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Sample records for griqualand west sequence

  1. A paleoweathering profile from Griqualand West, South Africa: evidence for a dramatic rise in atmospheric oxygen between 2.2 and 1.9 bybp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, H. D.; Beukes, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    A core drilled near Wolhaarkop in Griqualand West, South Africa, intersected highly oxidized Kuruman Iron Formation below red beds of the Gamagara Formation. The lateral equivalents of the Kuruman Iron Formation in this drill hole consist largely of siderite, ankerite, magnetite, greenalite, and quartz. The oxidation of the Kuruman Iron Formation in WOL 2 occurred almost certainly during weathering prior to the deposition of the Gamagara Formation. The date of this weathering episode is bracketed between about 2.2 and 1.9 bybp by the age of the Ongeluk lavas in the Transvaal sequence below the unconformity and by the age of the Hartley lavas in the Olifantshoek Group above the unconformity. The ratio of iron to SiO2 in the several facies of the weathered Kuruman Iron Formation in WOL 2 is nearly the same as that in their unweathered equivalents. Since SiO2 loss during weathering was almost certainly minor, the similarity of the Fe/SiO2 ratio in the weathered and unweathered BIF indicates that nearly all the "FeO" in the Kuruman Iron Formation was oxidized and retained as FeO3 during weathering. Such a high degree of iron retention is best explained by an O2 content of the atmosphere > or = 0.03 atm at the time of weathering. Such an O2 pressure is very much greater than that suggested by the composition of paleosols developed on basalt > or = 2.2 bybp but is consistent with the highly oxidized nature of the 1.85 by Flin Flon paleosol. The new data suggest that PO2 rose dramatically from about 1 percent PAL (present atmospheric level) to > or = 15 percent PAL between 2.2 and 1.9 bybp.

  2. Microfossils from the Neoarchean Campbell Group, Griqualand West Sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup, and their paleoenvironmental and evolutionary implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altermann, W.; Schopf, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    The oldest filament- and colonial coccoid-containing microbial fossil assemblage now known is described here from drill core samples of stromatolitic cherty limestones of the Neoarchean, approximately 2600-Ma-old Campbell Group (Ghaap Plateau Dolomite, Lime Acres Member) obtained at Lime Acres, northern Cape Province, South Africa. The assemblage is biologically diverse, including entophysalidacean (Eoentophysalis sp.), probable chroococcacean (unnamed colonial coccoids), and oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria (Eomycetopsis cf. filiformis, and Siphonophycus transvaalensis), as well as filamentous fossil bacteria (Archaeotrichion sp.); filamentous possible microfossils (unnamed hematitic filaments) also occur. The Campbell Group microorganisms contributed to the formation of stratiform and domical to columnar stromatolitic reefs in shallow subtidal to intertidal environments of the Transvaal intracratonic sea. Although only moderately to poorly preserved, they provide new evidence regarding the paleoenvironmental setting of the Campbell Group sediments, extend the known time-range of entophysalidacean cyanobacteria by more than 400 million years, substantiate the antiquity and role in stromatolite formation of Archean oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria, and document the exceedingly slow (hypobradytelic) evolutionary rate characteristic of this early evolving prokaryotic lineage.

  3. Microfossils from the Neoarchean Campbell Group, Griqualand West Sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup, and their paleoenvironmental and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Altermann, W; Schopf, J W

    1995-11-01

    The oldest filament- and colonial coccoid-containing microbial fossil assemblage now known is described here from drill core samples of stromatolitic cherty limestones of the Neoarchean, approximately 2600-Ma-old Campbell Group (Ghaap Plateau Dolomite, Lime Acres Member) obtained at Lime Acres, northern Cape Province, South Africa. The assemblage is biologically diverse, including entophysalidacean (Eoentophysalis sp.), probable chroococcacean (unnamed colonial coccoids), and oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria (Eomycetopsis cf. filiformis, and Siphonophycus transvaalensis), as well as filamentous fossil bacteria (Archaeotrichion sp.); filamentous possible microfossils (unnamed hematitic filaments) also occur. The Campbell Group microorganisms contributed to the formation of stratiform and domical to columnar stromatolitic reefs in shallow subtidal to intertidal environments of the Transvaal intracratonic sea. Although only moderately to poorly preserved, they provide new evidence regarding the paleoenvironmental setting of the Campbell Group sediments, extend the known time-range of entophysalidacean cyanobacteria by more than 400 million years, substantiate the antiquity and role in stromatolite formation of Archean oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria, and document the exceedingly slow (hypobradytelic) evolutionary rate characteristic of this early evolving prokaryotic lineage. PMID:11542814

  4. Models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtohyan, O.M.; Gogonenkov, G.N.; Pavlov, N.E. )

    1991-03-01

    The West Siberian province located within a young plate (platform) is one of the largest in the world in size, reserves, number of unique fields, and hydrocarbon production. The southern, central, and western areas of the province are dominantly oil-bearing, the northern portion gas-bearing. All commercial reserves are within the Devonian-Cenomanian stratigraphic interval. Small accumulations in fractured-vuggy Devon-Carboniferous rocks are located in the zone of unconformity between this sequence and the Jurassic. The potential of the pre-plate middle Paleozoic, platform upper Paleozoic, and Triassic sequences recognized by seismic data in the northern, deepest, part of the plate is not known yet. Most hydrocarbon pools are located in the Jurassic-Cretaceous hydrocarbon-bearing sequences (HBS) within the plate cover. Structural-depositional oil accumulations with very changeable flow rates, a large stratigraphic-depositional accumulation in high permeability basal (quartz) reservoirs, and an oil-condensate and a multiple-pool structural gas field are discovered in the Middle Jurassic composed of potential continental coal-bearing and marine deposits. In most HBS, there is still a prospect of discovering new hydrocarbon pools including pools in more complex traps.

  5. Complete genome sequence of two genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Taraphdar, Debjani; Chatterjee, Shyamalendu

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE), caused by a mosquito-borne virus JE virus (JEV), is a serious health problem in West Bengal, India. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of two JEV isolates from West Bengal. The amino acid and nucleotide sequence homology was compared with other Indian strains. Methods: Two JEV isolates (IND-WB-JE1 and IND-WB-JE2) obtained in 2008 and 2010, respectively, from two districts of the State of West Bengal, respectively were analyzed for genetic variations by sequencing the 10934 bp whole genome of the virus. Of these two districts, one was covered under JE vaccination programme in 2007. Results: Phylogenetic analysis showed that both the isolates belonged to the genotype III. A total of 16 mutations were identified in the two isolates studied with respect to Vellore P20778 strain. One unique mutation A3215S was only found in IND-WB-JE2 isolate, but not in the isolate IND-WB-JE1. These two isolates showed maximum homology with P20778 strain of India. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports on complete gene based phylogenetic analysis of JEV isolates from the State of West Bengal. It was evident from the results that JEV was still under circulation in both vaccine covered and not covered districts of West Bengal. PMID:26261169

  6. Chloroplast genome sequencing analysis of Heterosigma akashiwo CCMP452 (West Atlantic) and NIES293 (West Pacific) strains

    PubMed Central

    Cattolico, Rose Ann; Jacobs, Michael A; Zhou, Yang; Chang, Jean; Duplessis, Melinda; Lybrand, Terry; McKay, John; Ong, Han Chuan; Sims, Elizabeth; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    Background Heterokont algae form a monophyletic group within the stramenopile branch of the tree of life. These organisms display wide morphological diversity, ranging from minute unicells to massive, bladed forms. Surprisingly, chloroplast genome sequences are available only for diatoms, representing two (Coscinodiscophyceae and Bacillariophyceae) of approximately 18 classes of algae that comprise this taxonomic cluster. A universal challenge to chloroplast genome sequencing studies is the retrieval of highly purified DNA in quantities sufficient for analytical processing. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a simplified method for sequencing chloroplast genomes, using fosmids selected from a total cellular DNA library. The technique has been used to sequence chloroplast DNA of two Heterosigma akashiwo strains. This raphidophyte has served as a model system for studies of stramenopile chloroplast biogenesis and evolution. Results H. akashiwo strain CCMP452 (West Atlantic) chloroplast DNA is 160,149 bp in size with a 21,822-bp inverted repeat, whereas NIES293 (West Pacific) chloroplast DNA is 159,370 bp in size and has an inverted repeat of 21,665 bp. The fosmid cloning technique reveals that both strains contain an isomeric chloroplast DNA population resulting from an inversion of their single copy domains. Both strains contain multiple small inverted and tandem repeats, non-randomly distributed within the genomes. Although both CCMP452 and NIES293 chloroplast DNAs contains 197 genes, multiple nucleotide polymorphisms are present in both coding and intergenic regions. Several protein-coding genes contain large, in-frame inserts relative to orthologous genes in other plastids. These inserts are maintained in mRNA products. Two genes of interest in H. akashiwo, not previously reported in any chloroplast genome, include tyrC, a tyrosine recombinase, which we hypothesize may be a result of a lateral gene transfer event, and an unidentified 456 amino acid

  7. Genome sequence analysis of dengue virus 1 isolated in Key West, Florida.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongyoung; Richards, Stephanie L; Alto, Barry W; Bettinardi, David J; Smartt, Chelsea T

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of mosquitoes. In November 2010, a dengue outbreak was reported in Monroe County in southern Florida (FL), including greater than 20 confirmed human cases. The virus collected from the human cases was verified as DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) and one isolate was provided for sequence analysis. RNA was extracted from the DENV-1 isolate and was used in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify PCR fragments to sequence. Nucleic acid primers were designed to generate overlapping PCR fragments that covered the entire genome. The DENV-1 isolate found in Key West (KW), FL was sequenced for whole genome characterization. Sequence assembly, Genbank searches, and recombination analyses were performed to verify the identity of the genome sequences and to determine percent similarity to known DENV-1 sequences. We show that the KW DENV-1 strain is 99% identical to Nicaraguan and Mexican DENV-1 strains. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses suggest that the DENV-1 isolated in KW originated from Nicaragua (NI) and the KW strain may circulate in KW. Also, recombination analysis results detected recombination events in the KW strain compared to DENV-1 strains from Puerto Rico. We evaluate the relative growth of KW strain of DENV-1 compared to other dengue viruses to determine whether the underlying genetics of the strain is associated with a replicative advantage, an important consideration since local transmission of DENV may result because domestic tourism can spread DENVs. PMID:24098658

  8. Sequence-Specific Fidelity Alterations Associated with West Nile Virus Attenuation in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Van Slyke, Greta A.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Lugo, Alex J.; Griesemer, Sara B.; Moustafa, Ibrahim M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Cameron, Craig E.; Ciota, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    High rates of error-prone replication result in the rapid accumulation of genetic diversity of RNA viruses. Recent studies suggest that mutation rates are selected for optimal viral fitness and that modest variations in replicase fidelity may be associated with viral attenuation. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are unique in their requirement for host cycling and may necessitate substantial genetic and phenotypic plasticity. In order to more thoroughly investigate the correlates, mechanisms and consequences of arbovirus fidelity, we selected fidelity variants of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) utilizing selection in the presence of a mutagen. We identified two mutations in the WNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with increased fidelity, V793I and G806R, and a single mutation in the WNV methyltransferase, T248I, associated with decreased fidelity. Both deep-sequencing and in vitro biochemical assays confirmed strain-specific differences in both fidelity and mutational bias. WNV fidelity variants demonstrated host-specific alterations to replicative fitness in vitro, with modest attenuation in mosquito but not vertebrate cell culture. Experimental infections of colonized and field populations of Cx. quinquefaciatus demonstrated that WNV fidelity alterations are associated with a significantly impaired capacity to establish viable infections in mosquitoes. Taken together, these studies (i) demonstrate the importance of allosteric interactions in regulating mutation rates, (ii) establish that mutational spectra can be both sequence and strain-dependent, and (iii) display the profound phenotypic consequences associated with altered replication complex function of flaviviruses. PMID:26114757

  9. Seismo-geological models of stratigraphic sequences and their application to oil and gas exploration in west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, O.M. )

    1993-09-01

    In west Siberia, large structural prospects for oil exploration have been exhausted. Further discoveries are expected to be made in small to medium structural traps and in lithostratigraphic traps. Prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps is based on new seismo-geological models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences. In middle Paleozoic rocks, small hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in structural highs; the reservoirs are composed of fractured vuggy carbonates. Seismostratigraphic criteria for prediction of such traps are uncertain. The Lower-Middle Jurassic sequence consists of continental and partially of marine clastic rocks. The sequence is believed to contain considerable hydrocarbon resources in lithostratigraphic traps in basal sandstones and in pinch-out zones of Lower Jurassic sandstones. In the upper part of the sequence, oil pools have been discovered in channel sandstone bodies. Two different areas of oil accumulations are found in the Callovian-Oxfordian sequence. The Bazhenov Formation bituminous shales of Volgian-Berriasian contain sporadically distributed fractured-porous reservoirs. Accumulations in these reservoirs are characterized by irregular oil saturation. The Neocomian sequence consists of rocks deposited on the shallow-water shelf and on the basinal slope. Seismo-geological data indicate that the sequence is prospective for discovery of hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps. The clinoform consists of laterally prograding strata; most prospective are frontal and depocentral parts of the strata which contain sandstone reservoirs of medium to poor quality. Lithostratigraphic traps in the shelf sequence can be found in the marginal parts of the paleoshelf where regional pinch-out zones and sandstones lenses are common. The Aptian-Cenomanian sequence deposited under terrestrial and coastal conditions is dominantly gas prone. New hydrocarbon discoveries in this sequence are expected in structural traps.

  10. Depositional environments and sequence architecture of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), west central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, Tarek I.; El-Shahat, Adam; Genedi, Adel; Grammer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Cenomanian-Turonian deposits are important reservoirs for many oil fields in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez region of Egypt. Study of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), from five dip-oriented outcrop locations in west central Sinai; indicates deposition of a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system on a ramp setting. The inner ramp facies (bivalve and benthonic foraminiferal wackestone) grades northward to the mid ramp facies (echinoderm calcisphere packstone, and oyster floatstone), and outer ramp facies (planktonic foraminiferal wackestone and calcisphere wackestone). The two studied formations comprise one second-order depositional sequence (duration of approximately 10 Million years). This large scale sequence includes four third-order depositional sequences, three of which are observed in the Raha Formation, with the other one recorded in the Abu Qada Formation. Because west central Sinai was tectonically stable during the Cenomanian and Turonian, the main factor controlling the lateral and vertical distribution of facies tracts is likely due to changes in the relative sea level. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event is known as the largest oceanic anoxic event during the Cretaceous. This global event has been documented in three of the studied sections. The recorded δ13C excursions range from +3.04‰ to +5.24‰. These high positive excursions in δ13C are associated with highly negative values of δ18O (values range from -6.01‰ to -1.38‰).

  11. Phylogeography of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, inferred with mtDNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the West Indian fruit fly, is a frugivorous pest that occasionally finds its way to commercial growing areas outside its native distribution. It inhabits areas in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, with occasional infestations...

  12. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Cenomanian-Turonian mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments in west Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, Tarek I.

