Sample records for grewia asiatica fruit

  1. Preformulation studies on grewia gum as a formulation excipient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elijah I. NepBarbara; Barbara R. Conway

    Grewia gum is a naturally occurring polysaccharide which has potential as a pharmaceutical excipient. Differential scanning\\u000a calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques were used to examine the thermal and molecular\\u000a behaviours, respectively, of mixtures of grewia gum with cimetidine, ibuprofen or standard excipients, to assess potential\\u000a interactions. No disappearance or broadening of the melting endotherm was seen with

  2. Centella asiatica in cosmetology

    PubMed Central

    Znajdek-Awi?e?, Paulina; Studzi?ska-Sroka, El?bieta; Brzezi?ska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    Centella asiatica known as Gotu Kola is a medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years as well as in scientifically oriented medicine. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acids. Centella asiatica is effective in improving treatment of small wounds, hypertrophic wounds as well as burns, psoriasis and scleroderma. The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Research results indicate that it can be used in the treatment of photoaging skin, cellulite and striae. PMID:24278045

  3. Centella asiatica in cosmetology.

    PubMed

    Bylka, Wies?awa; Znajdek-Awi?e?, Paulina; Studzi?ska-Sroka, El?bieta; Brzezi?ska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-02-01

    Centella asiatica known as Gotu Kola is a medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years as well as in scientifically oriented medicine. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acids. Centella asiatica is effective in improving treatment of small wounds, hypertrophic wounds as well as burns, psoriasis and scleroderma. The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Research results indicate that it can be used in the treatment of photoaging skin, cellulite and striae. PMID:24278045

  4. Centella asiatica in dermatology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bylka, Wies?awa; Znajdek-Awi?e?, Paulina; Studzi?ska-Sroka, El?bieta; Da?czak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Brzezi?ska, Ma?gorzata

    2014-08-01

    Centella asiatica is a medicinal plant that was already used as a 'panacea' 3000 years ago. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecasosside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid. We have conducted an overview to summarize current knowledge on the results of scientific in vitro and in vivo experiments focused on the improvement of the healing process of small wounds, hypertrophic scars and burns by C. asiatica. In this paper, we discuss the data on constituents, recommended preparations and the potential side effects of C. asiatica. PMID:24399761

  5. Barium Levels in Soils and Centella asiatica.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ghim Hock; Yap, Chee Kong; Mahmood, Maziah; Tan, Soon Guan; Hamzah, Suhaimi

    2013-08-01

    In this study, Centella asiatica and surface soils were collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and the barium (Ba) concentrations were determined. The Ba concentration [?g/g dry weight (dw)] was 63.72 to 382.01 ?g/g in soils while in C. asiatica, Ba concentrations ranged from 5.05 to 21.88 ?g/g for roots, 3.31 to 11.22 ?g/g for leaves and 2.37 to 6.14 ?g/g for stems. In C. asiatica, Ba accumulation was found to be the highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. The correlation coefficients (r) of Ba between plants and soils were found to be significantly positively correlated, with the highest correlation being between roots-soils (r=0.922, p<005), followed by leaves-soils (r=0.890, p<005) and stems-soils (r=0.848, p<005). This indicates that these three parts of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. For the transplantation study, four sites were selected as unpolluted [(Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)], semi-polluted (Seri Kembangan and Balakong) and polluted sites (Juru). Based on the transplantation study under experimental field and laboratory conditions, Ba concentrations in C. asiatica were significantly (p<0.05) higher after three weeks of exposure at Seri Kembangan, Balakong and Juru. Thus, these experimental findings confirm that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica can reflect the Ba levels in the soils where this plant is found. Three weeks after back transplantation to clean soils, the Ba levels in C. asiatica were still higher than the initial Ba level even though Ba elimination occurred. In conclusion, the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. PMID:24575242

  6. In Vitro antibacterial and in Vivo cytotoxic activities of Grewia paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, Mahmuda; Dash, Pritesh Ranjan; Ali, Mohammad Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Grewia paniculata (Family: Malvaceae) has been used to treat inflammation, respiratory disorders and fever. It is additionally employed for other health conditions including colds, diarrhea and as an insecticide in Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of different extracts of Grewia paniculata. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria using disc diffusion method by determination of the diameter of zone of inhibition. Cytotoxic activity was performed by brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Results: In disc diffusion method, all the natural products (400 ?g/disc) showed moderate to potent activity against all the tested bacteria. The ethanol extract of bark (EEB) and ethanol fraction of bark (EFB) (400 ?g/disc) exhibited highest activity against Shigella dysenteriae with a zone of inhibition of 23±1.63 mm and 23±1.77 mm respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay all the extracts showed moderate cytotoxic activity when compared with the standard drug vincristin sulphate. For example, LC50 value of the ethanol fraction of bark (EFB) was 3.01 ?g/ml while the LC50 of vincristine sulphate was 0.52 ?g/ml. Conclusions: The results suggest that all the natural products possess potent antibacterial and moderate cytotoxic. PMID:25949950

  7. Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

  8. Two New Triterpene Glycosides from Centella asiatica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Centella asiatica resulted in the isolation and characterization of one new ursane type triterpene glycoside; asiaticoside G along with nine known compounds, that were characterized as ursane type triterpenes and /or their glycoside; asiatic acid (2), mad...

  9. Description of Telamoptilia grewiae sp. n. and the consequences for the definition of the genera Telamoptilia and Spulerina (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tengteng; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Houhun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The new species Telamoptilia grewiae, reared from leafmines on Grewia biloba (Malvaceae) is described with details on adult and immature stages. The larval head and the pupa are described for the first time in Telamoptilia Kumata & Kuroko, 1988, and are illustrated with scanning electron micrographs and line drawings. Photographs of adult habitus, wing venation, male and female genitalia, as well as host plant and mines are provided. The apomorphic adult and larval characters of the new species in Telamoptilia are discussed in relation to the recognition of the genera Telamoptilia and Spulerina Vári, 1961. PMID:25685019

  10. Microwave induced synthesis of graft copolymer of binary vinyl monomer mixtures onto delignified Grewia optiva fibre: Application in dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vinod; Pathania, Deepak; Priya, Bhanu; Singha, A. K.; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-08-01

    Grafting method, through microwave radiation technique is very effective in terms of time consumption, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Via this method, delignified Grewia optiva identified as a waste biomass, was graft copolymerized with methylmethacrylate (MMA) as an principal monomer in a binary mixture of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA) under microwave irradiation (MWR) using ascorbic acid/H2O2 as an initiator system. The concentration of the comonomer was optimized to maximize the graft yield with respect to the primary monomer. Maximum graft yield (86.32%) was found for dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) binary mixture as compared to other synthesized copolymer. The experimental results inferred that the optimal concentrations for the comonomers to the optimized primary monomer was observed to be 3.19 mol/L×10-1 for EMA and 2.76 mol/L×10-1 for EA. Delignified and graft copolymerized fibre were subjected to evaluation of physicochemical properties such as swelling behaviour and chemical resistance. The synthesized graft copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermal stability of dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) was found to be more as compared to the delignified Grewia optiva fibre and other graft copolymers. Although the grafting technique was found to decrease percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index among the graft copolymers but there was significant increase in their acid/base and thermal resistance properties. The grafted samples have been explored for the adsorption of hazardous methylene dye from aqueous system.

  11. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  12. Effect of auxins (IBA and NAA) and season on rooting of juvenile and mature hardwood cuttings of Robinia pseudoacacia and Grewia optiva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Swamy; S. Puri; A. K. Singh

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile (2 year old trees) and mature hardwood (15 year old trees) cuttings of Robinia pseudoacacia and Grewia optiva were tested for their capacity to form roots. Cuttings were prepared in spring, monsoon and winter seasons and treated with different concentrations (250, 500 and 750 mg\\/l) of IBA and NAA. These were planted in a mist chamber maintained at 25?±?1?°C

  13. Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

  14. Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of Centella asiatica (L.) extract in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Supkamonseni, Nattapon; Thinkratok, Aree; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Srisawat, Rungrudee

    2014-10-01

    In vitro study revealed that pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of C. asiatica extract was significantly higher than rutin but lower than orlistat, an anti-obesity drug. alpha-Amylase inhibitory activities of C. asiatica extract and rutin were significantly lower than acarbose, an anti-diabetic drug. Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase activity by C. asiatica extract, rutin, and acarbose was not different. The in vivo study substantiated the in vitro results. C. asiatica extract (1000 and 2000 mg/4 mL/kg), rutin (1000 mg/4 mL/kg), and orlistat (45 mg/4 mL/kg) significantly decreased plasma glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in lipid emulsion-induced hyperlipidemic rats at 3 h. However, plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels did not show significant change. The present work further supports that the C. asiatica extract and its bioactive rutin may help managing hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. PMID:25345245

  15. Influence of milling time on fineness of Centella Asiatica particle size produced using planetary ball mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhan, M. Z.; Ahmad, R.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2012-11-01

    Centella Asiatica (C. Asiatica)contains asiaticoside as bioactive constituent which can be potentially used in skin healing process. Unfortunately, the normal powders are difficult to be absorbed by the body effectively. In order to improve the value of use, nano C. Asiatica powder was prepared. The influence of milling time was carried out at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours and 10 hours. The effect of ball milling at different times was characterized using particles size analysis and FTIR Spectroscopy. The fineness of ground product was evaluated by recording the z-Average (nm), undersize distribution and polydispersity index (PdI). The results show that the smallest size particles by mean is 233 nm while FTIR spectra shows that there is no changing in the major component in the C. Asiatica powders with milling time.

  16. Evaluation of Pb Phytoremediation Potential in Buddleja asiatica and B. paniculata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piyaporn Waranusantigul; Maleeya Kruatrachue; Prayad Pokethitiyook; Choowong Auesukaree

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential for Pb of Buddleja asiatica (a wild species) and a closely related cultivated species, B. paniculata, was investigated by means of field survey, hydroponic and pot experiments, and field trial experiments. Field surveys showed\\u000a that B. asiatica had an extraordinary accumulation capacity and tolerance for Pb. Plants grown in soil with 2,369.8–206,152 mg kg?1 total Pb accumulated 1,835.5–4,335.8 mg

  17. Chemical Fingerprinting and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis of Centella asiatica from Different Locations in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Gang Zhang; Ting Han; Qiao-Yan Zhang; Hong Zhang; Bao-Kang Huang; Li-Li Xu; Lu-Ping Qin

    2009-01-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a widely distributed herbaceous plant with great medicinal value that has been extensively used in traditional\\u000a Chinese medicine. For effective quality control of C. asiatica, a feasible approach and control system is necessary. In this paper, a chemical fingerprint method (column liquid chromatography)\\u000a was developed for investigating and demonstrating the variance of chemical components among

  18. Centella asiatica Attenuates Diabetes Induced Hippocampal Changes in Experimental Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Nelli; Srinivasarao, Nelli; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been reported to affect functions of the hippocampus. We hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a herb traditionally being used to improve memory, prevents diabetes-related hippocampal dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of C. asiatica on the hippocampus in diabetes. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced adult male diabetic rats received 100 and 200?mg/kg/day body weight (b.w) C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract for four consecutive weeks. Following sacrifice, hippocampus was removed and hippocampal tissue homogenates were analyzed for Na(+)/K(+)-, Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPases activity levels. Levels of the markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-?; interleukin, IL-6; and interleukin, IL-1?) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation product: LPO, superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, and glutathione peroxidase: GPx) were determined. The hippocampal sections were visualized for histopathological changes. Results. Administration of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract to diabetic rats maintained near normal ATPases activity levels and prevents the increase in the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus. Lesser signs of histopathological changes were observed in the hippocampus of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract treated diabetic rats. Conclusions. C. asiatica leaf protects the hippocampus against diabetes-induced dysfunction which could help to preserve memory in this condition. PMID:25161691

  19. The anti-thrombotic active constituents from Centella asiatica.

    PubMed

    Satake, Toshiko; Kamiya, Kohei; An, Yin; Oishi Nee Taka, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Junichiro

    2007-05-01

    The in vitro effects of a methanol extract from the aerial parts of Centella asiatica on shear-induced platelet activation and coagulation were assessed after oral administration to rats, by subjecting non-anticoagulated blood to haemostatometry. 3,5-Di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, and chlorogenic acid, together with asiaticoside, kaempferol, quercetine, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside were all isolated from the methanol extract. Amongst these, only 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid showed significant inhibition of shear-induced platelet activation and dynamic coagulation. The reactive curve of the inhibitory effect on the platelet reaction and the dynamic coagulation showed a bell-shape. PMID:17473438

  20. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mouse by Centella asiatica extract.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jaimala; Sharma, Radha

    2002-12-01

    Centella asiatica, has a considerable reputation in the Indian system of medicine. It is a rasayan (general tonic), brain tonic, improves memory and strengthens the CNS. In view of its multifarious uses, the plant extract was tested for its radioprotective properties. A sublethal dose of Co 60 gamma radiation, i.e. 8 Gy was selected for the purpose. Animals were divided into two groups. The whole bodies were irradiated with Co 60 gamma radiation externally, with and without drug extract. The drug extract was given orally at different doses and for different time intervals. The dose that was most effective against radiation was 100 mg/kg body weight. This dose increased the survival time of the mice significantly. Body weight loss of the animals in the drug treated group was significantly less in comparison with the animals that were given radiation only. The causes and mechanism of protection and other aspects need further investigations. PMID:12458490

  1. Effect of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and elicitation on the asiaticoside production in cell cultures of Centella asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Ruslan, Komar; Selfitri, Anggrahaeni Dewi; Bulan, Shella A.; Rukayadi, Yaya; Elfahmi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae) is an important medicinal plant, and it has been using to prepare herbal medicines. The compounds responsible for the biological activity of C. asiatica are triterpenoids such as asiaticoside. Asiaticoside is also important as a marker for standardization of C. asiatica. Due to the low content, there is a need to enhance the production of asiaticoside of C. asiatica. The biotechnological approach is one of the methods that can be used to enhance its production. Objectives: This study was designed to enhance the production of asiaticoside from C. asiatica using A. rhizogenes and elicitation experiments. Materials and Methods: Callus cultures were initiated using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP). All media were supplemented with 4% (w/w) sucrose and solidified with 0.9% agar. Elicitations were done using pectin, methyl jasmonate, and Cu2+ ions. Transformed hairy root cultures were performed using A. rhizogenes. Results: Callus culture of C. asiatica was successfully initiated. Enhancement of the production of asiaticoside in the callus culture by elicitors pectin was up to 31%; methyl jasmonate (50 ?M) in cell suspension cultures at day 14 was up to 171% compared to explant and 494% compared to control callus; copper ion (25 ?M) at day 21 was up to 144% compared to explant, and 676% compared to control cell suspension cultures. While enhancement by genetic transformation using A. rhizogenes was 166-172% compare to untransformed roots Conclusion: Elicitation and genetically transformed hairy root cultures of C. asiatica produced asiaticoside up to 172% higher than untreated callus. PMID:22701283

  2. Attenuated Francisella asiatica iglC mutant induces protective immunity to francisellosis in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Wiles, Judy; Elzer, Philip; Macaluso, Kevin; Hawke, John P

    2011-01-10

    Francisella asiatica is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that causes fish francisellosis. Fish francisellosis is a severe sub-acute to chronic granulomatous disease with high mortalities and high infectivity rates in cultured and wild fish. To date, there is no approved vaccine for this widespread emergent disease. The goal of this study was to characterize the efficacy of a defined F. asiatica mutant (?iglC) as a live attenuated vaccine against subsequent immersion challenge with the wild-type (WT) organism. In previous work, the ?iglC was found to be attenuated upon intraperitoneal injection and immersion challenges. In vitro, the ?iglC exhibited reduced growth in tilapia head-kidney derived macrophages, and was significantly attenuated (p<0.001) as demonstrated by cytopathogenic and apoptosis assays. In this study, the ?iglC was tested to determine its ability to protect tilapia against challenge with high doses (lethal dose 80) of WT bacteria. Naïve tilapia vaccinated by immersion with a suspension of the ?iglC and subsequently challenged with WT F. asiatica were protected (90% mean percent survival) from the lethal challenges. F. asiatica-specific antibodies produced in response to immunization with the ?iglC were subsequently found to protect naïve tilapia against high-dose F. asiatica challenge in passive immunization experiments. Significant protection (p<0.001) was obtained when fish were passively immunized and challenged with 10(4) and 10(5)CFU/fish of WT F. asiatica; but not when challenged with 10(6)CFU/fish. This is the first report of a defined live attenuated strain providing protection against F. asiatica in fish. PMID:20600508

  3. Centella asiatica Improves Physical Performance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Healthy Elderly Volunteer

    PubMed Central

    Mato, Lugkana; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyawatkul, Nawanant; Yimtae, Kwanchanok; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2011-01-01

    Recently, oxidative stress has been reported to contribute an important role in the decline of physical function as age advances. Numerous antioxidants can improve both physical and psychological performances resulting in the increase of health-related quality of life (HQOL). Therefore, we hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a medicinal plant reputed for nerve tonic, strength improvement and antioxidant activity, could improve the physical performance and HQOL especially in the physical satisfaction aspect, of the healthy elderly volunteer. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Eighty healthy elderly were randomly assigned to receive placebo or standardized extract of C. asiatica at doses of 250, 500 and 750?mg once daily for 90 days. The subjects were evaluated to establish baseline data of physical performance using 30-s chair stand test, hand grip test and 6-min walk test. The health-related quality of life was assessed using SF-36. These assessments were repeated every month throughout the 3-month experimental period using the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, 1 month after the cessation of C. asiatica treatment, all subjects were also evaluated using these parameters again. The results showed that after 2 months of treatment, C. asiatica at doses of 500 and 750?mg per day increased lower extremity strength assessed via the 30-s chair stand test. In addition, the higher doses of C. asiatica could improve the life satisfaction subscale within the physical function subscale. Therefore, the results from this study appear to support the traditional reputation of C. asiatica on strength improvement, especially in the lower extremities of the elderly. C. asiatica also possesses the potential to be a natural resource for vigor and strength increase, in healthy elderly persons. However, further research is essential. PMID:19880441

  4. Antioxidant Responses of Vallisneria asiatica to Eutrophic Sediments in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Caixia; Kuba, Takahiro; Hao, Aimin; Iseri, Yasushi

    2015-08-01

    Three kinds of representative sediments were obtained from a macrophyte-dominated bay (East Lake Taihu) and two algae-dominated regions (Western Lake Taihu and Meiliang Bay). Physiological responses of Vallisneria asiatica to these sediments were compared. Results from 20 days exposures showed no obvious differences in malondialdehyde (MDA) in roots, while the MDA content in leaves of plants exposed to Western Lake Taihu sediment was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those exposed to the other two sediments. In comparison to the other two sediments, plants exposed to Western Lake Taihu sediment showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) superoxide dismutase in roots and leaves on the 10th and 40th day. On the 40th day, root catalase (CAT) activities in V. asiatica from Western Lake Taihu and Meiliang Bay sediments were lower than that from East Lake Taihu sediment, while leaf CAT activity in V. asiatica from Western Lake Taihu sediment was higher than that from East Lake Taihu sediment (p < 0.05). Western Lake Taihu sediment caused more serious oxidative stress in V. asiatica than East Lake Taihu sediment. Results indicated eutrophic sediment was a contributing factor in the disappearance of V. asiatica in Western Lake Taihu. PMID:26070371

  5. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, B. N.; Girish, T. K.; Raghavendra, R. H.; Naidu, K. Akhilender; Rao, U. J. S. Prasada; Rao, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. Objective: The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Results: Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Conclusions: Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24741275

  6. Genetic characterization of Zostera asiatica on the Pacific Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.; Ward, D.H.; Rearick, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Chesney, B.; Phillips, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    We gathered sequence information from the nuclear 5.8S rDNA gene and associated internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2 (5.8S rDNA/ITS), and the chloroplast maturase K (matK) gene, from Zostera samples collected from subtidal habitats in Monterey and Santa Barbara (Isla Vista) bays, California, to test the hypothesis that these plants are conspecific with Z. asiatica Miki of Asia. Sequences from approximately 520 base pairs of the nuclear 5.8S rDNA/ITS obtained from the subtidal Monterey and Isla Vista Zostera samples were identical to homologous sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California. Similarly, sequences from the matK gene from the subtidal Zostera samples were identical to matK sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California, but differed from Z. asiatica sequences accessioned into GenBank. This suggests the subtidal plants are conspecific with Z. marina, not Z. asiatica. However, we found that herbarium samples accessioned into the Kyoto University Herbarium, determined to be Z. asiatica, yielded 5.8S rDNA/ITS sequences consistent with either Z. japonica, in two cases, or Z. marina, in one case. Similar results were observed for the chloroplast matK gene; we found haplotypes that were inconsistent with published matK sequences from Z. asiatica collected from Japan. These results underscore the need for closer examination of the relationship between Z. marina along the Pacific Coast of North America, and Z. asiatica of Asia, for the retention and verification of specimens examined in scientific studies, and for assessment of the usefulness of morphological characters in the determination of taxonomic relationships within Zosteraceae.

  7. Modification of gamma ray induced changes in the mouse hepatocytes by Centella asiatica extract: in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Radha; Sharma, Jaimala

    2005-07-01

    Ionizing radiation, besides causing direct damage also generates reactive oxygen species that are capable of inducing damage to various organs. Pretreatment with Centella asiatica 1 h prior to irradiation at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight was found to be effective against radiation induced damage in the liver. The number of normal hepatocytes was higher in the Centella asiatica pretreated group in comparison with the irradiated only group. The number of binucleated cells and abnormal hepatocytes was less in comparison with the animals irradiated without Centella asiatica pretreatment. PMID:16161023

  8. Oviposition Stimulants for the Tropical Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio polytes , Feeding on a Rutaceous Plant, Toddalia asiatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadanobu Nakayama; Keiichi Honda; Hisashi Ômura; Nanao Hayashi

    2003-01-01

    In nature, Papilio polytes utilizes a limited range of rutaceous plants as hosts. We isolated and identified oviposition stimulants for the butterfly from the foliage of its primary host plant Toddalia asiatica. Females readily deposited eggs in response to a methanolic extract of the plant. Partition of the extract with organic solvents revealed that chemicals responsible for eliciting egg-laying resided

  9. Terpenoid precursors of strigol as seed germination stimulants of broomrape ( Orobanche ramosa ) and witchweed ( Striga asiatica )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney L. Vail; Oliver D. Dailey; Eugene J. Blanchard; Armand B. Pepperman; James L. Riopel

    1990-01-01

    Strigol and some of its synthetic precursors and analogs are known to be germination stimulants for broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) and witchweed (Striga asiatica). Fifteen synthetic terpenoids, similar in structure to one of the four rings of the strigol molecule, were evaluated in\\u000a two bioassays as seed germination stimulants with broomrape, and nine were found to be active. Five of the

  10. Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (sun. F. asiatica) isolates from fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility ...

  11. Ultrastructure of the Blepharoplast and the Multilayered Structure in Spermatogenesis in Osmunda cinnamomea var. asiatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAO Jian-Guo; BAO Wen-Mei; DAI Shao-Jun

    The ultrastructure of the blepharoplast and the multilayered structure (MLS) in the fern Osmunda cinnamomea var. asiatica Fernald have been studied by electron microscopy with respect to spermatogenesis. The blepharoplast appears in the young spermatid. The differentiating blepharoplast is approximately a spherical body, which is composed of densely stained granular material in the center and some cylinders outside of it.

