Note: This page contains sample records for the topic grid osg privileges from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Open Science Grid (OSG) Ticket Synchronization: Keeping Your Home Field Advantage In A Distributed Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large distributed computing collaborations, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), face many issues when it comes to providing a working grid environment for their users. One of these is exchanging tickets between various ticketing systems in use by grid collaborations. Ticket systems such as Footprints, RT, Remedy, and ServiceNow all have different schema that must be addressed in order to provide a reliable exchange of information between support entities and users in different grid environments. To combat this problem, OSG Operations has created a ticket synchronization interface called GOC-TX that relies on web services instead of error-prone email parsing methods of the past. Synchronizing tickets between different ticketing systems allows any user or support entity to work on a ticket in their home environment, thus providing a familiar and comfortable place to provide updates without having to learn another ticketing system. The interface is built in a way that it is generic enough that it can be customized for nearly any ticketing system with a web-service interface with only minor changes. This allows us to be flexible and rapidly bring new ticket synchronization online. Synchronization can be triggered by different methods including mail, web services interface, and active messaging. GOC-TX currently interfaces with Global Grid User Support (GGUS) for WLCG, Remedy at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), and Request Tracker (RT) at the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT). Work is progressing on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) ServiceNow synchronization. This paper will explain the problems faced by OSG and how they led OSG to create and implement this ticket synchronization system along with the technical details that allow synchronization to be preformed at a production level.

Gross, Kyle; Hayashi, Soichi; Teige, Scott; Quick, Robert

2012-12-01

2

Adoption of a SAML-XACML Profile for Authorization Interoperability across Grid Middleware in OSG and EGEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Authorization Interoperability activity was initiated in 2006 to foster interoperability between middleware and authorization infrastructures deployed in the Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) projects. This activity delivered a common authorization protocol and a set of libraries that implement that protocol. In addition, a set of the most common Grid gateways, or Policy Enforcement

G Garzoglio; J Bester; K Chadwick; D Dykstra; D Groep; J Gu; T Hesselroth; O Koeroo; T Levshina; S Martin; M Salle; N Sharma; A Sim; S Timm; A Verstegen

2011-01-01

3

Definition and implementation of a SAML-XACML profile for authorization interoperability across Grid middleware implementations in OSG and EGEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure interoperability between middleware and authorization infrastructures used in the Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Enabling Grids for E-science (EGEE) projects, an Authorization Interoperability activity was initiated in 2006. The interoperability goal was met in two phases: firstly, agreeing on a common authorization query interface and protocol with an associated profile that ensures standardized use of

Ian Alderman; M. Altunay; R. Ananthakrishnan; J. Bester; K. Chadwick; V. Ciaschini; Y. Demchenko; A. Ferraro; A. Forti; G. Garzoglio; D. Groep; T. Hesselroth; J. Hover; O. Koeroo; C. La Joie; T. Levshina; Z. Miller; J. Packard; H. Sagehaug; V. Sergeev; I. Sfiligoi; N. Sharma; F. Siebenlist; V. Venturi; J. Weigand; INFN CNAF

2009-01-01

4

Definition and implementation of a SAML-XACML profile for authorization interoperability across grid middleware in OSG and EGEE  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure interoperability between middleware and authorization infrastructures used in the Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) projects, an Authorization Interoperability activity was initiated in 2006. The interoperability goal was met in two phases: first, agreeing on a common authorization query interface and protocol with an associated profile that ensures standardized use of attributes and obligations; and second, implementing, testing, and deploying, on OSG and EGEE, middleware that supports the interoperability protocol and profile. The activity has involved people from OSG, EGEE, the Globus Toolkit project, and the Condor project. This paper presents a summary of the agreed-upon protocol, profile and the software components involved.

Garzoglio, Gabriele; Alderman, Ian; Altunay, Mine; Anathakrishnan, Rachana; Bester, Joe; Chadwick, Keith; Ciaschini, Vincenzo; Demchenko, Yuri; Ferraro, Andrea; Forti, Alberto; Groep, David; /Fermilab /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Brookhaven /Amsterdam U. /SWITCH, Zurich /Bergen U. /INFN, CNAF /Argonne /Wisconsin U., Madison

2009-04-01

5

Definition and implementation of a SAML-XACML profile for authorization interoperability across Grid middleware implementations in OSG and EGEE.  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure interoperability between middleware and authorization infrastructures used in the Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Enabling Grids for E-science (EGEE) projects, an Authorization Interoperability activity was initiated in 2006. The interoperability goal was met in two phases: firstly, agreeing on a common authorization query interface and protocol with an associated profile that ensures standardized use of attributes and obligations; and secondly implementing, testing, and deploying on OSG and EGEE, middleware that supports the interoperability protocol and profile. The activity has involved people from OSG, EGEE, the Globus Toolkit project, and the Condor project. This paper presents a summary of the agreed-upon protocol, profile and the software components involved.

Alderman, I.; Altunay, M.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bester, J.; Chadwick, K.; Ciaschini, V.; Demchenko, Y.; Ferraro, A.; Forti, A.; Garzoglio, G.; Groep, D.; Hesselroth, T.; Hover, J.; Koeroo, O.; La Joie, C.; Levshina, T.; Miller, Z.; Packard, J.; Sagehaug, H.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Siebenlist, F.; Venturi, V.; Weigand, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; FNAL; NIKHEF; BNL; Univ. of Amsterdam; SWITCH; BCCS; INFN CNAF; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

2009-09-01

6

Definition and Implementation of a SAML-XAMCL Profile for Authorization Interoperability Across Grid Middleware in OSG and EGEE  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure interoperability between middleware and authorization infrastructures used in the Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Enabling Grids for E-science (EGEE) projects, an Authorization Interoperability activity was initiated in 2006. The interoperability goal was met in two phases: firstly, agreeing on a common authorization query interface and protocol with an associated profile that ensures standardized use of attributes and obligations; and secondly implementing, testing, and deploying on OSG and EGEE, middleware that supports the interoperability protocol and profile. The activity has involved people from OSG, EGEE, the Globus Toolkit project, and the Condor project. This paper presents a summary of the agreed-upon protocol, profile and the software components involved.

Hover, J.; Garzoglio, G; Alderman, I.; Altunay, M.; Ananthakrishman, R.; Bester, J.; Chadwick, K.; Ciaschini, V.; Demchenko, Y.; Ferraro, A.; Forti, A.; Groep, D.; Hesselroth, T.; Hover, J.; Koeroo, O.; LaJoie, C.; Levshina, T.; Miller, Z.; Packard, J.; Sagehaug, H.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Siebenlist, F.; Venturi, V.; Weigand, J.

2009-04-23

7

Definition and Implementation of a SAML-XACML Profile for Authorization Interoperability Across Grid Middleware in OSG and EGEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure interoperability between middleware and authorization infrastructures used in the Open Science Grid (OSG)\\u000a and the Enabling Grids for E-science (EGEE) projects, an Authorization Interoperability activity was initiated in 2006. The\\u000a interoperability goal was met in two phases: firstly, agreeing on a common authorization query interface and protocol with\\u000a an associated profile that ensures standardized use of

Gabriele Garzoglio; Ian Alderman; Mine Altunay; Rachana Ananthakrishnan; Joe Bester; Keith Chadwick; Vincenzo Ciaschini; Yuri Demchenko; Andrea Ferraro; Alberto Forti; David L. Groep; Ted Hesselroth; John Hover; Oscar Koeroo; Chad La Joie; Tanya Levshina; Zach Miller; Jay Packard; Håkon Sagehaug; Valery Sergeev; Igor Sfiligoi; Neha Sharma; Frank Siebenlist; Valerio Venturi; John Weigand

2009-01-01

8

SVOPME: A Scalable Virtual Organization Privileges Management Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grids enable uniform access to resources by implementing standard interfaces to resource gateways. In the Open Science Grid (OSG), privileges are granted on the basis of the user's membership to a Virtual Organization (VO). However, Grid sites are solely responsible to determine and control access privileges to resources using users' identity and personal attributes, which are available through Grid credentials. While this guarantees full control on access rights to the sites, it makes VO privileges heterogeneous throughout the Grid and hardly fits with the Grid paradigm of uniform access to resources. To address these challenges, we are developing the Scalable Virtual Organization Privileges Management Environment (SVOPME), which provides tools for VOs to define and publish desired privileges and assists sites to provide the appropriate access policies. Moreover, SVOPME provides tools for Grid sites to analyze site access policies for various resources, verify compliance with preferred VO policies, and generate directives for site administrators on how the local access policies can be amended to achieve such compliance without taking control of local configurations away from site administrators. This paper discusses what access policies are of interest to the OSG community and how SVOPME implements privilege management for OSG.

Garzoglio, Gabriele; Wang, Nanbor; Sfiligoi, Igor; Levshina, Tanya; Ananthan, Balamurali

2010-04-01

9

SVOPME: A Scalable Virtual Organization Privileges Management Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grids enable uniform access to resources by implementing standard interfaces to resource gateways. In the Open Science Grid (OSG), privileges are granted on the basis of the user's membership to a Virtual Organization (VO). However, Grid sites are solely responsible to determine and control access privileges to resources using users' identity and personal attributes, which are available through Grid credentials. While this guarantees full control on access rights to the sites, it makes VO privileges heterogeneous throughout the Grid and hardly fits with the Grid paradigm of uniform access to resources. To address these challenges, we are developing the Scalable Virtual Organization Privileges Management Environment (SVOPME), which provides tools for VOs to define, publish, and verify desired privileges and assists sites to provide the appropriate access policies. Moreover, SVOPME provides tools for grid site to analyze site access policies for various resources, verify compliance with preferred VO policies, and generate directives for site administrators on how the local access policies can be amended to achieve such compliance without taking control of local configurations away from site administrators. This paper discusses what access policies are of interest to the OSG community and how SVOPME implements privilege management tools for the OSG.

Garzoglio, Gabriele; Wang, Nanbor; Sfiligoi, Igor; Levshina, Tanya; Ananthan, Balamurali

10

Adoption of a SAML-XACML Profile for Authorization Interoperability across Grid Middleware in OSG and EGEE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Authorization Interoperability activity was initiated in 2006 to foster interoperability between middleware and authorization infrastructures deployed in the Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) projects. This activity delivered a common authorization protocol and a set of libraries that implement that protocol. In addition, a set of the most common Grid gateways, or Policy Enforcement Points (Globus Toolkit v4 Gatekeeper, GridFTP, dCache, etc.) and site authorization services, or Policy Decision Points (LCAS/LCMAPS, SCAS, GUMS, etc.) have been integrated with these libraries. At this time, various software providers, including the Globus Toolkit v5, BeStMan, and the Site AuthoriZation service (SAZ), are integrating the authorization interoperability protocol with their products. In addition, as more and more software supports the same protocol, the community is converging on LCMAPS as a common module for identity attribute parsing and authorization call-out. This paper presents this effort, discusses the status of adoption of the common protocol and projects the community work on authorization in the near future.

Garzoglio, G.; Bester, J.; Chadwick, K.; Dykstra, D.; Groep, D.; Gu, J.; Hesselroth, T.; Koeroo, O.; Levshina, T.; Martin, S.; Salle, M.; Sharma, N.; Sim, A.; Timm, S.; Verstegen, A.

2011-12-01

11

XACML profile and implementation for authorization interoperability between OSG and EGEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) have a common security model, based on Public Key Infrastructure. Grid resources grant access to users because of their membership in a Virtual Organization (VO), rather than on personal identity. Users push VO membership information to resources in the form of identity attributes, thus declaring that resources will

G. Garzoglio; I. Alderman; M. Altunay; R. Ananthakrishnan; J. Bester; K. Chadwick; V. Ciaschini; Y. Demchenko; A. Ferraro; A. Forti; D. Groep

2009-01-01

12

XACML profile and implementation for authorization interoperability between OSG and EGEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) have a common security model, based on Public Key Infrastructure. Grid resources grant access to users because of their membership in a Virtual Organization (VO), rather than on personal identity. Users push VO membership information to resources in the form of identity attributes, thus declaring that resources will

G. Garzoglio; I. Alderman; M. Altunay; R. Ananthakrishnan; J. Bester; K. Chadwick; V. Ciaschini; Y. Demchenko; A. Ferraro; A. Forti; D. Groep; T. D. Hesselroth; J. Hover; O. Koeroo; C. La Joie; T. Levshina; Z. Miller; J. Packard; H. Sagehaug; I. Sfiligoi; N. Sharma; S. Timm; F. Siebenlist; V. Venturi; J. Weigand

2010-01-01

13

Ames Lab 101: osgBullet  

ScienceCinema

Ames Laboratory scientist Doug McCorkle explains osgBullet, a 3-D virtual simulation software, and how it helps engineers design complex products and systems in a realistic, real-time virtual environment.

14

Ames Lab 101: osgBullet  

ScienceCinema

Ames Laboratory scientist Doug McCorkle explains osgBullet, a 3-D virtual simulation software, and how it helps engineers design complex products and systems in a realistic, real-time virtual environment.

McCorkle, Doug

2012-08-29

15

New Science on the Open Science Grid  

SciTech Connect

The Open Science Grid (OSG) includes work to enable new science, new scientists, and new modalities in support of computationally based research. There are frequently significant sociological and organizational changes required in transformation from the existing to the new. OSG leverages its deliverables to the large scale physics experiment member communities to benefit new communities at all scales through activities in education, engagement and the distributed facility. As a partner to the poster and tutorial at SciDAC 2008, this paper gives both a brief general description and some specific examples of new science enabled on the OSG. More information is available at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

Pordes, Ruth; Altunay, Mine; Avery, Paul; Bejan, Alina; Blackburn, Kent; Blatecky, Alan; Gardner, Rob; Kramer, Bill; Livny, Miron; McGee, John; Potekhin, Maxim; /Fermilab /Florida U. /Chicago U. /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Wisconsin U., Madison /Indiana U. /Brookhaven /UC, San Diego

2008-06-01

16

The Open Science Grid  

SciTech Connect

The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; / /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre; /Brookhaven; Wurthwein, Frank; /UC, San Diego; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

2007-06-01

17

Ocular immune privilege  

PubMed Central

The eye attempts to limit local immune and inflammatory responses to preserve vision. This phenomenon, known as ocular immune privilege, is mediated by a combination of local and systemic mechanisms. While immune privilege is believed to protect the eye from day-to-day inflammatory insults, it is not absolute and its mechanisms are still incompletely understood.

Zhou, Ru

2010-01-01

18

Reclaiming Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pull for family is strong, almost primeval, most likely it is evolutionary, and for those lacking the benefit of family or Family Privilege, the loss of family is painful and profoundly sad. Young people who struggle to cope without stable family connections are profoundly aware of their lack of "Family Privilege." In this article, the author…

Seita, John

2012-01-01

19

Can Privilege Be Bargained?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1977 survey of reporters represented by The Newspaper Guild and publishers holding contracts with the Guild suggested that publishers are less concerned than their employees with ensuring privilege protection and that they are reluctant to incorporate privilege in contracts. (GT)

Barwis, Gail L.

1980-01-01

20

Hadoop distributed file system for the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data distribution, storage and access are essential to CPU-intensive and data-intensive high performance Grid computing. A newly emerged file system, Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS), is deployed and tested within the Open Science Grid (OSG) middleware stack. Efforts have been taken to integrate HDFS with other Grid tools to build a complete service framework for the Storage Element (SE). Scalability

G. Attebury; A. Baranovski; K. Bloom; B. Bockelman; D. Kcira; J. Letts; T. Levshina; C. Lundestedt; T. Martin; W. Maier; Haifeng Pi; A. Rana; I. Sfiligoi; A. Sim; M. Thomas; F. Wuerthwein

2009-01-01

21

The Open Science Grid status and architecture  

SciTech Connect

The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. The OSG project[1] is funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program. The OSG project provides specific activities for the operation and evolution of the common infrastructure. The US ATLAS and US CMS collaborations contribute to and depend on OSG as the US infrastructure contributing to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid on which the LHC experiments distribute and analyze their data. Other stakeholders include the STAR RHIC experiment, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and several Fermilab Tevatron experiments- CDF, D0, MiniBoone etc. The OSG implementation architecture brings a pragmatic approach to enabling vertically integrated community specific distributed systems over a common horizontal set of shared resources and services. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

Pordes, Ruth; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olsen, James D.; /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Gordon A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul Ralph; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre J.; /Brookhaven; Wuerthwein, Frank K.; /UC, San Diego; Foster, Ian; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

2007-09-01

22

DZero data-intensive computing on the Open Science Grid  

SciTech Connect

High energy physics experiments periodically reprocess data, in order to take advantage of improved understanding of the detector and the data processing code. Between February and May 2007, the DZero experiment has reprocessed a substantial fraction of its dataset. This consists of half a billion events, corresponding to about 100 TB of data, organized in 300,000 files. The activity utilized resources from sites around the world, including a dozen sites participating to the Open Science Grid consortium (OSG). About 1,500 jobs were run every day across the OSG, consuming and producing hundreds of Gigabytes of data. Access to OSG computing and storage resources was coordinated by the SAM-Grid system. This system organized job access to a complex topology of data queues and job scheduling to clusters, using a SAM-Grid to OSG job forwarding infrastructure. For the first time in the lifetime of the experiment, a data intensive production activity was managed on a general purpose grid, such as OSG. This paper describes the implications of using OSG, where all resources are granted following an opportunistic model, the challenges of operating a data intensive activity over such large computing infrastructure, and the lessons learned throughout the project.

Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Baranovski, A.; Diesburg, M.; Garzoglio, G.; /Fermilab; Kurca, T.; /Lyon, IPN; Mhashilkar, P.; /Fermilab

2007-09-01

23

Clinical privileges program for pharmacists.  

PubMed

A clinical privileges program for pharmacists is described. In 1985 and 1989 the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) issued circulars defining policy on clinical privileges for pharmacists at its medical centers. Pharmacists at one large VA medical center responded by developing a clinical privileges program. Bylaws under which medical staff members are granted clinical privileges were used as a model for the pharmacist program. A pharmacist seeking privileges prepares an application detailing his or her background and the practice areas involved in the request; the applicant also drafts a quality assurance protocol. The application is reviewed by a pharmacist clinical privileges review board (PCPRB). The PCPRB uses the quality assurance plan to verify that adequate measures are in place to meet standards of care. If a question of patient safety arises, the board meets to review the pharmacist's activities. Each pharmacist who is granted privileges must have a physician sponsor. Since the first meeting of the PCPRB in 1990, clinical privileges have been requested by all 24 clinical pharmacy specialists at the center. No pharmacist has been denied privileges, although the board has required additional training or improved quality assurance protocols for many. Acceptance of the program by the medical staff has been good. A clinical privileges program at a VA medical center offers pharmacists the opportunity to practice pharmaceutical care. PMID:1529982

Hutchison, L C; Wolfe, J J; Padilla, C B; Forrester, C W

1992-06-01

24

"White Privilege": A Mild Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

White privilege analysis has been influential in philosophy of education. I offer some mild criticisms of this largely salutary direction--its inadequate exploration of its own normative foundations, and failure to distinguish between "spared injustice", "unjust enrichment" and "non-injustice-related" privileges; its inadequate exploration of the…

Blum, Lawrence

2008-01-01

25

The Hidden Price of Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprising new studies show that privileged adolescents are more likely than any other socioeconomic group to suffer from depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. This article presents an interview with Madeline Levine, a Marin County, California, clinical psychologist of 25 years, and author of the new book "The Price of Privilege"…

Adams, Caralee

2006-01-01

26

ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

27

Public storage for the Open Science Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

Levshina, T.; Guru, A.

2014-06-01

28

Engaging Men in Difficult Dialogues about Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male privilege is one aspect of social inequality that underlies much of the oppression and violence that occurs on college campuses. Mad Skills, a program addressing power and privilege with college men, is described along with general recommendations about how to engage men in difficult dialogues. The PIE Model is used to describe defensive…

Loschiavo, Chris; Miller, David S.; Davies, Jon

2007-01-01

29

78 FR 60250 - Order Denying Export Privileges  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Export Privileges In the Matter of: Vikramaditya Singh, a.k.a. Vik A, 16810 E. Avenue of the Fountains...District Court, District of Delaware, Vikramaditya Singh, a.k.a.Vik A (``Singh'') was convicted of violating the...

2013-10-01

30

Enhancing Pharmacy Practice Models Through Pharmacists' Privileging  

PubMed Central

Director’s Forum is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. This article focuses on the concept of granting clinical privileges to pharmacists (acute and ambulatory care) to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of medication use. As the practice models change in hospital pharmacy practice to require the pharmacist to enter into pharmacy board-approved consult agreements, institutional privileging of pharmacists will be necessary. The pharmacy director must understand the steps of the credentialing and privileging process and should apply the process where appropriate in the department. Through hospital medical staff actively supporting pharmacists’ privileging, the national Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) can meet its goals of integrating pharmacists as effective members of the patient care team with tangible accountability for achieving optimal drug therapy outcomes.

Philip, Benjamin; Weber, Robert J.

2013-01-01

31

Litigating Secrets: Comparative Perspectives on the State Secrets Privilege  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state secrets privilege is a common law evidentiary privilege, which enables the government to prevent disclosure of sensitive state secrets in the course of litigation. The privilege has never been clarified by statute. Congress undertook reform efforts in 2008 out of concerns that the Bush administration overreached in its claims of privilege by seeking more dismissals during the pleadings

Sudha Setty

2009-01-01

32

An Opposing View on Prescription Privileges for Psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of articles have recently been published on psychologists' prescription privileges, with many prominent psychologists in favor of prescribing psychotropic medications. Few articles have been written opposing this privilege. This article argues against psychologists seeking prescription privileges and presents some of the potential effects these privileges could have on the future development of psychology and on the psychological services

Diane M. Moyer

1995-01-01

33

Incorporating privileged information through metric learning.  

PubMed

In some pattern analysis problems, there exists expert knowledge, in addition to the original data involved in the classification process. The vast majority of existing approaches simply ignore such auxiliary (privileged) knowledge. Recently a new paradigm-learning using privileged information-was introduced in the framework of SVM+. This approach is formulated for binary classification and, as typical for many kernel-based methods, can scale unfavorably with the number of training examples. While speeding up training methods and extensions of SVM+ to multiclass problems are possible, in this paper we present a more direct novel methodology for incorporating valuable privileged knowledge in the model construction phase, primarily formulated in the framework of generalized matrix learning vector quantization. This is done by changing the global metric in the input space, based on distance relations revealed by the privileged information. Hence, unlike in SVM+, any convenient classifier can be used after such metric modification, bringing more flexibility to the problem of incorporating privileged information during the training. Experiments demonstrate that the manipulation of an input space metric based on privileged data improves classification accuracy. Moreover, our methods can achieve competitive performance against the SVM+ formulations. PMID:24808523

Fouad, Shereen; Tino, Peter; Raychaudhury, Somak; Schneider, Petra

2013-07-01

34

Analysis of the Current Use, Benefit, and Value of the Open Science Grid  

SciTech Connect

The Open Science Grid usage has ramped up more than 25% in the past twelve months due to both the increase in throughput of the core stakeholders - US LHC, LIGO and Run II - and increase in usage by nonphysics communities. It is important to understand the value collaborative projects, such as the OSG, contribute to the scientific community. This needs to be cognizant of the environment of commercial cloud offerings, the evolving and maturing middleware for grid based distributed computing, and the evolution in science and research dependence on computation. We present a first categorization of OSG value and analysis across several different aspects of the Consortium's goals and activities. And lastly, we presents some of the upcoming challenges of LHC data analysis ramp up and our ongoing contributions to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid.

Pordes, R.; /Fermilab

2009-04-01

35

GOC-TX: A Reliable Ticket Synchronization Application for the Open Science Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major operational issues faced by large multi-institutional collaborations is permitting its users and support staff to use their native ticket tracking environment while also exchanging these tickets with collaborators. After several failed attempts at email-parser based ticket exchanges, the OSG Operations Group has designed a comprehensive ticket synchronizing application. The GOC-TX application uses web-service interfaces offered by various commercial, open source and other homegrown ticketing systems, to synchronize tickets between two or more of these systems. GOC-TX operates independently from any ticketing system. It can be triggered by one ticketing system via email, active messaging, or a web-services call to check for current sync-status, pull applicable recent updates since prior synchronizations to the source ticket, and apply the updates to a destination ticket. The currently deployed production version of GOC-TX is able to synchronize tickets between the Numara Footprints ticketing system used by the OSG and the following systems: European Grid Initiative's system Global Grid User Support (GGUS) and the Request Tracker (RT) system used by Brookhaven. Additional interfaces to the BMC Remedy system used by Fermilab, and to other instances of RT used by other OSG partners, are expected to be completed in summer 2010. A fully configurable open source version is expected to be made available by early autumn 2010. This paper will cover the structure of the GOC-TX application, its evolution, and the problems encountered by OSG Operations group with ticket exchange within the OSG Collaboration.

Hayashi, Soichi; Gopu, Arvind; Quick, Robert

2011-12-01

36

78 FR 4833 - Order Denying Export Privileges  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In...Hitachi JU-Z2 Junction Units (camera control box, 8-port multiple television...section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C....

2013-01-23

37

"White Privilege": A Shield against Reason  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author takes a stand against the unthinking evocation of so-called white privilege he found on campus and among his students at California State University, Chico, and argues for the reinstatement of true diversity--intellectual diversity. He says people in the academia should be clear in the classroom, on committees, in…

Campbell, Douglas G.

2010-01-01

38

Straight Privilege: Unpacking the (Still) Invisible Knapsack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several unearned benefits attending straight privilege are listed, prefaced by two main arguments. First, it is argued that the rampant heterosexism in the U.S. is largely attributable to many Americans' framing of heterosexism as a matter of religious freedom rather than as a form of bigotry. It is further argued that educators' elimination of…

Tollefson, Kaia

2010-01-01

39

Recognizing Privilege: Rural, Urban, and International Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forms of White oppression in the United States are hierarchically evaluated through male-dominated society. This paper concentrates on a different perspective--White, female privilege through the experiences and self-reflections of narratives from three geographical perspectives--rural, urban, and international. Within the theoretical frameworks…

Munn, Sunny L.; Rinfret, Sara; Davitt, Kendra

2010-01-01

40

Report on the Privilege (Access) Management Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is based on the discussions and conclusions of the Privilege (Access) management Workshop held on 1-3 September 1-3 at the Gaithersburg Maryland facilities of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), sponsored by NIST and t...

2010-01-01

41

Reflections on the White Privilege Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the work of White adult educators to dismantle racism in our classrooms and training sessions? How are we to engage and influence White people to do what is required to create a more just society? These are some questions that the ninth annual White Privilege Conference attempts to address. This "Perspective on Practice" essay reviews that…

Brainard, Patricia J.

2009-01-01

42

39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233...SERVICE AUTHORITY § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation...satisfactory evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone...

2013-07-01

43

Ocular Immune Privilege in the Year 2010: Ocular Immune Privilege and Uveitis  

PubMed Central

The phrase “immune privilege” was coined by Peter Medawar to describe the absence of an immune response to allografts placed into the anterior chamber of the eye or brain. We now understand that immune privilege is more than a passive microenvironment with a distinctive anatomical structure that holds back immunity. The ocular microenvironment actively engages the immune system with immunosuppressive biochemical mechanisms. The unique characteristics of ocular immune privilege appear designed to protect the eye from damage while preserving foveal vision, thus providing the host with a definite survival advantage. However, the protection is not always sufficient and the eye becomes susceptible to uveitis. Uveitis is an intraocular inflammatory disorder that encompasses a wide range of underlying etiologies. It may be idiopathic or associated with systemic disease or infection. Understanding the biochemistry of immune privilege has the potential to identify its weaknesses that allow for immunity to break through.

Taylor, Andrew W.; Kaplan, Henry J.

2012-01-01

44

Prescription Privileges for Psychologists: Opinions of Pediatric Psychologists and Pediatricians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the opinions of pediatricians and pediatric psychologists concerning prescription privileges for psychologists. Methods 213 pediatric psychologists and 119 pediatricians returned surveys regarding their opinions about cost, access, and quality of psychological care if psychologists had prescription privileges. Results Pediatric psychologists had significantly more positive views of prescription privileges than pediatricians. Despite not being in favor of prescription

William A. Rae; Amanda Jensen-Doss; Rachel Bowden; Marissa Mendoza

2008-01-01

45

Legal Advice Privilege and its Relevance to Corporations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers whether the rationale for legal advice privilege applies to corporations. It examines the rationale for legal advice privilege in the aftermath of the disagreement between the Court of Appeal and the House of Lords in the Three Rivers litigation, and argues that the rule of law rationale for advice privilege endorsed by the House of Lords is

Andrew Higgins

2010-01-01

46

Cultural anarchism: the consequences of privileging languages in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nepali, the official language of administration of Nepal, has been privileged through systematic political manoeuvres throughout its history. English also enjoys special status and privileges, and despite the fact that it is officially only a ‘foreign’ language, in practice it is one of the most dominant languages in educational and economic domains. Both Nepali and English have become status symbols

Ram Ashish Giri

2010-01-01

47

Playing with Power and Privilege: Theatre Games in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In preparing White teachers to educate a diverse society, teacher educators must help them see the veil which colors their views of the world and privileges them. This study explores the need for playing with power and privilege to deconstruct the concept of meritocracy and challenge the idea of one-ness, thereby fostering more conscious locations…

Souto-Manning, Mariana

2011-01-01

48

A cryptographic access control architecture secure against privileged attackers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overwhelming majority of existing access control schemes use active protection mechanisms where a security kernel enforces policy based upon an identity label assigned to each process. However, this design is fragile as a result of widely-used but flawed privilege architectures where all special privileges are assigned to a single identity. As a result, this account is required for all

Christian Payne

2007-01-01

49

49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section...OPERATORS Operations § 1544.237 Flight deck privileges. (a) For each aircraft that has a door to the flight deck, each aircraft operator must...

2013-10-01

50

Labels Matter: Changing the Conversation From “-isms” to Privilege  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whites typically view racism as discrimination and unfair judgment based on skin color. This view inhibits an end to race-based oppression because it names the issue in terms of the oppressed. A more accurate label is White Privilege. The concept of White privilege is very different from the concept of racism because it includes all Whites, not just those who hold explicit racist views. Acknowledging privilege can be threatening for those who hold a privileged status. However, it is necessary for those who are advantaged to have clarity about their status if the “isms” are to be overcome. In this talk I will discuss my personal struggle to acknowledge my own privileged status (White, American, straight, etc.) and will offer suggestions based on my own experiences for working with advantaged populations committed to overcoming all forms of oppression.

Dancy, Melissa H.

2006-12-01

51

OASIS: a data and software distribution service for Open Science Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Open Science Grid encourages the concept of software portability: a user's scientific application should be able to run at as many sites as possible. It is necessary to provide a mechanism for OSG Virtual Organizations to install software at sites. Since its initial release, the OSG Compute Element has provided an application software installation directory to Virtual Organizations, where they can create their own sub-directory, install software into that sub-directory, and have the directory shared on the worker nodes at that site. The current model has shortcomings with regard to permissions, policies, versioning, and the lack of a unified, collective procedure or toolset for deploying software across all sites. Therefore, a new mechanism for data and software distributing is desirable. The architecture for the OSG Application Software Installation Service (OASIS) is a server-client model: the software and data are installed only once in a single place, and are automatically distributed to all client sites simultaneously. Central file distribution offers other advantages, including server-side authentication and authorization, activity records, quota management, data validation and inspection, and well-defined versioning and deletion policies. The architecture, as well as a complete analysis of the current implementation, will be described in this paper.

Bockelman, B.; Caballero Bejar, J.; De Stefano, J.; Hover, J.; Quick, R.; Teige, S.

2014-06-01

52

75 FR 842 - Action Affecting Export Privileges: Hailin Lin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Action Affecting Export Privileges: Hailin Lin In the Matter of: Hailin Lin, 1218 Dewey St., 14, Manitowoc, WI 54220, Respondent. 07-BIS-01. Order Relating to Hailin Lin The Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S....

2010-01-06

53

24 CFR 200.1520 - Termination of MAP privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Termination of MAP privileges. 200.1520 Section 200.1520 Housing...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1520...

2009-04-01

54

24 CFR 200.1520 - Termination of MAP privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of MAP privileges. 200.1520 Section 200.1520 Housing...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1520...

2010-04-01

55

42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. Any patient who wilfully fails or refuses to comply...

2012-10-01

56

78 FR 58519 - Denial of Export Privileges; Sixing Liu  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Denial of Export Privileges; Sixing Liu In the Matter of: Sixing Liu, a/k/a Steve Liu, Inmate 43102-424, FCI Oxford, Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 1000,...

2013-09-24

57

14 CFR 375.19 - Nature of privilege conferred.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES ...That article gives foreign aircraft the privilege of âtaking...operator of any foreign registered aircraft is not entitled as a...

2014-01-01

58

Learning using privileged information: SVM+ and weighted SVM.  

PubMed

Prior knowledge can be used to improve predictive performance of learning algorithms or reduce the amount of data required for training. The same goal is pursued within the learning using privileged information paradigm which was recently introduced by Vapnik et al. and is aimed at utilizing additional information available only at training time-a framework implemented by SVM+. We relate the privileged information to importance weighting and show that the prior knowledge expressible with privileged features can also be encoded by weights associated with every training example. We show that a weighted SVM can always replicate an SVM+ solution, while the converse is not true and we construct a counterexample highlighting the limitations of SVM+. Finally, we touch on the problem of choosing weights for weighted SVMs when privileged features are not available. PMID:24576747

Lapin, Maksim; Hein, Matthias; Schiele, Bernt

2014-05-01

59

The Operator Shell: A means of privilege distribution under Unix  

SciTech Connect

The Operator Shell (Osh) is a setuid root, security enhanced, restricted shell for providing fine-grain distribution of system privileges for a wide range of usages and requirements. Osh offers a marked improvement over other Unix privilege distribution systems in its ability to specify access to both commands and files, auditing features, and familiar interface. This paper describes the design, features, security considerations, internals, and applications of the Operator Shell.

Neuman, M.; Christoph, G.

