulata ( Leguminosae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of seed and fruit production ofBauhinia ungulata, a small tree legume indigenous in tropical America, were studied in Costa Rica. Only about 8% of flowers produced fruits.\\u000a The average pod had 19 ovules and about two thirds of these began seed development, with mature pods containing an average\\u000a of 9.7 mature undamaged seeds. About half of the mature pods

C. J. Webb; K. S. Bawa

1985-01-01

442

Linkages Between Greater Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study will estimate the benefits to fruit and vegetable industries and consumers should people in the U.S. meet the USDA minimum dietary guidelines. Specifically the objectives of the study are to 1) estimate the benefits to fruit and vegetable industries and consumers should people eat the general and subgroup 7-a-day and 9-a-day recommendation; 2) estimate the benefits should smaller

Karen M. Jetter; James A. Chalfant; Daniel A. Sumner

2006-01-01

443

What fruit flies can tell us about human birth defects.  

PubMed

Many times, when a human genetic disease is mapped to mutations in a specific gene, little is known about the biological functions of the affected gene. Development of new therapeutic methods is facilitated by understanding the gene's biological roles. Such information can often be obtained in animal models, such as the fruit fly. Here we describe how understanding a gene's function in fruit flies has illuminated the etiology of Cornelia de Lange syndrome. PMID:24003648

Dorsett, Dale

2013-01-01

444

Radiocesium dynamics in fruit trees following the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

Contamination of fruits and leaves from various trees with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident was systematically studied from 1987 to 1990 on two farms in Northern Greece. Measured biological half-lives for 137Cs are in good agreement with a recently presented model. Contamination of leaves and fruits of trees planted before the accident decays exponentially with time. Contamination of trees planted after the Chernobyl accident was also studied. PMID:1955328

Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Clouvas, A; Gagianas, A

1991-12-01

445

A CONDIMENT (SUMAC (RHUS CORIARIA L.) FRUITS): SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) is a perennial edible plant, which is grow- ing wild. In the present research, the proximate physical and chemical prop- erties of sumac fruits along with their mineral constituents were studied. The analyses of sumac fruits showed the following composition: moisture (9.6%), oil (7.4 %), protein (2.6 %), fibre (14.6 %), ash (1.8%) and water-soluble extract

Musa Özcan; Haydar Haciseferogullari

446

Fellatio by fruit bats prolongs copulation time.  

PubMed

Oral sex is widely used in human foreplay, but rarely documented in other animals. Fellatio has been recorded in bonobos Pan paniscus, but even then functions largely as play behaviour among juvenile males. The short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx exhibits resource defence polygyny and one sexually active male often roosts with groups of females in tents made from leaves. Female bats often lick their mate's penis during dorsoventral copulation. The female lowers her head to lick the shaft or the base of the male's penis but does not lick the glans penis which has already penetrated the vagina. Males never withdrew their penis when it was licked by the mating partner. A positive relationship exists between the length of time that the female licked the male's penis during copulation and the duration of copulation. Furthermore, mating pairs spent significantly more time in copulation if the female licked her mate's penis than if fellatio was absent. Males also show postcopulatory genital grooming after intromission. At present, we do not know why genital licking occurs, and we present four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that may explain the function of fellatio in C. sphinx. PMID:19862320

Tan, Min; Jones, Gareth; Zhu, Guangjian; Ye, Jianping; Hong, Tiyu; Zhou, Shanyi; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Libiao

2009-01-01

447

Polyamine Metabolism in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of [1,4-14C]putrescine and [terminal methylene-3H]spermidine was studied in the fruit pericarp (breaker stage) discs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv Rutgers, and the metabolites identified by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolism of both putrescine and spermidine was relatively slow; in 24 hours about 25% of each amine was metabolized. The 14C label from putrescine was incorporated into spermidine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid, and a polar fraction eluting with sugars and organic acids. In the presence of gabaculine, a specific inhibitor of GABA:pyruvate transaminase, the label going into glutamic acid, sugars and organic acids decreased by 80% while that in GABA increased about twofold, indicating that the transamination reaction is probably a major fate of GABA produced from putrescine in vivo. [3H]Spermidine was catabolized into putrescine and ?-alanine. The conversion of putrescine into GABA, and that of spermidine into putrescine, suggests the presence of polyamine oxidizing enzymes in tomato pericarp tissues. The possible pathways of putrescine and spermidine metabolism are discussed. PMID:16667852

Rastogi, Rajeev; Davies, Peter J.