  12. Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against ?-amyloid toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Nora E.; Morré, Jeff; Kelley, Jeremiah; Maier, Claudia S.; Stevens, Jan F.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) improves learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of A? accumulation. However the active compounds in CAW remain unknown. Here we used two in vitro models of A? toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect, and identify several active constituents of the CAW extract. CAW reduced A?-induced cell death and attenuated A?-induced changes in tau expression and phosphorylation in both the MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. We confirmed and quantified the presence of several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in CAW using chromatographic separation coupled to mass spectrometry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Multiple dicaffeoylquinic acids showed efficacy in protecting MC65 cells against A?-induced cytotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acid A and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be the most abundant CQAs in CAW, and the most active in protecting MC65 cells from A?-induced cell death. Both compounds showed neuroprotective activity in MC65 and SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations comparable to their levels in CAW. Each compound not only mitigated A?-induced cell death, but was able to attenuate A?-induced alterations in tau expression and phosphorylation in both cell lines, as seen with CAW. These data suggest that CQAs are active neuroprotective components in CAW, and therefore are important markers for future studies on CAW standardization, bioavailability and dosing. PMID:24448790

  13. Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against amyloid-? toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nora E; Morré, Jeff; Kelley, Jeremiah; Maier, Claudia S; Stevens, Jan F; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) improves learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of A? accumulation. However the active compounds in CAW remain unknown. Here we used two in vitro models of A? toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect and identify several active constituents of the CAW extract. CAW reduced A?-induced cell death and attenuated A?-induced changes in tau expression and phosphorylation in both the MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. We confirmed and quantified the presence of several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in CAW using chromatographic separation coupled to mass spectrometry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Multiple dicaffeoylquinic acids showed efficacy in protecting MC65 cells against A?-induced cytotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acid A and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be the most abundant CQAs in CAW, and the most active in protecting MC65 cells from A?-induced cell death. Both compounds showed neuroprotective activity in MC65 and SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations comparable to their levels in CAW. Each compound not only mitigated A?-induced cell death, but was able to attenuate A?-induced alterations in tau expression and phosphorylation in both cell lines, as seen with CAW. These data suggest that CQAs are active neuroprotective components in CAW, and therefore are important markers for future studies on CAW standardization, bioavailability, and dosing. PMID:24448790

  14. Field evaluation of in vitro-induced tetraploid and diploid Centella asiatica (L.) Urban.

    PubMed

    Thong-On, Wachiraporn; Arimatsu, Panida; Pitiporn, Supaporn; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Prathanturarug, Sompop

    2014-04-01

    Centella asiatica-a medicinal plant that produces high-value active triterpenoids-is in increasing demand by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to field-test one induced tetraploid and three diploid C. asiatica lines for the selection of high-quality plants with high phytomass and triterpenoid content and to determine their optimal harvesting time. All tested C. asiatica were micropropagated using an established protocol. One-month-old plantlets were acclimatized for the field experiment. The plants were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, ten plantlets per replication, and the experimental bed site was 0.6 × 1.0 m. Growth parameters, phytomass and the amounts of four active triterpenoids were evaluated. All lines exhibited the highest growth, yields and triterpenoids at 4 months after cultivation. The tetraploid line showed significantly better characteristics, i.e., larger leaf area, leaf width, petiole length, and greater yields, than diploid lines. Dry weight per cultivated area (77.53 ± 3.07 g/m(2)) and total triterpenoids (15.38 ± 0.76 % dry weight) were increased significantly in tetraploid plants of C. asiatica. Furthermore, the harvesting time had an effect on the yield and triterpenoid content (P < 0.001). In all tetraploid and diploid lines, the yields and triterpenoid content per cultivated area reached their maximum at 4 months after planting. Our results demonstrated that polyploidy induction is a beneficial tool that can be used to improve the medicinal value of C. asiatica. PMID:23529542

  15. Biological screening of selected flora of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, M; Raza Shah, M; Qayum, Mughal; Ercisli, Sezai

    2012-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of different parts of five medicinal plants, Ferula assafoetidaL. resin, Grewia asiaticaL. leaves, Ipomoea hederaceaJacq. seeds, Lepidium sativumL. seeds and Terminalia chebulaRetz. fruits were tested in vitrofor their cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal and anthelmintic activities. Ipomoea hederaceashowed very significant phytotoxic and cytotoxic activity, with 100% inhibition of Lemna minorgrowth and 100% death of Artemia salinaat concentrations of 1000 and 100 µg mL-1. Grewia asiaticaexhibited very weak activities while Lepidium sativumand Ferula assafoetidashowed moderate to good potential in all three bioassays. The results suggest screening of Ipomoea hederaceaseeds further for isolation of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for its toxic potential. PMID:23558994

  16. Exophiala asiatica, a new species from a fatal case in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong Ming; Li, Ruo Yu; De Hoog, G S; Wang, Yu Xin; Wang, Duan Li

    2009-02-01

    We describe a new species, Exophiala asiatica, isolated from an infection of the pharynx in a 20-year-old, immunocompetent woman in Nanjing, China. The infection was initiated by a fishbone prick in the pharynx, soon developed with facial nodules but subsequently seemed to have disappeared. Tonsil ulceration with progressive soreness of the pharynx was observed 3 years later. Dysphagia, headache and paralysis occurred four years after first signs of infection. Hyphae and yeast-like cells were detected in tissue and a black fungus was recovered repeatedly from pharynx tissue. Despite antifungal therapy for more than one year, the patient died of apparent cerebral dissemination of the etiologic agent. On the basis of morphology, nutritional physiology, ribosomal small subunit DNA and ITS sequence data the strain could not be matched with any existing species. A new species, Exophiala asiatica, is therefore proposed. PMID:19107634

  17. A new method for preparing pentacyclic triterpene rich Centella asiatica extracts.

    PubMed

    Puttarak, Panupong; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for four pentacyclic triterpenes as well as developed a method for preparing a pentacyclic triterpenene rich extract from Centella asiatica. MAE was capable of increasing the yield of the pentacyclic triterpenes up to twice that produced by the heat reflux method, and it was also much less time consuming. The optimal conditions of MAE employed were extraction with absolute ethanol as solvent, an irradiation power of 600?W, at 75°C, four irradiation cycles and four extraction times. Here, we provide a simple method for the preparation of the pentacyclic triterpene rich C. asiatica extracts, which contained not less than 65%?w/w total pentacyclic triterpenes. The method involved a macroporous resin (Diaion® HP-20) column eluted with ethanol and a decolourisation step with activated charcoal. PMID:22577972

  18. Bioguided isolation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    PubMed

    Geng, Fang; Yang, Li; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

    2010-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. showed significant inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) determined by monitoring the transformation from a substrate hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL) to the product hippuric acid (HA) in vitro using an UPLC-MS method. The bioguided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of four ACE inhibitory active phenylpropanoid glycosides acteoside, isoacteoside, plantainoside D, and plantamajoside with IC(50) values of 2.69 mM, 2.46 mM, 2.17 mM, and 2.47 mM, respectively. Their structures were elucidated through the analysis of NMR, UV, IR and MS data. Our study is the first demonstration that Plantago asiatica L. and its major constituents have ACE inhibitory activity in vitro. It is assumed that the identified compounds contribute to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of the extract. PMID:19998322

  19. In vitro and in vivo wound healing activity of asiaticoside isolated from Centella asiatica.

    PubMed

    Shukla, A; Rasik, A M; Jain, G K; Shankar, R; Kulshrestha, D K; Dhawan, B N

    1999-04-01

    The activity of asiaticoside, isolated from Centella asiatica, has been studied in normal as well as delayed-type wound healing. In guinea pig punch wounds topical applications of 0.2% solution of asiaticoside produced 56% increase in hydroxyproline, 57% increase in tensile strength, increased collagen content and better epithelisation. In streptozotocin diabetic rats, where healing is delayed, topical application of 0.4% solution of asiaticoside over punch wounds increased hydroxyproline content, tensile strength, collagen content and epithelisation thereby facilitating the healing. Asiaticoside was active by the oral route also at 1 mg/kg dose in the guinea pig punch wound model. It promoted angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model at 40 microg/disk concentration. These results indicate that asiaticoside exhibits significant wound healing activity in normal as well as delayed healing models and is the main active constituent of Centella asiatica. PMID:10350364

  20. Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure-all

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Kashmira J.; Patel, Jagruti A.; Gajjar, Anuradha K.

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Centella asiatica is an important medicinal herb that is widely used in the orient and is becoming popular in the West. Triterpenoid, saponins, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica are manly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. Apart from wound healing, the herb is recommended for the treatment of various skin conditions such as leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, diarrhoea, fever, amenorrhea, diseases of the female genitourinary tract and also for relieving anxiety and improving cognition. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on pharmacology, mechanisms of action, various preclinical and clinical studies, safety precautions and current research prospects of the herb. At the same time, studies to evaluate the likelihood of interactions with drugs and herbs on simultaneous use, which is imperative for optimal and safe utilization of the herb, are discussed. PMID:21694984

  1. An investigation of arsenic contamination in Peninsular Malaysia based on Centella asiatica and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Ong, G H; Yap, C K; Maziah, M; Suhaimi, H; Tan, S G

    2013-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to provide data of arsenic (As) levels in Peninsular Malaysia based on soil samples and accumulation of As in Centella asiatica collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia. The second objective was to assess the accumulation of As in transplanted C. asiatica between control and semi-polluted or polluted sites. Four sites were selected which were UPM (clean site), Balakong (semi-polluted site), Seri Kembangan (semi-polluted site) and Juru (polluted site). The As concentrations of plant and soil samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The As levels ranged from 9.38 to 57.05 ?g/g dw in soils, 0.21 to 4.33 ?g/g dw in leaves, 0.18 to 1.83 ?g/g dw in stems and 1.32-20.76 ?g/g dw in roots. All sampling sites had As levels exceeding the CCME guideline (12 ?g/g dw) except for Kelantan, P. Pauh, and Senawang with P. Klang having the highest As in soil (57.05 ?g/g dw). In C. asiatica, As accumulation was highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. When the As level in soils were higher, the uptake of As in plants would also be increased. After the transplantation of plants to semi-polluted and polluted sites for 3 weeks, all concentration factors were greater than 50 % of the initial As level. The elimination factor was around 39 % when the plants were transplanted back to the clean sites for 3 weeks. The findings of the present study indicated that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are ideal biomonitors of As contamination. The present data results the most comprehensive data obtained on As levels in Malaysia. PMID:22821327

  2. Regeneration of whole plants from Gracilaria asiatica Chang et Xia protoplasts (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing-Hong Yan; Su-Juan Wang

    1993-01-01

    A large number of viable protoplasts were produced by enzymatic digestion of Gracilaria asiatica vegetative tissue. The protoplasts underwent initial division after 5–7 d in culture and developed into callus-like cell-masses. Many filaments grew from the periphery of these cell-masses and disappeared after about one month in culture. Simultaneously, the central part of the callus-like cell-masses thickened and its color

  3. Effect of Centella asiatica on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Hyperlipidemic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun; Shu, Ping; Zhang, Youzhi; Lin, Limin; Zhou, Haihong; Xu, Zhentian; Suo, Daqin; Xie, Anzhi; Jin, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia and many other metabolic diseases are related to oxidative stress. Centella asiatica is a traditional Chinese medicine whose antioxidant effect in vitro has been reported. We are interested in whether it possesses this effect in vivo and hence modulates lipid metabolism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on mice and golden hamsters regarding its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. We observed that a fraction (CAF3) of the ethanol extract (CAE) of Centella asiatica had a cholesterol decrease of 79% and a triglyceride decrease of 95% in acute mice model, so CAF3 was further investigated in high-fat-fed hamster model. It was shown that CAF3 increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased MDA level, and it also improved TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, and ALT levels. L-CAT and SR-BI gene expression in hamsters were increased. Taken together, our data suggest that the CAF3 fraction of Centella asiatica has antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24829618

  4. Effect of Centella asiatica on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic animal models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Shu, Ping; Zhang, Youzhi; Lin, Limin; Zhou, Haihong; Xu, Zhentian; Suo, Daqin; Xie, Anzhi; Jin, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia and many other metabolic diseases are related to oxidative stress. Centella asiatica is a traditional Chinese medicine whose antioxidant effect in vitro has been reported. We are interested in whether it possesses this effect in vivo and hence modulates lipid metabolism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on mice and golden hamsters regarding its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. We observed that a fraction (CAF3) of the ethanol extract (CAE) of Centella asiatica had a cholesterol decrease of 79% and a triglyceride decrease of 95% in acute mice model, so CAF3 was further investigated in high-fat-fed hamster model. It was shown that CAF3 increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased MDA level, and it also improved TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, and ALT levels. L-CAT and SR-BI gene expression in hamsters were increased. Taken together, our data suggest that the CAF3 fraction of Centella asiatica has antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24829618

  5. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness. PMID:22693530

  6. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness. PMID:22693530

  7. Centella asiatica attenuates the neurobehavioral, neurochemical and histological changes in transient focal middle cerebral artery occlusion rats.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rizwana; Vaibhav, Kumar; Shrivastava, Pallavi; Khan, Andleeb; Ejaz Ahmed, Md; Javed, Hayate; Islam, Farah; Ahmad, Sayeed; Saeed Siddiqui, M; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

    2013-06-01

    Centella asiatica has been used as psychoactive and antioxidant herbal medicine since ancient time. The present study was design to evaluate the preventive role of ethanolic extract of C. asiatica in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were gavaged orally with C. asiatica extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight once daily) for 21 days and thereafter subjected to right MCAO for 2 h followed by 22-h reperfusion. Brain injury was evaluated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Behavioural outcomes as neurological deficit, rota rod test, and grip strength were assessed. In addition, lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants were analyzed to assess the oxidative stress. Our results revealed that C. asiatica administration greatly improved neurobehavioral activity and diminished infarction volume along with the restored histological morphology of brain in MCAO rats. Furthermore, supplementation with this extract to MCAO group has reduced the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, restored glutathione content and augmented the activities of antioxidant enzymes-catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase in a dose-dependent manner in ischemic rats. The remarkable antioxidant activity of C. asiatica may be attributed to its bioactive triterpenes, asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassic acid and madecosside and may be translated to clinical level for prevention of ischemic stroke. PMID:22864972

  8. Centella asiatica and Its Fractions Reduces Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Quinolinic Acid and Sodium Nitroprusside in Rat Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Marques, Naiani Ferreira; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Froeder, Amanda L F; Busanello, Alcindo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix A A; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in several pathologies including neurological disorders. Centella asiatica is a popular medicinal plant which has long been used to treat neurological disturbances in Ayurvedic medicine. In the present study, we quantified of compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and examined the phenolic content of infusion, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, we analyzed the ability of the extracts from C. asiatica to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) radical as well as total antioxidant activity through the reduction of molybdenum (VI) (Mo(6+)) to molybdenum (V) (Mo(5+)). Finally, we examined the antioxidant effect of extracts against oxidant agents, quinolinic acid (QA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on homogenates of different brain regions (cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus). The HPLC analysis revealed that flavonoids, triterpene glycoside, tannins, phenolic acids were present in the extracts of C. asiatica and also the phenolic content assay demonstrated that ethyl acetate fraction is rich in these compounds. Besides, the ethyl acetate fraction presented the highest antioxidant effect by decreasing the lipid peroxidation in brain regions induced by QA. On the other hand, when the pro-oxidant agent was SNP, the potency of infusion, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions was equivalent. Ethyl acetate fraction from C. asiatica also protected against thiol oxidation induced by SNP and QA. Thus, the therapeutic potential of C. asiatica in neurological diseases could be associated to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25903808

  9. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Centella asiatica is partly mediated by carbohydrase inhibition and glucose-fiber binding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) was previously reported to have anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal diabetic model rats. However, its activity on organ and tissue level remains unstudied. Our study aims at exploring the possible effects, C. asiatica extract and insoluble fiber has on carbohydrate absorption, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization. Methods For primary evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic activity, we measured Fasting Blood Glucose and performed Glucose Tolerance Test, in type 2 diabetic rats. To further study the pancreatic effect and glucose utilization, plasma insulin concentration, insulin secreted from isolated rat islets and liver glycogen were assayed. Effect on carbohydrate break down was assayed using intestinal disaccharidase enzyme, ?-amylase inhibition assays and Six-Segment study of the GI tract. Effect of C. asiatica on glucose absorption was studied by an in-situ, perfused, intestinal model in rats and by glucose-fiber binding assay. Gastrointestinal motility was seen by a BaSO4 milk traverse test. Additionally, a complete lipid profile assay, after a chronic study, was conducted. Results C. asiatica showed no significant change in insulin secretion in-vivo and in isolated rat islets. Additionally, no effect of the extract was seen on liver glycogen deposition. Retarded glucose absorption was seen in the in-situ perfused rat intestinal model at a dose. The extract was also found to inhibit action of both intestinal disaccharidase and ?-amylase. This was confirmed, yet again, via the Six Segment study, where sucrose digestion was found to be inhibited throughout the length of the GI Tract. Significant glucose-fiber binding was demonstrated in the in-vitro models. During the chronic study, body mass of C. asiatica treated Type 2 diabetic rats returned to normal and their polydipsic and polyphagic conditions were also improved. Chronic treatment of C. asiatica also improved subject’s lipid profile. Conclusion A combination of in-vitro, in-vivo and in-situ tests confirmed the anti-hyperglycemic activity of C. asiatica and its tissue level mechanism. Further study is required to fully elucidate the effect this extract or the active compounds have on the individual glucose transporters and the precise mechanism of glucose-fiber binding. PMID:24438380

  10. Frozen Fruit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-04-30

    In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

  11. FRUIT SPLIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water stage fruit split is a noninfectious disorder of pecan. Its occurrence and severity varies greatly depending upon cultivar, crop load, water status of trees, and atmospheric conditions. This review article discusses the symptoms, causes, and control measures for water stage fruit split in pe...

  12. Use of Asiatic Pennywort Centella asiatica Aqueous Extract as a Bath Treatment to Control Columnaris in Nile Tilapia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rattanachaikunsopon; P. Phumkhachorn

    2010-01-01

    To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen

  13. Antinocieptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Hellen Nyambura; Kanui, Titus Ikusya; Yenesew, Abiy; Patel, Nilesh; Mbugua, Paul Mungai

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Toddalia asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. The present study investigated the antinociceptive and the anti-inflammatory effects of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice. Methods The antinociceptive and the anti-inflammatory effects of T. asiatica were investigated using formalin-induced pain test and the carrageenin-induced oedema paw. The extract solvent (vehicle), aspirin and indomethacin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. Eight mice were used in each experiment. Results In the early phase of the formalin test, the 100mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity while the 200mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.01) antinociceptive activity. The 100 mg/kg dose showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.001) in the late phase of the formalin test while the 200mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity. A reduction in carragenin induced acute inflammation paw oedema was significant (p < 0.01) following administration of 100mg/kg dose but not with the 200mg/kg dose. Conclusion The present study therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful and inflammatory conditions. PMID:23734278

  14. Presowing Hardening of the Host with Phenolic Acids Reduces Induction of Seed Germination in the Root Parasite Striga asiatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bharathalakshmi; Jayachandra

    1980-01-01

    Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze, a root parasite, causes severe loss of yield in sorghum and several other crops. The seeds of the parasite are induced to germinate by a stimulant in the host root exudate. Presowing hardening of the host with vanillic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid (25 ppm) reduces the induction of seed germination in the parasite by

  15. Antioxidative activity and total phenolic compounds of leaf, root and petiole of four accessions of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K Zainol; A Abd-Hamid; S Yusof; R Muse

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and total phenolic compounds of root, leaf and petiole of four accessions of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, namely CA 01, CA 05, CA 08 and CA 11, were evaluated. Antioxidative activity of the extracts was measured using the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. The antioxidative activities were then compared with that of ?-tocopherol (natural

  16. Effect of calcium on solution and conformational characteristics of polysaccharide from seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Yi; Nie, Shao-Ping; Guo, Qing-Bin; Wang, Qi; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-06-25

    Polysaccharide from seeds of Plantago asiatica L. is rich in calcium, which is important for keeping viscous and weak gelling properties of the polysaccharide. However, few studies reported effect of calcium on solution and conformational characteristics of the polysaccharide. In this study, polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named as PLCP. PLCP was treated with EDTA to remove calcium ion to get PLCP-E. PLCP and PLCP-E were characterized by Ubbelohde capillary viscometer, light scattering and HPSEC with refractive index, light scattering and viscometric detectors. The results showed that PLCP had much higher intrinsic viscosity, hydrodynamic radius (Rh), radius of gyration (Rg) and molecular weight than that of PLCP-E when measured in the same solvent. PLCP and PLCP-E were in random coil conformation in aqueous solutions according to light scattering and HPSEC measurements. HPSEC data showed PLCP-E had lower intrinsic viscosity than that of PLCP with the same molecular weight. Persistence length of Lp was 2.5nm for PLCP and 2.3nm for PLCP-E, respectively. In conclusion, PLCP exhibited higher intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight, and stiffer conformation than that of PLCP-E, which could explain the reason of higher viscosity of PLCP. PMID:25839827

  17. Artificial simulated saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion of polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Min, Fang-Fang; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2013-02-15

    The saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion of polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. seeds was investigated in vitro. It was found that salivary amylase had no effect on the polysaccharide; however, the polysaccharide was influenced in later gastrointestinal digestion. A steady decrease in molecular weight (M(w)) of the polysaccharide from 1903.1±93.0 to 4.7±0.2 kDa was observed as digestion time increased. Meanwhile, the reducing ends were increased from 0.157±0.009 to 0.622±0.026 mM, indicating the decrease of M(w) may due to the breakdown of glycosidic bonds. In addition, there was no monosaccharide released throughout the whole digestion period, suggesting that the gastrointestinal digestion did not result in a production of free monosaccharide. These results may provide some information on the digestion of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. in vitro, and may contribute to the methods of studying the digestion of other carbohydrates. PMID:23399139

  18. Madecassoside isolated from Centella asiatica herbs facilitates burn wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Dai, Yue; Li, Ying; Luo, Yubin; Huang, Fang; Gong, Zhunan; Meng, Qingyu

    2008-06-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effect of madecassoside, the major triterpene in CENTELLA ASIATICA, on burn wound healing and its possible mechanism of action. An oral administration of madecassoside (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) facilitated wound closure in a time-dependent manner and reached its peak effect, nearly completely wound closure, on day 20 in the group receiving the highest dose of 24 mg/kg of madecassoside. Further histopathological analysis revealed that madecassoside alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as enhanced epithelisation resulting from dermal proliferation of fibroblasts. Madecassoside at higher doses (12 and 24 mg/kg) decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the burn skin tissue. However, reduced glutathione (GSH) and hydroxyproline levels were increased in the same skin tissue. In addition, madecassoside promoted skin angiogenesis IN VIVO, correlating with our findings IN VITRO that it stimulated endothelial cell growth in a rat aortic ring assay. These data suggest that madecassoside has significant wound-healing activity and is one of the major reasons for the use of C. ASIATICA herbs in the successful treatment of burn injury. Moreover, the results from the present study indicate that the effect of madecassoside on wound healing may involve several mechanisms including antioxidative activity, collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. PMID:18484522

  19. Effects of dietary Centella asiatica (L.) Urban on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood composition in piglets vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Maneewan, Chamroon; Mekbungwan, Apichai; Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Yamauchi, Kohsho; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of Centella asiatica (L.) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood composition in piglets, 32 nursery pigs were fed 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% dietary C.?asiatica (L.) from 15 to 90 kg BW. At 30 kg BW, nutrient digestibility was measured and at 35 kg BW piglets were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Hematological parameters were checked at 40 and 80 kg BW. Compared with the control, growth performance was not affected. The ether extract, ash and calcium digestibility were lower at 0.5%, and dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, phosphorus and energy digestibility were lower at 1.0% (P<0.05). On hematological values, at 40 kg hematocrit, total white blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes were higher at the 2.0% level (P<0.05). Most of these values except basophils and monocytes continued until at 80 kg, at which total white blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes were higher even at 1.0% (P<0.05); neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio tended to be higher at 2.0% (P<0.03). Cholesterol, triglycerides and antibody levels against M.?hyopneumoniae did not differ except that at 40 kg the cholesterol of 0.5% was lower (P<0.05) and M.?hyopneumoniae-specific antibodies tended to be higher with increasing levels of C.?asiatica (L.) (P<0.07). The result that C.?asiatica (L.) could not improve growth performance but increased values of serum hematocrit and white blood cells, and mycoplasma immunity to M.?hyopneumoniae might suggest that C.?asiatica (L.) has no function to elevate body weight but has the potential to enhance innate immunity. PMID:24612418

  20. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R.; Midega, Charles A.O.; Onyuka, Enos A.; Scholes, Julie D.

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha?1 were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha?1 with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas.

  1. Effects of acute gamma irradiation on physiological traits and flavonoid accumulation of Centella asiatica.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Jaafar, Hawa; Ibrahim, Rusli; Rahmat, Asmah; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Philip, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, two accessions of Centella asiatica (CA03 and CA23) were subjected to gamma radiation to examine the response of these accessions in terms of survival rate, flavonoid contents, leaf gas exchange and leaf mass. Radiation Sensitivity Tests revealed that based on the survival rate, the LD(50) (gamma doses that killed 50% of the plantlets) of the plantlets were achieved at 60 Gy for CA03 and 40 Gy for CA23. The nodal segments were irradiated with gamma rays at does of 30 and 40 Gy for Centella asiatica accession 'CA03' and 20 and 30 Gy for accession 'CA23. The nodal segment response to the radiation was evaluated by recording the flavonoid content, leaf gas exchange and leaf biomass. The experiment was designed as RCBD with five replications. Results demonstrated that the irradiated plantlets exhibited greater total flavonoid contents (in eight weeks) significantly than the control where the control also exhibited the highest total flavonoid contents in the sixth week of growth; 2.64 ± 0.02 mg/g DW in CA03 and 8.94 ± 0.04 mg/g DW in CA23. The total flavonoid content was found to be highest after eight weeks of growth, and this, accordingly, stands as the best time for leaf harvest. Biochemical differentiation based on total flavonoid content revealed that irradiated plantlets in CA23 at 20 and 30 Gy after eight weeks contained the highest total flavonoid concentrations (16.827 ± 0.02; 16.837 ± 0.008 mg/g DW, respectively) whereas in CA03 exposed to 30 and 40 Gy was found to have the lowest total flavonid content (5.83 ± 0.11; 5.75 ± 0.03 mg/g DW). Based on the results gathered in this study, significant differences were found between irradiated accessions and control ones in relation to the leaf gas. The highest PN and gs were detected in CA23 as control followed by CA23 irradiated to 20Gy (CA23G20) and CA23G30 and the lowest PN and gs were observed in CA03 irradiated to 40Gy (CA03G40). Moreover, there were no significant differences in terms of PN and gs among the irradiated plants in each accession. The WUE of both irradiated accessions of Centella asiatica were reduced as compared with the control plants (p < 0.01) while Ci and E were enhanced. There were no significant differences in the gas exchange parameters among radiated plants in each accession. Moreover, malondialdehyde (MDA) of accessions after gamma treatments were significantly higher than the control, however, flavonoids which were higher concentration in irradiated plants can scavenge surplus free radicals. Therefore, the findings of this study have proven an efficient method of in vitro mutagenesis through gamma radiation based on the pharmaceutical demand to create economically superior mutants of C. asiatica. In other words, the results of this study suggest that gamma irradiation on C. asiatica can produce mutants of agricultural and economical importance. PMID:21694666

  2. The snakehead Channa asiatica accumulates alanine during aerial exposure, but is incapable of sustaining locomotory activities on land through partial amino acid catabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shit F. Chew; Mei Y. Wong; Wai L. Tam; Yuen K. Ip

    2003-01-01

    The freshwater snakehead Channa asiatica is an obligatory air-breather that resides in slow-flowing streams and in crevices near riverbanks in Southern China. In its natural habitat, it may encounter bouts of aerial exposure during the dry seasons. In the laboratory, the ammonia excretion rate of C. asiatica exposed to terrestrial conditions in a 12 h:12 h dark:light regime was one

  3. Pome fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the beneficial influences of controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) on the major quality deterioration, physiological disorders and diseases of pome fruits, and the problems resulting from improper atmosphere conditions. It discusses the interactions between ...