1994-03-01

60

The privileged immunity of immune privileged organs: the case of the eye  

PubMed Central

Understanding of ocular diseases and the search for their cure have been based on the common assumption that the eye is an immune privileged site, and the consequent conclusion that entry of immune cells to this organ is forbidden. Accordingly, it was assumed that when immune cell entry does occur, this reflects an undesired outcome of breached barriers. However, studies spanning more than a decade have demonstrated that acute insults to the retina, or chronic conditions resulting in retinal ganglion cell loss, such as in glaucoma, result in an inferior outcome in immunocompromised mice; likewise, steroidal treatment was found to be detrimental under these conditions. Moreover, even conditions that are associated with inflammation, such as age-related macular degeneration, are not currently believed to require immune suppression for treatment, but rather, are thought to benefit from immune modulation. Here, we propose that the immune privilege of the eye is its ability to enable, upon need, the entry of selected immune cells for its repair and healing, rather than to altogether prevent immune cell entry. The implications for acute and chronic degenerative diseases, as well as for infection and inflammatory diseases, are discussed.

Benhar, Inbal; London, Anat; Schwartz, Michal

2012-01-01

61

ReSS: A Resource Selection Service for the Open Science Grid  

SciTech Connect

The Open Science Grid offers access to hundreds of computing and storage resources via standard Grid interfaces. Before the deployment of an automated resource selection system, users had to submit jobs directly to these resources. They would manually select a resource and specify all relevant attributes in the job description prior to submitting the job. The necessity of a human intervention in resource selection and attribute specification hinders automated job management components from accessing OSG resources and it is inconvenient for the users. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) project addresses these shortcomings. The system integrates condor technology, for the core match making service, with the gLite CEMon component, for gathering and publishing resource information in the Glue Schema format. Each one of these components communicates over secure protocols via web services interfaces. The system is currently used in production on OSG by the DZero Experiment, the Engagement Virtual Organization, and the Dark Energy. It is also the resource selection service for the Fermilab Campus Grid, FermiGrid. ReSS is considered a lightweight solution to push-based workload management. This paper describes the architecture, performance, and typical usage of the system.

Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Mhashilkar, Parag; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

2008-01-01

62

Progress and Privilege: A book about environmentalism meets the press  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 1982, Anchor Press published Progress and Privilege, a book by William Tucker. Tucker's thesis was that environmentalism represented “the ideas of aristocratic conservatism translated onto a popular scale,” and that it had entwined itself with the protection of social and economic privilege. The book was riddled with fundamental errors of fact and of logic, but it also was literate and superficially impressive. It was widely reviewed. An examination of 23 reviews shows this: Most of the reviews in daily newspapers were written by laymen who couldn't analyze Tucker's arguments or recognize his mistakes. Most of the reviews in specialized publications were done by competent analysts who brought some special knowledge to their work. With the latter group of reviewers, Progress and Privilege fared poorly.

Bennetta, William J.

1984-11-01

63

Archives in formation: privileged spaces, popular archives and paper trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article begins with Derrida’s etymology of the word ‘archive’: a privileged site to which records are officially consigned and in which they are guarded by legal authority. It explores contemporary variations on the theme of archive. The cases presented include efforts to construct scholarly archives that stand as personal monuments, struggles over the collection and consignment of records during

Michael Lynch

1999-01-01

64

Addressing Heterosexist Privilege During Orientation: One Program's Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

New counseling students often have strong reactions when confronted with the concept of heterosexist privilege, and when expected to address issues of multiculturalism and diversity, personally and professionally. In this program evaluation article, the authors describe a model of new student orientation that focuses on inviting master's-level counseling students to embrace difference, especially regarding sexual orientation and gender identity\\/expression. Aggregate

Edward Cannon; Marsha Wiggins; Shruti Poulsen; Diane Estrada

2012-01-01

65

PRESCRIPTION PRIVILEGES: THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that psychologists should have the legal right to prescribe controlled substances since: 1) the use of certain drugs is a logical extension of psychological practice, 2) current restrictions are based on a false mindbody dichotomy, and 3) the extension of privileges to include the prescription of drugs is in the public interest. Implications for licensure, professional ethics,

Ronald E. Fox

1988-01-01

66

Confronting the Complexities of Christian Privilege through Interfaith Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence of Christian privilege in America is not difficult to find. At the same time, however, Christians, particularly in evangelical settings, commonly think of themselves as a marginalized minority being overrun by the power of secular liberalism. The authors propose that "both" perceptions are accurate descriptions of reality. For this…

Larson, Marion H.; Shady, Sara L.

2012-01-01

67

Applications of the Role of ?-MSH in Ocular Immune Privilege  

PubMed Central

There is an important role for ?-MSH and the melanocortin receptors in ocular immunity, development and health. This chapter will cover what is known about how ?-MSH is part of the mechanisms of ocular immune privilege, about the expression of melanocortin receptors and the implications of these findings on the role of ?-MSH in ocular physiology and its potential use to treat ocular pathologies.

Taylor, Andrew W.; Lee, Darren

2012-01-01

68

Understanding Unearned Privilege: An Experiential Activity for Counseling Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development stresses the importance of counselors to develop multicultural competencies that include attitudes, knowledge, and skills. Counselor educators face the challenge of helping their students develop multicultural counseling competence including an awareness of unearned privilege. This…

Cook, Katrina; Lusk, Aisha; Miller, Laura Christina; Dodier, Oscar Esteban; Salazar, Ana M.

2012-01-01

69

A Qualitative Study of the Interplay between Privilege and Oppression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how an individual's privileged social or cultural group statuses (e.g., being White, male, or heterosexual) may work in combination with an individual's oppressed group statuses (e.g., being African American, a woman, or lesbian/gay/bisexual) in shaping the individual's multicultural experiences. (Contains 20 references.) (GCP)

Croteau, James M.; Talbot, Donna M.; Lance, Teresa S.; Evans, Nancy J.

2002-01-01

70

"Branzburg" Revisited: The Struggle to Define Newsman's Privilege Goes On.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of related cases since the Supreme Court case "Branzburg v Hayes," which concerned the news reporter's privilege question, shows that state and federal courts have been inconsistent in their decisions and that every decision in favor of journalists has been a qualified one. (GT)

Killenberg, George M.

1978-01-01

71

36 CFR 1254.50 - Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges? 1254.50 Section 1254...RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Research Room Rules Other Conduct Rules § 1254.50 Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges? (a) You have 30...

2011-07-01

72

36 CFR 1254.48 - When does NARA revoke research privileges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false When does NARA revoke research privileges? 1254.48 Section...AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Research Room Rules Other Conduct Rules § 1254.48 When does NARA revoke research privileges? (a)...

2011-07-01

73

36 CFR 1254.48 - When does NARA revoke research privileges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false When does NARA revoke research privileges? 1254.48 Section...AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Research Room Rules Other Conduct Rules § 1254.48 When does NARA revoke research privileges? (a)...

2010-07-01

74

36 CFR 1254.50 - Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges? 1254.50 Section 1254...RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Research Room Rules Other Conduct Rules § 1254.50 Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges? (a) You have 30...

2010-07-01

75

36 CFR 1254.48 - When does NARA revoke research privileges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true When does NARA revoke research privileges? 1254.48 Section...AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Research Room Rules Other Conduct Rules § 1254.48 When does NARA revoke research privileges? (a)...

2013-07-01

76

36 CFR 1254.50 - Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges? 1254.50 Section 1254...RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Research Room Rules Other Conduct Rules § 1254.50 Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges? (a) You have 30...

2013-07-01

77

36 CFR 1254.52 - Can NARA extend the period of revoked research privileges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Can NARA extend the period of revoked research privileges? 1254.52 Section 1254...RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Research Room Rules Other Conduct Rules ...Can NARA extend the period of revoked research privileges? (a) If the...

2013-07-01

78

36 CFR 1254.48 - When does NARA revoke research privileges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false When does NARA revoke research privileges? 1254.48 Section...AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Research Room Rules Other Conduct Rules § 1254.48 When does NARA revoke research privileges? (a)...

2012-07-01

79

36 CFR 1254.50 - Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges? 1254.50 Section 1254...RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Research Room Rules Other Conduct Rules § 1254.50 Does NARA consider reinstating research privileges? (a) You have 30...

2012-07-01

80

75 FR 63802 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affecting Export Privileges; Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co. Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co., P.O. Box 966, Folsom, CA 95763...Making Denial of Export Privileges of Aqua-Loop Cooling Towers, Co. Applicable to Parto Abgardan...

2010-10-18

81

Ocular immune privilege and the impact of intraocular inflammation.  

PubMed

Immune privilege, a characteristic of the internal compartments of the eye, is a physiologic mechanism that is designed to provide the eye with protection against pathogens while protecting the delicate visual axis from the sight-destroying potential of immunogenic inflammation. It is assumed that the presence of intraocular inflammation is incompatible with the existence of immune privilege. The validity of this assumption has been tested in four animal models of intraocular inflammation-systemic and local endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), mycobacterial adjuvant-induced uveitis (MAIU), and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Immune privilege was assessed in inflamed eyes by growth of intracamerally injected allogeneic tumor cells, by the capacity to support immune deviation following intracameral injection of antigen (ovalbumin, OVA), by assaying protein, leukocyte, and selected cytokine content of aqueous humor (AqH), and by capacity of inflamed AqH to suppress T cell activation in vitro. The results indicate that, irrespective of the type of inflammation, tumor cells formed progressively growing tumors in inflamed eyes. Moreover, OVA injected into the anterior chamber of eyes inflamed by MAIU and EAU failed to induce immune deviation. AqH from inflamed eyes reflected breakdown of the blood:ocular barrier as well as transient loss of its immunosuppressive properties. Immunosuppressive microenvironments routinely reemerged in inflamed eyes, and the immunosuppressive agent present under these circumstances in AqH was active TGF beta2. It is concluded that immune privilege is surprisingly resistant to abolition by intraocular inflammation, and that maintenance of immune privilege in the face of ongoing inflammation depends upon the emergence of progressive and partially different immunosuppressive mechanisms. PMID:12167248

Streilein, J Wayne; Ohta, Kouichi; Mo, Jun Song; Taylor, Andrew W

2002-01-01

82

50 CFR 26.25 - Exception for entry to persons with an economic use privilege.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exception for entry to persons with an economic use privilege. 26.25 Section 26...Exception for entry to persons with an economic use privilege. Access to and travel...national wildlife refuge by a person granted economic use privileges on that national...

2013-10-01

83

White Middle-Class Privilege: Social Class Bias and Implications for Training and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social class, classism, and privilege and their relationship to counseling have been given insufficient attention. This article defines and explores White middle-class privilege; it proffers support for its integration in a multicultural competency, as well as its intersection with race and other dimensions of multiculturalism and privilege.…

Liu, William Ming; Pickett, Theodore, Jr.; Ivey, Allen E.

2007-01-01

84

Privilege-Wise and Patent (and Trade-Secret)Foolish?: How the Courts' Misapplication of the Military and State Secrets Privilege Violates the Constitution and Endangers National Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is every inventor's nightmare: a valuable idea, stolen, with no legal recourse. Yet that is precisely what happened in Lucent v. Crater, where the Federal Circuit permitted the Federal Government to defeat the inventors' claims using the military and state secrets privilege. In light of the recent upsurge in the Government's invocation of this privilege, it is time to

Davida H. Isaacs; Robert M. Farley

2009-01-01

85

Mediated definite delegation - Certified Grid jobs in ALICE and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grid computing infrastructures need to provide traceability and accounting of their users’ activity and protection against misuse and privilege escalation, where the delegation of privileges in the course of a job submission is a key concern. This work describes an improved handling of Multi-user Grid Jobs in the ALICE Grid Services. A security analysis of the ALICE Grid job model is presented with derived security objectives, followed by a discussion of existing approaches of unrestricted delegation based on X.509 proxy certificates and the Grid middleware gLExec. Unrestricted delegation has severe security consequences and limitations, most importantly allowing for identity theft and forgery of jobs and data. These limitations are discussed and formulated, both in general and with respect to an adoption in line with Multi-user Grid Jobs. A new general model of mediated definite delegation is developed, allowing a broker to dynamically process and assign Grid jobs to agents while providing strong accountability and long-term traceability. A prototype implementation allowing for fully certified Grid jobs is presented as well as a potential interaction with gLExec. The achieved improvements regarding system security, malicious job exploitation, identity protection, and accountability are emphasized, including a discussion of non-repudiation in the face of malicious Grid jobs.

Schreiner, Steffen; Grigoras, Costin; Litmaath, Maarten; Betev, Latchezar; Buchmann, Johannes

2012-12-01

86

Privileged s-triazines: structure and pharmacological applications.  

PubMed

This review summarizes recent reports on s-triazine and its respective analogs from the medicinal chemistry angle. Due to its high reactivity and binding characteristic towards various enzymes, s-triazine has attracted attention. This is combined with facile synthesis and interesting pharmacology. The triazine class demonstrates wide biological applications - including antimicrobial, antituberculosis, anticancer, antiviral and antimalarial. In this article the library of s-triazine-based molecular designs has been collated with respective bioactivity. Compounds are further compared with other heterocyclic/nontriazine moieties to correlate the efficiency of privileged s-triazine. We hope this article may assist chemists in their drug design and discovery efforts. PMID:24635525

Shah, Dhruvin R; Modh, Rahul P; Chikhalia, Kishor H

2014-03-01

87

See no evil, hear no evil, do no evil: the lessons of immune privilege  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune-mediated inflammation and allograft rejection are greatly reduced in certain organs, a phenomenon called 'immune privilege'. Immune privilege is well developed in three regions of the body: the eye, the brain and the pregnant uterus. Immune-mediated inflammation has devastating consequences in the eye and brain, which have limited capacity for regeneration. Likewise, loss of immune privilege at the maternal-fetal interface

Jerry Y Niederkorn

2006-01-01

88

Using Hadoop File System and MapReduce in a small/medium Grid site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data storage and data access represent the key of CPU-intensive and data-intensive high performance Grid computing. Hadoop is an open-source data processing framework that includes fault-tolerant and scalable distributed data processing model and execution environment, named MapReduce, and distributed File System, named Hadoop distributed File System (HDFS). HDFS was deployed and tested within the Open Science Grid (OSG) middleware stack. Efforts have been taken to integrate HDFS with gLite middleware. We have tested the File System thoroughly in order to understand its scalability and fault-tolerance while dealing with small/medium site environment constraints. To benefit entirely from this File System, we made it working in conjunction with Hadoop Job scheduler to optimize the executions of the local physics analysis workflows. The performance of the analysis jobs which used such architecture seems to be promising, making it useful to follow up in the future.

Riahi, H.; Donvito, G.; Fanò, L.; Fasi, M.; Marzulli, G.; Spiga, D.; Valentini, A.

2012-12-01

89

The privileged brain representation of first olfactory associations.  

PubMed

Authors, poets, and scientists have been fascinated by the strength of childhood olfactory memories. Indeed, in long-term memory, the first odor-to-object association was stronger than subsequent associations of the same odor with other objects. Here we tested the hypothesis that first odor associations enjoy a privileged brain representation. Because emotion impacts memory, we further asked whether the pleasantness of an odor would influence such a representation. On day 1, we associated the same visual objects initially with one, and subsequently with a second, set of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory and auditory stimuli. One week later, we presented the same visual objects and tested odor-associative memory concurrent with functional magnetic resonance brain imaging. We found that the power (% remembered) of early associations was enhanced when they were unpleasant, regardless of whether they were olfactory or auditory. Brain imaging, however, revealed a unique hippocampal activation for early olfactory but not auditory associations, regardless of whether they were pleasant or unpleasant. Activity within the hippocampus on day 1 predicted the olfactory but not auditory associations that would be remembered one week later. These findings confirmed the hypothesis of a privileged brain representation for first olfactory associations. PMID:19896380

Yeshurun, Yaara; Lapid, Hadas; Dudai, Yadin; Sobel, Noam

2009-11-17

90

An empirical analysis of White privilege, social position and health.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that social position matters for health. Those with greater socioeconomic resources and greater perceived standing in the social hierarchy have better health than those with fewer resources and lower perceived standing. Race is another salient axis by which health is stratified in the U.S., but few studies have examined the benefit of White privilege. In this paper, we investigated how perceptions of inequality and subjective and objective social status affected the health and well-being of N = 630 White residents in three Boston neighborhoods lying on a social gradient differentiated by race, ethnicity, income and prestige. Outcomes were self-rated health, dental health, and happiness. Results suggested that: neighborhood residence was not associated with health after controlling for individual level factors (e.g., positive ratings of the neighborhood, education level); objective measures of socioeconomic status were associated with better self-reported and dental health, but subjective assessments of social position were more strongly associated; and White residents living in the two wealthiest neighborhoods, and who perceived Black families as welcome in their neighborhoods enjoyed better health than those who believed them to be less welcome. However, those who lived in the least wealthy and most diverse neighborhood fared worse when reporting Black families to be welcome. These results suggest that White privilege and relative social position interact to shape health outcomes. PMID:25014267

Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

2014-09-01

91

glideinWMS experience with glexec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-user pilot infrastructures provide significant advantages for the communities using them, but also create new security challenges. With Grid authorization and mapping happening with the pilot credential only, final user identity is not properly addressed in the classic Grid paradigm. In order to solve this problem, OSG and EGI have deployed glexec, a privileged executable on the worker nodes that allows for final user authorization and mapping from inside the pilot itself. The glideinWMS instances deployed on OSG have been now using glexec on OSG sites for several years, and have started using it on EGI resources in the past year. The user experience of using glexec has been mostly positive, although there are still some edge cases where things could be improved. This paper provides both the usage statistics as well as a description of the still remaining problems and the expected solutions.

Sfiligoi, I.; Bradley, D. C.; Miller, Z.; Holzman, B.; Würthwein, F.; Dost, J. M.; Bloom, K.; Grandi, C.

2012-12-01

92

Migrating Open Science Grid to RPMs*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently completed a significant transition in the Open Science Grid (OSG) in which we moved our software distribution mechanism from the useful but niche system called Pacman to a community-standard native package system, RPM. In this paper we explore some of the lessons learned during this transition as well as our earlier work, lessons that we believe are valuable not only for software distribution and packaging, but also for software engineering in a distributed computing environment where reliability is critical. We discuss the benefits found in moving to a community standard, including the abilities to reuse existing packaging, to donate existing packaging back to the community, and to leverage existing skills in the community. We describe our approach to testing in which we test our software against multiple versions of the OS, including pre-releases of the OS, in order to find surprises before our users do. Finally, we discuss our large-scale evaluation testing and community testing, which are essential for both quality and community acceptance.

Roy, Alain

2012-12-01

93

A primer for protecting attorney-client work product documents and privileged information.  

PubMed

Physicians, risk managers, and quality assurance personnel may incorrectly assume that all communications that take place in hospital committee discussions or investigations are privileged and thus protected from discovery. This article addresses that inaccurate assumption and sets forth some simple steps to help protect these communications, including the protections afforded by the agency privilege. PMID:21343745

Atwood, Denise A

2011-01-01

94

Inducible immune regulation following autoimmune disease in the immune-privileged eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune-privileged eye has the po- tential to induce regulatory immunity along with local mechanisms of immunosuppression. Rodent models of human autoimmune uveoretinitis (exper- imental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU)) recover without spontaneous recurrence of uveitis, which differs from uveitis in some humans. This raises the possibility that the mechanism of immune privilege in the rodent eye can reimpose itself during auto-

Nobuyoshi Kitaichi; Kenichi Namba; Andrew W. Taylor

2004-01-01

95

Privileges and Immunities: a Reference Guide to the United States Constitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The privileges and immunities clauses in the U.S. Constitution forbids one state from discriminating against citizens of another state with respect to privileges and immunities that state affords its own citizens. Of course, the history, interpretation, and rulings on Article IV and the Fourteenth Amendment are much more nuanced and controversial. Bogen details the origins and development of the concept

David S. Bogen

2003-01-01

96

Orienting Counseling Students toward Multiculturalism: Exploring Privilege during a New Student Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New counseling students often have strong reactions to the concept of privilege and become anxious when expected to address issues of multiculturalism personally and professionally. In this article, the authors describe a new student orientation model that focuses on addressing privilege and offer steps toward embracing multiculturalism and social…

Estrada, Diane; Poulsen, Shruti; Cannon, Edward; Wiggins, Marsha

2013-01-01

97

Locating privileged spreaders on an online social network.  

PubMed

Social media have provided plentiful evidence of their capacity for information diffusion. Fads and rumors but also social unrest and riots travel fast and affect large fractions of the population participating in online social networks (OSNs). This has spurred much research regarding the mechanisms that underlie social contagion, and also who (if any) can unleash system-wide information dissemination. Access to real data, both regarding topology--the network of friendships--and dynamics--the actual way in which OSNs users interact, is crucial to decipher how the former facilitates the latter's success, understood as efficiency in information spreading. With the quantitative analysis that stems from complex network theory, we discuss who (and why) has privileged spreading capabilities when it comes to information diffusion. This is done considering the evolution of an episode of political protest which took place in Spain, spanning one month in 2011. PMID:23005178

Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Rivero, Alejandro; Moreno, Yamir

2012-06-01

98

Progress and privilege: America in the age of environmentalism  

SciTech Connect

Environmentalism, which was a rarity in the 1960s, approaches a national religion in the 1980s, with some environmentalists experiencing pleasure at the prospect of limited resources and no growth. The author explores this new ambivalence toward progress, and concludes that accomplishment can dampen ambition. His analysis of environmentalism as an expression of privilege examines the political and economic characteristics of environmentalists, the major environmental issues, and the public revolt against science to uncover an aristocratic element that is diappearing from our culture. Progress will continue, however, because of global ambitions. The US can build on what has been learned during the Age of Environmentalism and get on with the progress of humanity. 159 references, 1 figure. (DCK)

Tucker, W.

1982-01-01

99

Synthesis of privileged scaffolds by using diversity-oriented synthesis.  

PubMed

An elegant reagent-controlled strategy has been developed for the generation of a diverse range of biologically active scaffolds from a chiral bicyclic lactam. Reduction of the chiral lactam with LAH or alkylation with LHMDS to trigger different cyclization reactions have been shown to generate privileged scaffolds, such as pyrrolidines, indolines, and cyclotryptamines. Their amenability to substitution allows us to create various compound libraries by using these scaffolds. In?silico studies were used to estimate the drug-like properties of these compounds. Selected compounds were subjected to anticancer screening by using three different cell lines. In addition, all these compounds were subjected to antibacterial screening to gauge the spectrum of biological activity that was conferred by our DOS methodology. Gratifyingly, with no additional iterative cycles, our method directly generated anticancer compounds with potency at low nanomolar concentrations, as represented by spiroindoline 14. PMID:23512685

Surakanti, Ramu; Sanivarapu, Sumalatha; Thulluri, Chiranjeevi; Iyer, Pravin S; Tangirala, Raghuram S; Gundla, Rambabu; Addepally, Uma; Murthy, Y L N; Velide, Lakshmi; Sen, Subhabrata

2013-06-01

100

Conscientious objection and the nurse: a right or a privilege?  

PubMed

This article examines to what extent nurses can at present opt out of clinical procedures on the basis of conscience in English law. It considers the current rights to opt out on the basis of conscience contained in section 4 of the Abortion Act 1967 and section 38 of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. It examines how through codes of practice and guidance, there is recognition of the ability to opt out beyond theses statutes. It suggests that rather than let practice evolve to enable persons to opt out, the fundamental issues as to whether it should be a right or a privilege needs careful consideration across healthcare professions as a whole and a broader public debate. PMID:20081664

McHale, Jean V

101

50 CFR 300.206 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.206 Section 300.206 Wildlife... Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of...

2013-10-01

102

76 FR 12023 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; William Chi-Wai Tsu And Cheerway Corporation; Order Denying...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; William Chi-Wai Tsu And Cheerway Corporation...Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: William Chi-Wai Tsu, currently incarcerated...Person. A. Denial of Export Privileges of William Chi-Wai Tsu On August 3, 2009,...

2011-03-04

103

Computational Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this introductory chapter, we lay the groundwork for the rest of the book by providing a more detailed picture of the expected\\u000a purpose, shape, and architecture of future grid systems. We structure the chapter in terms of six questions that we believe\\u000a are central to this discussion: Why do we need computational grids? What types of applications will grids

Ian T. Foster; Carl Kesselman

2000-01-01

104

Overture: The grid classes  

SciTech Connect

Overture is a library containing classes for grids, overlapping grid generation and the discretization and solution of PDEs on overlapping grids. This document describes the Overture grid classes, including classes for single grids and classes for collections of grids.

Brislawn, K.; Brown, D.; Chesshire, G.; Henshaw, W. [and others

1997-01-01

105

Fibonacci Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in a variety of non-standard computational grids for global numerical prediction. The motivation has been to reduce problems associated with the converging meridians and the polar singularities of conventional regular latitude-longitude grids. A further impetus has come from the adoption of massively parallel computers, for which it is necessary to distribute work equitably across the processors; this is more practicable for some non-standard grids. Desirable attributes of a grid for high-order spatial finite differencing are: (i) geometrical regularity; (ii) a homogeneous and approximately isotropic spatial resolution; (iii) a low proportion of the grid points where the numerical procedures require special customization (such as near coordinate singularities or grid edges). One family of grid arrangements which, to our knowledge, has never before been applied to numerical weather prediction, but which appears to offer several technical advantages, are what we shall refer to as "Fibonacci grids". They can be thought of as mathematically ideal generalizations of the patterns occurring naturally in the spiral arrangements of seeds and fruit found in sunflower heads and pineapples (to give two of the many botanical examples). These grids possess virtually uniform and highly isotropic resolution, with an equal area for each grid point. There are only two compact singular regions on a sphere that require customized numerics. We demonstrate the practicality of these grids in shallow water simulations, and discuss the prospects for efficiently using these frameworks in three-dimensional semi-implicit and semi-Lagrangian weather prediction or climate models.

Swinbank, Richard; Purser, James

2006-01-01

106

Scalability of network facing services used in the Open Science Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Open Science Grid relies on several network facing services to deliver resources to its users. The major services are the Compute Elements, Storage Elements, Workload Management Systems and Information Systems. All of these services are exposed to traffic coming from all over the world in an unmanaged way, so it is very important to know how they behave at different levels of load. In this paper we present the methodology and the results of scalability and reliability tests performed by OSG on some of the above services. The major services being tested are the Condor batch system, the GT2, GRAM5 and CREAM CEs, and the BeStMan SRM SE.

Sfiligoi, I.; Pi, H.; Würthwein, F.; Theissen, C.; Dost, J. M.

2011-12-01

107

Grids = Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that narrow columns provide a flexible system of organization for designers. Notes that grids serve the content on the pages, help to develop a layout that will clearly direct the reader to information; and prevent visual monotony. Concludes when grid layouts are used, school publications look as good as professional ones. (PM)

Barrington, Linda; Carter, Jacky

2003-01-01

108

76 FR 19033 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Credit International Trading Co. Ltd; In the Matter of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Order Making Order Denying Export Privileges of Ruo Ling Wang Applicable to Related Person Credit International Trading...Order that was imposed against the individual Ruo Ling Wang (``Wang'') on April 18, 2006 (71 Fed. Reg. 23897,...

2011-04-06

109

Waiver of the psychotherapist-patient privilege: implications for child custody litigation.  

PubMed

The psychotherapist-patient privilege, rooted in both common and statutory law, is predicated upon the public policy goal of protecting the reasonable expectation of privacy of individuals seeking psychotherapy. The privilege is not absolute, however. State and federal courts are far from uniform in determining how and when the privilege should be waived, in whole or in part, through implication, inadvertence or the affirmative action of the parties. In the family law context, the law that has evolved around the exercise of this privilege is even more complex as the needs of children add another wrinkle to the goal of balancing the imperative of confidentiality with the need for useful information that may be provided. PMID:22616541

Boumil, Marcia M; Freitas, Debbie F; Freitas, Cristina F

2012-01-01

110

VA Health Care: Improved Oversight and Compliance Needed for Physician Credentialing and Privileging Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VA has policies to ensure that physicians have appropriate qualifications and clinical abilities through the processes of credentialing, privileging, and continuous monitoring of performance. Results of a VA investigatory report in 2008 cited deficiencies...

2010-01-01

111

Healthcare Inspection: Evaluation of Physician Credentialing and Privileging in Veterans Health Administration Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Inspector General, Office of Healthcare Inspections (OHI) completed an evaluation of Physician Credentialing and Privileging (C&P) in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities. The purpose of this evalua...

2010-01-01

112

Biometric Equities for Identity & Privilege Management Working Group (IPvMWG) Roadmap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This briefing looks at Biometrics-Enabled Business Functions Framework (BBFF), Identity Protection Management Senior Coordinating Group (IPMSCG), and Identity and Privilege Management Group(IPvMG) . The Biometrics- Enabled Business Functions Framework (BB...

2011-01-01

113

The Open Science Grid - Support for Multi-Disciplinary Team Science - the Adolescent Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As it enters adolescence the Open Science Grid (OSG) is bringing a maturing fabric of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) services that supports an expanding HEP community to an increasingly diverse spectrum of domain scientists. Working closely with researchers on campuses throughout the US and in collaboration with national cyberinfrastructure initiatives, we transform their computing environment through new concepts, advanced tools and deep experience. We discuss examples of these including: the pilot-job overlay concepts and technologies now in use throughout OSG and delivering 1.4 Million CPU hours/day; the role of campus infrastructures- built out from concepts of sharing across multiple local faculty clusters (made good use of already by many of the HEP Tier-2 sites in the US); the work towards the use of clouds and access to high throughput parallel (multi-core and GPU) compute resources; and the progress we are making towards meeting the data management and access needs of non-HEP communities with general tools derived from the experience of the parochial tools in HEP (integration of Globus Online, prototyping with IRODS, investigations into Wide Area Lustre). We will also review our activities and experiences as HTC Service Provider to the recently awarded NSF XD XSEDE project, the evolution of the US NSF TeraGrid project, and how we are extending the reach of HTC through this activity to the increasingly broad national cyberinfrastructure. We believe that a coordinated view of the HPC and HTC resources in the US will further expand their impact on scientific discovery.

Bauerdick, Lothar; Ernst, Michael; Fraser, Dan; Livny, Miron; Pordes, Ruth; Sehgal, Chander; Würthwein, Frank; Open Science Grid

2012-12-01

114

Causal evidence for a privileged working memory state in early visual cortex.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests that items held in working memory (WM) might not all be in the same representational state. One item might be privileged over others, making it more accessible and thereby recalled with greater precision. Here, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we provide causal evidence in human participants that items in WM are differentially susceptible to disruptive TMS, depending on their state, determined either by task relevance or serial position. Across two experiments, we applied TMS to area MT+ during the WM retention of two motion directions. In Experiment 1, we used an "incidental cue" to bring one of the two targets into a privileged state. In Experiment 2, we presented the targets sequentially so that the last item was in a privileged state by virtue of recency. In both experiments, recall precision of motion direction was differentially affected by TMS, depending on the state of the memory target at the time of disruption. Privileged items were recalled with less precision, whereas nonprivileged items were recalled with higher precision. Thus, only the privileged item was susceptible to disruptive TMS over MT+. By contrast, precision of the nonprivileged item improved either directly because of facilitation by TMS or indirectly through reduced interference from the privileged item. Our results provide a unique line of evidence, as revealed by TMS over a posterior sensory brain region, for at least two different states of item representation in WM. PMID:24381277

Zokaei, Nahid; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud; Feredoes, Eva

2014-01-01

115

The attorney/client privilege: a fond memory of things past an analysis of the privilege following United States v. Anderson.  

PubMed

Mr. Mustokoff, Mr. Swichar, and Ms. Herzfeld address the rudiments of the attorney/client privilege, its crime-fraud exception, corporate compliance programs, the United States government's quest for voluntary disclosure, and how those principles have been affected by United States v. Anderson. PMID:11430217

Mustokoff, M M; Swichar, J L; Herzfeld, C R

2000-01-01

116

Grid oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.

Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.

1988-01-01

117

Grid Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this interactive Shockwave applet students practice recognizing various types of numbers, including factors, multiples, and prime numbers. Each level presents several grids of numbers, each with a specific rule. Users select all numbers in the grid that satisfy the rule. Level 1 involves parity (odd/even) and multiplication facts of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10. Level 2 includes multiplication facts up to 10 x 10, primes, and square numbers. Level 3 also covers powers of 2, triangle numbers less than 100, and lower cube numbers. A Key Ideas window explains each type of number. Cross Number puzzle printouts are available for further practice.

2000-01-01

118

Raising Male Privilege Awareness and Reducing Sexism: An Evaluation of Diversity Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the impact of women's studies courses provides evidence of student changes such as greater agreement with feminist and egalitarian attitudes, lower prejudice against women, and increased activism. Using a pre- and posttest design, the current studies assess students' awareness of male privilege, prejudice against women, support…

Case, Kim A.

2007-01-01

119

An Immunologically Privileged Retinal Antigen Elicits Tolerance: Major Role for Central Selection Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunologically privileged retinal antigens can serve as targets of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a model for human uveitis. The tolerance status of susceptible strains, whose target antigen is not expressed in the thymus at detectable levels, is unclear. Here, we address this issue directly by analyzing the consequences of genetic deficiency versus sufficiency of a uveitogenic retinal antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding

Dody Avichezer; Rafael S. Grajewski; Chi-Chao Chan; Mary J. Mattapallil; Phyllis B. Silver; James A. Raber; Gregory I. Liou; Barbara Wiggert; Giavonni M. Lewis; Larry A. Donoso; Rachel R. Caspi

2003-01-01

120

Privileged Treatment of Toddlers: Cultural Aspects of Individual Choice and Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the idea that toddlers in some communities are accorded a privileged status in which they are allowed what they want, assumed not yet to "understand" how to cooperate. U.S. middle-class and Guatemalan Mayan mothers and 3- to 5-year-old siblings were observed while the siblings and toddlers (14-20 months) both sought access to…

Mosier, Christine E.; Rogoff, Barbara

2003-01-01

121

Teaching White Privilege to White Students Can Mean Saying Good-Bye to Positive Student Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the negative impact that teaching antiracism can have on teaching careers when students evaluate their efforts and abilities. The published literature abounds with anecdotes about negative student reactions to antiracism teaching, particularly when it involves teaching White students about White privilege. Students often…

Boatright-Horowitz, Su L.; Soeung, Sojattra

2009-01-01

122

Rapid and Convenient Synthesis of the 1,4-Dihydropyridine Privileged Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A short, semi-microscale synthesis of two 1,4-dihydropyridine drug analogues via a Hantzsch reaction is described, which is appropriate for a second-year undergraduate organic laboratory. Products are specifically chosen to highlight the biological relevance of this compound type while introducing the notion of a privileged structure.…

Cheung, Lawrence L. W.; Styler, Sarah A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

2010-01-01

123

Health Care: Most Community and Migrant Health Center Physicians Have Hospital Privileges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most Community and Migrant Health Center (C/MHC) physicians (82 percent) have admitting privileges at area hospitals. According to C/MHC officials, those that do not, often have inpatient practice, (2) they do not meet a hospital's professional criteria, ...

