Science.gov

Sample records for grid spectral nodal

  1. Spectral methods on arbitrary grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David

    1995-01-01

    Stable and spectrally accurate numerical methods are constructed on arbitrary grids for partial differential equations. These new methods are equivalent to conventional spectral methods but do not rely on specific grid distributions. Specifically, we show how to implement Legendre Galerkin, Legendre collocation, and Laguerre Galerkin methodology on arbitrary grids.

  2. A nodal triangle-based spectral element method for the shallow water equations on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, F. X.; Warburton, T.

    2005-07-01

    A nodal triangle-based spectral element (SE) method for the shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. The original SE method uses quadrilateral elements and high-order nodal Lagrange polynomials, constructed from a tensor-product of the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points. In this work, we construct the high-order Lagrange polynomials directly on the triangle using nodal sets obtained from the electrostatics principle [J.S. Hesthaven, From electrostatics to almost optimal nodal sets for polynomial interpolation in a simplex, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis 35 (1998) 655-676] and Fekete points [M.A. Taylor, B.A. Wingate, R.E. Vincent, An algorithm for computing Fekete points in the triangle, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis 38 (2000) 1707-1720]. These points have good approximation properties and far better Lebesgue constants than any other nodal set derived for the triangle. By employing triangular elements as the basic building-blocks of the SE method and the Cartesian coordinate form of the equations, we can use any grid imaginable including adaptive unstructured grids. Results for six test cases are presented to confirm the accuracy and stability of the method. The results show that the triangle-based SE method yields the expected exponential convergence and that it can be more accurate than the quadrilateral-based SE method even while using 30-60% fewer grid points especially when adaptive grids are used to align the grid with the flow direction. However, at the moment, the quadrilateral-based SE method is twice as fast as the triangle-based SE method because the latter does not yield a diagonal mass matrix.

  3. Numerical aspects of spectral segmentation on polygonal grids

    SciTech Connect

    Matsekh, Anna; Skurikhin, Alexei; Prasad, Lakshman; Rosten, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze numerical behavior of the spectral graph partitioning problem arising in the Normalized Cuts formulation of the image segmentation problem on polygonal grids. They make an observation that in the presence of rounding errors the eigenvector corresponding to the k-th smallest eigenvalue of the generalized graph Laplacian should contain more than k nodal domains that represent coherent segments in the image. As the result, the eigenvector corresponding to the trivial solution carries a wealth of information about the nodal domains in the image and can be used as an initial guess for the Krylov subspace eigensolver, while the computed eigenvector subspace, corresponding to just a few of the lowest eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian, will contain sufficient information for obtaining meaningful segmentation.

  4. Spectral Topography Generation for Arbitrary Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new topography generation tool utilizing spectral transformation technique for both structured and unstructured grids is presented. For the source global digital elevation data, the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 15 arc-second dataset (gap-filling by Jonathan de Ferranti) is used and for land/water mask source, the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 30 arc-second land water mask dataset v5 is used. The original source data is coarsened to a intermediate global 2 minute lat-lon mesh. Then, spectral transformation to the wave space and inverse transformation with wavenumber truncation is performed for isotropic topography smoothness control. Target grid topography mapping is done by bivariate cubic spline interpolation from the truncated 2 minute lat-lon topography. Gibbs phenomenon in the water region can be removed by overwriting ocean masked target coordinate grids with interpolated values from the intermediate 2 minute grid. Finally, a weak smoothing operator is applied on the target grid to minimize the land/water surface height discontinuity that might have been introduced by the Gibbs oscillation removal procedure. Overall, the new topography generation approach provides spectrally-derived, smooth topography with isotropic resolution and minimum damping, enabling realistic topography forcing in the numerical model. Topography is generated for the cubed-sphere grid and tested on the KIAPS Integrated Model (KIM).

  5. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cutttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell, C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cutting of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamp (LPS/CWF). Results suggested that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  6. Normal State Spectral Lineshapes of Nodal Quasiparticles in Single Layer Bi2201 Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzara, A.

    2010-04-30

    A detailed study of the normal state photoemission lineshapes and quasiparticle dispersion for the single layer Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}}(Bi2201) superconductor is presented. We report the first experimental evidence of a double peak structure and a dip of spectral intensity in the energy distribution curves (EDCs) along the nodal direction. The double peak structure is well identified in the normal state, up to ten times the critical temperature. As a result of the same self-energy effect, a strong mass renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion, i.e. kink, and an increase of the quasiparticle lifetime in the normal state are also observed. Our results provide unambiguous evidence on the existence of bosonic excitation in the normal state, and support a picture where nodal quasiparticles are strongly coupled to the lattice.

  7. SLGRID: spectral synthesis software in the grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, J.; Sánchez, S.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2011-11-01

    SLGRID (http://www.e-ciencia.es/wiki/index.php/Slgrid) is a pilot project proposed by the e-Science Initiative of Andalusia (eCA) and supported by the Spanish e-Science Network in the frame of the European Grid Initiative (EGI). The aim of the project was to adapt the spectral synthesis software Starlight (Cid-Fernandes et al. 2005) to the Grid infrastructure. Starlight is used to estimate the underlying stellar populations (their ages and metallicities) using an optical spectrum, hence, it is possible to obtain a clean nebular spectrum that can be used for the diagnostic of the presence of an Active Galactic Nucleus (Sabater et al. 2008, 2009). The typical serial execution of the code for big samples of galaxies made it ideal to be integrated into the Grid. We obtain an improvement on the computational time of order N, being N the number of nodes available in the Grid. In a real case we obtained our results in 3 hours with SLGRID instead of the 60 days spent using Starlight in a PC. The code has already been ported to the Grid. The first tests were made within the e-CA infrastrusture and, later, itwas tested and improved with the colaboration of the CETA-CIEMAT. The SLGRID project has been recently renewed. In a future it is planned to adapt the code for the reduction of data from Integral Field Units where each dataset is composed of hundreds of spectra. Electronic version of the poster at http://www.iaa.es/~jsm/SEA2010

  8. Discontinuous Spectral Difference Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient discontinuous spectral finite difference (SD) method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. The concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods, but while these methods are based on the integrated forms of the equations, the new method is based on the differential form to attain a simpler formulation and higher efficiency. Conventional unstructured finite-difference and finite-volume methods require data reconstruction based on the least-squares formulation using neighboring point or cell data. Since each unknown employs a different stencil, one must repeat the least-squares inversion for every point or cell at each time step, or to store the inversion coefficients. In a high-order, three-dimensional computation, the former would involve impractically large CPU time, while for the latter the memory requirement becomes prohibitive. In addition, the finite-difference method does not satisfy the integral conservation in general. By contrast, the DG and SV methods employ a local, universal reconstruction of a given order of accuracy in each cell in terms of internally defined conservative unknowns. Since the solution is discontinuous across cell boundaries, a Riemann solver is necessary to evaluate boundary flux terms and maintain conservation. In the DG method, a Galerkin finite-element method is employed to update the nodal unknowns within each cell. This requires the inversion of a mass matrix, and the use of quadratures of twice the order of accuracy of the reconstruction to evaluate the surface integrals and additional volume integrals for nonlinear flux functions. In the SV method, the integral conservation law is used to update volume averages over subcells defined by a geometrically similar partition of each grid cell. As the order of

  9. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cuttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cuttings of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamps (LPS/CWF). For cultivars, stem lengths after 4 wks were longest under LPS, follow by RF, LPS/CWF, VF, and BF (in descending order). Microscopic studies revealed that cells were shortest when cultured in BF or VF environments, and were longest in RF or LPS lamp environments. The highest number axillary branches occurred on plantlets grown with LPS or LPS/CWF, whereas the lowest number occurred with BF. No leaf or stem edema (callus or gall-like growths) occurred iwth LPS or LPS/cwf lighting, and no edema occurred on cv. Norland plantlets, regardless of lighting. Results suggest that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  10. Light spectral quality effects on the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) nodal cuttings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D A; Weigel, R C; Wheeler, R M; Sager, J C

    1993-01-01

    The effect of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cuttings of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamps (LPS/CWF). For all cultivars, stem lengths after 4 wk were longest under LPS, followed by RF, LPS/CWF, VF, and BF (in descending order). Microscopic studies revealed that cells were shortest when cultured in BF or VF environments, and were longest in RF or LPS lamp environments. The highest number of axillary branches occurred on plantlets grown with LPS or LPS/CWF, whereas the lowest number occurred with BF. No leaf or stem edema (callus or gall-like growths) occurred with LPS or LPS/CWF lighting, and no edema occurred on cv. Norland plantlets, regardless of lighting. Results suggest that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality. PMID:11538010

  11. A stabilised nodal spectral element method for fully nonlinear water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engsig-Karup, A. P.; Eskilsson, C.; Bigoni, D.

    2016-08-01

    We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al. (1998) [5], although the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global L2 projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively removes any aliasing driven instabilities while retaining the high-order accuracy of the numerical scheme. The additional computational cost of the over-integration is found insignificant compared to the cost of solving the Laplace problem. The model is applied to several benchmark cases in two dimensions. The results confirm the high order accuracy of the model (exponential convergence), and demonstrate the potential for accuracy and speedup. The results of numerical experiments are in excellent agreement with both analytical and experimental results for strongly nonlinear and irregular dispersive wave propagation. The benefit of using a high-order - possibly adapted - spatial discretisation for accurate water wave propagation over long times and distances is particularly attractive for marine hydrodynamics applications.

  12. Discontinuous Spectral Difference Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.

    2004-01-01

    A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. The concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods, but while these methods are based on the integrated forms of the equations, the new method is based on the differential form to attain a simpler formulation and higher efficiency. A discussion on the Discontinuous Spectral Difference (SD) Method, locations of the unknowns and flux points and numerical results are also presented.

  13. Multi-Dimensional Spectral Difference Method for Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. It combines the best features of structured and unstructured grid methods to attain computational efficiency and geometric flexibility; it utilizes the concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy; and it is based on the finite-difference formulation for simplicity. Universal reconstructions are obtained by distributing unknowns in a geometrically similar manner for all unstructured cells. Placements of the unknown and flux points with various order of accuracy are given for the line, triangular and tetrahedral elements. The data structure of the new method permits an optimum use of cache memory, resulting in further computational efficiency on modern computers. A new pointer system is developed that reduces memory requirements and simplifies programming for any order of accuracy. Numerical solutions are presented and compared with the exact solutions for wave propagation problems in both two and three dimensions to demonstrate the capability of the method. Excellent agreement has been found. The method is simpler and more efficient than previous discontinuous Galerkin and spectral volume methods for unstructured grids.

  14. A spectral element shallow water model on spherical geodesic grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Francis X.

    2001-04-01

    The spectral element method for the two-dimensional shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. The equations are written in conservation form and the domains are discretized using quadrilateral elements obtained from the generalized icosahedral grid introduced previously (Giraldo FX. Lagrange-Galerkin methods on spherical geodesic grids: the shallow water equations. Journal of Computational Physics 2000; 160: 336-368). The equations are written in Cartesian co-ordinates that introduce an additional momentum equation, but the pole singularities disappear. This paper represents a departure from previously published work on solving the shallow water equations on the sphere in that the equations are all written, discretized, and solved in three-dimensional Cartesian space. Because the equations are written in a three-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system, the algorithm simplifies into the integration of surface elements on the sphere from the fully three-dimensional equations. A mapping (Song Ch, Wolf JP. The scaled boundary finite element method - alias consistent infinitesimal finite element cell method - for diffusion. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1999; 45: 1403-1431) which simplifies these computations is described and is shown to contain the Eulerian version of the method introduced previously by Giraldo (Journal of Computational Physics 2000; 160: 336-368) for the special case of triangular elements. The significance of this mapping is that although the equations are written in Cartesian co-ordinates, the mapping takes into account the curvature of the high-order spectral elements, thereby allowing the elements to lie entirely on the surface of the sphere. In addition, using this mapping simplifies all of the three-dimensional spectral-type finite element surface integrals because any of the typical two-dimensional planar finite element or spectral element basis functions found in any textbook (for example, Huebner et al

  15. The spectral element method (SEM) on variable-resolution grids: evaluating grid sensitivity and resolution-aware numerical viscosity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guba, O.; Taylor, M. A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Overfelt, J. R.; Levy, M. N.

    2014-11-27

    We evaluate the performance of the Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) spectral element method on variable-resolution grids using the shallow-water equations in spherical geometry. We configure the method as it is used in CAM, with dissipation of grid scale variance, implemented using hyperviscosity. Hyperviscosity is highly scale selective and grid independent, but does require a resolution-dependent coefficient. For the spectral element method with variable-resolution grids and highly distorted elements, we obtain the best results if we introduce a tensor-based hyperviscosity with tensor coefficients tied to the eigenvalues of the local element metric tensor. The tensor hyperviscosity is constructed so that, formore » regions of uniform resolution, it matches the traditional constant-coefficient hyperviscosity. With the tensor hyperviscosity, the large-scale solution is almost completely unaffected by the presence of grid refinement. This later point is important for climate applications in which long term climatological averages can be imprinted by stationary inhomogeneities in the truncation error. We also evaluate the robustness of the approach with respect to grid quality by considering unstructured conforming quadrilateral grids generated with a well-known grid-generating toolkit and grids generated by SQuadGen, a new open source alternative which produces lower valence nodes.« less

  16. The spectral element method on variable resolution grids: evaluating grid sensitivity and resolution-aware numerical viscosity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guba, O.; Taylor, M. A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Overfelt, J. R.; Levy, M. N.

    2014-06-25

    We evaluate the performance of the Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) spectral element method on variable resolution grids using the shallow water equations in spherical geometry. We configure the method as it is used in CAM, with dissipation of grid scale variance implemented using hyperviscosity. Hyperviscosity is highly scale selective and grid independent, but does require a resolution dependent coefficient. For the spectral element method with variable resolution grids and highly distorted elements, we obtain the best results if we introduce a tensor-based hyperviscosity with tensor coefficients tied to the eigenvalues of the local element metric tensor. The tensor hyperviscosity ismore » constructed so that for regions of uniform resolution it matches the traditional constant coefficient hyperviscsosity. With the tensor hyperviscosity the large scale solution is almost completely unaffected by the presence of grid refinement. This later point is important for climate applications where long term climatological averages can be imprinted by stationary inhomogeneities in the truncation error. We also evaluate the robustness of the approach with respect to grid quality by considering unstructured conforming quadrilateral grids generated with a well-known grid-generating toolkit and grids generated by SQuadGen, a new open source alternative which produces lower valence nodes.« less

  17. Efficient quadrature-free high-order spectral volume method on unstructured grids: Theory and 2D implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2007-11-19

    An efficient implementation of the high-order spectral volume (SV) method is presented for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured grids. In the SV method, each simplex cell is called a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal (2D), or polyhedral (3D) control volumes (CVs) to support high-order data reconstructions. In the traditional implementation, Gauss quadrature formulas are used to approximate the flux integrals on all faces. In the new approach, a nodal set is selected and used to reconstruct a high-order polynomial approximation for the flux vector, and then the flux integrals on the internal faces are computed analytically, without the need for Gauss quadrature formulas. This gives a significant advantage over the traditional SV method in efficiency and ease of implementation. For SV interfaces, a quadrature-free approach is compared with the Gauss quadrature approach to further evaluate the accuracy and efficiency. A simplified treatment of curved boundaries is also presented that avoids the need to store a separate reconstruction for each boundary cell. Fundamental properties of the new SV implementation are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for linear and non-linear advection equations, and the Euler equations. Several well known inviscid flow test cases are utilized to show the effectiveness of the simplified curved boundary representation.

  18. Efficient quadrature-free high-order spectral volume method on unstructured grids: Theory and 2D implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Rob; Wang, Z. J.; Liu, Yen

    2008-01-01

    An efficient implementation of the high-order spectral volume (SV) method is presented for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured grids. In the SV method, each simplex cell is called a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal (2D), or polyhedral (3D) control volumes (CVs) to support high-order data reconstructions. In the traditional implementation, Gauss quadrature formulas are used to approximate the flux integrals on all faces. In the new approach, a nodal set is selected and used to reconstruct a high-order polynomial approximation for the flux vector, and then the flux integrals on the internal faces are computed analytically, without the need for Gauss quadrature formulas. This gives a significant advantage over the traditional SV method in efficiency and ease of implementation. For SV interfaces, a quadrature-free approach is compared with the Gauss quadrature approach to further evaluate the accuracy and efficiency. A simplified treatment of curved boundaries is also presented that avoids the need to store a separate reconstruction for each boundary cell. Fundamental properties of the new SV implementation are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for linear and non-linear advection equations, and the Euler equations. Several well known inviscid flow test cases are utilized to show the effectiveness of the simplified curved boundary representation.

  19. Time-Spectral Rotorcraft Simulations on Overset Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leffell, Joshua I.; Murman, Scott M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    The Time-Spectral method is derived as a Fourier collocation scheme and applied to NASA's overset Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver OVERFLOW. The paper outlines the Time-Spectral OVERFLOWimplementation. Successful low-speed laminar plunging NACA 0012 airfoil simulations demonstrate the capability of the Time-Spectral method to resolve the highly-vortical wakes typical of more expensive three-dimensional rotorcraft configurations. Dealiasing, in the form of spectral vanishing viscosity (SVV), facilitates the convergence of Time-Spectral calculations of high-frequency flows. Finally, simulations of the isolated V-22 Osprey tiltrotor for both hover and forward (edgewise) flight validate the three-dimensional Time-Spectral OVERFLOW implementation. The Time-Spectral hover simulation matches the time-accurate calculation using a single harmonic. Significantly more temporal modes and SVV are required to accurately compute the forward flight case because of its more active, high-frequency wake.

  20. An adaptive quadrature-free implementation of the high-order spectral volume method on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robert Evan

    2008-10-01

    An efficient implementation of the high-order spectral volume (SV) method is presented for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured grids. In the SV method, each simplex cell is called a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal (2D), or polyhedral (3D) control volumes (CVs) to support high-order data reconstructions. In the traditional implementation, Gauss quadrature formulas are used to approximate the flux integrals on all faces. In the new approach, a nodal set is selected and used to reconstruct a high-order polynomial approximation for the flux vector, and then the flux integrals on the internal faces are computed analytically, without the need for Gauss quadrature formulas. This gives a significant advantage over the traditional SV method in efficiency and ease of implementation. Fundamental properties of the new SV implementation are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for linear and nonlinear advection equations, and the Euler equations. The new quadrature-free approach is then extended to handle local adaptive hp-refinement (grid and order refinement). Efficient edge-based adaptation utilizing a binary tree search algorithm is employed. Several different adaptation criteria which focus computational effort near high gradient regions are presented. Both h- and p-refinements are presented in a general framework where it is possible to perform either or both on any grid cell at any time. Several well-known inviscid flow test cases, subjected to various levels of adaptation, are utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. An analysis of the accuracy and stability properties of the spectral volume (SV) method is then presented. The current work seeks to address the issue of stability, as well as polynomial quality, in the design of SV partitions. A new approach is presented, which efficiently locates stable partitions by means of constrained minimization. Once stable partitions are located, a

  1. MGB and the new Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey spectral classification standard grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Alfaro, E. J.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Gamen, R. C.; Herrero, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Marco, A.; Negueruela, I.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sota, A.; Walborn, N. R.

    2015-05-01

    In this poster we present three developments related to the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011hsa6.conf..467M{GOSSS}). First, we are making public the first version of MGB, an IDL code that allows the user to compare oberved spectra to a grid of spectroscopic standards to measure spectral types, luminosity classes, rotation indexes, and spectral qualifiers. Second, we present the associated grid of standard stars for the spectral types O2 to O9.7, with several improvements over the original GOSSS grid of http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJS..193...24S {Sota et al. (2011)}. Third, we present a list of egregious classification errors in http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/{ SIMBAD}: stars that are or have been listed there as being of O type but that in reality are late-type stars.

  2. A conservative multi-tracer transport scheme for spectral-element spherical grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Christoph; Nair, Ramachandran D.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric models used for practical climate simulation must be capable handling the transport of hundreds of tracers. For computational efficiency conservative multi-tracer semi-Lagrangian type transport schemes are appropriate. Global models based on high-order Galerkin approach employ highly non-uniform spectral-element grids, and semi-Lagrangian transport is a challenge on those grids. A conservative semi-Lagrangian scheme (SPELT - SPectral-Element Lagrangian Transport) employing a multi-moment compact reconstruction procedure is developed for non-uniform quadrilateral grids. The scheme is based on a characteristic semi-Lagrangian method that avoids complex and expensive upstream area computations. The SPELT scheme has been implemented in the High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME), which is based on a cubed-sphere grid with spectral-element spatial discretization. Additionally, we show the (strong) scalability and multi-tracer efficiency using several benchmark tests. The SPELT solution can be made monotonic (positivity preserving) by combining the flux-corrected transport algorithm, which is demonstrated on a uniform resolution grid. In particular, SPELT can be efficiently used for non-uniform grids and provides accurate and stable results for high-resolution meshes.

  3. Reprint of: A conservative multi-tracer transport scheme for spectral-element spherical grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Christoph; Nair, Ramachandran D.

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric models used for practical climate simulation must be capable handling the transport of hundreds of tracers. For computational efficiency conservative multi-tracer semi-Lagrangian type transport schemes are appropriate. Global models based on high-order Galerkin approach employ highly non-uniform spectral-element grids, and semi-Lagrangian transport is a challenge on those grids. A conservative semi-Lagrangian scheme (SPELT - SPectral-Element Lagrangian Transport) employing a multi-moment compact reconstruction procedure is developed for non-uniform quadrilateral grids. The scheme is based on a characteristic semi-Lagrangian method that avoids complex and expensive upstream area computations. The SPELT scheme has been implemented in the High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME), which is based on a cubed-sphere grid with spectral-element spatial discretization. Additionally, we show the (strong) scalability and multi-tracer efficiency using several benchmark tests. The SPELT solution can be made monotonic (positivity preserving) by combining the flux-corrected transport algorithm, which is demonstrated on a uniform resolution grid. In particular, SPELT can be efficiently used for non-uniform grids and provides accurate and stable results for high-resolution meshes.

  4. Finite grid instability and spectral fidelity of the electrostatic Particle-In-Cell algorithm

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, C. -K.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Meyers, M. D.; Yi, S.; Albright, B. J.

    2016-06-07

    The origin of the Finite Grid Instability (FGI) is studied by resolving the dynamics in the 1D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model in the spectral domain at the single particle level and at the collective motion level. The spectral fidelity of the PIC model is contrasted with the underlying physical system or the gridless model. The systematic spectral phase and amplitude errors from the charge deposition and field interpolation are quantified for common particle shapes used in the PIC models. Lastly, it is shown through such analysis and in simulations that the lack of spectral fidelity relative to the physical systemmore » due to the existence of aliased spatial modes is the major cause of the FGI in the PIC model.« less

  5. Single-grid spectral collocation for the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardi, Christine; Canuto, Claudio; Maday, Yvon; Metivet, Brigitte

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study a collocation spectral method to approximate the Navier-Stokes equations: only one grid is used, which is built from the nodes of a Gauss-Lobatto quadrature formula, either of Legendre or of Chebyshev type. The convergence is proven for the Stokes problem provided with inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions, then thoroughly analyzed for the Navier-Stokes equations. The practical implementation algorithm is presented, together with numerical results.

  6. A High-Order Finite Spectral Volume Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z. J.; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A time accurate, high-order, conservative, yet efficient method named Finite Spectral Volume (FSV) is developed for conservation laws on unstructured grids. The concept of a 'spectral volume' is introduced to achieve high-order accuracy in an efficient manner similar to spectral element and multi-domain spectral methods. In addition, each spectral volume is further sub-divided into control volumes (CVs), and cell-averaged data from these control volumes is used to reconstruct a high-order approximation in the spectral volume. Riemann solvers are used to compute the fluxes at spectral volume boundaries. Then cell-averaged state variables in the control volumes are updated independently. Furthermore, TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) and TVB (Total Variation Bounded) limiters are introduced in the FSV method to remove/reduce spurious oscillations near discontinuities. A very desirable feature of the FSV method is that the reconstruction is carried out only once, and analytically, and is the same for all cells of the same type, and that the reconstruction stencil is always non-singular, in contrast to the memory and CPU-intensive reconstruction in a high-order finite volume (FV) method. Discussions are made concerning why the FSV method is significantly more efficient than high-order finite volume and the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Fundamental properties of the FSV method are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for several model problems with and without discontinuities.

  7. A spectrally accurate method for overlapping grid solution of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Brandon E.; Peet, Yulia T.; Fischer, Paul F.; Lottes, James W.

    2016-02-01

    An overlapping mesh methodology that is spectrally accurate in space and up to third-order accurate in time is developed for solution of unsteady incompressible flow equations in three-dimensional domains. The ability to decompose a global domain into separate, but overlapping, subdomains eases mesh generation procedures and increases flexibility of modeling flows with complex geometries. The methodology employs implicit spectral element discretization of equations in each subdomain and explicit treatment of subdomain interfaces with spectrally-accurate spatial interpolation and high-order accurate temporal extrapolation, and requires few, if any, iterations, yet maintains the global accuracy and stability of the underlying flow solver. The overlapping mesh methodology is thoroughly validated using two-dimensional and three-dimensional benchmark problems in laminar and turbulent flows. The spatial and temporal convergence is documented and is in agreement with the nominal order of accuracy of the solver. The influence of long integration times, as well as inflow-outflow global boundary conditions on the performance of the overlapping grid solver is assessed. In a turbulent benchmark of fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent statistics with the overlapping grids is validated against published available experimental and other computation data. Scaling tests are presented that show near linear strong scaling, even for moderately large processor counts.

  8. The use of the spectral method within the fast adaptive composite grid method

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The use of efficient algorithms for the solution of partial differential equations has been sought for many years. The fast adaptive composite grid (FAC) method combines an efficient algorithm with high accuracy to obtain low cost solutions to partial differential equations. The FAC method achieves fast solution by combining solutions on different grids with varying discretizations and using multigrid like techniques to find fast solution. Recently, the continuous FAC (CFAC) method has been developed which utilizes an analytic solution within a subdomain to iterate to a solution of the problem. This has been shown to achieve excellent results when the analytic solution can be found. The CFAC method will be extended to allow solvers which construct a function for the solution, e.g., spectral and finite element methods. In this discussion, the spectral methods will be used to provide a fast, accurate solution to the partial differential equation. As spectral methods are more accurate than finite difference methods, the ensuing accuracy from this hybrid method outside of the subdomain will be investigated.

  9. The spectral green's function nodal method for multigroup slab-geometry fixed-source S{sub N} problems with anisotropic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, W. A.; Filho, H. A.; Barros, R. C.

    2013-07-01

    A generalization of the spectral Green's function (SGF) method is developed for multigroup, fixed-source, slab-geometry discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) problems with anisotropic scattering. The offered SGF method with the one-node block inversion (NBI) iterative scheme converges numerical solutions that are completely free from spatial truncation errors for multigroup slab-geometry S{sub N} problems with scattering anisotropy of order L, provided L < N. As a coarse-mesh numerical method, the SGF method generates numerical solutions that generally do not give detailed information on the problem solution profile, as the grid points can be located considerably away from each other. Therefore, presented here is a technique for the spatial reconstruction of the coarse-mesh solution generated by the multigroup SGF method. Numerical results are given to illustrate the method's accuracy. (authors)

  10. Comparison of Grid Nudging and Spectral Nudging Techniques for Dynamical Climate Downscaling within the WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X.; Chen, L.; Ma, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Climate downscaling has been an active research and application area in the past several decades focusing on regional climate studies. Dynamical downscaling, in addition to statistical methods, has been widely used in downscaling as the advanced modern numerical weather and regional climate models emerge. The utilization of numerical models enables that a full set of climate variables are generated in the process of downscaling, which are dynamically consistent due to the constraints of physical laws. While we are generating high resolution regional climate, the large scale climate patterns should be retained. To serve this purpose, nudging techniques, including grid analysis nudging and spectral nudging, have been used in different models. There are studies demonstrating the benefit and advantages of each nudging technique; however, the results are sensitive to many factors such as nudging coefficients and the amount of information to nudge to, and thus the conclusions are controversy. While in a companion work of developing approaches for quantitative assessment of the downscaled climate, in this study, the two nudging techniques are under extensive experiments in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Using the same model provides fair comparability. Applying the quantitative assessments provides objectiveness of comparison. Three types of downscaling experiments were performed for one month of choice. The first type is serving as a base whereas the large scale information is communicated through lateral boundary conditions only; the second is using the grid analysis nudging; and the third is using spectral nudging. Emphases are given to the experiments of different nudging coefficients and nudging to different variables in the grid analysis nudging; while in spectral nudging, we focus on testing the nudging coefficients, different wave numbers on different model levels to nudge.