  4. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of florfenicol for treatment of Francisella asiatica infection in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Endris, Richard G; Hawke, John P

    2010-11-01

    Francisella asiatica is a recently described, Gram-negative, facultative intracellular fish pathogen, known to be the causative agent of francisellosis in warm-water fish. Francisellosis outbreaks have increased in frequency among commercial aquaculture operations and have caused severe economic losses in every case reported. The lack of effective treatments for piscine francisellosis led us to investigate the potential efficacy of florfenicol for inhibition of F. asiatica in vitro and as an oral therapeutic agent in vivo. The MIC of florfenicol for F. asiatica, as determined by the broth dilution method, was 2 ?g/ml, which indicates its potential efficacy as a therapeutic agent for treatment of francisellosis. The intracellular susceptibility of the bacterium to florfenicol in tilapia head kidney-derived macrophages (THKDM) was also investigated. Addition of florfenicol to the medium at 10 ?g/ml was sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial loads in the THKDM in vitro. Cytotoxicity assays done in infected THKDM also demonstrated drug efficacy in vivo, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Levels of LDH released from infected THKDM were significantly lower in macrophages treated with florfenicol (P < 0.001) than in untreated cells. In medicated-feed trials, fish were fed 15 mg of florfenicol/kg of fish body weight for 10 days, and the feeding was initiated at either 1, 3, or 6 days postchallenge. Immersion challenges resulted in 30% mean percent survival in nontreated fish, and fish receiving medicated feed administered at 1 and 3 days postinfection showed higher mean percent survival (100% and 86.7%, respectively). A significant decrease (P < 0.001) in bacterial numbers (number of CFU/g of spleen tissue) was observed in treated groups compared to nontreated infected fish at both 1 and 3 days postchallenge. There were no differences in bacterial burden in the spleens between fish treated 6 days postchallenge and untreated controls. In conclusion, if florfenicol is administered during early stages of infection, it has the potential for effectively treating piscine francisellosis, including the capacity for intracellular penetration and bacterial clearance. PMID:20713674

  5. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Hanabusaya asiatica (Campanulaceae), an endemic genus to Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Yoo, Ki-Oug

    2014-09-10

    Abstract The complete chloroplast genome of Hanabusaya asiatica, an endemic genus to Korea, was determined in this study. The total genome size was 167,287?bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,877?bp, which were separated by large single copy (LSC) and small single copy (SSC) of 104,955 and 8578, respectively. The overall GC contents of the plastid genome were 38.8%. One hundred and twelve unique genes were annotated, including 78 protein coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. In these genes, 17 genes contained 1 intron, and 2 genes comprised of 2 introns. PMID:25208164

  6. Asiaticoside, a component of Centella asiatica, inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ku Jung; Bae, Seunghee; Kim, Karam; An, In Sook; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2014-07-01

    Melanogenesis is the process of generating pigmentation via melanin synthesis and delivery. Three key enzymes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1) and TRP2, metabolize melanin from L-tyrosine. Melanin synthesizing enzymes are regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). The titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) contains the major components asiatic acid, asiaticoside and madecassic acid. The present study revealed that TECA reduces the melanin content in melanocytes. Moreover, the asiaticoside contained in TECA modulated melanogenesis by inhibiting tyrosinase mRNA expression. The decrease in tyrosinase mRNA levels was mediated through MITF. Uniquely, asiaticoside inhibited MITF by decreasing its DNA binding affinity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that asiaticoside treatment may have beneficial effects in hyperpigmentation diseases or for skin whitening. PMID:24756377

  7. Antioxidant synergism between ethanolic Centella asiatica extracts and ?-tocopherol in model systems.

    PubMed

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi-Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Yin, Jie; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Skibsted, Leif H; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-06-01

    The synergistic antioxidant effects of ethanolic extracts of Centella asiatica (CE), and ?-tocopherol have been studied. The types of interactions exhibited by CE and ?-tocopherol combined at different ratios were measured using three assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity, the ?-carotene bleaching system and liposome peroxidation assays. Fixed-fraction isobolographic analysis was used to detect any inducement of the antioxidant activity compared with the individual activities of CE and ?-tocopherol. Of all synergistic combinations of CE and ?-tocopherol, only fraction 2/3 showed the synergistic combination that fits well in three different assays and can be explained by the regeneration of ?-tocopherol by CE despite the interaction effect of ?-carotene present in the analytical assay. This phenomenon involved complex interactions between CE and ?-tocopherol to exhibit different degrees of interactions that eventually increased antioxidant activity. PMID:23411234

  8. Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) isolates from fish.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Griffin, Matt; Wiles, Judy; Hawke, John P

    2012-01-27

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility are lacking. In this project we compare three different methods to examine the antimicrobial susceptibility (Etest, broth microdilution and disk diffusion) of 10 different isolates of Fno from two different fish species and four different geographic outbreaks from 2006 to 2010. PCR mediated genomic fingerprinting (rep-PCR) performed on the different isolates confirmed genetic homogeneity amongst the different isolates. The in vitro susceptibility data presented here provides important baseline data for future research monitoring the development of antibiotic resistance among Fno isolates as well as provides invaluable data for the development of potential therapeutics. PMID:21868177

  9. Effects of Centella asiatica on ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C L; Koo, M W

    2000-10-13

    Centella asiatica is a herbal medicine widely used in China and India for wound healing. The aim of this study was to examine its effects on the prevention of ethanol induced gastric lesions in rats. Gastric transmucosal potential difference (PD) was reduced by the application of 50% ethanol in the gastric ex-vivo chamber model and Centella extract (CE) accelerated its recovery. Oral administration of CE (0.05 g/kg, 0.25 g/kg and 0.50 g/kg) before ethanol administration significantly inhibited gastric lesions formation (58% to 82% reduction) and decreased mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in a dose dependent manner. These results suggested that CE prevented ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions by strengthening the mucosal barrier and reducing the damaging effects of free radicals. PMID:11104366

  10. Impact of temperature on postdiapause and diapause of the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Luo, You-Qing; Shi, Juan; Wang, Dei-Peng; Shen, Shao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Lymantria dispar asiatica (Vnukovskij) (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae) is one of three gypsy moth subspecies found in East Asia. Understanding the diapause and postdiapause phases of its eggs is important in characterizing its life cycle. The effects of different constant temperatures for different lengths of times on field-collected, postdiapause eggs were tested during the first year. In the second year, the effects of the same treatments on laboratory-raised eggs in diapause were investigated. The effects of temperature on percent egg hatching, time to hatching, and hatching duration were determined. When field-collected eggs were held at 0 and 5°C, they terminated postdiapause within 11 days. The percent hatching tended to decline with an increased duration of exposure at temperatures greater than 5°C. Diapause terminated slowly (> 37 days) and with a high percentage of hatching for postdiapause eggs held at 10°C. There was a positive correlation between temperature and the speed of postdiapause development for field-collected eggs held at constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C. However, the number of days to the first hatch was significantly longer than for eggs treated with lower temperatures before being transferred to 25°C. Freshly oviposited eggs treated at a constant 0 or 5°C for 200 days were unable to develop into pharate larva. However, eggs treated at a constant 20 or 25°C for 200 days developed into pharate larva but did not hatch even after a subsequent chill. This result suggests why L. dispar asiatica is not found in tropical areas and helps us to predict the distribution of the gypsy moth in China. PMID:25373152

  11. Systematic Evaluation of Isoëtes asiatica Makino (Isoëtaceae) based on AFLP, nrITS, and Chloroplast DNA Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changkyun Kim; Hye Ryun Na; Hyunchur Shin; Hong-Keun Choi

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and nucleotide sequence data from nuclear ribosomal internal\\u000a transcribed spacer (nrITS) and three chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL, cpITS, and trnS-psbC spacer), we investigated the species delimitation and the evolutionary lineage of Isoëtes asiatica from Hokkaido, Japan. The neighbor-joining (NJ) dendrogram based on AFLP markers revealed the well-defined clusters (bootstrap\\u000a value?=?100%) of

  12. Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal---Centella asiatica---extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panprung Sikareepaisan; Apichart Suksamrarn; Pitt Supaphol

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ~180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w\\/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various

  13. Effect of Centella asiatica Leaf Extract on the Dietary Supplementation in Transgenic Drosophila Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Faisal, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The role of Centella asiatica L. leaf extract was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-?S) in the neurons. The leaf extract was prepared in acetone and was subjected to GC-MS analysis. C. asiatica extract at final concentration of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0??L/mL was mixed with the diet and the flies were allowed feeding on it for 24 days. The effect of extract was studied on the climbing ability, activity pattern, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, glutathione content, and glutathione-S-transferase activity in the brains of transgenic Drosophila. The exposure of extract to PD model flies results in a significant delay in the loss of climbing ability and activity pattern and reduced the oxidative stress (P < 0.05) in the brains of PD flies as compared to untreated PD flies. The results suggest that C. asiatica leaf extract is potent in reducing the PD symptoms in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25538856

  14. Metabolomic analysis of methyl jasmonate-induced triterpenoid production in the medicinal herb Centella asiatica (L.) urban.

    PubMed

    James, Jacinda T; Tugizimana, Fidele; Steenkamp, Paul A; Dubery, Ian A

    2013-01-01

    Centella asiatica is an important source of biologically active pentacyclic triterpenoids. The enhancement of the biosynthesis of the centellosides by manipulation of associated metabolic pathways is receiving much attention. Jasmonates play critical roles in plant metabolism by up-regulating the expression of genes related to secondary metabolites. Here, we investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) in C. asiatica through targeted metabolomic profiling of asiaticoside and madecassoside as well as their aglycones, asiatic acid and madecassic acid. Cell suspensions were treated with 0.2 mM MeJa for 2, 4 and 6 days. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to explore induced changes in metabolite profiles, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Principal component analysis (PCA)-derived scores plots revealed clusters of sample replicates for control and treated samples at 2, 4 and 6 days while loading plots aided in identifying signatory biomarkers (asiatic acid and madecassic acid, as well as asiaticoside and madecassoside) that clearly demonstrate the variability between samples. In addition to increased biosynthesis of the targeted centelloids, other differential changes in the intracellular metabolite profiles reflected the response of the C. asiatica cells to the MeJa-treatment as a reprogramming of the metabolome. PMID:23579994

  15. Comparison of the effects of collagenase and extract of Centella asiatica in an experimental model of wound healing: an immunohistochemical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Türel; Inan, Sevinc; Ozturkcan, Serap; Bilac, Cemal; Cilaker, Serap

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of collagenase and Centella asiatica in the rat model. Twenty-seven female rats were divided into three groups, and two full-thickness wounds were made for each animal. Collagenase ointment was applied topically to Group I and C. asiatica ointment to Group II rats. In Group III, no treatment was applied. On the third day of treatment, wounds on the left side of three animals of each group were excised. On the fifth and eighth day of the treatments, the same procedure was performed for the remaining animals. Indirect immunohistochemical examination was performed to detect transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-beta, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor, TGF-alpha, laminin, fibronectin, collagen I, and interleukin-1beta. According to the measurements of the wound areas and wound healing periodo, collagenase was superior to the control group. Immunohistochemical examinations showed strong (+++) iNOS and TGF-beta immunoreactivities in C. asiatica group. eNOS immunoreactivity was moderate (++) in this group. For the collagenase group, iNOS, eNOS, and TGF-beta immunoreactivities were moderate (++). In the collagenase group, while TGF-beta and iNOS immunoreactivities were weaker, laminin and fibronectin reactivities were stronger than in C. asiatica and control groups. Collagenase was superior to C. asiatica according to the immunohistochemical findings. Collagenase ointment significantly improves the quality of wound healing and scar formation and is a more appropriate treatment choice than extract of C. asiatica in the early stages of the wound healing process. PMID:19128262

  16. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist. PMID:20540755

  17. Mechanism of interactions between calcium and viscous polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Yi; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Jing; Li, Chang; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2012-08-15

    The present study aimed at investigating the mechanism of interactions between calcium and the psyllium polysaccharide. Plantago asiatica L. crude polysaccharide (PLCP) was subjected to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to yield calcium-depleted polysaccharide named PLCP-E. There was essentially no difference in the structure between PLCP-E and PLCP. However, PLCP-E exhibited a much lower apparent viscosity compared to that of PLCP. PLCP was treated with sodium hydroxide to deplete ferulic acid. The resultant material was named PLCP-FAS, which also exhibited lower viscosity. Adding Ca(2+) could both increase apparent viscosity of PLCP-E and PLCP-FAS, but only PLCP-E could keep the high viscosity when dialysis was carried out to remove free Ca(2+) in the solution. Thermal analysis showed that the thermal stability of the polysaccharide was reduced after EDTA chelation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that PLCP-E was flaky and curly aggregation, while PLCP was mostly filamentous in appearance. The results suggested that there are strong interactions between Ca(2+) and the polysaccharide. The interactions contributed to the high viscosity, weak gelling property, and thermal stability of the polysaccharide. PMID:22813433

  18. Evaluation of comparative free-radical quenching potential of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and Mandookparni (Centella asiatica)

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Dugad, Swapnil; Bhandare, Rahul; Pawar, Nayana; Jagtap, Suresh; Pawar, Pankaj K.; Kulkarni, Omkar

    2011-01-01

    Ayurvedic texts describe rejuvenate measures called Rasayana to impart biological sustenance to bodily tissues. Rasayana acting specifically on brain are called Medhya Rasayana. Brahmi is one of the most commonly practiced herbs for the same. Yet there exist a controversy regarding the exact plant species among Bacopa monnieri L. Penn (BM) and Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (CA) to be used as Brahmi in the formulations. Though the current literature available has suggested a very good nootropic potential of both the drugs, none of the studies have been carried out on comparative potential of these herbs to resolve the controversy. Free-radical scavenging potential for these plants is studied to find out their comparative efficacy. The study revealed a very good in vitro free-radical scavenging properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both the plants as evidenced by FRAP, DPPH, reducing power, and antilipid peroxidation assays. It can be concluded from the studies that both the plants, although taxonomically totally different at family level, showed similar type of in vitro activities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also revealed a significant similarity in the two plants. The in vitro study supports the Ayurvedic concept of BM and CA having a similar potential. PMID:22408313

  19. In vitro evidence that an aqueous extract of Centella asiatica modulates ?-synuclein aggregation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, Ruben; Vasudevaraju, Padmaraju; Indi, Shantinath Satappa; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli Raja Surya; Rao, K S

    2014-01-01

    ?-Synuclein aggregation is one of the major etiological factors implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). The prevention of aggregation of ?-synuclein is a potential therapeutic intervention for preventing PD. The discovery of natural products as alternative drugs to treat PD and related disorders is a current trend. The aqueous extract of Centella asiatica (CA) is traditionally used as a brain tonic and CA is known to improve cognition and memory. There are limited data on the role of CA in modulating amyloid-? (A?) levels in the brain and in A? aggregation. Our study focuses on CA as a modulator of the ?-synuclein aggregation pattern in vitro. Our investigation is focused on: (i) whether the CA leaf aqueous extract prevents the formation of aggregates from monomers (Phase I: ?-synuclein + extract co-incubation); (ii) whether the CA aqueous extract prevents the formation of fibrils from oligomers (Phase II: extract added after oligomers formation); and (iii) whether the CA aqueous extract disintegrates the pre-formed fibrils (Phase III: extract added to mature fibrils and incubated for 9 days). The aggregation kinetics are studied using a thioflavin-T assay, circular dichroism, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the CA aqueous extract completely inhibited the ?-synuclein aggregation from monomers. Further, CA extract significantly inhibited the formation of oligomer to aggregates and favored the disintegration of the preformed fibrils. The study provides an insight in finding new natural products for future PD therapeutics. PMID:24284367

  20. Statistical Analysis of Metal Chelating Activity of Centella asiatica and Erythroxylum cuneatum Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Mohd Salim, R J; Adenan, M I; Amid, A; Jauri, M H; Sued, A S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the extraction parameters and the metal chelating activity of Centella asiatica (CA) and Erythroxylum cuneatum (EC). The response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of methanolic extract of CA and EC with respect to the metal chelating activity. For CA, Run 17 gave optimum chelating activity with IC50 = 0.93?mg/mL at an extraction temperature of 25°C, speed of agitation at 200?rpm, ratio of plant material to solvent at 1?g?:?45?mL and extraction time at 1.5 hour. As for EC, Run 13 with 60°C, 200?rpm, 1?g?:?35?mL and 1 hour had metal chelating activity at IC50 = 0.3817?mg/mL. Both optimized extracts were further partitioned using a solvent system to evaluate the fraction responsible for the chelating activity of the plants. The hexane fraction of CA showed potential activity with chelating activity at IC50 = 0.090 and the ethyl acetate fraction of EC had IC50 = 0.120?mg/mL. The study showed that the response surface methodology helped to reduce the extraction time, temperature and agitation and subsequently improve the chelating activity of the plants in comparison to the conventional method. PMID:23533781

  1. Statistical Analysis of Metal Chelating Activity of Centella asiatica and Erythroxylum cuneatum Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Salim, R. J.; Adenan, M. I.; Amid, A.; Jauri, M. H.; Sued, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the extraction parameters and the metal chelating activity of Centella asiatica (CA) and Erythroxylum cuneatum (EC). The response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of methanolic extract of CA and EC with respect to the metal chelating activity. For CA, Run 17 gave optimum chelating activity with IC50 = 0.93?mg/mL at an extraction temperature of 25°C, speed of agitation at 200?rpm, ratio of plant material to solvent at 1?g?:?45?mL and extraction time at 1.5 hour. As for EC, Run 13 with 60°C, 200?rpm, 1?g?:?35?mL and 1 hour had metal chelating activity at IC50 = 0.3817?mg/mL. Both optimized extracts were further partitioned using a solvent system to evaluate the fraction responsible for the chelating activity of the plants. The hexane fraction of CA showed potential activity with chelating activity at IC50 = 0.090 and the ethyl acetate fraction of EC had IC50 = 0.120?mg/mL. The study showed that the response surface methodology helped to reduce the extraction time, temperature and agitation and subsequently improve the chelating activity of the plants in comparison to the conventional method. PMID:23533781

  2. Wound healing activities of different extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and burn wound models: an experimental animal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of Centella asiatica for incision and burn wounds are not fully understood. Here, we report the wound healing activities of sequential hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and partial-thickness burn wound models in rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into incision and burn wound groups. Each group was stratified into seven subgroups: (1) untreated; (2) NSS-; (3) Tween 20®- (vehicle control); (4) hexane extract-; (5) ethyl acetate extract-; (6) methanol extract-; and (7) aqueous extract-treated groups. The test substances were applied topically once daily. The tensile strength of the incision wound was measured on the seventh day after wound infliction. The general appearance and degree of wound healing of the burn wound were assessed on Days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after burn injury and prior to histopathological evaluation. Results On the seventh day after wound infliction, the tensile strength of incision wound in all extract-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the vehicle control (Tween 20®), but comparable to the NSS-treated group. The degrees of healing in the burn wound with the four extracts were significantly higher than that of the control on Days 3, 10 and 14. Histopathological findings on Day 14 after burn injury revealed prominent fibrinoid necrosis and incomplete epithelialization in the control and untreated groups, whereas fully developed epithelialization and keratinization were observed in all extract-treated groups. Analysis by thin layer chromatography demonstrated that the phyto-constituents ?-sitosterol, asiatic acid, and asiaticoside and madecassocide were present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to be the most active component for healing the wound. PMID:22817824

  3. Prophylactic neuroprotective property of Centella asiatica against 3-nitropropionic acid induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in brain regions of prepubertal mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George K. Shinomol; Muralidhara

    2008-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of Centella asiatica (a well known plant in ayurvedic medicine) globally, evidence demonstrating its protective efficacy against neurotoxicants in animal models is limited. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), a fungal toxin is a well known neurotoxicant which induces selective striatal pathology similar to that seen in Huntington's disease. The present study aimed to understand the neuroprotective efficacy of

  4. Middle ear dynamics in response to seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica).

    PubMed

    Willi, U B; Bronner, G N; Narins, P M

    2006-01-01

    The hypertrophied malleus in the middle ear of some golden moles has been assumed to be an adaptation for sensing substrate vibrations by inertial bone conduction, but this has never been conclusively demonstrated. The Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) exhibits this anatomical specialization, and the dynamic properties of its middle ear response to vibrations were the subjects of this study. Detailed three-dimensional middle ear anatomy was obtained by x-ray microcomputed tomography (muCT) at a resolution of 12 microm. The ossicular chain exhibits large malleus mass, selective reduction of stiffness and displacement of the center of mass from the suspension points, all favoring low-frequency tuning of the middle ear response. Orientation of the stapes relative to the ossicular chain and the structure of the stapes footplate enable transmission of substrate vibrations arriving from multiple directions to the inner ear. With the long axes of the mallei aligned parallel to the surface, the animal's head was stimulated by a vibration exciter in the vertical and lateral directions over a frequency range from 10 to 600 Hz. The ossicular chain was shown to respond to both vertical and lateral vibrations. Resonant frequencies were found between 71 and 200 Hz and did not differ significantly between the two stimulation directions. Below resonance, the ossicular chain moves in phase with the skull. Near resonance and above, the malleus moves at a significantly larger mean amplitude (5.8+/-2.8 dB) in response to lateral vs vertical stimuli and is 180 degrees out of phase with the skull in both cases. A concise summary of the propagation characteristics of both seismic body (P-waves) and surface (R-waves) is provided. Potential mechanisms by which the animal might exploit the differential response of the ossicular chain to vertical and lateral excitation are discussed in relation to the properties of surface seismic waves. PMID:16391352

  5. FRUIT & NUT Blackberries

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    and set fruit on flo- ricanes; and Primocane-bearing, which flower on primo-canes late in the growingTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Blackberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Brambles or caneberries are fruits in the Ru- bus genus

  6. Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , with fruit 6 ounces orange juice, frozen concentrate, thawed Directions 1. Mix the ingredients in a mediumFrozen Fruit Pops Ingredients: 8 ounces crushed pineapple in juice 6 ounces nonfat yogurt instead of cups, making great "ice cubes" in fruit juice or diet soda. Try other fruits or juice

  7. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

  8. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) and an understory herbaceous plant Plantago asiatica.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We investigated communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the fine roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, and Plantago asiatica to consider the relationship between orchard trees and herbaceous plants in AMF symbioses. The AMF communities were analyzed on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), which were amplified using the AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the obtained AMF sequences were divided into 23 phylotypes. Among them, 12 phylotypes included AMF from both host plants, and most of the obtained sequences (689/811) were affiliated to them. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the host plant species did not have a significant effect on the distribution of AMF phylotypes, whereas the effects of sampling site, soil total C, soil total N and soil-available P were significant. It was also found that the mean observed overlaps of AMF phylotypes between the paired host plants in the same soil cores (27.1% of phylotypes shared) were significantly higher than the mean 1,000 simulated overlaps (14.2%). Furthermore, the same AMF sequences (100% sequence identity) were detected from both host plants in 8/12 soil cores having both roots. Accordingly, we concluded that Py. pyrifolia and Pl. asiatica examined shared some AMF communities, which suggested that understory herbaceous plants may function as AMF inoculum sources for orchard trees. PMID:23614902

  9. Effect of Centella asiatica L (Umbelliferae) on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shetty, B Somashekar; Udupa, S L; Udupa, A L; Somayaji, S N

    2006-09-01

    Centella asiatica is a reputed medicinal plant used in the treatment of various skin diseases in the Indian system of medicine. The objective of the study presented in this article was to evaluate the wound-healing potential of the ethanolic extract of the plant in both normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing. The study was done on Wistar albino rats using incision, excision, and dead space wounds models. The extract of C asiatica significantly increased the wound breaking strength in incision wound model compared to controls (P < .001). The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly increased as compared to control wounds (P < .001). Wet and dry granulation tissue weights, granulation tissue breaking strength, and hydroxyproline content in a dead space wound model also increased at statistically significant levels as shown. The extract of the leaves had the effect of attenuating the known effects of dexamethasone healing in all wound models (P < .001, P < .05). The results indicated that the leaf extract promotes wound healing significantly and is able to overcome the wound-healing suppressing action of dexamethasone in a rat model. These observations were supported by histology findings. PMID:16928669

  10. Mark's Fruit Crops

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rieger, Mark

    Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

  11. De novo sequencing and assembly of Centella asiatica leaf transcriptome for mapping of structural, functional and regulatory genes with special reference to secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Rajender S; Tripathi, Sandhya; Singh, Jyoti; Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-08-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is an important medicinal plant and has been used since ancient times in traditional systems of medicine. C. asiatica mainly contains ursane skeleton based triterpenoid sapogenins and saponins predominantly in its leaves. This investigation employed Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS) strategy on a pool of three cDNAs from expanding leaf of C. asiatica and developed an assembled transcriptome sequence resource of the plant. The short transcript reads (STRs) generated and assembled into contigs and singletons, representing majority of the genes expressed in C. asiatica, were termed as 'tentative unique transcripts' (TUTs). The TUT dataset was analyzed with the objectives of (i) development of a transcriptome assembly of C. asiatica, and (ii) classification/characterization of the genes into categories like structural, functional, regulatory etc. based on their function. Overall, 68.49% of the 46,171,131 reads generated in the NGS process could be assembled into a total of 79,041 contigs. Gene ontology and functional annotation of sequences resulted into the identification of genes related to different sets of cellular functions including identification of genes related to primary and secondary metabolism. The wet lab validation of seventeen assembled gene sequences identified to be involved in secondary metabolic pathways and control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was established by semi-quantitative and real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The validation also included sequencing/size matching of a set of semi-quantitative PCR amplicons with their in silico assembled contig/gene. This confirmed the appropriateness of assembling the reads and contigs. Thus, the present study constitutes the largest report to date on C. asiatica transcriptome based gene resource that may contribute substantially to the understanding of the basal biological functions and biochemical pathways of secondary metabolites as well as the transcriptional regulatory elements and genetic markers. This work sets the stage for multi-faceted future improvement of the plant, through discovery of new genes, marker-assisted breeding or genetic engineering, on this species as well as for other species of Apiaceae and triterpene producing medicinal plants. PMID:23644021

  12. Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients: 12 ounces frozen concentrated orange juice, or any other 100% fruit juice concentrate 1 1/2 cups water 3 cups ice Directions In a blender, place juice concentrate, water

  13. Plantagoside, a novel alpha-mannosidase inhibitor isolated from the seeds of Plantago asiatica, suppresses immune response.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Nagai, T; Takemoto, N; Endoh, H; Kiyohara, H; Kawamura, H; Otsuka, Y

    1989-12-29

    A hot-water extract from the seed of Plantago asiatica showed a potent inhibitory activity against jack bean alpha-mannosidase, and a flavanone glucoside, plantagoside, was isolated as the inhibitor. Plantagoside was a specific inhibitor for jack bean alpha-mannosidase (IC50 at 5 microM) and appeared to be a non-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. Whereas, negligible or weak inhibitory activities were observed for beta-mannosidase, beta-glucosidase, and sialidase tested. Plantagoside also inhibited alpha-mannosidase activities in mouse liver lysosomal and microsomal fractions, and the enzyme inhibitory activity in microsomal fraction was enhanced in the presence of glucosidase inhibitor, castanospermine. Plantagoside suppressed antibody response to sheep red blood cells and concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation which was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. PMID:2610694

  14. Centella Asiatica Triterpenic Fraction (CATTF) reduces the number of circulating endothelial cells in subjects with post phlebitic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Montecchio, G P; Samaden, A; Carbone, S; Vigotti, M; Siragusa, S; Piovella, F

    1991-01-01

    Here we report a study performed in order to assess the number of circulating endothelial cells (EC) in normal subjects and in patients with postphlebitic syndrome (PPS), and the effect of treatment with Centella Asiatica Triterpenic Fraction (CATTF), a drug which has been demonstrated to be effective in promoting wound healing in vivo. EC counts were determined by means of differential centrifugation and phase contrast microscopy. Patients with PPS showed an increased number of circulating EC in comparison to normal subjects (3.8 +/- 1.2 cells versus 1.5 +/- 0.6 per counting chamber). Treatment for three weeks with CATTF caused a statistically significant reduction of circulating EC (1.80 +/- 0.6 cells per counting chamber). PMID:1743599

  15. Micropropagation of Small Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir C. Debnath

    \\u000a The small fruit plants are predominantly woody perennial dicot angiosperms, bear small to moderate-sized fruits on herbs,\\u000a vines, or shrubs; and are usually vegetatively propagated to maintain true-to-type. The importance of small fruits in horticulture\\u000a lies in their dual role as in the landscape and of food. The fruits themselves are highly prized for their varying shapes,\\u000a textures, flavors, and

  16. Fun Fruit: Advanced

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2004-01-01

    This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

  17. TECA (Titrated Extract of Centella Asiatica): new microcirculatory, biomolecular, and vascular application in preventive and clinical medicine. A status paper.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Maquart, F-X; Scoccianti, M; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Cesarone, M R; Luzzi, R; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A; Feragalli, B

    2011-09-01

    Plant-derived elements used for pharmacological applications constitute an increasing research field. Centella asiatica is widely used mainly as an extract (TECA). Triterpenic fractions, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica, produce a wide range of preventive and therapeutic effects. The modulation of collagen production and deposition in wound healing is of primary importance. TECA is also used to treat several microcirculatory problems, inflammatory skin conditions (leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis) and also intestinal problems, fever, amenorrhea and genitourinary conditions. Cognitive functions, anxiety and mental impairment may be also affected by TECA administration. New applications in neurology include nerve growth factor enhancement and applications in neurological degenerative conditions. Interaction with other products is also indicated in this document. The multiplicity of actions of TECA is associated to six important mechanisms, all inter-connected and modulating each other: 1) edema - and capillary filtration - control; 2) a strong antioxidant power, effective on several forms of oxidative stress associated to inflammation or infections and synergic with other antioxidant products; 3) an anti-inflammatory action; 4) a modulation of the collagen production avoiding slower scarring or faster, hyperthrophic scarring and cheloids; 5) a modulating action of local growth factors; 6) a modulation of angiogenesis. This "status" paper - resulting from an expert meeting held in Cobham, Surrey, indicates most of the therapeutic potential of TECA, still to be explored in further studies. The status paper constitutes the basis for a consensus document on TECA to be developed in the next future. This "status" paper opens a new window on an ancient but still partially unexplored product that may become an important value in prevention and treatment of several pre-clinical and risk conditions and in clinically significant disease both as a single products and in association with other 'natural' products. PMID:22108486

  18. Asiatic Acid Isolated From Centella Asiatica Inhibits TGF-?1-induced Collagen Expression in Human Keloid Fibroblasts via PPAR-? Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Difei; Zhang, Jizhou; Wu, Xin; Dou, Yannong; Yang, Yan; Tan, Qian; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Dai, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by exuberant extracellular matrix deposition and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?/Smad pathway plays a pivotal role in keloid pathogenesis. Centella asiatica extract has been applied in scar management for ages. As one of its major components, asiatic acid (AA) has been recently reported to inhibit liver fibrosis by blocking TGF-?/Smad pathway. However, its effect on keloid remains unknown. In order to investigate the effects of AA on cell proliferation, invasion and collagen synthesis, normal and keloid fibroblasts were exposed to TGF-?1 with or without AA. Relevant experiments including 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay, Transwell invasion assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNA interference assay were conducted. As a result, keloid fibroblasts showed higher responsiveness to TGF-?1 stimulation than normal fibroblasts in terms of invasion and collagen synthesis. AA could suppress TGF-?1-induced expression of collagen type I, inhibit Smad 2/3 phosphorylation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression, while elevate Smad 7 protein level. Noteworthy, the effects of AA on keloid fibroblasts could be abrogated by PPAR-? antagonist GW9662 and by silencing of PPAR-?. The present study demonstrated that AA inhibited TGF-?1-induced collagen and PAI-1 expression in keloid fibroblasts through PPAR-? activation, which suggested that AA was one of the active constituents of C. asiatica responsible for keloid management, and could be included in the arsenal for combating against keloid. PMID:24250248

  19. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC??)?=?22.44 ?g/mL; LC?? 40.65 ?g/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC???=?25.77 ?g/mL; LC?? 45.98 ?g/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC???=?27.83 ?g/mL; LC?? 48.92 ?g/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. PMID:25666372

  20. BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

  1. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  2. Global patterns in fruiting seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Ting; Stephen Hartley; K. C. Burns

    2008-01-01

    Aim To identify geographical and climatic correlates of the timing of fruit production in fleshy fruited plant communities. Location Global. Methods We searched the literature for studies documenting monthly variation in the number of fleshy fruited species bearing ripe fruits in plant communities (i.e. fruit phenologies). From these data, we used circular vector algebra to characterize seasonal peaks in fruit

  3. In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Irudayaraj, Santiagu Stephen; Sunil, Christudas; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2013-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. In in vitro studies T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract showed very good scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC?? 605.34±2.62 ?g/ml), hydroxyl (IC?? 694.37±2.12 ?g/ml) and nitric oxide (IC?? 897.83±1.48 ?g/ml) radicals, as well as high reducing power. In Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats, oral treatment with T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract produced a significant (P?0.005) decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in comparison with hexane and methanol extracts. In high fat diet-fed hyperlipidemic rats, the ethyl acetate extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly altered the plasma and liver lipids levels to near normal. PMID:23891761

  4. Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    PubMed

    Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed. PMID:22903452

  5. Home Fruit Production - Figs. 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

    1987-01-01

    are required for normal fruit development. If this fertilization process does not occur, fruit will not develop properly and will fall from the tree. Smyrna-type figs are commonly sold as dried figs. San Pedro. These figs can bear two crops of fruit in one... season-one crop on last season's growth and a second crop on current growth. The first crop, called the Breba crop, is parthenocarpic and does not require pollination. Fruit of the second crop is the Smyrna type and requires pollination from...