    2014-06-01

    The unconformity bounded Cenomanian-Turonian succession in west Sinai is subdivided into three formations: the Raha, Abu Qada, and Wata. These rock units were deposited in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system on a ramp setting. The studied ramp only includes inner and mid-ramp facies, whereas the outer ramp facies occurs in northern Sinai. Four sequence boundaries (SB) were recognized in the studied formations due to the presence of subaerial exposure or flooding events in the facies stacking pattern. The first and last sequence boundaries (SB1 and SB4) might be considered as Type 1 sequence boundary attributable to the presence of widespread erosion. It is difficult to determine type of the second and third sequence boundaries (SB2 and SB3) because of their minor unconformity and minimal erosion. Determination of systems tracts within the Wata Formation is debatable owing to the action of dolomitization that has destroyed both original components and sedimentary structures. The lowstand systems tracts of the recorded sequences are characterized by sandstones, siltstones, and sandy shales, while fossiliferous shale and limestone with oysters prevailed during sea level rise. The highstand systems tracts are generally characterized by shallow intertidal and subtidal deposits that are made up of abundant oyster wackestones with benthic foraminifera and ostracods.

  13. Thanetian transgressive-regressive sequences based on foraminiferal paleobathymetry at Gebel Matulla, west-central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Sherif; Elamri, Zaineb; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2016-09-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Thanetian foraminiferal assemblages at Gebel Matulla in west-central Sinai has been carried out. Three benthic foraminiferal assemblages are recorded from shallowest to deepest as Cibicidoides pseudoacutus, Angulogavelinella avnimelechi, Gavelinella danica witch evidences of fluctuations from middle neritic to upper bathyal environments. Changes in the foraminiferal population enabled us to classify the Thanetian succession into two fourth order transgressive-regressive (T-R) sequences. Three sequence boundaries are identified, at the Selandian/Thanetian (S/T) boundary, within the Thanetian succession, and the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary. It occurs at the top part of the maximum regression associated with major discontinuities and changes in depositional regimes as well as vertical facies changes. Broad correlation with eustatic records based upon integrated microplanktonic biostratigraphy suggests that the fluctuations of foraminiferal population were controlled by global sea-level changes.

  14. Sequence stratigraphic model of the Rio Grande Delta, south west Texas: Potential analog for the Niger Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, L.A.; Anderson, J.B.; Vail, P.R. )

    1996-01-01

    A sequence stratigraphic model developed from the ancient Rio Grande Delta in South West Texas is suggested as an analog for the Niger Delta. The two delta systems are characterized by high sand bedloads, shale diapirism with associated listric normal faulting, and large amounts of tidal and wave influence forming lower coastal plains characterized by swamps and estuaries. The sequence stratigraphic model of the ancient Rio Grande delta is based on approximately 1200 kilometers of single channel, 15 cubic inch water gun data, lithologic descriptions from approximately 25 long cores (28-30 m) located in 17-94 meters water depth, three gamma ray logs, paleontologic data from two cores, and oxygen isotopic data from one core (152 meters in length and located in 94 meters water depth). The combined data indicate that considerable quantities of sand are sequestered on the continental shelf and point sourcing the slope. The Rio Grande sequence stratigraphic model provides an improved understanding of sand deposits on the shelf, of the role of sediment bypass during lowstands, and of the base of slope deposits formed by headward eroding canyons ( ) or channels ( ) located at the shelf break. This information regarding the distribution of sand in the Rio Grande system can provide valuable insight into the reservoir distribution in the Niger system, improving existing reservoir predictions.

  15. Sequence stratigraphic model of the Rio Grande Delta, south west Texas: Potential analog for the Niger Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, L.A.; Anderson, J.B.; Vail, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    A sequence stratigraphic model developed from the ancient Rio Grande Delta in South West Texas is suggested as an analog for the Niger Delta. The two delta systems are characterized by high sand bedloads, shale diapirism with associated listric normal faulting, and large amounts of tidal and wave influence forming lower coastal plains characterized by swamps and estuaries. The sequence stratigraphic model of the ancient Rio Grande delta is based on approximately 1200 kilometers of single channel, 15 cubic inch water gun data, lithologic descriptions from approximately 25 long cores (28-30 m) located in 17-94 meters water depth, three gamma ray logs, paleontologic data from two cores, and oxygen isotopic data from one core (152 meters in length and located in 94 meters water depth). The combined data indicate that considerable quantities of sand are sequestered on the continental shelf and point sourcing the slope. The Rio Grande sequence stratigraphic model provides an improved understanding of sand deposits on the shelf, of the role of sediment bypass during lowstands, and of the base of slope deposits formed by headward eroding canyons (?) or channels (?) located at the shelf break. This information regarding the distribution of sand in the Rio Grande system can provide valuable insight into the reservoir distribution in the Niger system, improving existing reservoir predictions.

  16. Phylogeographical structure inferred from cpDNA sequence variation of Zygophyllum xanthoxylon across north-west China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Li

    2015-03-01

    Zygophyllum xanthoxylon, a desert species, displaying a broad east-west continuous distribution pattern in arid Northwestern China, can be considered as a model species to investigate the biogeographical history of this region. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA spacers (psbK-psbI and rpl32-trnL) in 226 individuals from 31 populations to explore the phylogeographical structure. Median-joining network was constructed and analysis of AMOVA, SMOVA, neutrality tests and distribution analysis were used to examine genetic structure and potential range expansion. Using species distribution modeling, the geographical distribution of Z. xanthoxylon was modeled during the present and at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Among 26 haplotypes, one was widely distributed, but most was restricted to either the eastern or western region. The populations with the highest levels of haplotype diversity were found in the Tianshan Mountains and its surroundings in the west, and the Helan Mountains and Alxa Plateau in the east. AMOVA and SAMOVA showed that over all populations, the species lacks phylogeographical structure, which is speculated to be the result of its specific biology. Neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analysis support past range expansions of the species. Comparing the current distribution to those cold and dry conditions in LGM, Z. xanthoxylon had a shrunken and more fragmented range during LGM. Based on the evidences from phylogeographical patterns, distribution of genetic variability, and paleodistribution modeling, Z. xanthoxylon is speculated most likely to have originated from the east and migrated westward via the Hexi Corridor. PMID:25626403

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, Isolated from the West Coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj SV, Vamsi; Shrivastav, Anupama; Dubey, Sonam; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, a halophilic bacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It was isolated from the sea coast of Aadri, Veraval, Gujarat, India. Its genome contains genes for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a substitute for petroleum plastics. PMID:25593258

  18. Aftershocks triggered by fluid intrusion: Evidence for the aftershock sequence occurred 2014 in West Bohemia/Vogtland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainzl, S.; Fischer, T.; Čermáková, H.; Bachura, M.; Vlček, J.

    2016-04-01

    The West Bohemia/Vogtland region, central Europe, is well known for its repeating swarm activity. However, the latest activity in 2014, although spatially overlapping with previous swarm activity, consisted of three classical aftershock sequences triggered by ML3.5, 4.4, and 3.5 events. To decode the apparent system change from swarm-type to mainshock-aftershock characteristics, we have analyzed the details of the major ML4.4 sequence based on focal mechanisms and relocated earthquake data. Our analysis shows that the mainshock occurred with rotated mechanism in a step over region of the fault plane, unfavorably oriented to the regional stress field. Most of its intense aftershock activity occurred in-plane with classical characteristics such as (i) the maximum magnitude of the aftershocks is significantly less than the mainshock magnitude and (ii) the decay can be well fitted by the Omori-Utsu law. However, the absolute number of aftershocks and the fitted Omori-Utsu c and p parameters are much larger than for typical sequences. By means of the epidemic-type aftershock sequence model, we show that an additional aseismic source with an exponentially decaying strength triggered a large fraction of the aftershocks. Corresponding pore pressure simulations with an exponentially decreasing flow rate of the fluid source show a good agreement with the observed spatial migration front of the aftershocks extending approximately with log(t). Thus, we conclude that the mainshock opened fluid pathways from a finite fluid source into the fault plane explaining the unusual high rate of aftershocks, the migration patterns, and the exponential decrease of the aseismic signal.

  19. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of upper Pleistocene carbonates of southeastern Barbardos, West Indies

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, J.D.; Kimbell, T.N. )

    1990-11-01

    Upper Pleistocene reef-associated carbonates of southeastern Barbados have been studied in outcrop and core. Reef terraces, formed during glacio-eustatic sea level highstands and subsequently uplifted, are characterized by thick and areally extensive sequences of allochthonous and autochthonous fore-reef calcarenites. Depositional textures are primarily packstones, and grainstones, wackestones, and coral floatstones are volumetrically less significant. Sediments are coarse- to fine-grained reef-derived allochems and micrite, and autochthonous benthic foraminifera and coralline red algae. Rates of sediment accumulation of fore-reef calcarenites range from about 1 to 4 m/1,000 yr. Although of relatively small scale, the carbonate terraces of southeastern Barbados provide excellent analogs for sequence stratigraphic concepts in carbonate settings. The terraces are primarily highstand systems tract deposits separated by type 1 unconformities. These highstand deposits are characterized by reef development and the progradation of fore-reef calcarenites. Extensive fore-reef deposits resulted from mechanical erosion of the reef framework on this high-energy, windward coastline. Type 1 unconformities are characterized by thin caliche layers developed during lowstand subaerial exposure. Thin basal transgressive systems tract deposits are characterized by incorporation of extraformational clasts derived from the underlying sequence during sea level rise. Slope-front erosion, vertical shift in the position of freshwater lens, and shift in the position of coastal onlap are all consequences of the interplay between eustasy and tectonics. These effects and the development of facies geometries on Barbados are primarily controlled by the glacio-eustatic component, inasmuch as rates of eustatic changes of sea level are at least two orders of magnitude greater than the maximum average rates of tectonic uplift. 12 figs.

  20. Complete genome sequence of the highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 isolated from disease channel catfish from West Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 was cultured from infected channel catfish during the 2009 disease outbreak in West Alabama. The complete genome of this highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp in size. The genome has 4489 coding sequences, 11 cop...

  1. Repetitive reef to ooid sequences near leeward margin of Caicos Platform, British West Indies

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, M.; Rossinsky, V.; Wanless, H.R.

    1987-05-01

    Drill core transects and outcrops near the leeward margin of the Caicos Platform, BWI, reveal repetitive (one Holocene and two Pleistocene) shallowing-upward sequences of either (a) reefal boundstones overlain by layered oolitic grainstones or (b) burrowed oolitic grainstones overlain by layered oolitic grainstones. Each sediment sequence is separated from the other by a calcrete exposure surface. A transect, perpendicular to the trend of an exposed Pleistocene barrier reef/ooid sand complex, shows two separate sediment packages of reefal boundstones and reef-derived skeletal packstones overlain by layered oolitic grainstones. The well-exposed upper package consists of a shallowing-upward barrier reef, which is immediately overlain by burrowed and cross-bedded oolitic grainstones, beach rock blocks, and coral rubble, capped by layered oolitic grainstones. Separated by an exposure horizon, the lowermost package consists of coral and skeletal sands overlain by layered oolitic grainstones. Cores from a transect in a non-reefal setting north of the barrier reef complex reveal highly burrowed oolitic grainstones capped by layered oolitic grainstones. As a Holocene example, immediately offshore of this transect, modern reefs and bioturbated oolitic grainstones are presently being buried beneath coral rubble, beach rock blocks, and prograding oolitic beaches. Deposition of the capping layered oolitic grainstones appears to occur during stable and falling sea levels. This co-occurrence of reefal sediment and ooid sands suggests that the two are not mutually exclusive and that reef-ooid succession is a reoccurring part of leeward margin platform margin-building.

  2. Genetic Characterization of Fasciola Isolates from West Azerbaijan Province Iran Based on ITS1 and ITS2 Sequence of Ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    GALAVANI, Hossein; GHOLIZADEH, Saber; HAZRATI TAPPEH, Khosrow

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, has medical and economic importance in the world. Molecular approaches comparing traditional methods using for identification and characterization of Fasciola spp. are precise and reliable. The aims of current study were molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran and then comparative analysis of them using GenBank sequences. Methods: A total number of 580 isolates were collected from different hosts in five cities of West Azerbaijan Province, in 2014 from 90 slaughtered cattle (n=50) and sheep (n=40). After morphological identification and DNA extraction, designing specific primer were used to amplification of ITS1, 5.8s and ITS2 regions, 50 samples were conducted to sequence, randomly. Result: Using morphometric characters 99.14% and 0.86% of isolates identified as F. hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively. PCR amplification of 1081 bp fragment and sequencing result showed 100% similarity with F. hepatica in ITS1 (428 bp), 5.8s (158 bp), and ITS2 (366 bp) regions. Sequence comparison among current study sequences and GenBank data showed 98% identity with 11 nucleotide mismatches. However, in phylogenetic tree F. hepatica sequences of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, were in a close relationship with Iranian, Asian, and African isolates. Conclusions: Only F. hepatica species is distributed among sheep and cattle in West Azerbaijan Province Iran. However, 5 and 6 bp variation in ITS1 and ITS2 regions, respectively, is not enough to separate of Fasciola spp. Therefore, more studies are essential for designing new molecular markers to correct species identification. PMID:27095969

  3. Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays for rapid detection of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, R S; Kerst, A J

    2001-12-01

    The development and application of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assays for the detection of West Nile (WN) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses are reported. Two unique detection formats were developed for the NASBA assays: a postamplification detection step with a virus-specific internal capture probe and electrochemiluminescence (NASBA-ECL assay) and a real-time assay with 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled virus-specific molecular beacon probes (NASBA-beacon assay). The sensitivities and specificities of these NASBA assays were compared to those of a newly described standard reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and TaqMan assays for SLE virus and to a previously published TaqMan assay for WN virus. The NASBA assays demonstrated exceptional sensitivities and specificities compared to those of virus isolation, the TaqMan assays, and standard RT-PCR, with the NASBA-beacon assay yielding results in less than 1 h. These assays should be of utility in the diagnostic laboratory to complement existing diagnostic testing methodologies and as a tool in conducting flavivirus surveillance in the United States. PMID:11724870

  4. The emerging tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs.

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, V; Richards, M; Hickey, E; Vega, E; Cruciani, F; Guida, V; Scozzari, R; Bonné-Tamir, B; Sykes, B; Torroni, A

    1999-01-01

    Variation in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is now routinely described and used to infer the histories of peoples, by means of one of two procedures, namely, the assaying of RFLPs throughout the genome and the sequencing of parts of the control region (CR). Using 95 samples from the Near East and northwest Caucasus, we present an analysis based on both systems, demonstrate their concordance, and, using additional available information, present the most refined phylogeny to date of west Eurasian mtDNA. We describe and apply a nomenclature for mtDNA clusters. Hypervariable nucleotides are identified, and the relative mutation rates of the two systems are evaluated. We point out where ambiguities remain. The identification of signature mutations for each cluster leads us to apply a hierarchical scheme for determining the cluster composition of a sample of Berber speakers, previously analyzed only for CR variation. We show that the main indigenous North African cluster is a sister group to the most ancient cluster of European mtDNAs, from which it diverged approximately 50,000 years ago. PMID:9915963