  11. Three-Dimensional High-Order Spectral Finite Volume Method for Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many areas require a very high-order accurate numerical solution of conservation laws for complex shapes. This paper deals with the extension to three dimensions of the Spectral Finite Volume (SV) method for unstructured grids, which was developed to solve such problems. We first summarize the limitations of traditional methods such as finite-difference, and finite-volume for both structured and unstructured grids. We then describe the basic formulation of the spectral finite volume method. What distinguishes the SV method from conventional high-order finite-volume methods for unstructured triangular or tetrahedral grids is the data reconstruction. Instead of using a large stencil of neighboring cells to perform a high-order reconstruction, the stencil is constructed by partitioning each grid cell, called a spectral volume (SV), into 'structured' sub-cells, called control volumes (CVs). One can show that if all the SV cells are partitioned into polygonal or polyhedral CV sub-cells in a geometrically similar manner, the reconstructions for all the SVs become universal, irrespective of their shapes, sizes, orientations, or locations. It follows that the reconstruction is reduced to a weighted sum of unknowns involving just a few simple adds and multiplies, and those weights are universal and can be pre-determined once for all. The method is thus very efficient, accurate, and yet geometrically flexible. The most critical part of the SV method is the partitioning of the SV into CVs. In this paper we present the partitioning of a tetrahedral SV into polyhedral CVs with one free parameter for polynomial reconstructions up to degree of precision five. (Note that the order of accuracy of the method is one order higher than the reconstruction degree of precision.) The free parameter will be determined by minimizing the Lebesgue constant of the reconstruction matrix or similar criteria to obtain optimized partitions. The details of an efficient, parallelizable code to solve

  12. Entropy Stable Staggered Grid Spectral Collocation for the Burgers' and Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).

  13. A poly-grid approach for wave propagation modelling in highly heterogeneous media by using a Chebyshev spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C.; Seriani, G.

    2012-04-01

    Many physical problems require the modelling of wave phenomena in media having variable properties, while highly accurate algorithms are needed in order to avoid unphysical effects. Often the property fluctuations may be very high compared to the minimum wavelength, leading to an extremely large problem, since a grid resolution down to the finest scales is required and the much larger wavelength scale of interest cannot be exploited in order to reduce the computational burden. Here, like in multiscale methods, efficiency can be increased only by solving the macroscopic behavior without solving explicitly the microscopic one. Spectral element methods (SEM) have excellent properties of accuracy and flexibility in describing complex models and are used as well for wave modelling. In the standard SEM approach, the computational domain is discretized by using very coarse meshes and constant-property elements, which makes it inappropriate for solving the above mentioned problem. A convenient solution approach is provided by a poly-grid Chebyshev spectral element method, which allows to overcome this limitation. The domain decomposition is built by using composite elements having a set of local grids, or poly-grid. The main grid is used for wave propagation, whereas the remaining auxiliary grids are used for describing the physical parameters. As a consequence, SEM accuracy and efficiency is maintained in wave field computations while dealing with small scale property fluctuations. Moreover, interfaces between different materials can be easily handled internally to each element without the need of their edges be aligned with the interfaces.

  14. Three-Dimensional High-Order Spectral Volume Method for Solving Maxwell's Equations on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional, high-order, conservative, and efficient discontinuous spectral volume (SV) method for the solutions of Maxwell's equations on unstructured grids is presented. The concept of discontinuous 2nd high-order loca1 representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, but instead of using a Galerkin finite-element formulation, the SV method is based on a finite-volume approach to attain a simpler formulation. Conventional unstructured finite-volume methods require data reconstruction based on the least-squares formulation using neighboring cell data. Since each unknown employs a different stencil, one must repeat the least-squares inversion for every cell at each time step, or to store the inversion coefficients. In a high-order, three-dimensional computation, the former would involve impractically large CPU time, while for the latter the memory requirement becomes prohibitive. In the SV method, one starts with a relatively coarse grid of triangles or tetrahedra, called spectral volumes (SVs), and partition each SV into a number of structured subcells, called control volumes (CVs), that support a polynomial expansion of a desired degree of precision. The unknowns are cell averages over CVs. If all the SVs are partitioned in a geometrically similar manner, the reconstruction becomes universal as a weighted sum of unknowns, and only a few universal coefficients need to be stored for the surface integrals over CV faces. Since the solution is discontinuous across the SV boundaries, a Riemann solver is thus necessary to maintain conservation. In the paper, multi-parameter and symmetric SV partitions, up to quartic for triangle and cubic for tetrahedron, are first presented. The corresponding weight coefficients for CV face integrals in terms of CV cell averages for each partition are analytically determined. These discretization formulas are then applied to the integral form of

  15. The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: Spectral Energy Distributions and Fits Using a Grid of Protostellar Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, E.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stutz, A. M.; Stanke, T.; Tobin, J. J.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Poteet, C. A.; Booker, J.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Allen, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present key results from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and model fits of 330 young stellar objects, predominantly protostars, in the Orion molecular clouds. This is the largest sample of protostars studied in a single, nearby star formation complex. With near-infrared photometry from 2MASS, mid- and far-infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel, and submillimeter photometry from APEX, our SEDs cover 1.2–870 μm and sample the peak of the protostellar envelope emission at ∼100 μm. Using mid-IR spectral indices and bolometric temperatures, we classify our sample into 92 Class 0 protostars, 125 Class I protostars, 102 flat-spectrum sources, and 11 Class II pre-main-sequence stars. We implement a simple protostellar model (including a disk in an infalling envelope with outflow cavities) to generate a grid of 30,400 model SEDs and use it to determine the best-fit model parameters for each protostar. We argue that far-IR data are essential for accurate constraints on protostellar envelope properties. We find that most protostars, and in particular the flat-spectrum sources, are well fit. The median envelope density and median inclination angle decrease from Class 0 to Class I to flat-spectrum protostars, despite the broad range in best-fit parameters in each of the three categories. We also discuss degeneracies in our model parameters. Our results confirm that the different protostellar classes generally correspond to an evolutionary sequence with a decreasing envelope infall rate, but the inclination angle also plays a role in the appearance, and thus interpretation, of the SEDs.

  16. Nodal analysis of two-phase instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Garea, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    Nodal models having moving nodal boundaries have been developed for the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in a boiling channel. The first model, which was based on a Galerkin method for the discretization, has been found to be accurate in the prediction of the onset of instabilities as well as the frequency of oscillations. This model however, had some problems with the prediction of chaotic phenomena and did not allow for flow reversal in the channel. A second nodal model, based on a finite difference approach, has been found to perform better for the prediction of non-linear response and it also allows for flow reversal. Both models are numerically more efficient than the existing fixed grid models for instabilities analysis.

  17. Investigation of the spectral improvement of a capacitive Frisch-grid CdZnTe detector by using infrared stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guoqiang; Xiao, Shali; Ma, Yuedong; Zhang, Liuqiang

    2014-08-01

    A capacitive Frisch-grid CdZnTe detector with different lengths of the Frisch rings has been fabricated, and the influence of infrared (IR) stimulation on the spectral performance of the detector has been investigated. IR stimulation at a wavelength (940 nm), close to the absorption edge of the CdZnTe, was found to improve the detector's spectral performance significantly. IR radiation was noted to influence the detector's sensitivity, changing the equilibrium between free and trapped carriers and improving the charge collection. The degree of improvement was different for detectors with different lengths of the Frisch rings and depended on the weighting potential distribution and the IR illumination intensity. For example, improvement was obtained in the energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV from 3.3% without illumination to 2.3% with a low intensity (120 μW) of IR illumination for the capacitive Frisch-grid CdZnTe detector with an 8-mm-long Frisch ring. Good energy resolution could be obtained even at low operating voltages.

  18. Spectral (Finite) Volume Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids II: Extension to Two Dimensional Scalar Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z. J.; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The framework for constructing a high-order, conservative Spectral (Finite) Volume (SV) method is presented for two-dimensional scalar hyperbolic conservation laws on unstructured triangular grids. Each triangular grid cell forms a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal control volumes (CVs) to supported high-order data reconstructions. Cell-averaged solutions from these CVs are used to reconstruct a high order polynomial approximation in the SV. Each CV is then updated independently with a Godunov-type finite volume method and a high-order Runge-Kutta time integration scheme. A universal reconstruction is obtained by partitioning all SVs in a geometrically similar manner. The convergence of the SV method is shown to depend on how a SV is partitioned. A criterion based on the Lebesgue constant has been developed and used successfully to determine the quality of various partitions. Symmetric, stable, and convergent linear, quadratic, and cubic SVs have been obtained, and many different types of partitions have been evaluated. The SV method is tested for both linear and non-linear model problems with and without discontinuities.

  19. Human Cerberus Prevents Nodal-Receptor Binding, Inhibits Nodal Signaling, and Suppresses Nodal-Mediated Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Aykul, Senem; Ni, Wendi; Mutatu, Washington; Martinez-Hackert, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor-ß (TGFß) family ligand Nodal is an essential embryonic morphogen that is associated with progression of breast and other cancers. It has therefore been suggested that Nodal inhibitors could be used to treat breast cancers where Nodal plays a defined role. As secreted antagonists, such as Cerberus, tightly regulate Nodal signaling during embryonic development, we undertook to produce human Cerberus, characterize its biochemical activities, and determine its effect on human breast cancer cells. Using quantitative methods, we investigated the mechanism of Nodal signaling, we evaluated binding of human Cerberus to Nodal and other TGFß family ligands, and we characterized the mechanism of Nodal inhibition by Cerberus. Using cancer cell assays, we examined the ability of Cerberus to suppress aggressive breast cancer cell phenotypes. We found that human Cerberus binds Nodal with high affinity and specificity, blocks binding of Nodal to its signaling partners, and inhibits Nodal signaling. Moreover, we showed that Cerberus profoundly suppresses migration, invasion, and colony forming ability of Nodal expressing and Nodal supplemented breast cancer cells. Taken together, our studies provide mechanistic insights into Nodal signaling and Nodal inhibition with Cerberus and highlight the potential value of Cerberus as anti-Nodal therapeutic. PMID:25603319

  20. A global non-hydrostatic dynamical core using the spectral element method on a cubed-sphere grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Suk-Jin; Hong, Song-You

    2016-06-01

    A new global model with a non-hydrostatic (NH) dynamical core is developed. It employs the spectral element method (SEM) in the horizontal discretization and the finite difference method (FDM) in the vertical discretization. The solver includes a time-split third-order Runge-Kutta (RK3) time-integration technique. Pursuing the quasi-uniform and pole singularity-free spherical geometry, a cubed-sphere grid is employed. To assess the performance of the developed dynamical solver, the results from a number of idealized benchmark tests for hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flows are presented and compared. The results indicate that the non-hydrostatic dynamical solver is able to produce solutions with good accuracy and consistency comparable to reference solutions. Further evaluation of the model with a full-physics package demonstrates its capability in reproducing heavy rainfall over the Korean Peninsula, which confirms that coupling of the dynamical solver and full-physics package is robust.

  1. An evaluation of sea level cyclone forecasts produced by NMC's Nested-Grid Model and Global Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.B.; Mullen, S.L. Arizona Univ., Tucson )

    1993-03-01

    An analysis of the 24- and 48-h sea level cyclone errors occurring in the NMC's Nested-Grid Model (NGM) and the Aviation Run of the Global Spectral Model (AVN) during the 1987/1988 and 1989/1990 winter seasons is presented. Central pressure, 1000-500-mb thickness, and displacement errors for cyclone center are compared, and the circumstances under which one model performs better than the other are documented. Overall, the NGM slightly overdeepens cyclones and the T80 AVN underdeepens cyclones when both models are verified against the NGM initial panel. Both models underdevelop oceanic and deep cyclones. The pressure error variance tends to be smaller for the AVN, particularly at 48 h. It is inferred that the variability of individual central pressure forecasts is smaller for the AVN. Mean absolute displacement errors are smaller for the T80 AVN than the NGM. 35 refs.

  2. A Comparison of Spectral Element and Finite Difference Methods Using Statically Refined Nonconforming Grids for the MHD Island Coalescence Instability Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. S.; Rosenberg, D.; Pouquet, A.; Germaschewski, K.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2009-04-01

    A recently developed spectral-element adaptive refinement incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code [Rosenberg, Fournier, Fischer, Pouquet, J. Comp. Phys. 215, 59-80 (2006)] is applied to simulate the problem of MHD island coalescence instability (\\ci) in two dimensions. \\ci is a fundamental MHD process that can produce sharp current layers and subsequent reconnection and heating in a high-Lundquist number plasma such as the solar corona [Ng and Bhattacharjee, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 4028 (1998)]. Due to the formation of thin current layers, it is highly desirable to use adaptively or statically refined grids to resolve them, and to maintain accuracy at the same time. The output of the spectral-element static adaptive refinement simulations are compared with simulations using a finite difference method on the same refinement grids, and both methods are compared to pseudo-spectral simulations with uniform grids as baselines. It is shown that with the statically refined grids roughly scaling linearly with effective resolution, spectral element runs can maintain accuracy significantly higher than that of the finite difference runs, in some cases achieving close to full spectral accuracy.

  3. High-Order Moving Overlapping Grid Methodology in a Spectral Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Brandon E.

    A moving overlapping mesh methodology that achieves spectral accuracy in space and up to second-order accuracy in time is developed for solution of unsteady incompressible flow equations in three-dimensional domains. The targeted applications are in aerospace and mechanical engineering domains and involve problems in turbomachinery, rotary aircrafts, wind turbines and others. The methodology is built within the dual-session communication framework initially developed for stationary overlapping meshes. The methodology employs semi-implicit spectral element discretization of equations in each subdomain and explicit treatment of subdomain interfaces with spectrally-accurate spatial interpolation and high-order accurate temporal extrapolation, and requires few, if any, iterations, yet maintains the global accuracy and stability of the underlying flow solver. Mesh movement is enabled through the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation of the governing equations, which allows for prescription of arbitrary velocity values at discrete mesh points. The stationary and moving overlapping mesh methodologies are thoroughly validated using two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems in laminar and turbulent flows. The spatial and temporal global convergence, for both methods, is documented and is in agreement with the nominal order of accuracy of the underlying solver. Stationary overlapping mesh methodology was validated to assess the influence of long integration times and inflow-outflow global boundary conditions on the performance. In a turbulent benchmark of fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent statistics are validated against the available data. Moving overlapping mesh simulations are validated on the problems of two-dimensional oscillating cylinder and a three-dimensional rotating sphere. The aerodynamic forces acting on these moving rigid bodies are determined, and all results are compared with published data. Scaling tests, with both methodologies

  4. Seismic discrimination of events at the Sangwon, North Korea, area using two-dimensional grid of Pg/Lg spectral ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Che, I.; Kim, I.; Kang, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the improvements of seismic event discrimination between explosions and earthquakes. We tried to find optimal frequency range based on 2D grids of Pg/Lg spectral amplitude ratios. Seismic data from CHNAR, BRDAR and KSGAR arrays located in the middle of Korean Peninsula are used for the discrimination of events occurred at the Sangwon, North Korea, area. We have analyzed seismograms of 122 explosions and 21 earthquakes to obtain a linear discriminant function that optimally discriminates explosions from earthquakes. Before calculating Pg/Lg spectral ratios, residual spectrum is computed by subtracting Brune's source spectrum from the observed spectrum. By using the residual spectrum, difference of spectral characteristics between explosion and earthquake populations could be emphasized. Two-dimensional spectral ratios were calculated in all combinations of Pg and Lg residual spectra in frequency band of 1 ~ 15Hz with the expectation of much greater differences of spectral amplitude between explosion and earthquake populations. We have determined the optimal frequency range where Pg/Lg spectral ratios are larger than a certain threshold in 2D grids. In the optimal frequency range, we obtain a linear discriminant function of each array. We calculated the compound discriminant function with the addition of the linear discriminant function at each array to improve the discriminant power. The new compound method enhanced the results in discrimination.

  5. Nodal Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Tanya; Ye, Gang; Liang, Yao-Yun; Fu, Guodong; Xu, Guoxiong; Peng, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Nodal is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Recent studies in ovarian, breast, prostate, and skin cancer cells suggest that Nodal also regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion in cancer cells. However, it appears to exert both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting effects, depending on the cell type. To further understand the role of Nodal in tumorigenesis, we examined the effect of Nodal in glioblastoma cell growth and spheroid formation using U87 cell line. Treatment of U87 with recombinant Nodal significantly increased U87 cell growth. In U87 cells stably transfected with the plasmid encoding Nodal, Smad2 phosphorylation was strongly induced and cell growth was significantly enhanced. Overexpression of Nodal also resulted in tight spheroid formation. On the other hand, the cells stably transfected with Nodal siRNA formed loose spheroids. Nodal is known to signal through activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) and ALK7 and the Smad2/3 pathway. To determine which receptor and Smad mediate the growth promoting effect of Nodal, we transfected siRNAs targeting ALK4, ALK7, Smad2, or Smad3 into Nodal-overexpressing cells and observed that cell growth was significantly inhibited by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3 siRNAs. Taken together, these findings suggest that Nodal may have tumor-promoting effects on glioblastoma cells and these effects are mediated by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3. PMID:22645523

  6. Spectral responses of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and their relation to IR microscopy and x-ray diffraction topography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Babalola, S.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, S. U.; Fochuk, P. M.; Hawrami, R.; Hossain, A.; James, J. R.; Nakonechnyj, I. J.; Yang, Ge; James, R. B.

    2008-08-01

    Virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors potentially can provide energy resolution close to the statistical limit. However, in real detectors, the quality of the crystals used to fabricate the devices primarily determines energy resolution. In this paper, we report our findings on the spectral response of devices and their relation to material-characterization data obtained using IR microscopy and X-ray diffraction topography.

  7. Topological semimetals and nodal superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Po-Yao

    Besides topological band insulators, which have a full bulk gap, there are also gapless phases of matter that belong to the broad class of topological materials, such as topological semimetals and nodal superconductors. We systematically study these gapless topological phases described by the Bloch and Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonians. We discuss a generalized bulk-boundary correspondence, which relates the topological properties in the bulk of gapless topological phases and the protected zero-energy states at the boundary. We study examples of gapless topological phases, focusing in particular on nodal superconductors, such as nodal noncentrosymmetric superconductors (NCSs). We compute the surface density of states of nodal NCSs and interpret experimental measurements of surface states. In addition, we investigate Majorana vortex-bound states in both nodal and fully gapped NCSs using numerical and analytical methods. We show that different topological properties of the bulk Bogoliubov-quasiparticle wave functions reflect themselves in different types of zero-energy vortex-bound states. In particular, in the case of NCSs with tetragonal point-group symmetry, we find that the stability of these Majorana zero modes is guaranteed by a combination of reflection, time-reversal, and particle-hole symmetries. Finally, by using K-theory arguments and a dimensional reduction procedure from higher-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors, we derive a classification of topologically stable Fermi surfaces in semimetals and nodal lines in superconductors.

  8. Simulation of turbulent flows using nodal integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Suneet

    dependencies. The speedup and efficiency of the PMNIM are analyzed for a laminar flow test problem. The efficiency, calculated based on Gustafson's law, is found to be more than 75% for a 20 x 20 x 20 mesh and remains almost constant as number of processors is increased. It can be concluded that the PMNIM is reliable, scalable and efficient. The PMNIM is then used to study the transition to turbulence in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flows. These flows display the interesting phenomenon of heteroclinic cycles. The results are obtained for two wavenumbers: k = 1 (also studied earlier by other researchers) and k = 2, respectively. The results for k = 1 are compared with those obtained using the pseudo spectral method. The comparison shows good agreement and also shows that results obtained with similar grid sizes and time steps match very well with those obtained using pseudo spectral method. New results are obtained for k = 2, and the heteroclinic cycles observed in this flow are discussed and contrasted with those obtained in the flow with k = 1. The results show that the flow becomes unstable for the k = 2 case at smaller Reynolds number than that for k = 1. The flow also shows some very interesting phenomena such as simultaneous existence of the two types of heteroclinic cycles.

  9. Final Report - High-Order Spectral Volume Method for the Navier-Stokes Equations On Unstructured Tetrahedral Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z J

    2012-12-06

    The overriding objective for this project is to develop an efficient and accurate method for capturing strong discontinuities and fine smooth flow structures of disparate length scales with unstructured grids, and demonstrate its potentials for problems relevant to DOE. More specifically, we plan to achieve the following objectives: 1. Extend the SV method to three dimensions, and develop a fourth-order accurate SV scheme for tetrahedral grids. Optimize the SV partition by minimizing a form of the Lebesgue constant. Verify the order of accuracy using the scalar conservation laws with an analytical solution; 2. Extend the SV method to Navier-Stokes equations for the simulation of viscous flow problems. Two promising approaches to compute the viscous fluxes will be tested and analyzed; 3. Parallelize the 3D viscous SV flow solver using domain decomposition and message passing. Optimize the cache performance of the flow solver by designing data structures minimizing data access times; 4. Demonstrate the SV method with a wide range of flow problems including both discontinuities and complex smooth structures. The objectives remain the same as those outlines in the original proposal. We anticipate no technical obstacles in meeting these objectives.

  10. A New Stabilized Nodal Integration Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M; Zywicz, E; Chen, J S

    2006-02-08

    A new stabilized nodal integration scheme is proposed and implemented. In this work, focus is on the natural neighbor meshless interpolation schemes. The approach is a modification of the stabilized conforming nodal integration (SCNI) scheme and is shown to perform well in several benchmark problems.

  11. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T.H.; Palmiotti, G.

    1995-06-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations.

  12. Solution and Study of the Two-Dimensional Nodal Neutron Transport Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Panta Pazos, Ruben; Biasotto Hauser, Eliete; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco

    2002-07-01

    In the last decade Vilhena and coworkers reported an analytical solution to the two-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of the neutron transport equation in a convex domain. The key feature of these works was the application of the combined collocation method of the angular variable and nodal approach in the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the transverse integration of the SN equations. This procedure leads to a set of one-dimensional S{sub N} equations for the average angular fluxes in the variables x and y. These equations were solved by the old version of the LTS{sub N} method, which consists in the application of the Laplace transform to the set of nodal S{sub N} equations and solution of the resulting linear system by symbolic computation. It is important to recall that this procedure allow us to increase N the order of S{sub N} up to 16. To overcome this drawback we step forward performing a spectral painstaking analysis of the nodal S{sub N} equations for N up to 16 and we begin the convergence of the S{sub N} nodal equations defining an error for the angular flux and estimating the error in terms of the truncation error of the quadrature approximations of the integral term. Furthermore, we compare numerical results of this approach with those of other techniques used to solve the two-dimensional discrete approximations of the neutron transport equation. (authors)

  13. Final Report, NERI Project: ''An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model''

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-08-04

    OAK (B204) Final Report, NERI Project: ''An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model'' The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  14. Optical conductivity of nodal metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homes, C. C.; Gu, G. D.; Tu, J. J.; Li, J.; Akrap, A.

    2014-03-01

    Fermi liquid theory is remarkably successful in describing the transport and optical properties of metals; at frequencies higher than the scattering rate, the optical conductivity adopts the well-known power law behavior σ1(ω) ~ω-2 . We have observed an unusual non-Fermi liquid response σ1(ω) ~ω - 1 +/- 0 . 2 in the ground states of several quasi two-dimensional cuprate (optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, optimally and underdoped YBa2Cu3O7-δ) and iron-based materials (AFe2As2, A = Ba, Ca) which undergo electronic or magnetic phase transitions resulting in dramatically reduced or nodal Fermi surfaces. The identification of an inverse (or fractional) power-law behavior in the residual optical conductivity now permits the removal of this contribution, revealing the direct transitions across the gap and allowing the nature of the electron-boson coupling to be probed. The non-Fermi liquid behavior in these systems may be the result of a common Fermi surface topology of Dirac cone-like features in the electronic dispersion. Supported by the DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  15. Optical conductivity of nodal metals

    PubMed Central

    Homes, C. C.; Tu, J. J.; Li, J.; Gu, G. D.; Akrap, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fermi liquid theory is remarkably successful in describing the transport and optical properties of metals; at frequencies higher than the scattering rate, the optical conductivity adopts the well-known power law behavior σ1(ω) ∝ ω−2. We have observed an unusual non-Fermi liquid response σ1(ω) ∝ ω−1±0.2 in the ground states of several cuprate and iron-based materials which undergo electronic or magnetic phase transitions resulting in dramatically reduced or nodal Fermi surfaces. The identification of an inverse (or fractional) power-law behavior in the residual optical conductivity now permits the removal of this contribution, revealing the direct transitions across the gap and allowing the nature of the electron-boson coupling to be probed. The non-Fermi liquid behavior in these systems may be the result of a common Fermi surface topology of Dirac cone-like features in the electronic dispersion. PMID:24336241

  16. Nodal network generator for CAVE3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, J. V.; Rathjen, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    A new extension of CAVE3 code was developed that automates the creation of a finite difference math model in digital form ready for input to the CAVE3 code. The new software, Nodal Network Generator, is broken into two segments. One segment generates the model geometry using a Tektronix Tablet Digitizer and the other generates the actual finite difference model and allows for graphic verification using Tektronix 4014 Graphic Scope. Use of the Nodal Network Generator is described.

  17. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-01

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians. PMID:25156256

  18. Reissner-Mindlin Legendre Spectral Finite Elements with Mixed Reduced Quadrature

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, K. D.; Sprague, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Legendre spectral finite elements (LSFEs) are examined through numerical experiments for static and dynamic Reissner-Mindlin plate bending and a mixed-quadrature scheme is proposed. LSFEs are high-order Lagrangian-interpolant finite elements with nodes located at the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre quadrature points. Solutions on unstructured meshes are examined in terms of accuracy as a function of the number of model nodes and total operations. While nodal-quadrature LSFEs have been shown elsewhere to be free of shear locking on structured grids, locking is demonstrated here on unstructured grids. LSFEs with mixed quadrature are, however, locking free and are significantly more accurate than low-order finite-elements for a given model size or total computation time.

  19. Voltage collapse in complex power grids

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Porco, John W.; Dörfler, Florian; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale power grid's ability to transfer energy from producers to consumers is constrained by both the network structure and the nonlinear physics of power flow. Violations of these constraints have been observed to result in voltage collapse blackouts, where nodal voltages slowly decline before precipitously falling. However, methods to test for voltage collapse are dominantly simulation-based, offering little theoretical insight into how grid structure influences stability margins. For a simplified power flow model, here we derive a closed-form condition under which a power network is safe from voltage collapse. The condition combines the complex structure of the network with the reactive power demands of loads to produce a node-by-node measure of grid stress, a prediction of the largest nodal voltage deviation, and an estimate of the distance to collapse. We extensively test our predictions on large-scale systems, highlighting how our condition can be leveraged to increase grid stability margins. PMID:26887284

  20. Tomoregulin-1 (TMEFF1) inhibits nodal signaling through direct binding to the nodal coreceptor Cripto

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Paul W.; Chang, Chenbei

    2003-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signals regulate multiple processes during development and in adult. We recently showed that tomoregulin-1 (TMEFF1), a transmembrane protein, selectively inhibits nodal but not activin in early Xenopus embryos. Here we report that TMEFF1 binds to the nodal coreceptor Cripto, but does not associate with either nodal or the type I ALK (activin receptor-like kinase) 4 receptor in coimmunoprecipitation assays. The inhibition of the nodal signaling by TMEFF1 in Xenopus ectodermal explants is rescued with wild-type but not mutant forms of Cripto. Furthermore, we show that the Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic (CFC) domain in Cripto, which is essential for its binding to ALK4, is also important for its interaction with TMEFF1. Our results demonstrate for the first time that nodal signaling can be regulated by a novel mechanism of blocking the Cripto coreceptor. PMID:14563676

  1. Keeping a lid on nodal: transcriptional and translational repression of nodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Nodal is an evolutionarily conserved member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of secreted signalling factors. Nodal factors are known to play key roles in embryonic development and asymmetry in a variety of organisms ranging from hydra and sea urchins to fish, mice and humans. In addition to embryonic patterning, Nodal signalling is required for maintenance of human embryonic stem cell pluripotency and mis-regulated Nodal signalling has been found associated with tumour metastases. Therefore, precise and timely regulation of this pathway is essential. Here, we discuss recent evidence from sea urchins, frogs, fish, mice and humans that show a role for transcriptional and translational repression of Nodal signalling during early development. PMID:26791244

  2. Nodal Quasiparticle in Pseudogapped Colossal Magnetoresistive Manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Mannella, N.