1992-01-01

124

43 CFR 5511.2-1 - Free use privilege; cutting by agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Free use privilege; cutting by agent. 5511.2-1 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.2-1 Free use...

2013-10-01

125

Addressing Privilege and Oppression in Counselor Training and Practice: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored how 16 counselors conceptualize and address issues of privilege and oppression in the counseling session as well as how they perceive their training with respect to these constructs. In an effort to bridge multicultural training and counselor practice, implications for counselor training are provided based on the…

Hays, Danica G.; Dean, Jennifer K.; Chang, Catherine Y.

2007-01-01

126

Changes in Diversity Course Student Prejudice and Attitudes toward Heterosexual Privilege and Gay Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…

Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

2010-01-01

127

Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage among Diversity Course Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…

Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana

2010-01-01

128

Collapse and Restoration of MHC Class-I-Dependent Immune Privilege  

PubMed Central

The collapse of major histocompatiblity complex (MHC) class-I-dependent immune privilege can lead to autoimmune disease or fetal rejection. Pragmatic and instructive models are needed to clarify the as yet obscure controls of MHC class I down-regulation in situ, to dissect the principles of immune privilege generation, maintenance, and collapse as well as to develop more effective strategies for immune privilege restoration. Here, we propose that human scalp hair follicles, which are abundantly available and easily studied, are ideally suited for this purpose: interferon-? induces ectopic MHC class I expression in the constitutively MHC class-I-negative hair matrix epithelium of organ-cultured anagen hair bulbs, likely via interferon regulatory factor-1, along with up-regulation of the MHC class I pathway molecules ?2microglobulin and transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP-2). In the first report to identify natural immunomodulators capable of down-regulating MHC class I expression in situ in a normal, neuroectoderm-derived human tissue, we show that ectopic MHC class I expression in human anagen hair bulbs can be normalized by treatment with ?-MSH, IGF-1, or TGF-?1, all of which are locally generated, as well as by FK506. These agents are promising candidates for immune privilege restoration and for suppressing MHC class I expression where this is clinically desired (eg, in alopecia areata, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune uveitis, mumps orchitis, and fetal or allograft rejection).

Ito, Taisuke; Ito, Natsuho; Bettermann, Albrecht; Tokura, Yoshiki; Takigawa, Masahiro; Paus, Ralf

2004-01-01

129

Privilege and Belonging: The Quest to Make the Society of Counseling Psychology More Welcoming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this rejoinder, we advance the dialogue stimulated by our major contribution (Smith et al., 2012) in which we present the findings from a survey of early career professionals (ECPs) in Division 17, the Society of Counseling Psychology. We respond to the reactants' concerns and observations using the lenses of privilege and belonging to guide…

Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant; Levy, Jacob J.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

2012-01-01

130

Oppositional Consciousness Among the Privileged: Remaking Religion in the Central America Solidarity Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many movements are strengthened by the support of outside parties yet we know little about how members of privileged groups develop an insurgent mentality. In this article, I explain how some white, middle class North Americans developed oppositional consciousness that led them to resist U.S. policy toward Central America. I argue that solidarity organizers, many of whom were former missionaries,

Sharon Erickson Nepstad

2007-01-01

131

Privileged to Educate: Katharine Drexel and Catholic Social Teaching--An Embodied Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Katharine Drexel was an important educator who taught profound lessons to the Roman Catholic Church and American society about the responsibility of privilege and the irresponsibility of prejudice. As a professed nun dedicated to the education of Black and Native Americans, she taught both intentionally and by example. Religious educators, seeking…

Lipperini, Patricia T.

2013-01-01

132

Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage Among Diversity Course Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students (N = 143) in a general diversity course completed identical surveys during the

Kim Case; Briana Stewart

2009-01-01

133

The Role of Privilege as Identity in Adolescents' Beliefs about Homelessness, Opportunity, and Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods study investigated the impact of learning about homelessness on the civic development of privileged adolescents. Pre-post surveys, classroom observations, and qualitative interviews revealed that the participating adolescents developed a more complex understanding of the factors that contribute to homelessness; however, this…

Seider, Scott

2011-01-01

134

Twelve-Month-Olds Privilege Words over Other Linguistic Sounds in an Associative Learning Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether 12-month-old infants privilege words over other linguistic stimuli in an associative learning task. Sixty-four infants were presented with sets of either word-object, communicative sound-object, or consonantal sound-object pairings until they habituated. They were then tested on a "switch" in the sound to determine whether they…

MacKenzie, Heather; Graham, Susan A.; Curtin, Suzanne

2011-01-01

135

"With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility": Privileged Students' Conceptions of Justice-Oriented Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do students from privileged communities respond to educational efforts encouraging them to become justice-oriented citizens? Observational and interview data collected during a semester-long case study of eleven high school students in a social studies class at an elite private school reveal four markedly different interpretations of their…

Swalwell, Katy

2013-01-01

136

Privilege of whiteness: adolescent male students' resistance to racism in an Australian classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I explore links between racism and ‘whiteness’ within hegemonic masculine discourses. I examine ways in which adolescent male students construct their own identities within a privileged white position. I acknowledge whiteness as a racial issue and interrogate different forms of whiteness through students' narratives. Adolescent white male students in my research often acknowledge the existence of racism

Helen Hatchell

2004-01-01

137

Conflict of interest and privilege in clinical and medicolegal photography: A short summary.  

PubMed

Abstract A clinical photographer's work can have legal consequences. Conflict of interest and privilege are two areas where this can be observed. As healthcare professionals we need to be aware of the impact of the law on our professional practice. PMID:24773024

Bryson, David

2014-05-01

138

From Student Resistance to Embracing the Sociological Imagination: Unmasking Privilege, Social Conventions, and Racism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses experiences in teaching the meaning and value of the sociological imagination to a group of ethnically and economically privileged students. Describes an assignment asking students to critically assess agendas, fallacies, and consequences of scientific racism. Finds evaluations reflect that the assignment conveyed that sociological…

Haddad, Angela T.; Lieberman, Leonard

2002-01-01

139

"The Smokescreen of Meritocracy": Elite Education in Ireland and the Reproduction of Class Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite generally being neglected in sociological research, the study of elite schooling provides valuable insights into how educational exclusion operates. The predominance of the privately educated in key leadership positions highlights the extent to which such exclusive schools act as conduits of privilege, where they not alone determine a…

Kennedy, Margaret; Power, Martin J.

2010-01-01

140

Safe Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote access from outside of NASA centers. A SAFE enabled IPG can enable IPG capabilities to be available to NASA mission design teams across different NASA center and partner company firewalls. This paper will first discuss some of the potential security issues for IPG to work across NASA center firewalls. We will then present the SAFE federated security model. Finally we will present the concept of the architecture of a SAFE enabled IPG and how it can benefit NASA mission development.

Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

141

Grid welding fixture for a spacer grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular grid welding fixture for a spacer grid that facilitates full grid laser welding of a spacer grid in one setup is disclosed. The modular design allows for partial implementation of each weld type. A base plate is used for mounting to the positioning\\/rotational plate of the welding system. A removable sub-plate received in the base plate is used

M. W. Anderson; J. S. Whitt

1995-01-01

142

The Grid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The class forms a "Presidential Task Force" for a week, empowered by the president to find answers and make recommendations concerning the future of the national power grid. Task force members conduct daily debriefings with their research team and prepare a report and presentation of their findings for the president, using an actual policy document as a guide. Although this activity is geared towards fifth-grade and older students and Internet research capabilities are required, some portions may be appropriate for younger students.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

143

Commodity Grid Kit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Commodity Grid (CoG) Kits allow Grid users, Grid application developers, and Grid administrators to use, program, and administer Grids from a higher-level framework. The Java and Python CoG Kits are good examples. These kits allow for easy and rapid Grid application development. They encourage collaborative code reuse and avoid the duplication of effort among problem solving environments, science portals, Grid middleware, and collaboratory pilots.

Von Laszewski, Gregor

144

Grid Service Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on both Grid and Web services technologies, the Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) defines mechanisms for creating, managing, and exchanging information among entities called Grid services. Succinctly, a Grid service is a Web service that conforms to a set of conventions (interfaces and behaviors) that define how a client interacts with a Grid service. These conventions, and other OGSA

Steven Tuecke; Karl Czajkowski; Ian Foster; Jeffrey Frey; Steve Graham; Carl Kesselman

145

Examining our privileges and oppressions: incorporating an intersectionality paradigm into nursing.  

PubMed

An intersectionality paradigm is a means by which nurses can attend to issues of oppression and privilege within their practice and profession. Intersectionality is introduced as an essential theory to help debunk the hegemony of the 'white, middle class' perspective that often directs nursing research, practice, and education. The values and benefits of using an intersectionality paradigm in nursing are shown through recent research done with Aboriginal women. These findings contribute to an increased understanding of the importance and necessity of attending to the power relations that dominate nursing care encounters and influence the way nurses provide care. By acknowledging and responding to the presence of privilege and oppression and the associated power dynamics within the therapeutic encounter, nursing can strive further in helping to alleviate social injustices and health disparities that arise from unequal power relations. PMID:21281393

Van Herk, Kimberley A; Smith, Dawn; Andrew, Caroline

2011-03-01

146

Regulation, counter-regulation, and immunotherapy of autoimmune responses to immunologically privileged retinal antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our interests revolve around the study of biological mechanisms regulating self-tolerance to immunologically privileged retinal\\u000a proteins that serve as targets in sight-threatening autoimmune uveitic disease. These studies are aimed at understanding how\\u000a selftolerance to these antigens develops during ontogeny and is maintained during adulthood, the processes involved in its\\u000a pathological breakdown, the regulatory mechanisms that bring about remission and recovery,

Rachel R. Caspi

2003-01-01

147

The salivary glands as a privileged site of cytomegalovirus immune evasion and persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salivary glands (SG) provide a haven for persistent cytomegalovirus replication, and in this regard are a privileged site\\u000a of virus immune evasion. The murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) model has provided insight into the immunological environment of\\u000a the SG and the unqiue virus–host relationship of this organ. In response to MCMV infection, a robust T cell-mediated immune\\u000a response is elicited, comprised

Ann E. Campbell; Victoria J. Cavanaugh; Jacquelyn S. Slater

2008-01-01

148

Parental Reasoning, Denying Privileges, Yelling, and Spanking: Ethnic Differences and Associations with Child Externalizing Behavior  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Objective This study was designed to examine whether African American and European American mothers differ in their discipline use when reasoning, denying privileges, yelling, and spanking are considered simultaneously and whether there are ethnic group differences in how these four forms of discipline are associated with child externalizing behavior. Design Structural equation models were used to examine relations between children's externalizing behavior in kindergarten (age 5), mothers' discipline in grades 1-3 (ages 6-8), and children's externalizing behavior in grade 4 (age 9) in a sample of 585 mothers and children. Results African American and European American mothers showed the same rank order frequency of reported use of each of the four forms of discipline, most frequently using reasoning, followed by yelling, denying privileges, and least frequently spanking. However, European American mothers more frequently reported using three of the four forms of discipline than did African American mothers, with no ethnic differences in the frequency with which mothers reported spanked. For European American children, higher levels of teacher-reported child externalizing in kindergarten predicted mothers' more frequent report of denying privileges, yelling, and spanking in grades 1-3; only spanking was associated with more child externalizing behaviors in grade 4. For African American children, teacher-reported child externalizing in kindergarten was unrelated to mothers' report of discipline in grades 1-3; considering predictions from discipline to grade 4 child externalizing, only denying privileges was predictive. Conclusions European American and African American families differ in links between children's teacher-reported externalizing behaviors and subsequent mother-reported discipline as well as links between mother-reported discipline and children's subsequent teacher-reported externalizing.

Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

2012-01-01

149

Inducible immune regulation following autoimmune disease in the immune-privileged eye.  

PubMed

The immune-privileged eye has the potential to induce regulatory immunity along with local mechanisms of immunosuppression. Rodent models of human autoimmune uveoretinitis [experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU)] recover without spontaneous recurrence of uveitis, which differs from uveitis in some humans. This raises the possibility that the mechanism of immune privilege in the rodent eye can reimpose itself during autoimmune uveoretinitis and re-establish tolerance to autoantigen. To investigate this possibility, we examined the spleens of EAU-recovered mice for regulatory immunity. We detected regulatory immunity when we adoptively transferred post-EAU spleen cells into other mice immunized for EAU. We could not detect this regulatory immunity in enucleated mice nor in naive mice. Moreover, unlike the mechanisms of anterior chamber-associated immune deviation, the suppression was only mediated by post-EAU CD4+ T cells, which required activation with autoantigen presented by post-EAU spleen antigen-presenting cells (APC). Our results demonstrate that when the immune-privileged ocular microenvironment recovers from an autoimmune response, it has influenced systemic immunity to retinal autoantigen by affecting APC and mediating induction of potential regulatory CD4+ T cells laying in wait in the post-EAU spleen for restimulation. PMID:15647326

Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Namba, Kenichi; Taylor, Andrew W

2005-04-01

150

Sertoli Cell-Specific Deletion of the Androgen Receptor Compromises Testicular Immune Privilege in Mice1  

PubMed Central

In the mammalian testis, meiotic and postmeiotic germ cell antigens are granted immune privilege. Both local immune suppression and specialized intercellular junctions between somatic Sertoli cells have been proposed to contribute to a highly restricted and effective blood-testis barrier (BTB) that helps maintain tolerance to germ cell antigens. Several studies have suggested that androgens play a role in immune suppression, although direct evidence for this is lacking. We previously reported that Sertoli cell-specific ablation of the androgen receptor (Ar) decreases expression of Cldn3, an androgen-regulated gene and component of Sertoli cell tight junctions, and increases the permeability of the BTB to biotin, a small-molecular-weight tracer. The physiological consequences of Sertoli cell-specific Ar (S-Ar) ablation on immune privilege are unknown. Here we show that in the testes of S-Ar mutant mice, the ultrastructure of Sertoli cell tight junctions is defective and testicular IgG levels are elevated. The interstitium of S-Ar mutant testes becomes populated with macrophages, neutrophils, plasma cells, and eosinophils, and serum samples of mutant mice contain antibodies against germ cell antigens. Together, these results suggest that Sertoli cell-specific deletion of the androgen receptor results in loss of testicular immune privilege. Suppressed levels of androgen signaling may be a contributing factor in idiopathic male infertility.

Meng, Jing; Greenlee, Anne R.; Taub, Chloe J.; Braun, Robert E.

2011-01-01

151

Immune privilege of the CNS is not the consequence of limited antigen sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central nervous system (CNS) immune privilege is complex, and it is still not understood how CNS antigens are sampled by the peripheral immune system under steady state conditions. To compare antigen sampling from immune-privileged or nonprivileged tissues, we created transgenic mice with oligodendrocyte or gut epithelial cell expression of an EGFP-tagged fusion protein containing ovalbumin (OVA) antigenic peptides and tested peripheral anti-OVA peptide-specific sentinel OT-I and OT-II T cell activation. We report that oligodendrocyte or gut antigens are sampled similarly, as determined by comparable levels of OT-I T cell activation. However, activated T cells do not access the CNS under steady state conditions. These data show that afferent immunity is normally intact as there is no barrier at the antigen sampling level, but that efferent immunity is restricted. To understand how this one-sided surveillance contributes to CNS immune privilege will help us define mechanisms of CNS autoimmune disease initiation.

Harris, Melissa G.; Hulseberg, Paul; Ling, Changying; Karman, Jozsef; Clarkson, Benjamin D.; Harding, Jeffrey S.; Zhang, Mengxue; Sandor, Adam; Christensen, Kelsey; Nagy, Andras; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

2014-03-01

152

Immune privilege of the CNS is not the consequence of limited antigen sampling.  

PubMed

Central nervous system (CNS) immune privilege is complex, and it is still not understood how CNS antigens are sampled by the peripheral immune system under steady state conditions. To compare antigen sampling from immune-privileged or nonprivileged tissues, we created transgenic mice with oligodendrocyte or gut epithelial cell expression of an EGFP-tagged fusion protein containing ovalbumin (OVA) antigenic peptides and tested peripheral anti-OVA peptide-specific sentinel OT-I and OT-II T cell activation. We report that oligodendrocyte or gut antigens are sampled similarly, as determined by comparable levels of OT-I T cell activation. However, activated T cells do not access the CNS under steady state conditions. These data show that afferent immunity is normally intact as there is no barrier at the antigen sampling level, but that efferent immunity is restricted. To understand how this one-sided surveillance contributes to CNS immune privilege will help us define mechanisms of CNS autoimmune disease initiation. PMID:24651727

Harris, Melissa G; Hulseberg, Paul; Ling, Changying; Karman, Jozsef; Clarkson, Benjamin D; Harding, Jeffrey S; Zhang, Mengxue; Sandor, Adam; Christensen, Kelsey; Nagy, Andras; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

2014-01-01

153

14 CFR 61.413 - What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...weight-shift-control aircraft rating...privileges; (f) A flight review or operating...weight-shift-control aircraft rating or a flight instructor certificate...weight-shift-control aircraft rating or a flight instructor...

2014-01-01

154

36 CFR 902.54 - Trade secrets and commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Records § 902.54 Trade secrets and commercial or financial...privileged or confidential. (a) Trade secrets and commercial or financial...section is to authorize the protection of trade secrets and commercial or...

2010-07-01

155

25 CFR 900.199 - Does FTCA coverage extend to health care practitioners to whom staff privileges have been...  

...false Does FTCA coverage extend to health care practitioners to whom staff privileges have been extended in contractor health care facilities operated under a self-determination...199 Does FTCA coverage extend to health care practitioners to whom staff...

2014-04-01

156

Open Science Grid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experim...

R. Pordes

2005-01-01

157

Overexpression of Fas Ligand Does Not Confer Immune Privilege to a Pancreatic ? Tumor Cell Line (?TC-3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Fas ligand (Fas-L) is thought to provide immune privilege to specific tissues and tumors by inducing an apoptotic signal of cytotoxic T cells expressing its Fas receptor.Purpose.The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether an immortalized insulin-secreting cell line (?TC-3) gains immune privilege by inducing overexpression of Fas-L.Methods.A lipofection technique was used to transfect a ?TC-3 tumor cell line

Shinya Okamoto; Shigeru Takamizawa; Warren Bishop; Judy Wen; Ken Kimura; Anthony Sandler

1999-01-01

158

Data Grid Management Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.

Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne

2004-01-01

159

Approach for dynamic grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach is presented for the generation of two-dimensional, structured, dynamic grids utilizing grid speeds computed from the time differentiation of a set of grid equations. In application for the computation of unsteady, inviscid flows, it is shown that the approach is more efficient and accurate than an approach in which the grid speeds are computed using a finite difference of the grid with respect to time.

Slater, J. W.; Liou, M. S.; Hindman, R. G.

1995-01-01

160

Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for generating an elliptic grid in generalized coordinates in two or three dimensions, where one or more decay parameters near a boundary segment of a grid are determined as part of the grid solution, rather than being prescribed initially by a user. The decay parameters may vary with one or more generalized coordinates and determine the rate(s) at which separation distances between adjacent grid lines change as one moves toward or away from a grid boundary segment.

Kaul, Upender K. (Editor)

2007-01-01

161

Good news-bad news: the Yin and Yang of immune privilege in the eye  

PubMed Central

The eye and the brain are prototypical tissues manifesting immune privilege (IP) in which immune responses to foreign antigens, particularly alloantigens are suppressed, and even completely inhibited. Explanations for this phenomenon are numerous and mostly reflect our evolving understanding of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning immunological responses generally. IP is now viewed as a property of many tissues and the level of expression of IP varies not only with the tissue but with the nature of the foreign antigen and changes in the limited conditions under which privilege can operate as a mechanism of immunological tolerance. As a result, IP functions normally as a homeostatic mechanism preserving normal function in tissues, particularly those with highly specialized function and limited capacity for renewal such as the eye and brain. However, IP is relatively easily bypassed in the face of a sufficiently strong immunological response, and the privileged tissues may be at greater risk of collateral damage because its natural defenses are more easily breached than in a fully immunocompetent tissue which rapidly rejects foreign antigen and restores integrity. This two-edged sword cuts its swathe through the eye: under most circumstances, IP mechanisms such as blood–ocular barriers, intraocular immune modulators, induction of T regulatory cells, lack of lymphatics, and other properties maintain tissue integrity; however, when these are breached, various degrees of tissue damage occur from severe tissue destruction in retinal viral infections and other forms of uveoretinal inflammation, to less severe inflammatory responses in conditions such as macular degeneration. Conversely, ocular IP and tumor-related IP can combine to permit extensive tumor growth and increased risk of metastasis thus threatening the survival of the host.

Forrester, John V.; Xu, Heping

2012-01-01

162

Contribution of IL-12/IL-35 Common Subunit p35 to Maintaining the Testicular Immune Privilege.  

PubMed

The testis is an organ with immune privilege. The comprehensive blood-testis barrier formed by Sertoli cells protects autoimmunogenic spermatozoa and spermatids from attack by the body's immune system. The interleukin (IL)-6/IL-12 family cytokines IL-12 (p35/p40), IL-23 (p19/p40), IL-27 (p28/Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 [EBI3]), and IL-35 (p35/EBI3) play critical roles in the regulation of various immune responses, but their roles in testicular immune privilege are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated whether these cytokines are expressed in the testes and whether they function in the testicular immune privilege by using mice deficient in their subunits. Expression of EBI3 was markedly increased at both mRNA and protein levels in the testes of 10- or 12-week-old wild-type mice as compared with levels in 2-week-old mice, whereas the mRNA expression of p40 was markedly decreased and that of p35 was conserved between these two groups. Lack of EBI3, p35, and IL-12 receptor ?2 caused enhanced infiltration of lymphocytes into the testicular interstitium, with increased interferon-? expression in the testes and autoantibody production against mainly acrosomal regions of spermatids. Spermatogenic disturbance was more frequently observed in the seminiferous tubules, especially when surrounded by infiltrating lymphocytes, of these deficient mice than in those of wild-type mice. In particular, p35-deficient mice showed the most severe spermatogenic disturbance. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that endothelial cells and peritubular cells in the interstitium were highly positive for p35 at both ages, and CD163+ resident macrophages positive for p35 and EBI3, possibly producing IL-35, were also detected in the interstitium of 12-week-old mice but not those of 2-week-old mice. These results suggest that p35 helps in maintaining the testicular immune privilege, in part in an IL-35-dependent manner. PMID:24760014

Terayama, Hayato; Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Naito, Munekazu; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Shogo; Mitobe, Kana; Furusawa, Jun-Ichi; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Kezuka, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kaori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Sakabe, Kou; Itoh, Masahiro

2014-01-01

163

Contribution of IL-12/IL-35 Common Subunit p35 to Maintaining the Testicular Immune Privilege  

PubMed Central

The testis is an organ with immune privilege. The comprehensive blood–testis barrier formed by Sertoli cells protects autoimmunogenic spermatozoa and spermatids from attack by the body’s immune system. The interleukin (IL)-6/IL-12 family cytokines IL-12 (p35/p40), IL-23 (p19/p40), IL-27 (p28/Epstein-Barr virus?induced gene 3 [EBI3]), and IL-35 (p35/EBI3) play critical roles in the regulation of various immune responses, but their roles in testicular immune privilege are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated whether these cytokines are expressed in the testes and whether they function in the testicular immune privilege by using mice deficient in their subunits. Expression of EBI3 was markedly increased at both mRNA and protein levels in the testes of 10- or 12-week-old wild-type mice as compared with levels in 2-week-old mice, whereas the mRNA expression of p40 was markedly decreased and that of p35 was conserved between these two groups. Lack of EBI3, p35, and IL-12 receptor ?2 caused enhanced infiltration of lymphocytes into the testicular interstitium, with increased interferon-? expression in the testes and autoantibody production against mainly acrosomal regions of spermatids. Spermatogenic disturbance was more frequently observed in the seminiferous tubules, especially when surrounded by infiltrating lymphocytes, of these deficient mice than in those of wild-type mice. In particular, p35-deficient mice showed the most severe spermatogenic disturbance. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that endothelial cells and peritubular cells in the interstitium were highly positive for p35 at both ages, and CD163+ resident macrophages positive for p35 and EBI3, possibly producing IL-35, were also detected in the interstitium of 12-week-old mice but not those of 2-week-old mice. These results suggest that p35 helps in maintaining the testicular immune privilege, in part in an IL-35-dependent manner.

Terayama, Hayato; Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Naito, Munekazu; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Shogo; Mitobe, Kana; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Kezuka, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kaori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Sakabe, Kou; Itoh, Masahiro

2014-01-01

164

Star Power: An Experiential Learning Exercise to Foster Ecological Perspectives on Power, Privilege, and Oppression  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to describe the utility of Star Power, as an experiential learning exercise applied in a community psychology undergraduate course. This exercise simulates systems of power, privilege, and oppression while fostering an ecological perspective that raises students’ awareness and knowledge about power differentials within society. The simulation of trading and lawmaking works best with 18 to 35 students and takes approximately 80 minutes to conduct. This paper highlights three representative student perspectives concerning their participation and experience with Star Power. Strategies for facilitating class discussion are also discussed.

Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Campbell, Christina; Landstra, Kalleigh; Davis, Se'ara; Vandegrift, Cortney; Taylor, Amanda

2014-01-01

165

Spacer grid insert  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved floating spacer grid in combination with a nuclear fuel assembly of the type having parallel fuel rods and at least one guide tube maintained in a laterally spaced array by axially spaced spacer grids. The fuel rods and guide tube extend through the spacer grids. The guide tube has a uniform circular outer surface, the spacer grids are movably mounted to the guide tube to permit axial displacement of the spacer grids relative the guide tube. Saddles form from and within the spacer grids at top and bottom edges of the grids, a spacer sleeve positioned concentrically about the guide tube intermediate the adjacent ones of the axially-spaced spacer grids for limiting axial displacement of the spacer grids, and the spacer sleeve has opposite ends closely spaced from the edges of the adjacent spacer grids to define a displacement space. The improvement comprises in combination; tubular inserts, each insert mounted to the guide tube within each of the spacer grids. Each insert includes a tubular portion positioned by the saddles to circumscribe the guide tube within the spacer grid and a circular flange portion at one end of the tubular portion. The flange portion is positioned in the displacement space and abutted to the edge of the spacer grid on the saddles, intermediate the spacer grid and spacer sleeve, and the circular flange portion has substantially the same outer diameter as the spacer sleeve thus precluding direct contact of the spacer sleeve with the spacer grid. The inserts carry all axial through-grid loads and prevent a horizontal vector force component applied against the grids.

King, R.A.; Larson, J.G.; Walton, L.A.

1987-07-07

166

Grid Computing Portals Lecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Grid portals: purpose, application-based portals, historical examples, GPDK, Gridport, etc., OGCE2/gridsphere portal, portal implementation, portlets, JSR 168, portlet source and deployment files.

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

167

Method of grid generation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM)

2002-01-01

168

Smart Power Grid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW provides an overview of the existing United States power grid, and envisions a smart power grid that would prevent problems, such as blackouts, and reduce energy waste and pollution.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-03-31

169

Chimera Grid Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

2005-01-01

170

Hexagonal Grid Drawings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a linear algorithm to draw triconnected planar graphs of degree 3 planar on a linear-sized hexagonal grid such that in at most one edge are bends. This algorithm can be used to draw this class of graphs planar with straight lines on a n\\/2 × n\\/2 grid, improving the best known grid bounds by a

Goos Kant

1992-01-01

171

Approach for Dynamic Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An approach is presented for the generation of two-dimensional, structured, dynamic grids. The grid motion may be due to the motion of the boundaries of the computational domain or to the adaptation of the grid to the transient, physical solution. A time-...

J. W. Slater M. Liou R. G. Hindman

1994-01-01

172

Spacer grid insert  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved floating spacer grid in combination with a nuclear fuel assembly of the type having parallel fuel rods and at least one guide tube maintained in a laterally spaced array by axially spaced spacer grids. The fuel rods and guide tube extend through the spacer grids. The guide tube has a uniform circular outer surface, the

R. A. King; J. G. Larson; L. A. Walton

1987-01-01

173

Grid welding fixture for a spacer grid  

SciTech Connect

A modular grid welding fixture for a spacer grid that facilitates full grid laser welding of a spacer grid in one setup is disclosed. The modular design allows for partial implementation of each weld type. A base plate is used for mounting to the positioning/rotational plate of the welding system. A removable sub-plate received in the base plate is used to position the grid strips for proper location for welding. A top fixture plate is aligned with the base plate and provides for mounting of a second sub-plate if required. Side plates with spring loaded pressure pads that are hinged to the top fixture plate apply uniform pressure to the outer grid strips during processing. The base plate, top plate, side plate, and pressure pads are provided with a plurality of through holes to allow access of the laser beam for welding. Corner clips are used to insure contact of the overlapping sections of the outer grid strips for proper corner welding. 4 figs.

Anderson, M.W.; Whitt, J.S.

1995-03-14

174

Grid Computing Lecture - Globus 4.0 grid services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Globus 4.0 grid services: Using Web services for grid computing, stateful web services, Grid computing standards, Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA), Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF), programming GT 4.0 grid services, GT 4.0 container.

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

175

Disrupting privilege, identity, and meaning: A reflexive dance of environmental education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By inviting educators from diverse backgrounds to participate in creative conversations, I had hoped to reflect on experiences that had helped construct our theories of environmental education, and inform practice. I sought consistency across the espoused ethics of co-participants, namely critical perspectives grounded in environmental justice. However, this quest was interrupted by a growing awareness of the interference of power dynamics between myself and the other participants, and of my own commitment to respect the stories being told. This narrative describes my "dance" of meaning making. The community dance examining privilege, identity and meaning is a study of how I may be contributing to the same oppressive situations I passionately strive to work against. Concepts of knowledge, power, and identity ebbed and flowed within stories drawn from the mountains of Tanzania to the hills of Colombia, and from the frozen shores of Kirkland Lake to the trout filled streams of Karman, Iran. Making meaning is itself an act of power and privilege, so I danced to make room for multiple understandings of these stories, of environmental education, and of research. This work offers an experience of disruption that raises questions and broadens the inclusion of people, ideas and other life into "accepted" research and pedagogical practices. Conventions embedded within research and education were disrupted throughout this reflexive process. As the author of this text, I was uncomfortable with the role of being the dominant voice, and consciously chose not to impose my interpretation on the stories shared by co-participants. The struggle to resist the very privilege in which my own education practice and this research process are so deeply steeped revealed normative forces that often threaten to undermine attempts by educators and researchers to act according to critical theories and environmental justice ethics. To accept the invitation to dance with the text is to step into the rhythmic intricacies of a collaborative process of reflexion. Circling hand-in-hand and giving weight to fellow dancers' movements shifts individuals from being carriers of truths to being community members sharing in the collaborative process of dancing the world into existence.

Neilson, Alison Laurie

176

Grid Quality Measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third chapter discusses very important issues of grid generation, connected with a description of grid quality measures in forms suitable for formulating grid techniques. The definitions of the grid quality measures are based on the metric tensors and on the relations between the metric elements considered in Chap. 2. Special attention is paid to the invariants of the metric tensors, which are the basic elements for the definition of many important grid quality measures. Clear algebraic and geometric interpretations of the invariants are presented.

Liseikin, Vladimir D.

177

Regulation, counter-regulation, and immunotherapy of autoimmune responses to immunologically privileged retinal antigens.  

PubMed

Our interests revolve around the study of biological mechanisms regulating self-tolerance to immunologically privileged retinal proteins that serve as targets in sight-threatening autoimmune uveitic disease. These studies are aimed at understanding how selftolerance to these antigens develops during ontogeny and is maintained during adulthood, the processes involved in its pathological breakdown, the regulatory mechanisms that bring about remission and recovery, and, finally, how we can utilize knowledge of these processes for therapeutic restoration of tolerance. To answer these questions, we use the experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) model in rats and mice. Because of the commonality of underlying immunological mechanisms, lessons and concepts learned in experimental ocular models are applicable to other disease entities, and, conversely, data gleaned from other autoimmune diseases are applicable to the study of uveitis. PMID:12857964

Caspi, Rachel R

2003-01-01

178

Antitumor psoropermum xanthones and sarcomelicope acridones: privileged structures implied in DNA alkylation.  

PubMed

Fused isopropylfuran and dimethylpyran units are privileged structures present in numerous bioactive natural products exemplified, in the field of anticancer drugs, by the furanoxanthone psorospermin and the pyranoacridone acronycine. Psorospermin binds to the N-7 position of the guanine units in the presence of topoisomerase II. In contrast, acronycine derivatives such as cis-1,2-diacetoxy-1,2-dihydrobenzo[b]acronycine alkylate the 2-amino group of DNA guanine residues in the minor groove. Hybrid compounds associating the acridone or benzo[b]acridone chromophore of acronycine derivatives and the epoxyfuran alkylating unit present in psorospermin also display very potent antiproliferative activities, alkylating DNA guanine units at position N-7 in the major groove, as natural xanthones belonging to the psorospermin series. PMID:19191562

Nguyen, Hung The; Lallemand, Marie-Christine; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina; Michel, Sylvie; Tillequin, François

2009-03-27

179

Understanding The Smart Grid  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology providers involved in the Smart Grid and provides profiles on them including contact information, company overviews, technology reviews, and key Smart Grid activities.