  5. Full-Genome Sequence of a Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain from a Fatal Horse Infection in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mentoor, Juliet L. D.; Lubisi, Alison B.; Gerdes, Truuska; Human, Stacey; Williams, June H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strain that resulted in fatal neurological disease in a horse in South Africa. Several recent reports exist of neurological disease associated with lineage 2 WNV in humans and horses in South Africa and Europe; however, there are a lack of sequencing data from recent fatal cases in Southern Africa, where these strains likely originate. A better understanding of the genetic composition of highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains may facilitate the identification of putative genetic factors associated with increased virulence. PMID:27469963

  6. Full-Genome Sequence of a Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain from a Fatal Horse Infection in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mentoor, Juliet L D; Lubisi, Alison B; Gerdes, Truuska; Human, Stacey; Williams, June H; Venter, Marietjie

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strain that resulted in fatal neurological disease in a horse in South Africa. Several recent reports exist of neurological disease associated with lineage 2 WNV in humans and horses in South Africa and Europe; however, there are a lack of sequencing data from recent fatal cases in Southern Africa, where these strains likely originate. A better understanding of the genetic composition of highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains may facilitate the identification of putative genetic factors associated with increased virulence. PMID:27469963

  7. Detection and sequencing of West Nile virus RNA from human urine and serum samples during the 2014 seasonal period.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Anna; Bán, Enikő; Nagy, Orsolya; Ferenczi, Emőke; Farkas, Ágnes; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia; Takács, Mária

    2016-07-01

    West Nile virus, a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus, is responsible for numerous animal and human infections in Europe, Africa and the Americas. In Hungary, the average number of human infections falls between 10 and 20 cases each year. The severity of clinically manifesting infections varies widely from the milder form of West Nile fever to West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). In routine laboratory diagnosis of human West Nile virus infections, serological methods are mainly applied due to the limited duration of viremia. However, recent studies suggest that detection of West Nile virus RNA in urine samples may be useful as a molecular diagnostic test for these infections. The Hungarian National Reference Laboratory for Viral Zoonoses serologically confirmed eleven acute human infections during the 2014 seasonal period. In three patients with neurological symptoms, viral RNA was detected from both urine and serum specimens, albeit for a longer period and in higher copy numbers with urine. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS3 genomic region of three strains and the complete genome of one selected strain demonstrated that all three patients had lineage-2 West Nile virus infections. Our findings reaffirm the utility of viral RNA detection in urine as a molecular diagnostic procedure for diagnosis of West Nile virus infections. PMID:27038827

  8. Mapping Layer Sequence and Folds of Pre-Holocene Ice at the Pakitsoq "Horizontal Ice Coring"-Site, West Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeh, N.; Severinghaus, J.; Ahlstrom, A.; Brook, E.; Petrenko, V.

    2005-12-01

    Since 1985, the δ18O content of the surface ice has been studied at several ice-margin locations in Greenland. A provisional chronology for the ice margin records was established by correlating characteristic δ18O-features in the ice margin records with similar features in dated Greenland deep ice core records. This demonstrated that, at many ice-margin locations, a several hundred metre wide band of ice pre-dating the present warm interglacial occurs adjacent to the ice edge. A main concern with utilizing this aincient ice for studies of the past has been the fear of likely disturbances of the layer sequence by folds and faults. Recent trace element analyses of ice samples from the ice-sheet margin at Pakitsoq, 50 km northeast of Ilulissat/Jakobshavn, West Greenland have unambiguously demonstrated the occurrence of ice from the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene including ice from the Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas intervals. Thus large amounts of well-dated old ice with intact content of trace constituents are available at the Pakitsoq ice-margin. However, analysis of the trace constituents as well as visual inspection also demonstrated the occurrence of a large-scale fold in ice representing the Allerød/Younger Dryas/Pre-Boreal climate oscillation. Moreover, observations of ice ablation and dynamics clearly showed that the Pakitsoq ice-margin sector is presently far from a balanced state, stressing the need for developing a model for the evolution of the ice margin in order to support future ice-mining activities. Here, we report on the development of such a model based on mapping of the large-scale structures on the ice margin by using GPS, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and trace element geo-chemical analysis (mainly δ18O-analysis of ice samples). Samples for δ18O-analysis were collected each year in the period 2001 - 2005 in several profiles across the large scale fold in order to document the time evolution. Altogether more

  9. Helena, the hidden beauty: Resolving the most common West Eurasian mtDNA control region haplotype by massively parallel sequencing an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Iuvaro, Alessandra; Strobl, Christina; Nagl, Simone; Huber, Gabriela; Pelotti, Susi; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Parson, Walther

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of mitochondrial (mt)DNA is a powerful tool in forensic genetics when nuclear markers fail to give results or maternal relatedness is investigated. The mtDNA control region (CR) contains highly condensed variation and is therefore routinely typed. Some samples exhibit an identical haplotype in this restricted range. Thus, they convey only weak evidence in forensic queries and limited phylogenetic information. However, a CR match does not imply that also the mtDNA coding regions are identical or samples belong to the same phylogenetic lineage. This is especially the case for the most frequent West Eurasian CR haplotype 263G 315.1C 16519C, which is observed in various clades within haplogroup H and occurs at a frequency of 3-4% in many European populations. In this study, we investigated the power of massively parallel complete mtGenome sequencing in 29 Italian samples displaying the most common West Eurasian CR haplotype - and found an unexpected high diversity. Twenty-eight different haplotypes falling into 19 described sub-clades of haplogroup H were revealed in the samples with identical CR sequences. This study demonstrates the benefit of complete mtGenome sequencing for forensic applications to enforce maximum discrimination, more comprehensive heteroplasmy detection, as well as highest phylogenetic resolution. PMID:25303789

  10. Cranial morphometrics and mitochondrial DNA sequences distinguish cryptic species of the longface emperor (Lethrinus olivaceus), an emblematic fish of Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Borsa, Philippe; Hsiao, Dun-Ren; Carpenter, Kent E; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Range-wide morphometric variability (cranial measurements) and genetic variability (nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene) were investigated in the longface emperor, Lethrinus olivaceus (Lethrinidae), an emblematic large predatory fish of Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. Two cranial morphotypes were observed, one present from the Indian Ocean to the Coral Triangle and the other one, from the Coral Triangle to the western Central Pacific. The two morphotypes are concordant with reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial lineages separated by 9.5% net nucleotide distance. These results suggest an old evolutionary history for L. olivaceus, which consists of two distinct species (Lethrinus sp. A in the Indian Ocean and Coral Triangle, Lethrinus sp. B in the western Pacific Ocean), whose distribution ranges meet or overlap in the eastern part of the Coral Triangle, in Taiwan and in West Papua. Lethrinus sp. A comprises two distinct mitochondrial lineages separated by 1.7% net nucleotide distance, one exclusive to the populations from the Indian Ocean, the other exclusive to Coral Triangle populations. The latter observation might be explained by vicariance, whereby the two lineages have been isolated from one another on either side of the Sunda Shelf because of low sea level in the Pleistocene. To clarify the nomenclature of this species complex, we recommend sequencing a fragment of the cytochrome b gene of the holotypes of L. olivaceus and of its first junior synonyms L. rostratus and L. waigiensis. PMID:24246893

  11. A conserved predicted pseudoknot in the NS2A-encoding sequence of West Nile and Japanese encephalitis flaviviruses suggests NS1' may derive from ribosomal frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Andrew E; Atkins, John F

    2009-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger Flavivirus genus. These viruses utilize a single-polyprotein expression strategy, resulting in ~10 mature proteins. Plotting the conservation at synonymous sites along the polyprotein coding sequence reveals strong conservation peaks at the very 5' end of the coding sequence, and also at the 5' end of the sequence encoding the NS2A protein. Such peaks are generally indicative of functionally important non-coding sequence elements. The second peak corresponds to a predicted stable pseudoknot structure whose biological importance is supported by compensatory mutations that preserve the structure. The pseudoknot is preceded by a conserved slippery heptanucleotide (Y CCU UUU), thus forming a classical stimulatory motif for -1 ribosomal frameshifting. We hypothesize, therefore, that the functional importance of the pseudoknot is to stimulate a portion of ribosomes to shift -1 nt into a short (45 codon), conserved, overlapping open reading frame, termed foo. Since cleavage at the NS1-NS2A boundary is known to require synthesis of NS2A in cis, the resulting transframe fusion protein is predicted to be NS1-NS2AN-term-FOO. We hypothesize that this may explain the origin of the previously identified NS1 'extension' protein in JEV-group flaviviruses, known as NS1'. PMID:19196463

  12. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting cotton in the Republic of Benin in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Mignouna, Djana B; Brown, Judith K; Fondong, Vincent N

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a novel bipartite begomovirus isolated from cotton plants (Gossypium raimondii, Malvaceae) exhibiting light yellow mosaic symptoms. The genome sequence was determined by Illumina DNA sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing of RCA-enriched, cloned circular genomic components. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were each ~2.7 kb in size, and their genome arrangement was characteristic of other Old World bipartite begomoviruses. While the DNA-A component was most closely related to tobacco leaf curl Comoros virus (TbLCKMV) at 80 %, the DNA-B component had as its closet relative soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV) at 66 %. This previously undescribed begomovirus is herein named "cotton yellow mosaic virus" (CYMV). PMID:27224982

  13. Next-generation sequencing shows West Nile virus quasispecies diversification after a single passage in a carrion crow (Corvus corone) in vivo infection model.

    PubMed

    Dridi, M; Rosseel, T; Orton, R; Johnson, P; Lecollinet, S; Muylkens, B; Lambrecht, B; Van Borm, S

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) occurs as a population of genetic variants (quasispecies) infecting a single animal. Previous low-resolution viral genetic diversity estimates in sampled wild birds and mosquitoes, and in multiple-passage adaptation studies in vivo or in cell culture, suggest that WNV genetic diversification is mostly limited to the mosquito vector. This study investigated genetic diversification of WNV in avian hosts during a single passage using next-generation sequencing. Wild-captured carrion crows were subcutaneously infected using a clonal Middle-East WNV. Blood samples were collected 2 and 4 days post-infection. A reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR approach was used to amplify the WNV genome directly from serum samples prior to next-generation sequencing resulting in an average depth of at least 700 ×  in each sample. Appropriate controls were sequenced to discriminate biologically relevant low-frequency variants from experimentally introduced errors. The WNV populations in the wild crows showed significant diversification away from the inoculum virus quasispecies structure. By contrast, WNV populations in intracerebrally infected day-old chickens did not diversify from that of the inoculum. Where previous studies concluded that WNV genetic diversification is only experimentally demonstrated in its permissive insect vector species, we have experimentally shown significant diversification of WNV populations in a wild bird reservoir species. PMID:26297666

  14. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  15. Probing the Rare Biosphere of the North-West Mediterranean Sea: An Experiment with High Sequencing Effort

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Bibiana G.; Wallhead, Philip J.; Logares, Ramiro; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques have suggested the existence of a wealth of species with very low relative abundance: the rare biosphere. We attempted to exhaustively map this rare biosphere in two water samples by performing an exceptionally deep pyrosequencing analysis (~500,000 final reads per sample). Species data were derived by a 97% identity criterion and various parametric distributions were fitted to the observed counts. Using the best-fitting Sichel distribution we estimate a total species richness of 1,568–1,669 (95% Credible Interval) and 5,027–5,196 for surface and deep water samples respectively, implying that 84–89% of the total richness in those two samples was sequenced, and we predict that a quadrupling of the present sequencing effort would suffice to observe 90% of the total richness in both samples. Comparing the HTS results with a culturing approach we found that most of the cultured taxa were not obtained by HTS, despite the high sequencing effort. Culturing therefore remains a useful tool for uncovering marine bacterial diversity, in addition to its other uses for studying the ecology of marine bacteria. PMID:27442429

  16. Probing the Rare Biosphere of the North-West Mediterranean Sea: An Experiment with High Sequencing Effort.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Bibiana G; Wallhead, Philip J; Logares, Ramiro; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques have suggested the existence of a wealth of species with very low relative abundance: the rare biosphere. We attempted to exhaustively map this rare biosphere in two water samples by performing an exceptionally deep pyrosequencing analysis (~500,000 final reads per sample). Species data were derived by a 97% identity criterion and various parametric distributions were fitted to the observed counts. Using the best-fitting Sichel distribution we estimate a total species richness of 1,568-1,669 (95% Credible Interval) and 5,027-5,196 for surface and deep water samples respectively, implying that 84-89% of the total richness in those two samples was sequenced, and we predict that a quadrupling of the present sequencing effort would suffice to observe 90% of the total richness in both samples. Comparing the HTS results with a culturing approach we found that most of the cultured taxa were not obtained by HTS, despite the high sequencing effort. Culturing therefore remains a useful tool for uncovering marine bacterial diversity, in addition to its other uses for studying the ecology of marine bacteria. PMID:27442429

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of an Industrially Important Bacillus sp. from Mandarmani Coastal Waters in Midnapur District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reported here is the draft genome sequence of an amylase-, protease-, DNase-, oxidase-, gelatinase-, and catalase-producing, Gram-positive diplobacillus (Bacillus sp. SM1 strain MCC2138), which was isolated from marine coastal waters and has the ability to degum raw silk fabric as well as Ramie fiber. The genome comprises 1.76 Mb with a GC content of 34.5%. PMID:27540077

  18. Neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus identified directly from human B cells by single-cell analysis and next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tsioris, Konstantinos; Gupta, Namita T; Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Zimnisky, Ross M; Qian, Feng; Yao, Yi; Wang, Xiaomei; Stern, Joel N H; Chari, Raj; Briggs, Adrian W; Clouser, Christopher R; Vigneault, Francois; Church, George M; Garcia, Melissa N; Murray, Kristy O; Montgomery, Ruth R; Kleinstein, Steven H; Love, J Christopher

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that can lead to severe neurological illness and currently has no available treatment or vaccine. Using microengraving, an integrated single-cell analysis method, we analyzed a cohort of subjects infected with WNV - recently infected and post-convalescent subjects - and efficiently identified four novel WNV neutralizing antibodies. We also assessed the humoral response to WNV on a single-cell and repertoire level by integrating next generation sequencing (NGS) into our analysis. The results from single-cell analysis indicate persistence of WNV-specific memory B cells and antibody-secreting cells in post-convalescent subjects. These cells exhibited class-switched antibody isotypes. Furthermore, the results suggest that the antibody response itself does not predict the clinical severity of the disease (asymptomatic or symptomatic). Using the nucleotide coding sequences for WNV-specific antibodies derived from single cells, we revealed the ontogeny of expanded WNV-specific clones in the repertoires of recently infected subjects through NGS and bioinformatic analysis. This analysis also indicated that the humoral response to WNV did not depend on an anamnestic response, due to an unlikely previous exposure to the virus. The innovative and integrative approach presented here to analyze the evolution of neutralizing antibodies from natural infection on a single-cell and repertoire level can also be applied to vaccine studies, and could potentially aid the development of therapeutic antibodies and our basic understanding of other infectious diseases. PMID:26481611