    2010-06-02

    A characteristic feature of the copper oxide high-temperature superconductors is the dichotomy between the electronic excitations along the nodal (diagonal) and antinodal (parallel to the Cu-O bonds) directions in momentum space, generally assumed to be linked to the d-wave symmetry of the superconducting state. Angle-resolved photoemission measurements in the superconducting state have revealed a quasiparticle spectrum with a d-wave gap structure that exhibits a maximum along the antinodal direction and vanishes along the nodal direction. Subsequent measurements have shown that, at low doping levels, this gap structure persists even in the high-temperature metallic state, although the nodal points of the superconducting state spread out in finite Fermi arcs. This is the so-called pseudogap phase, and it has been assumed that it is closely linked to the superconducting state, either by assigning it to fluctuating superconductivity or by invoking orders which are natural competitors of d-wave superconductors. Here we report experimental evidence that a very similar pseudogap state with a nodal-antinodal dichotomous character exists in a system that is markedly different from a superconductor: the ferromagnetic metallic groundstate of the colossal magnetoresistive bilayer manganite La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Our findings therefore cast doubt on the assumption that the pseudogap state in the copper oxides and the nodal-antinodal dichotomy are hallmarks of the superconductivity state.

  3. Nodal Quasiparticle Meltdown in Ultra-High Resolution Pump-Probe Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Jeff; Jozwiak, Chris; Smallwood, Chris L.; Eisaki, H.; Kaindl, Robert A.; Lee, Dung-Hai; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2011-06-03

    High-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors are characterized by a strong momentum-dependent anisotropy between the low energy excitations along the Brillouin zone diagonal (nodal direction) and those along the Brillouin zone face (antinodal direction). Most obvious is the d-wave superconducting gap, with the largest magnitude found in the antinodal direction and no gap in the nodal direction. Additionally, while antin- odal quasiparticle excitations appear only below T{sub c}, superconductivity is thought to be indifferent to nodal excitations as they are regarded robust and insensitive to T{sub c}. Here we reveal an unexpected tie between nodal quasiparticles and superconductivity using high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission on optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} . We observe a suppression of the nodal quasiparticle spectral weight following pump laser excitation and measure its recovery dynamics. This suppression is dramatically enhanced in the superconducting state. These results reduce the nodal-antinodal dichotomy and challenge the conventional view of nodal excitation neutrality in superconductivity. The electronic structures of high-Tc cuprates are strongly momentum-dependent. This is one reason why the momentum-resolved technique of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been a central tool in the field of high-temperature superconductivity. For example, coherent low energy excitations with momenta near the Brillouin zone face, or antinodal quasiparticles (QPs), are only observed below T{sub c} and have been linked to superfluid density. They have therefore been the primary focus of ARPES studies. In contrast, nodal QPs, with momenta along the Brillouin zone diagonal, have received less attention and are usually regarded as largely immune to the superconducting transition because they seem insensitive to perturbations such as disorder, doping, isotope exchange, charge ordering, and temperature. Clearly

  4. A lymph nodal capillary-cavernous hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Dellachà, A; Fulcheri, E; Campisi, C

    1999-09-01

    A capillary-cavernous hemangioma in an obturator lymph node was found incidentally in a 64 year-old woman who had undergone unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and lymphadenectomy for an ovarian neoplasm. Vascular tumors of lymph nodes are briefly reviewed including eight previously described nodal capillary-cavernous hemangiomas. The association with other splanchnic hemangiomas is pointed out and the likelihood that the lesion is a hamartoma rather than a true neoplasm is addressed. Despite its rarity, this entity needs to be recognized by lymphologists who image lymph nodes by lymphangiography as well as by lymph nodal pathologists. PMID:10494525

  5. Nodal·Gdf1 Heterodimers with Bound Prodomains Enable Serum-independent Nodal Signaling and Endoderm Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fuerer, Christophe; Nostro, M. Cristina; Constam, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    The TGFβ family member Nodal is central to control pluripotent stem cell fate, but its use as a stem cell differentiation factor is limited by low specific activity. During development, Nodal depends on growth and differentiation factor (Gdf)-1 and on the shared co-receptor Cryptic to specify visceral left-right axis asymmetry. We therefore asked whether the functionality of Nodal can be augmented by Gdf1. Because Nodal and Gdf1 coimmunoprecipitate each other, they were predicted to form heterodimers, possibly to facilitate diffusion or to increase the affinity for signaling receptors. Here, we report that Gdf1 suppresses an unexpected dependence of Nodal on serum proteins and that it is critically required for non-autonomous signaling in cells expressing Cryptic. Nodal, Gdf1, and their cleaved propeptides copurified as a heterodimeric low molecular weight complex that stimulated Activin receptor (Acvr) signaling far more potently than Nodal alone. Although heterodimerization with Gdf1 did not increase binding of Nodal to Fc fusions of co-receptors or Acvr extracellular domains, it was essential for soluble Acvr2 to inhibit Nodal signaling. This implies that Gdf1 potentiates Nodal activity by stabilizing a low molecular weight fraction that is susceptible to neutralization by soluble Acvr2. Finally, in differentiating human ES cells, endodermal markers were more efficiently induced by Nodal·Gdf1 than by Nodal, suggesting that Nodal·Gdf1 is an attractive new reagent to direct stem cell differentiation. PMID:24798330

  6. Network and Nodal Accessibility Teaching Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, James O.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an exercise, for use in college-level economic geography courses, which teaches the concept of nodal and network accessibility with an application to manufacturing locations. Intended to guide students to think spatially and to generalize from numeric data, this out-of-class activity teaches students to discover results, to do simple…

  7. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  8. Nodal and Lefty signaling regulates the growth of pancreatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, You-Qing; Sterling, Lori; Stotland, Aleksandr; Hua, Hong; Kritzik, Marcie; Sarvetnick, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Nodal and its antagonist, Lefty, are important mediators specifying the laterality of the organs during embryogenesis. Nodal signals through activin receptors in the presence of its co-receptor, Cripto. In the present study, we investigated the possible roles of Nodal and Lefty signaling during islet development and regeneration. We found that both Nodal and Lefty are expressed in the pancreas during embryogenesis and islet regeneration. In vitro studies demonstrated that Nodal inhibits, whereas Lefty enhances, the proliferation of a pancreatic cell line. In addition, we showed that Lefty-1 activates MAPK and Akt phosphorylation in these cells. In vivo blockade of endogenous Lefty using neutralizing Lefty-1 monoclonal antibody results in a significantly decreased proliferation of duct epithelial cells during islet regeneration. This is the first study to decipher the expression and function of Nodal and Lefty in pancreatic growth. Importantly, our results highlight a novel function of Nodal-Lefty signaling in the regulation of expansion of pancreatic cells. PMID:18393305

  9. Spectral Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  10. Nodal resonance in a strong standing wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández C., David J.; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1990-06-01

    The motion of charged particles in a standing electromagnetic wave is considered. For amplitudes that are not too high, the wave causes an effect of attraction of particles to the nodal points, resembling the channeling effect reported by Salomon, Dalibard, Aspect, Metcalf, and Cohen-Tannoudji [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987)] consistent with the ``high-frequency potential'' of Kapitza [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 21, 588 (1951)]. For high-field intensities, however, the nodal points undergo a qualitative metamorphosis, converting themselves from particle attractors into resonant centers. Some chaotic phenomena arise and the description of the oscillating field in terms of an ``effective potential'' becomes inappropriate. The question of a correct Floquet Hamiltonian that could describe the standing wave within this amplitude and frequency regime is open.

  11. Wire-grid polarizer using galvanic growth technology: demonstration of a wide spectral and angular bandwidth component with high extinction ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrier, Isabelle; Kämpfe, Thomas; Celle, Frederic; Cazier, Anthony; Guttmann, Markus; Matthis, Barbara; Laukkanen, Janne; Lacour, Frédéric; Veillas, Colette; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Parriaux, Olivier; Jourlin, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Functional demonstration of a wide band, wide angular width wire-grid polarizer has been made in the framework of a user project of the European project ACTMOST (Access To Micro-Optics Expertise, Services and Technologies). The polarization function relies on linear polarizers using the wire-grid polarizer principle by means of a metal grating of unusually large period, exhibiting a large extinction of the transmission of the TE polarization in the 850-nm wavelength range. This grating achieves a broadband and especially high angular aperture reflection with low loss and permits resorting to very low cost incoherent light sources for the transmitted TM polarization. This paper will describe the design, the modeling and optimization, as well as the complete technological process chain, that has been used, starting with the photoresist grating printing using phase-mask UV-based lithography to the uniform galvanic growth of a very shallow gold grating on transparent conductive layer deposited on a glass substrate. Transmission curves for both polarizations performed on the first demonstrators will be presented.

  12. An iterative KP1 method for solving the transport equation in 3D domains on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokonkov, N. I.; Nikolaeva, O. V.

    2015-10-01

    A two-step iterative KP1 method for solving systems of grid equations that approximate the integro-differential transport equation in 3D domains on unstructured grids using nodal SN methods is described. Results of testing the efficiency of the proposed method in solving benchmark problems of reactor protection on tetrahedral grids are presented.

  13. A Parallel 3D Spectral Difference Method for Solutions of Compressible Navier Stokes Equations on Deforming Grids and Simulations of Vortex Induced Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, Andrew

    Numerical models of fluid-structure interaction have grown in importance due to increasing interest in environmental energy harvesting, airfoil-gust interactions, and bio-inspired formation flying. Powered by increasingly powerful parallel computers, such models seek to explain the fundamental physics behind the complex, unsteady fluid-structure phenomena. To this end, a high-fidelity computational model based on the high-order spectral difference method on 3D unstructured, dynamic meshes has been developed. The spectral difference method constructs continuous solution fields within each element with a Riemann solver to compute the inviscid fluxes at the element interfaces and an averaging mechanism to compute the viscous fluxes. This method has shown promise in the past as a highly accurate, yet sufficiently fast method for solving unsteady viscous compressible flows. The solver is monolithically coupled to the equations of motion of an elastically mounted 3-degree of freedom rigid bluff body undergoing flow-induced lift, drag, and torque. The mesh is deformed using 4 methods: an analytic function, Laplace equation, biharmonic equation, and a bi-elliptic equation with variable diffusivity. This single system of equations -- fluid and structure -- is advanced through time using a 5-stage, 4th-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Message Passing Interface is used to run the coupled system in parallel on up to 240 processors. The solver is validated against previously published numerical and experimental data for an elastically mounted cylinder. The effect of adding an upstream body and inducing wake galloping is observed.

  14. Small renal tumor with lymph nodal enlargement: A histopathological surprise

    PubMed Central

    Thottathil, Mujeeburahiman; Verma, Ashish; D’souza, Nischith; Khan, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Renal cancer with lymph nodal mass on the investigation is clinically suggestive of an advanced tumor. Small renal cancers are not commonly associated with lymph nodal metastasis. Association of renal cell carcinoma with renal tuberculosis (TB) in the same kidney is also rare. We report here a case of small renal cancer with multiple hilar and paraaortic lymph nodes who underwent radical nephrectomy, and histopathology report showed renal and lymph nodal TB too. PMID:27453671

  15. Plasticity underlies tumor progression: role of Nodal signaling.

    PubMed

    Bodenstine, Thomas M; Chandler, Grace S; Seftor, Richard E B; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2016-03-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily member Nodal is an established regulator of early embryonic development, with primary roles in endoderm induction, left-right asymmetry, and primitive streak formation. Nodal signals through TGFβ family receptors at the plasma membrane and induces signaling cascades leading to diverse transcriptional regulation. While conceptually simple, the regulation of Nodal and its molecular effects are profoundly complex and context dependent. Pioneering work by developmental biologists has characterized the signaling pathways, regulatory components, and provided detailed insight into the mechanisms by which Nodal mediates changes at the cellular and organismal levels. Nodal is also an important factor in maintaining pluripotency of embryonic stem cells through regulation of core transcriptional programs. Collectively, this work has led to an appreciation for Nodal as a powerful morphogen capable of orchestrating multiple cellular phenotypes. Although Nodal is not active in most adult tissues, its reexpression and signaling have been linked to multiple types of human cancer, and Nodal has emerged as a driver of tumor growth and cellular plasticity. In vitro and in vivo experimental evidence has demonstrated that inhibition of Nodal signaling reduces cancer cell aggressive characteristics, while clinical data have established associations with Nodal expression and patient outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in the potential targeting of Nodal activity in a therapeutic setting for cancer patients that may provide new avenues for suppressing tumor growth and metastasis. In this review, we evaluate our current understanding of the complexities of Nodal function in cancer and highlight recent experimental evidence that sheds light on the therapeutic potential of its inhibition. PMID:26951550

  16. A Computational Model of Dynein Activation Patterns that Can Explain Nodal Cilia Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duanduan; Zhong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Normal left-right patterning in vertebrates depends on the rotational movement of nodal cilia. In order to produce this ciliary motion, the activity of axonemal dyneins must be tightly regulated in a temporal and spatial manner; the specific activation pattern of the dynein motors in the nodal cilia has not been reported. Contemporary imaging techniques cannot directly assess dynein activity in a living cilium. In this study, we establish a three-dimensional model to mimic the ciliary ultrastructure and assume that the activation of dynein proteins is related to the interdoublet distance. By employing finite-element analysis and grid deformation techniques, we simulate the mechanical function of dyneins by pairs of point loads, investigate the time-variant interdoublet distance, and simulate the dynein-triggered ciliary motion. The computational results indicate that, to produce the rotational movement of nodal cilia, the dynein activity is transferred clockwise (looking from the tip) between the nine doublet microtubules, and along each microtubule, the dynein activation should occur faster at the basal region and slower when it is close to the ciliary tip. Moreover, the time cost by all the dyneins along one microtubule to be activated can be used to deduce the dynein activation pattern; it implies that, as an alternative method, measuring this time can indirectly reveal the dynein activity. The proposed protein-structure model can simulate the ciliary motion triggered by various dynein activation patterns explicitly and may contribute to furthering the studies on axonemal dynein activity. PMID:26153700

  17. Phonon analogue of topological nodal semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Kane and Lubensky proposed a mapping between bosonic phonon problems on isostatic lattices to chiral fermion systems based on factorization of the dynamical matrix [Nat. Phys. 10, 39 (2014)]. The existence of topologically protected zero modes in such mechanical problems is related to their presence in the fermionic system and is dictated by a local index theorem. Here we adopt the proposed mapping to construct a two-dimensional mechanical analogue of a fermionic topological nodal semimetal that hosts a robust bulk node in its linearized phonon spectrum. Such topologically protected soft modes with tunable wavevector may be useful in designing mechanical structures with fault-tolerant properties.

  18. The AN neutron transport by nodal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Barbarino, A.; Tomatis, D.

    2013-07-01

    The two group diffusion model combined to a nodal approach in space is the preferred scheme for the industrial simulation of nuclear water reactors. The main selling point is the speed of computation, allowing a large number of parametric studies. Anyway, the drawbacks of the underlying diffusion equation may arise with highly heterogeneous interfaces, often encountered in modern UO{sub 2} and MO{sub x} fuel loading patterns, and boron less controlled systems. This paper aims at showing how the simplified AN transport model, equivalent to the well known SPN, can be implemented in standard diffusion codes with minor modifications. Some numerical results are illustrated. (authors)

  19. Extracellular interactions and ligand degradation shape the nodal morphogen gradient

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Wang, Xi; Wohland, Thorsten; Sampath, Karuna

    2016-01-01

    The correct distribution and activity of secreted signaling proteins called morphogens is required for many developmental processes. Nodal morphogens play critical roles in embryonic axis formation in many organisms. Models proposed to generate the Nodal gradient include diffusivity, ligand processing, and a temporal activation window. But how the Nodal morphogen gradient forms in vivo remains unclear. Here, we have measured in vivo for the first time, the binding affinity of Nodal ligands to their major cell surface receptor, Acvr2b, and to the Nodal inhibitor, Lefty, by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy. We examined the diffusion coefficient of Nodal ligands and Lefty inhibitors in live zebrafish embryos by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We also investigated the contribution of ligand degradation to the Nodal gradient. We show that ligand clearance via degradation shapes the Nodal gradient and correlates with its signaling range. By computational simulations of gradient formation, we demonstrate that diffusivity, extra-cellular interactions, and selective ligand destruction collectively shape the Nodal morphogen gradient. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13879.001 PMID:27101364

  20. An essential role for maternal control of Nodal signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Pooja; Gilligan, Patrick C; Lim, Shimin; Tran, Long Duc; Winkler, Sylke; Philp, Robin; Sampath, Karuna

    2013-01-01

    Growth factor signaling is essential for pattern formation, growth, differentiation, and maintenance of stem cell pluripotency. Nodal-related signaling factors are required for axis formation and germ layer specification from sea urchins to mammals. Maternal transcripts of the zebrafish Nodal factor, Squint (Sqt), are localized to future embryonic dorsal. The mechanisms by which maternal sqt/nodal RNA is localized and regulated have been unclear. Here, we show that maternal control of Nodal signaling via the conserved Y box-binding protein 1 (Ybx1) is essential. We identified Ybx1 via a proteomic screen. Ybx1 recognizes the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of sqt RNA and prevents premature translation and Sqt/Nodal signaling. Maternal-effect mutations in zebrafish ybx1 lead to deregulated Nodal signaling, gastrulation failure, and embryonic lethality. Implanted Nodal-coated beads phenocopy ybx1 mutant defects. Thus, Ybx1 prevents ectopic Nodal activity, revealing a new paradigm in the regulation of Nodal signaling, which is likely to be conserved. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00683.001 PMID:24040511

  1. Zero-energy bound states in a nodal topological lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soo-Yong; Han, Jung Hoon

    2015-06-01

    A nodal topological lattice is a form of magnetic crystal with topologically nontrivial spin texture, which further exhibits a periodic array of nodes with vanishing magnetization. An electronic structure for conduction electrons strongly Hund coupled to such a nodal topological lattice is examined. Our analysis shows that each node attracts two localized states which form narrow bands through internode hybridization within the mid-gap region. Nodal bands carry a Chern number under suitable perturbations, suggesting their potential role in the topological Hall effect. Enhancement of the density of states near zero energy observable in a tunneling experiment will provide a signature of the formation of a nodal topological lattice.

  2. IUE data reduction - The parameterization of the motion of the IUE reseau grids and spectral formats as a function of time and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. W.; Turnrose, B. E.; Bohlin, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improvements are made on IUE data reduction using corrected reseau positions and dispersion constants for temperature variations and secular effects. Models describing the motion of the high dispersion spectral format as a function of THDA alone reduce the scatter in the predicted position of a given wavelength, and scatter is further reduced when a linear dependence on time is also allowed. A correction technique is presented for early data which reduces errors in wavelength assignments from over 30 km/s to less than 3 km/s in high dispersion. The reseau temperature correction helps locate the minimum background signal, centered between the echelle orders. The residual uncertainty of 2 km/s for SWP and 2.7 km/s for LWR makes the wavelength accuracy of time and temperature corrected IUE spectra comparable to that of temperature corrected data from the Copernicus satellite.

  3. Grid Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pointwise Inc.'s, Gridgen Software is a system for the generation of 3D (three dimensional) multiple block, structured grids. Gridgen is a visually-oriented, graphics-based interactive code used to decompose a 3D domain into blocks, distribute grid points on curves, initialize and refine grid points on surfaces and initialize volume grid points. Gridgen is available to U.S. citizens and American-owned companies by license.

  4. The near-equivalence of five species of spectrally-accurate radial basis functions (RBFs): Asymptotic approximations to the RBF cardinal functions on a uniform, unbounded grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, John P.

    2011-02-01

    Radial basis function (RBF) interpolants have become popular in computer graphics, neural networks and for solving partial differential equations in many fields of science and engineering. In this article, we compare five different species of RBFs: Gaussians, hyperbolic secant (sech's), inverse quadratics, multiquadrics and inverse multiquadrics. We show that the corresponding cardinal functions for a uniform, unbounded grid are all approximated by the same function: C(X) ∼ (1/(ρ)) sin (πX)/sinh (πX/ρ) for some constant ρ(α) which depends on the inverse width parameter (“shape parameter”) α of the RBF and also on the RBF species. The error in this approximation is exponentially small in 1/α for sech's and inverse quadratics and exponentially small in 1/α2 for Gaussians; the error is proportional to α4 for multiquadrics and inverse multiquadrics. The error in all cases is small even for α ∼ O(1). These results generalize to higher dimensions. The Gaussian RBF cardinal functions in any number of dimensions d are, without approximation, the tensor product of one dimensional Gaussian cardinal functions: Cd(x1,x2…,xd)=∏j=1dC(xj). For other RBF species, we show that the two-dimensional cardinal functions are well approximated by the products of one-dimensional cardinal functions; again the error goes to zero as α → 0. The near-identity of the cardinal functions implies that all five species of RBF interpolants are (almost) the same, despite the great differences in the RBF ϕ's themselves.

  5. MAGNETIC GRID

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1960-08-01

    An electronic grid is designed employing magnetic forces for controlling the passage of charged particles. The grid is particularly applicable to use in gas-filled tubes such as ignitrons. thyratrons, etc., since the magnetic grid action is impartial to the polarity of the charged particles and, accordingly. the sheath effects encountered with electrostatic grids are not present. The grid comprises a conductor having sections spaced apart and extending in substantially opposite directions in the same plane, the ends of the conductor being adapted for connection to a current source.

  6. Market redesign and technology upgrade: a nodal implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Isemonger, Alan G.

    2009-10-15

    The California ISO and its market participants collectively cut over to a new nodal-based market on April 1, largely without incident and 11 years to the day from the initial startup in 1998. Thus far, the new nodal framework has proven robust, and the inevitable design and implementation issues that have emerged since cutover have been manageable. (author)

  7. Radar response from vegetation with nodal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    Radar images from the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) produced unusually high returns from corn and sorghum fields, which seem to indicate a correlation between nodal separation in the stalk and the wavelength of the radar. These images also show no difference in return from standing or harvested corn. Further investigation using images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) substantiated these observations and showed a degradation of the high return with time after harvest. From portions of corn and sweet sorghum stalks that were sampled to measure stalk water content, it was determined that near and after maturity the water becomes more concentrated in the stalk nodes. The stalk then becomes a linear sequence of alternating dielectrics as opposed to a long slender cylinder with uniform dielectric properties.

  8. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  9. Experience with advanced nodal codes at YAEC

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) has been performing reload licensing analysis since 1969. The basic pressurized water reactor (PWR) methodology involves the use of LEOPARD for cross-section generation, PDQ for radial power distributions and integral control rod worth, and SIMULATE for axial power distributions and differential control rod worth. In 1980, YAEC began performing reload licensing analysis for the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). The basic BWR methodology involves the use of CASMO for cross-section generation and SIMULATE for three-dimensional power distributions. In 1986, YAEC began investigating the use of CASMO-3 for cross-section generation and the advanced nodal code SIMULATE-3 for power distribution analysis. Based on the evaluation, the CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 methodology satisfied all requirements. After careful consideration, the cost of implementing the new methodology is expected to be offset by reduced computing costs, improved engineering productivity, and fuel-cycle performance gains.

  10. The Grid

    SciTech Connect

    White, Vicky

    2003-05-21

    By now almost everyone has heard of 'The Grid', or 'Grid Computing' as it should more properly be described. There are frequent articles in both the popular and scientific press talking about 'The Grid' or about some specific Grid project. Run II Experiments, US-CMS, BTeV, the Sloane Digital Sky Survey and the Lattice QCD folks are all incorporating aspects of Grid Computing in their plans, and the Fermilab Computing Division is supporting and encouraging these efforts. Why are we doing this and what does it have to do with running a physics experiment or getting scientific results? I will explore some of these questions and try to give an overview, not so much of the technical aspects of Grid Computing, rather of what the phenomenon means for our field.

  11. Loop-Nodal and Point-Nodal Semimetals in Three-Dimensional Honeycomb Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb structure has a natural extension to three dimensions. Simple examples are hyperhoneycomb and stripy-honeycomb lattices, which are realized in β -Li2IrO3 and γ -Li2IrO3 , respectively. We propose a wide class of three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb lattices which are loop-nodal semimetals. Their edge states have intriguing properties similar to the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice in spite of a dimensional difference. Partial flat bands emerge at the zigzag or bearded edge of the 3D honeycomb lattice, whose boundary is given by the Fermi loop in the bulk spectrum. On the other hand, perfect flat bands emerge in the zigzag-bearded edge or when the anisotropy is large. The loop-nodal structure is destroyed once staggered potential or antiferromagnetic order is introduced. All these 3D honeycomb lattices become strong topological insulators with the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Furthermore, point-nodal semimetals may be realized in the presence of both antiferromagnetic order and the SOI. We construct the effective four-band theory with the SOI to understand the physics near the Fermi level, based upon which the density of states and the dc conductivity are calculated.

  12. Loop-Nodal and Point-Nodal Semimetals in Three-Dimensional Honeycomb Lattices.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-03-25

    A honeycomb structure has a natural extension to three dimensions. Simple examples are hyperhoneycomb and stripy-honeycomb lattices, which are realized in β-Li_{2}IrO_{3} and γ-Li_{2}IrO_{3}, respectively. We propose a wide class of three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb lattices which are loop-nodal semimetals. Their edge states have intriguing properties similar to the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice in spite of a dimensional difference. Partial flat bands emerge at the zigzag or bearded edge of the 3D honeycomb lattice, whose boundary is given by the Fermi loop in the bulk spectrum. On the other hand, perfect flat bands emerge in the zigzag-bearded edge or when the anisotropy is large. The loop-nodal structure is destroyed once staggered potential or antiferromagnetic order is introduced. All these 3D honeycomb lattices become strong topological insulators with the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Furthermore, point-nodal semimetals may be realized in the presence of both antiferromagnetic order and the SOI. We construct the effective four-band theory with the SOI to understand the physics near the Fermi level, based upon which the density of states and the dc conductivity are calculated. PMID:27058097

  13. Fibonacci Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinbank, Richard; Purser, James

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in a variety of non-standard computational grids for global numerical prediction. The motivation has been to reduce problems associated with the converging meridians and the polar singularities of conventional regular latitude-longitude grids. A further impetus has come from the adoption of massively parallel computers, for which it is necessary to distribute work equitably across the processors; this is more practicable for some non-standard grids. Desirable attributes of a grid for high-order spatial finite differencing are: (i) geometrical regularity; (ii) a homogeneous and approximately isotropic spatial resolution; (iii) a low proportion of the grid points where the numerical procedures require special customization (such as near coordinate singularities or grid edges). One family of grid arrangements which, to our knowledge, has never before been applied to numerical weather prediction, but which appears to offer several technical advantages, are what we shall refer to as "Fibonacci grids". They can be thought of as mathematically ideal generalizations of the patterns occurring naturally in the spiral arrangements of seeds and fruit found in sunflower heads and pineapples (to give two of the many botanical examples). These grids possess virtually uniform and highly isotropic resolution, with an equal area for each grid point. There are only two compact singular regions on a sphere that require customized numerics. We demonstrate the practicality of these grids in shallow water simulations, and discuss the prospects for efficiently using these frameworks in three-dimensional semi-implicit and semi-Lagrangian weather prediction or climate models.