NONE

2007-11-15

180

Privileged Communication--Rights and Responsibilities of College Counselors Under Wisconsin Law. Volume 4, Number 6. Counseling Center Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected legal responsibilities of counselors under the present laws of the State of Wisconsin are reviewed. Specifically, statutes concerning privileged communication and confidentiality, drug abuse and abortion are printed in full or in part, and major questions and basic legal principles relevant to them are examined as they pertain to the…

Nolting, Earl; Leege, William

181

White Women Teaching White Women about White Privilege, Race Cognizance and Social Action: Toward a Pedagogical Pragmatics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project undertaken by college professors in response to strong resistance from white female students who objected to reading and discussing white privilege. Students' stories of resistance proved to be useful springboards for reflection. Reviews key themes on student resistance in anti-racist classrooms, analyzing five stories and…

Gillespie, Diane; Ashbaugh, Leslie; DeFiore, JoAnn

2002-01-01

182

33 CFR 148.221 - How do I claim, or object to a claim, that required information is privileged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...objections must be submitted to the Commandant (CG-5P) in writing, with sufficient specificity...considered privileged. (c) The Commandant (CG-5P) determines whether to grant or deny...deadlines are not stayed. The Commandant (CG-5P) may also determine that the...

2013-07-01

183

36 CFR 902.54 - Trade secrets and commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Trade secrets and commercial or financial information...Access to Corporation Records § 902.54 Trade secrets and commercial or financial information...is privileged or confidential. (a) Trade secrets and commercial or...

2013-07-01

184

Multicultural Education and the Notion of Privilege: An Examination of White Student Attitude Shift and Identity Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the process of White attitude change around the notion of White privilege spanning the duration of a multicultural education course. Making use of constructivist grounded theory, nineteen intensive, semi-structured interviews were completed with 5 White undergraduate students enrolled in one of two sections of a multicultural…

Hammond, Cheree

2009-01-01

185

Distinctive Features Hold a Privileged Status in the Computation of Word Meaning: Implications for Theories of Semantic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present data from 2 feature verification experiments designed to determine whether distinctive features have a privileged status in the computation of word meaning. They use an attractor-based connectionist model of semantic memory to derive predictions for the experiments. Contrary to central predictions of the conceptual structure…

Cree, George S.; McNorgan, Chris; McRae, Ken

2006-01-01

186

Navigation in Grid Space with the NAS Grid Benchmarks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a navigational tool for computational grids. The navigational process is based on measuring the grid characteristics with the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) and using the measurements to assign tasks of a grid application to the grid machines. The tool allows the user to explore the grid space and to navigate the execution at a grid application to minimize its turnaround time. We introduce the notion of gridscape as a user view of the grid and show how it can be me assured by NGB, Then we demonstrate how the gridscape can be used with two different schedulers to navigate a grid application through a rudimentary grid.

Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

187

Grid enabled Service Support Environment - SSE Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SSEGrid project is an ESA/ESRIN project which started in 2009 and is executed by two Belgian companies, Spacebel and VITO, and one Dutch company, Dutch Space. The main project objectives are the introduction of a Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure at the Image Processing Centre for earth observation products at VITO and the inclusion of Grid processing services in the Service Support Environment (SSE) at ESRIN. The Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure is meant to support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators (PI) and allow the design and execution of multi-sensor applications with geographically spread data while minimising the transfer of huge volumes of data. In the first scenario, 'support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators', we aim to provide processing power close to the EO-data at the processing and archiving centres. We will allow a PI (non-Grid expert user) to upload his own algorithm, as a process, and his own auxiliary data from the SSE Portal and use them in an earth observation workflow on the SSEGrid Infrastructure. The PI can design and submit workflows using his own processes, processes made available by VITO/ESRIN and possibly processes from other users that are available on the Grid. These activities must be user-friendly and not requiring detailed knowledge about the underlying Grid middleware. In the second scenario we aim to design, implement and demonstrate a methodology to set up an earth observation processing facility, which uses large volumes of data from various geographically spread sensors. The aim is to provide solutions for problems that we face today, like wasting bandwidth by copying large volumes of data to one location. We will avoid this by processing the data where they are. The multi-mission Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure will allow developing and executing complex and massive multi-sensor data (re-)processing applications more efficiently. A workflow can be built and submitted for execution on multiple loosely coupled Grids (e.g. at VITO and at ESRIN). It is ensured that the data are processed where they are located. For this purpose the project aims to upgrade the Service Support Environment (SSE) to integrate multi-Grid processing services to be used by the PI for the systematic processing or reprocessing of EO data. For both scenarios described above, two processing modes will be available. In near real-time (NRT), or 'subscription mode', processing, the execution of a workflow is started but suspended a certain step where the workflow waits until certain data are present on the Grid. As soon as the data become available from the sensors, the execution is resumed automatically. In 'historical mode' it is assumed that the data are already present. An other main objective of the SSEGrid project is to propose new or amended versions of 'Web Processing Service' protocols that may be able to bridge geo-spatial Service Oriented Architectures and Open Grid Services Architectures. In this context we will propose the Grid Web Processing Service as an extension of the OGC WPS service to allow for the dynamic deployment of user processes (workflows or Grid processes) and auxiliary data, for the discovery of user auxiliary data, for the query of process status and process audit (execution trace, log file) and for the notification of process completion or failure.

Goor, Erwin; Paepen, Martine

2010-05-01

188

Securing smart grid technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

2013-03-01

189

ESA SpaceGRID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SpaceGRID is an ESA study aimed at identifying the potential benefits of "Grids" to the ESA community and defining a road map for the implementation of this technol- ogy within ESA. Grid technology is an emerging computing infrastructure that is intended to provide uniform access to a set of distributed, networked resources that would otherwise be incompatible. Depending on the Grid application, the resources may be large-scale computational systems, data-archives or shared facilities constituting a collaborative working environment. The SpaceGRID study spans a broad range of domains including Earth Observation, various aspects of spacecraft engineering and Solar System research (solar, STP and planetary). In this presentation we provide an overview of the aims of the SpaceGRID study and report on the requirements analysis for the Solar System research field.

Perry, C. H.; Dunkin, S.; Grande, M.; Pike, C. D.; Stewart, B.; Beco, S.; SpaceGRID Consortium

190

World Community Grid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by IBM, the World Community Grid is an ambitious public-computing network developed to bolster humanitarian research around the world. The Grid gains its power through a vast network of computers, all contributing small pieces to large research projects while they are idle. At present the Grid is supporting the Institute for Systems Biology's Human Proteome Folding Project, which will ultimately contribute to disease prevention by developing a greater understanding of the shapes of human proteins. In addition to information about this ongoing project, the Grid website contains downloadable Request for Proposals documents, and a section for Project Archives. The site also provides simple instructions for joining the Grid; several online forums; and Grid statistics including current member totals.

191

Automatic unstructured grid generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of automatic unstructured grid generators is given. These types of grids have found widespread use in computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics, computational electro-magnetics and computational thermodynamics. The following topics are treated: the methods most commonly used, the specification of desired element size\\/shape and surface definition\\/meshing. Finally, the use of automatic grid generators as an enabling technology for

Rainald Löhner

1997-01-01

192

Unstructured surface grid generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on unstructured surface grid generation are presented. Topics covered include: requirements for curves, surfaces, solids, and text; surface approximation; triangulation; advancing; projection; mapping; and parametric curves.

Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

1993-01-01

193

Grid Computing Security Lecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Security: secure connection, authentication and authorization, password authentication, symmetric (secret) and asymmetric (public/private) key cyptography, RSA algorithm.

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

194

Challenges facing production grids  

SciTech Connect

Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

195

Nuclear fuel spacer grid  

SciTech Connect

A typical embodiment of the invention provides structural support for the grids in a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Illustratively, the external surfaces of water rods or instrument tubes in a fuel assembly are provided with annular recesses. A spacer grid retainer is engaged within the recesses by means of spring loaded fingers on the retainer, in which the spring loading forces are greater than anticipated vibration forces to reduce fretting corrosion. Notches formed in the retainer secure the grid to the retainer, all in a manner that simplifies fuel assembly construction and restricts grid movement at lower cost.

Christiansen, D.W.

1980-12-16

196

Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are determined automatically as part of the solution of the defining PDEs. Depending on the shape of the boundary segments and the physical nature of the problem to be solved on the grid, the solution of the defining PDEs may provide for rates of decay to vary along and among the boundary segments and may lend itself to interpretation in terms of one or more physical quantities associated with the problem.

Kaul, Upender K.

2007-01-01

197

Construction of Pierced Hemispherical Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an easy way to construct hemispherical grids and a procedure to cut holes of any shape through the grids without distorting the grid itself. The grid material may be either stainless steel or tungsten. The grid is made from a high tr...

P. A. Taylor

1988-01-01

198

Construction of Pierced Hemispherical Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reprint describes an easy way to construct hemispherical grids and a procedure to cut holes of any shape through the grids without distorting the grid itself. Such grids may be used as filters/or accelerators. The use of high-transparency grids in th...

P. A. Taylor

1988-01-01

199

Enterprise Grid Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have to admit a great measure of sympathy for the IT populace at large, when it is confronted by the barrage of hype around grid technology, particularly within the enterprise. Individual vendors have attempted to plant their flags in the notionally virgin technological territory and proclaim it as their own, using terms such as grid, autonomic, self-healing, self-managing, adaptive,

Paul Strong

2005-01-01

200

IPG Power Grid Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation will describe what is meant by grids and then cover the current state of the IPG. This will include an overview of the middleware that is key to the operation of the grid. The presentation will then describe some of the future directions...

T. Hinke

2003-01-01

201

Smart Grid security technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security of the United States and the way of life of its citizens is dependant on the availability of the North American power grid. Much of the technology currently in use by the grid is outdated and in many cases unreliable. There have been three major blackouts in the past nine years. Further, the reliance on old technology leads

Anthony R. Metke; Randy L. Ekl

2010-01-01

202

Geometric grid generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a highly automated hexahedral grid generator based on extensive geometrical and solid modeling operations developed in response to a vision of a designer-driven one day turnaround CFD process which implies a designer-driven one hour grid generation process.

Ives, David

1995-01-01

203

Compressing Electrical Power Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we apply the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis to examining the coupling structure of an electrical power grid in order to highlight opportunities for reducing the network traffic, by identifying what are the salient data that need to be communicated between parts of the infrastructure to apply a control action. Our main finding is that typical grid

Zhifang Wang; Anna Scaglione; Robert J. Thomas

2010-01-01

204

On composite overlapping grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental principles, implementation, and applications of CMPGRD are reviewed; CMPGRD is a software package developed by Brown et al. (1988) to generate two- and three-dimensional curvilinear composite overlapping grids for flow computations. Particular attention is given to the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) on composite grids: discretization, interpolation, FDM convergence rates, and the treatment of elliptic and

David L. Brown; William D. Henshaw; Heinz-Otto Kreiss; Geoffrey Chesshire

1989-01-01

205

Internet 2 Access Grid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

Simco, Greg

2002-01-01

206

Security for grids  

SciTech Connect

Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

2005-08-14

207

Grid Computing and Applications  

ScienceCinema

'Grid' computing has emerged as an important new field, distinguished from conventional distributed computing by its focus on large-scale resource sharing, innovative applications, and, in some cases, high-performance orientation. In this talk, Dr. Foster defines this new field. First, he reviews the 'Grid problem,' which he defines as flexible, secure, coordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions, and resources - what he refers to as virtual organizations. In such settings, we encounter unique authentication, resource access, resource discovery, and other challenges. It is this class of problem that is addressed by Grid technologies. He presents an extensible and open Grid architecture, in which protocols, services, application programming interfaces, and software development kits are categorized according to their roles in enabling resource sharing. He also reviews major Grid projects worldwide and describes how they are contributing to the realization of this architecture.

208

B7-H1-induced apoptosis as a mechanism of immune privilege of corneal allografts.  

PubMed

The programmed death-1 (PD-1) costimulatory pathway has been demonstrated to play a role in the regulation of immune responses and peripheral tolerance. We investigated the role of this pathway in establishing an immune privilege status of corneal allografts in mice. B7-H1, but not B7-DC or PD-1, was expressed constitutively in the eye, i.e., cornea, iris-ciliary body, and retina. After corneal allografting, PD-1(+)CD4(+) T cells infiltrated and adhered with B7-H1(+) corneal endothelium. Blockade of PD-1 or B7-H1, but not B7-DC, led to accelerated corneal allograft rejection. In B7-H1-expressing corneal allografts, apoptosis of the infiltrating PD-1(+)CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells was observed, after which there was allograft acceptance. In contrast, B7-H1 blockade suppressed apoptosis of infiltrating PD-1(+) T cells, which led to allograft rejection. In vitro, destruction of corneal endothelial cells by alloreactive T cells was enhanced when the cornea was pretreated with anti-B7-H1 Ab. This is the first demonstration that the constitutive expression of B7-H1 plays a critical role in corneal allograft survival. B7-H1 expressed on corneal endothelial cells maintains long-term acceptance of the corneal allografts by inducing apoptosis of effector T cells within the cornea. PMID:17056517

Hori, Junko; Wang, Mingcong; Miyashita, Megumi; Tanemoto, Keiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Takemori, Toshitada; Okumura, Ko; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki

2006-11-01

209

An immunologically privileged retinal antigen elicits tolerance: major role for central selection mechanisms.  

PubMed

Immunologically privileged retinal antigens can serve as targets of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a model for human uveitis. The tolerance status of susceptible strains, whose target antigen is not expressed in the thymus at detectable levels, is unclear. Here, we address this issue directly by analyzing the consequences of genetic deficiency versus sufficiency of a uveitogenic retinal antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). IRBP-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice on a highly EAU-susceptible background were challenged with IRBP. The KO mice had greatly elevated responses to IRBP, an altered recognition of IRBP epitopes, and their primed T cells induced exacerbated disease in WT recipients. Ultrasensitive immunohistochemical staining visualized sparse IRBP-positive cells, undetectable by conventional assays, in thymi of WT (but not of KO) mice. IRBP message was PCR amplified from these cells after microdissection. Thymus transplantation between KO and WT hosts demonstrated that this level of expression is functionally relevant and sets the threshold of immune (and autoimmune) reactivity. Namely, KO recipients of WT thymi generated reduced IRBP-specific responses, and WT recipients of KO thymi developed enhanced responses and a highly exacerbated disease. Repertoire culling and thymus-dependent CD25+ T cells were implicated in this effect. Thus, uveitis-susceptible individuals display a detectable and functionally significant tolerance to their target antigen, in which central mechanisms play a prominent role. PMID:14657219

Avichezer, Dody; Grajewski, Rafael S; Chan, Chi-Chao; Mattapallil, Mary J; Silver, Phyllis B; Raber, James A; Liou, Gregory I; Wiggert, Barbara; Lewis, Giavonni M; Donoso, Larry A; Caspi, Rachel R

2003-12-01

210

Nonsuicidal self-injury among "privileged" youths: longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches to developmental process.  

PubMed

This investigation examined process-level pathways to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; e.g., self-cutting, -burning, -hitting) in 2 cohorts of suburban, upper-middle-class youths: a cross-sectional sample of 9th-12th graders (n = 1,036, 51.9% girls) on the West Coast and a longitudinal sample followed annually from the 6th through 12th grades (n = 245, 53.1% girls) on the East Coast. High rates of NSSI were found in both the cross-sectional (37.2%) and the longitudinal (26.1%) samples. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models estimated process-level pathways from perceived parental criticism to NSSI via youth-reported alienation toward parents. Pathways toward the initiation of NSSI were distinct from those accounting for its frequency. Parental criticism was associated with increased NSSI, and youth alienation toward parents emerged as a relevant process underlying this pathway, particularly for boys. The specificity of these pathways was explored by examining separate trajectories toward delinquent outcomes. The findings illustrate the prominence of NSSI among "privileged" youths, the salience of the caregiving environment in NSSI, the importance of parental alienation in explaining these relations, and the value of incorporating multiple systems in treatment approaches for adolescents who self-injure. PMID:18229983

Yates, Tuppett M; Tracy, Allison J; Luthar, Suniya S

2008-02-01

211

Autoimmune Activation toward Embryo Implantation is Rare in Immune-Privileged Human Endometrium.  

PubMed

Human embryo implantation represents embryo apposition, adhesion to the endometrial epithelium, and invasion into the stromal extracellular matrix within 1 to 2 days during days 6 to 9 after ovulation. The major molecular mechanisms mediating implantation include adhesion molecules, including mucins, selectins, integrins, and cadherins; extracellular matrix components, such as laminins and collagens and their degrading enzymes; phospholipids and immune regulatory molecules, including prostaglandins, cytokines; and immunosuppressive molecules expressed by invasive trophoblasts and endometrial cells. Many of these molecules are the targets for autoimmune reactions in autoimmune diseases and cancer; however, the relevance of those in immune-mediated implantation failure has not been defined. In this review, we will describe the molecules involved in 2-day event of human embryo implantation, which may also be involved in immune system activation and subsequently cause immune-mediated implantation failure. We speculate that the data in the literature are limited concerning antiendometrial antibodies because the endometrium might be taken as an immune-privileged site that avoids autoimmune activation that might harm the implantation process. Antibodies affecting human fertility in ways other than impairing implantation are outside the scope of the current article and will not be discussed. PMID:24959819

Haller-Kikkatalo, Kadri; Altmäe, Signe; Tagoma, Aili; Uibo, Raivo; Salumets, Andres

2014-09-01

212

Privileged Coding of Convex Shapes in Human Object-Selective Cortex  

PubMed Central

What is the neural code for object shape? Despite intensive research, the precise nature of object representations in high-level visual cortex remains elusive. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that convex shapes are encoded in a privileged fashion by human lateral occipital complex (LOC), a region that has been implicated in object recognition. On each trial, two convex or two concave shapes that were either identical or different were presented sequentially. Critically, the convex and concave stimuli were the same except for a binocular disparity change that reversed the figure–ground assignment. The fMRI response in LOC for convex stimuli was higher for different than that for identical shape pairs, indicating sensitivity to differences in convex shape. However, when the same stimuli were seen as concave, the response for different and identical pairs was the same, indicating lower sensitivity to changes in concave shape than convex shape. This pattern was more pronounced in the anterior than that in the posterior portion of LOC. These results suggest that convex contours could be important elements in cortical object representations.

Haushofer, Johannes; Baker, Chris I.; Livingstone, Margaret S.; Kanwisher, Nancy

2008-01-01

213

On Multigrid for Overlapping Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe various aspects of solving elliptic boundary value problems on overlapping grids. We describe the Overlapping-Grid-MultiGrid-solver, Ogmg, that can be used to obtain solutions to elliptic boundary value problems. Ogmg solves problems in two and three space dimensions on composite overlapping grids. Second and fourth-order accurate approximations are supported. Given an overlapping grid generated from the Ogen grid generator,

William D. Henshaw

2005-01-01

214

Thinking about one's gender group's privileges or disadvantages: consequences for well-being in women and men.  

PubMed

Thoughts about group-based privileges or disadvantages were expected to have different consequences for personal and group well-being, depending on whether the individual is a member of a high- or low-status group. To test this hypothesis, women and men were randomly assigned to consider the ways that their gender group membership has resulted in either beneficial or detrimental outcomes in their lives. For men, thinking about their gender group's privileges resulted in lower scores on the group-related well-being measures compared to women, and thinking about their group's disadvantages resulted in higher personal self-esteem scores in men compared to women. It is suggested that among high-status group members, thinking about privilege can evoke guilt and taint one's group image, whereas thinking about disadvantage can augment personal internal attributions for the positive outcomes received. Discussion focuses on the implications that the operation of two types of mechanisms--group-based emotions and the undermining or augmenting of attributions--has for the responses of high- and low-status group members when their groups are portrayed as exerting either negative or positive effects on their lives. PMID:9639862

Branscombe, N R

1998-06-01

215

The DESY Grid Centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DESY is one of the world-wide leading centers for research with particle accelerators, synchrotron light and astroparticles. DESY participates in LHC as a Tier-2 center, supports on-going analyzes of HERA data, is a leading partner for ILC, and runs the National Analysis Facility (NAF) for LHC and ILC in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance, Physics at the Terascale. For the research with synchrotron light major new facilities are operated and built (FLASH, PETRA-III, and XFEL). DESY furthermore acts as Data-Tier1 centre for the Neutrino detector IceCube. Established within the EGI-project DESY operates a grid infrastructure which supports a number of virtual Organizations (VO), incl. ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. Furthermore, DESY hosts some of HEP and non-HEP VOs, such as the HERA experiments and ILC as well as photon science communities. The support of the new astroparticle physics VOs IceCube and CTA is currently set up. As the global structure of the grid offers huge resources which are perfect for batch-like computing, DESY has set up the National Analysis Facility (NAF) which complements the grid to allow German HEP users for efficient data analysis. The grid infrastructure and the NAF use the same physics data which is distributed via the grid. We call the conjunction of grid and NAF the DESY Grid Centre. In the contribution to CHEP2012 we will in depth discuss the conceptional and operational aspects of our multi-VO and multi-community Grid Centre and present the system setup. We will in particular focus on the interplay of Grid and NAF and present experiences of the operations.

Haupt, A.; Gellrich, A.; Kemp, Y.; Leffhalm, K.; Ozerov, D.; Wegner, P.

2012-12-01

216

Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid  

PubMed Central

Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

Konagaya, Akihiko

2006-01-01

217

GridIJ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die vorgestellte Architektur erleichtert wissenschaftlichen Benutzern den Zugriff auf Rechenkapazitäten innerhalb eines Grid ohne Vorkenntnisse der zugrundeliegenden Techniken. GridIJ ist eine Referenzimplementierung für die Bildverarbeitung. Dem Benutzer wird eine grafische Oberfläche bereitgestellt, die einen einfachen Zugriff auf Bildverarbeitungsalgorithmen in einem Grid erlaubt. Mit einem Java Interface kann die Funktionalität erweitert werden. Um die Architektur einzurichten sind zwei zusätzliche Web-Services in einem GT4 Container notwendig. Tests zeigen, dass die Architektur einen hohen Leistungsgewinn im Vergleich zur Ausführung auf einem Einzelplatzrechner ermöglicht.

Frank, Alexander; Stotzka, Rainer; Jejkal, Thomas; Hartmann, Volker; Sutter, Michael; Ruiter, Nicole; Zapf, Michael

218

Digital Grid: Communicative Electrical Grids of the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support a high penetration of intermittent solar and wind power generation, many regions are planning to add new high capacity transmission lines. These additional transmis- sion lines strengthen grid synchronization, but will also increase the grid's short circuit capacity, and furthermore will be very costly. With a highly interconnected grid and variable renewable generation, a small grid failure can

Rikiya Abe; Hisao Taoka; David McQuilkin

2011-01-01

219

CMS Intergration Grid Testbed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CMS Integration Grid Testbed (IGT) comprises USCMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 hardware at the following sites: the California Institute of Technology, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of California at San Diego, and the University of Flori...

G. E. Graham M. Anzar S. Aziz L. A. T. Bauserdick M. Ernst

2004-01-01

220

Distributed Adaptive Grid Hierarchy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DAGH (which stands for Distributed Adaptive Grid Hierarchy) was developed as a computational toolkit for the Binary Black Hole NSF Grand Challenge Project. It provides the framework to solve systems of partial differential equations using adaptive finite difference methods.

221

Space Development Grid Portal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a portal to provide secure and distributed grid computing for Payload Operations Integrated Center and Mission Control Center ground services.

Vaziri, Arsi

2004-01-01

222

Monitoring in Disadvantaged Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In disadvantaged grids, communication resources are scarce and variable. Thus, it is important that middleware and applications are able to adapt to the available capacity. This means that knowledge of the networking environment the C2 software is operati...

F. T. Johnsen G. Salberg T. H. Bloebaum

2013-01-01

223

Implementing Production Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have presented the essence of experience gained in building two production Grids, and provided some of the global context for this work. As the reader might imagine, there were a lot of false starts, refinements to the approaches and to the software, and several substantial integration projects (SRB and Condor integrated with Globus) to get where we are today. However, the point of this paper is to try and make it substantially easier for others to get to the point where Information Power Grids (IPG) and the DOE Science Grids are today. This is what is needed in order to move us toward the vision of a common cyber infrastructure for science. The author would also like to remind the readers that this paper primarily represents the actual experiences that resulted from specific architectural and software choices during the design and implementation of these two Grids. The choices made were dictated by the criteria laid out in section 1. There is a lot more Grid software available today that there was four years ago, and various of these packages are being integrated into IPG and the DOE Grids. However, the foundation choices of Globus, SRB, and Condor would not be significantly different today than they were four years ago. Nonetheless, if the GGF is successful in its work - and we have every reason to believe that it will be - then in a few years we will see that the 28 functions provided by these packages will be defined in terms of protocols and MIS, and there will be several robust implementations available for each of the basic components, especially the Grid Common Services. The impact of the emerging Web Grid Services work is not yet clear. It will likely have a substantial impact on building higher level services, however it is the opinion of the author that this will in no way obviate the need for the Grid Common Services. These are the foundation of Grids, and the focus of almost all of the operational and persistent infrastructure aspects of Grids.

Johnston, William E.; Ziobarth, John (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

224

Random array grid collimator  

DOEpatents

A hexagonally shaped quasi-random no-two-holes touching grid collimator. The quasi-random array grid collimator eliminates contamination from small angle off-axis rays by using a no-two-holes-touching pattern which simultaneously provides for a self-supporting array increasng throughput by elimination of a substrate. The presentation invention also provides maximum throughput using hexagonally shaped holes in a hexagonal lattice pattern for diffraction limited applications. Mosaicking is also disclosed for reducing fabrication effort.

Fenimore, E.E.

1980-08-22

225

Datamining in Grid Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with assessing performance improvements and some implementation issues of two well-known data mining algorithms, Apriori and FP-growth, in Alchemi grid environment. We compare execution times and speed-up of two parallel implementations: pure Apriori and hybrid FP-growth — Apriori version on grid with one to six processors. As expected, the latter shows superior performances. We also discuss the

M. Ciglari?; M. Pan?ur; B. Šter; A. Dobnikar

226

Grid and Percent It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson begins with a basic visual used in many textbooks: a 10 Ã 10 grid as a model for demonstrating percent as "parts per hundred" with a worksheet of these grids to print for each student. The lesson goes on to extend the model to solve various percentage problems. Especially valuable is the illustration of each problem and the thorough explanation that accompanies it.

2002-01-01

227

Lichen planopilaris is characterized by immune privilege collapse of the hair follicle's epithelial stem cell niche.  

PubMed

Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown pathogenesis that leads to permanent hair loss. Whilst destruction of epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) that reside in an immunologically protected niche of the HF epithelium, the bulge, is a likely key event in LPP pathogenesis, this remains to be demonstrated. We have tested the hypotheses that bulge immune privilege (IP) collapse and inflammation-induced eHFSC death are key components in the pathogenesis of LPP. Biopsies of lesional and non-lesional scalp skin from adult LPP patients (n = 42) were analysed by quantitative (immuno)histomorphometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, or skin organ culture. At both the protein and transcriptional level, lesional LPP HFs showed evidence for bulge IP collapse (ie increased expression of MHC class I and II, ?2microglobulin; reduced TGF?2 and CD200 expression). This was accompanied by a Th1-biased cytotoxic T cell response (ie increased CD8(+) GranzymeB(+) T cells and CD123(+) plasmacytoid dendritic cells, with increased CXCR3 expression) and increased expression of interferon-inducible chemokines (CXCL9/10/11). Interestingly, lesional LPP eHFSCs showed both increased proliferation and apoptosis in situ. Microarray analysis revealed a loss of eHFSC signatures and increased expression of T cell activation/binding markers in active LPP, while bulge PPAR? transcription was unaltered compared to non-lesional LPP HFs. In organ culture of non-lesional LPP skin, interferon-? (IFN?) induced bulge IP collapse. LPP is an excellent model disease for studying and preventing immune destruction of human epithelial stem cells in situ. These novel findings raise the possibility that LPP represents an autoimmune disease in whose pathogenesis IFN?-induced bulge IP collapse plays an important role. Therapeutically, bulge IP protection/restoration may help to better manage this highly treatment-resistant cicatricial alopecia. PMID:23788005

Harries, Matthew J; Meyer, Katja; Chaudhry, Iskander; E Kloepper, Jennifer; Poblet, Enrique; Griffiths, Christopher Em; Paus, Ralf

2013-10-01

228

76 FR 1153 - Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-13-000] Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations D LLC and Atlantic Grid Operations E...

2011-01-07

229

Using Grid Benchmarks for Dynamic Scheduling of Grid Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Navigation or dynamic scheduling of applications on computational grids can be improved through the use of an application-specific characterization of grid resources. Current grid information systems provide a description of the resources, but do not contain any application-specific information. We define a GridScape as dynamic state of the grid resources. We measure the dynamic performance of these resources using the grid benchmarks. Then we use the GridScape for automatic assignment of the tasks of a grid application to grid resources. The scalability of the system is achieved by limiting the navigation overhead to a few percent of the application resource requirements. Our task submission and assignment protocol guarantees that the navigation system does not cause grid congestion. On a synthetic data mining application we demonstrate that Gridscape-based task assignment reduces the application tunaround time.

Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert

2003-01-01

230

GRIDS: Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: The 12 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s GRIDS Project, short for “Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage,” are developing storage technologies that can store renewable energy for use at any location on the grid at an investment cost less than $100 per kilowatt hour. Flexible, large-scale storage would create a stronger and more robust electric grid by enabling renewables to contribute to reliable power generation.

None

2010-09-01

231

Gridding for Petroleum Reservoir Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider optimization of computational grids for petroleum reservoir flo w simulations. In this context grid quality is determined by two independent error sources. On the one hand there is a loss of precision caused by upscaling of geo- logical data from the fine geological grid to the coarser computational grid, and on the other hand there are numerical errors

H. H. Soleng; L. Holden

232

Unstructured Grids on NURBS Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple and efficient computational method is presented for unstructured surface grid generation. This method is built upon an advancing front technique combined with grid projection. The projection technique is based on a Newton-Raphson method. This combined approach has been successfully implemented for structured and unstructured grids. In this paper, the implementation for unstructured grid is discussed.

Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

1993-01-01

233

Grid-Spacer Removal Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model has been developed for SCDAP to treat the effect of grid spacer removal. The model simply tests the grid temperature against the melting temperature of the grid spacer material. If the grid spacer temperature is equal to or above its melting tempe...

G. A. Berna

1982-01-01

234

What is the grid? a three point checklist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grids have moved from the obscurely academic to the highly popular. We read about Compute Grids, Data Grids, Science Grids, Access Grids, Knowledge Grids, Bio Grids, Sensor Grids, Cluster Grids, Campus Grids, Tera Grids, and Commodity Grids. The skeptic can be forgiven for wondering if there is more to the Grid than, as one wag put it, a \\

I. Foster

2002-01-01

235

Smart Grid Integration Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation â?? all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSUâ??s overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratoryâ??s focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of electrical power distribution system that integrates significant quantities of renewable and distributed energy resources; (4) System dynamic modeling that considers end-user behavior, economics, security and regulatory frameworks; (5) Best practices for energy management IT control solutions for effective distributed energy integration (including security with the underlying physical power systems); (6) Experimental verification of effects of various arrangements of renewable generation, distributed generation and user load types along with conventional generation and transmission. Understanding the core technologies for enabling them to be used in an integrated fashion within a distribution network remains is a benefit to the future energy paradigm and future and present energy engineers.

Wade Troxell

2011-09-30

236

Perspectives of MediGRID.  

PubMed

Sustainability is a top priority for nearly all grid communities. The German grid communities in the area of life sciences are continuing their dissemination efforts in order to bring the grid to scientists. With cloud computing another concept for distributed IT infrastructures is on the rise. In this regard the grid has a different focus and matches better with life science compute power demands. A comparison of both grid and cloud in addition to the background and present status of the German life science grid give a contemporary impression of the future perspectives of MediGRID. PMID:19593055

Dickmann, Frank; Kaspar, Mathias; Löhnhardt, Benjamin; Knoch, Tobias A; Sax, Ulrich

2009-01-01

237

Grids for electric storage batteries  

SciTech Connect

A grid array for use in assembling a multicell electric battery comprises a plurality of grids preferably arranged in two spaced parallel lines, adapted to provide a plate for every cell of the battery. Each grid is connected to one or more adjacent grids by a combination of integral bridge pieces and sufficient temporary links to maintain all the grids of the array in their desired configuration.

Hayes, M. H.; Pearson, E. J.

1985-07-09

238

NREL Smart Grid Projects  

SciTech Connect

Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

Hambrick, J.

2012-01-01

239

Nuclear reactor spacer grid  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear fuel assembly is described containing cylindrical fuel rods having an outside radius and comprising: a top nozzle; a bottom nozzle; a control rod guide thimble extending between the top and bottom nozzles; fuel rod spacer grid assemblies axially disposed along the control rod guide thimble for maintaining the fuel rods in a space lateral array. Each of the spacer grid assemblies comprises grid straps interlocked into an egg-crate configuration to form cells through which the fuel rods pass. Each of the cells has a grid spring and an opposing dimple. Each of the grid spring and dimple has an arcuate surface portion contoured to conform, in both the axial and radial directions, to the surface of the generally cylindrical fuel rods and adapted to contact the fuel rods along at least a line of contact as the fuel rods pass through the cells. The arcuate portions have radius of curvature equal to or greater than the outside radius of the fuel rods.

Weiland, L.E.; Parks, B.H.

1987-10-27

240

An Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method by Grid Subdivision, Local Remeshing, and Grid Movement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unstructured grid adaptation technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The approach is based on a combination of grid subdivision, local remeshing, and grid movement. For solution adaptive grids, the surface triangulation is locally refined by grid subdivision, and the tetrahedral grid in the field is partially remeshed at locations of dominant flow features. A grid redistribution strategy is employed for geometric adaptation of volume grids to moving or deforming surfaces. The method is automatic and fast and is designed for modular coupling with different solvers. Several steady state test cases with different inviscid flow features were tested for grid/solution adaptation. In all cases, the dominant flow features, such as shocks and vortices, were accurately and efficiently predicted with the present approach. A new and robust method of moving tetrahedral "viscous" grids is also presented and demonstrated on a three-dimensional example.

Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

1999-01-01

241

Practice-centred evaluation and the privileging of care in health information technology evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic Patient Records (EPRs) and telemedicine are positioned by policymakers as health information technologies that are integral to achieving improved clinical outcomes and efficiency savings. However, evaluating the extent to which these aims are met poses distinct evaluation challenges, particularly where clinical and cost outcomes form the sole focus of evaluation design. We propose that a practice-centred approach to evaluation - in which those whose day-to-day care practice is altered (or not) by the introduction of new technologies are placed at the centre of evaluation efforts – can complement and in some instances offer advantages over, outcome-centric evaluation models. Methods We carried out a regional programme of innovation in renal services where a participative approach was taken to the introduction of new technologies, including: a regional EPR system and a system to support video clinics. An ‘action learning’ approach was taken to procurement, pre-implementation planning, implementation, ongoing development and evaluation. Participants included clinicians, technology specialists, patients and external academic researchers. Whilst undergoing these activities we asked: how can a practice-centred approach be embedded into evaluation of health information technologies? Discussion Organising EPR and telemedicine evaluation around predetermined outcome measures alone can be impractical given the complex and contingent nature of such projects. It also limits the extent to which unforeseen outcomes and new capabilities are recognised. Such evaluations often fail to improve understanding of ‘when’ and ‘under what conditions’ technology-enabled service improvements are realised, and crucially, how such innovation improves care. Summary Our contribution, drawn from our experience of the case study provided, is a protocol for practice-centred, participative evaluation of technology in the clinical setting that privileges care. In this context ‘practice-centred’ evaluation acts as a scalable, coordinating framework for evaluation that recognises health information technology supported care as an achievement that is contingent and ongoing. We argue that if complex programmes of technology-enabled service innovation are understood in terms of their contribution to patient care and supported by participative, capability-building evaluation methodologies, conditions are created for practitioners and patients to realise the potential of technologies and make substantive contributions to the evidence base underpinning health innovation programmes.

2014-01-01

242

Breakdown of immune privilege and spontaneous autoimmunity in mice expressing a transgenic T cell receptor specific for a retinal autoantigen.  

PubMed

Despite presence of circulating retina-specific T cells in healthy individuals, ocular immune privilege usually averts development of autoimmune uveitis. To study the breakdown of immune privilege and development of disease, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice that express a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), which serves as an autoimmune target in uveitis induced by immunization. Three lines of TCR Tg mice, with different levels of expression of the transgenic R161 TCR and different proportions of IRBP-specific CD4? T cells in their peripheral repertoire, were successfully established. Importantly, two of the lines rapidly developed spontaneous uveitis, reaching 100% incidence by 2 and 3 months of age, respectively, whereas the third appeared "poised" and only developed appreciable disease upon immune perturbation. Susceptibility roughly paralleled expression of the R161 TCR. In all three lines, peripheral CD4? T cells displayed a naïve phenotype, but proliferated in vitro in response to IRBP and elicited uveitis upon adoptive transfer. In contrast, CD4? T cells infiltrating uveitic eyes mostly showed an effector/memory phenotype, and included Th1, Th17 as well as T regulatory cells that appeared to have been peripherally converted from conventional CD4? T cells rather than thymically derived. Thus, R161 mice provide a new and valuable model of spontaneous autoimmune disease that circumvents the limitations of active immunization and adjuvants, and allows to study basic mechanisms involved in maintenance and breakdown of immune homeostasis affecting immunologically privileged sites such as the eye. PMID:23810578

Horai, Reiko; Silver, Phyllis B; Chen, Jun; Agarwal, Rajeev K; Chong, Wai Po; Jittayasothorn, Yingyos; Mattapallil, Mary J; Nguyen, Sonia; Natarajan, Kannan; Villasmil, Rafael; Wang, Peng; Karabekian, Zaruhi; Lytton, Simon D; Chan, Chi-Chao; Caspi, Rachel R

2013-08-01

243

The grid array antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is called to the grid array as a possible useful antenna design for UHF clear air radars. This type of antenna integrates radiating elements and the feed network into a single structure so that a fairly large array can be driven from a single feed point. Figures are given which demonstrate the basic principle of the grid array, which are adapted from Conti et al. (1981). Conductors are arranged above a ground plane in a repeating, staggered array of connected rectangles. Each rectangular element is approximately one by one-half wavelength in size. The currents on the conductors at resonance is indicated. The grid array illustrated can be expanded in both vertical and horizontal directions about the feed point by adding additional rectangular conductors. The design eliminates the feed network and would provide a thin, panel-like antenna that could be easily built and transported.

Ecklund, W. L.

1986-01-01

244

Information Power Grid Posters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a summary of the accomplishments of the Information Power Grid (IPG). Grids are an emerging technology that provide seamless and uniform access to the geographically dispersed, computational, data storage, networking, instruments, and software resources needed for solving large-scale scientific and engineering problems. The goal of the NASA IPG is to use NASA's remotely located computing and data system resources to build distributed systems that can address problems that are too large or complex for a single site. The accomplishments outlined in this poster presentation are: access to distributed data, IPG heterogeneous computing, integration of large-scale computing node into distributed environment, remote access to high data rate instruments,and exploratory grid environment.

Vaziri, Arsi

2003-01-01

245

The Computing Grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the millennium, High Energy Physics research institutions like CERN and INFN pioneered several projects aimed at exploiting the synergy among computing power, storage and network resources, and creating an infrastructure of distributed computing on a worldwide scale. In the year 2000, after the Monarch project [ http://monarc.web.cern.ch/MONARC/], DataGrid started [ http://eu-datagrid.web.cern.ch/eu-datagrid/] aimed at providing High Energy Physics with the computing power needed for the LHC enterprise. This program evolved into the EU DataGrid project, that implemented the first actual prototype of a Grid middleware running on a testbed environment. The next step consisted in the application to the LHC experiments, with the LCG project [ http://lcg.web.cern.ch/LCG/], in turn followed by the EGEE [ http://www.eu-egee.org/] and EGEE II programs.

Govoni, P.

2009-12-01

246

Quantum grid infrared spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and characterized an infrared spectrometer, which uses a linear array of quantum grid infrared photodetectors (QGIPs) as its spectral sensing elements. Each QGIP element shares the same detector material but has a different grid geometry. The detector material, which is based on a binary superlattice design, provides an 8-14 ?m broadband absorption medium for the spectrometer. The geometry of the grid, which is the light coupling structure under normal incidence, selects individual absorption wavelength for each element. Using a linear array of QGIPs of different geometries, multiple wavelengths can be detected simultaneously, and the array thus forms a spectrometer. Multicolor infrared imaging can then be achieved by integrating such QGIPs in unit cells of a two-dimensional array.

Choi, K. K.; Dang, G.; Little, J. W.; Leung, K. M.; Tamir, T.

2004-05-01

247

Nuclear fuel spacer grid  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grid. The grid straps form an egg crate configuration creating standard cells to enclose the fuel rods. The standard cells have at least one of their straps with an integral spring portion extending into the standard cell and pushing against the fuel rod. A distinct backup spring is positioned transverse to and behind each of the spring portions of the straps and is positioned so as not to touch the fuel rods. The straps are made of a material having a low neutron capture cross-section while the backup spring is made of a material having good radiation stress relaxation properties.

Hellman, J. M.; DeMario, E. E.

1984-10-02

248

Ion Accelerator With Negatively Biased Decelerator Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-grid ion accelerator in which accelerator grid is biased at negative potential and decelerator grid downstream of accelerator grid biased at smaller negative potential. This grid and bias arrangement reduces frequency of impacts, upon accelerator grid, of charge-exchange ions produced downstream in collisions between accelerated ions and atoms and molecules of background gas. Sputter erosion of accelerator grid reduced.

Brophy, John R.

1994-01-01

249

Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements  

SciTech Connect

Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

2005-07-01

250

InterGrid: a case for internetworking islands of Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

http:\\/\\/www.gridbus.org Abstract: Over the last few years, several Grids have been set up to share resources such as computers, data, and instruments to enable collaborative research. These Grids follow models and heterogeneous policies restricted by the requirements of e-Science applications for which they have been created, which has resulted in islands of Grids. A structure that allows Grids to grow

Marcos Dias de Assunção; Rajkumar Buyya; Srikumar Venugopal

2008-01-01

251

Times Tables Grid Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash applet provides targeted practice of multiplication facts. After a player selects which group(s) of multiples to practice, the applet displays products one at a time, and the player locates a cell on a blank grid that identifies a possible factor pair. Users may choose to play timed or untimed, and must complete a round with no more than 5 errors.

2013-01-01

252

Piloting the smart grid  

SciTech Connect

To address the likely impact of the smart grid on customers, utilities, and society as a whole, it may be necessary to conduct a pilot. When should a pilot be conducted and how should it be conducted? What validity criteria should the pilot satisfy? Here are issues to consider. (author)

Faruqui, Ahmad; Hledik, Ryan; Sergici, Sanem

2009-08-15

253

Grid of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many believe the electric power system is undergoing a profound change driven by a number of needs. There's the need for environmental compliance and energy conservation. We need better grid reliability while dealing with an aging infrastructure. And we need improved operational effi ciencies and customer service. The changes that are happening are particularly signifi cant for the electricity distribution

Ali Ipakchi; Farrokh Albuyeh

2009-01-01

254

APEC Smart Grid Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

Bloyd, Cary N.

2012-03-01

255

Unlocking the smart grid  

SciTech Connect

The country has progressed in a relatively short time from rotary dial phones to computers, cell phones, and iPads. With proper planning and orderly policy implementation, the same will happen with the Smart Grid. Here are some suggestions on how to proceed. (author)

Rokach, Joshua Z.

2010-10-15

256

Dig That Grid!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will use their knowledge of coordinates and coordinate pairs in a real life situation as they become archaeologists excavating a dig site. They will measure their site, label the grids with correct coordinates and use coordinate pairs to record the location of the artifacts they discover.

Driggers, Diane

2012-06-05

257

Hexagonal Grid Drawings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A linear algorithm to draw triconnected cubic planar graphs planar on a linear sized hexagonal grid such that in at most one edge are bends is presented. This algorithm can be used to draw this class of graphs planar with straight lines on a n/2 by n/2 gr...

G. Kant

1992-01-01

258

Condor and the grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Since 1984, the Condor project has helped ordinary users to do extraordinary computing. Today, the project continues to explore the social and technical problems of cooperative computing on scales ranging from the desktop to the world-wide computational grid. In this chapter, we provide the history and philosophy of the Condor project and describe how it has interacted with other

Douglas Thain; Todd Tannenbaum; Miron Livny

2003-01-01

259

Nuclear reactor spacer grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear fuel assembly is described containing cylindrical fuel rods having an outside radius and comprising: a top nozzle; a bottom nozzle; a control rod guide thimble extending between the top and bottom nozzles; fuel rod spacer grid assemblies axially disposed along the control rod guide thimble for maintaining the fuel rods in a space lateral array. Each of the

L. E. Weiland; B. H. Parks

1987-01-01

260

Efficient grid generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because the governing equations in fluid dynamics contain partial differentials and are too difficult in most cases to solve analytically, these differentials are generally replaced by finite difference terms. These terms contain terms in the solution at nearby states. This procedure discretizes the field into a finite number of states. These states, when plotted, form a grid, or mesh, of points. It is at these states, or field points, that the solution is found. The optimum choice of states, the x, y, z coordinate values, minimizes error and computational time. But the process of finding these states is made more difficult by complex boundaries, and by the need to control step size differences between the states, that is, the need to control the spacing of field points. One solution technique uses a different set of state variables, which define a different coordinate system, to generate the grid more easily. A new method, developed by Dr. Joseph Steger, combines elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations into a mapping function between the physical and computational coordinate systems. This system of equations offers more control than either equation provides alone. The Steger algorithm was modified in order to allow bodies with stronger concavities to be used, offering the possibility of generating a single grid about multiple bodies. Work was also done on identifying areas where grid breakdown occurs.

Seki, Rycichi

1989-01-01

261

Sensor Grid: Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks have emerged as an exciting technology for a wide range of important applications that acquire and process information from the physical world. Grid computing has evolved as a standards-based approach for coordinated resource sharing. Sensor grids combine these two promising technologies by extending the grid computing paradigm to the sharing of sensor resources in wireless sensor networks.

Hock Beng Lim; Yong Meng Teo; Protik Mukherjee; Weng Fai Wong; Simon See

262

OPEN GRID BRIDGE NOISE FROM GRID AND TIRE VIBRATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noise generated during the passage of vehicles on open grid bridge decks has a strong tonal component, which can be a source of annoyance to nearby residents. Potential sources of noise are the vibrations of the grid and the vibrations of the tire. In this paper, the relative contributions from the grid and the tire are investigated by using

J. M. Cuschieri; S. Gregory; M. Tournour

1996-01-01

263

Does the granting of legal privileges as an indigenous people help to reduce health disparities? Evidence from New Zealand and Malaysia.  

PubMed

Both the Maori of New Zealand and the Orang Asli of Malaysia are indigenous peoples who have been subjected to prejudice, discrimination and displacement in its various forms by other ethnic groups in their respective countries. However, owing to changes in the socio-political climate, they have been granted rights (including legal privileges) in more recent times. Data pertaining to the health and socio-economic status of the Maori and the Orang Asli are analysed to see if the granting of legal privileges has made any difference for the two communities. One conclusion is that legal privileges (and the granting of special status) do not appear to work well in terms of reducing health and socio-economic gaps. PMID:20443525

Phua, Kai-Lit

2009-11-01

264

Standards for the Smart Grid  

SciTech Connect

To get from today's electricity grid to tomorrow's smart grid with interconnection and full two way communications connection to distributed energy sources such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles requires an interoperability framework of protocols and standards.

DeBlasio, R.; Tom, C.

2008-01-01

265

Unstructured Grids on Nurbs Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple and efficient computational method is presented for unstructured surface grid generation. This method is built upon an advancing front technique combined with grid projection. The projection technique is based on a Newton-Raphson method. This com...

J. Samareh-Abolhassani

2004-01-01

266

Nuclear reactor spacer grid loading  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear fuel assembly containing generally cylindrical fuel rods, is described comprising: a top nozzle; a bottom nozzle, a control rod guide thimble extending between the top and bottom nozzles; fuel rod spacer grid assemblies axially disposed along the control rod guide thimble for maintaining the fuel rods in a spaced lateral array. Each of the spacer grid assemblies comprises grid straps interlocked into an egg-crate configuration to form cells through which the fuel rods pass. Each of the cells has a grid spring and at least one opposing dimple. Each grid spring and opposing dimple has a first selected spring force for a lowermost grid, a second selected spring force for an intermediate grid, and a third selected spring force for an uppermost grid less than the first and second spring forces. The first, second and third spring forces allow the fuel rods to expand in their respective cells.

Ferrari, H.M.; Roberts, E.; De Mario, E.E.

1988-05-17

267

Interface Procedures for Overlapping Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interpolation at grid boundaries is studied for the purpose of solving partial differential equations using either implicit or conservative explicit finite-difference methods on multi-component overlapping grid systems.

C. W. Mastin

1985-01-01

268

Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place, Grid will become limited to HEP; if however the current multitude of Grid-like systems will converge to a generic, modular and extensible solution, Grid will become true to its name.

Smirnova, O.

2012-12-01

269

Management Middleware for Enterprise Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management continues to be a problem for grids. A diversity of systems is in use. Their integration into more comprehensive management solutions that would simplify management, address the scale of grids and enable a higher degree of automation is difficult. This paper presents a management middleware that normalizes management for enterprise grids. Management tasks are rendered as autonomous services following

Sven Graupner; Nigel Cook; Derek Coleman; Tilo Nitzsche

2006-01-01

270

Smart Grid - a reliability perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing complexity of power grids, growing demand, and requirement for greater grid reliability, security and efficiency as well as environmental and energy sustainability concerns continue to highlight the need for a quantum leap in harnessing communication and information technologies. This leap toward a ¿smarter¿ grid is now widely referred to as \\

Khosrow Moslehi; Ranjit Kumar

2010-01-01

271

Collaborative Learning through Wireless Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe wireless grids, an emerging technology that enables ad hoc sharing of resources (such as screen, services and microphone) on edge devices (such as mobile Internet devices, laptops and mobile phones). As wireless devices have become common, and “smart,” wireless grids have become practical. To highlight the capabilities of wireless grids to support collaborative learning, projects

Angela Usha Ramnarine-Rieks; Lee W. McKnight; Ruth V. Small

2011-01-01

272

Ion Engine Grid Gap Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple technique for measuring the grid gap of an ion engine s ion optics during startup and steady-state operation was demonstrated with beam extraction. The grid gap at the center of the ion optics assembly was measured with a long distance microscope that was focused onto an alumina pin that protruded through the center accelerator grid aperture and was mechanically attached to the screen grid. This measurement technique was successfully applied to a 30 cm titanium ion optics assembly mounted onto an NSTAR engineering model ion engine. The grid gap and each grid s movement during startup from room temperature to both full and low power were measured. The grid gaps with and without beam extraction were found to be significantly different. The grid gaps at the ion optics center were both significantly smaller than the cold grid gap and different at the two power levels examined. To avoid issues associated with a small grid gap during thruster startup with titanium ion optics, a simple method was to operate the thruster initially without beam extraction to heat the ion optics. Another possible method is to apply high voltage to the grids prior to igniting the discharge because power deposition to the grids from the plasma is lower with beam extraction than without. Further testing would be required to confirm this approach.

Soulas, Gerge C.; Frandina, Michael M.

2004-01-01

273

Grid crusher apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grid crusher apparatus and method are provided for a nuclear fuel rod consolidation system. Spacer grids are crushed within a basket which is then placed in a storage canister. The grid crusher apparatus has a ram assembly and a basket driving mechanism. The ram assembly has a sleeve ram and a central ram. The sleeve ram surrounds the central

McDaniels; J. D. Jr

1994-01-01

274

Mea culpa, mea culpa: a call for privilege for self-disclosure of error in the setting of primary medical education.  

PubMed

Medical errors cause 44,000 to 98,000 deaths per year, which is due, in part, to the lack of privileged self-reporting systems. Such systems are of great value to the medical community, especially to new doctors and to medical students. Nonetheless, because documents produced for self-reporting conferences and statements made against self-interest are admissible in court, many observers believe that doctors are discouraged from self-reporting errors. The author proposes the creation of a new medical self-disclosure privilege to protect and promote self-reporting systems, which will lead to a reduction in medical errors. PMID:12472150

Knoll, Andrew M

2002-01-01

275

Cloud Computing for the Grid: GridControl: A Software Platform to Support the Smart Grid  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: Cornell University is creating a new software platform for grid operators called GridControl that will utilize cloud computing to more efficiently control the grid. In a cloud computing system, there are minimal hardware and software demands on users. The user can tap into a network of computers that is housed elsewhere (the cloud) and the network runs computer applications for the user. The user only needs interface software to access all of the cloud’s data resources, which can be as simple as a web browser. Cloud computing can reduce costs, facilitate innovation through sharing, empower users, and improve the overall reliability of a dispersed system. Cornell’s GridControl will focus on 4 elements: delivering the state of the grid to users quickly and reliably; building networked, scalable grid-control software; tailoring services to emerging smart grid uses; and simulating smart grid behavior under various conditions.

None

2012-02-08

276

Gridded electron reversal ionizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

1993-01-01

277

Quantum grid infrared photodetectors  

SciTech Connect

In this letter we introduce a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) structure, which we refer to as the quantum grid infrared photodetector (QGIP). In an ideal structure, a grid pattern with very narrow linewidth is created in the QWIP active region to achieve lateral electron confinement, thereby improving its absorption as well as transport characteristics. In order to realize this detector structure, we have fabricated QGIPs with line patterns of lithographical linewidths w{sub l} ranging from 0.1 to 4 {mu}m, allowing for possible sidewall depletion. Low-damage reactive ion beam etching was employed to produce vertical sidewalls. From the experimental data, although the best detector performance occurs at w{sub l}{approx}1.5 {mu}m, the detector starts to improve when w{sub l}{lt}0.5 {mu}m, indicating a possible quantum confinement effect. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Rokhinson, L.P.; Chen, C.J.; Tsui, D.C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Vawter, G.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0603 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0603 (United States); Choi, K.K. [U. S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Power Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)] [U. S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Power Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

1999-02-01

278

Algebraic Grid Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chapter 5 describes formulas for general unidirectional transfinite interpolations. Multidirectional interpolation is defined by Boolean summation of unidirectional interpolations. Examples of various types of blending function are reviewed, in particular, the functions defined through the basic stretching coordinate transformations for singular layers described in Chap. 4. The chapter ends with a description of a procedure for generating triangular, tetrahedral, or prismatic grids through the method of transfinite interpolation.

Liseikin, Vladimir D.

279

Grid generation for turbomachinery problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a computer code to generate numerical grids for complex internal flow systems such as the fluid flow inside the space shuttle main engine is outlined. The blending technique for generating a grid for stator-rotor combination at a particular radial section is examined. The computer programs which generate these grids are listed in the Appendices. These codes are capable of generating grids at different cross sections and thus providng three dimensional stator-rotor grids for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine.

Steinhoff, J.; Reddy, K. C.

1986-01-01

280

TRMM Gridded Text Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

Stocker, Erich Franz

2007-01-01

281

Constructing the ASCI computational grid  

SciTech Connect

The Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) computational grid is being constructed to interconnect the high performance computing resources of the nuclear weapons complex. The grid will simplify access to the diverse computing, storage, network, and visualization resources, and will enable the coordinated use of shared resources regardless of location. To match existing hardware platforms, required security services, and current simulation practices, the Globus MetaComputing Toolkit was selected to provide core grid services. The ASCI grid extends Globus functionality by operating as an independent grid, incorporating Kerberos-based security, interfacing to Sandia's Cplant{trademark},and extending job monitoring services. To fully meet ASCI's needs, the architecture layers distributed work management and criteria-driven resource selection services on top of Globus. These services simplify the grid interface by allowing users to simply request ''run code X anywhere''. This paper describes the initial design and prototype of the ASCI grid.

BEIRIGER,JUDY I.; BIVENS,HUGH P.; HUMPHREYS,STEVEN L.; JOHNSON,WILBUR R.; RHEA,RONALD E.

2000-06-01

282

Artifacts produced by moving grids.  

PubMed

Anti-scatter grids reduce the amount of secondary radiation contributing to the image and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. However, they may also lead to the creation of linear artifacts representing the shadows of the radiopaque septa. Grid motion perpendicular to the septa during the exposure can cause blurring of the artifacts; however, the wider septa of recently proposed grids increase the difficulty of suppressing the artifacts entirely. Physical characteristics which affect perceptibility of grid-line artifacts and the conditions needed for their elimination are analyzed. Sufficient grid movement can eliminate overlap artifacts, while synchronization of linear grid motion with exposure time can suppress artifacts for relatively small grid movements. PMID:6828740

Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S; Wong, R

1983-04-01

283

3D Structured Grid Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grid adaptation for structured meshes is the art of using information from an existing, but poorly resolved, solution to automatically redistribute the grid points in such a way as to improve the resolution in regions of high error, and thus the quality of the solution. This involves: (1) generate a grid vis some standard algorithm, (2) calculate a solution on this grid, (3) adapt the grid to this solution, (4) recalculate the solution on this adapted grid, and (5) repeat steps 3 and 4 to satisfaction. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated until some 'optimal' grid is converged to but typically this is not worth the effort and just two or three repeat calculations are necessary. They also may be repeated every 5-10 time steps for unsteady calculations.

Banks, D. W.; Hafez, M. M.

1996-01-01

284

Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are discretized using the newly proposed flux scheme, AUSM+, which will be briefly described herein. Numerical tests on representative 2D inviscid flows are given for demonstration. Finally, extension to 3D is underway, only paced by the availability of the 3D unstructured grid generator.

Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

1994-01-01

285

An Environment for Enabling Interactive Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional use of grid computing allows a user to sub- mit batch jobs in a grid environment. We believe, next gen- eration grids will extend the application domain to include interactive graphical sessions. We term such grids interac- tive grids. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges involved in building interactive grids. These include fine grain access control,

Vanish Talwar; Sujoy Basu; Raj Kumar

2003-01-01

286

Enhancing control of grid distribution in algebraic grid generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three techniques are presented to enhance the control of grid-point distribution for a class of algebraic grid generation methods known as the two-, four- and six-boundary methods. First, multidimensional stretching functions are presented, and a technique is devised to construct them based on the desired distribution of grid points along certain boundaries. Second, a normalization procedure is proposed which allows more effective control over orthogonality of grid lines at boundaries and curvature of grid lines near boundaries. And third, interpolating functions based on tension splines are introduced to control curvature of grid lines in the interior of the spatial domain. In addition to these three techniques, consistency conditions are derived which must be satisfied by all user-specified data employed in the grid generation process to control grid-point distribution. The usefulness of the techniques developed in this study was demonstrated by using them in conjunction with the two- and four-boundary methods to generate several grid systems, including a three-dimensional grid system in the coolant passage of a radial turbine blade with serpentine channels and pin fins.

Steinthorsson, E.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Roelke, R. J.

1992-01-01

287

GridTool: A surface modeling and grid generation tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GridTool is designed around the concept that the surface grids are generated on a set of bi-linear patches. This type of grid generation is quite easy to implement, and it avoids the problems associated with complex CAD surface representations and associated surface parameterizations. However, the resulting surface grids are close to but not on the original CAD surfaces. This problem can be alleviated by projecting the resulting surface grids onto the original CAD surfaces. GridTool is designed primary for unstructured grid generation systems. Currently, GridTool supports VGRID and FELISA systems, and it can be easily extended to support other unstructured grid generation systems. The data in GridTool is stored parametrically so that once the problem is set up, one can modify the surfaces and the entire set of points, curves and patches will be updated automatically. This is very useful in a multidisciplinary design and optimization process. GridTool is written entirely in ANSI 'C', the interface is based on the FORMS library, and the graphics is based on the GL library. The code has been tested successfully on IRIS workstations running IRIX4.0 and above. The memory is allocated dynamically, therefore, memory size will depend on the complexity of geometry/grid. GridTool data structure is based on a link-list structure which allows the required memory to expand and contract dynamically according to the user's data size and action. Data structure contains several types of objects such as points, curves, patches, sources and surfaces. At any given time, there is always an active object which is drawn in magenta, or in their highlighted colors as defined by the resource file which will be discussed later.

Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

1995-01-01

288

The Privileging of Communitarian Ideas: Citation Practices and the Translation of Social Capital Into Public Health Research  

PubMed Central

The growing use of social science constructs in public health invites reflection on how public health researchers translate, that is, appropriate and reshape, constructs from the social sciences. To assess how 1 recently popular construct has been translated into public health research, we conducted a citation network and content analysis of public health articles on the topic of social capital. The analyses document empirically how public health researchers have privileged communitarian definitions of social capital and marginalized network definitions in their citation practices. Such practices limit the way public health researchers measure social capital’s effects on health. The application of social science constructs requires that public health scholars be sensitive to how their own citation habits shape research and knowledge.

Moore, Spencer; Shiell, Alan; Hawe, Penelope; Haines, Valerie A.

2005-01-01

289

A new look at immune privilege of the eye: dual role for the vision-related molecule, retinoic acid  

PubMed Central

The eye is an immunologically privileged and profoundly immunosuppressive environment. Early studies reported inhibition of T cell proliferation, IFN-? production and generation of T regulatory cells (Treg) by aqueous humor (AH), and identified TGF-? as a critical factor. However, T cell subsets including FoxP3+ Treg and Th17 were unknown at that time, as was the role of retinoic acid (RA) in Treg induction. Consequently, the effect of the ocular microenvironment on T cell lineage commitment and function, and the role of RA in this process, had not been explored. We now use gene manipulated mice and highly purified T cell populations to demonstrate that AH suppresses lineage commitment and acquisition of Th1 and Th17 effector function of naïve T cells, manifested as reduction of lineage-specific transcription factors and cytokines. Instead, AH promoted their massive conversion to FoxP3+ Treg that expressed CD25, GITR, CTLA-4 and CD103 and were functionally suppressive. TGF-? and RA were both needed and synergized for Treg conversion by AH, with TGF-? enhancing T cell expression of RAR?. Newly converted FoxP3+ Tregs were unstable, but were stabilized upon continued exposure to AH or by the DNA demethylating agent 5-AZA. In contrast, T cells already committed to effector function were resistant to the suppressive and Treg-inducing effects of AH. We conclude that RA in the eye plays a dual role: in vision and in immune privilege. Nevertheless, primed effector T cells are relatively insensitive to AH, helping to explain their ability to induce uveitis despite an inhibitory ocular microenvironment.

Zhou, Ru; Horai, Reiko; Mattapallil, Mary J; Caspi, Rachel R

2011-01-01

290

Hydrodynamic vaccination with DNA encoding an immunologically privileged retinal antigen protects from autoimmunity through induction of regulatory T cells.  

PubMed

The eye is an immunologically privileged organ whose Ags serve as targets for experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a model for human uveitis. We used a hydrodynamic i.v. injection of naked DNA to express the uveitogenic retinal Ag interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) in the periphery, thus revoking its immune-privileged status. IRBP was expressed in the liver within hours of administration of as little as 10 microg of IRBP-DNA. Vaccinated mice were highly protected from EAU induced by immunization with IRBP for at least 10 wk after vaccination. Protection was partial in a reversal protocol. Mechanistic studies revealed specific hyporesponsiveness to IRBP without immune deviation, no evidence for apoptosis either by the Fas- or Bcl-2-regulated (mitochondrial) pathway and apparent lack of dependence on CD8(+) cells, IL-10, or TGF-beta. In contrast, depletion of CD25(+) cells after vaccination and before challenge markedly abrogated protection. IRBP-specific CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells could be cultured from vaccinated mice and transferred protection to unvaccinated, EAU-challenged recipients. In vitro characterization of these cells revealed that they are Ag specific, anergic, express FoxP3, CTLA-4, and glucocorticoid-induced TNFR, and suppress by contact. Thus, expression of IRBP in the periphery by DNA vaccination results in tolerance that acts at least in part through induction of IRBP-specific, FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. DNA vaccination may offer a new approach to Ag-specific therapy of uveitis. PMID:17911600

Silver, Phyllis B; Agarwal, Rajeev K; Su, Shao-Bo; Suffia, Isabelle; Grajewski, Rafael S; Luger, Dror; Chan, Chi-Chao; Mahdi, Rashid M; Nickerson, John M; Caspi, Rachel R

2007-10-15

291

I Do Not Know What It Would Be Like to Be Poor: Learning about Privileged Korean 6th Graders' Understanding of Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freire (1970/ 2000) argued that both the oppressors and the oppressed should engage in a discussion of power struggles in order to become fully human. This study investigated how Freire's idea of becoming fully human was exercised in a critical literacy curriculum with a privileged group of students. As a teacher and researcher, I constructed an…

Huh, Seonmin

2010-01-01

292

"The normative idea of queer is a white person": understanding perceptions of white privilege among lesbian, bisexual, and queer women of color in Toronto, Canada.  

PubMed

White privilege constructs whiteness as normative and central to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) identities and is reproduced through social norms, media representations, and daily interactions. We aimed to enhance understanding of the processes by which white privilege was experienced among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women of color in Toronto, Canada. We conducted two focus groups with LBQ women of color, one with participants who self-identified as masculine of center (n = 8) and the second with participants who identified as feminine of center (n = 8). Findings indicate that LBQ women of color experience intersectional stigma (e.g., homophobia, racism, sexism) on a daily basis. Participant narratives revealed that white privilege shaped the representations of women of color in a particular way that promoted their exclusion from white LBQ spaces and broader society. By representing queerness as white, LBQ women of color were rendered invisible in both queer and racialized communities. LBQ women of color were further marginalized by constructions of "real" women as passive, feminine and white, and conversely perceptions of women of color as aggressive, emotional, and hypersexualized. These representations inform spatialized practices and social interactions through constructing racialized communities as discriminatory and "backwards" while maintaining the invisibility of white privilege and racism in LBQ spaces. PMID:24641077

Logie, Carmen H; Rwigema, Marie-Jolie

2014-01-01

293

Social Justice, Deferred Complicity, and the Moral Plight of the Wealthy. A Response to "With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility': Privileged Students' Conceptions of Justice-Oriented Citizenship"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faced with the facts of economic inequality, the wealthy are confronted with a particular set of moral, social, and political questions, not least of which is the question of how to preserve a sense of being a "good" human being. In the case of justifying privilege, the problem becomes how to position oneself as being uniquely able to enact a…

Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben A.; Howard, Adam

2013-01-01

294

Using Performance Ethnography to Confront Issues of Privilege, Race, and Institutional Racism: An Account of an Arts-Based Teacher Education Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservice student teachers engaged in a collaborative research initiative to examine the memory of the 1954 "Brown v. Topeka Board of Education" decision that culminated in a public performance. Ethnographic data were translated into performance texts through students' performances that confronted issues of privilege, race, and institutional…

Fierros, Edward Garcia

2009-01-01

295

Grid crusher apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A grid crusher apparatus and method are provided for a nuclear fuel rod consolidation system. Spacer grids are crushed within a basket which is then placed in a storage canister. The grid crusher apparatus has a ram assembly and a basket driving mechanism. The ram assembly has a sleeve ram and a central ram. The sleeve ram surrounds the central ram which is longitudinally movable within the sleeve ram. The central ram protrudes from the sleeve ram at a ram contact end and is retractable upon application of a preselected force to the central ram so that the central ram is flush with the sleeve ram at the ram contact end. The basket driving mechanism is configured to move the basket containing a spacer grid towards the ram contact end so that the spacer grid is crushed within the basket. The spacer grid is crushed by the combination of successive forces from the central ram and the sleeve ram, respectively. Essentially, the central portion of the spacer grid is crushed first, and then the remaining outer portion of the spacer grid is crushed to complete the crushing action of the spacer grid. The foregoing process is repeated for other spacer grids until the basket reaches a predetermined allowable capacity, and then the basket is stored in a storage canister. 11 figs.