  19. The Complete Sequence of a West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain Detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Tick Collected from a Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) in Eastern Romania in 2013 Revealed Closest Genetic Relationship to Strain Volgograd 2007

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J.; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

  20. Evolution of the polyploid north-west Iberian Leucanthemum pluriflorum clan (Compositae, Anthemideae) based on plastid DNA sequence variation and AFLP fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Roland; Vogt, Robert; Oberprieler, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Leucanthemum is a species-rich polyploid complex from southern and central Europe, comprising 41 species with ploidy ranging from 2x to 22x. The present contribution aims at reconstructing the evolutionary history of a geographically isolated species group (the L. pluriflorum clan) from the north-west Iberian Peninsula comprising the diploid L. pluriflorum, the tetraploids L. ircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum and L. × corunnense (a putative hybrid taxon based on crossing between L. pluriflorum and L. merinoi), and the hexaploids L. sylvaticum and L. merinoi. Methods Chromosome number variation (determined flow cytometrically) and sequence variation were analysed for two intergenic spacer regions on the plastid genome (psbA-trnH and trnC-petN) for individuals from 54 populations in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting of 246 representative individuals from these populations. Key Results Plastid sequence data revealed that all surveyed members of the L. pluriflorum clan possess plastid haplotypes that are closely related to each other and distinctly separated from other Leucanthemum species. AFLP fingerprinting resulted in allopolyploid fragment patterns for most of the polyploid populations, except for the tetraploid L. × corunnense and a further tetraploid population in northern Galicia, which cluster with the diploids rather than with the other polyploids. In silico modelling of (auto)tetraploid AFLP genotypes further corroborates the allopolyploid nature of L. ircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum, L. sylvaticum and L. merinoi. Conclusions The present study provides evidence for recognizing one diploid (L. pluriflorum), one autotetraploid (L. corunnense), one allotetraploid (L. pseudosylvaticum) and one allohexaploid (L. sylvaticum with the two geographically and ecologically differentiated subspecies subsp. sylvaticum and subsp. merinoi) in the L. pluriflorum clan. It also has implications

  1. Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

    2013-09-01

    A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous Allocladus-Brachyphyllum-Pagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated Weichselia-Onychiopsis-Gleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two ‘biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

  2. Coastal uplift west of Algiers (Algeria): pre- and post-Messinian sequences of marine terraces and rasas and their associated drainage pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Authemayou, Christine; Pedoja, Kevin; Heddar, Aicha; Molliex, Stéphane; Boudiaf, Azzedine; Ghaleb, Bassam; Van Vliet Lanoe, Brigitte; Delcaillau, Bernard; Djellit, Hamou; Yelles, Karim; Nexer, Maelle

    2016-01-01

    The North Africa passive margin is affected by the ongoing convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. This convergence is responsible for coastal uplift, folding, and reverse faulting on new and reactivated faults on the margin. The active deformation is diffuse and thus rather difficult to locate precisely. We aim to determine how a coastal landscape evolve in this geodynamic setting and gain insights into active tectonics. More particularly, we evidence and quantify coastal uplift pattern of the Chenoua, Sahel, and Algiers reliefs (Algeria), using sequences of marine terraces and rasas and computing several morphometric indices from the drainage pattern. Upper and Middle Pleistocene uplift rates are obtained by fossil shoreline mapping and preliminary U/Th dating of associated coastal deposits. Extrapolation of these rates combined to analyses of sea-level referential data and spatial relationships between marine terraces/rasas and other geological markers lead us to tentatively propose an age for the highest coastal indicators (purported the oldest). Values of morphometric indices showing correlations with uplift rate allow us to analyze uplift variation on area devoid of coastal sequence. Geological and geomorphological data suggest that coastal uplift probably occurred since the Middle Miocene. It resulted in the emergence of the Algiers massif, followed by the Sahel ridge massif. The Sahel ridge has asymmetrically grown by folding from west to east and was affected by temporal variation of uplift. Compared to previous study, the location of the Sahel fold axis has been shifted offshore, near the coast. The Chenoua fault vertical motion does not offset significantly the coastal sequence. Mean apparent uplift rates and corrected uplift rates since 120 ka are globally steady all along the coast with a mean value of 0.055 ± 0.015 mm/year (apparent) and of 0.005 ± 0.045 mm/year (corrected for eustasy). Mean apparent coastal uplift rates between 120 and

  3. Stratigraphic Framework and Depositional Sequences in the Lower Silurian Regional Oil and Gas Accumulation, Appalachian Basin: From Licking County, Ohio, to Fayette County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    wells drilled there since the late 1880s. However, new gas and local oil continues to be discovered in the deeper basin-center part (Zagorski, 1991; Pees, 1994; Petroleum Information Corporation, 1994). In general, only small quantities of gas have been produced from the Tuscarora Sandstone fields because of their generally poor reservoir quality and because of the low energy (Btu) content of the gas (Avary, 1996). Although fracture porosity is the dominant porosity type in the Tuscarora Sandstone gas reservoirs (Avary, 1996), there are several fields, such as Indian Creek, where intergranular porosity seems to be important (Bruner, 1983; Castle and Byrnes, 2005). In order to better understand the character and origin of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation and its component parts, six cross sections were drawn through the Lower Silurian strata in parts of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. The locations of all six cross sections are shown on sheet 2 (figs. 1 and 2) of this report. Each cross section shows the stratigraphic framework, depositional setting, sequence stratigraphy, and hydrocarbon-producing intervals of the Lower Silurian sandstone reservoirs and adjoining strata. Cross section F-F' presented here is about 215 mi long and trends northwestward, approximately normal to the depositional strike of the Lower Silurian sandstone system, and extends through large stretches of the basin-center and hybrid-conventional parts of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation.

  4. Investigation of sea-level changes and shelf break prograding sequences during the Late Quaternary offshore of Kusadasi (West Anatolia) and surroundings by high resolution seismic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurcay, Savas; Cifci, Gunay; Dondurur, Derman; Okay, Seda; Atgin, Orhan; Ozel, Ozkan; Mert Kucuk, Hilmi

    2016-04-01

    High Resolution multi-channel seismic reflection and Chirp data were collected by K. Piri Reis, research vessel of Dokuz Eylül University, in the central Aegean coast of the West Anatolia by research cruises carried out in 2005 and 2008, respectively. Submarine stratigraphic and structural features of Sıǧacık Gulf, Kuşadası Gulf and surroundings were investigated under this survey. The data were processed and interpreted in SeisLab, D.E.U. Marine Sciences and Technology seismic laboratory. Thirteen distinct unconformities can be traced below the study area that separate thirteen progradational stacked paleo-delta sequences (Lob1-Lob13) on seismic profiles following and cutting each other. As a result of comparison with the oxygen isotopic stages (δ18), these deltas (Lob1-L13) were interpreted that they have been deposited during the sea-level lowstands within Pleistocene glacial stages. In the study area the basement surface which observed as the lowest unconformity surface of the seismic sections was called 'Acoustic Basement'. This basement which traced approximately all of the seismic sections has generally quite wavy surface and underlain the upper seismic units. It was observed that these seismic units which terminated their formation in Pleistocene (Lob1-Lob13) and Holocene period were cut and uplifted by acoustic basement, like an intrusion. These type deformations were interpreted as a result of magmatic intrusion into these upper seismic units occurred in Late Pleistocene and Holocene period. Tectonic and structural interpretation was carried out to constitute the submarine active tectonic map of the study area by correlated active faults identified on seismic sections. Submarine active tectonic map and, basement topography and sediment thickness map were correlated together to present the relationship between tectonic deformation and stratigraphy.

  5. Hybrid channel flow-type mechanisms in the Greater Himalayan Sequence (West Nepal): new constraints from vorticity of flow and quartz petrofabric analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassi, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Three main tectono-metamorphic units are classically recognized along the Himalayan belt: the Lesser Himalayan (LH), the Greater Himalayan sequence (GHS) and the Tibetan Sedimentary sequence (TSS). The GHS may be interpreted as a low-viscosity tabular body of mid-crustal rocks extruded southward in Miocene times beneath the Tibetan plateau between two parallel and opposite-sense crustal-scale shear zones: the Main Central thrust at the base, and the South Tibetan Detachment system at the top. The pre-/syn-shearing mineral assemblage documented within these crustal-scale shear zones indicates that the metamorphic grade increases toward the core of the GHS producing an inverted and a normal thermal gradient respectively on the top and on the bottom of the slab. In addition, thermal profiles estimated using both petrology- and microstructures/fabrics-based thermometers indicate that the metamorphic isograds are condensed. Although horizontal extension and vorticity estimates collected across the GHS could be strongly biased by the criteria used to define the map position of the MCT, published vorticity data document general shear flow (1>Wk>0) within the slab with a pure-shear component of flow slightly predominant within the core of the GHS whereas the simple-shear component seems to dominate at the top of the slab. The lower boundary of the GHS records a general shear flow with a comparable contribution of simple and pure shearing. The associated crustal extrusion is compatible with Couette - Poiseuille velocity flow profile as assumed in crustal-scale channel flow-type models In this study, the quartz c-axis petrofabrics, vorticity and deformation-temperature studies are integrated with microstructures and metamorphic studies to individuate the location of the MCT and to document the spatial distribution of ductile deformation patterns across the lower portion of the GHS exposed in the Chaudabise river valley in western Nepal. My results indicate that the Main

  6. Lower Triassic sequence stratigraphy of the western part of the Germanic Basin (west of Black Forest): Fluvial system evolution through time and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Peron, Samuel; Durand, Marc

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the fluvial evolution of the Lower Triassic in the western part of the Germanic Basin through time and space, as well as the impact of the geodynamic and climatic setting on the preservation of fluvial deposits. The Lower Triassic crops out only in the Vosges Massif and the Black Forest, so well-log studies are required to realise sequence stratigraphy correlations and establish comparisons with others parts of the Germanic Basin. In a first step, we use well-log data analyses to characterise the electrofacies associations in the Triassic and then define the well-log signatures of each formation. In a second step, the characterisation and recognition of genetic sequences and their stacking pattern allow us to define seven minor cycles integrated into two major cycles. Finally, the quantification of the lithologies at different stages of basin evolution leads to the reconstruction of paleoenvironmental maps to illustrate facies evolution through space and time. A comparison with cycles defined in the Germanic Basin allows us to propose correlations of the Lower Triassic on either side of the Rhine Graben and leads to a discussion of the evolution of fluvial systems through time and space. During the Scythian, the fluvial style is characterised by braided fluvial systems evolving laterally into lake deposits towards the central part of the Germanic Basin. During this stage, the basin was a huge depression with very few marine connections in its extreme eastern part. The stratigraphic cycles represent rhythmic fluctuations in relative lake level that could be attributed to sediment supply and/or lake level variations in an arid setting. Four minor stratigraphic cycles are observed that are integrated within a single major stratigraphic cycle. During the period of the stratigraphic base-level rise of the major cycle, a maximum of 233 m of sediment would represent a duration of sedimentation in the Paris Basin of at least 1.8 m

  7. High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Caucasus and West Asia: high diversity and demographic inferences

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg, Anna; Theunert, Christoph; Li, Mingkun; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the demographic history of human populations from the Caucasus and surrounding regions, we used high-throughput sequencing to generate 147 complete mtDNA genome sequences from random samples of individuals from three groups from the Caucasus (Armenians, Azeri and Georgians), and one group each from Iran and Turkey. Overall diversity is very high, with 144 different sequences that fall into 97 different haplogroups found among the 147 individuals. Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of population size change through time show a population expansion around 40–50 kya, followed by a constant population size, and then another expansion around 15–18 kya for the groups from the Caucasus and Iran. The BSP for Turkey differs the most from the others, with an increase from 35 to 50 kya followed by a prolonged period of constant population size, and no indication of a second period of growth. An approximate Bayesian computation approach was used to estimate divergence times between each pair of populations; the oldest divergence times were between Turkey and the other four groups from the South Caucasus and Iran (∼400–600 generations), while the divergence time of the three Caucasus groups from each other was comparable to their divergence time from Iran (average of ∼360 generations). These results illustrate the value of random sampling of complete mtDNA genome sequences that can be obtained with high-throughput sequencing platforms. PMID:21487439

  8. Third-order sequences and parasequence stacking patterns of Lower Ordovician platform carbonates of the El Paso Group, Franklin Mountains, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhammer, R.K.; Lehmann, P.J.; Dunn, P.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lower Ordovician passive margin succession of the Franklin Mountains is represented by the second-order Sauk C supersequence set consisting of the Bliss Sandstone and the overlying El Paso Group. The Bliss marks the second order basal lowstand-transgressive phase and the El Paso Group records the second-order highstand. The El Paso Group contains several third-order depositional sequences, which in this updip, shelfal position lack internal stratal geometries along dip. Thus, sequences and systems tracts are identified solely on the basis of the vertical stacking patterns of depositional subfacies and high frequency, fifth-order parasequences. 'Fischer plots' of high-frequency parasequences gauge systematic shifts in third-order accommodation of two complete third-order sequences within the Arenigian portion of the El Paso Group. This is expressed in the vertical succession of parasequence types, systematic changes in parasequence thicknesses, plus variations in subfacies as revealed by histograms of subfacies types tied to 'Fischer plots.' A complete El Paso shelfal sequence contains a thin lowstand (LST) of quartzarenite, a thick transgressive systems tract (TST) dominated by upward-thickening, thrombolitic subtidal parasequences, and a highstand systems tract (HST) marked by dolomitic, thinning-upward peritidal parasequences containing admixed quartz sand. The authors have investigated the mechanics of third-order sequence formation and contrasted allocyclic models with autocyclic models for high-frequency parasequence formation through 1-D and 2-D forward modeling.

  9. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  10. Regional characteristics of 5--10 m scale carbonate cycles of Late Mississippian Greenbrier depositional sequences, West Virginia; Comparison of field and modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Tawil, A.A.; Read, J.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Late Mississippian Greenbrier ramp carbonates contain depositional sequences (each up to tens of meters thick) which consists of a few transgressive shaly/muddy carbonates that shallow up into high energy skeletal/oolitic grainstones and associated shoreline facies and red beds. Sequence boundaries are characterized by erosional unconformities, caliches, breccias, channeling, and lowstand clastics. Superimposed on the larger scale third order cyclicity are high frequency, 5--10 m scale carbonate dominated cycles (parasequences), possibly of 100 to 400 KY duration each. Updip, few cycles are developed. These consist of grainstone-dominated facies with sharp/erosional tops, locally developed eolianites and caliches (especially where associated with a sequence boundary). Tidal flat facies are relatively rare and thin. In the much thicker downdip sections, more carbonate cycles are developed. Cycles are dominated by skeletal packstone grading up into skeletal/oolitic grainstone, and some thick (up to 8 m) tidal flat laminated dolomites. The oolites are sheets to channeled bodies that locally prograde out over local bioherms. Oolites are rare in the furthest downdip sections on the ramp. Cycle boundaries rarely have caliches, but erosional and microkarstic surfaces are common. Comparison of the observed sections with computer generated synthetic cross sections suggests that the cycles were developed under moderate amplitude (tens of meters) high frequency Milankovitch eustatic sea level fluctuations dominated by 100--400 KY periods. These likely mark the onset of the Late Carboniferous glaciation in Gondwana. The modeling closely simulates limited updip cycle development, and abundant cycle development downdip, along with locally well developed lowstand tidal flats.