  14. An implicit finite volume nodal point scheme for the solution of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Vimala

    1993-07-01

    An implicit finite volume nodal point scheme has been developed for solving the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical scheme is evolved by efficiently combining the basic ideas of the implicit finite-difference scheme of Beam and Warming (1978) with those of nodal point schemes due to Hall (1985) and Ni (1982). The 2-D Navier-Stokes solver is implemented for steady, laminar/turbulent flows past airfoils by using C-type grids. Turbulence closure is achieved by employing the algebraic eddy-viscosity model of Baldwin and Lomax (1978). Results are presented for the NACA-0012 and RAE-2822 airfoil sections. Comparison of the aerodynamic coefficients with experimental results for the different test cases presented here establishes the validity and efficiency of the method.

  15. NODAL — The second life of the accelerator control language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisinier, G.; Perriollat, F.; Ribeiro, P.; Kagarmanov, A.; Kovaltsov, V.

    1994-12-01

    NODAL has been a popular interpreter language for accelerator controls since the beginning of the 1970s. NODAL has been rewritten in the C language to be easily portable to the different computer platforms which are in use in accelerator controls. The paper describes the major features of this new version of NODAL, the major software packages which are available through this implementation, the platforms on which it is currently running, and some relevant performances. The experience gained during the rejuvenation project of the CERN accelerator control systems is presented. The benefit of this is discussed, in particular in a view of the prevailing strong constraints in personnel and money resources.

  16. Optimal Hedge for Nodal Price Risk using FTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Makino, Michiko; Ichida, Yoshio; Akiyoshi, Masanori

    As the deregulation of electric business proceeds, each company needs to construct a risk hedging system. So far many companies have not been taking much care of this suffciently. In this paper, we address the nodal price hedge issue. Most companies have risks for the nodal prices which tend to be highly volatile. There's almost no doubt that such a company actually needs hedge products to make profits stable. We suggest the usage of FTR for this purpose. First, we briefly note the mechanisms of nodal price in PJM market and FTR, and suggest the mathematical formulations. Then we show some numerical examples and discuss our findings.

  17. Tunable Weyl Points in Periodically Driven Nodal Line Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongbo; Wang, Zhong

    2016-08-19

    Weyl semimetals and nodal line semimetals are characterized by linear band touching at zero-dimensional points and one-dimensional lines, respectively. We predict that a circularly polarized light drives nodal line semimetals into Weyl semimetals. The Floquet Weyl points thus obtained are tunable by the incident light, which enables investigations of them in a highly controllable manner. The transition from nodal line semimetals to Weyl semimetals is accompanied by the emergence of a large and tunable anomalous Hall conductivity. Our predictions are experimentally testable by transport measurement in film samples or by pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. PMID:27588882

  18. DNS of vibrating grid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khujadze, G.; Oberlack, M.

    Direct numerical simulation of the turbulence generated at a grid vibrating normally to itself using spectral code [1] is presented. Due to zero mean shear there is no production of turbulence apart from the grid. Action of the grid is mimiced by the function implemented in the middle of the simulation box:f_i (x_1 ,x_2 ) = {n^2 S}/2left\\{ {left| {{δ _{i3} }/4\\cos left( {{2π }/Mx_1 } right)\\cos left. {left( {{2π }/Mx_2 } right)} right|} right.sin (nt) + {β _i }/4} right\\}, where M is the mesh size, S/2 - amplitude or stroke of the grid, n - frequency. β i are random numbers with uniform distribution. The simulations were performed for the following parameters: x 1, x 2 ∈ [-π; π], x 3 ∈ [-2π; 2π]; Re = nS 2/? = 1000; S/M = 2; Numerical grid: 128 × 128 × 256.

  19. DNS of vibrating grid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khujadze, G.; Oberlack, M.

    Direct numerical simulation of the turbulence generated at a grid vibrating normally to itself using spectral code [1] is presented. Due to zero mean shear there is no production of turbulence apart from the grid. Action of the grid is mimiced by the function implemented in the middle of the simulation box:f_i (x_1 ,x_2 ) = {n^2 S}/2left{ {left| {{δ _{i3} }/4\\cos left( {{2π }/Mx_1 } right)\\cos left. {left( {{2π }/Mx_2 } right)} right|} right.sin (nt) + {β _i }/4} right}, where M is the mesh size, S/2 - amplitude or stroke of the grid, n - frequency. β i are random numbers with uniform distribution. The simulations were performed for the following parameters: x 1, x 2 ∈ [-π; π], x 3 ∈ [-2π; 2π]; Re = nS 2/? = 1000; S/M = 2; Numerical grid: 128 × 128 × 256.

  20. Present Status of GNF New Nodal Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, T.; Tamitani, M.; Moore, B.

    2001-06-17

    This paper presents core simulator consolidation work done at Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF). The unified simulator needs to supercede the capabilities of past simulator packages from the original GNF partners: GE, Hitachi, and Toshiba. At the same time, an effort is being made to produce a simulation package that will be a state-of-the-art analysis tool when released, in terms of the physics solution methodology and functionality. The core simulator will be capable and qualified for (a) high-energy cycles in the U.S. markets, (b) mixed-oxide (MOX) introduction in Japan, and (c) high-power density plants in Europe, etc. The unification of the lattice physics code is also in progress based on a transport model with collision probability methods. The AETNA core simulator is built upon the PANAC11 software base. The goal is to essentially replace the 1.5-energy-group model with a higher-order multigroup nonlinear nodal solution capable of the required modeling fidelity, while keeping highly automated library generation as well as functionality. All required interfaces to PANAC11 will be preserved, which minimizes the impact on users and process automation. Preliminary results show statistical accuracy improvement over the 1.5-group model.

  1. Classification, Electrophysiological Features and Therapy of Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) should be classified as typical or atypical. The term ‘fast-slow AVNRT’ is rather misleading. Retrograde atrial activation during tachycardia should not be relied upon as a diagnostic criterion. Both typical and atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia are compatible with varying retrograde atrial activation patterns. Attempts at establishing the presence of a ‘lower common pathway’ are probably of no practical significance. When the diagnosis of AVNRT is established, ablation should be only directed towards the anatomic position of the slow pathway. If right septal attempts are unsuccessful, the left septal side should be tried. Ablation targeting earliest atrial activation sites during typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia or the fast pathway in general for any kind of typical or atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, are not justified. In this review we discuss current concepts about the tachycardia circuit, electrophysiologic diagnosis, and ablation of this arrhythmia.

  2. Nodal analysis for reactor kinetics and stability. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.K.; Becker, M.; Park, G.C.

    1983-07-01

    General space kinetics models have been developed for more accurate stability analysis utilizing nodal analysis, a commonly used technique for analyzing power distributions in large power reactors. Kinetics parameters for use in these kinetics models have been properly derived by utilizing self-consistent nodal data and power distributions. The procedure employed in the nodal code SIMULATE has been utilized for power distribution, since that methodology is general and includes various commonly used nodal methods as special cases. Cross sections are correlated as functions of void fraction and exposure. A computer program investigating thermo-hydrodynamic stability, NUFREQ has been modified to accommodate general spatial kinetics models with an improved thermal-hydraulics model. Stability analyses have been performed for density wave oscillations for a representative operating BWR system. Spatial coupling effects on the stability margins were found to be significant.

  3. BEACON: An application of nodal methods for operational support

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, W.A.; Nguyen, T.Q. )

    1992-01-01

    A practical application of nodal methods is on-line plant operational support. However, to enable plant personnel to take full advantage of a nodal model to support plant operations, (a) a core nodal model must always be up to date with the current core history and conditions, (b) the nodal methods must be fast enough to allow numerous core calculations to be performed in minutes to support engineering decisions, and (c) the system must be easily accessible to engineering personnel at the reactor, their offices, or any other location considered appropriate. A core operational support package developed by Westinghouse called BEACON (best estimate analysis of core operations - nuclear) has been installed at several plants. Results from these plants and numerous in-core flux maps analyzed have demonstrated the accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the methodology

  4. Bilinear nodal transport method in weighted diamond difference form

    SciTech Connect

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Nodal methods have been developed and implemented for the numerical solution of the discrete ordinates neutron transport equation. Numerical testing of these methods and comparison of their results to those obtained by conventional methods have established the high accuracy of nodal methods. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the linear-linear approximation is the most computationally efficient, practical nodal approximation. Indeed, this claim has been substantiated by comparing the accuracy in the solution, and the CPU time required to achieve convergence to that solution by several nodal approximations, as well as the diamond difference scheme. Two types of linear-linear nodal methods have been developed in the literature: analytic linear-linear (NLL) methods, in which the transverse-leakage terms are derived analytically, and approximate linear-linear (PLL) methods, in which these terms are approximated. In spite of their higher accuracy, NLL methods result in very complicated discrete-variable equations that exhibit a high degree of coupling, thus requiring special solution algorithms. On the other hand, the sacrificed accuracy in PLL methods is compensated for by the simple discrete-variable equations and diamond-difference-like solution algorithm. In this paper the authors outline the development of an NLL nodal method, the bilinear method, which can be written in a weighted diamond difference form with one spatial weight per dimension that is analytically derived rather than preassigned in an ad hoc fashion.

  5. Grid oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.

    1988-01-01

    Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.

  6. Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Ian

    2001-08-01

    The term "Grid Computing" refers to the use, for computational purposes, of emerging distributed Grid infrastructures: that is, network and middleware services designed to provide on-demand and high-performance access to all important computational resources within an organization or community. Grid computing promises to enable both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in the practice of computational science and engineering based on new application modalities such as high-speed distributed analysis of large datasets, collaborative engineering and visualization, desktop access to computation via "science portals," rapid parameter studies and Monte Carlo simulations that use all available resources within an organization, and online analysis of data from scientific instruments. In this article, I examine the status of Grid computing circa 2000, briefly reviewing some relevant history, outlining major current Grid research and development activities, and pointing out likely directions for future work. I also present a number of case studies, selected to illustrate the potential of Grid computing in various areas of science.

  7. The correction of pebble bed reactor nodal cross sections for the effects of leakage and depletion history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Nathanael Harrison

    An accurate and computationally fast method to generate nodal cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) was presented. In this method, named Spectral History Correction (SHC), a set of fine group microscopic cross section libraries, pre-computed at specified depletion and moderation states, was coupled with the nodal nuclide densities and group bucklings to compute the new fine group spectrum for each node. The relevant fine group cross-section library was then recollapsed to the local broad group cross-section structure with this new fine group spectrum. This library set was tracked in terms of fuel isotopic densities. Fine group modulation factors (to correct the homogeneous flux for heterogeneous effects) and fission spectra were also stored with the cross section library. As the PBR simulation converges to a steady state fuel cycle, the initial nodal cross section library becomes inaccurate due to the burnup of the fuel and the neutron leakage into and out of the node. Because of the recirculation of discharged fuel pebbles with fresh fuel pebbles, a node can consist of a collection of pebbles at various burnup stages. To account for the nodal burnup, the microscopic cross sections were combined with nodal averaged atom densities to approximate the fine group macroscopic cross-sections for that node. These constructed, homogeneous macroscopic cross sections within the node were used to calculate a numerical solution for the fine group spectrum with B1 theory. This new fine spectrum was used to collapse the pre-computed microscopic cross section library to the broad group structure employed by the fuel cycle code. This SHC technique was developed and practically implemented as a subroutine within the PBR fuel cycle code PEBBED. The SHC subroutine was called to recalculate the broad group cross sections during the code convergence. The result was a fast method that compared favorably to the benchmark scheme of cross section calculation with the lattice

  8. Advanced computational methods for nodal diffusion, Monte Carlo, and S[sub N] problems

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document describes progress on five efforts for improving effectiveness of computational methods for particle diffusion and transport problems in nuclear engineering: (1) Multigrid methods for obtaining rapidly converging solutions of nodal diffusion problems. A alternative line relaxation scheme is being implemented into a nodal diffusion code. Simplified P2 has been implemented into this code. (2) Local Exponential Transform method for variance reduction in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. This work yielded predictions for both 1-D and 2-D x-y geometry better than conventional Monte Carlo with splitting and Russian Roulette. (3) Asymptotic Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN problems. New transport differencing schemes have been obtained that allow solution by the conjugate gradient method, and the convergence of this approach is rapid. (4) Quasidiffusion (QD) methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN Problems on irregular spatial grids. A symmetrized QD method has been developed in a form that results in a system of two self-adjoint equations that are readily discretized and efficiently solved. (5) Response history method for speeding up the Monte Carlo calculation of electron transport problems. This method was implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. In addition, we have developed and implemented a parallel time-dependent Monte Carlo code on two massively parallel processors.

  9. Advanced computational methods for nodal diffusion, Monte Carlo, and S(sub N) problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    This document describes progress on five efforts for improving effectiveness of computational methods for particle diffusion and transport problems in nuclear engineering: (1) Multigrid methods for obtaining rapidly converging solutions of nodal diffusion problems. An alternative line relaxation scheme is being implemented into a nodal diffusion code. Simplified P2 has been implemented into this code. (2) Local Exponential Transform method for variance reduction in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. This work yielded predictions for both 1-D and 2-D x-y geometry better than conventional Monte Carlo with splitting and Russian Roulette. (3) Asymptotic Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN problems. New transport differencing schemes have been obtained that allow solution by the conjugate gradient method, and the convergence of this approach is rapid. (4) Quasidiffusion (QD) methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN Problems on irregular spatial grids. A symmetrized QD method has been developed in a form that results in a system of two self-adjoint equations that are readily discretized and efficiently solved. (5) Response history method for speeding up the Monte Carlo calculation of electron transport problems. This method was implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. In addition, we have developed and implemented a parallel time-dependent Monte Carlo code on two massively parallel processors.

  10. Nodal signaling promotes a tumorigenic phenotype in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kirsammer, Gina; Strizzi, Luigi; Margaryan, Naira V; Gilgur, Alina; Hyser, Matthew; Atkinson, Janis; Kirschmann, Dawn A; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2014-12-01

    The Ras-ERK pathway is deregulated in approximately a third of human cancers, particularly those of epithelial origin. In aggressive, triple-negative, basal-like breast cancers, most tumors display increased MEK and ERK phosphorylation and exhibit a gene expression profile characteristic of Kras or EGFR mutant tumors; however, Ras family genetic mutations are uncommon in triple-negative breast cancer and EGFR mutations account for only a subset of these tumors. Therefore, the upstream events that activate MAPK signaling and promote tumor aggression in triple-negative breast cancers remain poorly defined. We have previously shown that a secreted TGF-β family signaling ligand, Nodal, is expressed in breast cancer in correlation with disease progression. Here we highlight key findings demonstrating that Nodal is required in aggressive human breast cancer cells to activate ERK signaling and downstream tumorigenic phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. Experimental knockdown of Nodal signaling downregulates ERK activity, resulting in loss of c-myc, upregulation of p27, G1 cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis and decreased tumorigenicity. The data suggest that ERK activation by Nodal signaling regulates c-myc and p27 proteins post-translationally and that this cascade is essential for aggressive breast tumor behavior in vivo. As the MAPK pathway is an important target for treating triple-negative breast cancers, upstream Nodal signaling may represent a promising target for breast cancer diagnosis and combined therapies aimed at blocking ERK pathway activation. PMID:25073112

  11. Nodal signaling promotes a tumorigenic phenotype in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kirsammer, Gina; Strizzi, Luigi; Margaryan, Naira V.; Gilgur, Alina; Hyser, Matthew; Atkinson, Janis; Kirschmann, Dawn A.; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Ras-ERK pathway is deregulated in approximately a third of human cancers, particularly those of epithelial origin. In aggressive, triple-negative, basal-like breast cancers, most tumors display increased MEK and ERK phosphorylation and exhibit a gene expression profile characteristic of Kras or EGFR mutant tumors; however, Ras family genetic mutations are uncommon in triple-negative breast cancer and EGFR mutations account for only a subset of these tumors. Therefore, the upstream events that activate MAPK signaling and promote tumor aggression in triple-negative breast cancers remain poorly defined. We have previously shown that a secreted TGF-β family signaling ligand, Nodal, is expressed in breast cancer in correlation with disease progression. Here we highlight key findings demonstrating that Nodal is required in aggressive human breast cancer cells to activate ERK signaling and downstream tumorigenic phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. Experimental knockdown of Nodal signaling downregulates ERK activity, resulting in loss of c-myc, upregulation of p27, G1 cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis and decreased tumorigenicity. The data suggest that ERK activation by Nodal signaling regulates c-myc and p27 proteins post-translationally and that this cascade is essential for aggressive breast tumor behavior in vivo. As the MAPK pathway is an important target for treating triple-negative breast cancers, upstream Nodal signaling may represent a promising target for breast cancer diagnosis and combined therapies aimed at blocking ERK pathway activation. PMID:25073112

  12. A computational study of nodal-based tetrahedral element behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Gullerud, Arne S.

    2010-09-01

    This report explores the behavior of nodal-based tetrahedral elements on six sample problems, and compares their solution to that of a corresponding hexahedral mesh. The problems demonstrate that while certain aspects of the solution field for the nodal-based tetrahedrons provide good quality results, the pressure field tends to be of poor quality. Results appear to be strongly affected by the connectivity of the tetrahedral elements. Simulations that rely on the pressure field, such as those which use material models that are dependent on the pressure (e.g. equation-of-state models), can generate erroneous results. Remeshing can also be strongly affected by these issues. The nodal-based test elements as they currently stand need to be used with caution to ensure that their numerical deficiencies do not adversely affect critical values of interest.

  13. Super-nodal methods for space-time kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertyurek, Ugur

    The purpose of this research has been to develop an advanced Super-Nodal method to reduce the run time of 3-D core neutronics models, such as in the NESTLE reactor core simulator and FORMOSA nuclear fuel management optimization codes. Computational performance of the neutronics model is increased by reducing the number of spatial nodes used in the core modeling. However, as the number of spatial nodes decreases, the error in the solution increases. The Super-Nodal method reduces the error associated with the use of coarse nodes in the analyses by providing a new set of cross sections and ADFs (Assembly Discontinuity Factors) for the new nodalization. These so called homogenization parameters are obtained by employing consistent collapsing technique. During this research a new type of singularity, namely "fundamental mode singularity", is addressed in the ANM (Analytical Nodal Method) solution. The "Coordinate Shifting" approach is developed as a method to address this singularity. Also, the "Buckling Shifting" approach is developed as an alternative and more accurate method to address the zero buckling singularity, which is a more common and well known singularity problem in the ANM solution. In the course of addressing the treatment of these singularities, an effort was made to provide better and more robust results from the Super-Nodal method by developing several new methods for determining the transverse leakage and collapsed diffusion coefficient, which generally are the two main approximations in the ANM methodology. Unfortunately, the proposed new transverse leakage and diffusion coefficient approximations failed to provide a consistent improvement to the current methodology. However, improvement in the Super-Nodal solution is achieved by updating the homogenization parameters at several time points during a transient. The update is achieved by employing a refinement technique similar to pin-power reconstruction. A simple error analysis based on the relative

  14. A transient, quadratic nodal method for triangular-Z geometry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLorey, T.F.

    1993-06-01

    Many systematically-derived nodal methods have been developed for Cartesian geometry due to the extensive interest in Light Water Reactors. These methods typically model the transverse-integrated flux as either an analytic or low order polynomial function of position within the node. Recently, quadratic nodal methods have been developed for R-Z and hexagonal geometry. A static and transient quadratic nodal method is developed for triangular-Z geometry. This development is particularly challenging because the quadratic expansion in each node must be performed between the node faces and the triangular points. As a consequence, in the 2-D plane, the flux and current at the points of the triangles must be treated. Quadratic nodal equations are solved using a non-linear iteration scheme, which utilizes the corrected, mesh-centered finite difference equations, and forces these equations to match the quadratic equations by computing discontinuity factors during the solution. Transient nodal equations are solved using the improved quasi-static method, which has been shown to be a very efficient solution method for transient problems. Several static problems are used to compare the quadratic nodal method to the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) method. The quadratic method is shown to give more accurate node-averaged fluxes. However, it appears that the method has difficulty predicting node leakages near reactor boundaries and severe material interfaces. The consequence is that the eigenvalue may be poorly predicted for certain reactor configurations. The transient methods are tested using a simple analytic test problem, a heterogeneous heavy water reactor benchmark problem, and three thermal hydraulic test problems. Results indicate that the transient methods have been implemented correctly.

  15. Chiral Spin-Orbital Liquids with Nodal Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natori, W. M. H.; Andrade, E. C.; Miranda, E.; Pereira, R. G.

    2016-07-01

    Strongly correlated materials with strong spin-orbit coupling hold promise for realizing topological phases with fractionalized excitations. Here, we propose a chiral spin-orbital liquid as a stable phase of a realistic model for heavy-element double perovskites. This spin liquid state has Majorana fermion excitations with a gapless spectrum characterized by nodal lines along the edges of the Brillouin zone. We show that the nodal lines are topological defects of a non-Abelian Berry connection and that the system exhibits dispersing surface states. We discuss some experimental signatures of this state and compare them with properties of the spin liquid candidate Ba2YMoO6.

  16. Long period nodal motion of sun synchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, K. I.

    1975-01-01

    An approximative model is formulated for assessing these perturbations that significantly affect long term modal motion of sun synchronous orbits. Computer simulations with several independent computer programs consider zonal and tesseral gravitational harmonics, third body gravitational disturbances induced by the sun and the moon, and atmospheric drag. A pendulum model consisting of evenzonal harmonics through order 4 and solar gravity dominated nodal motion approximation. This pendulum motion results from solar gravity inducing an inclination oscillation which couples into the nodal precession induced by the earth's oblateness. The pendulum model correlated well with simulations observed flight data.

  17. Comparison between submucosal (extra-nodal) and nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the oral and maxillofacial region.

    PubMed

    Shindoh, M; Takami, T; Arisue, M; Yamashita, T; Saito, T; Kohgo, T; Notani, K; Totsuka, Y; Amemiya, A

    1997-07-01

    Fifty-two cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the oral and maxillofacial region, comprising 31 submucosal (extra-nodal) and 21 cervical node NHLs, were investigated. The patients' ages ranged from 5 to 86 years, with a bimodal age distribution among young people below 12 years of age (average 8 years) and in those aged 30 years or older (average 60.3 years). The male-to-female gender difference ratio was 1.3:1. Patients presented with swelling as the major symptom. Histologically, diffuse, large cell malignant lymphoma was the most frequent type and 67.9% of lymphomas were of intermediate malignancy as defined by the Working Formulation for Clinical Usage. All submucosal lymphomas showed diffuse proliferation patterns, although follicular proliferation was identified in 5 of the 21 nodal lymphomas. Immunohistochemistry showed that the B-cell type was predominant, especially in nodal lymphomas. PMID:9234189

  18. A transient, Hex-Z nodal code corrected by discontinuity factors. Volume 1: The transient nodal code; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shatilla, Y.A.M.; Henry, A.F.

    1993-12-31

    This document constitutes Volume 1 of the Final Report of a three-year study supported by the special Research Grant Program for Nuclear Energy Research set up by the US Department of Energy. The original motivation for the work was to provide a fast and accurate computer program for the analysis of transients in heavy water or graphite-moderated reactors being considered as candidates for the New Production Reactor. Thus, part of the funding was by way of pass-through money from the Savannah River Laboratory. With this intent in mind, a three-dimensional (Hex-Z), general-energy-group transient, nodal code was created, programmed, and tested. In order to improve accuracy, correction terms, called {open_quotes}discontinuity factors,{close_quotes} were incorporated into the nodal equations. Ideal values of these factors force the nodal equations to provide node-integrated reaction rates and leakage rates across nodal surfaces that match exactly those edited from a more exact reference calculation. Since the exact reference solution is needed to compute the ideal discontinuity factors, the fact that they result in exact nodal equations would be of little practical interest were it not that approximate discontinuity factors, found at a greatly reduced cost, often yield very accurate results. For example, for light-water reactors, discontinuity factors found from two-dimensional, fine-mesh, multigroup transport solutions for two-dimensional cuts of a fuel assembly provide very accurate predictions of three-dimensional, full-core power distributions. The present document (volume 1) deals primarily with the specification, programming and testing of the three-dimensional, Hex-Z computer program. The program solves both the static (eigenvalue) and transient, general-energy-group, nodal equations corrected by user-supplied discontinuity factors.

  19. PoroTomo Subtask 6.3 Nodal Seismometers Metadata

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lesley Parker

    2016-03-28

    Metadata for the nodal seismometer array deployed at the POROTOMO's Natural Laboratory in Brady Hot Spring, Nevada during the March 2016 testing. Metadata includes location and timing for each instrument as well as file lists of data to be uploaded in a separate submission.

  20. Bud emergence and shoot growth from mature citrus nodal segments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bud emergence and shoot growth from adult phase citrus nodal cultures were studied using Citrus mitis (calamondin), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). The effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and citrus type on shoot quality and growth fro...

  1. Nodal Structure and the Partitioning of Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Watanabe-Rose, Mari

    2008-01-01

    By definition, all of the stimuli in an equivalence class have to be functionally interchangeable with each other. The present experiment, however, demonstrated that this was not the case when using post-class-formation dual-option response transfer tests. With college students, two 4-node 6-member equivalence classes with nodal structures of…

  2. Nodal-mediated epigenesis requires dynamin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Robin P.; Robertson, Anthony J.; Saunders, Diane; Coffman, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Nodal proteins are diffusible morphogens that drive pattern formation via short-range feedback activation coupled to long-range Lefty-mediated inhibition. In the sea urchin embryo, specification of the secondary (oral-aboral) axis occurs via zygotic expression of nodal, which is localized to the prospective oral ectoderm at early blastula stage. In mid-blastula stage embryos treated with low micromolar nickel or zinc, nodal expression expands progressively beyond the confines of this localized domain to encompass the entire equatorial circumference of the embryo, producing radialized embryos lacking an oral-aboral axis. RNAseq analysis of embryos treated with nickel, zinc or cadmium (which does not radialize embryos) showed that several genes involved in endocytosis were similarly perturbed by nickel and zinc but not cadmium. Inhibiting dynamin, a GTPase required for receptor-mediated endocytosis, phenocopies the effects of nickel and zinc, suggesting that dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required as a sink to limit the range of Nodal signaling. PMID:21337468

  3. 47 CFR 101.503 - Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.503 Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations. 10.6 GHz DEMS Nodal Stations may...

  4. 47 CFR 101.503 - Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.503 Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations. 10.6 GHz DEMS Nodal Stations may...

  5. Topology and vulnerability of the Iranian power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniee Monfared, Momhammad Ali; Jalili, Mahdi; Alipour, Zohreh

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we investigated the structural properties of the ultra high voltage power transmission network of Iran. We modeled the power grid as a network with 105 nodes and 142 connection links. We found that the Iranian power grid displays a relatively moderate clustering coefficient-much larger than that of corresponding random networks-and small characteristics path length comparable to that of corresponding random networks; i.e. the power grid is a small-world network with exponential degree distribution. Global efficiency was considered as an indicator of grid’s performance and the influence of random and intentional nodal failures on the efficiency was investigated. We also studied the influence of cascaded failures on the largest connected component of the network. The power grid was vulnerable against cascaded failures, which should be considered serious in redesigning the network topology.

  6. Spectral multigrid methods for elliptic equations II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, T. A.; Wong, Y. S.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of spectral multigrid methods is provided. This includes the interpolation and coarse-grid operators for both periodic and Dirichlet problems. The spectral methods for periodic problems use Fourier series and those for Dirichlet problems are based upon Chebyshev polynomials. An improved preconditioning for Dirichlet problems is given. Numerical examples and practical advice are included.

  7. Spectral multigrid methods for elliptic equations 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, T. A.; Wong, Y. S.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed description of spectral multigrid methods is provided. This includes the interpolation and coarse-grid operators for both periodic and Dirichlet problems. The spectral methods for periodic problems use Fourier series and those for Dirichlet problems are based upon Chebyshev polynomials. An improved preconditioning for Dirichlet problems is given. Numerical examples and practical advice are included.

  8. Spectral and Spread Spectral Teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2010-01-01

    We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state is teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of a teleported waveform can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread spectral variant of teleportation. We present analytical fidelities for spectral and spread spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are prepared using a proposed experimental approach, and we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.