  6. FRUIT & NUT NATIVE PECANS

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    TEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION NATIVE PECANS Larry Stein, Monte Nesbitt & Jim Kamas Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension There are 600,000 to one million acres of native pecans along is seldom over 20 mil- lion pounds. A native pecan management pro- gram should include nut production

  7. Fruit and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased by more than 30% over the last few decades in the U.S. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on mi...

  8. Regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  9. Mutant Fruit Flies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

  10. Mechanical properties and in vivo healing evaluation of a novel Centella asiatica-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Kyung Soo; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Young Hun; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-07-25

    To develop a novel sodium alginate based Centella asiatica (CA)-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing (HCD) providing excellent mechanical properties and improved wound healing, numerous CA-loaded HCDs were prepared with various ingredients using the hot melting method. The effect of sodium alginate, styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer (SIS) and petroleum hydrocarbon resin (PHR) on the mechanical properties of CA-loaded HCDs was investigated. The effect of disintegrants on swelling and drug release was assessed. Moreover, the in vivo wound healing potentials of the selected CA-loaded HCD in various wound models such as abrasion, excision and infection were evaluated in comparison with the commercial product. Polyisobutylene and SIS hardly affected the mechanical properties, but PHR improved the tensile strength and elongation at break. Disintegrants such as croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone improved the swelling ratio of the CA-loaded HCD. Furthermore, the CA-loaded HCD without croscarmellose sodium poorly released the drug, but that with 2% croscarmellose sodium showed about 27% drug release in 24h. In particular, the CA-loaded HCD composed of CA/polyisobutylene/SIS/PHR/liquid paraffin/sodium alginate/croscarmellose sodium at the weight ratio of 1/8/25/25/12/27/2 furnished excellent mechanical properties and drug release. As compared with the commercial product, it offered improved healing effects in excision, infection and abrasion type wounds in rats. Thus, this novel CA-loaded HCD could be a potential candidate for the treatment of various wounds. PMID:26024819

  11. Use of asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control columnaris in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, P; Phumkhachorn, P

    2010-03-01

    To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen Garcinia mangostana, pomegranate Punica granatum, and guava Psidium guajava), the aqueous extract of Asiatic pennywort exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against F. columnare; the minimal inhibitory concentration was 31.25 lg/mL. It was also found to have a bactericidal effect on F. columnare. When experimental bath exposures of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to F. columnare were performed, the median lethal dose was determined to be 2.37 x 10(5) colony forming units/mL. For in vivo trials, six different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) of Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract were used as bath treatments to control experimentally induced columnaris in Nile tilapia. The decrease in fish mortality was dose dependent, and at a concentration of 100 mg/L no mortality or adverse effects were noted in the infected fish. This study suggests that Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract has the potential to control disease caused by F. columnare. PMID:20575361

  12. Morphological, chemical and molecular characterization of Centella asiatica germplasms for commercial cultivation in the Indo-Gangetic plains.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Archana; Dhawan, Sunita S; Mathur, Ajay K; Prakash, Om; Gupta, Madan M; Verma, Ram K; Lal, Raj K; Mathur, Archana

    2014-06-01

    Centella asiatica germplasm collected from north, north-eastern and southern parts of India was compared for biomass and centellosides productivity under uniform agro-climatic conditions of the Indo-Gangetic plains at Lucknow. The highest biomass accumulation (411.9 g FW/m2 area) was recorded in accession A from north India, followed by 284.0, 135.7 and 29.2 g FW/m2 in accessions M, B and E from southern, eastern and north-eastern regions, respectively. Accession M possessed the highest asiaticoside content (52.1 mg/gDW) that was 1.58, 2.34 and 21.7 folds more than accessions A, B and E, respectively. The madecassoside level in leaves of accessions B and M was comparable (28.9 and 25.7 mg/gDW) and two folds more than accession A (13.9 mg/gDW). The madecassic and asiatic acid content in leaf tissue of all four accessions remained low in Lucknow. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis with 23 primers yielded 696 fragments, 563 of which were polymorphic. Accession M out-grouped with genetic dissimilarity indices of 83, 85 and 95% from accessions A, E and B, respectively. Commercial cultivation of accessions M and A through a four months growth cycle (June to September) in agro-climatic conditions of the Indo-Gangetic plains is suggested. PMID:25115077

  13. A novel polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. induces dendritic cells maturation through toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danfei; Nie, Shaoping; Jiang, Leming; Xie, Mingyong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of a polysaccharide purified from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. (PLP-2) on the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and relevant mechanisms. The results showed that PLP-2 increased the expression of maturation markers major histocompatibility complex II, CD86, CD80, and CD40 on DCs. Consistent with the changes in the phenotypic markers, functional assay for DCs maturation showed that PLP-2 decreased DCs endocytosis and increased intracellular interleukin (IL)-12 levels and allostimulatory activity. Furthermore, using a syngeneic T cell activation model, we found that PLP-2 treated DCs presented ovalbumin antigen to T cells more efficiently as demonstrated by increased T cell proliferation. In addition, the effects of PLP-2 on DCs were significantly impaired by treating the cells with anti-TLR4 antibody prior to PLP-2 treatment, implying direct interaction between PLP-2 and TLR4 on cell surface. These results suggested that PLP-2 may induce DCs maturation through TLR4. Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating action of the polysaccharides from plants. PMID:24316254

  14. Centelloside accumulation in leaves of Centella asiatica is determined by resource partitioning between primary and secondary metabolism while influenced by supply levels of either nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium.

    PubMed

    Müller, Viola; Lankes, Christa; Zimmermann, Benno F; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-09-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate the relevance of either N, P or K supply for herb and leaf yield and for centelloside concentrations in Centella asiatica L. Urban leaves. In this regard, we elucidated the causal relationship between assimilation rate, leaf N, P and K concentrations, herb and leaf production, and centelloside accumulation. The experiments were conducted consecutively in a greenhouse where C. asiatica was grown in hydroponic culture and fertigated with nutrient solutions at either 0, 30, 60, 100 or 150% of the N, P or K amount in a standard Hoagland solution. In general, the increase in N, P or K supply enhanced assimilation rate and herb and leaf yield. However, exceeding specific thresholds, the high availability of one single nutrient caused lower leaf N concentrations and a decline in assimilation rate and plant growth. Irrespective of N, P and K supply, the leaf centelloside concentrations were negatively associated with herb and leaf yield, which is in accordance with the assumptions of the carbon/nutrient balance and the growth differentiation balance hypotheses. Moreover, we found strong negative correlations between saponins and leaf N concentrations, while the respective sapogenins were negatively correlated with K concentrations. Using C. asiatica as model system, our experiments reveal for the first time that the accumulation of saponins and sapogenins is affected by resource allocation between primary and secondary metabolism and that besides carbon, also nutrient availability is relevant for the regulation of the centelloside synthesis. Finally, our results highlight the huge potential of optimized and carefully controlled mineral nutrition of medicinal plants for steering the bio-production of high-quality natural products. PMID:23608744

  15. Endogenous Viral Sequences from the Cape Golden Mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) Reveal the Presence of Foamy Viruses in All Major Placental Mammal Clades

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guan-Zhu; Worobey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses provide important insights into the deep history of this viral lineage. Endogenous foamy viruses are thought to be very rare and only a few cases have been identified to date. Here we report a novel endogenous foamy virus (CaEFV) within the genome of the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica). The identification of CaEFV reveals the presence of foamy virus in the placental mammal superorder Afrotheria. Phylogenetic analyses place CaEFV basal to other foamy viruses of Eutherian origin, suggesting an ancient codivergence between foamy virus and placental mammals. These findings have implications for understanding the long-term evolution, diversity, and biology of retroviruses. PMID:24835242

  16. FRUIT & NUT Plums, Nectarines, Apricots,

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    having a groove running down one side of the fruit with a smooth seed. Like peaches, they also set fruitTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Plums, Nectarines, Apricots, Cherries, Almonds & Prunus hybrids Larry Stein, Jim Kamas & Monte Nesbitt Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Plums The stone

  17. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

    1996-01-01

    The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

  18. Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

  19. Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

  20. Fat Fruit Flies

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-08-11

    Broadcast Transcript: Breaking news from South Korea's hi-tech frontline. With the help of drosophila, or the fruit fly, scientists here have discovered strands of genetic material that control growth in the body. They're ...

  1. Name That Fruit!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauri Christopher

    2012-07-20

    In this lesson, students, will read three informational texts about fruit. Students will identify key ideas and details in each text and use illustrations to help them identify the key ideas. This lesson also incorporates a science standard that asks students to sort objects by color, shape, and size. After reading each text, students will participate in several hands-on activities to sort fruit.

  2. Ethylene and Fruit Ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius S. Barry; James J. Giovannoni

    2007-01-01

    The ripening of fleshy fruits represents the unique coordination of developmental and biochemical pathways leading to changes\\u000a in color, texture, aroma, and nutritional quality of mature seed-bearing plant organs. The gaseous plant hormone ethylene\\u000a plays a key regulatory role in ripening of many fruits, including some representing important contributors of nutrition and\\u000a fiber to the diets of humans. Examples include

  3. Effect of Centella asiatica leaf powder on oxidative markers in brain regions of prepubertal mice in vivo and its in vitro efficacy to ameliorate 3-NPA-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George K. Shinomol; Muralidhara

    2008-01-01

    Centella asiatica (CA) is a common medicinal plant used in the ayurvedic system of medicine to treat various ailments and as a memory enhancer. Despite its extensive usage in children, data on its ability to modulate neuronal oxidative stress in prepubertal rodents are limited. Hence in the present study we have addressed primarily two questions (i) whether dietary intake of

  4. Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal—Centella asiatica—extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikareepaisan, Panprung; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Supaphol, Pitt

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ~180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed.

  5. Toddaculin, Isolated from of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Inhibited Osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264 Cells and Enhanced Osteoblastogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akio; Kumagai, Momochika; Mishima, Takashi; Ito, Junya; Otoki, Yurika; Harada, Teppei; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Mikihiko; Suzuki, Misora; Yoshida, Izumi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis with bone loss is widely recognized as a major health problem. Bone homeostasis is maintained by balancing bone formation and bone resorption. The imbalance caused by increased bone resorption over bone formation can lead to various bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclasts are the principal cells responsible for bone resorption and the main targets of anti-resorptive therapies. However, excessive inhibition of osteoclast differentiation may lead to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, it is important to screen for new compounds capable of inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of rheumatism. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of pharmacological agents for the treatment of bone-related diseases, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. We investigated whether toddaculin, derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., affects both processes by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Towards this end, we used pre-osteoclastic RAW 264 cells and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that toddaculin not only inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts via activation of the NF-?B, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but it also induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating differentiation factors. Thus, toddaculin might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25993011

  6. Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is a serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using C. asiatica plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 ?g/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 ?g/mL) were tested against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. asiatica were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of C. asiatica for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. asiatica aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against An. stephensi (LC50, 90.17 ?g/mL; LC90, 165.18 ?g/mL) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50, 96.59 ?g/mL; LC90, 173.83 ?g/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 103.08 ?g/mL; LC90, 183.16 ?g/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: An. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 17.95 and 33.03 ?g/mL; Ae. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 19.32 and 34.87 ?g/mL; and Cx. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.92 and 37.41 ?g/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of C. asiatica and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs. PMID:25544703

  7. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26022876

  8. Emerging fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  9. Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

  10. Dried Fruits and Nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current control of postharvest insect pests of dried fruits and tree nuts relies heavily on fumigants such as methyl bromide or phosphine. There is mounting pressure against the general use of chemical fumigants due to atmospheric emissions, safety or health concerns, and an increased interest in or...

  11. IMPROVING FRUIT-SET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit-drop in pecan can occur due to insufficient nickel nutrition. Timely foliar sprays of Ni can prevent loss. Nut yield loss to pollination related factors is likely far more significant in many orchards than commonly recognized. Pollination studies in the southeastern U.S. pecan belt, where t...

  12. Anthocyanins in Blackcurrant Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Chandler; K. A. Harper

    1958-01-01

    Robinson and Robinson1 investigated the anthocyanin pigments of the fruit of the blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and stated that the skins contained a cyanidin-3-bioside. Gyanidin was the only aglycone found; but it was thought possible that small amounts of delphinidin were present. Fouassin2 has recently examined blackcurrant pigments by paper chromatography and has found two glycosides of cyanidin and two glycosides

  13. Fruits and vegetables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2007-07-23

    Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

  14. Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients: non stick cooking spray 3 bananas 1 cup raisins 2 cups rolled oats. Peel and coarsely mash bananas in mixing bowl. 3. Add raisins, oats, apple butter, walnuts, oil and vanilla extract with bananas and stir to mix well. 4. Let stand for 10 minutes. 5. Drop by teaspoonful

  15. Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 Golden Delicious apples 2 Red Delicious apples 2 banana 1 1/2 cups Directions 1. Leave the skin on the apple and cut in half through the core. Then cut each piece in half again

  16. Contrasting rooting patterns of some arid-zone fruit tree species from Botswana – II. Coarse root distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin L. Oppelt; Winfried Kurth; Douglas L. Godbold

    2005-01-01

    Spatial coarse root distribution of the in situ grown species Strychnos cocculoides Bak., Strychnos spinosa Lam. (Loganiaceae), Vangueria infausta Burch. (Rubiaceae) and Grewia flava DC. (Tiliaceae) was investigated. The woody roots provide the scaffolding for fine roots, and thus underpin potential competition with fine\\u000a roots of other species. We developed a method for quantitative description of spatial patterns of coarse

  17. Fruit composition and patterns of fruit dispersal of two Cornus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Borowicz; A. G. Stephenson

    1985-01-01

    Fruiting phenology and pattern of fruit removal of two shrubby dogwoods were examined in relation to fruit composition. It was predicted that fruit of the species bearing high fat fruit would disappear more rapidly and fall to the ground sooner than fruit of the species bearing low fat fruit. Field observation at two sites in central Pennsylvania contradicts these predictions.

  18. Microbial safety of tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Strawn, Laura K; Schneider, Keith R; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    There are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. Tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. Tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. Documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. Norovirus and Salmonella are the leading viral and bacterial pathogens, respectively, documented to have caused outbreaks of infections associated with consumption of tropical fruits. Sources of contamination of tropical fruit have been identified in the production environment and postharvest handling, primarily related to sanitation issues. Limited data exist on the specific route of transmission from these sources. Research on the microbial safety of tropical fruits is minimal; with the growing market for tropical fruit expected to increase by 33% in 2010 this research area needs to be addressed. The aim of this review is to discuss the foodborne pathogen outbreaks associated tropical fruit consumption, research previously completed on pathogen behavior on tropical fruits, preventive strategies for pathogen contamination, and research needs. PMID:21328109

  19. Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

  20. Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon 

    E-print Network

    Isakeit, Thomas

    1999-06-28

    Bacterial fruit blotch is a disease occurring sporadically in almost all areas of Texas where watermelons are grown. This publication discusses symptoms, diagnosis and disease development and management....

  1. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the following kinds...

  2. 69 FR 4845 - Cold Treatment of Fruits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-02-02

    ...regulations for importing fruits and vegetables to provide that inspectors...regulations for importing fruits and vegetables to provide that inspectors...import requests for fresh fruits and vegetables from disease and pest-infested...

  3. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

  4. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  5. Phenological variation in fruit characteristics in vertebrate-dispersed plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ove Eriksson; Johan Ehrlén

    1991-01-01

    We investigated inter-specific variation in fruit characteristics — fruit size, seed number per fruit, seed weight, nutritional content, fruit persistence, and fruit synchronization — in relation to flowering and fruiting phenology in 34 species of fleshy fruited plants. Except for aspects of fruit synchrony and persistence, the results in general were inconsistent with previous suggestions about adaptive variation in phenologically

  6. Flavonoid and leaf gas exchange responses of Centella asiatica to acute gamma irradiation and carbon dioxide enrichment under controlled environment conditions.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Jaafar, Hawa Binti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ibrahim, Rusli; Rahmat, Asmah Bt; Philip, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The study was couducted to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and CO? on flavonoid content and leaf gas exchange in C.asiatica. For flavonoid determination, the design was a split split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). For other parameters, the designs were split plots. Statistical tests revealed significant differences in flavonoid contents of Centella asiatica leaves between different growth stages and various CO? treatments. CO? 400, G20 (400 = ambient CO?; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy) showed 82.90% higher total flavonoid content (TFC) in the 5th week than CO? 400 as control at its best harvest time (4th week). Increasing the concentration of CO? from 400 to 800 ?mol/mol had significant effects on TFC and harvesting time. In fact, 800 ?mol/mol resulted in 171.1% and 66.62% increases in TFC for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Moreover, increasing CO? concentration reduced the harvesting time to three and four weeks for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Enhancing CO? to 800 µmol/mol resulted in a 193.30% (CO? 800) increase in leaf biomass compared to 400 µmol/mol and 226.34% enhancement in irradiated plants (CO? 800, G20) [800 = Ambient CO?; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy] than CO? 400, G20. In addition, the CO? 800, G20 had the highest amount of flavonoid*biomass in the 4th week. The results of this study indicated that all elevated CO? treatments had higher PN than the ambient ones. The findings showed that when CO? level increased from 400 to 800 µmol/mol, stomatal conductance, leaf intercellular CO? and transpiration rate had the tendency to decrease. However, water use efficiency increased in response to elevated CO? concentration. Returning to the findings of this study, it is now possible to state that the proposed method (combined CO? and gamma irradiation) has the potential to increase the product value by reducing the time to harvest, increasing the yield per unit area via boosting photosynthesis capacity, as well as increasing biochemicals (flavonoids) per gram DM. PMID:22027950

  7. Fruit Development in Trillium1

    PubMed Central

    Lapointe, Line

    1998-01-01

    Leaves are the main source of carbon for fruit maturation in most species. However, in plants seeing contrasting light conditions such as some spring plants, carbon fixed during the spring could be used to support fruit development in the summer, when photosynthetic rates are low. We monitored carbohydrate content in the rhizome (a perennating organ) and the aboveground stem of trillium (Trillium erectum) over the entire growing season (May–November). At the beginning of the fruiting stage, stems carrying a developing fruit were harvested, their leaves were removed, and the leafless stems were maintained in aqueous solution under controlled conditions up to full fruit maturation. These experiments showed that stem carbohydrate content was sufficient to support fruit development in the absence of leaves and rhizome. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of complete fruit development sustained only by a temporary carbohydrate reservoir. This carbohydrate accumulation in the stem during the spring enables the plant to make better use of the high irradiances occurring at that time. Many other species might establish short-term carbohydrate reservoirs in response to seasonal changes in growing conditions. PMID:9576787

  8. Life history data on the fly parasitoids Aleochara nigra Kraatz and A. asiatica Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and their potential application in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2013-10-10

    Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations. PMID:24053864

  9. Mitoprotective effect of Centella asiatica against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats: possible relevance to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis mechanism.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-08-01

    Role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been well documented in various cognitive-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal that may be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative processes. The antioxidant and memory enhancing effects of Centella asiatica (CA) are well known in the last few decades. Therefore, the present study has been designed to explore the neuroprotective effect of CA on chronic aluminum exposure induced mitochondrial enzyme alteration, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction in rat. Aluminum (100 mg/kg) and CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) were administered daily for a period of 6 weeks in male Wistar rats. Various behavioral, biochemical and cellular estimations and aluminum concentration were assessed. Chronic aluminum administration resulted in memory impairment and caused marked oxidative damage associated with mitochondria impairment. It also caused a significant increase in caspase-3 activity, acetylcholine esterase activity and aluminum concentration in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rat brain. Chronic administration of CA significantly improved memory performance, oxidative defense decreased aluminum concentration, caspase-3, acetylcholinestrease activity and reversal of mitochondrial enzyme activity as compared to aluminum-treated animals. Results of the study demonstrate neuroprotective potential of CA against aluminum-induced cognitive dysfunction and mito- oxidative damage. PMID:23224641

  10. Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.

    PubMed

    Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

  11. Field testing Chinese and Japanese gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus and disparvirus against a Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica in Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Duan, L Q; Otvos, I S; Xu, L B; Conder, N; Wang, Y

    2012-04-01

    The activity of three geographic isolates of the gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) was evaluated in field trials against larvae of the Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij in Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, in 2004, 2005, and 2006. Although the Chinese isolate of the virus, LdMNPV-H, was the most pathogenic of the isolates tested, having the lowest mean lethal concentration causing 50% and 95% larval mortality, the increase in efficacy that would be obtained by incorporating this isolate into a commercial product does not justify the time or expense required to register it for use in the United States or Canada. The commercially available North American isolate, LdMNPV-D, was moderately pathogenic, whereas the Japanese isolate, LdMNPV-J, was the least pathogenic. The slopes of the dose-response regression lines for the three virus isolates indicated that the Chinese gypsy moth larvae were more homogenously susceptible to LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D than to LdMNPV-J. Time-response data showed that LdMNPV-J was significantly more virulent, but at a much higher dose, than the other two isolates, causing 50% mortality in the shortest time, followed by LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D. Rainfall immediately after the application of LdMNPV-D in 2005 resulted in significantly reduced gypsy moth larval mortality. PMID:22606802

  12. Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    *Program Specialist, The Texas A&M System Fresh fruits and vegetables provide vita- mins, minerals and fiber to help keep your body healthy. To make sure that your fruits and vegetables are safe to eat, it is important to know how to select good...-quality produce. Occasionally, fresh fruits and vegetables can become contaminated by harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. Produce can be contaminated at any...

  13. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne D. Mihail; Johann N. Bruhn; Pierluigi Bonello

    2007-01-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of Morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in Missouri, USA. Fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30d preceding fruiting. The two

  15. Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-López

    2011-01-01

    At ripening, fruits undergo many changes, which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances plus minerals and vitamins, the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening

  16. Fruit Quality: New Insights for Biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-lópez

    2012-01-01

    At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development.

  17. Preharvest factors affecting physiological disorders of fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Ferguson; Richard Volz; Allan Woolf

    1999-01-01

    Development of disorders during postharvest ripening and storage of fruit depends on a range of preharvest factors. The most obvious of these is maturity of fruit at harvest. However, a number of other factors may be just as important in ripening-related disorders and in determining how fruit respond to low temperatures or other imposed postharvest conditions. Fruiting position on the

  18. Disturbance and the Dispersal of Fleshy Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Thompson; Mary F. Willson

    1978-01-01

    Fruits of Prunus serotina, Phytolacca americana, and Vitis vulpina were placed during separate trials in forest sites that varied in the degree to which the forest canopy was disturbed. Removal rates of fruits were consistently faster in the forest edge and light gap sites than in sites under closed canopy. Rapid removal of fruits from species that ripen fruit in

  19. Evaluating health benefits of various fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits are an essential part of our daily diets. Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium and calories. Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid and they do not contain cholesterol. Some fruits have laxative effects, prevent uri...

  20. Fruiting organs of Cladosporium werneckii.

    PubMed

    Volcán, G; Godoy, G A; Battistini, F; Alvarez, A

    1976-07-01

    Submerged mycelia of a strain of Cladosporium werneckii isolated from tinea nigra palmaris, when cultured on enriched corn-meal agar media, developed fruiting bodies resembling perithecia. PMID:986694

  1. Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    *Program Specialist, The Texas A&M System Fresh fruits and vegetables can occa- sionally become contaminated with harm- ful bacteria or viruses, which are known as pathogens. This contamination can occur at any point from the field to your table.... Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. If you eat a contaminated fruit or vegetable, it could cause a foodborne illness. Common signs of foodborne illness in- clude nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and fever...