McDaniels, J.D. Jr.

1994-01-11

296

Advances Towards Automatic Surface Domain Decomposition and Grid Generation for Overset Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An algorithm for surface domain decomposition and grid generation for overset grids is described. A complex surface domain is covered by two types of grids: seam grids and block grids. Seam grids are grids used to wrap around surface crease lines and regi...

R. L. Meakin W. M. Chan

1997-01-01

297

Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

Lai, L. C.; Ong, H. S.; Che, Y. X.; Do, N. Q.; Ong, X. J.

2013-06-01

298

The Volume Grid Manipulator (VGM): A Grid Reusability Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a manual describing how to use the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) software. The code is specifically designed to alter or manipulate existing surface and volume structured grids to improve grid quality through the reduction of grid line skewness, removal of negative volumes, and adaption of surface and volume grids to flow field gradients. The software uses a command language to perform all manipulations thereby offering the capability of executing multiple manipulations on a single grid during an execution of the code. The command language can be input to the VGM code by a UNIX style redirected file, or interactively while the code is executing. The manual consists of 14 sections. The first is an introduction to grid manipulation; where it is most applicable and where the strengths of such software can be utilized. The next two sections describe the memory management and the manipulation command language. The following 8 sections describe simple and complex manipulations that can be used in conjunction with one another to smooth, adapt, and reuse existing grids for various computations. These are accompanied by a tutorial section that describes how to use the commands and manipulations to solve actual grid generation problems. The last two sections are a command reference guide and trouble shooting sections to aid in the use of the code as well as describe problems associated with generated scripts for manipulation control.

Alter, Stephen J.

1997-01-01

299

Grid-Enabled Measures  

PubMed Central

Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing).

Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

2011-01-01

300

Grid Task Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IPG Execution Service is a framework that reliably executes complex jobs on a computational grid, and is part of the IPG service architecture designed to support location-independent computing. The new grid service enables users to describe the platform on which they need a job to run, which allows the service to locate the desired platform, configure it for the required application, and execute the job. After a job is submitted, users can monitor it through periodic notifications, or through queries. Each job consists of a set of tasks that performs actions such as executing applications and managing data. Each task is executed based on a starting condition that is an expression of the states of other tasks. This formulation allows tasks to be executed in parallel, and also allows a user to specify tasks to execute when other tasks succeed, fail, or are canceled. The two core components of the Execution Service are the Task Database, which stores tasks that have been submitted for execution, and the Task Manager, which executes tasks in the proper order, based on the user-specified starting conditions, and avoids overloading local and remote resources while executing tasks.

Hu, Chaumin

2007-01-01

301

Variable Grid Scheme for Discontinuous Grid Spacing and Derivatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a previous paper, a Crank-Nicolson scheme with a variable grid was developed for solving turbulent boundary layer flows. It was demonstrated that this method is second-order accurate if the grid is specified with a smooth analytical expression; as the ...

F. G. Blottner

1979-01-01

302

Smart City Grid: The Start to Develop Smart Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with the advantages of intelligent technologies, Smart Grid (SG) has become a topical research area in recent years. Considering the abundant and complex technologies it contains, the development of SG should be divided into several stages, and a well designed development strategy is required to improve the transition from current power grid to newly SG step by step. Facing

Qiqi Zhang; Shentu Gang; Puming Li

2010-01-01

303

NAS Grid Benchmarks: A Tool for Grid Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an approach for benchmarking services provided by computational Grids. It is based on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) and is called NAS Grid Benchmark (NGB) in this paper. We present NGB as a data flow graph encapsulating an instance of an NPB code in each graph node, which communicates with other nodes by sending/receiving initialization data. These nodes may be mapped to the same or different Grid machines. Like NPB, NGB will specify several different classes (problem sizes). NGB also specifies the generic Grid services sufficient for running the bench-mark. The implementor has the freedom to choose any specific Grid environment. However, we describe a reference implementation in Java, and present some scenarios for using NGB.

Frumkin, Michael; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

304

Nuclear fuel spacer grid with improved grid straps  

SciTech Connect

A grid for the spacing of fuel rods in a nuclear reactor fuel assembly is described comprising interleaved grid straps arranged in an egg-crate configuration defining cells therein for the separate enclosure of each of the fuel rods, one of the cells having a longitudinal axis and having each of its associated grid straps with at least one generally rigid protrusion projecting into the one cell for the spacing of an associated enclosed fuel rod therein. The one cell's protrusions on a pair of non-opposing associated grid straps are generally closed to longitudinal coolant flow through the one cell and with the one cell's remaining protrusions on the remaining associated grid straps generally open to longitudinal coolant flow through the one cell.

De Mario, E.E.

1986-04-29

305

Grid-spacer removal model. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

A model has been developed for SCDAP to treat the effect of grid spacer removal. The model simply tests the grid temperature against the melting temperature of the grid spacer material. If the grid spacer temperature is equal to or above its melting temperature, the grid is removed as an obstruction.

Berna, G.A.

1982-03-01

306

Ogen: An Overlapping Grid Generator for Overture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe how to generate overlapping grids for use with Overture using the ogen program. The user must first generate Mappings to describe the geometry (a set of overlapping grids whose union covers the domain). The overlapping grid then is constructed using the Ogen grid generator. This latter step consists of determining how the different component grids interpolate from each

William D. Henshaw

307

Advanced battery grid alloys  

SciTech Connect

The alloys used in lead-acid batteries have changed markedly during the past five years. The problems in casting lead-calcium alloys have been overcome by the addition of aluminum to the alloys. The aluminum protects the alloys and prevents loss of calcium, yielding greatly improved grain structures and corrosion resistance. Concern about reduced water loss has led to a dramatic reduction in the antimony content of battery grid alloys to levels of less than 2% Sb. New, very low antimony alloys which can be handled or conventional or continuous casting equipment have increased conductivity, reduced corrosion rates, reduced self-discharge and reduced gassing rates compared to conventional 3-5% alloys, but retain the ability to recover from deep discharge.

Prengaman, R.D.

1984-10-01

308

ROV Grid Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will show students how a grid search is conducted by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). They will learn that in order to locate target sites, underwater camera sleds and ROVs must often follow a well-defined search pattern. Using methodical sweeping movements, these craft will locate objects that might otherwise be overlooked if a more random searching method was employed. In this activity students get to create a search pattern that will be used to uncover hidden targets. It will offer students an experience that recreates the remote exploration of the sea bottom, a hands-on activity using a remote-controlled vehicle, and an exercise in uncovering targets through methodical searching.

Dispezio, Michael

309

Grid Generation for Turbomachinery Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a computer code to generate numerical grids for complex internal flow systems such as the fluid flow inside the space shuttle main engine is outlined. The blending technique for generating a grid for stator-rotor combination at a partic...

J. Steinhoff K. C. Reddy

1986-01-01

310

Grid Computing for Physics Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compute grids for applications have the potential to solve significant issues which contribute to low data processing and publication rates. This potential includes an ability to transparently manage large amounts of data and to greatly enhance project computing resources. This project proposes construction of a structured computing grid from the combination of several open-source Java web application systems, with the

Joshua Jeffry Hone

2003-01-01

311

TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

1992-01-01

312

Some Observations on Grid Convergence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is claimed that current practices in grid convergence studies, particularly in the field of external aerodynamics, are flawed. The necessary conditions to properly establish grid convergence are presented. A theoretical model and a numerical example are used to demonstrate these ideas.

Salas, manuel D.

2006-01-01

313

Nuclear reactor spacer grid loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear fuel assembly containing generally cylindrical fuel rods, is described comprising: a top nozzle; a bottom nozzle, a control rod guide thimble extending between the top and bottom nozzles; fuel rod spacer grid assemblies axially disposed along the control rod guide thimble for maintaining the fuel rods in a spaced lateral array. Each of the spacer grid assemblies comprises

H. M. Ferrari; E. Roberts; E. E. De Mario

1988-01-01

314

Intelligent automated surface grid generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of our research is to produce a flexible, general grid generator for automated use by other programs, such as numerical optimizers. The current trend in the gridding field is toward interactive gridding. Interactive gridding more readily taps into the spatial reasoning abilities of the human user through the use of a graphical interface with a mouse. However, a sometimes fruitful approach to generating new designs is to apply an optimizer with shape modification operators to improve an initial design. In order for this approach to be useful, the optimizer must be able to automatically grid and evaluate the candidate designs. This paper describes and intelligent gridder that is capable of analyzing the topology of the spatial domain and predicting approximate physical behaviors based on the geometry of the spatial domain to automatically generate grids for computational fluid dynamics simulators. Typically gridding programs are given a partitioning of the spatial domain to assist the gridder. Our gridder is capable of performing this partitioning. This enables the gridder to automatically grid spatial domains of wide range of configurations.

Yao, Ke-Thia; Gelsey, Andrew

1995-01-01

315

GRID Technologies => 'Education' = 'Distance Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the new possibilities that Grid technologies create in education, presents current learning paradigms and makes a prediction about the way in which Grid technologies may affect the future of education. The case of the Hellenic Open University (HOU) is presented and the current educational technologies and tools used are illustrated. The paper also presents a scenario for

Michalis Nik Xenos; Bill Vassiliadis; Athanassios N. Skodras

2005-01-01

316

LAPS Grid generation and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LAPS uses a common-data framework in which a general purpose grid generation and adaptation package in toroidal and simply connected domains is implemented. The initial focus is on implementing the Winslow/Laplace-Beltrami method for generating non-overlapping block structured grids. This is to be followed by a grid adaptation scheme based on Monge-Kantorovich optimal transport method [Delzanno et al., J. Comput. Phys,227 (2008), 9841-9864], that equidistributes application-specified error. As an initial set of applications, we will lay out grids for an axisymmetric mirror, a field reversed configuration, and an entire poloidal cross section of a tokamak plasma reconstructed from a CMOD experimental shot. These grids will then be used for computing the plasma equilibrium and transport in accompanying presentations. A key issue for Monge-Kantorovich grid optimization is the choice of error or monitor function for equi-distribution. We will compare the Operator Recovery Error Source Detector (ORESD) [Lapenta, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng,59 (2004) 2065-2087], the Tau method and a strategy based on the grid coarsening [Zhang et al., AIAA J,39 (2001) 1706-1715] to find an ``optimal'' grid.

Pagliantini, Cecilia; Delzanno, Gia Luca; Guo, Zehua; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xianzhu; Chacon, Luis

2011-11-01

317

Home visits to improve breast health knowledge and screening practices in a less privileged area in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer afflicting women in Jordan. This study aimed to assess the effects of an educational intervention through home visits, including offering free mammography screening vouchers, on changing women’s breast health knowledge and screening practices for early detection of breast cancer in a less privileged area in Jordan. Methods Two thousand four hundred breast health awareness home visits were conducted and 2363 women aged 20-79 years (median: 41) answered a pre-test interview-administrated questionnaire to assess their breast health knowledge and practices at the baseline. After a home-based educational session, 625 women aged 40 years or older were referred to free mammography screening. Five hundred and ninety six homes were revisited six months later and out of these 593 women participated in a post-test. The women’s retained breast health knowledge, the changes in their reported breast health practices and their usage of the free mammography voucher, were assessed. Results The mean knowledge score increased significantly (p?privileged area in Jordan.

2014-01-01

318

On Multigrid for Overlapping Grids  

SciTech Connect

The solution of elliptic partial differential equations on composite overlapping grids using multigrid is discussed. An approach is described that provides a fast and memory efficient scheme for the solution of boundary value problems in complex geometries. The key aspects of the new scheme are an automatic coarse grid generation algorithm, an adaptive smoothing technique for adjusting residuals on different component grids, and the use of local smoothing near interpolation boundaries. Other important features include optimizations for Cartesian component grids, the use of over-relaxed Red-Black smoothers and the generation of coarse grid operators through Galerkin averaging. Numerical results in two and three dimensions show that very good multigrid convergence rates can be obtained for both Dirichlet and Neumann/mixed boundary conditions. A comparison to Krylov based solvers shows that the multigrid solver can be much faster and require significantly less memory.

Henshaw, W

2004-01-13

319

76 FR 12711 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee...final agenda will be posted on the Smart Grid Web site at...

2011-03-08

320

75 FR 55306 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee...and provide an update on NIST's Smart Grid program. The agenda may change...

2010-09-10

321

77 FR 38768 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee...meeting are to review updates on the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel...

2012-06-29

322

76 FR 70412 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee...final agenda will be posted on the Smart Grid Web site at...

2011-11-14

323

76 FR 46279 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department...SUMMARY: The Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee...Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability, National...

2011-08-02

324

21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification. A radiographic grid is a device that consists of...

2010-04-01

325

Interactive Solution-Adaptive Grid Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TURBO-AD is an interactive solution-adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution-adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive solution-adaptive g...

Y. K. Choo T. L. Henderson

1992-01-01

326

21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification. A radiographic grid is a device that consists of...

2009-04-01

327

Grid Programming in Java and Python  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to Grids, the Globus Toolkit, and the Commodity Grid (CoG) Kit. Using and programming grids with the Java and Python CoG Kits, including secure access to remote resources, remote job submission and data access.

Von Laszewski, Gregor; Jackson, Keith

328

BonjourGrid: Orchestration of multi-instances of grid middlewares on institutional Desktop Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the rapidly increasing number of users and applications running on desktop grid (DG) systems does demonstrate its inherent potential, current DG implementations follow the traditional master-worker paradigm and DG middlewares do not cooperate. To extend the DG architecture, we propose a novel system, called BonjourGrid, capable of 1) creating, for each user, a specific execution environment in a decentralized

Heithem Abbes; Christophe Cérin; Mohamed Jemni

2009-01-01

329

Two-dimensional combinatorial screening and the RNA Privileged Space Predictor program efficiently identify aminoglycoside-RNA hairpin loop interactions  

PubMed Central

Herein, we report the identification of RNA hairpin loops that bind derivatives of kanamycin A, tobramycin, neamine, and neomycin B via two-dimensional combinatorial screening, a method that screens chemical and RNA spaces simultaneously. An arrayed aminoglycoside library was probed for binding to a 6-nucleotide RNA hairpin loop library (4096 members). Members of the loop library that bound each aminoglycoside were excised from the array, amplified and sequenced. Sequences were analyzed with our newly developed RNA Privileged Space Predictor (RNA-PSP) program, which analyzes selected sequences to identify statistically significant trends. RNA-PSP identified the following unique trends: 5?UNNNC3? loops for the kanamycin A derivative (where N is any nucleotide); 5?UNNC3? loops for the tobramycin derivative; 5?UNC3? loops for the neamine derivative; and 5?UNNG3? loops for the neomycin B derivative. The affinities and selectivities of a subset of the ligand–hairpin loop interactions were determined. The selected interactions have Kd values ranging from 10 nM to 605 nM. Selectivities ranged from 0.4 to >200-fold. Interestingly, the results from RNA-PSP are able to qualitatively predict specificity based on overlap between the RNA sequences selected for the ligands. These studies expand the information available on small molecule–RNA motif interactions, which could be useful to design ligands targeting RNA.

Paul, Dustin J.; Seedhouse, Steven J.; Disney, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

330

IFN-? Blocks CD4+CD25+ Tregs and Abolishes Immune Privilege of Minor Histocompatibility Mismatched Corneal Allografts  

PubMed Central

Th1 CD4+ cells are believed to be the primary mediators of corneal allograft rejection. However, rejection of fully allogeneic C57BL/6 corneal allografts soared from 50% to 90% in both INF-??/? and anti-IFN-?-treated BALB/c mice. In contrast, similar deficits in IFN-? in BALB/c hosts enhanced immune privilege of BALB.B (minor histocompatibility antigen-matched, MHC-mismatched) and NZB (major histocompatibility complex-matched, minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched) corneal allografts – decreasing rejection from 80% to ~20%. This effect of IFN-? was independent of CD4+ T cell lineage commitment as both anti-IFN-?-treated acceptor and rejector mice displayed a Th2 cytokine profile. The presence of IFN-? prevented the generation of alloantigen-specific CD4+CD25+ Tregs in hosts receiving either MHC only mismatched BALB.B or minor only histocompatibility (minor H)-mismatched NZB corneal allografts. Tregs in these hosts, promoted corneal allograft survival by suppressing Th2 effector cells. By contrast, IFN-? was necessary for the generation of CD4+CD25+ Tregs that prevented rejection of fully allogeneic C57BL/6 corneal allografts in BALB/c hosts. These findings suggest that MHC-matching in combination with blockade of IFN-? holds promise as a means of enhancing corneal allograft survival.

Cunnusamy, Khrishen; Niederkorn, Jerry Y.

2014-01-01

331

National Smart Water Grid  

SciTech Connect

The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US-Mexico border; and decreased eutrophication (excessive plant growth and decay) in the Gulf of Mexico to name a few. The National Smart Water Grid{trademark} will pay for itself in a single major flood event.

Beaulieu, R A

2009-07-13

332

Hybrids of privileged structures benzothiazoles and pyrrolo[2,1-c] [1,4]benzodiazepin-5-one, and diversity-oriented synthesis of benzothiazoles.  

PubMed

Privileged structures like Benzothiazole and Pyrrolobenzodiazepine offer wonderful opportunity to explore in anti-cancer drug discovery as a mean to counter drug-resistance problem. BT-PBD hybrids and diverse BT derivatives have been synthesized and their in vitro cytotoxic activities were screened against five cancer cell lines have been discussed. The novel compounds showed promising results as compared with the marketed drug etoposide and could well be used in future anti-cancer drug development studies. PMID:22325897

Bose, D Subhas; Idrees, Mohd; Todewale, Ismail K; Jakka, N M; Rao, J Venkateswara

2012-04-01

333

BioCores: identification of a drug/natural product-based privileged structural motif for small-molecule lead discovery.  

PubMed

The analysis of known drugs (Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry database (2008 version): http://www.mdl.com/products/knowledge/medicinal_chem/index.jsp ) and natural products (Koch et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:17272-17277, 2008) has led to the identification of privileged saturated and aromatic heterocyclic ring pairs that we have termed as "BioCores." This article explains how the BioCores can be used for the design of novel lead-like scaffolds. PMID:19468851

Kombarov, Roman; Altieri, Andrea; Genis, Dmitry; Kirpichenok, Mikhail; Kochubey, Valeriy; Rakitina, Natalia; Titarenko, Zoya

2010-02-01

334

Transgenic Expression of CD95 Ligand on Islet beta Cells Induces a Granulocytic Infiltration but does not Confer Immune Privilege upon Islet Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binding of CD95 (Fas\\/APO-1) by its ligand (CD95L) commonly induces apoptosis. Apoptosis of activated T cells, induced by CD95L expressed in the rodent testis, has been proposed to be the mechanism of immune privilege [Bellgrau, D., Gold, D., Selawry, H., Moore, J., Franzusoff, A. & Duke, R. C. (1995) Nature (London) 377, 630-632]. To test whether CD95L could protect pancreatic

Janette Allison; Harry M. Georgiou; Andreas Strasser; David L. Vaux

1997-01-01

335

Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

James, Mark

2006-01-01

336

Grid Visualization Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Grid Visualization Tool (GVT) is a computer program for displaying the path of a mobile robotic explorer (rover) on a terrain map. The GVT reads a map-data file in either portable graymap (PGM) or portable pixmap (PPM) format, representing a gray-scale or color map image, respectively. The GVT also accepts input from path-planning and activity-planning software. From these inputs, the GVT generates a map overlaid with one or more rover path(s), waypoints, locations of targets to be explored, and/or target-status information (indicating success or failure in exploring each target). The display can also indicate different types of paths or path segments, such as the path actually traveled versus a planned path or the path traveled to the present position versus planned future movement along a path. The program provides for updating of the display in real time to facilitate visualization of progress. The size of the display and the map scale can be changed as desired by the user. The GVT was written in the C++ language using the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) software. It has been compiled for both Sun Solaris and Linux operating systems.

Chouinard, Caroline; Fisher, Forest; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Schaffer, Steven

2005-01-01

337

Pin grid arrays. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of electronic assemblies towards smaller packaging requirements has led to the need to investigate the potential of incorporating higher density packaging in the form of pin grid arrays (PGAs) for weapons hardware. This study investigated th...

D. R. Obenland

1993-01-01

338

Grid Compas Computers Engineering Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives details of an engineering evaluation made by Engineering Development Establishment (EDE) of two GRID Compass portable computer, one of which is Tempest certified. It is concluded that the units are suitable for field use provided they ar...

J. Muir

1987-01-01

339

Grid Computing Lecture - Job Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Job management: Job submission, Resource management, Globus Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM), GT4 commands, job description languages (RSL/RSL-2/ JDD/JSDL),syntax and examples, input/output.

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

340

Grid Computing Lecture - System Infrastructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~System Infrastructure: Web services, Background information. history, remote procedure calls, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), service registry, WSDL, WSDD, Web service implementation, SOAP, containers, stubs, code ...

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

341

Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage  

SciTech Connect

The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

Banerjee, Sanjoy

2012-01-01

342

Discretization formulas for unstructured grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galerkin weighted residual technique using linear triangular weight functions is employed to develop finite difference formula in cartesian coordinates for the Laplacian operator, first derivative operators and the function for unstructured triangular grids. The weighted residual coefficients associated with the weak formulation of the Laplacian operator are shown to agree with the Taylor series approach on a global average. In addition, a simple algorithm is presented to determine the Voronoi (finite difference) area of an unstructured grid.

Baumeister, Kenneth J.

1988-01-01

343

Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations  

ScienceCinema

Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

2014-04-09

344

Grids for nuclear fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

A spacer grid for fuel assemblies in a water reactor is provided. The grid shell is shaped so that a pressing in zircaloy can be made. Cross members in a lattice in the shell provide spacing for the fuel pins of the fuel assembly. Each fuel pin has its own cell in the lattice, and at least some of the joints between the members comprise two attachment points spaced along one of the members at a single intersection.

Nicholson, G.

1982-09-28

345

Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage  

ScienceCinema

The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

Banerjee, Sanjoy

2013-05-29

346

Towards Smart Grid Dynamic Ratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy distribution industry is giving greater attention to smart grid solutions as a means for increasing the capabilities, efficiency and reliability of the electrical power network. The smart grid makes use of intelligent monitoring and control devices throughout the distribution network to report on electrical properties such as voltage, current and power, as well as raising network alarms and events. A further aspect of the smart grid embodies the dynamic rating of electrical assets of the network. This fundamentally involves a rating of the load current capacity of electrical assets including feeders, transformers and switches. The mainstream approach to rate assets is to apply the vendor plate rating, which often under utilizes assets, or in some cases over utilizes when environmental conditions reduce the effective rated capacity, potentially reducing lifetime. Using active intelligence we have developed a rating system that rates assets in real time based upon several events. This allows for a far more efficient and reliable electrical grid that is able to extend further the life and reliability of the electrical network. In this paper we describe our architecture, the observations made during development and live deployment of the solution into operation. We also illustrate how this solution blends with the smart grid by proposing a dynamic rating system for the smart grid.

Cheema, Jamal; Clark, Adrian; Kilimnik, Justin; Pavlovski, Chris; Redman, David; Vu, Maria

2011-08-01

347

AstroGrid-D: Grid technology for astronomical science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present status and results of AstroGrid-D, a joint effort of astrophysicists and computer scientists to employ grid technology for scientific applications. AstroGrid-D provides access to a network of distributed machines with a set of commands as well as software interfaces. It allows simple use of computer and storage facilities and to schedule or monitor compute tasks and data management. It is based on the Globus Toolkit middleware (GT4). Chapter 1 describes the context which led to the demand for advanced software solutions in Astrophysics, and we state the goals of the project. We then present characteristic astrophysical applications that have been implemented on AstroGrid-D in chapter 2. We describe simulations of different complexity, compute-intensive calculations running on multiple sites (Section 2.1), and advanced applications for specific scientific purposes (Section 2.2), such as a connection to robotic telescopes (Section 2.2.3). We can show from these examples how grid execution improves e.g. the scientific workflow. Chapter 3 explains the software tools and services that we adapted or newly developed. Section 3.1 is focused on the administrative aspects of the infrastructure, to manage users and monitor activity. Section 3.2 characterises the central components of our architecture: The AstroGrid-D information service to collect and store metadata, a file management system, the data management system, and a job manager for automatic submission of compute tasks. We summarise the successfully established infrastructure in chapter 4, concluding with our future plans to establish AstroGrid-D as a platform of modern e-Astronomy.

Enke, Harry; Steinmetz, Matthias; Adorf, Hans-Martin; Beck-Ratzka, Alexander; Breitling, Frank; Brüsemeister, Thomas; Carlson, Arthur; Ensslin, Torsten; Högqvist, Mikael; Nickelt, Iliya; Radke, Thomas; Reinefeld, Alexander; Reiser, Angelika; Scholl, Tobias; Spurzem, Rainer; Steinacker, Jürgen; Voges, Wolfgang; Wambsganß, Joachim; White, Steve

2011-02-01

348

Uropathogenic E. coli Induce Different Immune Response in Testicular and Peritoneal Macrophages: Implications for Testicular Immune Privilege  

PubMed Central

Infertility affects one in seven couples and ascending bacterial infections of the male genitourinary tract by Escherichia coli are an important cause of male factor infertility. Thus understanding mechanisms by which immunocompetent cells such as testicular macrophages (TM) respond to infection and how bacterial pathogens manipulate defense pathways is of importance. Whole genome expression profiling of TM and peritoneal macrophages (PM) infected with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) revealed major differences in regulated genes. However, a multitude of genes implicated in calcium signaling pathways was a common feature which indicated a role of calcium-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. UPEC-dependent NFAT activation was confirmed in both cultured TM and in TM in an in vivo UPEC infectious rat orchitis model. Elevated expression of NFATC2-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines was found in TM (IL-4, IL-13) and PM (IL-3, IL-4, IL-13). NFATC2 is activated by rapid influx of calcium, an activity delineated to the pore forming toxin alpha-hemolysin by bacterial mutant analysis. Alpha-hemolysin suppressed IL-6 and TNF-? cytokine release from PM and caused differential activation of MAP kinase and AP-1 signaling pathways in TM and PM leading to reciprocal expression of key pro-inflammatory cytokines in PM (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6 downregulated) and TM (IL-1?, IL-6 upregulated). In addition, unlike PM, LPS-treated TM were refractory to NF?B activation shown by the absence of degradation of I?B? and lack of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-6, TNF-?). Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism to the conundrum by which TM initiate immune responses to bacteria, while maintaining testicular immune privilege with its ability to tolerate neo-autoantigens expressed on developing spermatogenic cells.

Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Hossain, Hamid; Lu, Yongning; Geisler, Andreas; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Schuler, Gerhard; Klug, Jorg; Pilatz, Adrian; Wagenlehner, Florian; Chakraborty, Trinad; Meinhardt, Andreas

2011-01-01

349

Endogenous cortisol and TGF-beta in human aqueous humor contribute to ocular immune privilege by regulating dendritic cell function.  

PubMed

Aqueous humor (AqH) has been shown to have significant immunosuppressive effects on APCs in animal models. We wanted to establish whether, in humans, AqH can regulate dendritic cell (DC) function and to identify the dominant mechanism involved. Human AqH inhibited the capacity of human peripheral blood monocyte-derived DC to induce naive CD4(+) T cell proliferation and cytokine production in vitro, associated with a reduction in DC expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86. This was seen both for DC cultured under noninflammatory conditions (immature DC) and for DC stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines (mature DC). DC expression of MHC classes I/II and CD83 was reduced (mature DC only). Myeloid DC from peripheral blood were similarly sensitive to the effects of human AqH, but only under inflammatory conditions. The addition of ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone and vasoactive intestinal peptide did not cause significant inhibition at physiological levels. However, the addition of exogenous cortisol at physiological levels recapitulated the AqH-induced reduction in CD86 and inhibition of DC-induced T cell proliferation, and blockade of cortisol in AqH partially reversed its suppressive effects. TGF-?2 had an additional effect with cortisol, and although simultaneous blockade of cortisol and TGF-?2 in AqH reduced its effectiveness, there was still a cortisol- and TGF-?-independent component. In humans, AqH regulates DC maturation and function by the combined actions of cortisol and TGF-?2, a pathway that is likely to contribute to the maintenance of immune privilege in the eye. PMID:21106846

Denniston, Alastair K; Kottoor, Sherine H; Khan, Imran; Oswal, Kadambari; Williams, Geraint P; Abbott, Joseph; Wallace, Graham R; Salmon, Mike; Rauz, Saaeha; Murray, Philip I; Curnow, S John

2011-01-01

350

CORNEAL ANGIOGENIC PRIVILEGE: ANGIOGENIC AND ANTIANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN CORNEAL AVASCULARITY, VASCULOGENESIS, AND WOUND HEALING (AN AMERICAN OPHTHALMOLOGICAL SOCIETY THESIS)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the molecular basis of corneal avascularity during wound healing and determine the role of angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in corneal vasculogenesis. Methods The expression of proangiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]; basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF]; matrix metalloproteinase-2 [MMP-2]; and membrane-type 1-MMP [MT1-MMP]) and antiangiogenic factors (pigment epithelium–derived factor [PEDF]; angiostatin; restin; and endostatin) was analyzed in avascular corneas and in models of corneal neovascularization (bFGF pellet implantation, intrastromal injection of MT1-MMP cDNA, and surgically induced partial limbal deficiency). Results Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of antiangiogenic factors (PEDF, angiostatin, restin, and endostatin) and proangiogenic molecules (VEGF, bFGF, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP) in the cornea after wounding. Proangiogenic MMPs were upregulated in stromal fibroblasts in the vicinity of invading vessels following bFGF pellet implantation. Corneal neovascularization (NV) was also induced by intrastromal injection of MT1-MMP naked cDNA in conjunction with de-epithelialization. Partial limbal deficiency (HLD-) resulted in corneal NV in MMP-7 and MMP-3 knockout mice but not in wild type controls. Conclusions Corneal angiogenic privilege is an active process involving the production of antiangiogenic factors to counterbalance the proangiogenic factors (which are upregulated after wound healing even in the absence of new vessels). Our finding that the potent antiangiogenic factors, angiostatin and endostatin, are colocalized with several MMPs during wound healing suggests that MMPs may be involved in the elaboration of these antiangiogenic molecules by proteolytic processing of substrates within the cornea.

Azar, Dimitri T.

2006-01-01

351

Extensible Job Managers for Grid Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid computing is becoming an important framework for enabling applications to utilize widely distributed collections of computational and data resources, however current grid software is still immature and rather difficult to use. The Globus Grid Toolkit is a set of low-level tools, protocols and services that has become a defacto standard for basic grid computing infrastructure. The Globus Resource Allocation

Paul D. Coddington; Lici Lu; Darren Webb; Andrew L. Wendelborn

2003-01-01

352

Synchronization techniques for grid connected wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase locked loop (PLL) algorithms are very important for grid synchronization in most of the grid-connected power converters applications. Particularly new grid codes for wind parks pose serious challenges to PLL. The performance of the PLL should not be affected under distorted grid conditions such as: transients, short interruptions, sags, swells, voltage unbalance, harmonics, flickers, frequency and phase variations. This

A. Nagliero; R. A. Mastromauro; M. Liserre; A. Dell'Aquila

2009-01-01

353

Research on smart grid in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smart grid is the latest direction for the future power system development. In this paper, firstly the background of smart grid, its meaning, as well as the concept and structure were presented. Typical diagram of smart grid was illustrated. Then, the current development of smart grid in United States and Europe were described, development ideas and the future trends

Jingjing Lu; Da Xie; Qian Ai

2009-01-01

354

Functional Grid Programming with ConCert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid computing has become increasingly popular with the growth of the Internet, especially in large-scale scientic computation. Computational Grids are characterized by their scale, their heterogeneity, and their unreliability, mak- ing the creation of Grid software quite a challenge. Security concerns make the deployment of Grid infrastructure simi- larly daunting. We argue that functional programming techniques, both well-known and new,

Tom Murphy VII

2004-01-01

355

ML grid programming with ConCert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid computing has become increasingly popular with the growth of the Internet, especially in large-scale scientific computation. Computational Grids are characterized by their scale, their hetero- geneity, and their unreliability, making the creation of Grid soft- ware quite a challenge. Security concerns make the deployment of Grid infrastructure similarly daunting. We argue that functional programming techniques, both well- known and

Tom Murphy Vii

2006-01-01

356

Features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit. The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus protocols, allowing the

Gregor Von Laszewski; Jarek Gawor; Nell Rehn; Michael Russell

2002-01-01

357

Grid-Optimization Program for Photovoltaic Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CELLOPT program developed to assist in designing grid pattern of current-conducting material on photovoltaic cell. Analyzes parasitic resistance losses and shadow loss associated with metallized grid pattern on both round and rectangular solar cells. Though performs sensitivity studies, used primarily to optimize grid design in terms of bus bar and grid lines by minimizing power loss. CELLOPT written in APL.

Daniel, R. E.; Lee, T. S.

1986-01-01

358

Managing grids communication infrastructure through policy translations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computing grids require the underlying network infrastructure to be properly configured in order to have appropriate communications among the grids' nodes. The management of networks and the management of grids are currently executed by different tools operated by different administrative personnel. Eventually, the grid communication requirements will need corresponding support from the network management tools, but such requirements are fulfilled

Ricardo Neisse; Lisandro Z. Granville; MariaJanilce B. Almeida; L. M. R. Tarouco

2004-01-01

359

Grid'5000: A Large Scale And Highly Reconfigurable Experimental Grid Testbed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale distributed systems such as Grids are difficult to study from theoretical models and simulators only. Most Grids deployed at large scale are production platforms that are inappropriate research tools because of their limited reconfiguration, control and monitoring capabilities. In this paper, we present Grid'5000, a 5000 CPU nation-wide infrastructure for research in Grid computing. Grid'5000 is designed to

Raphael Bolze; Franck Cappello; Eddy Caron; Michel J. Daydé; Frédéric Desprez; Emmanuel Jeannot; Yvon Jégou; Julien Leduc; Nouredine Melab; Guillaume Mornet; Raymond Namyst; Pascale Primet; Benjamin Quétier; Olivier Richard; El-ghazali Talbi

2006-01-01

360

Numerical simulation of gridded electrostatic lens  

SciTech Connect

Gridded electrostatic lenses are frequently used in extraction systems and low energy ion beam transport line. Typically, for numerical simulation the grid is treated as a metal plate transparent for beam particles. The influence of real grid geometry on the beam dynamics in the gridded lens has been investigated by KOBRA-3d code. Beam emittance growth for different lens parameters has been investigated. Approximating expressions for obtained results are presented. The grid geometry providing minimal beam distortions is proposed.