  9. Wave pinning and spatial patterning in a mathematical model of Antivin/Lefty-Nodal signalling.

    PubMed

    Middleton, A M; King, J R; Loose, M

    2013-12-01

    Nodal signals are key regulators of mesoderm and endoderm development in vertebrate embryos. It has been observed experimentally that in Xenopus embryos the spatial range of Nodal signals is restricted by the signal Antivin (also known as Lefty). Nodal signals can activate both Nodal and Antivin, whereas Antivin is thought to antagonise Nodal by binding either directly to it or to its receptor. In this paper we develop a mathematical model of this signalling network in a line of cells. We consider the heterodimer and receptor-mediated inhibition mechanisms separately and find that, in both cases, the restriction by Antivin to the range of Nodal signals corresponds to wave pinning in the model. Our analysis indicates that, provided Antivin diffuses faster than Nodal, either mechanism can robustly account for the experimental data. We argue that, in the case of Xenopus development, it is wave pinning, rather than Turing-type patterning, that is underlying Nodal-Antivin dynamics. This leads to several experimentally testable predictions, which are discussed. Furthermore, for heterodimer-mediated inhibition to prevent waves of Nodal expression from propagating, the Nodal-Antivin complex must be turned over, and diffusivity of the complex must be negligible. In the absence of molecular mechanisms regulating these, we suggest that Antivin restricts Nodal signals via receptor-mediated, and not heterodimer-mediated, inhibition. PMID:23070212

  10. Intra and Interfraction Mediastinal Nodal Region Motion: Implications for Internal Target Volume Expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Jonathan G.; Kashani, Rojano; Balter, James M.; Tatro, Daniel; Kong, F.-M.; Pan, Charlie C.

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intra and interfraction motion of mediastinal lymph node regions. Ten patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer underwent controlled inhale and exhale computed tomography (CT) scans during two sessions (40 total datasets) and mediastinal nodal stations 1-8 were outlined. Corresponding CT scans from different sessions were registered to remove setup error and, in this reference frame, the centroid of each nodal station was compared for right-left (RL), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) displacement. In addition, an anisotropic volume expansion encompassing the change of the nodal region margins in all directions was used. Intrafraction displacement was determined by comparing same session inhale-exhale scans. Interfraction reproducibility of nodal regions was determined by comparing the same respiratory phase scans between two sessions. Intrafraction displacement of centroid varied between nodal stations. All nodal regions moved posteriorly and superiorly with exhalation, and inferior nodal stations showed the most motion. Based on anisotropic expansion, nodal regions expanded mostly in the RL direction from inhale to exhale. The interpatient variations in intrafraction displacement were large compared with the displacements themselves. Moreover, there was substantial interfractional displacement ({approx}5 mm). Mediastinal lymph node regions clearly move during breathing. In addition, deformation of nodal regions between inhale and exhale occurs. The degree of motion and deformation varies by station and by individual. This study indicates the potential advantage of characterizing individualized nodal region motion to safely maximize conformality of mediastinal nodal targets.

  11. GridMan: A grid manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Wang, Zhu

    1992-01-01

    GridMan is an interactive grid manipulation system. It operates on grids to produce new grids which conform to user demands. The input grids are not constrained to come from any particular source. They may be generated by algebraic methods, elliptic methods, hyperbolic methods, parabolic methods, or some combination of methods. The methods are included in the various available structured grid generation codes. These codes perform the basic assembly function for the various elements of the initial grid. For block structured grids, the assembly can be quite complex due to a large number of clock corners, edges, and faces for which various connections and orientations must be properly identified. The grid generation codes are distinguished among themselves by their balance between interactive and automatic actions and by their modest variations in control. The basic form of GridMan provides a much more substantial level of grid control and will take its input from any of the structured grid generation codes. The communication link to the outside codes is a data file which contains the grid or section of grid.

  12. Off-diagonal Jacobian support for Nodal BCs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, John W.; Andrs, David; Gaston, Derek R.; Permann, Cody J.; Slaughter, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief note, we describe the implementation of o-diagonal Jacobian computations for nodal boundary conditions in the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) [1] framework. There are presently a number of applications [2{5] based on the MOOSE framework that solve complicated physical systems of partial dierential equations whose boundary conditions are often highly nonlinear. Accurately computing the on- and o-diagonal Jacobian and preconditioner entries associated to these constraints is crucial for enabling ecient numerical solvers in these applications. Two key ingredients are required for properly specifying the Jacobian contributions of nonlinear nodal boundary conditions in MOOSE and nite element codes in general: 1. The ability to zero out entire Jacobian matrix rows after \

  13. Long-range Coulomb interaction in nodal-ring semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Yejin; Moon, Eun-Gook; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-01-01

    Recently there have been several proposals of materials predicted to be nodal-ring semimetals, where zero energy excitations are characterized by a nodal ring in the momentum space. This class of materials falls between the Dirac-like semimetals and the more conventional Fermi-surface systems. As a step towards understanding this unconventional system, we explore the effects of the long-range Coulomb interaction. Due to the vanishing density of states at the Fermi level, Coulomb interaction is only partially screened and remains long-ranged. Through renormalization group and large-Nf computations, we have identified a nontrivial interacting fixed point. The screened Coulomb interaction at the interacting fixed point is an irrelevant perturbation, allowing controlled perturbative evaluations of physical properties of quasiparticles. We discuss unique experimental consequences of such quasiparticles: acoustic wave propagation, anisotropic dc conductivity, and renormalized phonon dispersion as well as energy dependence of quasiparticle lifetime.

  14. Nodal failure index approach to groundwater remediation design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dowding, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations often are used to design and to optimize groundwater remediation systems. We present a new computationally efficient approach that calculates the reliability of remedial design at every location in a model domain with a single simulation. The estimated reliability and other model information are used to select a best remedial option for given site conditions, conceptual model, and available data. To evaluate design performance, we introduce the nodal failure index (NFI) to determine the number of nodal locations at which the probability of success is below the design requirement. The strength of the NFI approach is that selected areas of interest can be specified for analysis and the best remedial design determined for this target region. An example application of the NFI approach using a hypothetical model shows how the spatial distribution of reliability can be used for a decision support system in groundwater remediation design. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  15. Anomalous contagion and renormalization in networks with nodal mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Qi, Hong; Zheng, Minzhang; Xu, Chen; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2016-07-01

    A common occurrence in everyday human activity is where people join, leave and possibly rejoin clusters of other individuals —whether this be online (e.g. social media communities) or in real space (e.g. popular meeting places such as cafes). In the steady state, the resulting interaction network would appear static over time if the identities of the nodes are ignored. Here we show that even in this static steady-state limit, a non-zero nodal mobility leads to a diverse set of outbreak profiles that is dramatically different from known forms, and yet matches well with recent real-world social outbreaks. We show how this complication of nodal mobility can be renormalized away for a particular class of networks.

  16. Concomitant nodal involvement by Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Geurten, Claire; Thiry, Albert; Jamblin, Paul; Demarche, Martine; Hoyoux, Claire

    2015-12-01

    A 10-year-old girl with a family history of Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with a 2 month history of cervical lymphadenopathy and weight loss. Biopsy indicated concomitant nodal involvement by Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Such an association is rare, especially so in children, but is not an isolated phenomenon, thereby prompting the question of whether Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a reactive or a neoplastic process. PMID:26556799

  17. NODAL PATHWAY GENES ARE DOWNREGULATED IN FACIAL ASYMMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Nicot, Romain; Hottenstein, Molly; Raoul, Gwenael; Ferri, Joel; Horton, Michael; Tobias, John W.; Barton, Elisabeth; Gelé, Patrick; Sciote, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Facial asymmetry is a common comorbid condition in patients with jaw deformation malocclusion. Heritability of malocclusion is advancing rapidly, but very little is known regarding genetic contributions to asymmetry. This study identifies differences in expression of key asymmetry-producing genes which are down regulated in facial asymmetry patients. Material and Methods Masseter muscle samples were collected during BSSO orthognathic surgery to correct skeletal-based malocclusion. Patients were classified as Class II or III and open or deep bite malocclusion with or without facial asymmetry. Muscle samples were analyzed for gene expression differences on Affymetrix HT2.0 microarray global expression chips. Results Overall gene expression was different for asymmetric patients compared to other malocclusion classifications by principal component analysis (P<0.05). We identified differences in the nodal signaling pathway (NSP) which promotes development of mesoderm and endoderm and left-right patterning during embryogenesis. Nodal and Lefty expression was 1.39–1.84 fold greater (P<3.41×10−5) whereas integral membrane Nodal-modulators Nomo1,2,3 were −5.63 to −5.81 (P<3.05×10−4) less in asymmetry subjects. Fold differences among intracellular pathway members were negative in the range of −7.02 to −2.47 (P<0.003). Finally Pitx2, a upstream effector of Nodal known to influence the size of type II skeletal muscle fibers was also significantly decreased in facial asymmetry (P<0.05). Conclusions When facial asymmetry is part of skeletal malocclusion there are decreases of NSP genes in masseter muscle. This data suggests that the NSP is down regulated to help promote development of asymmetry. Pitx2 expression differences also contributed to both skeletal and muscle development in this condition. PMID:25364968

  18. Nodal Basin Recurrence After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Lutz; Bertsch, Hans Peter; Zapf, Antonia; Mitteldorf, Christina; Satzger, Imke; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Völker, Bernward; Schön, Michael Peter; Gutzmer, Ralf; Starz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze different types of nodal basin recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for melanoma. Patients and Methods: Kaplan–Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to study 2653 patients from 3 German melanoma centers retrospectively. The estimated 5-year negative predictive value of SLNB was 96.4%. The estimated false-negative (FN) rates after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years were 2.5%, 4.6%, 6.4%, 8.7%, and 12.6%, respectively. Independent factors associated with false negativity were older age, fewer SLNs excised, and head or neck location of the primary tumor. Compared with SLN-positive patients, the FNs had a significantly lower survival. In SLN-positive patients undergoing completion lymphadenectomy (CLND), the 5-year nodal basin recurrence rate was 18.3%. The recurrence rates for axilla, groin, and neck were 17.2%, 15.5%, and 44.1%, respectively. Significant factors predicting local relapse after CLND were older age, head, or neck location of the primary tumor, ulceration, deeper penetration of the metastasis into the SLN, tumor-positive CLND, and >2 lymph node metastases. All kinds of nodal relapse were associated with a higher prevalence of in-transit metastases. The FN rate after SLNB steadily increases over the observation period and should, therefore, be estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. False-negativity is associated with fewer SLNs excised. The beneficial effect of CLND on nodal basin disease control varies considerably across different risk groups. This should be kept in mind about SLN-positive patients when individual decisions on prophylactic CLND are taken. PMID:26356697

  19. Nodal equivalence theory for hexagonal geometry, thermal reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zika, M.; Downar, T. )

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of advanced nodal methods is the determination of equivalent few-group parameters for the relatively large homogenized regions used in the nodal flux solution. The theoretical foundation for light water reactor (LWR) assembly homogenization methods has been clearly established, and during the last several years, its successes have secured its position in the stable of dependable LWR analysis methods. Groupwise discontinuity factors that correct for assembly homogenization errors are routinely generated along with the group constants during lattice physics analysis. During the last several years, there has been interest in applying equivalence theory to other reactor types and other geometries. A notable effort has been the work at Argonne National Laboratory to incorporate nodal equivalence theory (NET) for hexagonal lattices into the nodal diffusion option of the DIF3D code. This work was originally intended to improve the neutronics methods used for the analysis of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), and Ref. 4 discusses the success of that application. More recently, however, attempts were made to apply NET to advanced, thermal reactor designs such as the modular high-temperature gas reactor (MHTGR) and the new production heavy water reactor (NPR/HWR). The same methods that were successful for EBR-II have encountered problems for these reactors. Our preliminary analysis indicates that the sharp global flux gradients in these cores requires large discontinuity factors (greater than 4 or 5) to reproduce the reference solution. This disrupts the convergence of the iterative methods used to solve for the node-wise flux moments and partial currents. Several attempts to remedy the problem have been made over the last few years, including bounding the discontinuity factors and providing improved initial guesses for the flux solution, but nothing has been satisfactory.

  20. Numerical Solution of Poroelastic Wave Equation Using Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, K.; Wang, Y.; Jaiswal, P.

    2014-12-01

    In a porous medium the seismic energy not only propagates through matrix but also through pore-fluids. The differential movement between sediment grains of the matrix and interstitial fluid generates a diffusive wave which is commonly referred to as the slow P-wave. A combined system of equation which includes both elastic and diffusive phases is known as the poroelasticity. Analyzing seismic data through poroelastic modeling results in accurate interpretation of amplitude and separation of wave modes, leading to more accurate estimation of geomehanical properties of rocks. Despite its obvious multi-scale application, from sedimentary reservoir characterization to deep-earth fractured crust, poroelasticity remains under-developed primarily due to the complex nature of its constituent equations. We present a detail formulation of poroleastic wave equations for isotropic media by combining the Biot's and Newtonian mechanics. System of poroelastic wave equation constitutes for eight time dependent hyperbolic PDEs in 2D whereas in case of 3D number goes up to thirteen. Eigen decomposition of Jacobian of these systems confirms the presence of an additional slow-P wave phase with velocity lower than shear wave, posing stability issues on numerical scheme. To circumvent the issue, we derived a numerical scheme using nodal discontinuous Galerkin approach by adopting the triangular meshes in 2D which is extended to tetrahedral for 3D problems. In our nodal DG approach the basis function over a triangular element is interpolated using Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) function leading to a more accurate local solutions than in the case of simple DG. We have tested the numerical scheme for poroelastic media in 1D and 2D case, and solution obtained for the systems offers high accuracy in results over other methods such as finite difference , finite volume and pseudo-spectral. The nodal nature of our approach makes it easy to convert the application into a multi-threaded algorithm

  1. LSST Telescope Alignment Plan Based on Nodal Aberration Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, J.; Gressler, W.; Schmid, T.; Rolland, J. P.; Thompson, K. P.

    2012-04-01

    The optical alignment of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is potentially challenging, due to its fast three-mirror optical design and its large 3.5° field of view (FOV). It is highly advantageous to align the three-mirror optical system prior to the integration of the complex science camera on the telescope, which corrects the FOV via three refractive elements and includes the operational wavefront sensors. A telescope alignment method based on nodal aberration theory (NAT) is presented here to address this challenge. Without the science camera installed on the telescope, the on-axis imaging performance of the telescope is diffraction-limited, but the field of view is not corrected. The nodal properties of the three-mirror telescope design have been analyzed and an alignment approach has been developed using the intrinsically linear nodal behavior, which is linked via sensitivities to the misalignment parameters. Since mirror figure errors will exist in any real application, a methodology to introduce primary-mirror figure errors into the analysis has been developed and is also presented.

  2. Upper bound shakedown analysis with the nodal natural element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shutao; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Dongdong; Wang, Kai; Yu, Suyuan

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a novel numerical solution procedure is developed for the upper bound shakedown analysis of elastic-perfectly plastic structures. The nodal natural element method (nodal-NEM) combines the advantages of the NEM and the stabilized conforming nodal integration scheme, and is used to discretize the established mathematical programming formulation of upper bound shakedown analysis based on Koiter's theorem. In this formulation, the displacement field is approximated by using the Sibson interpolation and the difficulty caused by the time integration is solved by König's technique. Meanwhile, the nonlinear and non-differentiable characteristic of objective function is overcome by distinguishing non-plastic areas from plastic areas and modifying associated constraint conditions and goal function at each iteration step. Finally, the objective function subjected to several equality constraints is linearized and the upper bound shakedown load multiplier is obtained. This direct iterative process can ensure the shakedown load to monotonically converge to the upper bound of true solution. Several typical numerical examples confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Topological Phase Transitions in Line-nodal Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Gil Young; Han, Sangeun; Moon, Eun-Gook

    Fathoming interplay between symmetry and topology of many-electron wave-functions deepens our understanding in quantum nature of many particle systems. Topology often protects zero-energy excitation, and in a certain class, symmetry is intrinsically tied to the topological protection. Namely, unless symmetry is broken, topological nature is intact. We study one specific case of such class, symmetry-protected line-nodal superconductors in three spatial dimensions (3d). Mismatch between phase spaces of order parameter fluctuation and line-nodal fermion excitation induces an exotic universality class in a drastic contrast to one of the conventional ϕ4 theory in 3d. Hyper-scaling violation and relativistic dynamic scaling with unusually large quantum critical region are main characteristics, and their implication in experiments is discussed. For example, continuous phase transition out of line-nodal superconductors has a linear phase boundary in a temperature-tuning parameter phase-diagram. This work was supported by the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government and KAIST start-up funding.

  4. A nodal domain theorem for integrable billiards in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Samajdar, Rhine; Jain, Sudhir R.

    2014-12-15

    Eigenfunctions of integrable planar billiards are studied — in particular, the number of nodal domains, ν of the eigenfunctions with Dirichlet boundary conditions are considered. The billiards for which the time-independent Schrödinger equation (Helmholtz equation) is separable admit trivial expressions for the number of domains. Here, we discover that for all separable and non-separable integrable billiards, ν satisfies certain difference equations. This has been possible because the eigenfunctions can be classified in families labelled by the same value of mmodkn, given a particular k, for a set of quantum numbers, m,n. Further, we observe that the patterns in a family are similar and the algebraic representation of the geometrical nodal patterns is found. Instances of this representation are explained in detail to understand the beauty of the patterns. This paper therefore presents a mathematical connection between integrable systems and difference equations. - Highlights: • We find that the number of nodal domains of eigenfunctions of integrable, planar billiards satisfy a class of difference equations. • The eigenfunctions labelled by quantum numbers (m,n) can be classified in terms of mmodkn. • A theorem is presented, realising algebraic representations of geometrical patterns exhibited by the domains. • This work presents a connection between integrable systems and difference equations.

  5. Anomalous scaling of the penetration depth in nodal superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jian-Huang; Lawler, Michael J.; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2015-07-01

    Recent findings of anomalous superlinear scaling of low-temperature (T ) penetration depth (PD) in several nodal superconductors near putative quantum critical points suggest that the low-temperature PD can be a useful probe of quantum critical fluctuations in a superconductor. On the other hand, cuprates, which are poster child nodal superconductors, have not shown any such anomalous scaling of PD, despite growing evidence of quantum critical points (QCP). Then it is natural to ask when and how can quantum critical fluctuations cause anomalous scaling of PD? Carrying out the renormalization group calculation for the problem of two-dimensional superconductors with point nodes, we show that quantum critical fluctuations associated with a point group symmetry reduction result in nonuniversal logarithmic corrections to the T dependence of the PD. The resulting apparent power law depends on the bare velocity anisotropy ratio. We then compare our results to data sets from two distinct nodal superconductors: YBa2Cu3O6.95 and CeCoIn5. Considering all symmetry-lowering possibilities of the point group of interest, C4 v, we find our results to be remarkably consistent with YBa2Cu3O6.95 being near a vertical nematic QCP and CeCoIn5 being near a diagonal nematic QCP. Our results motivate a search for diagonal nematic fluctuations in CeCoIn5.

  6. Theory of the nematic quantum critical point in a nodal superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Ah

    2008-03-01

    In the last several years, experimental evidence has accumulated in a variety of highly correlated electronic systems of new quantum phases which (for purely electronic reasons) spontaneously break the rotational (point group) symmetry of the underlying crystal. Such electron ``nematic'' phases have been seen in quantum Hall systems[1], in the metamagnetic metal Sr3Ru2O7[2], and more recently in magnetic neutron scattering studies of the high temperature superconductor, YBCO[3]. In the case of a high Tc superconductor, the quantum dynamics of nematic order parameter naturally couples strongly to quasiparticle (qp) excitations. In this talk, I will discuss our recent results on the effects of the coupling between quantum critical nematic fluctuations and the nodal qp's of a d-wave superconductor in the vicinity of a putative quantum critical point inside the superconducting phase. We solve a model system with N flavors of quasiparticles in the large N limit[4]. To leading order in 1/N, quantum fluctuations enhance the dispersion anisotropy of the nodal excitations, and cause strong scattering which critically broadens the quasiparticle peaks in the spectral function, except in the vicinity of ``the tips of the banana,'' where the qp's remain sharp. We will discuss the possible implications of our results to ARPES and STM experiments. [1] M.P. Lilly, K.B. Cooper, J.P. Eisenstein, L.N. Pfeiffer, and K.W. West, PRL 83, 824 (1999). [2] R. A. Borzi and S. A. Grigera and J. Farrell and R. S. Perry and S. J. S. Lister and S. L. Lee and D. A. Tennant and Y. Maeno and A. P. Mackenzie, Science 315, 214 (2007). [3] V. Hinkov, D. Haug, B. Fauqu'e, P. Bourges, Y. Sidis, A. Ivanov, C. Bernhard, C. T. Lin, B. Keimer, unpublished. [4] E.-A. Kim, M. Lawler, P. Oreto, E. Fradkin, S. Kivelson, cond-mat/0705.4099.

  7. Nurbs and grid generation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.; Farin, G.; Hamann, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a basic overview of NURBS and their application to numerical grid generation. Curve/surface smoothing, accelerated grid generation, and the use of NURBS in a practical grid generation system are discussed.

  8. Data Grid Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.

  9. Response of millet and sorghum to a varying water supply around the primary and nodal roots

    PubMed Central

    Rostamza, M.; Richards, R. A.; Watt, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Cereals have two root systems. The primary system originates from the embryo when the seed germinates and can support the plant until it produces grain. The nodal system can emerge from stem nodes throughout the plant's life; its value for yield is unclear and depends on the environment. The aim of this study was to test the role of nodal roots of sorghum and millet in plant growth in response to variation in soil moisture. Sorghum and millet were chosen as both are adapted to dry conditions. Methods Sorghum and millet were grown in a split-pot system that allowed the primary and nodal roots to be watered separately. Key Results When primary and nodal roots were watered (12 % soil water content; SWC), millet nodal roots were seven times longer than those of sorghum and six times longer than millet plants in dry treatments, mainly from an 8-fold increase in branch root length. When soil was allowed to dry in both compartments, millet nodal roots responded and grew 20 % longer branch roots than in the well-watered control. Sorghum nodal roots were unchanged. When only primary roots received water, nodal roots of both species emerged and elongated into extremely dry soil (0·6–1·5 % SWC), possibly with phloem-delivered water from the primary roots in the moist inner pot. Nodal roots were thick, short, branchless and vertical, indicating a tropism that was more pronounced in millet. Total nodal root length increased in both species when the dry soil was covered with plastic, suggesting that stubble retention or leaf mulching could facilitate nodal roots reaching deeper moist layers in dry climates. Greater nodal root length in millet than in sorghum was associated with increased shoot biomass, water uptake and water use efficiency (shoot mass per water). Millet had a more plastic response than sorghum to moisture around the nodal roots due to (1) faster growth and progression through ontogeny for earlier nodal root branch length and (2

  10. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: The multifaceted role of Nodal signaling during mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Park, C B; Dufort, D

    2011-03-01

    Nodal, a secreted signaling protein in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, has established roles in vertebrate development. However, components of the Nodal signaling pathway are also expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and have been implicated in many processes of mammalian reproduction. Emerging evidence indicates that Nodal and its extracellular inhibitor Lefty are expressed in the uterus and complex interactions between the two proteins mediate menstruation, decidualization and embryo implantation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that Nodal from both fetal and maternal sources may regulate trophoblast cell fate and facilitate placentation as both embryonic and uterine-specific Nodal knockout mouse strains exhibit disrupted placenta morphology. Here we review the established and prospective roles of Nodal signaling in facilitating successful pregnancy, including recent evidence supporting a potential link to parturition and preterm birth. PMID:21195476

  11. Differential diffusivity of Nodal and Lefty underlies a reaction-diffusion patterning system

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Patrick; Rogers, Katherine W.; Jordan, Ben M.; Lee, Joon S.; Robson, Drew; Ramanathan, Sharad; Schier, Alexander F.

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems involving short-range activators and long-range inhibitors can generate complex patterns. Reaction-diffusion models postulate that differences in signaling range are caused by differential diffusivity of inhibitor and activator. Other models suggest that differential clearance underlies different signaling ranges. To test these models, we measured the biophysical properties of the Nodal/Lefty activator/inhibitor system during zebrafish embryogenesis. Analysis of Nodal and Lefty gradients reveals that Nodals have a shorter range than Lefty proteins. Pulse-labelinganalysis indicates that Nodals and Leftys have similar clearance kinetics, whereas fluorescence recovery assays reveal that Leftys have a higher effective diffusion coefficient than Nodals. These results indicate that differential diffusivity is the major determinant of the differences in Nodal/Lefty range and provide biophysical support for reaction-diffusion models of activator/inhibitor-mediated patterning. PMID:22499809

  12. Blue-noise halftoning for hexagonal grids.

    PubMed

    Lau, Daniel L; Ulichney, Robert

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we closely scrutinize the spatial and spectral properties of aperiodic halftoning schemes on rectangular and hexagonal sampling grids. Traditionally, hexagonal sampling grids have been shunned due to their inability to preserve the high-frequency components of blue-noise dither patterns at gray-levels near one-half, but as will be shown, only through the introduction of diagonal correlations between dots can even rectangular sampling grids preserve these frequencies. And by allowing the sampling grid to constrain the placement of dots, a particular algorithm may introduce visual artifacts just as disturbing as excess energy below the principal frequency. If, instead, the algorithm maintains radial symmetry by introducing a minimum degree of clustering, then that algorithm can maintain its grid defiance illusion fundamental to the spirit of the blue-noise model. As such, this paper shows that hexagonal grids are preferrable because they can support gray-levels near one-half with less required clustering of minority pixels and a higher principal frequency. Along with a thorough Fourier analysis of blue-noise dither patterns on both rectangular and hexagonal sampling grids, this paper also demonstrates the construction of a blue-noise dither array for hexagonal grids. PMID:16671307

  13. Spectral stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  14. Spatial services grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jian; Li, Qi; Cheng, Jicheng

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses the concept, key technologies and main application of Spatial Services Grid. The technologies of Grid computing and Webservice is playing a revolutionary role in studying the spatial information services. The concept of the SSG (Spatial Services Grid) is put forward based on the SIG (Spatial Information Grid) and OGSA (open grid service architecture). Firstly, the grid computing is reviewed and the key technologies of SIG and their main applications are reviewed. Secondly, the grid computing and three kinds of SIG (in broad sense)--SDG (spatial data grid), SIG (spatial information grid) and SSG (spatial services grid) and their relationships are proposed. Thirdly, the key technologies of the SSG (spatial services grid) is put forward. Finally, three representative applications of SSG (spatial services grid) are discussed. The first application is urban location based services gird, which is a typical spatial services grid and can be constructed on OGSA (Open Grid Services Architecture) and digital city platform. The second application is region sustainable development grid which is the key to the urban development. The third application is Region disaster and emergency management services grid.

  15. Approximate Schur complement preconditioning of the lowest order nodal discretizations

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, J.D.; Ascher, U.M.; Morel, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Particular classes of nodal methods and mixed hybrid finite element methods lead to equivalent, robust and accurate discretizations of 2nd order elliptic PDEs. However, widespread popularity of these discretizations has been hindered by the awkward linear systems which result. The present work exploits this awkwardness, which provides a natural partitioning of the linear system, by defining two optimal preconditioners based on approximate Schur complements. Central to the optimal performance of these preconditioners is their sparsity structure which is compatible with Dendy`s black box multigrid code.

  16. Evaluation of the use of nodal methods for MTR neutronic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, F.; Mueller, E.Z.

    1997-08-01

    Although modern nodal methods are used extensively in the nuclear power industry, their use for research reactor analysis has been very limited. The suitability of nodal methods for material testing reactor analysis is investigated with the emphasis on the modelling of the core region (fuel assemblies). The nodal approach`s performance is compared with that of the traditional finite-difference fine mesh approach. The advantages of using nodal methods coupled with integrated cross section generation systems are highlighted, especially with respect to data preparation, simplicity of use and the possibility of performing a great variety of reactor calculations subject to strict time limitations such as are required for the RERTR program.

  17. Nodal systems with maximal domain of exactness for Gaussian quadrature formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriochoa, E.; Cachafeiro, A.