  11. Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon Basin, north west shelf, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, K.K. ); Durrant, J.D. )

    1996-01-01

    The Carnarvon Basin is one of Australia's most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.

  12. HLA-E coding and 3' untranslated region variability determined by next-generation sequencing in two West-African population samples.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Erick C; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Sabbagh, Audrey; Porto, Iane O P; Garcia, André; Ramalho, Jaqueline; Lima, Thálitta H A; Massaro, Juliana D; Dias, Fabrício C; Collares, Cristhianna V A; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno; Camara, Mamadou; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2015-12-01

    HLA-E is a non-classical Human Leucocyte Antigen class I gene with immunomodulatory properties. Whereas HLA-E expression usually occurs at low levels, it is widely distributed amongst human tissues, has the ability to bind self and non-self antigens and to interact with NK cells and T lymphocytes, being important for immunosurveillance and also for fighting against infections. HLA-E is usually the most conserved locus among all class I genes. However, most of the previous studies evaluating HLA-E variability sequenced only a few exons or genotyped known polymorphisms. Here we report a strategy to evaluate HLA-E variability by next-generation sequencing (NGS) that might be used to other HLA loci and present the HLA-E haplotype diversity considering the segment encoding the entire HLA-E mRNA (including 5'UTR, introns and the 3'UTR) in two African population samples, Susu from Guinea-Conakry and Lobi from Burkina Faso. Our results indicate that (a) the HLA-E gene is indeed conserved, encoding mainly two different protein molecules; (b) Africans do present several unknown HLA-E alleles presenting synonymous mutations; (c) the HLA-E 3'UTR is quite polymorphic and (d) haplotypes in the HLA-E 3'UTR are in close association with HLA-E coding alleles. NGS has proved to be an important tool on data generation for future studies evaluating variability in non-classical MHC genes. PMID:26187162

  13. Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon Basin, north west shelf, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, K.K.; Durrant, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Carnarvon Basin is one of Australia`s most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.

  14. West Nile virus (WNV) genome RNAs with up to three adjacent mutations that disrupt long distance 5'-3' cyclization sequence basepairs are viable

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Mausumi; Brinton, Margo A.

    2011-03-30

    Mosquito-borne flavivirus genomes contain conserved 5' and 3' cyclization sequences (CYC) that facilitate long distance RNA-RNA interactions. In previous studies, flavivirus replicon RNA replication was completely inhibited by single or multiple mismatching CYC nt substitutions. In the present study, full-length WNV genomes with one, two or three mismatching CYC substitutions showed reduced replication efficiencies but were viable and generated revertants with increased replication efficiency. Several different three adjacent mismatching CYC substitution mutant RNAs were rescued by a second site mutation that created an additional basepair (nts 147-10913) on the internal genomic side of the 5'-3' CYC. The finding that full-length genomes with up to three mismatching CYC mutations are viable and can be rescued by a single nt spontaneous mutation indicates that more than three adjacent CYC basepair substitutions would be required to increase the safety of vaccine genomes by creating mismatches in inter-genomic recombinants.

  15. A non-extensive statistical physics view to the spatiotemporal properties of the June 1995, Aigion earthquake (M6.2) aftershock sequence (West Corinth rift, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos; Michas, Giorgos; Papadakis, Giorgos; Sammonds, Peter

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, the spatiotemporal properties of the Aigion earthquake (15 June 1995) aftershock sequence are being studied using the concept of non-extensive statistical physics (NESP). The cumulative distribution functions of the inter-event times and the inter-event distances are being estimated for the data set which is assumed to be complete and the analysis yielded the thermodynamic q parameter to be qT = 1.58 and q r = 0.53 for the two distributions, respectively. The results fit rather well to the inter-event distances and times distributions, implying the complexity of the spatiotemporal properties of seismicity and the usefulness of NESP in investigating such phenomena. The temporal structure is also being discussed using the complementary to NESP approach of superstatistics, which is based on a superposition of ordinary local equilibrium statistical mechanics. The result indicates that very low degrees of freedom describe the temporal evolution of the Aigion earthquake aftershock seismicity.

  16. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetic results from Lower Triassic sequence of West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt - case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudzisz, Katarzyna; Szaniawski, Rafał; Michalski, Krzysztof; Manby, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-three oriented rock samples from 12 sites (ca. 450 specimens) located in the Lower Triassic Vardebukta Formation were analyzed. The samples were collected from the Hornsund - Sørkapp area in the southern part of West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt (WSFTB). The aim of this study was to test the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) method for the determination of tectonic paleostress pattern during the formation of WSFTB. The principal ferro- and paramagnetic minerals were also identified and their influence on the magnetic suceptibility was assessed. The NRM structure was determined in an attempt to link the remagnetization episodes with the well recognized tectono-thermal events related to WSFTB evolution. The results suggest that the magnetic susceptibility is controlled mainly by the paramagnetic minerals evidenced by the wide range of magnetic susceptibility values (20 - 400*10-6 SI). Only in one site, COND1, were the ferromagnetic minerals more dominant. A considerable variation in the shape of the AMS ellipsoids was noted. In eleven sites a normal magnetic fabric of sedimentary origin was detected which was associated with a relatively good clustering of the maximum AMS axes, caused by the tectonic strain. Samples with normal fabric reveal the presence of strong foliation parallel to the bedding plane. The orientation of the magnetic lineation, which indicates the maximum tectonic strain, approximates the regional structural NNW-SSE trend of the WSFTB. These results seem to support an orthogonal compression model for the formation of the WSFTB. Furthermore, the correspondence of the orientation of the maximum AMS axes with regional WSFTB structural trend is in conflict with interpretations assuming a strong strike - slip regime during WSFTB tectogenesis. The remaining two sites had mixed and inverted fabrics, the latter probably arising from the presence of iron-bearing carbonates in the samples. Preliminary palaeomagnetic results show that

  17. Tracing Mantle and Slab Contributions to the Proto Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Magmatism: Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of a Volcaniclastic Sequence From the Palau-Kyushu Ridge, West Philippine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, M.; Savov, I. P.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Spadea, P.; Lockwood, J.

    2005-05-01

    The submerged Palau-Kyushu Ridge (PKP) is the remnant of a proto-Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) island arc, which was active since about 48 to 35 Ma ago, contemporaneously to subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the spreading West Philippine basin. Volcanic activity along the PKR stopped in response to plate reorganization, and renewed subduction which initiated with an E-W rifting, separating the PKR from the Iwo Jima ridge in the north and the West Mariana Ridge in the south. A 400 m- thick sequence of turbidites containing volcaniclastic sediments, underlain by basin basalt with a magnetic age of 49 Ma, was drilled during ODP Leg 195 at Site 1201, located about 200 km off the western slope of the PKR. These volcaniclastics represent a unique opportunity to sample the past activity of the PKR. Therefore, the mineralogical and geochemical features of these volcaniclastics are used to investigate the petrogenesis of the proto-IBM arc magmas, and the temporal evolution of the currently active intra-oceanic IBM island arc and related back-arc basins. From the recovered turbidite sequence, many volcaniclasts (mm- to cm- sized) and fresh pyroxene and plagioclase grains (xenocrysts) were collected and investigated from a petrological point of view. Most of the clasts are angular (breccias), and no rounded grains occur in the xenocrysts population, suggesting that these materials were incorporated in the turbidites fairly quickly after removal from the slopes of the PKR. The analyzed clasts range in composition from basalt (one sample) to basaltic andesite (the majority); a few samples showing a high total alkalis content like mugearite, are classified as altered basalts enriched in alkalis by hydrothermal alteration. Trace element abundance and distribution are indicative of a calk-alkaline affinity, also evidenced by high LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios. Initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicate derivation of the parental magmas from an arc-like mantle source, suggesting

  18. West Nile virus (WNV) genome RNAs with up to three adjacent mutations that disrupt long distance 5′-3′ cyclization sequence basepairs are viable

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Mausumi; Brinton, Margo A.

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne flavivirus genomes contain conserved 5′ and 3′ cyclization sequences (CYC) that facilitate long distance RNA-RNA interactions. In previous studies, flavivirus replicon RNA replication was completely inhibited by single or multiple mismatching CYC nt substitutions. In the present study, full-length WNV genomes with one, two or three mismatching CYC substitutions showed reduced replication efficiencies but were viable and generated revertants with increased replication efficiency. Several different three adjacent mismatching CYC substitution mutant RNAs were rescued by a second site mutation that created an additional base pair (nts 147-10913) on the internal genomic side of the 5′-3′ CYC. The finding that full-length genomes with up to three mismatching CYC mutations are viable and can be rescued by a single nt spontaneous mutation indicates that more than three adjacent CYC basepair substitutions would be required to increase the safety of vaccine genomes by creating mismatches in inter-genomic recombinants. PMID:21292293

  19. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  20. 2. DETAIL OF RUBBLE ABUTMENT AT WEST END OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF RUBBLE ABUTMENT AT WEST END OF WEST MULTNOMAH FALLS VIADUCT. - Historic Columbia River Highway, West Multnomah Falls Viaduct, West of Multnomah Falls on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  1. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the U.S. in ...

  2. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Blitvich, Bradley J.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F.; Loroño-Pino, María A.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Díaz, Francisco J.; González-Rojas, José I.; Obregón-Martínez, Nelson; Chiu-García, Jorge A.; Black, William C.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus RNA was detected in brain tissue from a horse that died in June 2003 in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the premembrane and envelope genes showed that the virus was most closely related to West Nile virus isolates collected in Texas in 2002. PMID:15324558

  4. Seismicity of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A four year seismic study has found the Basin and Range province of west Texas and the adjacent area of Mexico to be more seismically active then than heretofore known. A University of Texas five station seismic array around the Marfa Basin has located or detected approximately 800 local and regional earthquakes with S-P times of less than 30 sec. A crustal model for the Basin and Range is derived from natural and artificial sources and contains four layers having velocities of 3.60, 4.93, 6.11, and 6.60 km/sec, respectively, overlying a mantle of 8.37 km/sec. A moderate level of seismic activity has been detected near Van Horn, in the Marfa Basin, and along the Texas-Mexico border between latitudes 30 and 31/sup 0/N. Five earthquake sequences were recorded, two near the Texas-Mexico border and three in the Marfa Basin. Four of these sequences showed quiescent periods in foreshock activity preceding the main shock. On the eastern side of the Marfa Basin a diffuse linear seismic zone may represent an unmapped fault, striking N 50/sup 0/W that coincides with Muehlberger's proposed eastern boundary of Basin and Range faulting. A new epicenter for the Valentine, Texas earthquake of August 16, 1931 has been relocated instrumentally at the northern end of this diffuse zone. Regional and local teleseismic P-wave arrival time anomalies observed for the nearby Gnome underground nuclear explosion of 1961 are used to determine station corrections and thus to locate the new 1931 epicenter at 3.69/sup 0/N, 104.57/sup 0/W. Several estimates of magnitude (m/sub b/) based on intensity data range from 5.6 to 6.4. Fault-plane and composite fault-plane solutions support Muehlberger's hypothesis that the Basin and Range is undergoing extension in a SW-NE direction.

  5. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  6. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  7. 13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE WEST ANCHORAGE. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  9. Dominant simple-shear deformation during peak metamorphism for the lower portion of the Greater Himalayan Sequence in West Nepal: New implications for hybrid channel flow-type mechanisms in the Dolpo region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassi, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    I conducted new vorticity and deformation temperatures studies to test competing models of the exhumation of the mid-crustal rocks exposed in the Dolpo region (West Nepal). My results indicate that the Main Central Thrust is located ∼5 km structurally below the previous mapped locations. Deformation temperature increasing up structural section from ∼450 °C to ∼650 °C and overlap with peak metamorphic temperature indicating that penetrative shearing was responsible for the exhumation of the GHS occurred at "close" to peak metamorphic conditions. I interpreted the telescoping and the inversion of the paleo-isotherms at the base of the GHS as produced mainly by a sub-simple shearing (Wm = 0.88-1) pervasively distributed through the lower portion of the GHS. My results are consistent with hybrid channel flow-type models where the boundary between lower and upper portions of the GHS, broadly corresponding to the tectonometamorphic discontinuity recently documented in west Nepal, represents the limit between buried material, affected by dominant simple shearing, and exhumed material affected by a general flow dominates by pure shearing. This interpretation is consistent with the recent models suggesting the simultaneous operation of channel flow- and critical wedge-type processes at different structural depth.

  10. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  11. 38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON WEST WALL AND OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  12. West side of the north and west wings of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of the north and west wings of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Treatment of West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Yoichi

    2011-03-01

    West syndrome is one of the most refractory epileptic syndromes in infancy, and many researchers have made great effort to find optimal treatment modalities for this syndrome. In this review, previous literature on optimal treatments of West syndrome and its refractory nature were briefly presented, followed by an introduction of recent publication of expert opinions from the US and Europe. An Asian expert opinion generated by a short questionnaire survey was then presented. It was shown that medically proven optimal treatment of West syndrome is not always the practical treatment of choice in Asian countries. Cost and geographical regions should also be taken into account in making practical choices for treatment of West syndrome. PMID:21196092

  14. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis H.

    1999-01-14

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices.

  15. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  16. Composting moves west

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.

    1996-05-01

    The art and science of composting has been applied to handling municipally generated organic wastes (particularly leaves, brush, and grass) in the Eastern US for many years, but now municipal composting can be really said to have gone west. Using methods farmers have been perfecting almost since the dawn of agriculture, municipalities in the US operate more than 4,000 composting sites across the country. Although a few municipal composting facilities have operated in the Western US for more than 30 years, the combination of cheap, plentiful landfill space, low population density, and extreme climate has prevented composting in the West from growing as fast as it has in other parts of the US. But continued growth in the West, combined with ambitious recycling goals in some Western states, have allowed composting to establish a major foothold as a practical solid waste management alternative.

  17. Charleston folio, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Marius R.

    1901-01-01

    The Charleston quadrangle embraces an area of 938 square miles, extending from latitude 38° on the south to 38°30' to the north, and from longitude 81° 30' on the east to 82° on the west.  The quadrangle is located in the State of West Virginia, including parts of the counties of Kanawha, Boone, Putnam, and Lincoln, and is named from the city of Charleston, which is situated at the junction of Elk and Kanawha rivers, in the north-eastern part of the quadrangle.