Kropachev, G. N.; Alexeev, N. N.; Balabin, A. I.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Nikolaev, V. I [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

361

Method of making dished ion thruster grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pair of flat grid blanks are clamped together at their edges with an impervious metal sheet on top. All of the blanks and sheets are dished simultaneously by forcing fluid to inflate an elastic sheet which contacts the bottom grid blank. A second impervious metal sheet is inserted between the two grid blanks if the grids have high percentage open areas. The dished grids are stress relieved simultaneously.

Banks, B. A. (inventor)

1975-01-01

362

Multiblock grid generation for jet engine configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal was to create methods for generating grids with minimal human intervention that are applicable to a wide range of problems and compatible with existing numerical methods and with existing and proposed computers. The following topics that are related to multiblock grid generation are briefly covered in viewgraph form: finding a domain decomposition, dimensioning grids, grid smoothing, manipulating grids and decompositions, and some specializations for jet engine configurations.

Stewart, Mark E. M.

1992-01-01

363

Design of GridGIS Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid Geospatial Information Service (Grid GIS) system aims to study and develop grid-based uniform spatial information access\\u000a and analysis system. Data resources of Grid GIS include not only original and traditional GIS data but remotely sensed data.\\u000a Analysis function is made up of not only single spatial information access but complex and quick data processing. The Grid\\u000a GIS system can

Jianqin Wang; Yong Xue; Yuxin Jiang; Chenghu Zhou; Rongguo Chen; Jianping Guo; Wei Wan; Lei Zheng; Yi Xie

2006-01-01

364

Grid-based Visualization Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in science and engineering have put high demands on tools for high-performance large-scale visual data exploration and analysis. For example, earthquake scientists can now study earthquake phenomena from first principle physics-based simulations. These simulations can generate large amounts of data, possibly high spatial resolution, and long time series. Single-system visualization software running on commodity machines cannot scale up to the large amounts of data generated by these simulations. To address this problem, we propose a flexible and extensible Grid-based visualization framework for time-critical, interactively controlled visual browsing of spatially and temporally large datasets in a Grid environment. Our framework leverages Grid resources for scalable computation and data storage to maintain performance and interactivity with large visualization jobs. Our framework utilizes Globus Toolkit 2.4 components for security (i.e., GSI), resource allocation and management (i.e., DUROC, GRAM) and communication (i.e., Globus-IO) to couple commodity desktops with remote, scalable storage and computational resources in a Grid for interactive data exploration. There are two major components in this framework---Grid Data Transport (GDT) and the Grid Visualization Utility (GVU). GDT provides libraries for performing parallel data filtering and parallel data exchange among Grid resources. GDT allows arbitrary data filtering to be integrated into the system. It also facilitates multi-tiered pipeline topology construction of compute resources and displays. In addition to scientific visualization applications, GDT can be used to support other applications that require parallel processing and parallel transfer of partial ordered independent files, such as file-set transfer. On top of GDT, we have developed the Grid Visualization Utility (GVU), which is designed to assist visualization dataset management, including file formatting, data transport and automatic byte swapping. GVU also supports parameterized data reduction filters such as point sampling with scalar range culling, as well as volume cropping, and down sampling. The GVU framework can be used to facilitate the parallel execution of existing transformation filters, such as the VTK marching cubes iso-surface filter, as well as other custom domain-specific filters. Our initial implementation supports remote synthesis of view point independent display lists. This feature allows the local display machine to control the view point for reduced view point latency, and multi-view rendering (e.g., stereo rendering). The poster will provide an architectural design of the Grid-based visualization framework and its components. We will also show a brief demo/movie of our work, and how it is being used to visualize 4D earthquake wave propagation data.

Thiebaux, M.; Tangmunarunkit, H.; Kesselman, C.

2003-12-01

365

The Privileges of Rank  

PubMed Central

This article examines the effects of peacetime cold war military service on the life course according to four potentially overlapping theories that state that military service (1) was a disruption, (2) was a positive turning point, (3) allowed veterans to accumulate advantage, and (4) was an agent of social reproduction. The article argues that the extent to which the effect of military service on veterans' lives corresponds with one or another of the preceding theories depends on historical shifts in three dimensions: conscription, conflict, and benefits. Military service during the peacetime draft era of the late 1950s had a neutral effect on the socioeconomic attainment of enlisted veterans. However, it had a positive effect on veterans who served as officers, which partly stemmed from status reproduction and selection. Yet net of pre-service and educational differences by rank, officers in this peacetime draft era were still able to accumulate advantage.

MacLean, Alair

2010-01-01

366

75 FR 63462 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. RM11-2-000] Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards October...framework to achieve interoperability of smart grid devices and systems, including...

2010-10-15

367

ON JOINT DETERMINISTIC GRID MODELING AND SUB-GRID VARIABILITY CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MODEL EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The general situation, (but exemplified in urban areas), where a significant degree of sub-grid variability (SGV) exists in grid models poses problems when comparing gridbased air quality modeling results with observations. Typically, grid models ignore or parameterize processes ...

368

TIGGERC: Turbomachinery Interactive Grid Generator for 2-D Grid Applications and Users Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional multi-block grid generator has been developed for a new design and analysis system for studying multiple blade-row turbomachinery problems. TIGGERC is a mouse driven, interactive grid generation program which can be used to modify boundary coordinates and grid packing and generates surface grids using a hyperbolic tangent or algebraic distribution of grid points on the block boundaries. The interior points of each block grid are distributed using a transfinite interpolation approach. TIGGERC can generate a blocked axisymmetric H-grid, C-grid, I-grid or O-grid for studying turbomachinery flow problems. TIGGERC was developed for operation on Silicon Graphics workstations. Detailed discussion of the grid generation methodology, menu options, operational features and sample grid geometries are presented.

Miller, David P.

1994-01-01

369

Spacer grid cell fixture system  

SciTech Connect

A weld fixture for receiving and aligning the fuel rod contact points of a nuclear fuel bundle spacer grid is disclosed. Two plates are provided with intersecting unequally spaced slots that define polygons on one side of each plate. Both plates have bores therethrough substantially at the slot intersections and in the slots adjacent the outer edges of the plates. Bores are provided through both plates in polygons that correspond to fuel assembly guide tube and instrument tube locations. These positions receive guide cell pins during use, some of which are hollow and are used to bolt the plates together over the spacer grid strips. Bores in each plate through the defined polygons receive alignment pins. Guide rods receive and align the plates through corner bores in each plate. The slots and pins in the facing plates align the critical fuel rod contact points in the spacer grid during the intersection welding process. 19 figs.

Johnson, G. Jr.; King, R.A.; Minnick, E.C. III

1995-04-11

370

Wavelet-Based Grid Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wavelets can provide a basis set in which the basis functions are constructed by dilating and translating a fixed function known as the mother wavelet. The mother wavelet can be seen as a high pass filter in the frequency domain. The process of dilating and expanding this high-pass filter can be seen as altering the frequency range that is 'passed' or detected. The process of translation moves this high-pass filter throughout the domain, thereby providing a mechanism to detect the frequencies or scales of information at every location. This is exactly the type of information that is needed for effective grid generation. This paper provides motivation to use wavelets for grid generation in addition to providing the final product: source code for wavelet-based grid generation.

Jameson, Leland

1996-01-01

371

TBGG- INTERACTIVE ALGEBRAIC GRID GENERATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TBGG, Two-Boundary Grid Generation, applies an interactive algebraic grid generation technique in two dimensions. The program incorporates mathematical equations that relate the computational domain to the physical domain. TBGG has application to a variety of problems using finite difference techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. Examples include the creation of a C-type grid about an airfoil and a nozzle configuration in which no left or right boundaries are specified. The underlying two-boundary technique of grid generation is based on Hermite cubic interpolation between two fixed, nonintersecting boundaries. The boundaries are defined by two ordered sets of points, referred to as the top and bottom. Left and right side boundaries may also be specified, and call upon linear blending functions to conform interior interpolation to the side boundaries. Spacing between physical grid coordinates is determined as a function of boundary data and uniformly spaced computational coordinates. Control functions relating computational coordinates to parametric intermediate variables that affect the distance between grid points are embedded in the interpolation formulas. A versatile control function technique with smooth cubic spline functions is also presented. The TBGG program is written in FORTRAN 77. It works best in an interactive graphics environment where computational displays and user responses are quickly exchanged. The program has been implemented on a CDC Cyber 170 series computer using NOS 2.4 operating system, with a central memory requirement of 151,700 (octal) 60 bit words. TBGG requires a Tektronix 4015 terminal and the DI-3000 Graphics Library of Precision Visuals, Inc. TBGG was developed in 1986.

Smith, R. E.

1994-01-01

372

Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TURBO-AD is an interactive solution-adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution-adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive solution-adaptive grid generation package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties that had been encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on a unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid in the parametric domain is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaptation is achieved by first adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This solution-adaptive grid generation process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of a new grid from the adapted control net is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global grid controls.

Choo, Yung K.; Henderson, Todd L.

1992-01-01

373

Convectively cooled electrical grid structure  

DOEpatents

Undesirable distortions of electrical grid conductors from thermal cycling are minimized and related problems such as unwanted thermionic emission and structural failure from overheating are avoided by providing for a flow of fluid coolant within each conductor. The conductors are secured at each end to separate flexible support elements which accommodate to individual longitudinal expansion and contraction of each conductor while resisting lateral displacements, the coolant flow preferably being directed into and out of each conductor through passages in the flexible support elements. The grid may have a modular or divided construction which facilitates manufacture and repairs.

Paterson, J.A.; Koehler, G.W.

1980-11-10

374

Convectively cooled electrical grid structure  

DOEpatents

Undesirable distortions of electrical grid conductors (12) from thermal cycling are minimized and related problems such as unwanted thermionic emission and structural failure from overheating are avoided by providing for a flow of fluid coolant within each conductor (12). The conductors (12) are secured at each end to separate flexible support elements (16) which accommodate to individual longitudinal expansion and contraction of each conductor (12) while resisting lateral displacements, the coolant flow preferably being directed into and out of each conductor through passages (48) in the flexible support elements (16). The grid (11) may have a modular or divided construction which facilitates manufacture and repairs.

Paterson, James A. (Oakland, CA); Koehler, Gary W. (Oakland, CA)

1982-01-01

375

Grid for Earth Science Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to decrease uncertainties by increasing the probability of occurrence and to create large database devoted for future satellite instrument. Some limitations are related to the combination of databases-outside the grid infrastructure like ESGF (Earth System Grid Federation) and grid compute resources; and to real-time applications that need resource reservation in order to insure results at given time. However some solutions have been developed. The major lesson we learnt with Grid is the impact of e-collaboration among various scientific technical domains on the development of ES research in Europe.

Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

2013-04-01

376

Voltage grid support of DFIG wind turbines during grid faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines address primarily the design of DFIG wind turbine control with special focus on power converters protection and on voltage control issues. This paper presents the design of a voltage control strategy for DFIG wind turbines, which enhances the fault ride-through capability of DFIG wind

Anca D. Hansen; Gabriele Michalke

377

Interactive grid-access using GridSolve and Giggle  

Microsoft Academic Search

General purpose Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) like Matlab are widely used in the fields of science for development of new algorithms. If a l ot of computing power is required to run these algorithms, todays PSEs lack support for accessing the distributed infrastructures of the organisation (i.e. grids), which li mits the size of the problems that can be solved.

M. Hardt; Keith Seymour; Jack Dongarra; M. Zapf; N. V. Ruitter

2008-01-01

378

IGB grid: User's manual (A turbomachinery grid generation code)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A grid generation code called IGB is presented for use in computational investigations of turbomachinery flowfields. It contains a combination of algebraic and elliptic techniques coded for use on an interactive graphics workstation. The instructions for use and a test case are included.

Beach, T. A.; Hoffman, G.

1992-01-01

379

caGrid 1.0: A Grid Enterprise Architecture for Cancer Research  

PubMed Central

caGrid is the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIGTM) program. The current release, caGrid version 1.0, is developed as the production Grid software infrastructure of caBIGTM. Based on feedback from adopters of the previous version (caGrid 0.5), it has been significantly enhanced with new features and improvements to existing components. This paper presents an overview of caGrid 1.0, its main components, and enhancements over caGrid 0.5.

Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

2007-01-01

380

caGrid 1.0: a Grid enterprise architecture for cancer research.  

PubMed

caGrid is the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. The current release, caGrid version 1.0, is developed as the production Grid software infrastructure of caBIG. Based on feedback from adopters of the previous version (caGrid 0.5), it has been significantly enhanced with new features and improvements to existing components. This paper presents an overview of caGrid 1.0, its main components, and enhancements over caGrid 0.5. PMID:18693901

Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

2007-01-01

381

A Classification of Emerging and Traditional Grid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in grid computing are stimulating the emergence of novel types of grids, such as accessible, manageable, interactive, and personal grids. More and more researchers are realizing emerging grids' potential to bridge the gap between grid technologies and users. This review of emerging grids sets out to develop a comprehensive classification of both traditional and emerging grid systems, with an

Heba Kurdi; Maozhen Li; Hamed Al-raweshidy

2008-01-01

382

Tuned grid generation with ICEM CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ICEM CFD is a CAD based grid generation package that supports multiblock structured, unstructured tetrahedral and unstructured hexahedral grids. Major development efforts have been spent to extend ICEM CFD's multiblock structured and hexahedral unstructured grid generation capabilities. The modules added are: a parametric grid generation module and a semi-automatic hexahedral grid generation module. A fully automatic version of the hexahedral grid generation module for around a set of predefined objects in rectilinear enclosures has been developed. These modules will be presented and the procedures used will be described, and examples will be discussed.

Wulf, Armin; Akdag, Vedat

1995-01-01

383

Grid Based Target Motion Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve substantial tactical advantage over future submarine threats the combat management system has to quickly plot and maintain the trajectory of the moving targets for early response. Within this objective, the focus is to develop optimal end to end processing approaches that produce significant gain in establishing faster submarine reliable trajectory and motion. The method, based upon grid filtering,

Dann Laneuville; Hervé Vignal

2007-01-01

384

Grids and the Virtual Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider several projects from astronomy that benefit from the Grid paradigm and associated technology, many of which involve either massive datasets or the federation of multiple datasets. We cover image computation (mosaicking, multi-wavelength images, and synoptic surveys); database computation (representation through XML, data mining, and visualization); and semantic interoperability (publishing, ontologies, directories, and service descriptions).

Roy Williams

2003-01-01

385

Pollen Trap with Cleaning Grid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes a pollen collecting and trash removal apparatus for use on honey bee colonies in which bees entering from the field with pollen are forced to twist their bodies through a double screen grid with offset squares and lose the...

N. M. Kauffeld

1974-01-01

386

Information services for smart grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interconnected and integrated electrical power systems, by their very dynamic nature are complex. These multifaceted systems are subject to a host of challenges - aging infrastructure, generation availability near load centers, transmission expansion to meet growing demands, distributed resources, dynamic reactive compensation, congestion management, grid ownership vs. system operation, reliability coordination, supply and cost of natural resources for generation, etc.

Roger L. King

2008-01-01

387

Smart-Grid Security Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has given a broadbrush description of issues related to smart-grid security. Designing solutions in at this stage, before widespread deployment, would be beneficial; in some cases solutions exist, whereas in others research investments will be needed. Several open questions about goals still require discussion, especially around such topics as how (and how much) privacy can be supported.

Himanshu Khurana; Mark D. Hadley; Ning Lu; Deborah A. Frincke

2010-01-01

388

Grid Computing Portlets Development Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Portlets Development Assignment - The purpose of this assignment is to show how to create and test a portlet using the Gridsphere Portal. In the process of doing that, the student will also learn how to install Gridsphere and other required packages.

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-06-30

389

Scrambling on electrical power grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulated, the U.S. electrical power grid system has shown the emergence of behaviors that include scrambling by buyers to purchase electricity and unexpected increasing costs of electricity to consumers. To infer those behaviors, in this paper, we adapt a theoretical framework, developed by Newman in his work on spread of epidemic disease on networks, to the propagation of electricity buying

Thomas V. Huynh; John S. Osmundson

2008-01-01

390

Smart grid cyber security requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of the traditional power grid into a network of intelligent energy distribution able to meet the growing needs of efficiency and environmental impact involves, not only a historical and technical development, but also a profound transformation of the entire existing infrastructure. Given the undeniable benefits introduced, the new smart energy network vulnerabilities are found both in the communication

Emiliano Pallotti; Federica Mangiatordi

2011-01-01

391

Pin grid arrays. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of electronic assemblies towards smaller packaging requirements has led to the need to investigate the potential of incorporating higher density packaging in the form of pin grid arrays (PGAs) for weapons hardware. This study investigated the processes required to pretin, solder, and rework PGA solder terminations.

1993-01-01

392

The Grid-Coupled Dynatron  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an improved oscillatory system wherein the dynamic excursion is associated with the secondary emission region of the vacuum tube characteristic, plate current vs. plate voltage. A more or less conventional dynatron oscillator, using a tetrode, is improved by feeding back some of the output power to the inner grid. The maximum increase in oscillatory power was

F. M. Gager

1935-01-01

393

Pin grid arrays. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of electronic assemblies towards smaller packaging requirements has led to the need to investigate the potential of incorporating higher density packaging in the form of pin grid arrays (PGAs) for weapons hardware. This study investigated the processes required to pretin, solder, and rework PGA solder terminations.

Obenland, D.R.

1993-06-01

394

Network mechanisms of grid cells.  

PubMed

One of the major breakthroughs in neuroscience is the emerging understanding of how signals from the external environment are extracted and represented in the primary sensory cortices of the mammalian brain. The operational principles of the rest of the cortex, however, have essentially remained in the dark. The discovery of grid cells, and their functional organization, opens the door to some of the first insights into the workings of the association cortices, at a stage of neural processing where firing properties are shaped not primarily by the nature of incoming sensory signals but rather by internal self-organizing principles. Grid cells are place-modulated neurons whose firing locations define a periodic triangular array overlaid on the entire space available to a moving animal. The unclouded firing pattern of these cells is rare within the association cortices. In this paper, we shall review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of grid-cell formation which suggest that the pattern originates by competitive network interactions, and we shall relate these ideas to new insights regarding the organization of grid cells into functionally segregated modules. PMID:24366126

Moser, Edvard I; Moser, May-Britt; Roudi, Yasser

2014-02-01

395

Spacer grid cell fixture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weld fixture for receiving and aligning the fuel rod contact points of a nuclear fuel bundle spacer grid is disclosed. Two plates are provided with intersecting unequally spaced slots that define polygons on one side of each plate. Both plates have bores therethrough substantially at the slot intersections and in the slots adjacent the outer edges of the plates.

G. Jr. Johnson; R. A. King; E. C. Minnick

1995-01-01

396

Grids: The top ten questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The design and implementation of a national computing system and data grid has become areachable goal from both the computer science and computational science point of view. Adistributed infrastructure capable of sophisticated computational functions can bring many benefitsto scientific work, but poses many challenges, both technical and socio-political. Technicalchallenges include having basic software tools, higher-level services, functioning and pervasivesecurity,

Jennifer M. Schopf; Bill Nitzberg

2002-01-01

397

Spaceflight Operations Services Grid (SOSG)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to adapt existing space flight operations services to new emerging Grid technologies we are developing a Grid-based prototype space flight operations Grid. This prototype is based on the operational services being provided to the International Space Station's Payload operations located at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama. The prototype services will be Grid or Web enabled and provided to four user communities through portal technology. Users will have the opportunity to assess the value and feasibility of Grid technologies to their specific areas or disciplines. In this presentation descriptions of the prototype development, User-based services, Grid-based services and status of the project will be presented. Expected benefits, findings and observations (if any) to date will also be discussed. The focus of the presentation will be on the project in general, status to date and future plans. The End-use services to be included in the prototype are voice, video, telemetry, commanding, collaboration tools and visualization among others. Security is addressed throughout the project and is being designed into the Grid technologies and standards development. The project is divided into three phases. Phase One establishes the baseline User-based services required for space flight operations listed above. Phase Two involves applying Gridlweb technologies to the User-based services and development of portals for access by users. Phase Three will allow NASA and end users to evaluate the services and determine the future of the technology as applied to space flight operational services. Although, Phase One, which includes the development of the quasi-operational User-based services of the prototype, development will be completed by March 2004, the application of Grid technologies to these services will have just begun. We will provide status of the Grid technologies to the individual User-based services. This effort will result in an extensible environment that incorporates existing and new spaceflight services into a standards-based framework providing current and future NASA programs with cost savings and new and evolvable methods to conduct science. This project will demonstrate how the use of new programming paradigms such as web and grid services can provide three significant benefits to the cost-effective delivery of spaceflight services. They will enable applications to operate more efficiently by being able to utilize pooled resources. They will also permit the reuse of common services to rapidly construct new and more powerful applications. Finally they will permit easy and secure access to services via a combination of grid and portal technology by a distributed user community consisting of NASA operations centers, scientists, the educational community and even the general population as outreach. The approach will be to deploy existing mission support applications such as the Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) and new applications under development, such as the Grid Video Distribution System (GViDS), together with existing grid applications and services such as high-performance computing and visualization services provided by NASA s Information Power Grid (IPG) in the MSFC s Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) HOSC Annex. Once the initial applications have been moved to the grid, a process will begin to apply the new programming paradigms to integrate them where possible. For example, with GViDS, instead of viewing the Distribution service as an application that must run on a single node, the new approach is to build it such that it can be dispatched across a pool of resources in response to dynamic loads. To make this a reality, reusable services will be critical, such as a brokering service to locate appropriate resource within the pool. This brokering service can then be used by other applications such as the TReK. To expand further, if the GViDS application is constructed using a services-based mel, then other applications such as the Video Auditorium can then use GViDS as a service to easil

Bradford, Robert N.; Thigpen, William W.

2004-01-01

398

State of NASA's Information Power Grid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation transfers the concept of the power grid to information sharing in the NASA community. An information grid of this sort would be characterized as comprising tools, middleware, and services for the facilitation of interoperabilit...

W. E. Johnston A. Vaziri L. A. Tanner W. J. Feiereisen W. Thigpen

2001-01-01

399

21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification. A radiographic grid...

2014-04-01

400

21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification. A radiographic grid...

2012-04-01

401

21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification. A radiographic grid...

2011-04-01

402

Additional Security Considerations for Grid Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of Grid computing environments is growing in popularity. A Grid computing environment is primarily a wide area network that encompasses multiple local area networks, where some of the local area networks are managed by different organizations. A Grid computing environment also includes common interfaces for distributed computing software so that the heterogeneous set of machines that make up the Grid can be used more easily. The other key feature of a Grid is that the distributed computing software includes appropriate security technology. The focus of most Grid software is on the security involved with application execution, file transfers, and other remote computing procedures. However, there are other important security issues related to the management of a Grid and the users who use that Grid. This note discusses these additional security issues and makes several suggestions as how they can be managed.

Eidson, Thomas M.

2003-01-01

403

Optimizing Grid Patterns on Photovoltaic Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CELCAL computer program helps in optimizing grid patterns for different photovoltaic cell geometries and metalization processes. Five different powerloss phenomena associated with front-surface metal grid pattern on photovoltaic cells.

Burger, D. R.

1984-01-01

404

21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification. A radiographic grid...

2013-04-01

405

Generalized Coordinates for Cellular Automata Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

After some cellular automata basics here is stated an approach of universal data organization for different automata grids.\\u000a It allows to identify any cell with only one non-negative integer index even for multidimensional grids

Lev Naumov; Saint-Peterburg State

2003-01-01

406

Expansion Planning for the Smart Grid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The introduction of renewable and smart grid technologies into the electric power grid has created a number of challenges and opportunlties for researchers. The challenges and opportunities spread across a number of areas including control, stability, and...

R. Bent

2013-01-01

407

The fundamentals of adaptive grid movement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic grid point movement schemes are studied. The schemes are referred to as adaptive grids. Weight functions and equidistribution in one dimension are treated. The specification of coefficients in the linear weight, attraction to a given grid or a curve, and evolutionary forces are considered. Curve by curve and finite volume methods are described. The temporal coupling of partial differential equations solvers and grid generators was discussed.

Eiseman, Peter R.

1990-01-01

408

Generating Three-Dimensional Grids About Anything  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-Dimensional Grids About Anything by Poisson's Equation (3DGRAPE) computer program designed to make computational grids in or about almost any shape. Generated by solution of Poisson's differential equations in three dimensions. Program automatically finds its own values for inhomogeneous terms giving near-orthogonality and controlled grid-cell height at boundaries. Grids generated applied to both viscous and inviscid aerodynamic problems, and to problems in other areas of fluid dynamics. Written in 100 percent FORTRAN 77.

Sorenson, Reese L.

1991-01-01

409

Visual analytics for power grid contingency analysis.  

PubMed

Contingency analysis employs different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to any threats. A proposed visual-analytics pipeline for power grid management can transform approximately 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form. Grid operators can examine individual scenarios and devise preventive or mitigation strategies in a timely manner. Power grid engineers have applied the pipeline to a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model. PMID:24808167

Pak Chung Wong; Zhenyu Huang; Yousu Chen; Mackey, Patrick; Shuangshuang Jin

2014-01-01

410

Best Practices In Overset Grid Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grid generation for overset grids on complex geometry can be divided into four main steps: geometry processing, surface grid generation, volume grid generation and domain connectivity. For each of these steps, the procedures currently practiced by experienced users are described. Typical problems encountered are also highlighted and discussed. Most of the guidelines are derived from experience on a variety of problems including space launch and return vehicles, subsonic transports with propulsion and high lift devices, supersonic vehicles, rotorcraft vehicles, and turbomachinery.

Chan, William M.; Gomez, Reynaldo J., III; Rogers, Stuart E.; Buning, Pieter G.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

411

The National Grid Project: A system overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Grid Project (NGP) is a comprehensive numerical grid generation software system that is being developed at the National Science Foundation (NSF) Engineering Research Center (ERC) for Computational Field Simulation (CFS) at Mississippi State University (MSU). NGP is supported by a coalition of U.S. industries and federal laboratories. The objective of the NGP is to significantly decrease the amount of time it takes to generate a numerical grid for complex geometries and to increase the quality of these grids to enable computational field simulations for applications in industry. A geometric configuration can be discretized into grids (or meshes) that have two fundamental forms: structured and unstructured. Structured grids are formed by intersecting curvilinear coordinate lines and are composed of quadrilateral (2D) and hexahedral (3D) logically rectangular cells. The connectivity of a structured grid provides for trivial identification of neighboring points by incrementing coordinate indices. Unstructured grids are composed of cells of any shape (commonly triangles, quadrilaterals, tetrahedra and hexahedra), but do not have trivial identification of neighbors by incrementing an index. For unstructured grids, a set of points and an associated connectivity table is generated to define unstructured cell shapes and neighboring points. Hybrid grids are a combination of structured grids and unstructured grids. Chimera (overset) grids are intersecting or overlapping structured grids. The NGP system currently provides a user interface that integrates both 2D and 3D structured and unstructured grid generation, a solid modeling topology data management system, an internal Computer Aided Design (CAD) system based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), a journaling language, and a grid/solution visualization system.

Gaither, Adam; Gaither, Kelly; Jean, Brian; Remotigue, Michael; Whitmire, John; Soni, Bharat; Thompson, Joe; Dannenhoffer,, John; Weatherill, Nigel

1995-01-01

412

CMS Grid Activities in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CMS groups in the USA are actively involved in several grid-related projects, including the DoE-funded Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) and the NSF-funded Grid Physics Network (GriPhyN). We present developments of: the Grid Data Management Pilot (GDMP) software; a Java Analysis Studio-based prototype remote analysis service for CMS data; tools for automating job submission schemes for large scale distributed

P. Avery; J. Branson; J. J. Bunn; I. Gaines; G. Graham; T. M. Hickey; K. Holtman; I. Legrand; V. Litvin; V. S. Muzaffar; H. B. Newman; S. Singh; C. Steenberg; D. Stickland; K. Stockinger; H. Wenzel; T. Wildish; R. Wilkinson

413

The State of NASA's Information Power Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation transfers the concept of the power grid to information sharing in the NASA community. An information grid of this sort would be characterized as comprising tools, middleware, and services for the facilitation of interoperability, distribution of new technologies, human collaboration, and data management. While a grid would increase the ability of information sharing, it would not necessitate it. The onus of utilizing the grid would rest with the users.

Johnston, William E.; Vaziri, Arsi; Tanner, Leigh Ann; Feiereisen, William J.; Thigpen, William; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

414

Ion-Accelerator Grids With Elongated Holes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion-accelerator grids designed and fabricated with elongated holes instead of circular holes. Although grids made of lightweight carbon/carbon composites and conceived for use in ion thrusters for spacecraft, also made of other materials and installed in industrial ion accelerators for material-processing applications. Elongated holes offer advantages of lower costs of fabrication and option to increase open-area fractions of grids, thereby increasing output ion currents extracted through grids.

Mueller, Juergen

1996-01-01

415

The Almaden OptimalGrid Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a description of The Almaden OptimalGrid Project, which is self- configuring, and optimizing grid middleware that makes it easy to harness the computational resources available on a computing grid. OptimalGrid incorporates the core tenants of autonomic computing- self-configuring, self- healing, and self-optimizing - to create an environment in which it is possible for application developers

Glenn Deen; Tobin J. Lehman; James H. Kaufman

2003-01-01

416

Power grid complex network evolutions for the smart grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shift towards an energy grid dominated by prosumers (consumers and producers of energy) will inevitably have repercussions on the electricity distribution infrastructure. Today the grid is a hierarchical one delivering energy from large scale facilities to end-users. Tomorrow it will be a capillary infrastructure at the medium and low voltage levels that will support local energy trading among prosumers. We investigate how different network topologies and growth models facilitate a more efficient and reliable network, and how they can facilitate the emergence of a decentralized electricity market. We show how connectivity plays an important role in improving the properties of reliability and path-cost reduction. Our results indicate that a specific type of evolution balances best the ratio between increased connectivity and costs to achieve the network growth.

Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

2014-02-01

417

Multiprocessor computer overset grid method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A multiprocessor computer overset grid method and apparatus comprises associating points in each overset grid with processors and using mapped interpolation transformations to communicate intermediate values between processors assigned base and target points of the interpolation transformations. The method allows a multiprocessor computer to operate with effective load balance on overset grid applications.

Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM); Ober, Curtis C. (Los Lunas, NM)

2003-01-01

418

Data Miner for the Information Power Grid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grid Miner (GM) is one of the early data mining applications developed by NASA to help users obtain information from the Information Power Grid (IPG). Topics cover include: benefits of data mining, potential use of grids in data mining activities, an over...