  2. Disturbance and the dispersal of fleshy fruits.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J N; Willson, M F

    1978-06-01

    Fruits of Prunus serotina, Phytolacca americana, and Vitis vulpina were placed during separate trials in forest sites that varied in the degree to which the forest canopy was disturbed. Removal rates of fruits were consistently faster in the forest edge and light gap sites than in sites under closed canopy. Rapid removal of fruits from species that ripen fruit in summer and early fall is selectively advantageous to the plants because it minimizes the probability that fruits will be destroyed by invertebrates before dispersal. Disturbances probably play an important role in interactions between temperate fruits and birds and in community organization. PMID:17745107

  3. Prophylactic effects of asiaticoside-based standardized extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban leaves on experimental migraine: Involvement of 5HT1A/1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Bobade, Vijeta; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Aswar, Urmila; Vishwaraman, Mohan; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed at evaluation of prophylactic efficacy and possible mechanisms of asiaticoside (AS) based standardized extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban leaves (INDCA) in animal models of migraine. The effects of oral and intranasal (i.n.) pretreatment of INDCA (acute and 7-days subacute) were evaluated against nitroglycerine (NTG, 10 mg·kg(-1), i.p.) and bradykinin (BK, 10 ?g, intra-arterial) induced hyperalgesia in rats. Tail flick latencies (from 0 to 240 min) post-NTG treatment and the number of vocalizations post-BK treatment were recorded as a measure of hyperalgesia. Separate groups of rats for negative (Normal) and positive (sumatriptan, 42 mg·kg(-1), s.c.) controls were included. The interaction of INDCA with selective 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1D receptor antagonists (NAN-190, Isamoltane hemifumarate, and BRL-15572 respectively) against NTG-induced hyperalgesia was also evaluated. Acute and sub-acute pre-treatment of INDCA [10 and 30 mg·kg(-1) (oral) and 100 ?g/rat (i.n.) showed significant anti-nociception activity, and reversal of the NTG-induced hyperalgesia and brain 5-HT concentration decline. Oral pre-treatment with INDCA (30 mg·kg(-1), 7 d) showed significant reduction in the number of vocalization. The anti-nociceptive effects of INDCA were blocked by 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B but not 5-HT1D receptor antagonists. In conclusion, INDCA demonstrated promising anti-nociceptive effects in animal models of migraine, probably through 5-HT1A/1B medicated action. PMID:25908624

  4. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:24579376

  5. Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Pseudocyrtohymena koreana n. g., n. sp. and Antarctic Neokeronopsis asiatica Foissner et al., 2010 (Ciliophora, Sporadotrichida), with a Brief Discussion of the Cyrtohymena Undulating Membranes Pattern.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Ho; Park, Kyung-Min; Min, Gi-Sik

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a new brackish water oxytrichid Pseudocyrtohymena koreana n. g., n. sp. in South Korea and investigated the new species on the basis of morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The new genus has the 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri of typical oxytrichids with flexible body, cortical granules, Cyrtohymena undulating membranes (UM), and one left and one right marginal cirral row. Ontogenesis of the new species indicated that dorsal kinety anlage 3 stretches within the parental row without any fragmentations (Urosomoida pattern) and exclusively forms all caudal cirri. The new genus is morphologically similar to Cyrtohymena Foissner, 1989, but has the following distinctive features: (i) caudal cirri absent in dorsal kineties 1 and 2 (vs. present in Cyrtohymena); and (ii) dorsal kinety 3 nonfragmented (vs. fragmented in Cyrtohymena). Further, we collected an additional species Neokeronopsis asiatica Foissner et al. 2010, from King George Island, Antarctica, and the species shares the morphology of UM with Cyrtohymena. Herein, we describe the previously unidentified characteristics of N. asiatica (i.e., cortical granules, body flexibility, contractile vacuole, and 18S rRNA gene sequence). In addition, we obtained two 18S rRNA gene sequences from Cyrtohymena muscorum and Parasterkiella thompsoni to expand samples for phylogenetic analysis. Our 18S rRNA gene tree supports the hypothesis that the Cyrtohymena UM pattern might have evolved several times in hypotrichs (e.g., Neokeronopsidae, Oxytrichinae, and Stylonychinae). PMID:25231725

  6. Auditory neuroscience in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2013-07-01

    Since the first analysis of the Drosophila courtship song more than 50 years ago, the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the acoustic communication between fruit flies has been studied extensively. The results of recent studies utilizing a wide array of genetic tools provide novel insights into the anatomic and functional characteristics of the auditory and other mechanosensory systems in the fruit fly. Johnston's hearing organ, the antennal ear of the fruit fly, serves as a complex sensor not only for near-field sound but also for gravity and wind. These auditory and non-auditory signals travel in parallel from the fly ear to the brain, feeding into neural pathways similar to the auditory and vestibular pathways of the human brain. This review discusses these recent findings and outlines auditory neuroscience in flies. PMID:23707240

  7. Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    . Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. If you eat a contaminated fruit or vegetable, it could cause a foodborne illness. Common signs of foodborne illness in- clude nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and fever.... These signs usually appear within 12 to 72 hours from the time the food was eaten. Foodborne illness can be serious. To re- duce your risk, follow these steps for wash- ing fresh fruits and vegetables. Wash your hands and cooking areas Wash your hands...

  8. Pollinating Fruit Crops Most tree fruits and many small fruits grown in New Hampshire require cross pollination to produce a

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    tree planted together will effectively cross-pollinate each other and both trees will set fruit-pollination to set good crops of fruit. Most pairs are compatible if their bloom periods overlap sufficiently require cross pollination to set good crops of fruit, although some varieties including Seckel may set

  9. The role of the anaerobic metabolites, acetaldehyde and ethanol, in fruit ripening, enhancement of fruit quality and fruit deterioration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edna Pesis

    2005-01-01

    During fruit ripening on the tree and after harvest some essential processes involve the production of the anaerobic metabolites, acetaldehyde (AA) and ethanol. These processes include the production of aroma volatiles and removal of fruit astringency. Acetaldehyde, a natural aroma component, is present in almost every fruit; it accumulates during ripening even under aerobic conditions, but to a much greater

  10. Flowering and Fruiting Morphology of Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering morphology of the erect, thorny primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus) cultivars Prime-JanTM and Prime-JimTM were studied in 2005 in Aurora, Oregon. Primocanes that were "soft-tipped" in early summer to 1 m were compared to un-tipped primocanes and floricanes. On avera...

  11. Fruit Salad with Light Whipped Topping Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    pineapple chunks in juice 8 ounces fat-free yogurt, plain 8 ounces lite whipped topping Directions 1. Drain fruit cocktail and pineapple chunks. 2. Place fruit in bowl. 3. Stir in yogurt and whipped topping. 4

  12. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-08-25

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...for the various fruits and vegetables to be...

  13. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-10-25

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...shown that the fruits and vegetables listed above...

  14. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-05-02

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...shown that the fruits and vegetables listed above...

  15. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-08-10

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...importation of fruits and vegetables to prevent the...Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  16. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-05-13

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...importation of fruits and vegetables to prevent the...Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  17. 59 FR- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-08

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...93-121-4] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...editorial change to the fruits and vegetables regulations, we...

  18. Studies on fruiting, bearing habit and fruit growth of jackfruit germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. ULLAH; MA Haque

    2008-01-01

    Studies on fruiting, bearing habit and fruit growth of jackfruit was carried out at orchard of Jackfruit Research Project, Department of Horticulture, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during the period from November 2000 to October 2001. Ten jackfruit germplasm of 13 years of age were selected for this study. Fruit bearing habit of jackfruit was cauliflorous i.e., fruits are borne

  19. Influence of fruit development on seasonal elemental concentrations and distribution in fruit and leaves of pecan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Diver; Michael W. Smith; Ronald W. McNew

    1984-01-01

    The elemental concentrations of leaves and fruits were monitored during one season on fruiting and vegetative pecan shoots. Pecan fruit and leaves of fruiting and vegetative shoots on 31?year?old ‘Western’ pecan trees were collected biweekly from May 15 through October 15, 1982 and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn,

  20. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  1. Passiflora incarnata (Passifloraceae): A new fruit crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER M. McGUIRE

    1999-01-01

    Passiflora incarnata:A New Fruit Crop. Economic Botany 53(2): 161–176, 1999. Passiflora incarnata bears flavorful fruits consumed\\u000a by past and present peoples, and this plant deserves greater use as a fruit crop. Native to southeastern North America, it\\u000a is an herbaceous perennial vine which flowers and fruits over much of the growing season. P. incarnata is self-incompatible\\u000a and usually pollinated by

  2. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening. PMID:24723405

  3. Lemon Fruit Pie in a Bag Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Lemon Fruit Pie in a Bag Ingredients: 3 ounces vanilla low-fat yogurt 1 tablespoon pudding mix, lemon flavored 1 graham crackers, sheet 1/8 cup fruit Directions 1. In a sandwich bag, add 1/2 container vanilla yogurt, 1 tablespoon lemon flavored pudding mix, 1 sheet graham cracker, and 1/8 cup fruit. 2

  4. Fruit Ripening Phenomena–An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Prasanna; T. N. Prabha; R. N. Tharanathan

    2007-01-01

    Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting.

    PubMed

    Mihail, Jeanne D; Bruhn, Johann N; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2007-03-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of Morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in Missouri, USA. Fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30 d preceding fruiting. The two years with the greatest fruiting had the shortest fruiting seasons (6-7d). Fruiting season length was positively correlated with soil warming, suggesting that a narrow range of optimum soil temperatures favour the explosive production of fruit bodies. All woody stems of at least 1cm diam were mapped and stem diameter and crown condition were noted. Morel fruit bodies were significantly closer to stems of Carya spp., Tilia americana and Ulmus americana than predicted by the frequencies of these woody species or their contribution to the total basal area on the site. Although intra-annual clustering of fruit bodies was often observed, inter-annual clustering was not. The spatial pattern of M. esculenta fruiting appears to be associated with vegetation pattern, whereas the onset and abundance of fruiting are determined by the interaction of spring temperatures with availability of supporting precipitation. PMID:17363234

  6. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

  7. Genomics of Tropical Fruit Tree Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic improvement of tropical fruit trees is limited when compared to progress achieved in temperate fruit trees and annual crops. Tropical fruit tree breeding programs require significant resources to develop new cultivars that are adapted to modern shipping and storage requirements. The use...

  8. Nutritional Quality of Commercial Fruit Baby Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. ?ížko Vá; R. Še; A. RAJCHl; M. Vold?

    Commercial fruit baby food is a preserved fruit product usually made with fruit purees, sugar, water and variable additives (thickening agents, antioxidants, etc.). As the foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses, baby foods for infants and young children conforms to a set of strict guidelines e.g. maximum levels for pesticide residues, microbiological contamination, addition of additives, labelling, etc. However, being

  9. Organic Quarantine Treatments for Tree Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production of pome and stone fruits in the United States has greatly increased over the past few years. In order to obtain lucrative export markets, these fruit must meet stringent quarantine requirements. For some countries, these requirements mean that the fruit must be treated with a ch...

  10. Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

  11. Food safety and berry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although berries have enjoyed a relatively good record of food safety, berries have been found to be the source of several foodborne pathogenic outbreaks in recent years. It was assumed the acidity of the fruit (pH 3.0-4.5) would deter the existence of pathogenic organisms. However, cleaning harvest...

  12. Sleep and the fruit fly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph J. Greenspan; Giulio Tononi; Chiara Cirelli; Paul J. Shaw

    2001-01-01

    The function of sleep remains a long-standing mystery in neurobiology. The presence of a sleep-like state has recently been demonstrated in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, meeting the essential behavioral criteria for sleep and also showing pharmacological and molecular correlates of mammalian sleep. This development opens up the possibility of applying genetic analysis to the identification of key molecular components

  13. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past five or so years blueberry growers in south Mississippi have discovered the disease Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot on some of their blueberry plants. In the past this disease was considered to be of minor importance occurring infrequently on isolated farms. But in recent years it ...

  14. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Reid

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups comprised of WIC participants were held to identify perceived barriers to fruit and vegetable (F\\/V) consumption, helpful practices for increasing F\\/V intake, and preferred educational methods. The University Human Subjects Approval Committee approved study procedures. Two focus groups were conducted in metropolitan areas and two were held in rural areas of the state. Each focus group included five

  15. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  16. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  17. Ripening of Fruits and Vegetables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners test the rate of ripening fruit and vegetables and use a chemical to inhibit the ripening process. After the experiment, learners measure the exposed surface area of the foods. This activity relates to how food is prepared for the Space Shuttle. This lesson plan includes background information, discussion questions, and extensions.

  18. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  19. Tomato Fruit Cell Wall 1

    PubMed Central

    Koch, James L.; Nevins, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Cell wall isolation procedures were evaluated to determine their effect on the total pectin content and the degree of methylesterification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cell walls. Water homogenates liberate substantial amounts of buffer soluble uronic acid, 5.2 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall. Solubilization appears to be a consequence of autohydrolysis mediated by polygalacturonase II, isoenzymes A and B, since the uronic acid release from the wall residue can be suppressed by homogenization in the presence of 50% ethanol followed by heating. The extent of methylesterification in heat-inactivated cell walls, 94 mole%, was significantly greater than with water homogenates, 56 mole%. The results suggest that autohydrolysis, mediated by cell wall-associated enzymes, accounts for the solubilization of tomato fruit pectin in vitro. Endogenous enzymes also account for a decrease in the methylesterification during the cell wall preparation. The heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was superior to the other methods studied since it reduces ?-elimination during heating and inactivates constitutive enzymes that may modify pectin structure. This heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was used in subsequent enzymatic analysis of the pectin structure. Purified tomato fruit polygalacturonase and partially purified pectinmethylesterase were used to assess changes in constitutive substrates during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase treatment of heat-inactivated cell walls from mature green and breaker stages released 14% of the uronic acid. The extent of the release of polyuronides by polygalacturonase was fruit development stage dependent. At the turning stage, 21% of the pectin fraction was released, a value which increased to a maximum of 28% of the uronides at the red ripe stage. Pretreatment of the walls with purified tomato pectinesterase rendered walls from all ripening stages equally susceptible to polygalacturonase. Quantitatively, the release of uronides by polygalacturonase from all pectinesterase treated cell walls was equivalent to polygalacturonase treatment of walls at the ripe stage. Uronide polymers released by polygalacturonase contain galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose. As a function of development, an increase in the release of galacturonic acid and rhamnose was observed (40 and 6% of these polymers at the mature green stage to 54 and 15% at the red ripe stage, respectively). The amount of galactose and arabinose released by exogenous polygalacturonase decreased during development (41 and 11% from walls of mature green fruit to 11 and 6% at the red ripe stage, respectively). Minor amounts of glucose and xylose released from the wall by exogenous polygalacturonase (4-7%) remained constant throughout fruit development. PMID:16667142

  20. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation. PMID:19610403

  1. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Dumitras, D. C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones.

  2. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  3. Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

    2004-10-01

    An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

  4. Automatic Grading of the Post-Harvest Fruit: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Cai, Jinxing; Liu, Xiufeng

    Mechanical fruit grading and automatic fruit grading have been detailed in this paper. The studies and applications of mechanical fruit grading, and computer visual and automatic fruit grading were also particularized. Computer vision technology for detecting fruit size, color, bruise and surface defects and evaluation of fruit overall quality were discussed. The primary problems and development in the future in application of automatic fruit grading in China were pointed out in the end.

  5. Les allergies alimentaires aux fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rougé; J.-P. Borges; R. Culerrier; C. Brulé; A. Didier; A. Barre

    2009-01-01

    Edible fruit contain many distinct allergens that mainly correspond to Pathogenesis Related-proteins (PR-proteins). According to their wide distribution in plant tissues, these PR-proteins consist of panallergens. They belong to different groups of PR-proteins like PR-2 (1,3?-glucanases), PR-3 (class I chitinases), PR-4 (germin-like proteins), PR-5 (thaumatin-like proteins or TLP), PR-10 (Bet v 1-like proteins), and PR-14 (lipid transfer proteins or LTP).

  6. Chemical investigation of Indian fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Patnayak; S. Rangaswami; T. R. Seshadri

    1942-01-01

    Summary  The important citrus fruits (oranges) of the Northern Circars belong to three species: (1)C. aurantium, (2)C. medica, (3)C. decumana. Their chemical compositions support their classification as the sweet, the sour and the bitter types. In the peels and rags\\u000a of the first two types hesperidin is present whereas naringin occurs as the characteristic crystalline bitter principle of\\u000a the varieties of

  7. Antisense Inhibition of Tomato Fruit Sucrose Synthase Decreases Fruit Setting and the Sucrose Unloading Capacity of Young Fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc-André D'Aoust; Serge Yelle; Binh Nguyen-Quoc

    1999-01-01

    The role of sucrose synthase (SuSy) in tomato fruit was studied in transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) plants expressing an antisense fragment of fruit-specific SuSy RNA ( TOMSSF ) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic vi- rus 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of the antisense RNA markedly inhibited SuSy activity in flowers and fruit pericarp tissues. However, inhibition was

  8. http://agbioresearch.msu.edu/centers/nwmihort/ Northern Michigan FruitNet 2014

    E-print Network

    fruit Pear: Bartlett: 10 mm fruit Sweet Cherry: Hedelfingen: 13 mm fruit Napoleon: 14 mm fruit Gold: 12 mm fruit Tart Cherry: 11 mm fruit Balaton: 12 mm fruit Apricot: 27 mm fruit Grapes: 10-16" shoots a sizeable sweet cherry crop are somewhat concerned about rainfall and sizing a big load of fruit. In general

  9. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes of the rat lice, Polyplax asiatica and Polyplax spinulosa: intra-genus variation in fragmentation pattern and a possible link between the extent of fragmentation and the length of life cycle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood-sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) parasitize eutherian mammals with 67% of the 540 described species found on rodents. The five species of blood-sucking lice that infest humans and pigs have fragmented mitochondrial genomes and differ substantially in the extent of fragmentation. To understand whether, or not, any life-history factors are linked to such variation, we sequenced the mt genomes of Polyplax asiatica and Polyplax spinulosa, collected from the greater bandicoot rat, Bandicota indica, and the Asian house rat, Rattus tanezumi, respectively. Results We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes common to animals in Polyplax asiatica and Polyplax spinulosa. The mitochondrial genes of these two rat lice are on 11 circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 2–4 kb long and has 2–7 genes. The two rat lice share the same pattern for the distribution of the protein-coding genes and ribosomal RNA genes over the minichromosomes, but differ in the pattern for the distribution of 8 of the 22 transfer RNA genes. The mitochondrial genomes of the Polyplax rat lice have 3.4 genes, on average, on each minichromosome and, thus, are less fragmented than those of the human lice (2.1 and 2.4 genes per minichromosome), but are more fragmented than those of the pig lice (4.1 genes per minichromosome). Conclusions Our results revealed distinct patterns of mitochondrial genome fragmentation within the genus Polyplax and, furthermore, indicated a possible inverse link between the extent of mitochondrial genome fragmentation and the length of life cycle of the blood-sucking lice. PMID:24438034

  10. Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-11-01

    Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies. PMID:22776090

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  12. Regulation of carotenoid formation during tomato fruit ripening and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Bramley

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation during tomato fruit development and ripening is a complex process that occurs alongside the differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts and changes to the organoleptic properties of the fruit. Unusually for plants, the ripe tomato fruit accumulates large amounts of lycopene, as the pattern of gene expres- sion found in green fruit changes during fruit ripening.

  13. Carbon and water balances for young fruits of platyopuntias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Park S. Nobel; Erick De la Barrera

    2000-01-01

    Questions relating to transpired versus retained water for pected for CAM plants. The water potential of the young fruits, the xylem versus the phloem as water supplier to the fruits (average of 0.41 MPa) was higher than that of the fruits, and the importance of fruit photosynthesis for fruit cladodes (average of 0.60 MPa), indicating that water dry mass gain

  14. Prevalence and Functions of Anthocyanins in Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Steyn

    \\u000a This chapter reviews possible visual, nutritional and physiological functions of anthocyanins in fruits. Merits of the various\\u000a functions are considered and discussed with reference to the prevalence of different fruit colours and the contribution of\\u000a anthocyanins thereto as well as anthocyanin accumulation in response to environmental factors, seed disperser visual systems\\u000a and fruit quality parameters. Blue, purple, black and most

  15. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ró?alska, Anna; Ukleja-Soko?owska, Natalia; ?bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  16. Fruit fate, frugivory, and fruit characteristics: a study of the hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna (Rosaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rex Sallabanks

    1992-01-01

    The fate of fruits from a population of European hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) in western Oregon, USA, was examined over a two-year period. Only one frugivore, the American robin (Turdus migratorius) foraged on the C. monogyna fruits, making this an unusually straightforward fruit-frugivore system. Dispersal efficiency was low, with an average 21% of seeds being dispersed (carried away from parent plants)

  17. Characteristics of fleshy fruits in southeast Alaska: phylogenetic comparison with fruits from Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Traveset; Mary F. Willson; Miguel Verdú

    2004-01-01

    Over 30 species of fleshy-fruited plants are found in southeast Alaska. In this paper we examine traits such as plant growth form, phenology, fruit color, seed load, pulp dry weight, and pulp nutrient content and compare them with those of fruits from central Illinois. Two comparative methods (continuous time Markov model and phylo-Anova) were used to compare both qualitative and

  18. Why some fruits are green when they are ripe: carbon balance in fleshy fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin L. Cipollini; Douglas J. Levey

    1991-01-01

    Fruits that are green upon ripening (“green-ripe”) tend to be dispersed by a limited range of frugivores, whereas those that are brightly colored (“bright-ripe”) are dispersed by a wide range of birds and mammals. Because green fruits are probably less conspicuous than other colors of fruits, their pigmentation cannot be attributed to the attraction of seed dispersers. Instead, we hypothesize

  19. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  20. Evaluation of Methods to Estimate Understory Fruit Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Lashley, Marcus A.; Thompson, Jeffrey R.; Chitwood, M. Colter; DePerno, Christopher S.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruit is consumed by many wildlife species and is a critical component of forest ecosystems. Because fruit production may change quickly during forest succession, frequent monitoring of fruit biomass may be needed to better understand shifts in wildlife habitat quality. Yet, designing a fruit sampling protocol that is executable on a frequent basis may be difficult, and knowledge of accuracy within monitoring protocols is lacking. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of 3 methods to estimate understory fruit biomass (Fruit Count, Stem Density, and Plant Coverage). The Fruit Count method requires visual counts of fruit to estimate fruit biomass. The Stem Density method uses counts of all stems of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. The Plant Coverage method uses land coverage of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. Using linear regression models under a censored-normal distribution, we determined the Fruit Count and Stem Density methods could accurately estimate fruit biomass; however, when comparing AIC values between models, the Fruit Count method was the superior method for estimating fruit biomass. After determining that Fruit Count was the superior method to accurately estimate fruit biomass, we conducted additional analyses to determine the sampling intensity (i.e., percentage of area) necessary to accurately estimate fruit biomass. The Fruit Count method accurately estimated fruit biomass at a 0.8% sampling intensity. In some cases, sampling 0.8% of an area may not be feasible. In these cases, we suggest sampling understory fruit production with the Fruit Count method at the greatest feasible sampling intensity, which could be valuable to assess annual fluctuations in fruit production. PMID:24819253

  1. 76 FR 37312 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...members who represent the fruit and vegetable industry...individuals representing fruit and vegetable growers...retailers, processors, fresh cut processors, foodservice...organic and non- organic fresh fruits and vegetables at...

  2. 73 FR 10971 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-02-29

    ...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...amending the fruits and vegetables regulations...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...importation of fruits and vegetables into the...

  3. 70 FR 72881 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-12-08

    ...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...amending the fruits and vegetables regulations...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Fruits and vegetables. A...

  4. 67 FR 61547 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-10-01

    ...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...propose to amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to list...S. importers of fruits and vegetables; plant health officials of...

  5. 68 FR 70448 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-12-18

    ...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...propose to amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to list...S. importers of fruits and vegetables; plant health officials of...

  6. 66 FR 45637 - Phytosanitary Certificates for Imported Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-08-29

    ...Imported Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...and Plant Health Inspection...Subpart--Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR...Respondents: Plant health officials...that export fruits and vegetables to the...

  7. 65 FR 50655 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-08-21

    ...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...proposing to amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to list...S. importers of fruits and vegetables; plant health officials of...

  8. 68 FR 37904 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-06-25

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Final Rule...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...amending the fruits and vegetables...

  9. 73 FR 24851 - Interstate Movement of Fruit From Hawaii

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-05-06

    ...Background The Hawaiian fruits and vegetables regulations, contained...interstate movement of fruits and vegetables from Hawaii to the...spread of plant diseases and pests that occur...identify specific fruits and vegetables that are...

  10. 72 FR 64163 - Interstate Movement of Fruit From Hawaii

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-11-15

    ...Background The Hawaiian fruits and vegetables regulations, contained...interstate movement of fruits and vegetables from Hawaii to the...spread of plant diseases and pests that occur...identify specific fruits and vegetables that are...

  11. Fruit and Vegetables in Cancer Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harri Vainio; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to review the epidemiological litera- ture on possible cancer-preventive effects of the consumption of fruits and vegetables in humans, to quantify the effect of high versus low consumption of fruits and vegetables, and to give an overall assessment of the existing evidence. We based our work on an expert meeting conducted by the Interna- tional Agency for

  12. Breeding rootstocks for tree fruit crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James N. Cummins; Herb S. Aldwinckle

    1995-01-01

    Identification of problems and prioritising breeding objectives based on those problems are essential first steps in a rootstock improvement program. For all tree fruits, incorporating resistances to critical diseases and pests will facilitate fruit production in a social environment demanding reduction in pesticide usage. Diseases caused by various Phytophthora species are important and can be catastrophic for all major tree

  13. Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didier Ortelli; Patrick Edder; Claude Corvi

    2005-01-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides

  14. Preharvest weather conditions and pineapple fruit translucency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Paull; Maria E. Q. Reyes

    1996-01-01

    Preharvest weather was recorded and pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) fruit translucency determined at weekly intervals for a year. The object was to select a model that showed the best relationship between preharvest weather and translucency. A period 2–3 months before harvest was crucial in the development of fruit translucency at harvest and crown growth. Translucency was more severe and had

  15. Automated fruit grading system using image processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Njoroge; Kazunori Ninomiya; Naoshi Kondo; H. Toita

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the operations and performance of an automated quality verification system for agricultural products and its main features. The system utilizes improved engineering designs and image-processing techniques to convey and grade products. Basically two inspection stages of the system can be identified: external fruit inspection and internal fruit inspection. Surface inspection is accomplished through processing of color CCD

  16. Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

  17. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  18. Pawpaw: An Old Fruit for New Needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Galli; D. D. Archbold; K. W. Pomper

    Pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal) is the largest edible fruit native to North America. The species range covers 26 states in the U.S., extending from northern Florida to southern Ontario and as far west as eastern Nebraska. Pawpaw fruits were traditionally consumed by Native Americans, then by European explorers and settlers. Today, pawpaws are consumed by local populations in rural

  19. Pawpaw Fruit Chilling Injury and Antioxidant Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federica Galli; Douglas D. Archbold; Kirk W. Pomper

    2009-01-01

    ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. regular atmosphere storage, ethylene, respiration, glutathione, ascorbate, phenolics ABSTRACT. Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) fruit stored longer than 4 weeks at 4 8C fail to ripen normally and may develop internal discoloration, indicative of chilling injury (CI). To determine if loss of antioxidant protection in the fruit tissue during cold storage could be the cause of these problems, the

  20. THE CLIMATIC ADAPTATION IN FRUIT CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits have varying amounts of climatic adaptation. Most grow only in either the tropical, subtropical, or temperate zones. For example, fruits such as mango and pineapple grow best in a tropical climate without frosts, citrus grows best in a subtropical climate without hard winter freezes, and ap...