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study quadrature formulas for measures on the complex plane. The novelty of our contribution is to consider the exactness on subspaces of polynomials on the variables z and . Using this approach we characterize, in a unified way, the classical nodal systems for measures on the real line and the nodal systems for measures on the unit circle, which are based on para-orthogonal polynomials. We also characterize the nodal systems on the unit circle, which are not based on para-orthogonal polynomials (only for the case of nodal systems with 1 or 2 points).

  18. Nodal line optimization and its application to violin top plate design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yonggyun; Jang, In Gwun; Kim, In Kyum; Kwak, Byung Man

    2010-10-01

    In the literature, most problems of structural vibration have been formulated to adjust a specific natural frequency: for example, to maximize the first natural frequency. In musical instruments like a violin; however, mode shapes are equally important because they are related to sound quality in the way that natural frequencies are related to the octave. The shapes of nodal lines, which represent the natural mode shapes, are generally known to have a unique feature for good violins. Among the few studies on mode shape optimization, one typical study addresses the optimization of nodal point location for reducing vibration in a one-dimensional beam structure. However, nodal line optimization, which is required in violin plate design, has not yet been considered. In this paper, the central idea of controlling the shape of the nodal lines is proposed and then applied to violin top plate design. Finite element model for a violin top plate was constructed using shell elements. Then, optimization was performed to minimize the square sum of the displacement of selected nodes located along the target nodal lines by varying the thicknesses of the top plate. We conducted nodal line optimization for the second and the fifth modes together at the same time, and the results showed that the nodal lines obtained match well with the target nodal lines. The information on plate thickness distribution from nodal line optimization would be valuable for tailored trimming of a violin top plate for the given performances.

  19. Translational significance of Nodal, Cripto-1 and Notch4 in adult nevi

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Luigi; Margaryan, Naira V.; Gerami, Pedram; Haghighat, Zahra; Harms, Paul W.; Madonna, Gabriele; Botti, Gerardo; Ascierto, Paolo A.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The TGF-β associated growth factor Nodal is highly expressed in aggressive metastatic melanoma. Determining the risk for melanomagenesis from Nodal expression in nevi prior to the development of melanoma may be useful for both the screening and prevention of melanoma. Tissue sections of human adult nevi with or without a history of melanoma were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Nodal, the Nodal co-receptor Cripto-1, and Notch4, which have previously been shown to be associated with Nodal expression in melanoma. The degree of Nodal, Cripto-1 and Notch4 staining was scored and correlated with available clinical data. Median IHC scores for Nodal, Cripto-1 and Notch4 expression were significantly higher in nevi removed from patients who eventually developed melanoma compared with nevi from patients with no history of melanoma. In addition, the degree of Nodal expression in nevi from patients who eventually developed melanoma correlated significantly with the Breslow depth of the melanoma. Expression of Nodal and components of its signaling pathway in nevi may represent a biomarker for selecting a unique subset of patients requiring increased surveillance for screening and prevention of melanoma.

  20. Symmetry Breaking in a Model for Nodal Cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brokaw, Charles J.

    2005-03-01

    Nodal cilia are very short cilia found in the embryonic node on the ventral surface of early mammalian embryos. They create a right to left fluid flow that is responsible for determining the normal asymmetry of the internal organs of the mammalian body. To do this, the distal end of the cilium must circle in a counterclockwise sense. Computer simulations with 3-dimensional models of flagella allow examination of 3-dimensional movements such as those of nodal cilia. 3-dimensional circling motions of short cilia can be achieved with velocity controlled models, in which dynein activity is regulated by sliding velocity. If dyneins on one outer doublet are controlled by the sliding velocity experienced by that doublet, the system is symmetric, and the 3-dimensional models can show either clockwise or counterclockwise circling. My computer simulations have examined two possible symmetry breaking mechanisms: 1) dyneins on doublet N are regulated by a mixture of the sliding velocities experienced by doublets N and N+1 (numbered in a clockwise direction, looking from the base). or 2) symmetry is broken by an off-axis force that produces a right-handed twist of the axoneme, consistent with observations that some dyneins can rotate their substrate microtubules in a clockwise direction.

  1. Nodal Diffusion Burnable Poison Treatment for Prismatic Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Ougouag; R. M. Ferrer

    2010-10-01

    The prismatic block version of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) considered as a candidate Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)design may use burnable poison pins in locations at some corners of the fuel blocks (i.e., assembly equivalent structures). The presence of any highly absorbing materials, such as these burnable poisons, within fuel blocks for hexagonal geometry, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) causes a local inter-block flux depression that most nodal diffusion-based method have failed to properly model or otherwise represent. The location of these burnable poisons near vertices results in an asymmetry in the morphology of the assemblies (or blocks). Hence the resulting inadequacy of traditional homogenization methods, as these “spread” the actually local effect of the burnable poisons throughout the assembly. Furthermore, the actual effect of the burnable poison is primarily local with influence in its immediate vicinity, which happens to include a small region within the same assembly as well as similar regions in the adjacent assemblies. Traditional homogenization methods miss this artifact entirely. This paper presents a novel method for treating the local effect of the burnable poison explicitly in the context of a modern nodal method.

  2. Amyloid precursor protein at node of Ranvier modulates nodal formation.

    PubMed

    Xu, De-En; Zhang, Wen-Min; Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hong-Mei; Yan, Ke; Li, Shao; Bagnard, Dominique; Dawe, Gavin S; Ma, Quan-Hong; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP), commonly associated with Alzheimer disease, is upregulated and distributes evenly along the injured axons, and therefore, also known as a marker of demyelinating axonal injury and axonal degeneration. However, the physiological distribution and function of APP along myelinated axons was unknown. We report that APP aggregates at nodes of Ranvier (NOR) in the myelinated central nervous system (CNS) axons but not in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). At CNS NORs, APP expression co-localizes with tenascin-R and is flanked by juxtaparanodal potassium channel expression demonstrating that APP localized to NOR. In APP-knockout (KO) mice, nodal length is significantly increased, while sodium channels are still clustered at NORs. Moreover, APP KO and APP-overexpressing transgenic (APP TG) mice exhibited a decreased and an increased thickness of myelin in spinal cords, respectively, although the changes are limited in comparison to their littermate WT mice. The thickness of myelin in APP KO sciatic nerve also increased in comparison to that in WT mice. Our observations indicate that APP acts as a novel component at CNS NORs, modulating nodal formation and has minor effects in promoting myelination. PMID:25482638

  3. Spectral stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-09-01

    Stratigraphic and structural studies of the Wind River and Bighorn basins, Wyoming, and the Guerrero-Morelos basin, Mexico, have resulted in development of ''spectral stratigraphy.'' This approach to stratigraphic analysis uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. This paper reviews selected published examples that illustrate this new stratigraphic procedure. Visible to thermal infrared laboratory, spectral measurements of sedimentary rocks are the physical basis for spectral stratigraphy. Results show that laboratory, field, and remote spectroscopy can augment conventional laboratory and field methods for petrologic analysis, stratigraphic correlation, interpretation of depositional environments, and construction of facies models. Landsat thematic mapper data are used to map strata and construct stratigraphic columns and structural cross sections at 1:24,000 scale or less. Experimental multispectral thermal infrared aircraft data facilitate lithofacies/biofacies analyses. Visible short-wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer data allow remote determination of the stratigraphic distribution of iron oxides, quartz, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, specific clay species, and other minerals diagnostic of environments of deposition. Development of a desk-top, computer-based, geologic analysis system that provides for automated application of these approaches to coregistered digital image and topographic data portends major expansion in the use of spectral stratigraphy for purely scientific (lithospheric research) or practical (resource exploration) objectives.

  4. Hybrid Grid Generation Using NW Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Jones-Oliveira, Janet B.; Oliveira, Joseph S.; Trease, Lynn L.; Trease, Harold E.; B.K. Soni, J. Hauser, J.F. Thompson, P.R. Eiseman

    2000-09-01

    We describe the development and use of a hybrid n-dimensional grid generation system called NWGRID. The Applied Mathematics Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing this tool to support the Laboratory's computational science efforts in chemistry, biology, engineering and environmental (subsurface and atmospheric) modeling. NWGRID is the grid generation system, which is designed for multi-scale, multi-material, multi-physics, time-dependent, 3-D, hybrid grids that are either statically adapted or evolved in time. NWGRID'S capabilities include static and dynamic grids, hybrid grids, managing colliding surfaces, and grid optimization[using reconnections, smoothing, and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms]. NWGRID'S data structure can manage an arbitrary number of grid objects, each with an arbitrary number of grid attributes. NWGRID uses surface geometry to build volumes by using combinations of Boolean operators and order relations. Point distributions can be input, generated using either ray shooting techniques or defined point-by-point. Connectivity matrices are then generated automatically for all variations of hybrid grids.

  5. Parallel grid population

    DOEpatents

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  6. Distal end of the atrioventricular nodal artery predicts the risk of atrioventricular block during slow pathway catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, J; Huang, S; Lai, L; Lin, L; Chen, J; Tseng, Y; Lien, W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To search for a reliable anatomical landmark within Koch's triangle to predict the risk of atrioventricular (AV) block during radiofrequency slow pathway catheter ablation of AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT).
PATIENTS AND METHODS—To test the hypothesis that the distal end of the AV nodal artery represents the anatomical location of the AV node, and thus could be a useful landmark for predicting the risk of AV block, 128 consecutive patients with AVNRT receiving slow pathway catheter ablation were prospectively studied in two phases. In phase I (77 patients), angiographic demonstration of the AV nodal artery and its ending was performed at the end of the ablation procedure, whereas in the subsequent phase II study (51 patients), the angiography was performed immediately before catheter ablation to assess the value of identifying this new landmark in reducing the risk of AV block. Multiple electrophysiologic and anatomical parameters were analysed. The former included the atrial activation sequence between the His bundle recording site (HBE) and the coronary sinus orifice or the catheter ablation site, either during AVNRT or during sinus rhythm. The latter included the spatial distances between the distal end of the AV nodal artery and the HBE and the final catheter ablation site, and the distance between the HBE and the tricuspid border at the coronary sinus orifice floor.
RESULTS—In phase I, nine of the 77 patients had complications of transient (seven patients) or permanent (two patients) complete AV block during stepwise, anatomy guided slow pathway catheter ablation. These nine patients had a wider distance between the HBE and the distal end of the AV nodal artery, and a closer approximation of the catheter ablation site to the distal end of the AV nodal artery, which independently predicted the risk of AV block. In contrast, none of the available electrophysiologic parameters were shown to be reliable. When the distance between

  7. A Temporal Window for Signal Activation Dictates the Dimensions of a Nodal Signaling Domain

    PubMed Central

    van Boxtel, Antonius L.; Chesebro, John E.; Heliot, Claire; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Stone, Richard K.; Hill, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Morphogen signaling is critical for the growth and patterning of tissues in embryos and adults, but how morphogen signaling gradients are generated in tissues remains controversial. The morphogen Nodal was proposed to form a long-range signaling gradient via a reaction-diffusion system, on the basis of differential diffusion rates of Nodal and its antagonist Lefty. Here we use a specific zebrafish Nodal biosensor combined with immunofluorescence for phosphorylated Smad2 to demonstrate that endogenous Nodal is unlikely to diffuse over a long range. Instead, short-range Nodal signaling activation in a temporal window is sufficient to determine the dimensions of the Nodal signaling domain. The size of this temporal window is set by the differentially timed production of Nodal and Lefty, which arises mainly from repression of Lefty translation by the microRNA miR-430. Thus, temporal information is transformed into spatial information to define the dimensions of the Nodal signaling domain and, consequently, to specify mesendoderm. PMID:26506307

  8. A Temporal Window for Signal Activation Dictates the Dimensions of a Nodal Signaling Domain.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Antonius L; Chesebro, John E; Heliot, Claire; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Stone, Richard K; Hill, Caroline S

    2015-10-26

    Morphogen signaling is critical for the growth and patterning of tissues in embryos and adults, but how morphogen signaling gradients are generated in tissues remains controversial. The morphogen Nodal was proposed to form a long-range signaling gradient via a reaction-diffusion system, on the basis of differential diffusion rates of Nodal and its antagonist Lefty. Here we use a specific zebrafish Nodal biosensor combined with immunofluorescence for phosphorylated Smad2 to demonstrate that endogenous Nodal is unlikely to diffuse over a long range. Instead, short-range Nodal signaling activation in a temporal window is sufficient to determine the dimensions of the Nodal signaling domain. The size of this temporal window is set by the differentially timed production of Nodal and Lefty, which arises mainly from repression of Lefty translation by the microRNA miR-430. Thus, temporal information is transformed into spatial information to define the dimensions of the Nodal signaling domain and, consequently, to specify mesendoderm. PMID:26506307

  9. Wnt/Axin1/β-Catenin Signaling Regulates Asymmetric Nodal Activation, Elaboration, and Concordance of CNS Asymmetries

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Matthias; Bianco, Isaac H.; Bajoghli, Baubak; Aghaallaei, Narges; Czerny, Thomas; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Nodal activity in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) is required to activate left-sided Nodal signaling in the epithalamic region of the zebrafish forebrain. Epithalamic Nodal signaling subsequently determines the laterality of neuroanatomical asymmetries. We show that overactivation of Wnt/Axin1/β-catenin signaling during late gastrulation leads to bilateral epithalamic expression of Nodal pathway genes independently of LPM Nodal signaling. This is consistent with a model whereby epithalamic Nodal signaling is normally bilaterally repressed, with Nodal signaling from the LPM unilaterally alleviating repression. We suggest that Wnt signaling regulates the establishment of the bilateral repression. We identify a second role for the Wnt pathway in the left/right regulation of LPM Nodal pathway gene expression, and finally, we show that at later stages Axin1 is required for the elaboration of concordant neuroanatomical asymmetries. PMID:17678853

  10. Dynamic Power Grid Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-09-14

    GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  11. Method of grid generation

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  12. Less may be more: nodal treatment in neck positive head neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Studer, Gabriela; Huber, Gerhard F; Holz, Edna; Glanzmann, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Ongoing debates about the need and extent of planned neck dissection (PND), and required nodal radiation doses volumes lead to this evaluation. Aim was to assess nodal control after definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT ± systemic therapy) followed by PND in our head neck cancer cohort with advanced nodal disease. Between 01/2005 and 12/2013, 99 squamous cell cancer HNC patients with pre-therapeutic nodal metastasis ≥3 cm were treated with definitive IMRT followed by PND. In addition, outcome in 103 patients with nodal relapse after IMRT and observation only (no-PND cohort) were analyzed. Prior to PND, PET-CT, fine needle aspirations, ultrasound and palpation were assessed regarding its predictive value. Patterns of nodal relapse were assessed in patients with isolated neck failure after definitive IMRT alone. 70/99 (70 %) PND specimens showed histopathological complete response (hCR), which translated into statistically significantly superior survival compared with partial response (hPR) with 4-year overall survival, disease specific survival and nodal control rates of 90/83/96 vs 67/60/78 % (p = 0.002/0.001/0.003). 1/99 patient developed isolated subsequent nodal disease. 64/2147 removed nodes contained viable tumor (3 %). Predictive information of the performed diagnostic investigations was not reliable. 17/70 hCR patients showed true negative findings in available three to four investigations (0/29 hPR). 27/103 no-PND patients developed isolated neck disease (26 %) with successful salvage in 21/24 [88 %, or 21/27 (78 %)]. Nearly all failures occurred in the prior nodal gross tumor volume area. A more restrictive approach regarding PND and/or nodal IMRT dose-volumes may be justified. PMID:25920604

  13. Nodal promotes invasive phenotypes via a Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Quail, DF; Zhang, G; Findlay, SD; Hess, DA; Postovit, LM

    2016-01-01

    The progression of cancer from localized to invasive disease is requisite for metastasis, and is often characterized by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and alterations in cellular adhesion and migration. Studies have shown that this transition is associated with an up-regulation of embryonic stem cell-associated genes, resulting in a dedifferentiated phenotype and poor patient prognosis. Nodal is an embryonic factor that plays a critical role in promoting early invasive events during development. Nodal is silenced as stem cells differentiate; however, it re-emerges in adult life during placentation and mammary gland development, and is aberrantly expressed in many cancers. Here, we show that Nodal over-expression, in poorly-invasive breast cancer and choriocarcinoma cells, causes increased invasion and migration in vitro. Furthermore, we show that Nodal over-expression in these epithelial cancer types induces an EMT-like event concomitant with the internalization of E-Cadherin. This ability of Nodal to promote cellular invasion and EMT-like phenomena is dependent upon the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Since Nodal normally signals through SMADs, these findings lend insight into an alternative pathway that is hijacked by this protein in cancer. To evaluate the clinical implications of our results, we show that Nodal inhibition reduces liver tumor burden in a model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis in vivo, and that Nodal loss-of-function in aggressive breast cancer lines results in a decrease in invasive phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that Nodal is involved in promoting invasion in multiple cellular contexts, and that Nodal inhibition may be useful as a therapeutic target for patients with progressive disease. PMID:23334323

  14. Nodal weighting factor method for ex-core fast neutron fluence evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, R. T.

    2012-07-01

    The nodal weighting factor method is developed for evaluating ex-core fast neutron flux in a nuclear reactor by utilizing adjoint neutron flux, a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV, the unit fission source, and relative assembly nodal powers. The method determines each nodal weighting factor for ex-core neutron fast flux evaluation by solving the steady-state adjoint neutron transport equation with a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV as the adjoint source, by integrating the unit fission source with a typical fission spectrum to the solved adjoint flux over all energies, all angles and given nodal volume, and by dividing it with the sum of all nodal weighting factors, which is a normalization factor. Then, the fast neutron flux can be obtained by summing the various relative nodal powers times the corresponding nodal weighting factors of the adjacent significantly contributed peripheral assembly nodes and times a proper fast neutron attenuation coefficient over an operating period. A generic set of nodal weighting factors can be used to evaluate neutron fluence at the same location for similar core design and fuel cycles, but the set of nodal weighting factors needs to be re-calibrated for a transition-fuel-cycle. This newly developed nodal weighting factor method should be a useful and simplified tool for evaluating fast neutron fluence at selected locations of interest in ex-core components of contemporary nuclear power reactors. (authors)

  15. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Na'ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC. PMID:26886954

  16. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Na’ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC. PMID:26886954

  17. Typical nodal calcifications in the maxillofacial region: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guomin; Sun, Xiumei; Ni, Shilei; Zhang, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple nodal calcifications in the maxillofacial region are very rare. This case report described a 49-year-old female patient diagnosed with calcified lymph nodes due to chronic inflammation of the lymphatic nodes, including the parotid lymphatic nodes, the posterior auricular lymphatic nodes and submandibular lymphatic nodes in the right maxillofacial region. In clinical practice, we conducted ultrasonography, three-dimensional reconstruction of CT and sialography make a preliminary diagnosis. Then we took surgery, while removing the calcified blocks within the lymphatic node and cleaning the wound cavity. After surgery, we used anti-inflammatory therapy for one week. Six months follow-up indicated no evidence of other calcified lymph nodes infection. PMID:25356188

  18. Space-angle approximations in the variational nodal method.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E. E.; Palmiotti, G.; Taiwo, T.

    1999-03-12

    The variational nodal method is formulated such that the angular and spatial approximations maybe examined separately. Spherical harmonic, simplified spherical harmonic, and discrete ordinate approximations are coupled to the primal hybrid finite element treatment of the spatial variables. Within this framework, two classes of spatial trial functions are presented: (1) orthogonal polynomials for the treatment of homogeneous nodes and (2) bilinear finite subelement trial functions for the treatment of fuel assembly sized nodes in which fuel-pin cell cross sections are represented explicitly. Polynomial and subelement trial functions are applied to benchmark water-reactor problems containing MOX fuel using spherical harmonic and simplified spherical harmonic approximations. The resulting accuracy and computing costs are compared.

  19. CAISO flicks switch on nodal scheme and lights stay on

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-15

    In 2000-01, two years after introducing a competitive wholesale power auction in California - with a separate day-ahead zonal market operated by the California Power Exchange and a zonal market for ancillary services and balancing energy operated by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) - the California market collapsed from exorbitant prices, flagrant gaming, and abuse of market power. Nine years later, CAISO introduced a nodal pricing auction for the wholesale market in April, replacing the zonal scheme, which was among many causes of the original market's demise. With nearly 3,000 nodes on the network, high prices in one region do not affect prices everywhere on the system. After investing some $200 million to upgrade the software, countless delays, and 18 months of market simulation and testing, the new auction was introduced and nothing unusual happened.

  20. IPG Power Grid Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will describe what is meant by grids and then cover the current state of the IPG. This will include an overview of the middleware that is key to the operation of the grid. The presentation will then describe some of the future directions that are planned for the IPG. Finally the presentation will conclude with a brief overview of the Global Grid Forum, which is a key activity that will contribute to the successful availability of grid components.

  1. ProNodal acts via FGFR3 to govern duration of Shh expression in the prechordal mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Pamela S; Burbridge, Sarah; Soubes, Sandrine; Ohyama, Kyoji; Ben-Haim, Nadav; Chen, Canhe; Dale, Kim; Shen, Michael M; Constam, Daniel; Placzek, Marysia

    2015-11-15

    The secreted glycoprotein sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the prechordal mesoderm, where it plays a crucial role in induction and patterning of the ventral forebrain. Currently little is known about how Shh is regulated in prechordal tissue. Here we show that in the embryonic chick, Shh is expressed transiently in prechordal mesoderm, and is governed by unprocessed Nodal. Exposure of prechordal mesoderm microcultures to Nodal-conditioned medium, the Nodal inhibitor CerS, or to an ALK4/5/7 inhibitor reveals that Nodal is required to maintain both Shh and Gsc expression, but whereas Gsc is largely maintained through canonical signalling, Nodal signals through a non-canonical route to maintain Shh. Further, Shh expression can be maintained by a recombinant Nodal cleavage mutant, proNodal, but not by purified mature Nodal. A number of lines of evidence suggest that proNodal acts via FGFR3. ProNodal and FGFR3 co-immunoprecipitate and proNodal increases FGFR3 tyrosine phosphorylation. In microcultures, soluble FGFR3 abolishes Shh without affecting Gsc expression. Further, prechordal mesoderm cells in which Fgfr3 expression is reduced by Fgfr3 siRNA fail to bind to proNodal. Finally, targeted electroporation of Fgfr3 siRNA to prechordal mesoderm in vivo results in premature Shh downregulation without affecting Gsc. We report an inverse correlation between proNodal-FGFR3 signalling and pSmad1/5/8, and show that proNodal-FGFR3 signalling antagonises BMP-mediated pSmad1/5/8 signalling, which is poised to downregulate Shh. Our studies suggest that proNodal/FGFR3 signalling governs Shh duration by repressing canonical BMP signalling, and that local BMPs rapidly silence Shh once endogenous Nodal-FGFR3 signalling is downregulated. PMID:26417042

  2. ProNodal acts via FGFR3 to govern duration of Shh expression in the prechordal mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Pamela S.; Burbridge, Sarah; Soubes, Sandrine; Ohyama, Kyoji; Ben-Haim, Nadav; Chen, Canhe; Dale, Kim; Shen, Michael M.; Constam, Daniel; Placzek, Marysia

    2015-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the prechordal mesoderm, where it plays a crucial role in induction and patterning of the ventral forebrain. Currently little is known about how Shh is regulated in prechordal tissue. Here we show that in the embryonic chick, Shh is expressed transiently in prechordal mesoderm, and is governed by unprocessed Nodal. Exposure of prechordal mesoderm microcultures to Nodal-conditioned medium, the Nodal inhibitor CerS, or to an ALK4/5/7 inhibitor reveals that Nodal is required to maintain both Shh and Gsc expression, but whereas Gsc is largely maintained through canonical signalling, Nodal signals through a non-canonical route to maintain Shh. Further, Shh expression can be maintained by a recombinant Nodal cleavage mutant, proNodal, but not by purified mature Nodal. A number of lines of evidence suggest that proNodal acts via FGFR3. ProNodal and FGFR3 co-immunoprecipitate and proNodal increases FGFR3 tyrosine phosphorylation. In microcultures, soluble FGFR3 abolishes Shh without affecting Gsc expression. Further, prechordal mesoderm cells in which Fgfr3 expression is reduced by Fgfr3 siRNA fail to bind to proNodal. Finally, targeted electroporation of Fgfr3 siRNA to prechordal mesoderm in vivo results in premature Shh downregulation without affecting Gsc. We report an inverse correlation between proNodal-FGFR3 signalling and pSmad1/5/8, and show that proNodal-FGFR3 signalling antagonises BMP-mediated pSmad1/5/8 signalling, which is poised to downregulate Shh. Our studies suggest that proNodal/FGFR3 signalling governs Shh duration by repressing canonical BMP signalling, and that local BMPs rapidly silence Shh once endogenous Nodal-FGFR3 signalling is downregulated. PMID:26417042

  3. Chimera Grid Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  4. Spectral Dictionaries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangtae; Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2009-01-01

    Database search tools identify peptides by matching tandem mass spectra against a protein database. We study an alternative approach when all plausible de novo interpretations of a spectrum (spectral dictionary) are generated and then quickly matched against the database. We present a new MS-Dictionary algorithm for efficiently generating spectral dictionaries and demonstrate that MS-Dictionary can identify spectra that are missed in the database search. We argue that MS-Dictionary enables proteogenomics searches in six-frame translation of genomic sequences that may be prohibitively time-consuming for existing database search approaches. We show that such searches allow one to correct sequencing errors and find programmed frameshifts. PMID:18703573

  5. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  6. FermiGrid

    SciTech Connect

    Yocum, D.R.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Chadwick, K.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Timm, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    As one of the founding members of the Open Science Grid Consortium (OSG), Fermilab enables coherent access to its production resources through the Grid infrastructure system called FermiGrid. This system successfully provides for centrally managed grid services, opportunistic resource access, development of OSG Interfaces for Fermilab, and an interface to the Fermilab dCache system. FermiGrid supports virtual organizations (VOs) including high energy physics experiments (USCMS, MINOS, D0, CDF, ILC), astrophysics experiments (SDSS, Auger, DES), biology experiments (GADU, Nanohub) and educational activities.

  7. Drumhead surface states and topological nodal-line fermions in TlTaSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Guang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zheng, Hao; Velury, Saavanth; Xu, Su-Yang; Neupert, Titus; Chiu, Ching-Kai; Huang, Shin-Ming; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Chen, Peng-Jen; Chang, Guoqing; Bansil, Arun; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-03-01

    A topological nodal-line semimetal is a state of matter with one-dimensional bulk nodal lines and two-dimensional so-called drumhead surface bands. Based on first-principles calculations and an effective k .p model, we theoretically propose the existence of topological nodal-line fermions in the ternary transition-metal chalcogenide TlTaSe2. The noncentrosymmetric structure and strong spin-orbit coupling give rise to spinful nodal-line bulk states which are protected by a mirror reflection symmetry of this compound. This is remarkably distinguished from other proposed nodal-line semimetals such as Cu3NPb (Zn) in which the nodal line exists only in the limit of vanishing spin-orbit coupling and thus is not as robust. In addition, we show that the drumhead surface states in TlTaSe2, which are associated with the topological nodal lines, exhibit an unconventional chiral spin texture and an exotic Lifshitz transition as a consequence of the linkage among multiple drumhead surface-state pockets.

  8. Xantivin suppresses the activity of EGF-CFC genes to regulate nodal signaling.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, Kousuke; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Yokota, Chika; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    Lefty, antivin and related genes act in a feedback inhibition mechanism for nodal signaling at a number of stages of vertebrate embryogenesis. To analyze the function of the feedback inhibitor of nodal signaling, Xantivin in Xenopus embryos, we designed a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (XatvMO) for this gene. XatvMO caused the expansion of mesodermal tissue and head defects. XatvMO-injected gastrulae showed up-regulated expression of the mesodermal markers Xbra, Xwnt8, Xnot, and Chordin, suggesting expansion of the trunk-tail organizer. As expected, depletion of Xantivin also up-regulated nodal signaling as confirmed by the enhanced ectopic expression of Xantivin mRNA, a known target gene of nodal signaling. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between Xantivin and the EGF-CFC gene FRL-1, which is a component of the nodal receptor. In animal cap assays, FRL-1 could not induce expression of nodal-responsive genes, but could up-regulate expression of these genes when FRL-1 was coinjected with a low dose of Xnr1; coinjection of Xantivin suppressed this up-regulation by FRL-1. We also found that Xantivin can rescue the caudalized phenotype induced by overexpression of FRL-1. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that Xantivin interacted with the EGF-CFC proteins, FRL-1 and cripto. Taken together, these results suggest that Xantivin opposes the activity of EGF-CFC genes and thereby antagonizes nodal signaling. PMID:15300508

  9. Coplanar interdigitated grid detector with single electrode readout

    DOEpatents

    Luke, Paul N.