  18. 5. WEST SIDE, FROM PARKING LOT WEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST SIDE, FROM PARKING LOT WEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, AND METAL RAILINGS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  20. 6. West side, details of west truss web and floorbeam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side, details of west truss web and floor-beam bracing by steel plates and steel rod; looking northeast - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  1. 35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: THE MOLDED STRINGCOURSE THAT PROJECTS FROM THE BASE OF THE FIRST FLOOR WINDOW ARCH AND VISIBLE WATERTABLE) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  2. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  3. 3. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL OF WEST FACE OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL OF WEST FACE OF WEST STATION HOUSE. GREEK REVIVAL WINDOW ENTABLATURE. - Union Elevated Railroad, Madison-Wabash Avenue Station, Madison Steet & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, part of original Forest Cottage as of 1901. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  5. 282. 183234 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (50511) TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    282. 1832-34 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (505-11) TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  6. 9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  8. GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

  9. NORTH VIEW OF WEST ABUTMNET FOR THE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH VIEW OF WEST ABUTMNET FOR THE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE) TO THE APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHWEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  10. 5. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, west of west gate. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, west of west gate. View from the east. Rear of west breast wall is visible behind log timbers. Breast wall timbers are squared. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  11. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  12. West Texas State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ed D.

    1988-01-01

    Threats in the external environment, the arrival of a planning-oriented new president, and new regional reaccreditation criteria prompted West Texas State University to undertake a successful strategic planning venture. Leadership must focus strategic planning in a manner that recognizes the decentralized and collegial elements present in higher…

  13. West Virginia and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with West Virginia and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

  14. The West: Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA.

    This document consists of the printed components only of a PBS curriculum package intended to be used with the 9-videotape PBS documentary series entitled "The West." The complete curriculum package includes a teacher's guide, lesson plans, a student guide, audio tapes, a video index, and promotional poster. The teacher's guide and lesson plans…

  15. West Candor Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows west Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame. The image is a composite of Viking high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. West Candor Chasma occupies the westernmost part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. West Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by straight-walled cliffs, most likely faults, and on its west by two segments of north-northeast-trending cliffs. The north wall is dissected by landslide scars forming reentrants filled with landslide debris. The south wall shows spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The high-standing central mesa, informally dubbed Red Mesa has several curvilinear reentrants carved into the caprock, whose anomalously colored layers were interpreted to be caused by young hydrothermal alteration products (Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus, v. 106, p. 380-391). Light-colored lobes flow away from the top of the interior stack and then flow around and embay the same layered stack from which they originated. One of these apparent flow features is composed of at least two or perhaps even three huge, superposed, vaguely layered, very rugged, light-colored lobes as much as 100 km long, 20 km wide, and over 2 km thick. The layered deposits below the caprock also merge with a chaotic material that has local lobate fronts and overlaps landslide deposits. Hummocky material, similar in hue to wall rock, fills the southwestern-most region of west Candor Chasma and is perhaps as much as 3

  16. Repetitive Sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repetitive sequences, or repeats, account for a substantial portion of the eukaryotic genomes. These sequences include very different types of DNA with respect to mode of origin, function, structure, and genomic distribution. Two large families of repetitive sequences can be readily recognized, ta...

  17. West Nile virus infection in killer whale, Texas, USA, 2007.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy; Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans. PMID:21801643

  18. West Nile Virus Isolation in Human and Mosquitoes, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Davis, C. Todd; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Escobar-Lopez, Roman; Olmos, Dolores Velasco; Gastalum, Lourdes Cecilia Soto; Acosta, Magaly Aviles; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Gonzalez-Rojas, Jose I.; Cordero, Juan F. Contreras; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Barrett, Alan D.T.; Beaty, Barry J.

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus has been isolated for the first time in Mexico, from a sick person and from mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus). Partial sequencing and analysis of the 2 isolates indicate that they are genetically similar to other recent isolates from northern Mexico and the western United States. PMID:16229779

  19. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  20. West Indian amblyopia.

    PubMed Central

    Fasler, J. J.; Rose, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    A series of 21 patients admitted to St Thomas' Hospital, Medical Ophthalmology Unit, with a diagnosis of West Indian or West African amblyopia is reported. Patients were investigated for haematological, biochemical, serological, and radiological abnormalities and particular attention was paid to dietary history. Patients admitted in recent years also underwent neurophysiological investigations. No definite correlation between visual loss and dietary or family history was found, and there was no evidence that the improvement in vision which occurred in just under half the patients on follow-up was related to treatment with hydroxocobalamin or multivitamins. Visual-evoked responses in 4 patients showed a prolonged latency suggesting optic nerve demyelination, while in only one case was the electro-oculogram definitely subnormal. These findings contrast with those in 'toxic' amblyopias and suggest that the syndrome of West Indian amblyopoa may be due to bilateral optic nerve demyelination of unknown aetiology rather than the effect of toxic substances or nutritional deficiency on the retina. PMID:7443605

  1. Niobium content of soils from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Berger, I.A.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of twenty lateritic soil samples from West Africa has shown them to contain an average 24 p.p.m. of niobium; four similar samples taken from within a few miles from a niobium deposit contain from 79 to 87 p.p.m. niobium. It has been shown that as the aluminum content of the soils increases, the following depletion sequence is obtained: Si > Nb > Al = Fe The data indicate that, in general, high enrichments of niobium are not to be expected in lateritic soils. ?? 1961.

  2. 6. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate. View from the south, looking north at the southern or rear wall of the crib. In the background, west gate sill and bay is visible. Canal chamber is in upper right background. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  3. Oceanography of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Bemiasa

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

  4. West Arabia Barchans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows small barchan dunes on the floor of a crater in western Arabia Terra. Similar dunes are found in most of the larger craters of the region. The steepest slopes on these dunes, their slipfaces, point toward the west-southwest, indicating that dominant winds blow from the east-northeast (upper right).

    Location near: 10.9oN, 2.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  5. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis; Yannimaras, Demetrios

    1999-11-03

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer.

  6. 42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY, BEHIND WHICH ARE MOUNTED JIGS AND PATTERNS FOR WINDMILL AND STEEL WATER TANK CONSTRUCTION, AS WELL AS THIN SHEET STEEL STENCILS USED FOR MARKING PRODUCTS WITH PAINT. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  7. 8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST DAM, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTLET TO RIGHT OF DAM, NEW PUMP PLANT BUILDING AND CANAL TO LEFT OF DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  8. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 14. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. SHOWS CONCRETE AND WOODED WINDOWS, DRIP CAST IN THE EAVES, AND SEA OF DARKNESS TILE MOSAIC SET IN THE WALL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  10. 87. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. SHOWS CONCRETE AND WOODEN WINDOWS. DRIP CAST IN THE EAVES. AND SEA OF DARKNESS TILE MOSAIC SET IN THE WALL. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-14. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  11. 8. Looking to the west, to the west lock gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Looking to the west, to the west lock gate and pool. The ramp from U.S. 24 to the elevated new section of I-469 is in the background. View was taken from INDOT temporary service road. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  12. 7. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate, view looking north. Close-up view of floor, with several boulders shown under log timbers in situ. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  13. 18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ORE BIN AND TRESTLE FROM TWO JOHNS TRAMLINE TO SOUTH, CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND. MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND. THE TRAM TO PORTLAND PASSED TO NORTH OF MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. 29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No date. (The field welding was by the Teleweld Corporation of Chicago, with four Lincoln welders from Tuesday, April 19 to Monday, May 16, 1949. 528 man hours of welders' time) - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  15. Ebola in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  16. West Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposures in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Most of west Candor's interior includes exposures of layered rock with very few superimposed impact craters. The rock may be very ancient, but the lack of craters suggests that the erosion of these materials is on-going.

    Location near: 6.3oS, 76.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  17. Ebola in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  18. West of Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    7 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an eroded landscape occurring west of Sinus Meridiani, the region in which the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, landed nearly a year ago. The bedrock at this location is buried beneath a mantle of dust, sand, and granules, but remnants of younger layers of bedrock now stand high in the form of buttes in the lower right quarter of the image. The two circular mesas were once meteor impact craters. They were filled, buried, and fossilized within the rock, then later exhumed. This scene is located near 1.5oN, 6.2oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across, and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  19. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  20. [West African childbirth traditions].

    PubMed

    Hallgren, R

    1983-11-01

    Religious and medical practices are steeped in the traditions of West African culture vis-a-vis childbirth. It is customary for delivery to occur with the woman squatting on the ground surrounded by sisters and female relatives, some of whom function as midwives. Midwives get paid only if delivery is successful. A stool is also often used in childbirth. The name given to a child in the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria has to refer to the circumstances of the individual's birth. The contact with the earth (as in the squatting position) has religious overtones--it indicates the fecundity of the earth, and the mother's contact with it. Infertility is considered the greatest tragedy in traditional African society. In Senegal, a childless woman pays a fertile one a certain sum in return for bearing her a child who would be raised as her own (this tradition is not unlike surrogate motherhood in Western countries). Men are never present at birth; however, in urban settings this practice is changing. The burial of the placenta and umbilical cord is thought to restore the woman's fertility and help heal her womb. This practice was even recorded in 19th century Sweden harkening back to heathen times. In Ghana, an infertile woman urinates on the ground where the placenta is buried in the belief that her fertility will be restored. The birth of twins is regarded as a great blessing, and as a sign of fertility; however, the inability of the mother to breast-feed both twins may result in the death of the weaker child. The harmony of nature, animals, and human beings is paramount in traditional West Africa religion and life, and undoubtedly Western culture could learn from some of these beliefs. PMID:6558064

  1. West-Side Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marochnik, L. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with the history of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The motivation to write the paper was the publication of two papers on the history of these theories (Pasha 2004a, b). Pasha's papers tell only a part of the story that took place on the Western side of the Iron Curtain in the 1960s. But giving only a part of the full story is a distortion of historical truth. Important work done on the Eastern side of the Iron Curtain is still little known in the West. In this paper, I fill the gaps and correct chronological inaccuracies in Pasha's story and mention facts that are still unknown (or little known) to the astronomical community in the West. I also give my recollection of the development of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The paper gives examples of important results in the theory of density waves in galaxies that are mistakenly attributed to C. C. Lin, F. H. Shu, Y.Y. Lau, C. Yuan and others, meanwhile they were obtained earlier by L. Marochnik, A. Suchkov and others. Below is another example. Both "famous" paper of Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) and Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) have appeared simultaneously in March of 1969. Both papers dealt, in particular, with the comparison of theory with observations. However, in the frame of their WKB approximation, Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) employed an incorrect approach. It was a direct consequence of Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) analysis and led to the far-going consequences. The paper has been published at the http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0501170 web site.

  2. Dna Sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  3. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  4. Micropaleontology and biostratigraphy of the coastal basins of West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kogbe, C.A.; Mehes, K.

    1986-01-01

    This book is intended to meet the need for a single volume on descriptive micropaleontology of West African microfauna assemblage which is different from that of the Boreal, Mediterranean, Pacific and Atlantic regions. The contents include: Preface. Introduction. Systematics: West African foraminifera species: Systematic classification and description. Glossary for the foraminifera. Selected references for the foraminifera. The ostracoda: Systematic classification and description. Glossary for the ostracoda. Selected references for the ostracoda. Stratigraphic Sequences of the West African Coastal Basins: General review. Angola-Cuanza basin. Congo. Gabon. Cameroun-Douala basin. Nigeria. Togo-Benin basin. Ghana. Ivory Coast. Senegal. Appendix: Brief classification of foraminifera. Paleo-ecology of the foraminifera. Testing of samples. Collection of samples. Preparation of samples. Preparation of thin sections. Storage of microfossils. Methods of examination. Index.

  5. Sedimentary sequence evolution in a Foredeep basin: Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, C.; Funes, D.; Sarzalho, S.; Audemard, F.; Flores, G.

    1996-08-01

    Well log-seismic sequence stratigraphy analysis in the Eastern Venezuela Foreland Basin leads to study of the evolution of sedimentary sequences onto the Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin. This basin comprises two different foredeep sub-basins: The Guarico subbasin to the west, older, and the Maturin sub-basin to the east, younger. A foredeep switching between these two sub-basins is observed at 12.5 m.y. Seismic interpretation and well log sections across the study area show sedimentary sequences with transgressive sands and coastal onlaps to the east-southeast for the Guarico sub-basin, as well as truncations below the switching sequence (12.5 m.y.), and the Maturin sub-basin shows apparent coastal onlaps to the west-northwest, as well as a marine onlap (deeper water) in the west, where it starts to establish. Sequence stratigraphy analysis of these sequences with well logs allowed the study of the evolution of stratigraphic section from Paleocene to middle Miocene (68.0-12.0 m.y.). On the basis of well log patterns, the sequences were divided in regressive-transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles caused by changes in relative sea level. Facies distributions were analyzed and the sequences were divided into simple sequences or sub- sequences of a greater frequencies than third order depositional sequences.

  6. [Cases of West Nile fever in Novosibirsk region in 2004, and the genotyping of its viral pathogen].

    PubMed

    Ternovoĭ, V A; Protopopova, E V; Kononova, Iu V; Ol'khovikova, E A; Spiridonova, E A; Akopov, G D; Shestopalov, A M; Loktev, V B

    2007-01-01

    Three cases of West Nile fever were registered for the first time in Novosibirsk region in 2004. The diagnosis was confirmed by revealing IgG against West Nile virus (three cases) and viral RNA (two cases). Sequence analysis of fragments of E protein gene showed that the virus belonged to Ia genotype. PMID:17338376

  7. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  8. 46. View looking west, toward west gate. Planks were laid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. View looking west, toward west gate. Planks were laid in the mud (center left) so that visitors could view the inside of the south, forebay crib and examine the unusual right-handed counter foil. A visiting engineer perceived this as quite 'modern'. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  9. 51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELLSERVICE SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. AT LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND IS 1960S PICKUP TRUCK, THE LAST MOTOR VEHICLE USED IN WELL SERVICE BY THE KREGEL WINDMILL COMPANY. MOST OF THE OBJECTS VISIBLE IN THIS VIEW ARE CLUTTER NOT RELATED TO THE WELL SERVICE BUSINESS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  10. West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, James J

    2016-06-01

    Although long recognized as a human pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV) emerged as a significant public health problem following its introduction and spread across North America. Subsequent years have seen a greater understanding of all aspects of this viral infection. The North American epidemic resulted in a further understanding of the virology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and epidemiology of WNV infection. Approximately 80% of human WNV infections are asymptomatic. Most symptomatic people experience an acute systemic febrile illness; less than 1% of infected people develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically manifests as meningitis, encephalitis, or anterior myelitis resulting in acute flaccid paralysis. Older age is associated with more severe illness and higher mortality; other risk factors for poor outcome have been challenging to identify. In addition to natural infection through mosquito bites, transfusion- and organ transplant-associated infections have occurred. Since there is no definitive treatment for WNV infection, protection from mosquito bites and other preventative measures are critical. WNV has reached an endemic pattern in North America, but the future epidemiologic pattern is uncertain. PMID:27337465

  11. GeoPowering the West

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  12. Mississippian oolites on West Virginia dome

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, B.; Smosna, R. )

    1989-08-01

    The West Virginia dome, a positive feature during the Early Mississippian, was submerged during a Meramec-Chester transgression and became the site for ooid sedimentation. The dome's axis trended eastwest through Randolph County, West Virginia, where four outcrops of the lower Pickaway Limestone (Greenbrier Group) were studied. Pickaway oolites formed as mobile sand belts that paralleled the dome's axis. In detail, these belts consisted of sand waves up to 2 m in height that migrated north and south under the influence of tidal currents. Along the crest, both flood and ebb currents moved the sediment, whereas farther away flood tides dominated. Sand bodies shoaled upward with time, the sediment becoming coarser grained and better sorted to the top; large wedge-shaped cross-bed sets gave way to planar bedding; and frequently the ooid shoals were subaerially exposed. Ooids and other grains have been extensively micritized, indicating a slow sedimentation rate, and small-scale ripples record the effect of minor wave action. North of the dome, muddy skeletal sands accumulated in a somewhat restricted gulf. To the south along a very gentle sea floor, the ooid shoals passed into fully marine skeletal sands. On the east, a nearby landmass supplied locally large volumes of detrital quartz. The lower Pickaway was deposited during a single rise and fall of sea level that produced two oolites at each outcrop separated by off-shore sediments. This stratigraphic sequence constitutes a fifth-order cycle 7-26 m thick.