  1. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (?M TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  2. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  3. A fruitful endeavor: modeling ALS in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2015-05-14

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ALS complex pathogenesis. PMID:25289585

  4. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    PubMed

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations. PMID:24957883

  5. Influence of fruit traits on the infestation of Dacus persicus in two fruit morphs of Calotropis procera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santosh Sharma; Dilip Amritphale

    2008-01-01

    The larvae of Dacus (Leptoxyda) persicus (aak fruit fly) are key predispersal seed predators in Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae). Based on fruit characteristics, two morphs are distinguishable in C. procera viz., the soft-fruited morph (SF morph) and the hard-fruited morph (HF morph). The work reported here examined whether the\\u000a fruit characteristics influenced the infestation by the aak fruit fly and, if

  6. Influence of between-year variation in the density of Rhus trichocarpa fruits on the removal of fruit by birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyuki Osada

    2005-01-01

    The fruiting phenology and fruit removal patterns of Rhus trichocarpa Miq. (Anacardiaceae) were investigated in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Mature fruits of this species are dispersed by birds. Effects of fruit display size and canopy openness on fruit removal were investigated in years with different fruit densities (i.e., masting and non-masting years). Moreover, effects of increased canopy openness

  7. Model-Assisted Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Fruit Temperature and Transpiration Highlighting the Role of Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology. PMID:24663687

  8. A non-climacteric fruit gene CaMADS-RIN regulates fruit ripening and ethylene biosynthesis in climacteric fruit.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingting; Chen, Guoping; Tian, Shibing; Xie, Qiaoli; Yin, Wencheng; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli

    2014-01-01

    MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP) group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin) mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4) and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC) accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1-3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits. PMID:24751940

  9. A Non-Climacteric Fruit Gene CaMADS-RIN Regulates Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Biosynthesis in Climacteric Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Tingting; Chen, Guoping; Tian, Shibing; Xie, Qiaoli; Yin, Wencheng; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli

    2014-01-01

    MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP) group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin) mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4) and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC) accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1–3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits. PMID:24751940

  10. [Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].

    PubMed

    Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Ba?kov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Ba?garin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23808277

  11. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree. PMID:25998425

  12. Storage Experiments with Texas Citrus Fruit 

    E-print Network

    Friend, W. H. (William Heartsill); Bach, Walter J. (Walter Johnson)

    1932-01-01

    fruit in cold storage. ject of this work was to determine the principal causes of loss of ruit in cold storage under ValIey conditions, and to study the effect ain factors on the keeping quality of fruit. evident that pitting, scald, and stem-end rot..., such as pitting and scald. Blue mold t a factor of importance in these experiments, largely because the er part of the fruit used had been treated with a fungicid'al wash. ing was more important in some lots than in others, but is a factor I can be almost...

  13. Carotenoid Content of Underutilized Tropical Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hock Eng Khoo; Amin Ismail; Norhaizan Mohd-Esa; Salma Idris

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the total carotene content (TCC) and beta carotene (BC) in the selected underutilized\\u000a tropical fruits. TCC of underutilized fruits estimated by spectrophotometric method was in the range of 1.4–19.8 mg\\/100 g\\u000a edible portion. The TCC of these fruits decreased in the order: Jentik-jentik?>?Durian Nyekak 2?>?Durian Nyekak 1?>?Cerapu\\u000a 2?>?Cerapu 1?>?Tampoi Kuning?>?Bacang 1?>?Kuini?>?Jambu Mawar?>?Bacang 2?>?Durian Daun?>?Bacang 3?>?Tampoi Putih?>?Jambu

  14. [Fruit and berries--interactions with drugs].

    PubMed

    Molden, Espen; Spigset, Olav

    2007-12-13

    Diet is one of many factors that could alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Several fruits and berries have recently been shown to contain agents that affect drug-metabolizing enzymes. Grapefruit is the most well-known example, but also Sevillian orange, pomelo and star fruit contain agents that inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), which is the most important enzyme in drug metabolism. The present article reviews published information on potential interactions between drugs and fruits/berries, with main focus on inhibition and induction of metabolizing enzymes. PMID:18084364

  15. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

  16. SEASONAL FRUIT PREFERENCES FOR LIPIDS AND SUGARS BY AMERICAN ROBINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Lepczyk; K. Greg Murray; Kathy Winnett-Murray; Paul Bartell; Eric Geyer; Timothy Work

    2000-01-01

    Fruit preference by birds is a complex process based upon the morphology and spatial arrangement of fruits and on the physiological needs and capabilities of birds. In North America, most fruits can be divided into two groups based on nutritional content: those rich in sugars relative to lipids, and those rich in lipids relative to sugars. To investigate how fruit

  17. Developments and Trends in Fruit Bar Production and Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. ORREGO; N. SALGADO; C. A. BOTERO

    2012-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits

  18. Wavelet-based feature extraction technique for fruit shape classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slamet Riyadi; A. J. Ishak; M. M. Mustafa; A. Hussain

    2008-01-01

    For export, papaya fruit should be free of defects and damages. Abnormality in papaya fruit shape represents a defective fruit and is used as one of the main criteria to determine suitability of the fruit to be exported. This paper describes a wavelet-based technique used to perform feature extraction to extract unique features which are then used in the classification

  19. Ascorbic acid in exotic fruits: a liquid chromatographic investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Ruggieri

    1995-01-01

    The levels of ascorbic acid (AA) have been measured by means of an HPLC method in 11 different exotic fruits (avocado pear, babaco, feijoa, grapefruit, kiwi, kumquat, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit, pineapple) and, for comparative purposes, in two citrus fruits (lemon and orange). They were measured in the exotic fruits at two different stages of ripening: (i) immediately after

  20. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Bart J; Thodey, Kate; Schaffer, Robert J; Alba, Rob; Balakrishnan, Lena; Bishop, Rebecca; Bowen, Judith H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Ledger, Susan; McArtney, Steve; Pichler, Franz B; Snowden, Kimberley C; Ward, Shayna

    2008-01-01

    Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development. PMID:18279528

  1. Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center: Organic & Integrated Fruit Production

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

  2. Transcript profiling of papaya fruit reveals differentially expressed genes associated with fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Paulo Fabi; Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli Mendes; Franco Maria Lajolo; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit has a short shelf life due to fast ripening induced by ethylene, but little is known about the genetic control of ripening and attributes of fruit quality. Therefore, we identified ripening-related genes affected by ethylene using cDNA-AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of cDNA). Transcript profiling of non-induced and ethylene-induced fruit samples was performed, and 71

  3. Using Mobile Fruit Vendors to Increase Access to Fresh Fruit and Vegetables for Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Irene H.; Laraia, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which schoolchildren purchased precut and bagged fruits and vegetables from a mobile fruit vendor (frutero). During 14 days in fall 2008, a frutero sold fruits and vegetables at the entrance of an elementary school; 59% of the frutero’s 233 consumers of 248 items were elementary-school students. With each successive day, an average of 1 additional bag of fruits and vegetables was sold by the frutero and 1.5 fewer nonnutritious foods by a competing vendor. Policies encouraging the sale of nutritious foods from mobile food vendors may increase access for schoolchildren. PMID:22632739

  4. Fruits and Vegetables: Color Your Plate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-04-30

    In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the foods they eat. The importance of a variety of fruits and vegetables to a healthy diet is the focus of the experience. Learners read a story book about fruits and vegetables, repeat a helpful riddle, and draw pictures of fruits/vegetables. These drawings are then cut out and taped to "color" a Healthy Choice bulletin board plate. Learners can also taste-test different fruits and vegetables at snack or lunch time. Learners are encouraged to try one new color each day. This activity is featured on pp. 12-13 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

  5. Two amides from Piper tuberculatum fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emidio V. Leitão da-Cunha; Maria Célia de Oliveira Chaves

    2001-01-01

    The fruits of Piper tuberculatum yielded pellitorine, N-isobutyl-2E,4E-decadienamide (1), and piperidide-2E,4E-decadienamide (2). Their complete NMR analysis, based on one- and two-dimensional experiments, is reported.

  6. Article original Fruits, vol. 64 (1) 19

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to characterize the raw material better (biochemical composition and nutritional quality), and we studied g­1 ), minerals (6%) and starch (41­47%). The chromatograms obtained by GC/MS on the fruit pulp

  7. Cellular antioxidant activity of common fruits.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Kang, Xinmei; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Qingyuan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2008-09-24

    Measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important in the screening of fruits for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity in cell culture and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the cellular antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 25 fruits commonly consumed in the United States. Pomegranate and berries (wild blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry) had the highest CAA values, whereas banana and melons had the lowest. Apples were found to be the largest contributors of fruit phenolics to the American diet, and apple and strawberries were the biggest suppliers of cellular antioxidant activity. Increasing fruit consumption is a logical strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of cancer. PMID:18759450

  8. BERRIES AND FRUITS IN CANCER CHEMOPREVENTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants, including food plants (fruits and vegetables), synthesize a vast array of chemical compounds that are not involved in their primary metabolism. These 'secondary compounds' instead serve a variety of ecological functions, ultimately, to enhance the plant's survivability. Interestingly, these ...

  9. Safe Storage of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    Proper storage of fresh fruits and vegetables can help consumers avoid foodborne illness. This publication explains how to safely store apples, bananas, berries, beets, broccoli, carrots, corn, grapes, herbs, lettuce and greens, melons, nectarines...

  10. Fruit thinning in ‘Conference’ pear grown under deficit irrigation: Implications for fruit quality at harvest and after cold storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Lopez; Christian Larrigaudière; Joan Girona; M. Hossein Behboudian; Jordi Marsal

    2011-01-01

    Fruit thinning in pear is feasible for mitigation of water stress effects. However, it is not well known how fruit quality at harvest and after cold storage is affected by pre-harvest water stress. Even less is known about the effects of fruit thinning on quality under these circumstances. To elucidate these, we applied deficit irrigation (DI) and fruit thinning treatments

  11. Effects of parentage, prior fruit set and pollen load on fruit and seed production in Campanula americana L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Richardson; Andrew G. Stephenson

    1991-01-01

    We conducted a controlled crossing experiment to examine the effects of maternal and paternal parentage, the size of the pollen load, and prior fruit production on the proportion of flowers that set fruit, seed number per fruit and seed weight in a natural population of Campanula americana. Effects due to the maternal parent were large for all measures of fruit

  12. http://www.jstor.org A Test of the Bicolored Fruit Display Hypothesis: Berry Removal with Artificial Fruit Flags

    E-print Network

    Muchhala, Nathan

    with Artificial Fruit Flags Author(s): Jennifer M. Cramer, Maria L. Cloud, Nathan C. Muchhala, Anastasia E. Ware with artificial fruit flags1 Jennifer M. Cramer2, Maria L. Cloud, Nathan C. Muchhala, Anastasia E. Ware, and Brent Removal with Artificial Fruit Flags. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130:30-33. 2003.- The fruit flag (Stiles 1982

  13. Papaya Fruit Softening: Role of Hydrolases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siwaporn Thumdee; Ashariya Manenoi; Nancy J. Chen; Robert E. Paull

    2010-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars show a wide variation in fruit softening rates, a character that determines fruit quality and shelf life, and\\u000a thought to be the result of cell wall degradation. The activity of pectin methylesterase, ?-galactosidase, endoglucanase,\\u000a endoxylanase and xylosidase were correlated with normal softening, though no relationship was found between polygalacturonase\\u000a activity and softening. When softening was

  14. Studies on fruit cracking of tomatoes 

    E-print Network

    Cotner, Sam Don

    1966-01-01

    STUDIES ON FRUIT CRACKING OF TOMATOES A Thesis Sam Don Cotner Submitted to the Graduate College of' ths Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements i' or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January~ 1966 Major Subject...: Horticulture STUDlES ON FRUIT CRACKING OF TOMATOES A Thesis Sam Dcn Cotnsr Approved as to style and content by; (Chairman of tes Member (Head o Department) mbsr) January 1966 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. INTRODUCTION . II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Page...

  15. 1-Methylcyclopropene treatment affects strawberry fruit decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueming Jiang; Daryl C Joyce; Leon A Terry

    2001-01-01

    Strawberry cv. Everest fruit were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at various concentrations from 0 to 1000 nl\\/l for 2 h at 20°C. They were then kept individually in closed but vented containers for 3 days in the dark at 20°C and 95–100% relative humidity. 1-MCP treatment tended to maintain strawberry fruit firmness and colour. However, disease development was accelerated in

  16. Applied Research - Fruit & Vegetable Screener in CHIS

    Cancer.gov

    Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods (e.g. 24-hour recalls). However, validation research suggests that the estimates may be useful to characterize a population's median intakes, to discriminate among individuals or populations with regard to higher vs.

  17. Safe Handling of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    fruit and vegetables can cause foodborne illness. Common signs of foodborne illness include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches and fever. These symptoms usually appear within 12 to 72 hours. Although foodborne illness can be serious... brought your produce home, it is important that you store it properly at room temperature and in the refrigerator to prevent foodborne illness. At room temperature To store fruits and vegetables safely at room temperature: ? Do not wash them before...

  18. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

  19. Growth, ripening and storage of tomato fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Stenvers

    1976-01-01

    Publication IA non-destructive, automated, fast and portable softness measuring device is described. The non-destructivity of the meter was established.Factors that might influence the variation in softness-readings, e.g., temperature, relative humidity, the point of compression on the fruit, sampling in the greenhouse, and fruit size were experimentally investigated.It was concluded that, although all these factors influence the dispersion of the softness

  20. Sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Hirai, M

    1979-04-01

    Sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was found in flesh tissue of mature fruit of the loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. var. Tanaka). The enzyme was purified about 30-fold from the crude extract of the fruit, and was demonstrated to catalyze sorbitol-6-phosphate + NADP right harpoon over left harpoon glucose-6-phosphate + NADPH. The optimal pH values for sorbitol 6-phosphate oxidation and glucose 6-phosphate reduction were 9.8 and 9.1, respectively. PMID:16660798

  1. Flavonols in fresh and processed Brazilian fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Hoffmann-Ribani; Lísia S. Huber; Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya

    2009-01-01

    Flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and flavones (luteolin and apigenin) were determined in Brazilian fruits, using a previously optimized and validated HPLC method. The flavonoids investigated were not detected in three cultivars each of mango and papaya. Quercetin was found in all the other fruits, the mean values varying from 0.3mg\\/100g in orange cultivar Pêra to 7.5mg\\/100g in apple cultivar

  2. agbioresearch.msu.edu/centers/nwmihort/ Northern Michigan FruitNet 2014

    E-print Network

    : Bartlett: 22 mm fruit Sweet Cherry: Hedelfingen: 21 mm fruit Napoleon: 23 mm fruit Gold: 19 mm fruit Tart Cherry: 19 mm fruit Balaton: 17 mm fruit Apricot: 40 mm fruit Grapes: Buckshot berry #12;2 agbioresearch thunderstorms. Crop Report. Stem-on sweet cherry harvest for the brine market has begun in northwest Michigan

  3. Fathers, fruits and photosynthesis: pollen donor effects on fruit photosynthesis in wild parsnip

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    LETTER Fathers, fruits and photosynthesis: pollen donor effects on fruit photosynthesis in wild@uiuc.edu Abstract Chlorophyll is frequently present in plant reproductive tissues and indicates that photosynthesis is occurring in these parts. Photosynthesis by a reproductive organ can contribute as much as 65% to its own

  4. Critical Spring Temperatures for Tree Fruit Bud Development Stages Stone Fruit

    E-print Network

    Critical Spring Temperatures for Tree Fruit Bud Development Stages Pome Fruit Apples Silver tip Green Tip ½ inch green Tight Cluster First Pink Full Pink First Bloom Full Bloom Post Bloom Old temp 10 Swell Bud Burst Tight cluster First White Full White First Bloom Full Bloom Post Bloom Old temp 10% kill

  5. TROPICAL FRUIT URBAN FORESTRY AT THE WHITMAN TROPICAL FRUIT PLAZA OF FAIRCHILD TROPICAL BOTANIC GARDEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noris Ledesma; Richard J. Campbell; Juan Valls

    South Florida horticulture continues to evolve. Changes are due to urbanization, governmental regulation, foreign competition and the needs of the growing community. An urban forestry project was initiated in 2004 at FTBG in conjunction with the Whitman Tropical Fruit Pavilion. This project provides the home owner and estate gardener with examples of tropical fruit in the urban landscape. The formal

  6. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss. PMID:21510205

  7. Light Regulation of Sink Metabolism in Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Han Ping; Janes, Harry W.

    1991-01-01

    Light/dark effects on growth and sugar accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit during early development were studied on intact plants (in vivo) and in tissue culture (in vitro). Through the use of an in vitro culture of tomato fruit, it was possible to investigate the direct effects of light on sink metabolism by eliminating the source tissue. Similar growth patterns were found in vivo and in vitro. Fruit growth in different sugars indicated that sucrose was the best source of carbon for in vitro fruit growth. Fruit growth increased as sucrose concentration increased up to 8%. Darkening the fruit decreased fruit dry weight about 40% in vivo and in vitro. The differences in the CO2 exchange rate between light and dark grown fruit indicated that light stimulation of fruit growth was due to mechanisms other than photosynthesis. Supporting this conclusion was the fact that light intensities ranging from 40 to 160 micromoles per square meter per second had no significant influence on fruit growth, and light did not increase growth of fruit cultured with glucose or fructose as a carbon source. However, light stimulated fruit growth significantly when sucrose was used as the carbon source. Light-grown fruit took up 30% more sucrose from the same source and accumulated almost twice as much hexose and starch as dark-grown fruit. A possible expansion of an additional sink for carbon by light stimulation of starch synthesis during early development will be discussed. PMID:16668275

  8. Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

  9. Metabolic engineering of aroma components in fruits.

    PubMed

    Aragüez, Irene; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-10-01

    Plants have the ability to produce a diversity of volatile metabolites, which attract pollinators and seed dispersers and strengthen plant defense responses. Selection by plant breeders of traits such as rapid growth and yield leads, in many cases, to the loss of flavor and aroma quality in crops. How the aroma can be improved without affecting other fruit attributes is a major unsolved issue. Significant advances in metabolic engineering directed at improving the set of volatiles that the fruits emit has been aided by the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavor and aroma compounds in some fruits. However, before this technology can be successfully applied to modulate the production of volatiles in different crops, further basic research is needed on the mechanisms that lead to the production of these compounds in plants. Here we review the biosynthesis and function of volatile compounds in plants, and the attempts that have been made to manipulate fruit aroma biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. In addition, we discuss the possibilities that molecular breeding offers for aroma enhancement and the implications of the latest advances in biotechnological modification of fruit flavor and aroma. PMID:24019257

  10. Sink Metabolism in Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Yelle, Serge; Hewitt, John D.; Robinson, Nina L.; Damon, Susan; Bennett, Alan B.

    1988-01-01

    Carbohydrate composition and key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were assayed throughout development of Lycopersicon esculentum and L. chmielewskii fruit. Translocation and assimilation of asymmetric sucrose and total soluble solids content was also determined in both species. The data showed that L. chmielewskii accumulated less starch than L. esculentum, and this was related to a lower level of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and a higher level of phosphorylase in L. chmielewskii. L. chmielewskii accumulated sucrose throughout fruit development rather than glucose and fructose which were accumulated by L. esculentum. A low level of invertase and nondetectable levels of sucrose synthase were associated with the high level of sucrose in L. chmielewskii. Translocation and assimilation of asymmetrically labeled sucrose indicated that sucrose accumulated in L. chmielewskii fruit was imported and stored directly in the fruit without intervening metabolism along the translocation path. In contrast, the relatively low level of radioactive sucrose found in L. esculentum fruit appeared to arise from hydrolysis and resynthesis of sucrose. The possible relationship between the level of soluble solids and differences in carbohydrate metabolism in sink tissue of the two species is discussed. PMID:16666217

  11. Anaphylaxis following ingestion of mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Hegde, V L; Venkatesh, Y P

    2007-01-01

    Allergic reactions to fresh fruits and nuts have become increasingly common. Mango (Mangifera indica) is a popular fruit eaten all over the world. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who experienced oropharyngeal itching, swelling of the face and other parts of the body, and difficulty breathing within a few minutes of eating ripe mango fruit. The woman had no history of pollen or latex allergy. However, she reported instances of milder food allergic reactions to Indian dill and cashew apple. Skin prick tests using mango fruit pulp, Indian dill, and cashew apple extracts were positive. Prick tests with a panel of common grass and weed pollen extracts were negative. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for mango-specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E was positive. A specific protein allergen in mango could not be detected by immunoblotting. Based on the strongly positive clinical history and results of allergy testing, it was concluded that the woman had IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions to mango fruit. PMID:17982928

  12. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-12-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion. PMID:12452674

  13. What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells.

    PubMed

    Etienne, A; Génard, M; Lobit, P; Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Bugaud, C

    2013-04-01

    Fleshy fruit acidity is an important component of fruit organoleptic quality and is mainly due to the presence of malic and citric acids, the main organic acids found in most ripe fruits. The accumulation of these two acids in fruit cells is the result of several interlinked processes that take place in different compartments of the cell and appear to be under the control of many factors. This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development. The effects of agro-environmental factors, such as the source:sink ratio, water supply, mineral nutrition, and temperature, on citric and malic acid accumulation in fruit cells have been reported in several agronomic studies. This review sheds light on the interactions between these factors and the metabolism and storage of organic acids in the cell. PMID:23408829

  14. Fruit and Food Eponyms in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Pooja; Kumar, Jeevan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, VK

    2015-01-01

    Dermatology world is brimming with myriad of interesting clinical conditions, signs and syndromes. It is infinite, which has systemic clinical connotations too. Complicated pronunciations of diagnosis have always placed residents in an intricate state. Each one is trying his best to make this cumbersome subject comparatively more acceptable and convenient. The present paper is an attempt to further simplify the subject by correlating difficult conditions with commonly used and seen things such as fruit and food. A total of 45 dermatological conditions were found to be based on fruit and food eponyms. For example, strawberries can remind us of strawberry gums of Wegener's granulomatosis and strawberry nevus. PMID:25814737

  15. Fruit and food eponyms in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Pooja; Kumar, Jeevan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, V K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatology world is brimming with myriad of interesting clinical conditions, signs and syndromes. It is infinite, which has systemic clinical connotations too. Complicated pronunciations of diagnosis have always placed residents in an intricate state. Each one is trying his best to make this cumbersome subject comparatively more acceptable and convenient. The present paper is an attempt to further simplify the subject by correlating difficult conditions with commonly used and seen things such as fruit and food. A total of 45 dermatological conditions were found to be based on fruit and food eponyms. For example, strawberries can remind us of strawberry gums of Wegener's granulomatosis and strawberry nevus. PMID:25814737

  16. Tree Fruit Varieties in North Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Brooks, L. E. (Lester E.)

    1936-01-01

    . Peach yields during 3 years of frost hazard expressed as per cent of yield obtained without frost hazard. This is compared with date of last bloom. TREE FRUIT VARIETIES IN NORTH TEXAS s incluc Temp iardine! t,,, .,,,tive periods of bloom..., are more likely to produce a crop. Studies were therefore made of all peach varieties planted and calculations were made from the recorded yields an'd fruit dates to determine which varieties can meet the frost hazard. Figure 1 shows the relation between...

  17. Facts for Fancy Facts for Fancy Fruit 2002-11

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    will be selling to a winery, keep them updated on fruit composition and let them help make harvest decisions based Parameters Strawberry Fruit Bud Development Fall Herbicide Applications for Strawberries Perrennial Weed

  18. Fresh Fruits: Getting the Most Nutrition for Your Money 

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2000-05-05

    To get the most nutrition possible, buy only high quality, fresh fruits. This publication offers tips on selection, food safety and storage. A table explains how to select fruits for availability, nutritional value and quality....

  19. Speedy Fruit Yogurt Pudding Makes four cup servings

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Speedy Fruit Yogurt Pudding Makes four ½ cup servings 1 16-ounce can mixed fruit, unsweetened or in light syrup 1 small package of instant vanilla pudding, regular or sugar free* 1 cup or more unsweetened

  20. Fruits and Veggies Healthy Snacks for Hungry Kids

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    % juice" or water. Fruits and Veggies in the Kitchen www.ext.vt.edu When you eat fruits and veggies, your "crack"); udinosaur trees (broccoli heads); ucelery swords or celery boats (fill up the boat with raisin

  1. 76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...fruit and vegetable industry's needs. The Committee...December 2009 by USDA from industry nominations. AMS Deputy...fruit and vegetable industry are called upon to participate...audit requirements, food safety updates, local...Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. [FR...

  2. 75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...fruit and vegetable industry's needs. The Committee...December 2009 by USDA from industry nominations. AMS Deputy...fruit and vegetable industry are called upon to...Commodities Act program, marketing agreements, food safety, local...

  3. 75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...fruit and vegetable industry's needs. The Committee...December 2009 by USDA from industry nominations. AMS Deputy...fruit and vegetable industry are called upon to participate...audit requirements, food safety updates, local...Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. [FR...

  4. 62 FR 14037 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-03-25

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...96-046-1] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...of previously prohibited fruits and vegetables to be imported into...

  5. 67 FR 8180 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-02-22

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...00-006-3] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Technical Amendment...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...2001, we amended the fruits and vegetables regulations to...

  6. 71 FR 75649 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-12-18

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...0579-AC23 Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...regulations to list a number of fruits and vegetables from certain parts of...

  7. 62 FR 50231 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-09-25

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...96-046-3] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...of previously prohibited fruits and vegetables to be imported into...

  8. 68 FR 63983 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-11-12

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...02-026-6] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Correction AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...2003, we amended the fruits and vegetables regulations. The...

  9. 69 FR 65053 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-11-10

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...02-106-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to list a...

  10. 60 FR 14202 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-03-16

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...94-036-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...of previously prohibited fruits and vegetables to be imported into...

  11. 61 FR 18690 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-04-29

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...importation of fruits and vegetables to prevent the...Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  12. 61 FR 34379 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-07-02

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...95-098-1] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...of previously prohibited fruits and vegetables to be imported into...

  13. 61 FR 42565 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-08-16

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...95-098-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...regarding the importation of fruits and vegetables by allowing a number...

  14. 60 FR 27428 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-05-24

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...shown that the fruits and vegetables listed above...

  15. 68 FR 2681 - Movement and Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-01-21

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...Movement and Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. ACTION...govern the movement of fruits and vegetables from Puerto Rico and...

  16. 71 FR 4451 - Treatments for Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-01-27

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...03-077-2] Treatments for Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...irradiation treatment of imported fruits and vegetables. This rule will...

  17. 72 FR 70237 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-12-11

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...importation of fruits and vegetables into the...

  18. 67 FR 35932 - Fruits and Vegetables From Hawaii

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-05-22

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...No. 00-052-1] Fruits and Vegetables From Hawaii AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...from Hawaii if the fruits and vegetables undergo...

  19. 62 FR 593 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-01-06

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...95-098-3] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...of previously prohibited fruits and vegetables to be imported into...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-47 Certain fruits from Thailand. Litchi...

  1. 63 FR 65650 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-11-30

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...97-107-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...SUMMARY: We are amending the Fruits and Vegetables regulations to list a...

  2. 63 FR 30646 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-06-05

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...shown that the fruits and vegetables listed above...

  3. 71 FR 10924 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-03-03

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...03-086-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...rule that would amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to list a...

  4. 60 FR 50379 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-09-29

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...94-114-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...of previously prohibited fruits and vegetables to be imported into...

  5. 60 FR 35871 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-07-12

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...94-065-1] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...for the importation of fruits and vegetables to update provisions...

  6. 66 FR 45151 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-08-28

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...00-006-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to list a...

  7. 71 FR 43385 - Revision of Fruits and Vegetables Import Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-08-01

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...0579-AB80 Revision of Fruits and Vegetables Import Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...the importation of fruits and vegetables to consolidate...

  8. 70 FR 16431 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-03-31

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...03-048-1] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...proposing to amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to list a...

  9. 60 FR 62319 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-12-06

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...94-065-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...for the importation of fruits and vegetables to update provisions...