1990-01-01

448

Total oxidant scavenging capacities of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) fruits.  

PubMed

The antioxidant capacities of 11 commercial and non-commercial samples of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) fruit pulp were studied with the total oxidant scavenging capacity assay in a modified and automated version against three reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant capacities of all purple açaí samples were found to be excellent against peroxyl radicals, good against peroxynitrite and poor against hydroxyl radicals compared with common European fruit and vegetable juices recently analysed. In all cases the correlation between sample concentration and antioxidant capacities was non-linear. The antioxidant capacities against all three reactive oxygen species of the fruit pulp from one white açaí variety were very low. The phenolic compounds in purple açaí fruit pulp were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the two major anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-visible spectrometry. The contributions of the anthocyanins to the overall antioxidant capacities of the fruit were estimated to be only approximately 10%. Obviously, compounds not yet identified are responsible for the major part of the antioxidant capacities of the açaí fruit pulp. PMID:16019315

Lichtenthäler, Ramona; Rodrigues, Roberta Belandrino; Maia, José Guilherme S; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Fabricius, Heinz; Marx, Friedhelm

2005-02-01

449

Characteristics of fruit ripening in tomato mutant epi.  

PubMed

The characteristics of fruit ripening and expression of ripening-related genes were investigated in epi, an ethylene overproduction mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The epi produces apparently more ethylene than its wild type VFN8 at every stage of vegetative and fruit growth and ripening; compared to VFN8, the epi fruit showed higher CO2 evolution, faster descending of chlorophyll, slightly quicker increase of carotenoid and lycopene, and faster reduction in pericarp firmness during maturation and ripening; and the mRNAs of three ripening-related genes including E8, pTOM5 and pTOM6 were at higher levels in epi. The ripening-related characteristics changing of the fruit are consistent with the increase of ethylene production and ripening-related genes expression. These results suggest that epi mutation possibly did not affect the ethylene perception and signaling during fruit ripening, and that the modified characteristics of fruit ripening possibly resulted from the ethylene overproduction and increased expression of ripening-related genes. PMID:15909334

Wang, Zhong-feng; Ying, Tie-jin; Bao, Bi-li; Huang, Xiao-dan

2005-06-01

450

Multiple paternity in fruits of Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae).  

PubMed

Two different mechanisms can result in multiple paternity within fruits: deposition of a mixed pollen load due to carryover of pollen from flower to flower and multiple pollinator visits in close succession. I investigated the extent of multiple paternity within fruits of Ipompsis aggregata containing from 2 to 14 seeds. A paternity analysis based on ten polymorphic isozyme markers revealed multiple paternity in a minimum of 68% (based on simple paternity exclusion) and up to 100% (based on identification of the most likely father) of the multiseeded fruits. The estimated number of fathers increased with the number of seeds in a fruit, with an average of four sires, and up to nine sires, represented in a single fruit. To explore whether this level of multiple paternity could be explained solely by simultaneous deposition of a mixed pollen load, I constructed a computer simulation model based on previous measurements of movement patterns and pollen carryover by the hummingbird pollinators. Model predictions provided a good match to observed values for number of sires per fruit. Thus, the extensive pollen carryover in this species and consequent mixed pollen loads can explain the high levels of multiple paternity in natural populations. PMID:21684986

Campbell, D

1998-07-01

451

Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS No. 472  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the approach taken to present the information on fruits in the IAEA report TRS No. 472, supported by the IAEA-TECDOC-1616, which describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight.

Carini, F.; Pellizzoni, M.; Giosuè, S.

2012-04-01

452

Temporal and spatial distribution of ferredoxin isoproteins in tomato fruit.  