    2001-01-01

    The coplanar interdigitated grid technique with single electrode readout provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional full-area planar electrode detectors and over coplanar interdigitated grid detectors which measure the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar grid electrodes. The signal from only one interdigitated grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. Only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used.

  10. Understanding The Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology

  11. Nodal expression in triple-negative breast cancer: Cellular effects of its inhibition following doxorubicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Bodenstine, Thomas M; Chandler, Grace S; Reed, David W; Margaryan, Naira V; Gilgur, Alina; Atkinson, Janis; Ahmed, Nida; Hyser, Matthew; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Strizzi, Luigi; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2016-05-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents an aggressive cancer subtype characterized by the lack of expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The independence of TNBC from these growth promoting factors eliminates the efficacy of therapies which specifically target them, and limits TNBC patients to traditional systemic neo/adjuvant chemotherapy. To better understand the growth advantage of TNBC - in the absence of ER, PR and HER2, we focused on the embryonic morphogen Nodal (associated with the cancer stem cell phenotype), which is re-expressed in aggressive breast cancers. Most notably, our previous data demonstrated that inhibition of Nodal signaling in breast cancer cells reduces their tumorigenic capacity. Furthermore, inhibiting Nodal in other cancers has resulted in improved effects of chemotherapy, although the mechanisms for this remain unknown. Thus, we hypothesized that targeting Nodal in TNBC cells in combination with conventional chemotherapy may improve efficacy and represent a potential new strategy. Our preliminary data demonstrate that Nodal is highly expressed in TNBC when compared to invasive hormone receptor positive samples. Treatment of Nodal expressing TNBC cell lines with a neutralizing anti-Nodal antibody reduces the viability of cells that had previously survived treatment with the anthracycline doxorubicin. We show that inhibiting Nodal may alter response mechanisms employed by cancer cells undergoing DNA damage. These data suggest that development of therapies which target Nodal in TNBC may lead to additional treatment options in conjunction with chemotherapy regimens - by altering signaling pathways critical to cellular survival. PMID:27007464

  12. Occult Nodal Disease Prevalence and Distribution in Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer Requiring Salvage Laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Andrew C.; Rosko, Andrew J.; Issa, Mohamad R.; Shuman, Andrew G.; Prince, Mark E.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Brenner, J. Chad; Spector, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The indications for neck dissection concurrent with salvage laryngectomy in the clinically N0 setting remain unclear. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of occult nodal disease, analyze nodal disease distribution patterns, and identify predictors of occult nodal disease in a salvage laryngectomy cohort. Study Design Case series with planned data collection. Setting Tertiary academic center. Subjects Patients with persistent or recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma after radiation/chemoradiation failure undergoing salvage laryngectomy with neck dissection. Methods We analyzed a single-institution retrospective case series of patients between 1997–2014 and identified those who had clinically N0 necks (n = 203). Clinical and pathologic data, including nodal prevalence and distribution were collected, and statistical analyses were performed. Results Overall, cN0 necks had histologically positive occult nodes in 17% (n=35) of cases. Univariate predictors of occult nodal positivity included recurrent T4 stage (34% T4 vs. 12% non-T4; p=0.0003), and supraglottic subsite (28% supraglottic vs. 10% non-supraglottic; p=0.0006). Histologically positive nodes associated with supraglottic primaries were most frequently positive in ipsilateral level II and III (17% and 16%). Positive nodes for glottic SCC were most frequently positive in the ipsilateral and contralateral paratracheal nodes (11% and 9%). Conclusion Histologically positive occult nodes are identified in 17% of cN0 patients undergoing salvage laryngectomy with neck dissection. Occult nodal disease varies in frequency and distribution based upon tumor subsite. Predictors of high (>20%) occult nodal positivity include T4 tumors and supraglottic subsite. In glottic SCCs, the most frequent sites of occult nodal disease are the paratracheal nodal basins. PMID:26884365

  13. Nodal signaling is required for closure of the anterior neural tube in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Ilagan, Kristine; Liu, Qin; Liang, Jennifer O

    2007-01-01

    Background Nodals are secreted signaling proteins with many roles in vertebrate development. Here, we identify a new role for Nodal signaling in regulating closure of the rostral neural tube of zebrafish. Results We find that the neural tube in the presumptive forebrain fails to close in zebrafish Nodal signaling mutants. For instance, the cells that will give rise to the pineal organ fail to move from the lateral edges of the neural plate to the midline of the diencephalon. The open neural tube in Nodal signaling mutants may be due in part to reduced function of N-cadherin, a cell adhesion molecule expressed in the neural tube and required for neural tube closure. N-cadherin expression and localization to the membrane are reduced in fish that lack Nodal signaling. Further, N-cadherin mutants and morphants have a pineal phenotype similar to that of mutants with deficiencies in the Nodal pathway. Overexpression of an activated form of the TGFβ Type I receptor Taram-A (Taram-A*) cell autonomously rescues mesendoderm formation in fish with a severe decrease in Nodal signaling. We find that overexpression of Taram-A* also corrects their open neural tube defect. This suggests that, as in mammals, the mesoderm and endoderm have an important role in regulating closure of the anterior neural tube of zebrafish. Conclusion This work helps establish a role for Nodal signals in neurulation, and suggests that defects in Nodal signaling could underlie human neural tube defects such as exencephaly, a fatal condition characterized by an open neural tube in the anterior brain. PMID:17996054

  14. Grid quality improvement by a grid adaptation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.; Choo, Y. K.

    1991-01-01

    A grid adaptation technique is presented which improves grid quality. The method begins with an assessment of grid quality by defining an appropriate grid quality measure. Then, undesirable grid properties are eliminated by a grid-quality-adaptive grid generation procedure. The same concept has been used for geometry-adaptive and solution-adaptive grid generation. The difference lies in the definition of the grid control sources; here, they are extracted from the distribution of a particular grid property. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the versatility and effectiveness of the method.

  15. Navigation in Grid Space with the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a navigational tool for computational grids. The navigational process is based on measuring the grid characteristics with the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) and using the measurements to assign tasks of a grid application to the grid machines. The tool allows the user to explore the grid space and to navigate the execution at a grid application to minimize its turnaround time. We introduce the notion of gridscape as a user view of the grid and show how it can be me assured by NGB, Then we demonstrate how the gridscape can be used with two different schedulers to navigate a grid application through a rudimentary grid.

  16. The accuracy of preoperative axillary nodal staging in primary breast cancer by ultrasound is modified by nodal metastatic load and tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Dihge, Looket; Grabau, Dorthe A; Rasmussen, Rogvi W; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Rydén, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Background The outcome of axillary ultrasound (AUS) with fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnostic work-up of primary breast cancer has an impact on therapy decisions. We hypothesize that the accuracy of AUS is modified by nodal metastatic burden and clinico-pathological characteristics. Material and methods The performance of AUS and AUS-guided FNAB for predicting nodal metastases was assessed in a prospective breast cancer cohort subjected for surgery during 2009-2012. Predictors of accuracy were included in multivariate analysis. Results AUS had a sensitivity of 23% and a specificity of 95%, while AUS-guided FNAB obtained 73% and 100%, respectively. AUS-FNAB exclusively detected macro-metastases (median four metastases) and identified patients with more extensive nodal metastatic burden in comparison with sentinel node biopsy. The accuracy of AUS was affected by metastatic size (OR 1.11), obesity (OR 2.46), histological grade (OR 4.43), and HER2-status (OR 3.66); metastatic size and histological grade were significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions The clinical utility of AUS in low-risk breast cancer deserves further evaluation as the accuracy decreased with a low nodal metastatic burden. The diagnostic performance is modified by tumor and clinical characteristics. Patients with nodal disease detected by AUS-FNAB represent a group for whom neoadjuvant therapy should be considered. PMID:27050668

  17. Embryonic Morphogen Nodal Is Associated with Progression and Poor Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei-Dong; Xu, Ge-Liang; Ma, Jin-Liang; Ren, Yun; Chen, Hao; Sun, Si-Nan; Huang, Mei; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Nodal, a TGF-β-related embryonic morphogen, is involved in multiple biologic processes. However, the expression of Nodal in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with tumor angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and prognosis is unclear. Methods We used real-time PCR and Western blotting to investigate Nodal expression in 6 HCC cell lines and 1 normal liver cell line, 16 pairs of tumor and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from HCC patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine Nodal expression in HCC and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from 96 patients. CD34 and Vimentin were only examined in HCC tissues of patients mentioned above. Nodal gene was silenced by shRNA in MHCC97H and HCCLM3 cell lines, and cell migration and invasion were detected. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the prognostic value and associations of Nodal expression with clinical parameters. Results Nodal expression was detected in HCC cell lines with high metastatic potential alone. Nodal expression is up-regulated in HCC tissues compared with paracarcinomatous and normal liver tissues. Nodal protein was expressed in 70 of the 96 (72.9%) HCC tumors, and was associated with vascular invasion (P = 0.000), status of metastasis (P = 0.004), AFP (P = 0.049), ICGR15 (indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min) (P = 0.010) and tumor size (P = 0.000). High Nodal expression was positively correlated with high MVD (microvessal density) (P = 0.006), but not with Vimentin expression (P = 0.053). Significantly fewer migrated and invaded cells were seen in shRNA group compared with blank group and negative control group (P<0.05). High Nodal expression was found to be an independent factor for predicting overall survival of HCC. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that Nodal expression is associated with aggressive characteristics of HCC. Its aberrant expression may be a predictive factor of unfavorable prognosis

  18. Grid enabled Service Support Environment - SSE Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Erwin; Paepen, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The SSEGrid project is an ESA/ESRIN project which started in 2009 and is executed by two Belgian companies, Spacebel and VITO, and one Dutch company, Dutch Space. The main project objectives are the introduction of a Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure at the Image Processing Centre for earth observation products at VITO and the inclusion of Grid processing services in the Service Support Environment (SSE) at ESRIN. The Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure is meant to support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators (PI) and allow the design and execution of multi-sensor applications with geographically spread data while minimising the transfer of huge volumes of data. In the first scenario, 'support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators', we aim to provide processing power close to the EO-data at the processing and archiving centres. We will allow a PI (non-Grid expert user) to upload his own algorithm, as a process, and his own auxiliary data from the SSE Portal and use them in an earth observation workflow on the SSEGrid Infrastructure. The PI can design and submit workflows using his own processes, processes made available by VITO/ESRIN and possibly processes from other users that are available on the Grid. These activities must be user-friendly and not requiring detailed knowledge about the underlying Grid middleware. In the second scenario we aim to design, implement and demonstrate a methodology to set up an earth observation processing facility, which uses large volumes of data from various geographically spread sensors. The aim is to provide solutions for problems that we face today, like wasting bandwidth by copying large volumes of data to one location. We will avoid this by processing the data where they are. The multi-mission Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure will allow developing and executing complex and massive multi-sensor data (re-)processing applications more

  19. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  20. Solar cell grid patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A grid pattern is described for a solar cell of the type which includes a semiconductive layer doped to a first polarity and a top counter-doped layer. The grid pattern comprises a plurality of concentric conductive grids of selected geometric shapes which are centered about the center of the exposed active surface of the counter-doped layer. Connected to the grids is one or more conductors which extend to the cell's periphery. For the pattern area, the grids and conductors are arranged in the pattern to minimize the maximum distance which any injected majority carriers have to travel to reach any of the grids or conductors. The pattern has a multiaxes symmetry with respect to the cell center to minimize the maximum temperature differentials between points on the cell surface and to provide a more uniform temperature distribution across the cell face.

  1. High-latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18. 6-year nodal tide

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, T.C. )

    1993-03-15

    Ocean temperatures in the upper 250 m in the northern North Pacific (60[degree]N, 149[degree]W) increased by more than 1[degree]C from 1972 to 1986 but are now decreasing. Subsurface temperature anomalies are well correlated ([approx] 0.58) with the air temperature anomalies at Sitka, Alaska; hence the coastal air temperatures can be used as a proxy data set to extend the ocean temperature time series back to 1828. Up to 30% of the low-frequency variance can be accounted for with the 18.6-year nodal signal. Additionally, spectral analysis of these air temperature variations indicates a significant low-frequency peak in the range of the 18.6-year signal. Similar low-frequency signals have been reported for Hudson Bay air temperatures since 1700, for sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic from 1876 to 1939, and for sea level in the high-latitude southern hemisphere. The water column temperature variations presented here are the first evidence that the upper ocean is responding to this very long period tidal forcing. An enhanced high-latitude response to the 18.6-year forcing is predicted by equilibrium tide theory, and it should be most evident at latitudes poleward of about 50[degree]. These low-frequency ocean-atmosphere variations must be considered in high-latitude assessments of global climate change, since they are of the same magnitude as many of the predicted global changes. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Topological nodal Cooper pairing in doped Weyl metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Haldane, F. D. M.

    We generalize the concept of Berry connection of the single-electron band structure to the two-particle Cooper pair states between two Fermi surfaces with opposite Chern numbers. Because of underlying Fermi surface topology, the pairing Berry phase acquires non-trivial monopole structure. Consequently, pairing gap functions have the topologically-protected nodal structure as vortices in the momentum space with the total vorticity solely determined by the monopole charge qp. The pairing nodes behave as the Weyl-Majorana points of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes pairing Hamiltonian. Their relation with the connection patterns of the surface modes from theWeyl band structure and the Majorana surface modes inside the pairing gap is also discussed. Under the approximation of spherical Fermi surfaces, the pairing symmetry are represented by monopole harmonic functions. The lowest possible pairing channel carries angular momentum number j =|qp|, and the corresponding gap functions are holomorphic or anti-holomorphic functions on Fermi surfaces. F.D.M.H. acknowledges the support from MRSEC NSF-DMR-1420541 and the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  3. Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense (Cambess.) from nodal segments.

    PubMed

    Silveira, S S; Cordeiro-Silva, R; Degenhardt-Goldbach, J; Quoirin, M

    2016-05-01

    Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae) is a way to overcome difficulties in achieving large-scale plant production, given the recalcitrant nature of the seeds, irregular fructification and absence of natural vegetative propagation of the species. Cultures were established using nodal segments 2 cm in length, obtained from 1-2 year old seedlings, maintained in a greenhouse. Mercury chloride and Plant Preservative Mixture™ were used in the surface sterilizing stage, better results being achieved with Plant Preservative Mixture™ incorporation in culture medium, at any concentration. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, activated charcoal, cysteine, ascorbic acid or citric acid were added to the culture medium to avoid oxidation. After 30 days of culture, polyvinylpirrolidone and ascorbic acid gave better results, eliminating oxidation in most explants. For shoot multiplication, benzylaminopurine was used in concentrations of 4.4 and 8.8 µM in Woody Plant Medium, resulting in an average of 4.43 and 4.68 shoots per explant, respectively, after 90 days. Indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid were used to induce root formation, reaching a maximum rooting rate of 24% with 20µM α-naphthalene acetic acid. For acclimatization. the rooted plants were transferred to Plantmax® substrate and cultured in a greenhouse, reaching 79% of survival after 30 days and 60% after one year. PMID:27143061

  4. Relation between finite element methods and nodal methods in transport theory

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between nodal methods and finite-element methods for solving the discrete-ordinates form of the transport equation in x-y geometry. Specifically, we will examine the relation of three finite-element schemes to the linear-linear (LL) and linear-nodal (LN) nodal schemes. The three finite-element schemes are the linear-continuous-diamond-difference (DD) scheme, the linear-discontinuous (LD) scheme, and the quadratic-discontinuous (QD) scheme. A brief derivation of the (LL) and (LN) nodal schemes is given in the third section of this paper. The approximations that cause the LL scheme to reduce to the DD, LD, and QD schemes are then indicated. An extremely simple method of deriving the finite-element schemes is then introduced.

  5. Topological Nodal-Line Superfluid in Spin-Orbit Coupled Cold Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wen-Yu; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhou, Tong; Law, K. T.; Hong Kong University of Science; Technology Collaboration

    Topological nodal line superconductivity or superfluidity is a fascinating topological gapless phase which hosts bulk Weyl ring degeneracy in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum and supports Majorana zero bound modes with a large density of states at the edge. In this work, based on the experimental realized 1D spin orbit coupling, we show the emergence of topological nodal line superfluid phase in Fermionic atoms trapped in 3D cubic optical lattice when the s wave pairing field is introduced through Feshbach resonance between the two atomic hyperfine spin states. The nodal line degeneracy is further found to evolve into Weyl nodes once another component of spin orbit coupling field enters to break the chiral symmetry. The momentum resolved radio frequency spectroscopy is suggested to manifest the topological nodal line superfluid phase.

  6. Dose-dependent Nodal/Smad signals pattern the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Elizabeth J

    2014-08-01

    Nodal signals in the early post-implantation stage embryo are essential to establish initial proximal-distal (P-D) polarity and generate the final anterior-posterior (A-P) body axis. Nodal signaling in the epiblast results in the phosphorylation of Smad2 in the overlying visceral endoderm necessary to induce the AVE, in part via Smad2-dependent activation of the T-box gene Eomesodermin. Slightly later following mesoderm induction a continuum of dose-dependent Nodal signaling during the process of gastrulation underlies specification of mesodermal and definitive endoderm progenitors. Dynamic Nodal expression during the critical 72 h time window immediately following implantation, accomplished by a series of feed-back and feed-forward mechanisms serves to provide key positional cues required for establishment of the body plan and controls cell fate decisions in the early mammalian embryo. PMID:24704361

  7. ANOVA-HDMR structure of the higher order nodal diffusion solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bokov, P. M.; Prinsloo, R. H.; Tomasevic, D. I.

    2013-07-01

    Nodal diffusion methods still represent a standard in global reactor calculations, but employ some ad-hoc approximations (such as the quadratic leakage approximation) which limit their accuracy in cases where reference quality solutions are sought. In this work we solve the nodal diffusion equations utilizing the so-called higher-order nodal methods to generate reference quality solutions and to decompose the obtained solutions via a technique known as High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR). This representation and associated decomposition of the solution provides a new formulation of the transverse leakage term. The HDMR structure is investigated via the technique of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), which indicates why the existing class of transversely-integrated nodal methods prove to be so successful. Furthermore, the analysis leads to a potential solution method for generating reference quality solutions at a much reduced calculational cost, by applying the ANOVA technique to the full higher order solution. (authors)

  8. Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2007-01-01

    An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are

  9. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  10. A grid amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

  11. Effects of a novel Nodal-targeting monoclonal antibody in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Margaryan, Naira V.; Focà, Annalia; Sanguigno, Luca; Bodenstine, Thomas M.; Chandler, Grace S.; Reed, David W.; Gilgur, Alina; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Seftor, Richard E.B.; Khalkhali-Ellis, Zhila; Leonardi, Antonio; Ruvo, Menotti; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Nodal is highly expressed in various human malignancies, thus supporting the rationale for exploring Nodal as a therapeutic target. Here, we describe the effects of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3D1, raised against human Nodal. In vitro treatment of C8161 human melanoma cells with 3D1 mAb shows reductions in anchorage-independent growth and vasculogenic network formation. 3D1 treated cells also show decreases of Nodal and downstream signaling molecules, P-Smad2 and P-ERK and of P-H3 and CyclinB1, with an increase in p27. Similar effects were previously reported in human breast cancer cells where Nodal expression was generally down-regulated; following 3D1 mAb treatment, both Nodal and P-H3 levels are reduced. Noteworthy is the reduced growth of human melanoma xenografts in Nude mice treated with 3D1 mAb, where immunostaining of representative tumor sections show diminished P-Smad2 expression. Similar effects both in vitro and in vivo were observed in 3D1 treated A375SM melanoma cells harboring the active BRAF(V600E) mutation compared to treatments with IgG control or a BRAF inhibitor, dabrafenib. Finally, we describe a 3D1-based ELISA for the detection of Nodal in serum samples from cancer patients. These data suggest the potential of 3D1 mAb for selecting and targeting Nodal expressing cancers. PMID:26460952

  12. Disrupting Foxh1-Groucho Interaction Reveals Robustness of Nodal-Based Embryonic Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Angela M.; Wright, Christopher V. E.

    2016-01-01

    The winged-helix transcription factor Foxh1 is an essential regulator of Nodal signaling during the key developmental processes of gastrulation, anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning, and the derivation of left-right (L-R) asymmetry. Current models have Foxh1 bound to phospho-Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) as a central transcriptional activator for genes targeted by Nodal signaling including Nodal itself, the feedback inhibitor Lefty2, and the positive transcriptional effector Pitx2. However, the conserved Engrailed homology-1 (EH1) motif present in Foxh1 suggests that modulated interaction with Groucho (Grg) co-repressors would allow Foxh1 to function as a transcriptional switch, toggling between transcriptional on and off states via pSmad2-Grg protein-switching, to ensure the properly timed initiation and suppression, and/or amplitude, of expression of Nodal and its target genes. We minimally mutated the Foxh1 EH1 motif, creating a novel Foxh1mEH1 allele to test directly the contribution of Foxh1-Grg–mediated repression on the transient, dynamic pattern of Nodal signaling in mice. All aspects of Nodal and its target gene expression in Foxh1mEH1/mEH1 embryos were equivalent to wild type. A-P patterning and organ situs in homozygous embryos and adult mice were also unaffected. The finding that Foxh1-Grg–mediated repression is not essential for Nodal expression during mouse embryogenesis suggests that other regulators compensate for the loss of repressive regulatory input that is mediated by Grg interactions. We suggest that the pervasive inductive properties of Nodal signaling exist within the context of a strongly buffered regulatory system that contributes to resilience and accuracy of its dynamic expression pattern. PMID:25511461

  13. Nodal signaling in Xenopus gastrulae is cell-autonomous and patterned by beta-catenin.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto-Partyka, Minako K; Yuge, Masahiro; Cho, Ken W Y

    2003-01-01

    The classical three-signal model of amphibian mesoderm induction and more recent modifications together propose that an activin-like signaling activity is uniformly distributed across the vegetal half of the Xenopus blastula and that this activity contributes to mesoderm induction. In support of this, we have previously shown that the activin-response element (DE) of the goosecoid promoter is uniformly activated across the vegetal half of midgastrula-stage embryos. Here, we further examine the nature of this activity by measuring DE activation by endogenous signals over time. We find that the spatiotemporal pattern of DE activation is much more dynamic than was previously appreciated and also conclude that DE(6X)Luc activity reflects endogenous nodal signaling in the embryo. Using both the DE(6X)Luc construct and endogenous Xbra and Xgsc expression as read-outs for nodal activity, and the cleavage-mutant version of Xnr2 (CmXnr2) to regionally suppress endogenous nodal activity, we demonstrate that nodal signals act cell-autonomously in Xenopus gastrulae. Nodal-expressing cells are unable to rescue either reporter gene activation or target gene expression in distant nodal-deficient cells, suggesting that nodals function at short range in this context. Finally, we show that DE activation by endogenous signals occurs in the absence of dorsal beta-catenin-mediated signaling, but that the timing of dorsal initiation is altered. We conclude that nodal signals in Xenopus gastrulae function cell autonomously at short ranges and that the spatiotemporal pattern of this signaling along the dorsoventral axis is regulated by maternal Wnt-like signaling. PMID:12490202

  14. The Apelin receptor enhances Nodal/TGFβ signaling to ensure proper cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Deshwar, Ashish R; Chng, Serene C; Ho, Lena; Reversade, Bruno; Scott, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    The Apelin receptor (Aplnr) is essential for heart development, controlling the early migration of cardiac progenitors. Here we demonstrate that in zebrafish Aplnr modulates Nodal/TGFβ signaling, a key pathway essential for mesendoderm induction and migration. Loss of Aplnr function leads to a reduction in Nodal target gene expression whereas activation of Aplnr by a non-peptide agonist increases the expression of these same targets. Furthermore, loss of Aplnr results in a delay in the expression of the cardiogenic transcription factors mespaa/ab. Elevating Nodal levels in aplnra/b morphant and double mutant embryos is sufficient to rescue cardiac differentiation defects. We demonstrate that loss of Aplnr attenuates the activity of a point source of Nodal ligands Squint and Cyclops in a non-cell autonomous manner. Our results favour a model in which Aplnr is required to fine-tune Nodal output, acting as a specific rheostat for the Nodal/TGFβ pathway during the earliest stages of cardiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13758.001 PMID:27077952

  15. A quasi-static polynomial nodal method for nuclear reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    Modern nodal methods are currently available which can accurately and efficiently solve the static and transient neutron diffusion equations. Most of the methods, however, are limited to two energy groups for practical application. The objective of this research is the development of a static and transient, multidimensional nodal method which allows more than two energy groups and uses a non-linear iterative method for efficient solution of the nodal equations. For both the static and transient methods, finite-difference equations which are corrected by the use of discontinuity factors are derived. The discontinuity factors are computed from a polynomial nodal method using a non-linear iteration technique. The polynomial nodal method is based upon a quartic approximation and utilizes a quadratic transverse-leakage approximation. The solution of the time-dependent equations is performed by the use of a quasi-static method in which the node-averaged fluxes are factored into shape and amplitude functions. The application of the quasi-static polynomial method to several benchmark problems demonstrates that the accuracy is consistent with that of other nodal methods. The use of the quasi-static method is shown to substantially reduce the computation time over the traditional fully-implicit time-integration method. Problems involving thermal-hydraulic feedback are accurately, and efficiently, solved by performing several reactivity/thermal-hydraulic updates per shape calculation.

  16. Mapping implicit spectral methods to distributed memory architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overman, Andrea L.; Vanrosendale, John

    1991-01-01

    Spectral methods were proven invaluable in numerical simulation of PDEs (Partial Differential Equations), but the frequent global communication required raises a fundamental barrier to their use on highly parallel architectures. To explore this issue, a 3-D implicit spectral method was implemented on an Intel hypercube. Utilization of about 50 percent was achieved on a 32 node iPSC/860 hypercube, for a 64 x 64 x 64 Fourier-spectral grid; finer grids yield higher utilizations. Chebyshev-spectral grids are more problematic, since plane-relaxation based multigrid is required. However, by using a semicoarsening multigrid algorithm, and by relaxing all multigrid levels concurrently, relatively high utilizations were also achieved in this harder case.

  17. TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jing; Liu, Su-zhi; Lin, Yan; Cao, Xiao-pan; Liu, Jia-ming

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-β promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-β may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-β was added, whereas the TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significant when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-β addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-β weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-β more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-β and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy.

  18. Geometric grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a highly automated hexahedral grid generator based on extensive geometrical and solid modeling operations developed in response to a vision of a designer-driven one day turnaround CFD process which implies a designer-driven one hour grid generation process.

  19. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  20. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  1. Advanced computational methods for nodal diffusion, Monte Carlo, and S{sub N} problems. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document describes progress on five efforts for improving effectiveness of computational methods for particle diffusion and transport problems in nuclear engineering: (1) Multigrid methods for obtaining rapidly converging solutions of nodal diffusion problems. A alternative line relaxation scheme is being implemented into a nodal diffusion code. Simplified P2 has been implemented into this code. (2) Local Exponential Transform method for variance reduction in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. This work yielded predictions for both 1-D and 2-D x-y geometry better than conventional Monte Carlo with splitting and Russian Roulette. (3) Asymptotic Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN problems. New transport differencing schemes have been obtained that allow solution by the conjugate gradient method, and the convergence of this approach is rapid. (4) Quasidiffusion (QD) methods for obtaining accurate, rapidly converging solutions of multidimensional SN Problems on irregular spatial grids. A symmetrized QD method has been developed in a form that results in a system of two self-adjoint equations that are readily discretized and efficiently solved. (5) Response history method for speeding up the Monte Carlo calculation of electron transport problems. This method was implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. In addition, we have developed and implemented a parallel time-dependent Monte Carlo code on two massively parallel processors.