  10. 68 FR 28114 - Movement and Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-05-23

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...Movement and Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. ACTION...govern the movement of fruits and vegetables from Puerto Rico and...

  11. 70 FR 33857 - Treatments for Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-06-10

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Treatments for Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Treatment for Imported Fruits and Vegetables Generic Minimum...Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  12. 70 FR 75967 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-12-22

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...03-086-1] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...We propose to amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to list a...

  13. 67 FR 67799 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-11-07

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...02-026-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Correction AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...that would amend the fruits and vegetables regulations....

  14. 64 FR 2993 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-01-20

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR...97-107-3] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to...

  15. ConcepTest: Dried Fruit-Rock Analogy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dried (dehydrated) fruit is made by evaporating water under warm temperatures causing the texture of the fruit to change. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. ...

  16. Socially facilitated egglaying behavior in Mediterranean fruit flies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Prokopy; Jian J. Duan

    1998-01-01

    We examined the behavior of individual mature female Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), transferred from a holding cage without fruit to a clean host kumquat fruit already occupied by another medfly\\u000a female engaged in ovipositional behavior. A significantly greater proportion of transferred (=test) ovipositionally naive\\u000a females initiated ovipositor boring into a fruit in the presence than in the

  17. Responses of banana fruit to treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueming Jiang; Daryl C. Joyce; Andrew J. Macnish

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine levels of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) exposure needed to prevent ethylene-stimulated banana fruit ripening, characterise responses of ethylene-treated fruit to subsequent treatment with 1-MCP, and to test effects of subsequent ethylene treatment on 1-MCP-treated fruit softening. Fruit softening was measured at 20°C and 90% relative humidity. One hour exposure at 20°C to 1000 nl 1-MCP\\/l essentially eliminated

  18. Antioxidant activity and profiles of common fruits in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mia Isabelle; Bee Lan Lee; Meng Thiam Lim; Woon-Puay Koh; Dejian Huang; Choon Nam Ong

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight types of fruits commonly consumed in Singapore were systematically analysed for their hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) and various lipophilic antioxidants. Antioxidant composition and concentration varied widely across different fruits. Many of the tropical fruits tested were high in antioxidants. Amongst all fruits tested, sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) had the highest H-ORAC

  19. Northern Michigan FruitNet 2005 Weekly Update

    E-print Network

    cherry leaf spot (CLS) show up on new growth. Both sweet and tart cherries are showing symptoms of CLS AT NWMHRS (8/23/05) Apple: Red Delicious: 69 mm fruit; Mac: 73 mm fruit Pear: 60 mm fruit Sweet Cherry

  20. Potential for further commercial development of introduced fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Michael Bourke

    Many fruit species are grown and eaten in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and significant quantities of fruit are produced for both subsistence consumption and sale. The main growers are villagers, who produce only a limited quantity of each species. There is still considerable potential for expansion of production for sale, with the sale of sweet fruit into the highlands and

  1. The Response of Avocado Fruits to Different Storage Temperatures1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Zauberman; Mina Schiffmann-Nadel; U. Yanko

    1977-01-01

    Additional index words. Persea americana Abstract. The response of fruits of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) to various temperatures was found to differ in the range 0° to 25°C. This temperature range was divided into 3 groups: 1) between 10° and 25°, the fruit softened at a rate which increases with increasing temperature; 2) between 5° and 8°C, fruit softening was

  2. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 45: Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  3. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, List 46: Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  4. Ultraviolet radiation effects on fruit surface respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-value fruit crops are exposed to a range of environmental conditions that can reduce fruit quality. Solar injury (SI) or sunburn is a common disorder in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates and is related to: 1) high fruit surface temperature, 2) high visible light intensity, and 3) ul...

  5. Blackberry fruit quality components, composition, and potential health benefits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberries have long been a popular small fruit. Their chemical composition data was assembled for this invited book chapter. Briefly, primary and secondary metabolites important to blackberry fruit quality were summarized. Metabolites are involved in many critical aspects of fruit quality includi...

  6. The ASHS outstanding fruit cultivar award: a 25 year retrospective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Outstanding Fruit Cultivar Award is a medal presented annually by the Fruit Breeding Working Group of the American Society Horticultural Science (ASHS) for noteworthy new fruits released over the previous 35 years. Since 1987, 31 cultivars have been recognized with medals presented at the Annual...

  7. Fruit abscission by Physalis species as defense against frugivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit abscission as a response to herbivory is well-documented in many plant species, but its effect on further damage by mobile herbivores that survive fruit abscission is relatively unstudied. Physalis plants abscise fruit containing feeding larvae of their main frugivore, Heliothis subflexa Guen...

  8. CULTURAL SYSTEM AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN STRAWBERRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) vs. matted row (MR)] and genotypes interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid and citric acid content were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also ...

  9. Comparison of antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriporn Okonogi; Chadarat Duangrat; Songyot Anuchpreeda; Suganya Tachakittirungrod; Sombat Chowwanapoonpohn

    2007-01-01

    This work was undertaken to explore the potential of fruit waste materials as sources of powerful natural antioxidants. The peels of eight kinds of fruits commonly consumed and grown in Thailand were used. The ethanolic fruit peel extracts were subjected to the scavenging tests of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Results from both assays were in good agreement that the top

  10. Breeding for fruit rot resistance in Vaccinium macrocarpon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cranberry fruit rot complex can cause severe crop loss and requires multiple fungicide applications each year. To identify sources of fruit rot resistance, fungicides were withheld from our germplasm collection in 2003 and 2004 and the collection was rated for fruit rot (1-5 scale, 1=no rot, 5=...

  11. Occurrence of Alicyclobacillus in the fruit processing environment — A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catharina E. Steyn; Michelle Cameron; R. Corli Witthuhn

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for reconstituted fruit beverages to compete with beverages that are made

  12. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF ORIENTING FRUIT USING STABILITY PROPERTIES DURING ROTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Described is the potential use of a stability property of fruit to allow fruit to be oriented along the stem/calyx axis. Inspection using machine vision offers the potential for improved safety and quality of foods. However, effectiveness of fruit inspection has been limited by the difficulty of dif...

  13. Processing of fruit and vegetables: effect on carotenoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Thane; Sheela Reddy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the potential impact of processing procedures on carotenoid form and content. Fruit and vegetables, in particular, are abundant sources of carotenoids in the diet. Many fruit and vegetables are subjected to various types of processing prior to consumption. Fruit may be canned, dried or processed into juices, while vegetables may be blanched, dehydrated, frozen, canned and also processed into

  14. 21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...fruit. (ii) In the case of fruit prepared by the removal, in whole or in part, of pits, seeds, skins...edible portion of mature fresh or frozen fruits by removal of moisture with or without the use of heat or vacuum,...

  15. Molecular approaches for enhancing sweetness in fruits and vegetables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akula Nookaraju; Chandrama P. Upadhyaya; Shashank K. Pandey; Ko Eun Young; Se Jin Hong; Suk Keun Park; Se Won Park

    2010-01-01

    The quality of fruits and vegetables is mainly dependant on the sweetness determined by the level of soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. Other fruit quality parameters include Brix content, acidity, aroma, color, size and shape. Total sugar content in fruits and vegetables is a function of genetic, nutritional, environmental and developmental factors. Understanding the factors controlling sweetness

  16. Colour Design for Carton-Packed Fruit Juice Packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuo-Ting Wei; M. Ronnier Luo

    2008-01-01

    The present research studies the relationships between observers' expectations for 7 fruit juice packages and the colour design of the package. To do this, a two-stage experiment was conducted. At the first stage, we studied perceived colours for the fruit images shown on each package. At the second stage, fruit juice packages with 20 package colours were rated using 5

  17. A survey of fruit machine gambling in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine Huxley; Douglas Carroll

    1992-01-01

    Fruit machine gambling among children and young people in the United Kingdom has attracted increasing interest. Since 1985 a number of questionnaire surveys have been conducted attempting to assess the incidence of adolescent fruit machine use and to explore its relationship with delinquency. Data yielded by these surveys have been somewhat inconsistent. Estimates of the prevalence of fruit machine gambling

  18. ABORTED FRUITS OF OPUNTIA MICRODASYS (CACTACEAE): INSURANCE AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE

    E-print Network

    Mandujano, María del Carmen

    ABORTED FRUITS OF OPUNTIA MICRODASYS (CACTACEAE): INSURANCE AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE 1 N, but plantlet provenance did not. The high fruit abortion rate resulting from environmental and maternal effects provided suitable conditions for establishment of plantlets. Key words: clonal propagation; fruit abortion

  19. Hormonal Regulation of Tomato Fruit Development: A Molecular Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alka Srivastava; Avtar K. Handa

    2005-01-01

    Fruit development is a complex yet tightly regulated process. The developing fruit undergoes phases of cell division and expansion followed by numerous metabolic changes leading to ripening. Plant hormones are known to affect many aspects of fruit growth and development. In addition to the five classic hormones (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) a few other growth regulators that

  20. State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease prevention. Supporting…

  1. Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

  2. 72 FR 39482 - Revision of Fruits and Vegetables Import Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-07-18

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...352 Revision of Fruits and Vegetables Import Regulations...0579-AB80 Revision of Fruits and Vegetables Import Regulations...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...regulations or the fruits and vegetables regulations) the Animal and Plant Health Inspection......

  3. 71 FR 25010 - Revision of Fruits and Vegetables Import Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-04-27

    ...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...352 Revision of Fruits and Vegetables Import Regulations...0579-AB80 Revision of Fruits and Vegetables Import Regulations...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...regulations or the fruits and vegetables regulations) the Animal and Plant Health Inspection......

  4. 72 FR 34163 - Importation of Fruit From Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-06-21

    ...SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation...The regulations in ``Subpart--Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319.56 through 319...prohibit or restrict the importation of fruits and vegetables into the United States from...

  5. 61 FR 47663 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-09-10

    ...95-068-2] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Fruits and Vegetables regulations, contained in 7 CFR...prohibit or restrict the importation of fruits and vegetables to prevent the introduction...

  6. 61 FR 8205 - Importation of Citrus Fruits From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-03-04

    ...SUMMARY: We are amending the Fruits and Vegetables regulations to allow oranges, lemons...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Fruits and Vegetables regulations in 7 CFR 319.56 through...prohibit or restrict the importation of fruits and vegetables to prevent the introduction...

  7. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

    2000-01-01

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

  8. Ethanol effects on the ripening of climacteric fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Ritenour; M. E Mangrich; J. C Beaulieu; A Rab; M. E Saltveit

    1997-01-01

    The ability of ethanol to inhibit the ripening of eight species of climacteric fruit was tested. Exposure to ethanol vapors at ?6 ml kg?1 fruit for up to 6 h, a treatment that inhibited the ripening of mature-green tomatoes by 7 days, failed to inhibit the ripening of whole banana, honeydew, muskmelon, nectarine, pear, peach, and plum fruit. In contrast,

  9. Research Note Ripening pawpaw fruit exhibit respiratory and ethylene climacterics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas D. Archbold; Kirk W. Pomper

    2003-01-01

    The ripening behavior of the native American pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal.) fruit was studied immediately after harvest and after 1 month of 4 8C storage. Fruit were harvested at two different maturity stages. Fruit that were unripe (minimal softening evident) at harvest exhibited respiratory and ethylene climacterics at 3 and 5 days postharvest, respectively, at ambient temperature, and a

  10. Ripening pawpaw fruit exhibit respiratory and ethylene climacterics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas D Archbold; Kirk W Pomper

    2003-01-01

    The ripening behavior of the native American pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal.) fruit was studied immediately after harvest and after 1 month of 4°C storage. Fruit were harvested at two different maturity stages. Fruit that were unripe (minimal softening evident) at harvest exhibited respiratory and ethylene climacterics at 3 and 5 days postharvest, respectively, at ambient temperature, and a precipitous

  11. Opalescent and Cloudy Fruit Juices: Formation and Particle Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Beveridge

    2002-01-01

    Referee: Dr. Ronald Wrolstad, Department of Food Science and Technology, Wiegand Hall 100, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-6692 Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate

  12. Characteristics of vertebrate-dispersed fruits in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Corlett

    1996-01-01

    Hong Kong has a native angiosperm flora of approximately 1800 species, of which 27% (482 spp.) bear fleshy, presumably vertebrate-dispersed fruits, including 76% of the 337 tree and shrub species and 70% of the 103 climber species. Morphological characteristics were determined for 255 species and nutritional characteristics of the fruit pulp for 153 species. Most fruit species were black (45.1%)

  13. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    E-print Network

    Jordano, Pedro

    fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4­10 cm in diameter with up to five patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: The study

  14. 7 CFR 305.32 - Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate from areas quarantined for fruit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Irradiation Treatments § 305.32 Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved...

  15. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...regulations designate soil and many fruits, nuts, vegetables, and berries as regulated articles and impose restrictions on the interstate...recordkeeping requirements, Transportation. 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock,...

  16. Northern Michigan FruitNet 2014 Northwest Michigan Horticultural Research Center

    E-print Network

    : Bartlett: 29 mm fruit Sweet Cherry: Hedelfingen: 25 mm fruit Napoleon: Harvested Gold: 22 mm fruit #12;Tart Cherry: 21 mm fruit Balaton: 20 mm fruit Apricot: 41 mm fruit Grapes: Buckshot berry NORTHWEST MICHIGAN REGIONAL REPORT E. Pochubay, N. Rothwell, and D. Elsner, Extension Educators, MSU Sweet cherry harvest

  17. Harvesting the High-Hanging Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenton, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    For many years, higher education institutions have been harvesting the low-hanging fruit when it comes to budget reductions and adjustments. Easier changes have often been made--such as cutting administration, using more adjunct faculty, contracting out inefficient or non effective auxiliary operations and so forth. Until recently such strategies,…

  18. Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, K; Beidler, L M

    1968-09-20

    The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet. PMID:5673432

  19. Berry fruit enhances beneficial signaling in brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of pre-clinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antio...

  20. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  1. Still Life with Fruit and Seashell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojeski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Henri Matisse's painting, "Sideboard," opens the door to the author's first-grade students' lesson on still life. This lesson is about the process of designing, the act of making decisions, and the knowledge of one's own preferences. In this article, the author describes how the students made still life with fruit and seashells.

  2. Glycerogalactolipids from the fruit of Lycium barbarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zengping Gao; Zulfiqar Ali; Ikhlas A. Khan

    2008-01-01

    Four glycerogalactolipids (1–4), together with 11 other previously known homologues were isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum. Their structures were elucidated by chemical analyses including regio-selective enzymatic, alkaline and acidic hydrolyses and spectroscopic methods involving GCMS, HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR, respectively.

  3. Two amides from Piper tuberculatum fruits.

    PubMed

    Leitão da-Cunha, E V; de Oliveira Chaves, M C

    2001-02-01

    The fruits of Piper tuberculatum yielded pellitorine, N-isobutyl-2E,4E-decadienamide (1), and piperidide-2E,4E-decadienamide (2). Their complete NMR analysis, based on one- and two-dimensional experiments, is reported. PMID:11223237

  4. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

    PubMed

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

    2014-01-15

    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. PMID:23881410

  5. Coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coatings (waxes) are applied to apples, citrus, stone fruits, avocados, tomatoes and cucumbers prior to marketing in order to reduce water loss and shrinkage, create a modified atmosphere inside the produce, slow down senescence and ageing, impart shine, and allow for better quality and marketing pr...

  6. Strawberry breeding selections for postharvest fruit decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from the annual replicated yield assessments for the USDA-ARS strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) breeding program at Beltsville, MD in 2010 were evaluated for postharvest decay development after storage at 5 °C. A statistically significant correlation between percentage decay o...

  7. EVALUATING CRANBERRY GERMPLASM FOR FRUIT ROT RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of cranberry germplasm (Vaccinium macrocarpon) was evaluated for resistance to the cranberry fruit rot disease complex. This germplasm was collected across the geographic range of cranberries, from both wild sites and cultivated beds. The accessions were planted in 1995 in 1.5 m x 1.5...

  8. Methane from fruit and vegetable wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    A pilot plant was constructed at CSIRO in Australia for the purpose of utilizing the methane gas which is produced through the anaerobic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes normally used as fertilizer. Combined with air, this methane gas (45-50% COâ) burns well. The calorie gain is 18.3-19.8 MJ\\/m³.

  9. Making Prints From Fruits and Vegetables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Eichinger

    2009-05-15

    Students may be familiar with eating fruits and vegetables, but have they ever taken a really close look at the anatomy of those specimens? In this activity, students have an opportunity to explore aspects of the internal and external anatomy of produce b

  10. Sink Metabolism in Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nina L.; Hewitt, John D.; Bennett, Alan B.

    1988-01-01

    In developing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, starch levels reach a peak early in development with soluble sugars (hexoses) gradually increasing in concert with starch degradation. To determine the enzymic basis of this transient partitioning of carbon to starch, the activities of key carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes were investigated in extracts from developing fruits of three varieties (cv VF145-7879, cv LA1563, and cv UC82B), differing in final soluble sugar accumulation. Of the enzymes analyzed, ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and sucrose synthase levels were temporally correlated with the transient accumulation of starch, having highest activities in cv LA1563, the high soluble sugar accumulator. Of the starch-degrading enzymes, phosphorylase levels were fivefold higher than those of amylase, and these activities did not increase during the period of starch degradation. Fiften percent of the amylase activity and 45 to 60% of the phosphorylase activity was localized in the chloroplast in cv VF145-7879. These results suggest that starch degradation in tomato fruit is predominantly phosphorolytic. The results suggest that starch biosynthetic capacity, as determined by levels of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase rather than starch degradative capacity, regulate the transient accumulation of starch that occurs early in tomato fruit development. The results also suggest that ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and sucrose synthase levels correlated positively with soluble sugar accumulation in the three varieties examined. PMID:16666215

  11. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous vertebrates. Even though plant reproduction largely depends on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurr...

  12. Expression and Polymorphism of Watermelon Fruit ESTs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 8,000 ESTs were generated for watermelon and were assembled into 4,700 EST-unigenes (http://www.icugi.org). Microarray and Real-Time PCR analyses were used to examine differential expression of 832 of these EST-unigenes in developing and ripening watermelon fruit. RNA was isolated from waterm...

  13. Design of a frozen fruit smoothie machine

    E-print Network

    Toussaint, Teddy A. (Teddy Antoine)

    2013-01-01

    A smoothie machine known as the FruziFridge is being deterministically designed to dispense frozen fruit smoothies. The design is scalable so it can be made available in homes as a built-in module of a refrigerator or in ...

  14. Gene expression in ripening tomato fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Grierson; Harold W. Woolhouse

    1985-01-01

    Ripening involves alterations in physical and chemical composition which enhance the attractiveness of a fruit to a potential consumer. The process depends upon changes in physiology and biochemistry in several cell compartments including the nucleus, chloroplast, nitochondrion and cell wall. Separate aspects of ripening, which normally occur in a coordinate fashion, can be distinguished by physiological experiments and by studying

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism in ripening banana fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N Prabha; N Bhagyalakshmi

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive picture of changes in carbohydrates, carbohydrate hydrolases, cell structure and texture in banana fruit during ripening is described. The insoluble carbohydrates were separated into seven fractions based on differential solubility. Their profiles and composition were followed as hydrolysis products. The starch and pectic fractions decreased considerably in ripe banana pulp. The significant decrease in glucose concentration in the

  16. Differential gene expression in ripening banana fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie K. Clendennen; Cregory D. May

    1997-01-01

    During banana (Musa acuminata L.) fruit ripening ethylene pro- duction triggers a developmental cascade that is accompanied by a massive conversion of starch to sugars, an associated burst of re- spiratory activity, and an increase in protein synthesis. Differential screening of cDNA libraries representing banana pulp at ripening stages 1 and 3 has led to the isolation of 11 nonredundant

  17. Nematodes of Tropical Fruit Crops in Venezueka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato Crozzoli

    Data on nematodes of main fruit crops in Venezuela are reviewed, including acerola, avocado, banana and plantain, breadfruit,\\u000a cashew, citrus, coconut, date palm, fig, grapevine, guava, mango, papaya, passionfruit, peach, pineapple, sapodilla and tamarind.\\u000a For each crop, main nematode species are reviewed, with dataon their distribution, damage and management

  18. NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS IN SELECT FLORIDA TROPICAL FRUITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), total fib...

  19. RIPENING AND POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT OF PAWPAW FRUIT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federica Galli

    2007-01-01

    Pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal) has significant potential as a new fruit crop. During ripening, loss of firmness is extremely rapid, and this trait may be the biggest obstacle to the development of a broader market as handling without injury is difficult. Cold storage of pawpaw seems limited to 4 weeks at 4 C. A study of several cultivars with

  20. Monohybrid Fruit Fly Crosses: A Simulation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeff Bell

    This assignment uses a computer simulation of fruit fly genetics to have students design and interpret monohybrid crosses of a trait with simple dominant and recessive alleles. Detailed instructions with animated examples, background material, a sample report and a rubric are included.

  1. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods. PMID:25011059

  2. FAMILY GUIDE FOR FRUITS AND SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accurate, scientific identification of all fruits and seeds is essential to assure the quality control of many agricultural products and to prevent the movement of weeds and invasive plant species. This database includes the 418 seed-plant families accepted by GRIN. There are 328 characters reco...

  3. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  4. Sterilant gas disinfection of fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Commercial aqueous wash treatments for fresh produce are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove human pathogen contaminants. Gases can penetrate into crevices and niches on produce wh...

  5. Availability, Accessibility, and Preferences for Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables Influence Children's Dietary Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Weber Cullen; Tom Baranowski; Emiel Owens; Tara Marsh; Latroy Rittenberry; Carl de Moor

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among home fruit (F), 100% fruit juice (J), and vegetable (V) availability and accessibility separately, as reported by 225 fourth- through sixth-grade children and their parents (n = 88), separately, and FJV preferences to child-reported FJV consumption were assessed. For girls, child-reported FJV availability and accessibility accounted for 35% of the variability in FJV consumption. Child-reported availability and

  6. Fruit characteristics and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmi Korine; E. K. V. Kalko; E. A. Herre

    2000-01-01

    We describe fruiting characteristics for 12 species in a community of strangler figs (Moraceae: Urostigma) studied in Panama.\\u000a We quantify diurnal and nocturnal removal rates and proportions of fruits removed, and relate them to the activities of the\\u000a main dispersers of the figs: bats and birds. These results combined with previous studies show that there are clear differences\\u000a between fig

  7. The making of a bell pepper-shaped tomato fruit: identification of loci controlling fruit morphology in Yellow Stuffer tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. van der Knaap; S. D. Tanksley

    2003-01-01

    The heirloom tomato cultivar Yellow Stuffer produces fruit that are similar in shape and structure to fruit produced by the bell pepper varieties of garden pepper. To determine the genetic basis of this extreme fruit type in tomato, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on an F2 population derived from a cross between Yellow Stuffer and the related species,

  8. BACKYARD COMPOSTING OF INFESTED FRUIT: A POTENTIAL PATHWAY FOR INTRODUCTION OF ANASTREPHA FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) INTO FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of infested fruit directly into the environment is a potential pathway for pest introduction. This study estimated the likelihood of exotic fruit flies entering south Florida through backyard composting. Grapefruits infested with Caribbean fruit fly larvae, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), wer...

  9. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  10. ANTISENSE SUPPRESSION OF A BETA-GALACTOSIDASE GENE (TBG6) IN TRANSGENIC TOMATO FRUIT INCREASES FRUIT CRACKING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antisense suppression of a tomato beta-galactosidase gene (TBG6) was used to study its role in fruit development, cell wall modification, and fruit firmness. TBG6 mRNA is highly abundant during the early stages of fruit development, but the levels decline sharply after the breaker stage and the star...

  11. Spatial distribution of understory fruit-eating birds and fruiting plants in a neotropical lowland wet forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bette A. Loiselle; John G. Blake

    1993-01-01

    Spatial distribution of fruit-eating birds and fruiting shrubs of the Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae were examined on a 10 ha plot in tropical lowland wet forest of Costa Rica. Many plant species and most birds exhibited considerable spatial variation in their occurrence on the plot, as indicated by the distribution patterns of shrubs with ripe fruits and captures in mist nets,

  12. Pollen quantity and quality affect fruit abortion in small populations of a rare fleshy-fruited shrub

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Pollen quantity and quality affect fruit abortion in small populations of a rare fleshy Abstract Little is known about changed rates of fruit abortion due to pollen limitation or inbreeding for effects of pollen quantity and pollen quality on the timing of fruit abortion. There was evidence

  13. Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Key Mitochondrial Respiratory Enzymes in 'Hass' Avocado Fruit and Fruit Disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana L. Lange; Adel A. Kader

    ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. Persea americana, cytochrome oxidase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ethylene production, O2 uptake ABSTRACT . Preclimacteric avocado (Persea americana (Mill.) cv. Hass) fruit or fruit disks as well as fruit harvested in either June (midseason) or August (late season) and partially ripened were kept in air (21% O2 + 78% N2), 20% CO2 + 17% O2 (63% N2), or 40%

  14. Development of Flavor Descriptors for Pawpaw Fruit Puree: A Step Toward the Establishment of a Native Tree Fruit Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melani W. Duffrin; Kirk W. Pomper

    2006-01-01

    The pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a native tree fruit with potential as a high-value niche crop for farmers in fresh-market and processing ventures. With a flavor resembling a combination of banana, mango, and pineapple, this fruit could compete with exported specialty fruits in the United States such as mango and papaya. The study objective was to develop a descriptive language

  15. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel García

    1998-01-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

  16. Oviposition behaviour of two tephritid fruit flies, Dacus tryoni and Dacus jarvisi , as influenced by the presence of larvae in the host fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary P. Fitt

    1984-01-01

    When offered a choice, females of the fruit flies Dacus tryoni (Frogg.) and D. jarvisi (Tryon) strongly preferred to lay in fruits without larvae rather than fruits which already contained larvae. Fruits which contained even low densities of larvae, including newly hatched ones, received many fewer eggs than control fruits. This preference was not influenced by the species of larvae

  17. Small-Scale Fruit Production: A Comprehensive Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Created and maintained by Penn State University Agricultural Services, this guide is a resource for "people who wish to produce fruit on a small scale (on one acre or less) and who are not legally licensed to use pesticides." The guide discusses topics such as getting started, pruning and training fruit trees, pests and pesticides, and controlling wildlife damage. It also includes individual chapters for each fruit type (pome, stone, grapes, berries, kiwi, etc.). Each of these includes fruit-specific information on planting, nutrition, harvest, and pest management, among other topics. All in all, this is a well-organized and very handy resource for anyone planning or maintaining a fruit garden.

  18. Small-Scale Fruit Production: A Comprehensive Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Penn State University Agricultural Services, this guide is a resource for "people who wish to produce fruit on a small scale (on one acre or less) and who are not legally licensed to use pesticides." The guide discusses topics such as getting started, pruning and training fruit trees, pests and pesticides, and controlling wildlife damage. It also includes individual chapters for each fruit type (pome, stone, grapes, berries, kiwi, etc.). Each of these includes fruit-specific information on planting, nutrition, harvest, and pest management, among other topics. All in all, this is a well-organized and very handy resource for anyone planning or maintaining a fruit garden.