PubMed Central

Five ferredoxin (Fd) isoproteins (FdA, FdB, FdC, FdD, and FdE) were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Momotaro) fruit. These isoproteins showed differential temporal and spatial accumulation patterns. FdA and FdC were present in leaves. FdE was present in roots, and FdB and FdD were fruit-specific. During fruit growth, the relative abundance of FdA decreased and that of FdE increased. The FdE/FdA ratio was higher in the inner tissues of the fruit than in the outer tissue, and it was correlated with starch accumulation. In darkgrown fruit the contents of FdA, FdB, and FdC, as well as chlorophyll, decreased remarkably relative to their light-grown counterparts; however, the contents of FdE and starch did not change significantly. Under in vitro conditions FdE showed higher cytochrome c reduction activity than FdA and FdB. These results, together with their N-terminal sequences, indicate that both photosynthetic- and heterotrophic-type Fd isoproteins are present in tomato fruit. PMID:8883378

Aoki, K; Wada, K

1996-01-01

453

Response of frugivorous primates to changes in fruit supply in a northern Amazonian forest.  

PubMed

Few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. The marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the Maracá Ecological Station, a highly seasonal Amazonian rainforest. Specifically, it was hypothesised that primate distribution will track changes in fruit supply, resulting that sites with high fruit availability should be heavily used by primates. During a 1-year study, fruit supply (ground fruit surveys) and primate density (line-transects) were monitored in twelve 2 km-long transects at monthly intervals. Fruit supply varied seasonally, being low during the dry season. The density of Ateles belzebuth was positively related to fruit supply during fruit shortage, but Cebus olivaceus and Alouatta macconnelli did not follow the same pattern. The supply of Sapotaceae fruit was an important component determining local distribution of A. belzebuth during the overall fruit shortage. Highly frugivorous primates such as A. belzebuth respond to seasonal decline in fruit supply by congregating at places with high fruit supply in this forest, particularly, those with many individuals of species of Sapotaceae. This study underscores the importance of small-scale spatiotemporal changes of fruit supply as a key component of frugivorous primate ecology in highly seasonal environments. PMID:25296224

Mourthé, I

2014-08-01

454

Tomato fruits as an alternative host for a laboratory strain of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, oviposition and larval growth of the olive fruit flyBactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) occur only in the mesocarp of fruits of the genusOlea, including the cultivated olive. Here we report on its growth in tomatoes, in the laboratory, as affected by a number of\\u000a factors. Caged flies from a colony reared for more than 100 generations on an

E. I. Navrozidis; M. E. Tzanakakis

2005-01-01

455

Sugar Content, Acidity and Effect on Plaque pH of Fruit Juices, Fruit Drinks, Carbonated Beverages and Sport Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of fructose, glucose and sucrose, the pH and the titratable amount of acid were analyzed in the following groups of soft drinks (8–11 samples per group): (1) fruit juices, (2) fruit drinks, (3) carbonated beverages and (4) sport drinks. Moreover, the effect of representative products on pH changes of dental plaque was studied in two groups of teenagers

D. Birkhed

1984-01-01

456

Chemical characterization of fruit and fungal volatiles attractive to dried-fruit beetle, Carpophilus hemipterus (L.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical basis underlying orientation to fruit and fungal odors was investigated for the dried-fruit beetle,Carpophilus hemipterus (L.). In wind-tunnel bioassays of walking and flight response from 1.8 m, beetles were attracted to odors of the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae on agar, aseptic banana, or banana inoculated withS. cerevisiae, although both banana substrates elicited greater response than the yeast alone. When presented

P. Larry Phelan; Hengchen Lin

1991-01-01

457

Subcellular localization of peroxidase in tomato fruit skin and the possible implications for the regulation of fruit growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cessation of tomato fruit growth has been asso- ciated with the appearance of three 'wall-bound' per- oxidase isozymes in the skin of tomato fruit. However, the presence of these isozymes in the ioni- cally eluted 'wall-bound' fraction may be an artefact of either non-specific binding of symplastic peroxi- dase to the cell wall, or isozymes bound to mem- branes