T. H. Hinke

2002-01-01

419

Medical Simulation Services via the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Internet revolutionised access to information, the Grid will revolutionise access to computer applications and software systems. In general, this includes the highly important aspect of access to information resources such as Grid database systems (data- driven Grid applications), but we concentrate here on computational services providing numerical simulations for analysis, prediction and virtual prototyping to the medical sector

Guntram Berti; Siegfried Benkner; John W. Fenner; Jochen Fingberg; Guy Lonsdale; Stuart E. Middleton; Mike Surridge

420

GDT: A Toolkit for Grid Service Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an integrated development environment for service-oriented Grid applications integrated into the Eclipse platform is presented. Its design is based on model-driven software development principles, allowing domain experts to rapidly develop Grid applications by hiding the complexities of the Grid middleware. The functionality of the three main components supporting service creation, process creation and interactive debugging are presented

Thomas Friese; Matthew Smith; Bernd Freisleben

2006-01-01

421

Geospatial data grid with computational capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid-computing technology is used to solve large or complex computational problems on distributed computational resources belonging to multiple organizations regardless of their geographical locations. In this paper, we introduce an integration of the SAFORAH geospatial data grid, provided by the Canadian Forest Service, and the computational grids, offered by the University of Victoria and National Research Council Canada, using Globus

Hao Chen; David G. Goodenough; Aimin Guan; Andre Charbonneau; Roger Impey; Wayne Podaima; Randall Sobie; Ashok Agarwal; Belaid Moa; I. Gable; P. Armstrong; R. J. Desmarais

2009-01-01

422

Remote computing using the National Fusion Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Fusion Collaboratory (http:\\/\\/www.fusiongrid.org) uses grid technology to implement remote computing on the National Fusion Grid. The motivations are to reduce the cost of computing resources, shorten the software deployment cycle, and simplify remote computing for the user community. The National Fusion Collaboratory has successfully demonstrated remote access as a grid service to the TRANSP transport analysis code for

J. R. Burruss; S Flanagan; K Keahey; C Ludescher; D. C McCune; Q Peng; L Randerson; D. P Schissel; M Thompson

2004-01-01

423

A Conceptual Framework for Smart Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart grid is a relatively new term that refers to the application of information technology to power systems. Due to the complexity of such systems,the possibilities have yet to be clearly defined. In this paper, it gives the structure of the smart grid and summarizes five features for the smart grid such as self-healing, interactive, optimization, compatibility, integration and the

Chengbing Wei

2010-01-01

424

Protecting Smart Grid Automation Systems Against Cyberattacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smart grid moves new power grid automation systems from being proprietary and closed to the current state of information technology (IT) which is highly interconnected and open. But open and interconnected automation platforms bring about major security challenges. The power grid automation network has inherent security risks due to the fact that the systems and applications for the power

Dong Wei; Yan Lu; Mohsen Jafari; Paul M. Skare; Kenneth Rohde

2011-01-01

425

Grid Web Services and Application Factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an implementation of a Grid Application Factory Service that is based on a component architecture that utilizes the emerging Web Services standards. The factory service is used by Grid clients to authenticate and authorize a user to configure and launch an instance of a distributed application. This helps us solve the problem of building reliable, scalable Grid

Dennis Gannon; Rachana Ananthakrishnan; Sriram Krishnan; Madhusudhan Govindaraju

2002-01-01

426

Performance evaluation of Grid simulators using profilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profilers are the performance analysis tools that produce the traces of the execution of the applications developed in various programming languages. These traces can be analyzed to determine the performance of the applications. This paper compares the performance of two Grid simulators developed in Java namely the EcoGrid (developed by the authors of the paper) and GridSim. The profiler tool

Hemant Kumar Mehta; Manohar Chandwani; Priyesh Kanungo

2010-01-01

427

An Instrumentation Infrastructure for Grid Workflow Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid workflows are normally composed of multilingual applic ations. Monitoring such multilingual workflows in the Grid requires an instrumentation infrastructure that is capable of dealing with workflow comp onents implemented in different programming languages. Moreover, Grid workflo ws introduce mul- tiple levels of abstraction and all levels must be taken into account in order to understand the performance behaviour of

Bartosz Balis; Hong-Linh Truong; Marian Bubak; Thomas Fahringer; Krzysztof Guzy; Kuba Rozkwitalski

2006-01-01

428

Distributed computing research issues in grid computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensembles of distributed, heterogeneous resources, or Computational Grids, have emerged as popular platforms for deploying large-scale and resource-intensive applications. Large collaborative efforts are currently underway to provide the necessary software infrastructure. Grid computing raises challenging issues in many areas of computer science, and especially in the area of distributed computing, as Computational Grids cover increasingly large networks and span many

Henri Casanova

2002-01-01

429

Grid Based Security Framework for Online Trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid Computing refers to the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal. Grids which are a form of distributed computing contains collection of resources that are available for an application to perform tasks. The resources in the grid are generally heterogeneous, geometrically dispersed and belong to different administrative domains. The important criterion in the

K. Anitha Kumari; G. Sudha Sadasivam; R. Senthil Prabha; G. Saranya

2011-01-01

430

Efficient Bidding in Dynamic Grid Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze rational strategies of users in a dynamic grid market. We consider efficient usage of the shared resources in modeling users' preference relations, an objective that prevents congestion and consequently the collapse of the grid system. A repeated auction-based allocation protocol is presented for sharing the computational grid resources. We present a utility-maximizing bidding algorithm and illustrate the transient

Amir Danak; Shie Mannor

2011-01-01

431

Interactive Grid Architecture for Application Service Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our Interactive Grid architecture for Application Service Providers (I-GASP). We envision I- GASP as a solution for making computers available pri- marily for interactive use in a grid computing environment. A user might access such a computer for running diverse applications such as graphics rendering, scientific visual- ization or mechanical CAD. I-GASP consists of a grid mid-

Sujoy Basu; Vanish Talwar; Bikash Agarwalla; Raj Kumar

2003-01-01

432

Grid Drawings of 4Connected Plane Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.    A grid drawing of a plane graph G is a drawing of G on the plane so that all vertices of G are put on plane grid points and all edges are drawn as straight line segments between their endpoints without any edge-intersection.\\u000a In this paper we give a very simple algorithm to find a grid drawing of

Kazuyuki Miura; Shin-ichi Nakano; Takao Nishizeki

2001-01-01

433

21 CFR 886.1330 - Amsler grid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Amsler grid. 886.1330 Section 886.1330 Food and... Diagnostic Devices § 886.1330 Amsler grid. (a) Identification. An Amsler grid is a device that is a series of charts...

2009-04-01

434

21 CFR 886.1330 - Amsler grid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amsler grid. 886.1330 Section 886.1330 Food and... Diagnostic Devices § 886.1330 Amsler grid. (a) Identification. An Amsler grid is a device that is a series of charts...

2010-04-01

435

Spacer grid assembly and locking mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spacer grid assembly is disclosed for retaining a plurality of fuel rods in substantially parallel spaced relation, the spacer grids being formed with rhombic openings defining contact means for engaging from one to four fuel rods arranged in each opening, the spacer grids being of symmetric configuration with their rhombic openings being asymmetrically offset to permit inversion and relative

Snyder Jr. Harold J; Anthony R. Veca; Harry A. Donck

1982-01-01

436

A Grid Web Portal for Aerospace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—A wind tunnel simulation requires high-performance computing ,power ,like supercomputers and deep knowledge of this subject. Those requirements make win tunnel simulation difficult. Grid technology will make these difficulties simpler by providing easy to use grid web portal. By using grid web portal, scientist can execute simulation and access to highperformance computing power without any serious difficulties. In this paper

Sang Boem Lim; Joobum Kim; Nam Gyu Kim; June H. Lee; Chongam Kim; Yoonhee Kim

2006-01-01

437

Smart grids for green communications [Industry Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of the smart grid is formidable, and fully explaining all the nuances is beyond the scope of this article. Nevertheless, what makes a grid smart, or at least different from the grid of today, is the fact that it must deliver both energy and information. The delivery of both energy and information must also be end-to-end and bidirectional.

Bob Heile

2010-01-01

438

ITIL and Grid services at GridKa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

2010-04-01

439

GridMiner: A Fundamental Infrastructure for Building Intelligent Grid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grid is considered as a crucial technology for the future knowledge-based economy and science. The Wisdom Grid project (a joint research effort of the University of Vienna and the Vienna University of Technology) aims, as the first research effort, to cover all aspects of the knowledge life cycle on the grid - from discovery in grid data repositories, to

Peter Brezany; Ivan Janciak; A. Min Tjoa

2005-01-01

440

Forming blocks speed production of strain gage grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tool is designed which facilitates the forming of wire grids used in manufacturing strain gage grids. Flattening the grid wire by a cold working process produces a stabilized grid which can be readily handled for storage or shipment.

Bonn, J. L.; Gardner, D. E.

1965-01-01

441

75 FR 6414 - Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POLICY Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid AGENCY: Office of Science and Technology...the modernized electric grid (``Smart Grid''), which is a vital component...seek comments on issues related to Smart Grid implementation options,...

2010-02-09

442

Constructing Three-Dimensional Overlapping Grids with CMPGRD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques for the construction of three-dimensional composite overlapping grids, using the grid construction program CMPGRD, are described. The overlapping approach can be used to generate grids for regions of complicated geometry. The grids can be const...

W. D. Henshaw G. Chesshire M. E. Henderson

1992-01-01

443

Solving Fluid Flow Problems on Moving and Adaptive Overlapping Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solution of fluid dynamics problems on overlapping grids will be discussed. An overlapping grid consists of a set of structured component grids that cover a domain and overlap where they meet. Overlapping grids provide an effective approach for developing...

W. D. Henshaw

2005-01-01

444

Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

2010-12-31

445

Grid Computing for Disaster Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infamous 2004 Andaman tsunami has highlighted the need to be prepared and to be resilient to such disasters. Further, recent episodes of infectious disease epidemics worldwide underline the urgency to control and manage infectious diseases. Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) has recently formed the Disaster Research Nexus (DRN) within the School of Civil Engineering to spearhead research and development in natural disaster mitigation programs to mitigate the adverse effects of natural disasters. This paper presents a brief exposition on the aspirations of DRN towards achieving resilience in communities affected by these natural disasters. A brief review of the simulations of the 2004 Andaman tsunami, with grid application is presented. Finally, the application of grid technology in large scale simulations of disease transmission dynamics is discussed.

Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Majid, Taksiah A.; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

446

Integrating X\\/Open DTP into Grid Services for Grid Transaction Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new architecture of Grid transaction processing called GridTP based on the OGSA platform and the X\\/Open DTP model. It is easy to transplant the legacy transaction processing systems to Grid services because GridTP has a similar programming model and interfaces with traditional middleware (XA and TX). Moreover GridTP is independent of any existing transaction protocols (i.e.,

Zhengwei Qi; Xiao Xie; Baowen Zhang; Jinyuan You

2004-01-01

447

GridSpeed: a Web-based grid portal generation server  

Microsoft Academic Search

GridSpeed is a grid portal hosting server that automatically generates and publishes a customized Web interface to the grid for applications, with minimal effort required from the user. Users need only to specify information regarding their application using simple GridSpeed Web forms. With GridSpeed, users need not make any modifications to their applications nor write any glue code to publish

Toyotaro Suzumura; Hidemoto Nakada; Satoshi Matsuoka; Henri Casanova

2004-01-01

448

The NCRC Grid Scheduling Environment  

SciTech Connect

In support of the NCRC, a joint computing center between NOAA and ORNL, a grid-based scheduling infrastructure was designed to allow geographically separate computing resources to be used as production resources in climate and weather research workflows. These workflows require job coordination between the two centers in order to provide a complete workflow of data staging, computation, post-analysis and archival. This paper details the design, implementation and initial production phase of the infrastructure and lessons learned from the process.

Indiviglio, Frank M [ORNL; Maxwell, Don E [ORNL

2011-01-01

449

Spacer grid assembly and locking mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A spacer grid assembly is disclosed for retaining a plurality of fuel rods in substantially parallel spaced relation, the spacer grids being formed with rhombic openings defining contact means for engaging from one to four fuel rods arranged in each opening, the spacer grids being of symmetric configuration with their rhombic openings being asymmetrically offset to permit inversion and relative rotation of the similar spacer grids for improved support of the fuel rods. An improved locking mechanism includes tie bars having chordal surfaces to facilitate their installation in slotted circular openings of the spacer grids, the tie rods being rotatable into locking engagement with the slotted openings.

Donck, H.A.; Snyder, H.J.; Veca, A.R.

1982-01-26

450

Spacer grid assembly and locking mechanism. [GCFR  

SciTech Connect

A spacer grid assembly is disclosed for retaining a plurality of fuel rods in substantially parallel spaced relation, the spacer grids being formed with rhombic openings defining contact means for engaging from one to four fuel rods arranged in each opening. The spacer grids are of symmetric configuration with their rhombic openings being asymmetrically offset to permit inversion and relative rotation of the similar spacer grids for improved support of the fuel rods. An improved locking mechanism includes tie bars having chordal surfaces to facilitate their installation in slotted circular openings of the spacer grids, the tie rods being rotatable into locking engagement with the slotted openings.

Not Available

1980-03-17

451

Spacer grid assembly and locking mechanism  

DOEpatents

A spacer grid assembly is disclosed for retaining a plurality of fuel rods in substantially parallel spaced relation, the spacer grids being formed with rhombic openings defining contact means for engaging from one to four fuel rods arranged in each opening, the spacer grids being of symmetric configuration with their rhombic openings being asymmetrically offset to permit inversion and relative rotation of the similar spacer grids for improved support of the fuel rods. An improved locking mechanism includes tie bars having chordal surfaces to facilitate their installation in slotted circular openings of the spacer grids, the tie rods being rotatable into locking engagement with the slotted openings.

Snyder, Jr., Harold J. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Veca, Anthony R. (San Diego, CA); Donck, Harry A. (San Diego, CA)

1982-01-01

452

New uniform grids on the sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: A method for constructing new uniform grids on the sphere is given. Methods: We define a bijection in R2, which maps squares onto discs and preserves areas. Then we use this bijection, combined with Lambert azimuthal projection, for lifting uniform grids from the square to the sphere. Results: We can obtain uniform spherical grids that allow a hierarchical data manipulation and have an isolatitudinal distribution of cells. Compared with HEALPix grids, nowadays the most used in astronomy and astrophysics, our grids have the advantage of allowing easier implementation, and in addition one can move approximating functions from the square to the sphere by a simple technique.

Ro?ca, D.

2010-09-01

453

North RTL 'Grid Scan' Studies  

SciTech Connect

This study was made in response to screen measurements which indicated an emittance growth of nearly a factor of two within the North RTL or linac girder-1. Betatron oscillations are induced at the beginning of the North RTL to search for gross geometric aberrations arising within the RTL or sector-2 of the linac. The oscillations are induced horizontally and vertically with two X or two Y dipole correctors stepped in a nested loop fashion. In both cases the full set of RTL and first girder sector-2 linac beam position monitors (BPMs) are sampled in X and Y for each corrector setting. Horizontal (or vertical) data from pairs of BPMs are then transformed to phase space coordinates by the linear transformation constructed assuming the transport optics between the BPMs is known. A second transformation is then made to normalized phase space coordinates by using Twiss parameters consistent with the assumed transport optics. By careful choice of initial Twiss parameters the initial grid can be made square for convenience in graphical interpretation. A linear ''grid'' is then fitted to the transformed data points for each pair of BPMs. The area of each grid is calculated and linearity qualitatively evaluated. Furthermore, although not the focus of this study, the beta match at each BPM can be quantified.

Emma, P.; /SLAC

2007-02-26

454

The CMS integration grid testbed  

SciTech Connect

The CMS Integration Grid Testbed (IGT) comprises USCMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 hardware at the following sites: the California Institute of Technology, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of California at San Diego, and the University of Florida at Gainesville. The IGT runs jobs using the Globus Toolkit with a DAGMan and Condor-G front end. The virtual organization (VO) is managed using VO management scripts from the European Data Grid (EDG). Gridwide monitoring is accomplished using local tools such as Ganglia interfaced into the Globus Metadata Directory Service (MDS) and the agent based Mona Lisa. Domain specific software is packaged and installed using the Distribution After Release (DAR) tool of CMS, while middleware under the auspices of the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT) is distributed using Pacman. During a continuous two month span in Fall of 2002, over 1 million official CMS GEANT based Monte Carlo events were generated and returned to CERN for analysis while being demonstrated at SC2002. In this paper, we describe the process that led to one of the world's first continuously available, functioning grids.

Graham, Gregory E.

2004-08-26

455

Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model  

SciTech Connect

The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

2010-04-28

456

Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation procedure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TURBO-AD is an interactive solution adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on the unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaption is achieved by adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from the flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of the grid is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global controls.

Henderson, Todd L.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Ki D.

1992-01-01

457

Interlocking egg-crate type grid assembly  

SciTech Connect

A spacer grid assembly for supporting nuclear fuel pins in a closely-spaced array is described comprising: (a) a first grid strip comprising segments, disposed at an angle to each other with alternate segments being substantially parallel to each other, each of the segments carrying at least one dimple for contacting the fuel pins; (b) a second grid strip comprising segments disposed at an angle to each other with alternate segments being substantially parallel to each other, each alternate segment of the second strip carrying a resilient contact for contacting the fuel pins; (c) a third grid strip comprising segments disposed at an angle to each other with alternate segments being substantially parallel to each other, each of the segments of the third strip carrying at least one dimple for contacting the fuel pins; and (d) interlocking means formed on the grid strips for interlocking the first and third grid strips with the second grid strip to form an array of grid cells having a hexagonal cross section and the segments of the first and third grid strips are substantially coplanar. The locking means include first tabs positioned on alternate segments of the first and third grid strips for interlocking with first slots formed on other alternate segments of the second grid strips that do not carry the resilient contacts.

Kast, S.J.

1987-12-22

458

Solving Partial Differential Equations on Overlapping Grids  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) on overlapping grids. This is a powerful technique for efficiently solving problems in complex, possibly moving, geometry. An overlapping grid consists of a set of structured grids that overlap and cover the computational domain. By allowing the grids to overlap, grids for complex geometries can be more easily constructed. The overlapping grid approach can also be used to remove coordinate singularities by, for example, covering a sphere with two or more patches. We describe the application of the overlapping grid approach to a variety of different problems. These include the solution of incompressible fluid flows with moving and deforming geometry, the solution of high-speed compressible reactive flow with rigid bodies using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), and the solution of the time-domain Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism.

Henshaw, W D

2008-09-22

459

Generating Composite Overlapping Grids on CAD Geometries  

SciTech Connect

We describe some algorithms and tools that have been developed to generate composite overlapping grids on geometries that have been defined with computer aided design (CAD) programs. This process consists of five main steps. Starting from a description of the surfaces defining the computational domain we (1) correct errors in the CAD representation, (2) determine topology of the patched-surface, (3) build a global triangulation of the surface, (4) construct structured surface and volume grids using hyperbolic grid generation, and (5) generate the overlapping grid by determining the holes and the interpolation points. The overlapping grid generator which is used for the final step also supports the rapid generation of grids for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and for moving grids. These algorithms have been implemented as part of the Overture object-oriented framework.

Henshaw, W.D.

2002-02-07

460

Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

2012-01-01

461

DIGRD: an interactive grid generating program  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed the development and documentation of an interactive grid generating program (DIGRD, digitize grid). This program is designed to rapidly generate or modify grids necessary for the unsaturated flow code TRUST. In addition to the code, a user's manual was prepared. Unfortunately, the computer hardware that comprises the PNL interactive graphics capability is unique. Direct technology transfer is not possible, therefore, this report is intended to convey the utility of interactive graphics in supplying a grid generating capability. DIGRD has already been effectively used in the preparation of grids for the analysis of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings. The principal conclusion is that the interactive graphics employed in DIGRD are useful and economical in the development of complex grids. Grid generation activities that previously took between a half- and a full-man month can now be completed in less than a week. DIGRD users have recommended development of an uniform grid of either rectangles or equilateral triangles, which could be superimposed on any domain and then adjusted through the DIGRD program to match the boundaries of a tailings disposal facility. This improvement to the DIGRD package could further reduce the effort in grid generation while providing more optimal grids.

Foote, H.P.; Rice, W.A.; Kincaid, C.T.

1982-11-01

462

Do physicians/researchers trade stock based on privileged information? A closer look at trading patterns surrounding the annual ASCO conference.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper was to assess whether, given the opportunity, physicians/researchers would try to profit (by trading stocks) from information that only they were made privy to. The Annual ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology) Conference, the largest annual oncology conference, provided the perfect venue to fully explore this question. Up until 2008, ASCO abstracts were released exclusively to ASCO members (i.e., physicians, oncologists) two weeks prior to the conference, and many speculated about unusual trading patterns during these two weeks. In 2008, in response to concerns about such illicit activities, ASCO changed this policy (by distributing these abstracts instead to the general public). We decided to take a closer look at these trading patterns to determine the true impact of ASCO's 2008 decision and whether the differences prior to and following 2008 reveal something about the likelihood of physicians/researchers to profit from "privileged information." PMID:22789054

Donath, Elie; Eisenberg, Mark J

2012-01-01

463

Aqueous SDS micelle-promoted acid-catalyzed domino ABB' imino Diels-Alder reaction: a mild and efficient synthesis of privileged 2-methyl-tetrahydroquinoline scaffolds.  

PubMed

A new green protocol for the efficient synthesis of pharmacologically relevant 4-amidyl-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines (THQs) through the domino type ABB' imino Diels-Alder reaction in acidified water in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactant was developed for the first time. The influence of the SDS micelles and their different concentrations (5.0, 8.2 and 12.0 mM) on reactivity of the imino Diels-Alder reaction was studied. It was found that the best THQ yields (70-99%) are achieved above the critical micellar concentration (12 mM) using pH 1.0-2.5. This procedure resulted in a general and clean environmentally benign protocol to obtain the privileged diastereospecific cis 2,4-disubstituted THQ molecules of highest biological interest. PMID:23615634

Merchán Arenas, Diego R; Martínez Bonilla, Carlos A; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V

2013-06-14

464

Exploring the chemical space around the privileged pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine scaffold: toward novel allosteric inhibitors of T315I-mutated Abl.  

PubMed

A library of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines, endowed with a high level of molecular diversity, has been developed applying a synthetic sequence that allowed C3, N1, C4, and C6 substitution. The enzymatic screening of this "privileged scaffold"-based compound collection, validated the use of a diversity-oriented approach in a field characteristically explored by target-oriented synthesis. In fact, several compounds showed high activity against the selected kinases (i.e., Src, Abl wt, and T315I mutated-form), furthermore and interestingly a new compound has emerged as an allosteric inhibitor of the T315I mutated-form of Abl, opening up new opportunities for the development of a novel class of noncompetitive inhibitors of Abl (T315I). PMID:24597676

Vignaroli, Giulia; Mencarelli, Martina; Sementa, Deborah; Crespan, Emmanuele; Kissova, Miroslava; Maga, Giovanni; Schenone, Silvia; Radi, Marco; Botta, Maurizio

2014-04-14

465

Survey of Volumetric Grid Generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the result of an Internet Survey of Volumetric grid generators. As such we have included information from only the responses which were sent to us. After the initial publication and posting of this survey, we would encourage authors and users of grid generators to send further information. Here is the initial query posted to SIGGRID@nas and the USENET group sci.physics.computational.fluid-dynamics. Date: Sun, 30 Jan 94 11:37:52 -0800 From: woo (Alex Woo x6010 227-6 rm 315) Subject: Info Sought for Survey of Grid Generators I am collecting information and reviews of both government sponsored and commercial mesh generators for large scientific calculations, both block structured and unstructured. If you send me a review of a mesh generator, please indicate its availability and cost. If you are a commercial concern with information on a product, please also include references for possible reviewers. Please email to woo@ra-next.arc.nasa.gov. I will post a summary and probably write a short note for the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine. Alex Woo, MS 227-6 woo@ames.arc.nasa.gov NASA Ames Research Center NASAMAIL ACWOO Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 SPANET 24582::W00 (415) 604-6010 (FAX) 604-4357 fhplabs,decwrl,uunet)!ames!woo Disclaimer: These are not official statements of NASA or EMCC. We did not include all the submitted text here. Instead we have created a database entry in the freely available and widely used BIBTeX format which has an Uniform Resource Locator (URL) field pointing to more details. The BIBTeX database is modeled after those available from the BIBNET project at University of Utah.

Woo, Alex; Volakis, John; Hulbert, Greg; Case, Jeff; Presley, Leroy L. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

466

Insightful Workflow For Grid Computing  

SciTech Connect

We developed a workflow adaptation and scheduling system for Grid workflow. The system currently interfaces with and uses the Karajan workflow system. We developed machine learning agents that provide the planner/scheduler with information needed to make decisions about when and how to replan. The Kubrick restructures workflow at runtime, making it unique among workflow scheduling systems. The existing Kubrick system provides a platform on which to integrate additional quality of service constraints and in which to explore the use of an ensemble of scheduling and planning algorithms. This will be the principle thrust of our Phase II work.

Dr. Charles Earl

2008-10-09

467

Grid cells and cortical representation.  

PubMed

One of the grand challenges in neuroscience is to comprehend neural computation in the association cortices, the parts of the cortex that have shown the largest expansion and differentiation during mammalian evolution and that are thought to contribute profoundly to the emergence of advanced cognition in humans. In this Review, we use grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex as a gateway to understand network computation at a stage of cortical processing in which firing patterns are shaped not primarily by incoming sensory signals but to a large extent by the intrinsic properties of the local circuit. PMID:24917300

Moser, Edvard I; Roudi, Yasser; Witter, Menno P; Kentros, Clifford; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Moser, May-Britt

2014-07-01

468

ELEC-1125 - Electric Line & Smart Grid Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two credit course offered at Macomb Community College explains how sensors, communications technologies, computational ability, control, and feedback mechanisms can be effectively combined to create a continually adjusting smart grid system. It provides an understanding of both Intelligrid architecture and EnergyPort, as well as how to integrate intelligent systems to achieve the goals of reliability, cost containment, energy efficiency in power production and delivery, and end-use energy efficiency. Included educational materials for this course are presentations, reports, and a syllabus. Homework assignments and exams are not included. The course outline is as follows: review of right triangles, wooden poles, pole loading, what is the Smart Grid?, electric energy efficiency in power production and delivery, electric end use efficiency, using a Smart Grid to evolve the perfect power system, intelliGrid architecture for the Smart Grid, the dynamic energy system concept, and Smart Grid EnergyPort.

469

An Introduction to Grid Computing Using EGEE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grid is an evolving and maturing architecture based on several well-established services, including amongst others, distributed computing, role and group management, distributed data management and Public Key Encryption systems Currently the largest scientific grid infrastructure is Enabling Grids e-Science (EGEE), comprised of approximately ˜250 sites, ˜50,000 CPUs and tens of petabytes of storage. Moreover, EGEE covers a large variety of scientific disciplines including Astrophysics. The scope of this work is to provide the keen astrophysicist with an introductory overview of the motivations for using Grid, and of the core production EGEE services and its supporting software and/or middleware (known by the name gLite). We present an overview of the available set of commands, tools and portals as used within these Grid communities. In addition, we present the current scheme for supporting MPI programs on these Grids.

Walsh, John; Coghlan, Brian; Childs, Stephen

470

ARPA-E: Advancing the Electric Grid  

ScienceCinema

The electric grid was designed with the assumption that all energy generation sources would be relatively controllable, and grid operators would always be able to predict when and where those sources would be located. With the addition of renewable energy sources like wind and solar, which can be installed faster than traditional generation technologies, this is no longer the case. Furthermore, the fact that renewable energy sources are imperfectly predictable means that the grid has to adapt in real-time to changing patterns of power flow. We need a dynamic grid that is far more flexible. This video highlights three ARPA-E-funded approaches to improving the grid's flexibility: topology control software from Boston University that optimizes power flow, gas tube switches from General Electric that provide efficient power conversion, and flow batteries from Harvard University that offer grid-scale energy storage.

Lemmon, John; Ruiz, Pablo; Sommerer, Tim; Aziz, Michael

2014-03-13

471

Grid generation for a pump collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple scheme is presented which generates a surface-fitted grid for a pump collector with application to numerical solution of frozen vorticity flow inside the collector (the application to be covered in a later report). The scheme is two-dimensional in nature, but by a simplification of the collector geometry generates a three-dimensional grid. The procedure is very fast, requiring between two and three seconds of CPU time on an IBM 370/3033. Example grids are presented for several collector geometries. To develop a capability for computing such a grid would require considerable time and effort. The development time can be reduced drastically by making two simplifying assumptions about the collector geometry. Thus, a two-dimensional grid can be fitted to the cross sections of the simplified geometry and then rotated about the O axis to produce a three-dimensional grid.

Hoffman, G. H.

1984-10-01

472

Membrane potential dynamics of grid cells  

PubMed Central

During navigation, grid cells increase their spike rates in firing fields arranged on a strikingly regular triangular lattice, while their spike timing is often modulated by theta oscillations. Oscillatory interference models of grid cells predict theta amplitude modulations of membrane potential during firing field traversals, while competing attractor network models predict slow depolarizing ramps. Here, using in-vivo whole-cell recordings, we tested these models by directly measuring grid cell intracellular potentials in mice running along linear tracks in virtual reality. Grid cells had large and reproducible ramps of membrane potential depolarization that were the characteristic signature tightly correlated with firing fields. Grid cells also exhibited intracellular theta oscillations that influenced their spike timing. However, the properties of theta amplitude modulations were not consistent with the view that they determine firing field locations. Our results support cellular and network mechanisms in which grid fields are produced by slow ramps, as in attractor models, while theta oscillations control spike timing.

Domnisoru, Cristina; Kinkhabwala, Amina A.; Tank, David W.

2014-01-01

473

QoS Routing in Smart Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart grid is an emerging technology which is able to control the power load\\u000avia price signaling. The communication between the power supplier and power\\u000acustomers is a key issue in smart grid. Performance degradation like delay or\\u000aoutage may cause significant impact on the stability of the pricing based\\u000acontrol and thus the reward of smart grid. Therefore, a

Husheng Li; Weiyi Zhang

2010-01-01

474

A Survey on Wireless Grid Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Grid computing extends the traditional Grid computing paradigm to include a diverse collection of mobile devices\\u000a enabled to communicate using radio frequency, infrared, optical and other wireless mechanisms. Among the devices coming into\\u000a use in wireless grid implementations are tiny sensors, Radio Frequency Identification tags (RFID). Personal Digital Assistants\\u000a (PDAs) and paging devices, cellular phones, hand-held or wearable computers,

Sanjay P. Ahuja; Jack R. Myers

2006-01-01

475

Japanese Computational Grid Research Project: NAREGI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Research Grid Initiative (NAREGI) is one of the major Japanese national IT projects currently being conducted. NAREGI will cover the period 2003-2007, and collaboration among industry, academia, and the government will play a key role in its success. The Center for Grid Research and Development has been established as a center for R&D of high-performance, scalable grid middleware

SATOSHI MATSUOKA; S. Shinjo; MUTSUMI AOYAGI; SATOSHI SEKIGUCHI; HITOHIDE USAMI; KENICHI MIURA

2005-01-01

476

Automatic grid generation for modeling reservoir heterogeneities  

SciTech Connect

In this paper an automatic grid-generation and -adjustment method is proposed to produce grids that may be used for finite-difference simulators. The resulting blocks are as homogeneous as possible with respect to specified parameters (e.g., porosity and permeability). Creating a grid of homogeneous blocks is desirable in flow simulation studies because it allows easier evaluation of the block average (effective) properties.

Garcia, M.H. (Ecole National Superievre des Mines de Paris (FR)); Journel, A.G.; Aziz, K. (Stanford Univ. (US))

1992-05-01

477

Unstructured grids for sonic-boom analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fast and efficient unstructured grid scheme is evaluated for sonic-boom applications. The scheme is used to predict the near-field pressure signatures of a body of revolution at several body lengths below the configuration, and those results are compared with experimental data. The introduction of the 'sonic-boom grid topology' to this scheme make it well suited for sonic-boom applications, thus providing an alternative to conventional multiblock structured grid schemes.

Fouladi, Kamran

1993-01-01

478

Relational Grid Monitoring Architecture (R-GMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe R-GMA (Relational Grid Monitoring Architecture) which has been developed within the European DataGrid Project as a Grid Information and Monitoring System. Is is based on the GMA from GGF, which is a simple Consumer-Producer model. The special strength of this imple- mentation comes from the power of the relational model. We oer a global view of the information

Rob Byrom; Brian A. Coghlan; Andrew W. Cooke; Roney Cordenonsi; Linda Cornwall; Abdeslem Djaoui; Laurence Field; Steve Fisher; Steve Hicks; Stuart Kenny; Jason Leake; James Magowan; Werner Nutt; David O'callaghan; Norbert Podhorszki; John Ryan; Manish Soni; Paul Taylor; Antony J. Wilson

2003-01-01

479

Monitoring in a grid cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of a grid cluster (or of any piece of reasonably scaled IT infrastructure) is a key element in the robust and consistent running of that site. There are several factors which are important to the selection of a useful monitoring framework, which include ease of use, reliability, data input and output. It is critical that data can be drawn from different instrumentation packages and collected in the framework to allow for a uniform view of the running of a site. It is also very useful to allow different views and transformations of this data to allow its manipulation for different purposes, perhaps unknown at the initial time of installation. In this context, we present the findings of an investigation of the Graphite monitoring framework and its use at the ScotGrid Glasgow site. In particular, we examine the messaging system used by the framework and means to extract data from different tools, including the existing framework Ganglia which is in use at many sites, in addition to adapting and parsing data streams from external monitoring frameworks and websites.

Crooks, David; Mitchell, Mark; Purdie, Stuart; Roy, Gareth; Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Britton, David

2014-06-01

480

Grids for Dummies: Featuring Earth Science Data Mining Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses the concept and advantages of linking computers together into data grids, an emerging technology for managing information across institutions, and potential users of data grids. The logistics of access to a grid, including the use of the World Wide Web to access grids, and security concerns are also discussed. The potential usefulness of data grids to the earth science community is also discussed, as well as the Global Grid Forum, and other efforts to establish standards for data grids.

Hinke, Thomas H.

2002-01-01

481

A multi VO Grid infrastructure at DESY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a centre for research with particle accelerators and synchrotron light, DESY operates a Grid infrastructure in the context of the EU-project EGEE and the national Grid initiative D-GRID. All computing and storage resources are located in one Grid infrastructure which supports a number of Virtual Organizations of different disciplines, including non-HEP groups such as the Photon Science community. Resource distribution is based on fair share methods without dedicating hardware to user groups. Production quality of the infrastructure is guaranteed by embedding it into the DESY computer centre.

Gellrich, Andreas

2010-04-01

482

Electron Backstreaming Mitigation via a Magnetic Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron backstreaming due to accelerator grid hole enlargement has been identified as a failure mechanism that will limit ion thruster service lifetime. Over extended periods of time as accelerator grid apertures enlarge due to erosion, ion thrusters are required to operate at increasingly higher accelerator grid voltages in order to prevent electron backstreaming. These higher voltages give rise to higher grid erosion rates, which in turn accelerates aperture enlargement. Presented here is an approach to mitigate the backflow of electrons into the engine by using a transverse magnetic field.

Foster, John F.; Roman, Robert F.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

2002-01-01

483

Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid  

DOEpatents

An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23

484

Software for Refining or Coarsening Computational Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program performs calculations for refinement or coarsening of computational grids of the type called 'structured' (signifying that they are geometrically regular and/or are specified by relatively simple algebraic expressions). This program is designed to facilitate analysis of the numerical effects of changing structured grids utilized in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Unlike prior grid-refinement and -coarsening programs, this program is not limited to doubling or halving: the user can specify any refinement or coarsening ratio, which can have a noninteger value. In addition to this ratio, the program accepts, as input, a grid file and the associated restart file, which is basically a file containing the most recent iteration of flow-field variables computed on the grid. The program then refines or coarsens the grid as specified, while maintaining the geometry and the stretching characteristics of the original grid. The program can interpolate from the input restart file to create a restart file for the refined or coarsened grid. The program provides a graphical user interface that facilitates the entry of input data for the grid-generation and restart-interpolation routines.

Daines, Russell; Woods, Jody

2002-01-01

485

Software for Refining or Coarsening Computational Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program performs calculations for refinement or coarsening of computational grids of the type called "structured" (signifying that they are geometrically regular and/or are specified by relatively simple algebraic expressions). This program is designed to facilitate analysis of the numerical effects of changing structured grids utilized in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Unlike prior grid-refinement and -coarsening programs, this program is not limited to doubling or halving: the user can specify any refinement or coarsening ratio, which can have a noninteger value. In addition to this ratio, the program accepts, as input, a grid file and the associated restart file, which is basically a file containing the most recent iteration of flow-field variables computed on the grid. The program then refines or coarsens the grid as specified, while maintaining the geometry and the stretching characteristics of the original grid. The program can interpolate from the input restart file to create a restart file for the refined or coarsened grid. The program provides a graphical user interface that facilitates the entry of input data for the grid-generation and restart-interpolation routines.

Daines, Russell; Woods, Jody

2002-01-01