  19. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n?=?732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. PMID:25451584

  20. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  1. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  2. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Daniel

    1998-12-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any fruit characteristics; however, pulp suckers tended to be more abundant in plants with low pulp: seed ratios and high fruit-water content. In addition, fruits with high levels of pulp-sucker attack tended to have higher water content. A multi-factor ANOVA, considering the identity of the plant and the attack of the different pests as factors, showed that plant identity accounts for most of the variation in fruit characteristics. The viability of seeds tended to be lower in plants strongly attacked by both pests. Fruits attacked by seed predators showed significantly lower proportions of viable and unviable seeds than did unattacked fruits. Seed viability was also lower in those fruits heavily attacked by pulp suckers, but this pattern is strongly mediated by plant identity. Pest activity proved to be clearly associated with a direct decrease in juniper reproductive capacity. This loss involved a reduction of the viable-seed number, mainly related to the seed predator, as well as a reduction of fruit attractiveness to frugivorous dispersers, related to the pulp sucker.

  3. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

    2009-12-01

    The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region. PMID:19323850

  4. Scents boost preference for novel fruits.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Sasaki, Kyoshiro; Kunieda, Satomi; Wada, Yuji

    2014-10-01

    When faced with a novel food, multisensory information that includes appearance and smell is a very important cue for preference, categorization, and the decision of whether or not to eat it. We elucidated whether olfactory information leads to biased visual categorization of and preference for fruits, even when odors are presented subliminally. We employed morphed images of strawberries and tomatoes combined with their corresponding odorants as stimuli. Participants were asked to categorize the images into either of two categories, to evaluate their preference for each visual image, and to judge the presence/absence of the odor. Results demonstrated that visual categorization was not affected by the odor manipulation; however, preference for uncategorizable images increased when odors were presented regardless of the participant's awareness of the odor. Our findings suggest that visual preference for novel fruits is based on both conscious and unconscious olfactory processing regarding edibility. PMID:24933686

  5. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly’s orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly’s orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly’s flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26173128

  6. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Harisha, C. R.; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jamb?ra Nimb? in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (?odhana), calcination (M?ra?a) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies. PMID:25861144

  7. Is a mango just a mango? Testing within-fruit oviposition site choice and larval performance of a highly polyphagous fruit fly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wigunda Rattanapun; Weerawan Amornsak; Anthony R. Clarke

    2010-01-01

    For fruit flies, fully ripe fruit is preferred for adult oviposition and is superior for offspring performance over unripe\\u000a or ripening fruit. Because not all parts of a single fruit ripen simultaneously, the opportunity exists for adult fruit flies\\u000a to selectively choose riper parts of a fruit for oviposition and such selection, if it occurs, could positively influence\\u000a offspring performance.

  8. Methane from fruit and vegetable wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    A pilot-scale digester of 25-cubic metres capacity was constructed at an Australian fruit and vegetable processing factory to extend trials with the anaerobic digestion process to an industrial use. The plant is operated on a day-to-day basis by the cannery staff. The digester has a design loading of 100 kg (dry weight)\\/day supplied as 0.5-1 ton of wet waste, and

  9. Biotechnological Potential of Fruit Processing Industry Residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diomi Mamma; Evangelos Topakas; Christina Vafiadi; Paul Christakopoulos

    Fruit juices and derived products such as nectars and drinks have experienced growing popularity within the last years. Orange\\u000a waste, apple pomace and grape pomace are the solid by-products derived from processing of oranges, apples and grapes, respectively.\\u000a Due to increasing production, their disposal represents a growing problem since the plant material is usually prone to microbial\\u000a spoilage, thus limiting

  10. Freeze-Drying Characteristics of Tropical Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Silveira; José T. Freire

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to experimentally determine physical properties such as apparent densities, real densities, and porosity of freeze-dried tropical fruits pulps such as pineapple, Barbados cherry, guava, papaya, and mango, and to carry out nutritional analysis of vitamin C, calcium, and phosphorus in the freeze-dried and in natura pulps. The freeze-dried pulps presented low apparent density and

  11. French Toast with Fruit Sauce Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , sliced 1/3 cup maple syrup Directions 1. To crack an egg, tap it in several places on a hard sur- faceFrench Toast with Fruit Sauce Ingredients: 4 eggs 1 cup skim milk 1/2 tsp. cinnamon 1/4 tsp. nutmeg until the shell is broken, and pull apart with your fingers. Pour the egg into a glass and check

  12. Henipaviruses: Emerging Paramyxoviruses Associated with Fruit Bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Field; John S. Mackenzie; P. Daszak

    Two related, novel, zoonotic paramyxoviruses have been described recently. Hendra virus was first reported in horses and thence\\u000a humans in Australia in 1994; Nipah virus was first reported in pigs and thence humans in Malaysia in 1998. Human cases of\\u000a Nipah virus infection, apparently unassociated with infection in livestock, have been reported in Bangladesh since 2001. Species\\u000a of fruit bats

  13. Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Bart M; Defraeye, Thijs; De Ketelaere, Bart; Herremans, Els; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Saeys, Wouter; Torricelli, Alessandro; Vandendriessche, Thomas; Verboven, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    We review nondestructive techniques for measuring internal and external quality attributes of fruit and vegetables, such as color, size and shape, flavor, texture, and absence of defects. The different techniques are organized according to their physical measurement principle. We first describe each technique and then list some examples. As many of these techniques rely on mathematical models and particular data processing methods, we discuss these where needed. We pay particular attention to techniques that can be implemented online in grading lines. PMID:24387604

  14. Regulatory peptides in fruit fly midgut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan A. Veenstra; Hans-Jürgen Agricola; Azza Sellami

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory peptides were immunolocalized in the midgut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Endocrine cells were found to produce six different peptides: allatostatins A, B and C, neuropeptide F, diuretic hormone 31,\\u000a and the tachykinins. Small neuropeptide-F (sNPF) was found in neurons in the hypocerebral ganglion innervating the anterior\\u000a midgut, whereas pigment-dispersing factor was found in nerves on the most posterior

  15. Wolbachia in Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia E. Coscrato; Antônio S. K. Braz; André L. P. Perondini; Denise Selivon; Celso L. Marino

    2009-01-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous\\u000a parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of edible Passiflora fruit glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Chassagne; Renaud Boulanger; Jean Crouzet

    1999-01-01

    The combined action of Hemicellulase REG 2 and sweet almond glucosidase containing ?-d-glucopyranosidase, ?-l-rhamnopyranosidase, ?-l-arabinopyranosidase and ?-l-arabinfuranosidase activities allowed release of most of the volatile compounds bound as aglycones in edible Passiflora fruits. Great variability between the four species studied, P. edulis, P. edulis f falvicarpa, P. ligularis, P. molissima, was noticed. 2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H) furanone (furaneol) was identified for the first

  17. Lipids of the pawpaw fruit: Asimina triloba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Wood; Scott Peterson

    1999-01-01

    The fatty acid composition and structure of pawpaw fruit (Asimina triloba) triglycerides were examined and found to contain fatty acids ranging from C6 to C20. Octanoate represented 20% of the fatty acids while other medium-chain fatty acids were present in low amounts. Analysis\\u000a of the intact triglycerides by high-temperature gas-liquid chromatography gave an unusual three-cycle carbon number distribution.\\u000a Analysis of

  18. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B; Wang, Z Jim; Fong, Harry H S; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2011-06-01

    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic methods (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. PMID:21163339

  19. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-10-15

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms. PMID:24915312

  20. Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

    2005-05-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free. PMID:16019813

  1. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  2. Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, S.; Schmitt, K.; Blanke, M.; Bauersfeld, M. L.; Wöllenstein, J.; Lang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20–10?ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

  3. Nutritional quality of 18 date fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the chemical and physical properties of 18 varieties of the date fruits from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), which are regarded as popular fruit commodities among the populace of the Middle Eastern peninsula. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients (micro-elements and macro-elements) and physical properties (weight, length, and density) of the selected 18 leading varieties of dates cultivated in the United Arab Emirates-namely Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit saif, Jabri, Khodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe-were determined and compared. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the measured parameters were observed among the different varieties. However, the results depict that date fruits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macro-elements and micro-elements. The macro-elements measured are calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and magnesium, while the essential micro-elements and the possibly essential micro-elements are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt and molybdenum, and aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, respectively. PMID:21495898

  4. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  5. Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology.

    PubMed

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Büntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Dämon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Nordén, Jenni; Høiland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C

    2012-09-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970-2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function. PMID:22908273

  6. Detectability and content as opposing signal characteristics in fruits.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Hinrich Martin; Schmidt, Veronika

    2004-01-01

    Although often associated with consumers, fruit colours have rarely been assessed as signals. Here, we investigate the signal principles of 'detectability' and 'content' in bird-dispersed fruits. We determined detectability as the contrast between fruit and background and signal 'content' by correlating fruit colours and compounds. Red and black, the most common fruit colours globally, contrast more against background than other colours but do not indicate compounds. In other colours, 60% of the variation in long- to shortwave light correlated with protein, tannin and carbohydrate content. Because macronutrients stimulated fruit removal, while phenols, but not tannins, deterred it, signalling these macronutrients probably increases seed dispersal. Phenolic content was not signalled because it would reduce plants' fitness. Signalling tannins might be directed towards fruit pests rather than dispersers. In conclusion, plants may employ differential signalling strategies matching conspicuous signals in red and black fruits while other colours signal fruit quality. The latter implies that nutrient quality and fruit defence are communicated visually. PMID:15504021

  7. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases. PMID:24188234

  8. Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the reproducibility of KI calculations can vary by several index units. A series of programs and graphical interfaces were therefore developed to compare calculated KIs among samples in a semi-automated fashion. These programs reduce the time required for chromatogram analysis of large data sets and minimize the potential for misinterpretation of the data when chromatograms are not perfectly aligned. We present a method for rapid volatile compound analysis in fruit. Sample preparation, data acquisition and handling procedures are also discussed. PMID:22491160

  9. Fruit Volatile Analysis Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W.; Ebeler, Susan E.; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables1. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors2-4. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple5; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango6; aroma profiling of thymus species7; C6 volatile compounds in grape berries8; characterization of vegetable oil9 and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil10. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the reproducibility of KI calculations can vary by several index units11. A series of programs and graphical interfaces were therefore developed to compare calculated KIs among samples in a semi-automated fashion. These programs reduce the time required for chromatogram analysis of large data sets and minimize the potential for misinterpretation of the data when chromatograms are not perfectly aligned. We present a method for rapid volatile compound analysis in fruit. Sample preparation, data acquisition and handling procedures are also discussed. PMID:22491160

  10. Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2014-01-01

    Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (?-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest ?-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid. PMID:25065829

  11. Pattern of the Cyanide-Potential in Developing Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Frehner, Marco; Scalet, Mario; Conn, Eric E.

    1990-01-01

    The absolute cyanide content of developing fruits was determined in Costa Rican wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus), oil flax (Linum usitatissimum), and bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus). The cyanide potential (HCN-p) of the lima bean and the almond fruit began to increase shortly after anthesis and then stopped before fruit maturity. In contrast, the flax inflorescence had a higher HCN-p in absolute terms than the mature flax fruit. At all times of its development the bean fruit contained the monoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. The almond and the flax fruits contained, at anthesis, the monoglucosides prunasin, and linamarin and lotaustralin, respectively, while, at maturity, only the corresponding diglucosides amygdalin, and linustatin and neolinustatin, respectively, were present. PMID:16667698

  12. Postharvest physiology and technology of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sunil; Benkeblia, Noureddine; Janick, Jules; Cao, Shifeng; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2014-06-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical evergreen tree whose fruit is consumed both fresh and processed. Loquat fruit is a good source of minerals and carotenoids, while the kernel is rich in protein and carbohydrates. It has been considered a non-climacteric fruit, but there is evidence that some cultivars have a ripening pattern similar to that of climacteric fruits. The fruit has a short postharvest life at ambient temperatures and is susceptible to physical and mechanical damage, loss of moisture and nutrients, and decay. Low-temperature storage extends the shelf life of loquat fruit, but some cultivars are severely affected by chilling injury and flesh browning during cold storage. Purple spot, browning and leatheriness are major postharvest disorders. The shelf life of loquat can be extended by modified or controlled atmosphere storage as well as by postharvest treatment with 1-methyl cyclopropene or methyl jasmonate. PMID:24395491

  13. A Simple Model for Rapid and Nondestructive Estimation of Bell Pepper Fruit Volume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Ngouajio; William Kirk

    Additional index words. Capsicum annuum, fruit shape, yield prediction, equation, water displacement Abstract. Nondestructive estimates of fruit volume are used for yield prediction. They are also used to study the relationship between fruit expansion rate and susceptibility to diseases or physiological disorders such as fruit cracking. A model relating bell pep- per (Capsicum annuum) fruit diameter and length to its

  14. Anthocyanins in Fruits of Passiflora edulisand P. suberosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Kidøy; Anne Mette Nygård; Øyvind M. Andersen; Atle T. Pedersen; Dagfinn W. Aksnes; Bernard T. Kiremire

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of anthocyanin pigments in the passion fruitPassiflora edulisand in the highly colored fruits ofP. suberosawas performed using combinations of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition to cyanidin 3-glucoside (97%), small amounts of cyanidin 3-(6?-malonylglucoside) (2%) and pelargonidin 3-glucoside (1%) were found in the rind of the passion fruit. The 3-(6?-malonylglucoside) and 3-glucoside of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, and pelargonidin

  15. Characterization of Ethylene Biosynthesis Associated with Ripening in Banana Fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuejun Liu; Shinjiro Shiomi; Akira Nakatsuka; Yasutaka Kubo; Reinosuke Nakamura; Akitsugu Inaba

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. (AAA group, Caven- dish subgroup) cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production

  16. DOMESTICATING INDIGENOUS FRUIT TREES AS A CONTRIBUTION TO POVERTY REDUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. SCHRECKENBERG; A. AWONO; A. DEGRANDE; C. MBOSSO; O. NDOYE; Z. TCHOUNDJEU

    2006-01-01

    The contribution that domesticated indigenous fruit trees make to many farmers' livelihoods is often not acknowledged in either national- or international-level poverty reduction strategies. Current agricultural data tend to be restricted to a narrow range of exotic fruit (e.g. mango, avocado, citrus). Existing data on indigenous fruit are often not presented in the kinds of income-related terms used in the

  17. Depressed pollination in habitat fragments causes low fruit set.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, S A

    2000-01-01

    In central New South Wales, Australia, flowers of Acacia brachybotrya and Eremophila glabra plants growing in linear vegetation remnants received less pollen than conspecifics in nearby reserves. Pollen supplementation increased fruit production by both species, indicating pollen limitation of fruit set. Together these observations explain why fruit production by these species was depressed in linear-strip populations relative to nearby reserves. This study confirms that habitat fragmentation can lead to decline in pollination and subsequent fruit set in wild plant populations. Disrupted pollination interactions of the kind documented in this study may offer a substantial challenge to the conservation of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes. PMID:10885521

  18. Modeling C and N Transport to Developing Soybean Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Layzell, David B.; LaRue, Thomas A.

    1982-01-01

    Xylem sap and phloem exudates from detached leaves and fruit tips were collected and analyzed during early pod-fill in nodulated soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Wilkin) grown without (?N) and with (+N) NH4NO3. Ureides were the predominant from (91%) of N transported in the xylem of ?N plants, while amides (45%) and nitrate (23%) accounted for most of the N in the xylem of +N plants. Amino acids (44%) and ureides (36%) were the major N forms exported in phloem from leaves in ?N plants, but amides (63%) were most important in +N plants. Based on the composition of fruit tip phloem, ureides (55% and 33%) and amides (26% and 47%) accounted for the majority of N imported by fruits of ?N and +N plants, respectively. C:N weight ratios were lowest in xylem exudate (1.37 and 1.32), highest in petiole phloem (24.5 and 26.0), and intermediate in fruit tip exudate (12.6 and 12.1) for the ?N and +N treatments, respectively. The ratios were combined with data on fruit growth and respiration to construct a model of C and N transport to developing fruits. The model indicates xylem to phloem transfer provides 35% to 52% of fruit N. Results suggest the phloem entering fruits oversupplies their N requirement so that 13% of the N imported is exported from fruit in the xylem. PMID:16662669

  19. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. PMID:25958117

  20. Effect of different leaf-to-fruit ratios on photosynthesis and fruit growth in olive ( Olea europaea L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Proietti; L. Nasini; F. Famiani

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different leaf-to-fruit (l-t-f) ratios on leaf net photosynthetic rate (P\\u000a N) and fruit characteristics in Olea europaea L. cv. Frantoio was evaluated in 2001 and 2002. In both years, at the end of June, at the end of July, and in mid-September\\u000a (first, second, and third time of treatment, respectively), defoliation or fruit thinning were performed to

  1. Pest, Parasitoid, and Fruit Interactions in Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the imported parasitoid, P. humilis, required cool temperatures, high humidities, and food and water for prolonged survival (about 6 months for host) in laboratory and greenhouse tests. Life span was greatly shortened by high temperatures, low humiditi...

  2. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit

    PubMed Central

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (C. chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent C. annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16–20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. PMID:24388515

  3. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits: 10 Tips for Affordable Vegetables and Fruits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... money by buying only what you need. Don’t shop when you’re hungry. Shopping after eating will make it easier to pass on the tempting snack foods. You’ll have more of your food budget for vegetables and fruits. try canned or frozen ...

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF FRUIT AND SMALL FRUIT CULTURES BIODIVERSITY PRESERVATION IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold storage of in vitro-grown plantlets and cryopreservation of shoot tips are used for preservation of fruit and small furit biodiversity in Kazakhstan. Tissue-cultured plantlets in cold storage in plastic air-penetrating bags were maintained in good condition the longest at 3 C to 4 C under a 1...

  5. Place fruit in a microwaveable container and fill with water until fruit are covered.

    E-print Network

    tray. · Crush berries with the back of a spoon and pour some cold water over the crushed berries (such as a reusable coffee filter), and look at remaining sifted contents under a microscope. Sampling berries for spotted wing drosophila larvae Salt Test: · Place fruit in a gallon Ziplock bag and lightly

  6. Feasibility study of utilizing simplified near infrared imaging for detecting fruit fly larvae in intact fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the previous research to classify intact mangoes infested with oriental fruit fly from the control ones using near infrared (NIR) spectra acquired by a spot-type handheld NIR instrument, an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the system by employing NIR imaging technology was conducted. ...

  7. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples. PMID:25393892

  8. Suberin production by isolated tomato fruit protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rao, G S; Willison, J H; Ratnayake, W M

    1984-07-01

    The multilamellar wall secreted by protoplasts isolated from locule tissue of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was purified, and an extract was obtained after depolymerization with BF(3)-methanol. Analysis of this extract using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, dicarboxylic acid dimethyl esters, and omega-hydroxy acid methyl esters. These components were quantified using an Iatroscan thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection system. The different chain lengths in each group were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. The results clearly indicated the presence of suberin. PMID:16663693

  9. Isolation and Biophysical Study of Fruit Cuticles

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Sarkar, Sayantani; Oktawiec, Julia; Mao, Zhantong; Niitsoo, Olivia; Stark, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    The cuticle, a hydrophobic protective layer on the aerial parts of terrestrial plants, functions as a versatile defensive barrier to various biotic and abiotic stresses and also regulates water flow from the external environment.1 A biopolyester (cutin) and long-chain fatty acids (waxes) form the principal structural framework of the cuticle; the functional integrity of the cuticular layer depends on the outer 'epicuticular' layer as well as the blend consisting of the cutin biopolymer and 'intracuticular' waxes.2 Herein, we describe a comprehensive protocol to extract waxes exhaustively from commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticles or to remove epicuticular and intracuticular waxes sequentially and selectively from the cuticle composite. The method of Jetter and Schäffer (2001) was adapted for the stepwise extraction of epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from the fruit cuticle.3,4 To monitor the process of sequential wax removal, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy was used in parallel with atomic force microscopy (AFM), providing molecular-level structural profiles of the bulk materials complemented by information on the microscale topography and roughness of the cuticular surfaces. To evaluate the cross-linking capabilities of dewaxed cuticles from cultivated wild-type and single-gene mutant tomato fruits, MAS 13C NMR was used to compare the relative proportions of oxygenated aliphatic (CHO and CH2O) chemical moieties. Exhaustive dewaxing by stepwise Soxhlet extraction with a panel of solvents of varying polarity provides an effective means to isolate wax moieties based on the hydrophobic characteristics of their aliphatic and aromatic constituents, while preserving the chemical structure of the cutin biopolyester. The mechanical extraction of epicuticular waxes and selective removal of intracuticular waxes, when monitored by complementary physical methodologies, provides an unprecedented means to investigate the cuticle assembly: this approach reveals the supramolecular organization and structural integration of various types of waxes, the architecture of the cutin-wax matrix, and the chemical composition of each constituent. In addition, solid-state 13C NMR reveals differences in the relative numbers of CHO and CH2O chemical moieties for wild-type and mutant red ripe tomato fruits. The NMR techniques offer exceptional tools to fingerprint the molecular structure of cuticular materials that are insoluble, amorphous, and chemically heterogeneous. As a noninvasive surface-selective imaging technique, AFM furnishes an effective and direct means to probe the structural organization of the cuticular assembly on the nm-?m length scale. PMID:22490984

  10. Safe Handling of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    contaminated with harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. This contamination can occur at any point from the field to your table. If eaten, contaminated..., there are several easy steps you can take to help keep fresh fruits and vegetables safe to eat. Shopping When shopping for fresh produce, avoid items that are bruised, damaged or moldy or that show signs of insect damage. Bruises and cuts may allow pathogens...

  11. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.

    PubMed

    Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

    1987-05-01

    The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less than 0.0001). There was also a weaker but significant correlation with the citric acid content (rs 0.55, P less than 0.03). Although this may have reflected a direct effect of citric acid on Fe absorption, it should be noted that fruits containing citric acid also contained ascorbic acid (rs 0.70, P less than 0.002).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3593665

  12. Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

  13. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants’ (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  14. 'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology. PMID:24994760

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of climacteric fruit of Chinese pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) reveals new insights into fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guohui; Li, Tong; Li, Xinyue; Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups 'biological process', 'molecular function' and 'cellular component'. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening. PMID:25215597

  16. Effect of fruit load on oil yield components and dynamics of fruit growth and oil accumulation in olive ( Olea europaea L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo R. Trentacoste; Carlos M. Puertas; Víctor O. Sadras

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil yield and its components (fruit number, average fruit weight and fruit oil concentration) depend on crop load and source–sink ratios as affected by environmental conditions, management and the alternate bearing typical of the species. The aims of this work were to: (i) establish quantitative relationships between oil yield and its components as affected by fruit load in a

  17. Effects of fruit set sequence and defoliation on cell number, cell size and hormone levels of tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) within a truss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bohner; F. Bangerth

    1988-01-01

    Fruit size within a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) truss depends on both fruit position in the truss and the time of pollination among fruits. In the natural pollination sequence a difference of 5 days in the pollination of proximal and distal flowers results in significant final size differences between proximal and distal fruits. These final size differences were eliminated when

  18. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. 1412...1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a...report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  19. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. 1412...1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a...report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  20. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. 1412...1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a...report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  1. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. 1412...1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a...report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  2. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. 1412...1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a...report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  3. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.174 Section 133.174 Food...cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the...

  4. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.180 Section 133.180 ...spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a...

  5. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food...blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the...

  6. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.180 Section 133.180 ...spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a...

  7. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.174 Section 133.174 Food...cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the...

  8. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food...blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the...

  9. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food...cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a food...

  10. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food...cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a food...

  11. 78 FR 70259 - 2013-2015 Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...members who represent the fruit and vegetable industry...individuals representing fruit and vegetable growers...retailers, processors, fresh cut processors, foodservice...organic and non-organic fresh fruits and vegetables at...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-4 - Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for importation...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-4 Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12...Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen...

  14. 67 FR 65016 - Irradiation Phytosanitary Treatment of Imported Fruits and Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-10-23

    ...Imported Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...imported fruits and vegetables. They stated...the human health risks and...weevil in fruits and vegetables, thus relieving...and Plant Health...

  15. THE HAWAII FRUIT FLY AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM: ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and the so-called Malaysian (solanaceous) fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), have accidentally become established in Hawaii. Over 400 diff...

  16. Isolation and characterization of tomato genomic sequences related to fruit ripening

    E-print Network

    Nah, Gyoungju

    1997-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a unique process in plant developmental biology. Ripening patterns, based on respiratory behavior of fruit, are classified into two groups: climacteric and non-climacteric. Tomato is an example of climacteric fruit which...

  17. Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Richa; Shah, Ashok

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango", "anaphylaxis", "contact dermatitis", "cross-reactivity", "food hypersensitivity", "oral allergy syndrome" and "urticaria". The bibliographies of all papers thus located were searched for further relevant articles. A total of 17 reports describing 22 patients were documented, including ten patients with immediate hypersensitivity reaction and twelve patients with delayed hypersensitivity reaction to mango. Ten of these patients (four with immediate reaction; six with delayed reaction) were from geographical areas cultivating mango, whereas twelve patients (six with immediate reaction; six with delayed reaction) were from the countries where large scale mango cultivation does not occur. The clinical features, pathogenesis and diagnostic modalities of both these presentations are highlighted. The fruit mango can cause immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, as also "oral allergy syndrome". Although rare, it can even result in a life threatening event. Reactions may even occur in individuals without prior exposure to mango, owing to cross reactivity. It is imperative to recognize such a phenomenon early so as to avoid potentially severe clinical reactions in susceptible patients. PMID:22053296

  18. Pharmacokinetic study of Noni fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Issell, Brian F; Franke, Adrian; Fielding, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    Many different products containing Noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit extracts are sold throughout the world for health restoration and maintenance. Despite a large business enterprise fueling Noni's popularity, there is a lack of standardization of products and no scientific evidence of Noni's clinical efficacy and safety. There is also no evidence to indicate an optimal therapeutic dose or dosing interval. In an initial volunteer, scopoletin was identified as a bioactive marker of Noni exposure and a candidate for product standardization and pharmacokinetic studies. Subsequently, capsules containing the whole freeze-dried fruit of Noni were orally administered to nine healthy volunteers (3 per group) at doses of 1,500 mg (3 × 500 mg), 2,000 mg (4 × 500 mg) and 2,500 mg (5 × 500 mg). Plasma and urine samples were obtained from each subject prior to dosing and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after dosing. Concentrations of scopoletin were determined by HPLC with PDA (scanning at 200-700 nm) and MS detection. Scopoletin rapidly enters the plasma after Noni ingestion, maintaining levels in the range of 0.5 to 5 ng/mL for at least 8 h after dosing. Scopoletin bioavailability appears to be low, with significant intersubject variability. We conclude that scopoletin can be used as a relatively specific marker of Noni exposure in the blood and particularly in urine when its pharmacokinetics is considered appropriately. PMID:22436097

  19. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

  20. Lipids of the pawpaw fruit: Asimina triloba.

    PubMed

    Wood, R; Peterson, S

    1999-10-01

    The fatty acid composition and structure of pawpaw fruit (Asimina triloba) triglycerides were examined and found to contain fatty acids ranging from C6 to C20. Octanoate represented 20% of the fatty acids while other medium-chain fatty acids were present in low amounts. Analysis of the intact triglycerides by high-temperature gas-liquid chromatography gave an unusual three-cycle carbon number distribution. Analysis of triglyceride fractions separated according to degree of unsaturation suggested that one octanoate was paired with diglyceride species containing long-chain fatty acids. Determination of the double-bond positions of monoene fatty acids revealed cis delta9 and cis delta11 hexadecenoate and cis delta9, cis delta11, and cis delta13 octadecenoate isomers were present in significant quantities. Octanoate and positional monoene fatty acid isomers were found only in the fruit lipids and not in the seed lipids. Phenacyl esters of fatty acids were found to be useful derivatives for structure determination using multiple types of analyses. PMID:10580337