J. Andrews; S. R. Adams; K. S. Burton; C. E. Evered

2002-01-01

458

????? gibberellic acid ???????????????? ???????????????????????????? Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Fruit Quality of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus) cv. While aril  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-year old dragon fruit trees cv. Vietnam were treated with GA3 by spraying at 0,10,20 ppm 1 day before blooming and 7 days after blooming. The experiment was conducted at a private orchard in Warin Chamrap district, Ubon Ratchathani province during the period from January to October 2005. The results showed a significant difference in length of fruits, weight of

Ratchadaporn Janthasri; Umaporn Rajun; Satin Pasuvitayakun

459

Fruit production in Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae) and pre-dispersal seed predation by the apple fruit moth ( Argyresthia conjugella Zell.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in fruit production and pre-dispersal seed predation by Argyresthia conjugella was studied in?four populations of Sorbus aucuparia in northern Sweden.?The number of infructescences, fruits per infructescence, consumed seeds and developed unattacked seeds\\u000a per fruit were scored in marked trees from 1984 to 1990. The results showed that the number of fruits produced in each population\\u000a determined the number of

Ulf Sperens

1997-01-01

460

Hormonal regulation of flowering and fruit development: Effect of gibberellic acid and ethrel on fruit setting and development of Momordica charantia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit setting and development in a monoecious cucurbit,Momordica charantia L. could be regulated by the external application of gibberellin (GA3) and ethrel. Both GA3 and ethrel in lower concentrations promoted female flower production as well as fruit setting and development. Both growth\\u000a regulators improved the quality of theMomordica fruit by increasing length, breath and biomass of the fruits as well

S. Banerjee; P. S. Basu

1992-01-01

461

Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit.  

PubMed

Some phytosanitary irradiation treatment research against tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) has used artificially infested fruit with the unstated and untested assumption that the method adequately simulated a natural situation. We compare grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfayden, naturally infested by Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), via oviposition until larvae reached the late third instar versus insertion of diet-reared third instars into holes made in grapefruits 24 h before irradiation; the latter technique has been used in other studies. Both infestation techniques resulted in statistically indistinguishable results, indicating that insertion of diet-reared third instar Mexican fruit fly into holes bored into grapefruit and subsequently sealed 24 h before irradiation would adequately represent natural infestation and could be used to develop a radiation phytosanitary treatment of the insect in grapefruit when prevention of adult emergence is used as the measure of efficacy. Nevertheless, it may not be advisable to extend this conclusion to other fruit fly/fruit combinations without doing appropriate comparison studies. Dissection of puparia from nonirradiated control insects that failed to emerge as adults showed a relatively even distribution of mortality among the developmental stages within the puparium. In contrast, dissection of puparia from irradiated third instars that did not emerge as adults revealed a sharp attenuation in development from cryptocephalic to phanerocephalic pupae demonstrating this transition to be the developmental step most affected by radiation. PMID:20857719

Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

2010-08-01

462

Outcome and Process Evaluation of a Norwegian School-Randomized Fruit and Vegetable Intervention: Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the effect of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks intervention, a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a home economics classroom component and parental involvement and encouraged participation in the Norwegian School Fruit Programme, all delivered during the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly…

Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

2006-01-01

463

Patterns of fruit traits in a tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a basis for determining how vertebrate frugivores influence the evolution of tropical fruits, we investigated distribution patterns of different fruit traits that are known to influence frugivore food choice, drawing on data gathered from 626 plant species in a primary tropical rainforest at Xishuangbanna, SW China. Species with fleshy fruits are common (66%) in the forest; the proportion of fleshy fruits differed among different growth forms: canopy trees (63%), subcanopy trees (83%), shrubs (74%), lianas (67%), herbs (65%) and epiphytes (49%). Dry fruits had a higher frequency of small-seeded species (length of seed <2 mm) compared to fleshy fruit (34% vs. 14%, respectively), and a lower proportion of species with few seeds (1-3 seeds per fruit) (52% vs. 77%). In fleshy fruits, small fruits (<20 mm in length) were predominant (69%) while medium-sized fruits (20-50 mm) were produced by 105 species (26%), and 20 species (5%) produced large fruit (>50 mm). As a whole, black fruits were most common (40% of 389 species), followed by fruits with red, brown, yellow and bicolored (19%, 13%, 13% and 8%, respectively); green, white, and blue fruits were relatively rare (4%, 2% and 1%, respectively). Characteristics of small fleshy fruits included thin husks, red, white, or black colors and a few medium-sized seeds (2-10 mm). Many medium-sized fruits had large, well-protected seeds. The distribution of plant species among various fruit and seed categories is non-random in this forest. Nested ANOVA revealed a significant phylogenetic component in the variances of most fruit traits while fruit size and color showed 39.7-48.1% of within-genus variances from non-phylogenetic factors.