  13. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect

    De Jager, J. ); Doyle, M. ); Grantham, P. ); Mabillard, J. )

    1993-09-01

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  14. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  15. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  16. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  17. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  18. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  19. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005). PMID:16965710

  20. [Sequencing babies?].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    An extension of newborn screening to genome sequencing is now feasible but raises a number of scientific, organisational and ethical issues. This is being explored in discussions and in several funded trials, in order to maximize benefits and avoid some identified risks. As some companies are already offering such a service, this is quite an urgent matter. PMID:26481033

  1. MSLICE Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Morris, John R.

    2011-01-01

    MSLICE Sequencing is a graphical tool for writing sequences and integrating them into RML files, as well as for producing SCMF files for uplink. When operated in a testbed environment, it also supports uplinking these SCMF files to the testbed via Chill. This software features a free-form textural sequence editor featuring syntax coloring, automatic content assistance (including command and argument completion proposals), complete with types, value ranges, unites, and descriptions from the command dictionary that appear as they are typed. The sequence editor also has a "field mode" that allows tabbing between arguments and displays type/range/units/description for each argument as it is edited. Color-coded error and warning annotations on problematic tokens are included, as well as indications of problems that are not visible in the current scroll range. "Quick Fix" suggestions are made for resolving problems, and all the features afforded by modern source editors are also included such as copy/cut/paste, undo/redo, and a sophisticated find-and-replace system optionally using regular expressions. The software offers a full XML editor for RML files, which features syntax coloring, content assistance and problem annotations as above. There is a form-based, "detail view" that allows structured editing of command arguments and sequence parameters when preferred. The "project view" shows the user s "workspace" as a tree of "resources" (projects, folders, and files) that can subsequently be opened in editors by double-clicking. Files can be added, deleted, dragged-dropped/copied-pasted between folders or projects, and these operations are undoable and redoable. A "problems view" contains a tabular list of all problems in the current workspace. Double-clicking on any row in the table opens an editor for the appropriate sequence, scrolling to the specific line with the problem, and highlighting the problematic characters. From there, one can invoke "quick fix" as described

  2. Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

  3. 51. View looking west, toward the west bay of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View looking west, toward the west bay of the lock. A derrick parked on a bench adjacent to U.S. 24 lowers its harness for the raising of a crib back wall section. The flat bed truck used to transport the timbers to the holding tank can be seen in the background, to the right, beyond the crane. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  4. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  5. Conservation and Variability of West Nile Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Keun-Ok; Ramdas, Shweta; Miotto, Olivo; Tan, Tin Wee; Brusic, Vladimir; Salmon, Jerome; August, J. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged globally as an increasingly important pathogen for humans and domestic animals. Studies of the evolutionary diversity of the virus over its known history will help to elucidate conserved sites, and characterize their correspondence to other pathogens and their relevance to the immune system. We describe a large-scale analysis of the entire WNV proteome, aimed at identifying and characterizing evolutionarily conserved amino acid sequences. This study, which used 2,746 WNV protein sequences collected from the NCBI GenPept database, focused on analysis of peptides of length 9 amino acids or more, which are immunologically relevant as potential T-cell epitopes. Entropy-based analysis of the diversity of WNV sequences, revealed the presence of numerous evolutionarily stable nonamer positions across the proteome (entropy value of ≤1). The representation (frequency) of nonamers variant to the predominant peptide at these stable positions was, generally, low (≤10% of the WNV sequences analyzed). Eighty-eight fragments of length 9–29 amino acids, representing ∼34% of the WNV polyprotein length, were identified to be identical and evolutionarily stable in all analyzed WNV sequences. Of the 88 completely conserved sequences, 67 are also present in other flaviviruses, and several have been associated with the functional and structural properties of viral proteins. Immunoinformatic analysis revealed that the majority (78/88) of conserved sequences are potentially immunogenic, while 44 contained experimentally confirmed human T-cell epitopes. This study identified a comprehensive catalogue of completely conserved WNV sequences, many of which are shared by other flaviviruses, and majority are potential epitopes. The complete conservation of these immunologically relevant sequences through the entire recorded WNV history suggests they will be valuable as components of peptide-specific vaccines or other therapeutic applications, for

  6. 1. WEST MULTNOMAH VIADUCT, VIEW LOOKING EAST. Historic Columbia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST MULTNOMAH VIADUCT, VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Historic Columbia River Highway, West Multnomah Falls Viaduct, West of Multnomah Falls on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  7. The night West blew up.

    PubMed

    Zuzek, Crystal

    2013-07-01

    The April 17 fertilizer plant explosion that killed 15 people and injured more than 160 in the Central Texas town of West put the state's disaster response system to the test. Area health professionals and emergency responders mobilized quickly to care for the injured and prevent more deaths. PMID:23818221

  8. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  9. West Flank Downhole Temperature Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2008-03-01

    Downhole temperature data for the three wells inside the West Flank FORGE footprint; 83-11, TCH 74-2 and TCH 48-11. TCH 74-2 and TCH 48-11 were both collected before 1990 and 83-11 was collected in 2009. The are compiled into one spreadsheet for ease of visualization.

  10. Vocational Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    This report describes vocational education in West Germany from a Canadian viewpoint. Chapter 1 discusses education in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949, including findings and govermental agencies/departments. A resume of the school system is provided in chapter 2. It covers kindergarten and preschool facilities, primary school, three…

  11. B-WEST Mentorship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jennice, Comp.; Benedetti, Marie L., Ed.

    This program guide is intended for use by mentors of women who have completed the preemployment training component of the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project and who are now entering a trade or technical occupation. The first section contains a definition of mentoring and mentor, protegee, and trainer profiles. Sections 2-6…

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains in the North-West and West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, L; Ansarin, K; Hoffner, S; Farajnia, S; Seyyedi, M; Khalili, M; Monfaredan, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) transmission type is a key step in the control of this disease. Aim: This study aimed to determine the path and transmission type of MTB and the insertion sequence IS6110 band number and verify their relationship to demographic and clinical risk factors. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 64 MTB patients from three border provinces of Iran were selected after full clinical history and physical evaluation design. The drug susceptibility testing was carried out using the standard proportion technique on sputum samples. Isolates tested with restriction fragment length polymorphism technique used IS6110. Results: Recent transmission of disease was 33/50 (66%) based on clustering rate. The IS6110 band number had a significant relationship with drug resistance detected in proportion method tested by univariate linear regression (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the IS6110 band number had association with Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination history (P = 0.02), sex (P < 0.01), and purified protein derivative (PPD) reaction size (P < 0.01) tested by multiple analysis. The risk of recent transmission inferred from the clustering rate was significantly higher in patients from Western provinces compared to those from the North-West province (P = 0.048). However, age (P = 0.39), gender (P = 0.16), vaccination history (P = 0.57), drug susceptibility, and PPD (P < 0.6) were independent of clustering. The largest cluster of up to six subjects was found in the Western provinces. Conclusion: Recent MTB transmission was much more common in the West compared to the North-West of Iran. Large MTB clusters with strong epidemiological links may be reflective of a disease outbreak. Correlation noted between the IS6110 band number and vaccination history; PPD size and female gender necessitates further studies. PMID:26500790

  13. Reconstructing of a Sequence Using Similar Sequences

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-11-28

    SIMSEQ reconstructs sequences from oligos. Similar known sequences are used as a reference. At present, simulated data are being used to develop the algorithm. SIMSEQ generates an initial random sequence, then generates a second sequence that is 60 to 90 percent similar to the first. Next, the second sequence is chopped into its appropriate oligos. All possible sequences are reconstructed to determine the most similar. Those with the highest similarity are printed as output.

  14. Lyman-alpha observations of Comet West /1975n/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opal, C. B.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of hydrogen production of Comet West is studied through rocket observation of solar Lyman-alpha radiation resonantly scattered by the escaping hydrogen atoms. Two sets of Lyman-alpha exposure sequences are used to obtain computer-smoothed brightness contour (isophote) maps covering a density range of 100:1. A simple radial outflow model is applied to the contour maps to determine the rate of hydrogen production (3.2 by 10 to the 30th power atoms/sec.) Discrepancies between the observed shape of the outer isophotes and predicted models may be explained by optical depth effects, or by the presence of small pieces of the comet's nucleus distributed along the orbit. Hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen production for Comet West and Comet Kohoutek are compared; differences may be accounted for by variations in the composition or evolution of the two comets.

  15. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  16. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  17. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  18. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  19. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The event..., Super Boat International Productions, Inc. is hosting the Key West World Championship, a series of...

  20. 50 CFR 32.68 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false West Virginia. 32.68 Section 32.68... § 32.68 West Virginia. The following refuge units have been opened to hunting and/or fishing, and are... the refuge (Pennsylvania: Phillis Island, Georgetown Island; West Virginia: Captina Island,...

  1. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.349 Section 81.349 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West Virginia. West Virginia—TSP Designated...

  2. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.349 Section 81.349 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West Virginia. West Virginia—TSP Designated...

  3. The Railroad and the Frontier West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewig, Rick

    1988-01-01

    Points out railroad building in the West as a cause rather than an effect of the rapid development of the area. Railroads hastened the demise of American Indian autonomy and their land base, brought permanent Anglo-American settlers to the West and provided a market relationship between East and West. (KO)

  4. 2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM INTERSECTION OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  5. 3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST SOUTH OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  6. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 1. West portal of the mudshed abutting the west portal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West portal of the mudshed abutting the west portal of Tunnel 5, view to the northwest, 135mm lens. The flat-roofed reinforced concrete mudsheds, rocksheds, and snowsheds are a common feature of the Natron Cutoff over the summit of the Cascades. With the railroad located on a sidehill bench cut into the precipitous slopes, the sheds protect the track from rock and mud slides, as well as from avalanches. With a solid wall on the uphill side and a series of columns on the downhill side, they form a gallery-like effect from within. This mudshed was built concurrent with the tunnel, in 1927. Though none of the mudsheds on the line are scheduled to be modified, this shed was documented as an integral element of Tunnel 5. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 5, Milepost 545.2, McCredie Springs, Lane County, OR

  8. Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

  9. Lower Palaeozoic of North-Western and West-Central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The first compilation in English of the stratigraphy, palaeontology, sedimentology, palaeogeography, and palaeoclimatology of the Lower Palaeozoic found in this area. The fourth volume in the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the World Series discusses geological formations such as the lower Cambrian tribolite-bearing sequences of Morocco, those showing evidence of late Ordovician glaciation in West-Central Africa, and the Silurian-Devonian sequences of Morocco and Algeria.

  10. Genomic analysis identifies candidate pathogenic variants in 9 of 18 patients with unexplained West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Arai-Ichinoi, Natsuko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Sato, Ryo; Suzuki, Tasuku; Kudo, Hiroki; Sato, Yuko; Nakayama, Tojo; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Kubota, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Funayama, Ryo; Nakayama, Keiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Aoki, Yoko; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Kure, Shigeo

    2015-06-01

    West syndrome, which is narrowly defined as infantile spasms that occur in clusters and hypsarrhythmia on EEG, is the most common early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE). Patients with West syndrome may have clear etiologies, including perinatal events, infections, gross chromosomal abnormalities, or cases followed by other EOEEs. However, the genetic etiology of most cases of West syndrome remains unexplained. DNA from 18 patients with unexplained West syndrome was subjected to microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), followed by trio-based whole-exome sequencing in 14 unsolved families. We identified candidate pathogenic variants in 50% of the patients (n = 9/18). The array CGH revealed candidate pathogenic copy number variations in four cases (22%, 4/18), including an Xq28 duplication, a 16p11.2 deletion, a 16p13.1 deletion and a 19p13.2 deletion disrupting CACNA1A. Whole-exome sequencing identified candidate mutations in known epilepsy genes in five cases (36%, 5/14). Three candidate de novo mutations were identified in three cases, with two mutations occurring in two new candidate genes (NR2F1 and CACNA2D1) (21%, 3/14). Hemizygous candidate mutations in ALG13 and BRWD3 were identified in the other two cases (14%, 2/14). Evaluating a panel of 67 known EOEE genes failed to identify significant mutations. Despite the heterogeneity of unexplained West syndrome, the combination of array CGH and whole-exome sequencing is an effective means of evaluating the genetic background in unexplained West syndrome. We provide additional evidence for NR2F1 as a causative gene and for CACNA2D1 and BRWD3 as candidate genes for West syndrome. PMID:25877686

  11. Stratigraphic sequence analysis of the Antler foreland

    SciTech Connect

    Silberling, N.J.; Nichols, K.M.; Macke, D.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Mid-Upper Devonian to Upper Mississippian strata in western Utah were deposited in the distal Antler foreland. They record lateral and vertical changes in depositional environments that define five successive stratigraphic sequences, each representing a third-order transgressive-regressive cycle. In ascending order, these sequences are informally named the Langenheim (LA) of late Frasnian to mid-Famennian age, the Gutschick (GU) of late Famennian to early Kinderhookian age, the Morris (MO) of late Kinderhookian age; the Sadlick (SA) of Osagean to early Meramecian age, and the Maughan (MA) of mid-Meramecian to Chesterian age. MO is widespread and recognized within carbonate rocks of the Fitchville Formation and Joana Limestone. SA formed in concert with and to the east and south of the Wendover foreland high; the Delle phosphatic event marks maximum marine flooding during SA deposition. The transgressive systems tract of MA includes rhythmic-bedded limestone in the upper part of the Deseret Limestone in west-central Utah and, farther west, the hypoxic limestone and black shale of the Skunk Spring Limestone Bed and part of the overlying Chainman Shale. Traced westward into Nevada, MA first oversteps SA and then MO. Lithostratigraphic correlation of these sequences still farther west into the Eureka thrust belt (ETB) could mean that the youngest strata truncated by the Roberts Mountains thrust belong to the MA and that this thrust is simply part of the post-Mississippian ETB. However, some strata in central Nevada that lithically resemble those of the MA are paleontologically dated as Early Mississippian, the age of sequences overstepped by MA not far to the east. Thus, at least some imbricates of the ETB may contain a sequence stratigraphy which reflects local tectonic control.