  2. Mathematical embryology: the fluid mechanics of nodal cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J.; Smith, A. A.; Blake, J. R.

    2011-07-01

    Left-right symmetry breaking is critical to vertebrate embryonic development; in many species this process begins with cilia-driven flow in a structure termed the `node'. Primary `whirling' cilia, tilted towards the posterior, transport morphogen-containing vesicles towards the left, initiating left-right asymmetric development. We review recent theoretical models based on the point-force stokeslet and point-torque rotlet singularities, explaining how rotation and surface-tilt produce directional flow. Analysis of image singularity systems enforcing the no-slip condition shows how tilted rotation produces a far-field `stresslet' directional flow, and how time-dependent point-force and time-independent point-torque models are in this respect equivalent. Associated slender body theory analysis is reviewed; this approach enables efficient and accurate simulation of three-dimensional time-dependent flow, time-dependence being essential in predicting features of the flow such as chaotic advection, which have subsequently been determined experimentally. A new model for the nodal flow utilising the regularized stokeslet method is developed, to model the effect of the overlying Reichert's membrane. Velocity fields and particle paths within the enclosed domain are computed and compared with the flow profiles predicted by previous `membrane-less' models. Computations confirm that the presence of the membrane produces flow-reversal in the upper region, but no continuous region of reverse flow close to the epithelium. The stresslet far-field is no longer evident in the membrane model, due to the depth of the cavity being of similar magnitude to the cilium length. Simulations predict that vesicles released within one cilium length of the epithelium are generally transported to the left via a `loopy drift' motion, sometimes involving highly unpredictable detours around leftward cilia [truncated

  3. Cluster analysis of contaminated sediment data: nodal analysis.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, S Ian; Claflin, Larry W

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the use of multivariate statistical methods as a means to discern relationships between contaminants and biological and/or toxicological effects in a representative data set from the National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program. Data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NS&T Program's Bioeffects Survey of Delaware Bay, USA, were examined using various univariate and multivariate statistical techniques, including cluster analysis. Each approach identified consistent patterns and relationships between the three types of triad data. The analyses also identified factors that bias the interpretation of the data, primarily the presence of rare and unique species and the dependence of species distributions on physical parameters. Sites and species were clustered with the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages clustering with the Jaccard coefficient that clustered species and sites into mutually consistent groupings. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, normalized for salinity, also were clustered. The most informative analysis, termed nodal analysis, was the intersection of species cluster analysis with site cluster analysis. This technique produced a visual representation of species association patterns among site clusters. Site characteristics, such as salinity and grain size, not contaminant concentrations, appeared to be the primary factors determining species distributions. This suggests the sediment-quality triad needs to use physical parameters as a distinct leg from chemical concentrations to improve sediment-quality assessments in large bodies of water. Because the Delaware Bay system has confounded gradients of contaminants and physical parameters, analyses were repeated with data from northern Chesapeake Bay, USA, with similar results. PMID:16050601

  4. Data Grid Implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Reagan W.; Studham, Ronald S.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Watson, Chip; Stockinger, Heinz; Kunszt, Peter; Charlie Catlett and Ian Foster

    2002-02-27

    Data grids link distributed, heterogeneous storage resources into a coherent data management system. From a user perspective, the data grid provides a uniform name space across the underlying storage systems, while supporting retrieval and storage of files. In the high energy physics community, at least six data grids have been implemented for the storage and distribution of experimental data. Data grids are also being used to support projects as diverse as digital libraries (National Library of Medicine Visible Embryo project), federation of multiple astronomy sky surveys (NSF National Virtual Observatory project), and integration of distributed data sets (Long Term Ecological Reserve). Data grids also form the core interoperability mechanisms for creating persistent archives, in which data collections are migrated to new technologies over time. The ability to provide a uniform name space across multiple administration domains is becoming a critical component of national-scale, collaborative projects.

  5. The SIM astronmetric grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is fundamentally a one-dimensional instrument with a 15-degree field-of-regard. Mission objectives require a global reference grid of thousands of well-understood stars with positions known to 4 microarcseconds which will be used to establish the instrument baseline vector during scientific observations. This accuracy will be achieved by frequently observing a set of stars throughout the mission and performing a global fit of the observations to determine position, proper motion and parallax for each star. Each star will be observed approximately 200 times with about 6.5 stars per single instrument field on the sky. We describe the nature of the reference grid, the candidate objects, and the results of simulations demonstrating grid performance, including estimates of the grid robustness when including effects such as instrument drift and possible contamination of the grid star sample by undetected binaries.

  6. High energy collimating fine grids for HESP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Carol D.; Frazier, Edward

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to develop fine pitch x-ray collimator grids as an enabling technology for planned future missions. The grids consist of an array of thin parallel strips of x-ray absorbing material, such as tungsten, with pitches ranging from 34 microns to 2.036 millimeters. The grids are the key components of a new class of spaceborne instruments known as 'x-ray modulation collimators.' These instruments are the first to produce images of celestial sources in the hard x-ray and gamma-ray spectral regions.

  7. Optimization Of A Computational Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, Daniel G.

    1993-01-01

    In improved method of generation of computational grid, grid-generation process decoupled from definition of geometry. Not necessary to redefine boundary. Instead, continuous boundaries in physical domain specified, and then grid points in computational domain mapped onto continuous boundaries.

  8. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Ki Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4–72 Gy (39.6–45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. Results The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. Conclusion No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC. PMID:27104162

  9. Service Oriented Gridded Atmospheric Radiances (SOAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Goldberg, M. D.; Tilmes, C.; Zhou, L.; Shen, S.; Yesha, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We are developing a scalable web service tool that can provide complex griding services on-demand for atmospheric radiance data sets from multiple temperature and moisture sounding sensors on the NASA and NOAA polar orbiting satellites collected over the past three decades. This server-to-server middle ware tool will provide the framework for transforming user requests for an arbitrary spatial/temporal/spectral gridded radiance data set from one or more instruments into an action to invoke a griding process from a set of scientifically validated application programs that have been developed to perform such functions. The invoked web service agents will access, subset, concatenate, convolve, perform statistical and physically based griding operations and present the data as specified level 3 gridded fields for analysis and visualization in multiple formats. Examples of the griding operations consist of spatial-temporal radiance averaging accounting for the field of view instrument response function, first footprint in grid bin, selecting min/max brightness temperatures within a grid element, ratios of channels, filtering, convolving high resolution spectral radiances to match broader band spectral radiances, limb adjustments, calculating variances of radiances falling in grid box and creating visual displays of these fields. The gridded web services tool will support both human input through a WWW GUI as well as a direct computer request through a W3C SOAP/XML web service interface. It will generate regional and global gridded data sets on demand. A second effort will demonstrate the ability to locate, access, subset and grid radiance data for any time period and resolution from remote archives of NOAA and NASA data. The system will queue the work flow requests, stage processing and delivery of arbitrary gridded data sets in a data base and notify the users when the request is completed. This tool will greatly expand satellite sounding data utilization by

  10. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  11. The DESY Grid Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, A.; Gellrich, A.; Kemp, Y.; Leffhalm, K.; Ozerov, D.; Wegner, P.

    2012-12-01

    DESY is one of the world-wide leading centers for research with particle accelerators, synchrotron light and astroparticles. DESY participates in LHC as a Tier-2 center, supports on-going analyzes of HERA data, is a leading partner for ILC, and runs the National Analysis Facility (NAF) for LHC and ILC in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance, Physics at the Terascale. For the research with synchrotron light major new facilities are operated and built (FLASH, PETRA-III, and XFEL). DESY furthermore acts as Data-Tier1 centre for the Neutrino detector IceCube. Established within the EGI-project DESY operates a grid infrastructure which supports a number of virtual Organizations (VO), incl. ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. Furthermore, DESY hosts some of HEP and non-HEP VOs, such as the HERA experiments and ILC as well as photon science communities. The support of the new astroparticle physics VOs IceCube and CTA is currently set up. As the global structure of the grid offers huge resources which are perfect for batch-like computing, DESY has set up the National Analysis Facility (NAF) which complements the grid to allow German HEP users for efficient data analysis. The grid infrastructure and the NAF use the same physics data which is distributed via the grid. We call the conjunction of grid and NAF the DESY Grid Centre. In the contribution to CHEP2012 we will in depth discuss the conceptional and operational aspects of our multi-VO and multi-community Grid Centre and present the system setup. We will in particular focus on the interplay of Grid and NAF and present experiences of the operations.

  12. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    PubMed Central

    Konagaya, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community. PMID:17254294

  13. Heavy fermions: From nodal metals to super-spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramires Neves de Oliveira, Aline

    Condensed matter physics is an area of research which lies at a sweet spot between two complementary perspectives: the atomistic point of view which takes into account all the details of the system of interest; and the framework of universality and emergent phenomena, which allows us to make drastic simplifications to the microscopic description of materials while still being able to explain much of the experimentally observed phenomena. This thesis addresses problems from both perspectives, focusing on heavy fermion systems. Heavy fermion systems are prototype materials for the study of strongly correlations and quantum criticality. Theoretical understanding of these systems is important for the design of new materials and for the fundamental understanding of quantum critical phenomena. This thesis is strongly motivated by recent experiments in an intrinsically quantum critical material, beta-YbAlB 4. This system shows anomalous critical exponents in transport and thermodynamics. In Chapter 2 we construct a phenomenological theory for the heavy fermion metal beta-YbAlB4 based on the Anderson model, taking into account the peculiarities of this specific material. We analyze the consequences of a non-trivial, momentum-dependent, hybridization matrix between f-electrons and conduction electrons, which gives rise to a nodal metal with unusual dispersion and singular thermodynamic properties, in accordance with experiments. In Chapter 3 we analyze the Electron Spin Resonance experiments in this same material and propose a theory including spin-orbit coupling, crystal electric fields and hyperfine coupling which can account for many of the features of the experimentally observed signal. Within a broader perspective on heavy fermion systems, the absence of a single unified theoretical description which can account for the plethora of phenomena observed in this class of materials also motivates us to consider new theoretical approaches. In Chapter 4 we generalize the

  14. Temporal and spatial requirements for Nodal-induced anterior mesendoderm and mesoderm in anterior neurulation.

    PubMed

    Gonsar, Ngawang; Coughlin, Alicia; Clay-Wright, Jessica A; Borg, Bethanie R; Kindt, Lexy M; Liang, Jennifer O

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish with defective Nodal signaling have a phenotype analogous to the fatal human birth defect anencephaly, which is caused by an open anterior neural tube. Previous work in our laboratory found that anterior open neural tube phenotypes in Nodal signaling mutants were caused by lack of mesendodermal/mesodermal tissues. Defects in these mutants are already apparent at neural plate stage, before the neuroepithelium starts to fold into a tube. Consistent with this, we found that the requirement for Nodal signaling maps to mid-late blastula stages. This timing correlates with the timing of prechordal plate mesendoderm and anterior mesoderm induction, suggesting these tissues act to promote neurulation. To further identify tissues important for neurulation, we took advantage of the variable phenotypes in Nodal signaling-deficient sqt mutant and Lefty1-overexpressing embryos. Statistical analysis indicated a strong, positive correlation between a closed neural tube and presence of several mesendoderm/mesoderm-derived tissues (hatching glands, cephalic paraxial mesoderm, notochord, and head muscles). However, the neural tube was closed in a subset of embryos that lacked any one of these tissues. This suggests that several types of Nodal-induced mesendodermal/mesodermal precursors are competent to promote neurulation. PMID:26528772

  15. Topological nodal-line fermions in spin-orbit metal PbTaSe2.

    PubMed

    Bian, Guang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Sankar, Raman; Xu, Su-Yang; Zheng, Hao; Neupert, Titus; Chiu, Ching-Kai; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S; Neupane, Madhab; Alidoust, Nasser; Liu, Chang; Wang, BaoKai; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Zhang, Chenglong; Yuan, Zhujun; Jia, Shuang; Bansil, Arun; Chou, Fangcheng; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Topological semimetals can support one-dimensional Fermi lines or zero-dimensional Weyl points in momentum space, where the valence and conduction bands touch. While the degeneracy points in Weyl semimetals are robust against any perturbation that preserves translational symmetry, nodal lines require protection by additional crystalline symmetries such as mirror reflection. Here we report, based on a systematic theoretical study and a detailed experimental characterization, the existence of topological nodal-line states in the non-centrosymmetric compound PbTaSe2 with strong spin-orbit coupling. Remarkably, the spin-orbit nodal lines in PbTaSe2 are not only protected by the reflection symmetry but also characterized by an integer topological invariant. Our detailed angle-resolved photoemission measurements, first-principles simulations and theoretical topological analysis illustrate the physical mechanism underlying the formation of the topological nodal-line states and associated surface states for the first time, thus paving the way towards exploring the exotic properties of the topological nodal-line fermions in condensed matter systems. PMID:26829889

  16. Topological nodal-line fermions in spin-orbit metal PbTaSe2

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Guang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Sankar, Raman; Xu, Su-Yang; Zheng, Hao; Neupert, Titus; Chiu, Ching-Kai; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Neupane, Madhab; Alidoust, Nasser; Liu, Chang; Wang, BaoKai; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Zhang, Chenglong; Yuan, Zhujun; Jia, Shuang; Bansil, Arun; Chou, Fangcheng; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Topological semimetals can support one-dimensional Fermi lines or zero-dimensional Weyl points in momentum space, where the valence and conduction bands touch. While the degeneracy points in Weyl semimetals are robust against any perturbation that preserves translational symmetry, nodal lines require protection by additional crystalline symmetries such as mirror reflection. Here we report, based on a systematic theoretical study and a detailed experimental characterization, the existence of topological nodal-line states in the non-centrosymmetric compound PbTaSe2 with strong spin-orbit coupling. Remarkably, the spin-orbit nodal lines in PbTaSe2 are not only protected by the reflection symmetry but also characterized by an integer topological invariant. Our detailed angle-resolved photoemission measurements, first-principles simulations and theoretical topological analysis illustrate the physical mechanism underlying the formation of the topological nodal-line states and associated surface states for the first time, thus paving the way towards exploring the exotic properties of the topological nodal-line fermions in condensed matter systems. PMID:26829889

  17. Auxin controls local cytokinin biosynthesis in the nodal stem in apical dominance.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mina; Takei, Kentaro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Mori, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    In intact plants, the shoot apex grows predominantly and inhibits outgrowth of axillary buds. After decapitation of the shoot apex, outgrowth of axillary buds begins. This phenomenon is called an apical dominance. Although the involvement of auxin, which represses outgrowth of axillary buds, and cytokinin (CK), which promotes outgrowth of axillary buds, has been proposed, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we demonstrated that auxin negatively regulates local CK biosynthesis in the nodal stem by controlling the expression level of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene adenosine phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (PsIPT), which encodes a key enzyme in CK biosynthesis. Before decapitation, PsIPT1 and PsIPT2 transcripts were undetectable; after decapitation, they were markedly induced in the nodal stem along with accumulation of CK. Expression of PsIPT was repressed by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In excised nodal stem, PsIPT expression and CK levels also increased under IAA-free conditions. Furthermore, beta-glucuronidase expression, under the control of the PsIPT2 promoter region in transgenic Arabidopsis, was repressed by an IAA. Our results indicate that in apical dominance one role of auxin is to repress local biosynthesis of CK in the nodal stem and that, after decapitation, CKs, which are thought to be derived from the roots, are locally biosynthesized in the nodal stem rather than in the roots. PMID:16507092

  18. Recognizing nodal marginal zone lymphoma: recent advances and pitfalls. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van den Brand, Michiel; van Krieken, J. Han J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of nodal marginal zone lymphoma is one of the remaining problem areas in hematopathology. Because no established positive markers exist for this lymphoma, it is frequently a diagnosis of exclusion, making distinction from other low-grade B-cell lymphomas difficult or even impossible. This systematic review summarizes and discusses the current knowledge on nodal marginal zone lymphoma, including clinical features, epidemiology and etiology, histology, and cytogenetic and molecular features. In particular, recent advances in diagnostics and pathogenesis are discussed. New immunohistochemical markers have become available that could be used as positive markers for nodal marginal zone lymphoma. These markers could be used to ensure more homogeneous study groups in future research. Also, recent gene expression studies and studies describing specific gene mutations have provided clues to the pathogenesis of nodal marginal zone lymphoma, suggesting deregulation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Nevertheless, nodal marginal zone lymphoma remains an enigmatic entity, requiring further study to define its pathogenesis to allow an accurate diagnosis and tailored treatment. However, recent data indicate that it is not related to splenic or extranodal lymphoma, and that it is also not related to lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Thus, even though the diagnosis is not always easy, it is clearly a separate entity. PMID:23813646

  19. Zeeman Field-Induced Nodal Structures in Rashba-Type Noncentrosymmetric Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chongju; Jin, Biao

    2016-02-01

    We study theoretically the effect of Zeeman field on the Bogoliubov-de Gennes quasiparticle excitation spectrum of a three-dimensional noncentrosymmetric (s+p)-wave model. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum may possess line nodes due to the mixing of s-wave and p-wave pairing in the absence of Zeeman field. Our calculations show that, depending on the magnitude and the orientation of an applied Zeeman field, a variety of nodal structures including nodal points, nodal lines, and nodal surfaces may be generated in the excitation spectrum. These results are corroborated by numerical computations of the low-temperature electronic specific heat. Specifically, we demonstrate rigorously that the zero-field nodal lines will be robust against a weak z-axis oriented Zeeman field. It is also found that the electronic specific heat calculated for a Zeeman field in the x- y plane may qualitatively account for the novel feature of specific heat observed experimentally in CePt_3Si.

  20. The impact of surgical technique on neck dissection nodal yield: making a difference.

    PubMed

    Lörincz, Balazs B; Langwieder, Felix; Möckelmann, Nikolaus; Sehner, Susanne; Knecht, Rainald

    2016-05-01

    The nodal yield of neck dissections is an independent prognostic factor in several types of head and neck cancer. The authors aimed to determine whether the applied dissection technique has a significant impact on nodal yield. This is a single-institution, prospective study with internal control group (level of evidence: 2A). Data of 150 patients undergoing 223 neck dissections between February 2011 and March 2013 have been collected in a comprehensive cancer centre. Eighty-two patients underwent neck dissection with unwrapping the cervical fascia from lateral to medial, while 68 patients were operated without specifically unwrapping the fascia, in a caudal to cranial fashion. The standardised, horizontal neck dissection technique along the fascial planes resulted in a significantly higher nodal count in Levels I, II, III and IV, as well as in terms of overall nodal yield (mean: n = 22.53) than that of the vertical dissection applied in the control group (mean: n = 15.00). This is the first publication showing a direct correlation between neck dissection nodal yield and surgical technique. Therefore, it is paramount to optimise the applied surgical concept to maximise the oncological benefit. PMID:25784183

  1. Topological nodal-line fermions in spin-orbit metal PbTaSe2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bian, Guang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Sankar, Raman; Xu, Su-Yang; Zheng, Hao; Neupert, Titus; Chiu, Ching-Kai; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Belopolski, Ilya; et al

    2016-02-02

    Here we discuss how topological semimetals can support one-dimensional Fermi lines or zero-dimensional Weyl points in momentum space, where the valence and conduction bands touch. While the degeneracy points in Weyl semimetals are robust against any perturbation that preserves translational symmetry, nodal lines require protection by additional crystalline symmetries such as mirror reflection. Here we report, based on a systematic theoretical study and a detailed experimental characterization, the existence of topological nodal-line states in the non-centrosymmetric compound PbTaSe2 with strong spin-orbit coupling. Remarkably, the spin-orbit nodal lines in PbTaSe2 are not only protected by the reflection symmetry but also characterizedmore » by an integer topological invariant. Our detailed angle-resolved photoemission measurements, first-principles simulations and theoretical topological analysis illustrate the physical mechanism underlying the formation of the topological nodal-line states and associated surface states for the first time, thus paving the way towards exploring the exotic properties of the topological nodal-line fermions in condensed matter systems.« less

  2. Tumor microvessel density–associated mast cells in canine nodal lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Elizabeth; Whittington, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Mast cells are associated in angiogenesis in various human and animal neoplasms. However, association of mast cells with tumor microvessel density in canine lymphoma was not previously documented. The objective of the study is to determine if mast cells are increased in canine nodal lymphomas and to evaluate their correlation with tumor microvessel density and grading of lymphomas. Methods: Nodal lymphomas from 33 dogs were studied and compared with nonneoplastic lymph nodes from 6 dogs as control. Mast cell count was made on Toluidine blue stained sections. Immunohistochemistry using antibody against Factor VIII was employed to visualize and determine microvessel density. Results: The mast cell count in lymphoma (2.95 ± 2.4) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the control (0.83 ± 0.3) and was positively correlated with tumor microvessel density (r = 0.44, p = 0.009). Significant difference was not observed in mast cell count and tumor microvessel density among different gradings of lymphomas. Conclusions: Mast cells are associated with tumor microvessel density in canine nodal lymphoma with no significant difference among gradings of lymphomas. Mast cells may play an important role in development of canine nodal lymphomas. Further detailed investigation on the role of mast cells as important part of tumor microenvironment in canine nodal lymphomas is recommended. PMID:26770752

  3. Angle Resolved Thermal Conductivity of Superconducting CeCoIn5 along the Nodal Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovich, Roman; Kim, Duk Y.; Lin, Shizeng; Weickert, Franziska; Bauer, Eric D.; Ronning, Filip; Thompson, Joe D.

    The thermal conductivity measurement in a rotating magnetic field is a powerful probe of the structure of the superconducting energy gap. The four-fold oscillation in thermal conductivity of CeCoIn5, with the heat current in the anti-nodal direction, has revealed the d-wave nature of its order parameter. We have measured the thermal conductivity with the heat current along the [110] (nodal) direction and the magnetic field rotating in the ab-plane. In contrast to the smooth oscillation found with the heat current along the anti-nodal direction, a sharp increase of thermal conductivity was observed when the magnetic field is also in the [110] direction, parallel to the heat current. This suggests that the scattering of the nodal quasiparticle is strongly suppressed along the magnetic field direction. In addition, a smaller increase of the thermal conductivity was observed when the magnetic field is approximately 30 degree away from the nodal direction, perhaps due to a Fermi surface anomaly. Work at Los Alamos was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering.

  4. Grid Computing Education Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  5. Space Development Grid Portal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a portal to provide secure and distributed grid computing for Payload Operations Integrated Center and Mission Control Center ground services.

  6. Implementing Production Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Ziobarth, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have presented the essence of experience gained in building two production Grids, and provided some of the global context for this work. As the reader might imagine, there were a lot of false starts, refinements to the approaches and to the software, and several substantial integration projects (SRB and Condor integrated with Globus) to get where we are today. However, the point of this paper is to try and make it substantially easier for others to get to the point where Information Power Grids (IPG) and the DOE Science Grids are today. This is what is needed in order to move us toward the vision of a common cyber infrastructure for science. The author would also like to remind the readers that this paper primarily represents the actual experiences that resulted from specific architectural and software choices during the design and implementation of these two Grids. The choices made were dictated by the criteria laid out in section 1. There is a lot more Grid software available today that there was four years ago, and various of these packages are being integrated into IPG and the DOE Grids. However, the foundation choices of Globus, SRB, and Condor would not be significantly different today than they were four years ago. Nonetheless, if the GGF is successful in its work - and we have every reason to believe that it will be - then in a few years we will see that the 28 functions provided by these packages will be defined in terms of protocols and MIS, and there will be several robust implementations available for each of the basic components, especially the Grid Common Services. The impact of the emerging Web Grid Services work is not yet clear. It will likely have a substantial impact on building higher level services, however it is the opinion of the author that this will in no way obviate the need for the Grid Common Services. These are the foundation of Grids, and the focus of almost all of the operational and persistent infrastructure aspects of Grids.

  7. IDL Grid Web Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimino, P.; Costa, A.

    2008-08-01

    Image Data Language is a software for data analysis, visualization and cross-platform application development. The potentiality of IDL is well-known in the academic scientific world, especially in the astronomical environment where thousands of procedures are developed by using IDL. The typical use of IDL is the interactive mode but it is also possible to run IDL programs that do not require any interaction with the user, submitting them in batch or background modality. Through the interactive mode the user immediately receives images or other data produced in the running phase of the program; in batch or background mode, the user will have to wait for the end of the program, sometime for many hours or days to obtain images or data that IDL produced as output: in fact in Grid environment it is possible to access to or retrieve data only after completion of the program. The work that we present gives flexibility to IDL procedures submitted to the Grid computer infrastructure. For this purpose we have developed an IDL Grid Web Portal to allow the user to access the Grid and to submit IDL programs granting a full job control and the access to images and data generated during the running phase, without waiting for their completion. We have used the PHP technology and we have given the same level of security that Grid normally offers to its users. In this way, when the user notices that the intermediate program results are not those expected, he can stop the job, change the parameters to better satisfy the computational algorithm and resubmit the program, without consuming the CPU time and other Grid resources. The IDL Grid Web Portal allows you to obtain IDL generated images, graphics and data tables by using a normal browser. All conversations from the user and the Grid resources occur via Web, as well as authentication phases. The IDL user has not to change the program source much because the Portal will automatically introduce the appropriate modification before

  8. Random array grid collimator

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-08-22

    A hexagonally shaped quasi-random no-two-holes touching grid collimator. The quasi-random array grid collimator eliminates contamination from small angle off-axis rays by using a no-two-holes-touching pattern which simultaneously provides for a self-supporting array increasng throughput by elimination of a substrate. The presentation invention also provides maximum throughput using hexagonally shaped holes in a hexagonal lattice pattern for diffraction limited applications. Mosaicking is also disclosed for reducing fabrication effort.

  9. Entrainment mapping in patients with sustained atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia: insights into the sites of conduction slowing in the slow atrioventricular nodal pathway.

    PubMed

    Haines, D E; Nath, S; DiMarco, J P; Lobban, J H

    1997-10-01

    The inferoposterior region of the triangle of Koch is hypothesized to be the location of the atrial insertion of the slow atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathway. However, the actual site of conduction slowing in the slow AV nodal pathway is unknown. Entrainment mapping during AV nodal reentry can localize the reentrant pathway as follows: the AH interval measured from the mapping catheter = A'H (where A' is the exit site of the reentrant circuit) minus A'A (the conduction time from A' to the site of mapping); the SH interval during entrainment = SA' (the conduction time from stimulus into the reentry circuit) plus A'H. Thus, in all cases, the SH interval should be greater than or equal to the AH interval, and the deltaAH-SH should increase as distance and conduction time (SA' and A'A) from the reentry circuit increases. Fourteen patients with typical AV nodal reentry (cycle length 346 +/- 62 ms) and 1 with fast-slow (cycle length 430 ms) underwent activation and entrainment mapping from 8 to 12 sites in the triangle of Koch and coronary sinus. Pacing was performed at 2 to 3 mA above threshold, at a cycle length 10 ms shorter than tachycardia. A mapping site was defined as being in close proximity to the circuit if the deltaAH-SH was within 120% of the shortest 20th percentile deltaAH-SH value from all measured sites. In the 14 typical cases, 45 of 83 sites (54%) in the anatomic slow pathway region fulfilled criteria for close proximity to the reentry circuit compared with 13 of 50 sites (26%) outside of this region (p = 0.005). For these patients, the shortest SH interval measured from any entrainment site was 294 +/- 58 ms (89 +/- 10% of tachycardia cycle length, range 70% to 119%), indicating that the site of slow conduction in the slow pathway during AV nodal reentrant tachycardia was distal to all mapped sites. Thus, during typical AV nodal reentry, the "slow" pathway does not conduct slowly, and its insertion is located at or within the inferoposterior or

  10. Spectral and spread-spectral teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S.

    2010-06-15

    We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state may be teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of the teleported wave form can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread-spectral variant of teleportation. We calculate analytical expressions for the fidelities of spectral and spread-spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are transferred using a proposed experimental approach. Finally, we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.