Chen, Jin; Fleming, Theodore H.; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Liu, Yong

2004-10-01

464

Anastrepha egg deposition induces volatiles in fruits that attract the parasitoid Fopius arisanus.  

PubMed

Fopius arisanus is a solitary egg-pupal endoparasitoid that attacks several species of tephritid fruit flies, particularly Bactrocera spp. This species, indigenous from the Indo-Australian region, was introduced into Mexico for biological control purposes. From the standpoint of the 'new associations' concept this parasitoid has been evaluated against fruit flies in the Anastrepha complex. We investigated the specificity of F. arisanus responses to fruits infested with two species of Anastrepha. We examined whether fruit volatiles attractive to this parasitoid are induced as a result of fruit fly oviposition. We also investigated whether F. arisanus females are able to discriminate between the oviposition-induced volatiles from host eggs parasitised by conspecifics and volatiles from unparasitised eggs. All experiments were performed in a wind tunnel. Results showed that mango fruits infested with A. ludens eggs (2-3 days after egg deposition) were significantly more attractive to naïve F. arisanus females compared with non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. In addition, guava fruits harbouring A. striata eggs were significantly more attractive to the parasitoid than non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. Thus, the parasitoid was attracted to fruits with eggs, but fruit and fly species did not influence the parasitoid attraction. We also found that F. arisanus females were more attracted to fruits exposed to fertile A. ludens females (i.e. fruits with eggs inside) compared with fruits exposed to sterile females (i.e. fruits with no eggs inside) or fruits with mechanical damage. Parasitoid females were not attracted to A. ludens eggs. The results suggest that the presence of eggs induces volatiles that attract parasitoids. Finally, we found that F. arisanus was able to discriminate between fruits with unparasitised eggs vs. eggs parasitised by conspecifics, indicating that host discrimination could be mediated by olfactory cues. PMID:23217412

Pérez, J; Rojas, J C; Montoya, P; Liedo, P; Castillo, A

2013-06-01

465

Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening.  

PubMed

During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages. PMID:25125503

Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

2014-10-01

466

Roles and regulation of cytokinins in tomato fruit development  

PubMed Central

Cytokinins (CKs) are thought to play important roles in fruit development, especially cell division. However, the mechanisms and regulation of CK activity have not been well investigated. This study analysed CK concentrations and expression of genes involved in CK metabolism in developing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ovaries. The concentrations of CK ribosides and isopentenyladenine and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT3, SlIPT4, SlLOG6, and SlLOG8 were high at anthesis and decreased immediately afterward. In contrast, trans-zeatin concentration and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT1, SlIPT2, SlCYP735A1, SlCYP735A2, and SlLOG2 increased after anthesis. The expression of type-A response regulator genes was high in tomato ovaries from pre-anthesis to early post-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the CK signal transduction pathway is active in the cell division phase of fruit development. This study also investigated the effect of CK application on fruit set and development. Application of a synthetic CK, N-(2-chloro-pyridin-4-yl)-N’-phenylurea (CPPU), to unpollinated tomato ovaries induced parthenocarpic fruit development. The CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits were smaller than pollinated fruits, because of reduction of pericarp cell size rather than reduced cell number. Thus, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was attributable to the promotion of cell division, not cell expansion. Overall, the results provide evidence that CKs are involved in cell division during development of tomato fruit. PMID:22865911

Matsuo, Satoshi; Honda, Ichiro

2012-01-01

467

Colour and odour drive fruit selection and seed dispersal by mouse lemurs  

PubMed Central

Animals and fruiting plants are involved in a complex set of interactions, with animals relying on fruiting trees as food resources, and fruiting trees relying on animals for seed dispersal. This interdependence shapes fruit signals such as colour and odour, to increase fruit detectability, and animal sensory systems, such as colour vision and olfaction to facilitate food identification and selection. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of plant-animal interactions for shaping animal sensory adaptations and plant characteristics, the details of the relationship are poorly understood. Here we examine the role of fruit chromaticity, luminance and odour on seed dispersal by mouse lemurs. We show that both fruit colour and odour significantly predict fruit consumption and seed dispersal by Microcebus ravelobensis and M. murinus. Our study is the first to quantify and examine the role of bimodal fruit signals on seed dispersal in light of the sensory abilities of the disperser. PMID:23939534

Valenta, Kim; Burke, Ryan J.; Styler, Sarah A.; Jackson, Derek A.; Melin, Amanda D.; Lehman, Shawn M.

2013-01-01

468

Growth and proteomic analysis of tomato fruit under partial root-zone drying.  

PubMed

The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) on tomato fruit growth and proteome in the pericarp of cultivar Ailsa Craig were investigated. The PRD treatment was 70% of water applied to fully irrigated (FI) plants. PRD reduced the fruit number and slightly increased the fruit diameter, whereas the total fruit fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) per plant did not change. Although the growth rate was higher in FI than in PRD fruits, the longer period of cell expansion resulted in bigger PRD fruits. Proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue at two fruit growth stages (15 and 30 days post-anthesis [dpa]), and submitted to proteomic analysis including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for identification. Proteins related to carbon and amino acid metabolism indicated that slower metabolic flux in PRD fruits may be the cause of a slower growth rate compared to FI fruits. The increase in expression of the proteins related to cell wall, energy, and stress defense could allow PRD fruits to increase the duration of fruit growth compared to FI fruits. Upregulation of some of the antioxidative enzymes during the cell expansion phase of PRD fruits appears to be related to their role in protecting fruits against the mild stress induced by PRD. PMID:22702247

Marjanovi?, Milena; Stiki?, Radmila; Vuceli?-Radovi?, Biljana; Savi?, Sladjana; Jovanovi?, Zorica; Bertin, Nadia; Faurobert, Mireille

2012-06-01

469

The correlation between heat-shock protein accumulation and persistence and chilling tolerance in tomato fruit.  

PubMed Central

Heating tomato fruit (Lycoperiscon esculentum) for 48 h at 38 degrees C prevented chilling injury from developing after 21 d at 2 degrees C, whereas unheated fruit developed high levels of injury. Although the overall protein pattern as seen by Coomassie blue staining was similar from heated and unheated fruit, some high- and many low-molecular-mass proteins were observed in the heated fruit that were absent or present in reduced amounts in unheated fruit. When fruit wer injected with [35S]methionine at harvest and then heated, they accumulated high levels of specific radiolabeled proteins that could still be detected after 21 d at 2 degrees C. If the fruit were held at 20 degrees C after heating, the label in the proteins declined rapidly and these fruit were also sensitive to chilling injury. Hsp70 antibody reacted more strongly with proteins from heated and chilled fruit than with proteins from chilled fruit. Hsp18.1 antibody reacted strongly with proteins from heated fruit but not with those from unheated fruit. A 23-kD protein, highly labeled in heated fruit but not in unheated fruit, had its amino terminus sequenced. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a relationship between the persistence of heat-shock proteins and chilling tolerance in a plant tissue. PMID:8742333

Sabehat, A; Weiss, D; Lurie, S

1996-01-01

470

Modelling fruit-temperature dynamics within apple tree crowns using virtual plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Fruit temperature results from a complex system involving the climate, the tree architecture, the fruit location within the tree crown and the fruit thermal properties. Despite much theoretical and experimental evidence for large differences (up to 10 °C in sunny conditions) between fruit temperature and air temperature,