  12. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R; Lash, R Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M; Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L; Brault, Aaron C; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  13. How Golden West College Is Addressing Pedagogical, Assessment, and Accountability Concerns through Integrated Spoken Communication Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Norma Landa

    This paper describes how results of the Golden West College Speech Department's program review led to the alignment of performance-based communication prerequisite and outcome expectations for: student placement recommendation; consistency of course curriculum and sequencing; measures of content-based competencies; and measures of…

  14. West Nile Virus Isolated from a Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R.; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M.; Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  15. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; et al

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  16. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Motazakker, Morteza; Asgari, Sassan; Dabiri, Farrokh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2015-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. Despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of WNV in mosquito vectors in Iran. The Iranian West Azerbaijan Province is located in the northwestern part of Iran and has borders with Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The current study was conducted to identify the wetland mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province and their infection with WNV. In this study, 2143 specimens were collected, comprising 1541 adults and 602 larvae. Six species belonging to four genera were collected and identified: Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (s.l.), Culex (Cx.) hortensis, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, and Aedes (Ae.) (Ochlerotatus) caspius. In total, 45 pools of mosquitoes were examined. Two of the adult pools collected from the same location showed the presence of WNV in Ae. (Och.) caspius, from Sangar, Makoo County, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Due to the discovery of WNV in the mosquito population of the region, and the presence of wetlands and significant populations of migratory birds, the health sector should carefully monitor the factors involved in the cycle of this disease. PMID:26565610

  18. The relationships between West Nile and Kunjin viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Scherret, J. H.; Poidinger, M.; Mackenzie, J. S.; Broom, A. K.; Deubel, V.; Lipkin, W. I.; Briese, T.; Gould, E. A.; Hall, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    Until recently, West Nile (WN) and Kunjin (KUN) viruses were classified as distinct types in the Flavivirus genus. However, genetic and antigenic studies on isolates of these two viruses indicate that the relationship between them is more complex. To better define this relationship, we performed sequence analyses on 32 isolates of KUN virus and 28 isolates of WN virus from different geographic areas, including a WN isolate from the recent outbreak in New York. Sequence comparisons showed that the KUN virus isolates from Australia were tightly grouped but that the WN virus isolates exhibited substantial divergence and could be differentiated into four distinct groups. KUN virus isolates from Australia were antigenically homologous and distinct from the WN isolates and a Malaysian KUN virus. Our results suggest that KUN and WN viruses comprise a group of closely related viruses that can be differentiated into subgroups on the basis of genetic and antigenic analyses. PMID:11585535

  19. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  20. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  1. SIGNAL BRIDGE WEST OF TOWER AT MILEPOST 203.2, LOOKING WEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIGNAL BRIDGE WEST OF TOWER AT MILEPOST 203.2, LOOKING WEST, EQUIPPED WITH B&O COLOR-POSITION-LIGHT SIGNAL HEADS FOR EASTBOUND TRAINS. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  2. 41. West end of McHugh Basin, looking west toward Dingle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. West end of McHugh Basin, looking west toward Dingle Basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, PUget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  3. The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA

    PubMed Central

    Heather, James M.; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the order of nucleic acid residues in biological samples is an integral component of a wide variety of research applications. Over the last fifty years large numbers of researchers have applied themselves to the production of techniques and technologies to facilitate this feat, sequencing DNA and RNA molecules. This time-scale has witnessed tremendous changes, moving from sequencing short oligonucleotides to millions of bases, from struggling towards the deduction of the coding sequence of a single gene to rapid and widely available whole genome sequencing. This article traverses those years, iterating through the different generations of sequencing technology, highlighting some of the key discoveries, researchers, and sequences along the way. PMID:26554401

  4. A dismembered ophiolite from the Mozambique Belt, West Pokot, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vearncombe, J. R.

    The role of plate tectonics in the Proterozoic is a controversial subject. here I describe a dismembered ophiolite sequence, including podiform chromites, the root zone of a possible sheeted dyke complex and manganiferous metacherts, from the Marich-Ortum region of West Pokot, Kenya. Associated with the ophiolite are andesitic agglomerates, crystalline limestones, mica schists and psammites. The sequence is dismembered with both upward and downward facing units, interpreted as the consequence of two phases of thrusting and ductile shear. The second deformation, synchronous with or after the intrusion of a sheeted granite complex, involved isoclinal folding. Structurally, beneath the ophiolite is a migmatite complex. Granite from the migmatite locally intruded as dykes into the ophiolite. The lithological association suggests that oceanic crust and a possible island arc existed to the east of the Tanzanian-Congo craton (continent). The ocean closed during the late Proterozoic when the ophiolite was emplaced towards the west, to its present position sub-parallel to the craton boundary. Plate tectonics appears to have operated in this region during the late Precambrian.

  5. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  6. K West Basin canister survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-26

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

  7. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, L.; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  8. Monogeneans of West African Cichlid Fish: Evolution and Cophylogenetic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mendlová, Monika; Desdevises, Yves; Civáňová, Kristína; Pariselle, Antoine; Šimková, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this paper were to investigate phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of cichlid fish from West Africa and their Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus monogenean parasites, to uncover the presence of host-parasite cospeciation and to assess the level of morphological adaptation in parasites. This required the following steps, each one representing specific objectives of this paper: (1) to build phylogenetic trees for Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species based on ribosomal DNA sequences, (2) to investigate phylogenetic relationships within West African cichlid fish based on the analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences, (3) to investigate host-parasite cophylogenetic history to gain clues on parasite speciation process, and (4) to investigate the link between the morphology of the attachment apparatus and parasite phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus group, and suggested that Cichlidogyrus is polyphyletic and that Scutogyrus is monophyletic. The phylogeny of Cichlidae supported the separation of mouthbrooders and substrate-brooders and is consistent with the hypothesis that the mouthbrooding behavior of Oreochromis and Sarotherodon evolved from substrate-brooding behavior. The mapping of morphological characters of the haptor onto the parasite phylogenetic tree suggests that the attachment organ has evolved from a very simple form to a more complex one. The cophylogenetic analyses indicated a significant fit between trees using distance-based tests, but no significant cospeciation signal using tree-based tests, suggesting the presence of parasite duplications and host switches on related host species. This shed some light on the diversification process of Cichlidogyrus species parasitizing West African cichlids. PMID:22662139

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing

    MedlinePlus

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Whole Genome Sequencing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing ... the full story, click here . What is whole genome sequencing? Whole genome sequencing is the mapping out ...

  10. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific). PMID:25629476

  11. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Miller, C A; Catalan, J; Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World afflicting humans, horses and birds, the success of this recombinant technology has prompted the rapid development of a live-virus attenuated candidate vaccine against West Nile virus. PMID:11516995

  12. Coordinate cytokine regulatory sequences

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Rubin, Edward M.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention provides CNS sequences that regulate the cytokine gene expression, expression cassettes and vectors comprising or lacking the CNS sequences, host cells and non-human transgenic animals comprising the CNS sequences or lacking the CNS sequences. The present invention also provides methods for identifying compounds that modulate the functions of CNS sequences as well as methods for diagnosing defects in the CNS sequences of patients.

  13. Science sequence design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.; Bollman, W. E.; Freeman, J. E.; Helton, M. R.; Reichert, R. J.; Travers, E. S.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The activities of the following members of the Navigation Team are recorded: the Science Sequence Design Group, responsible for preparing the final science sequence designs; the Advanced Sequence Planning Group, responsible for sequence planning; and the Science Recommendation Team (SRT) representatives, responsible for conducting the necessary sequence design interfaces with the teams during the mission. The interface task included science support in both advance planning and daily operations. Science sequences designed during the mission are also discussed.

  14. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  15. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  16. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  17. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  18. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  19. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  20. West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

  1. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... of approval of the West Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 948 West Virginia Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Interim rule...

  2. Mother Tongue Education: The West African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo, Ed.

    In the rapidly changing political, economic, and social life of West Africa, there is a renewed interest in cultural identity. This book describes the developments and the difficulties experienced by different West African countries in the use of mother tongues in multi-lingual society. The book was commissioned to give scholars, educators, and…

  3. West Virginia: A History for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Alexander; Sherwood, Topper, Ed.

    This book on the history of West Virginia emphasizes the differences and similarities among the people inhabiting what is now the state of West Virginia, from prehistoric times to the present. The history focuses on how these people have acted as individuals and in groups such as families, communities, societies, corporations, and government.…

  4. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  5. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  6. Medical women of the West.

    PubMed Central

    Scully, A L

    1988-01-01

    The presence in the West of women physicians with degrees from regular medical schools spans a period of approximately 130 years. Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania graduated many of these early women physicians. The first woman medical graduate of a western school was Lucy M. Field Wanzer, who finished in 1876 at the Department of Medicine, University of California in San Francisco. Soon thereafter, schools that would become Stanford University and the Oregon Health Sciences University schools of medicine, as well as the newly founded University of Southern California, were contributing to the pool of women physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School, the first coeducational state medical school, also educated some of the western women physicians, who by 1910 numbered about 155. This regional account of the progress of women physicians as they strove to become an integral part of the profession emphasizes the familiar themes of altruism, ingenuity, and perseverance that characterized their efforts. Images PMID:3074578

  7. 6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES OF WEST SPAN, AND PORTION OF WEST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  8. FRONT ELEVATIONS, NOS. 2122 AND 2124 ON THE WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATIONS, NOS. 2122 AND 2124 ON THE WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING WEST. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE OF GARDEN STATE PARKWAY ABUTMENT - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  10. 9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH SIDE OF DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  11. 41. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. MR. WEST'S HOUSE, MR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. MR. WEST'S HOUSE, MR. WEST ON PORCH AND THE ARBOR THAT IS OVER 100 YEARS OLD. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  12. View of intersection with west wall of north wing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection with west wall of north wing and north wall of west wing; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. 3. DETAIL OF HALF VIADUCT CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION FOR WEST MULTNOMAH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF HALF VIADUCT CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION FOR WEST MULTNOMAH FALLS VIADUCT. - Historic Columbia River Highway, West Multnomah Falls Viaduct, West of Multnomah Falls on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  15. 10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  16. TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL BETWEEN WEST BRANCH DROP AND GERKING FLUME. LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  17. W. St. John Street. View looking west from intersection of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    W. St. John Street. View looking west from intersection of Pleasant and W. St. John Streets - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  18. The generalized quaternion sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveci, Ömür

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we define the recurrence sequence by using the relation matrix of the generalized quaternion group and then, we obtain miscellaneous properties of this sequence. Also, we obtain the cyclic groups and the semigroups which are produced by generating matrix of the sequence defined when read modulo m. Furthermore, we study this sequence modulo m, and then we derive the relationship among the order the cyclic groups obtained and the periods of the sequence defined.

  19. The Genome of Mycobacterium Africanum West African 2 Reveals a Lineage-Specific Locus and Genome Erosion Common to the M. tuberculosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Stephen D.; Comas, Iñaki; Bryant, Josephine M.; Walker, Danielle; Smith, Noel H.; Harris, Simon R.; Thurston, Scott; Gagneux, Sebastien; Wood, Jonathan; Antonio, Martin; Quail, Michael A.; Gehre, Florian; Adegbola, Richard A.; Parkhill, Julian; de Jong, Bouke C.

    2012-01-01

    Background M. africanum West African 2 constitutes an ancient lineage of the M. tuberculosis complex that commonly causes human tuberculosis in West Africa and has an attenuated phenotype relative to M. tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In search of candidate genes underlying these differences, the genome of M. africanum West African 2 was sequenced using classical capillary sequencing techniques. Our findings reveal a unique sequence, RD900, that was independently lost during the evolution of two important lineages within the complex: the “modern” M. tuberculosis group and the lineage leading to M. bovis. Closely related to M. bovis and other animal strains within the M. tuberculosis complex, M. africanum West African 2 shares an abundance of pseudogenes with M. bovis but also with M. africanum West African clade 1. Comparison with other strains of the M. tuberculosis complex revealed pseudogenes events in all the known lineages pointing toward ongoing genome erosion likely due to increased genetic drift and relaxed selection linked to serial transmission-bottlenecks and an intracellular lifestyle. Conclusions/Significance The genomic differences identified between M. africanum West African 2 and the other strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex may explain its attenuated phenotype, and pave the way for targeted experiments to elucidate the phenotypic characteristic of M. africanum. Moreover, availability of the whole genome data allows for verification of conservation of targets used for the next generation of diagnostics and vaccines, in order to ensure similar efficacy in West Africa. PMID:22389744

  20. GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Bridge at West Falls, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 9. WEST FACADE OF ORIGINAL (1903) POWERHOUSE, GENERATING ROOM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST FACADE OF ORIGINAL (1903) POWERHOUSE, GENERATING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. 12. NORTH AND WEST FACADES OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING; LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTH AND WEST FACADES OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING; LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer 1957 WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer 1957 WEST HALL FROM BALCONY - Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Exhibition Hall, Huntington Avenue & West Newton Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration. PMID:12281036

  6. A re-evaluation of the origin of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Forbi, Joseph C.; Sue, Amanda; Layden, Jennifer E.; Switzer, William M.; Opare-Sem, Ohene K.; Phillips, Richard O.; Khudyakov, Yury E.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified into seven genotypes based on genetic diversity, and most genotypes have been found in Africa. Infections with HCV genotype 2 (HCV2) are most prevalent in West Africa and it was suggested that HCV2 originated in West Africa. To better understand the evolutionary epidemiology of HCV2 in Africa, we examined new NS5B sequences of HCV2 strains obtained from Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria sequenced at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with those available from West, North and Central Africa. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a discrete trait model showed that Ghana was the most likely geographical region for the origin of HCV2. Spread of HCV2 from Ghana did not appear to be through diffusion to adjacent countries along the coast. Rather, it was transmitted from Ghana to many distant countries in Africa, suggesting that certain routes of geographical dissemination were historically more efficient than mere proximity and that the HCV2 epidemic history in West Africa is extremely complex. PMID:25888623

  7. DPA1*02012: A DPA1*0201-related Mhc class II allele in West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C.G.; May, J.; Spauke, D.; Schnittger, L.

    1994-12-31

    DNA techniques such as sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) hybridizations, restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses, and DNA sequencing have greatly supported the characterization of Mhc class II allelic polymorphism. Here the authors describe a DPA 1 allele which has been identified in two male individuals from Liberia and Benin, West Africa, during a survey study on Mhc class II associations with the different manifestations after infection with Onchocerca volvulus. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Geologic Map of the Denver West 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Bryant, Bruce; Premo, Wayne R.

    2008-01-01

    The Denver West quadrangle extends east-west across the entire axis of the Front Range, one of numerous uplifts in the Rocky Mountain region in which Precambrian rocks are exposed. The history of the basement rocks in the Denver West quadrangle is as old as 1,790 Ma. Along the east side of the range, a sequence of sedimentary rocks as old as Pennsylvanian, but dominated by Cretaceous-age rocks, overlies these ancient basement rocks and was upturned and locally faulted during Laramide (Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary) uplift of the range. The increasingly coarser grained sediments up section in rocks of latest Cretaceous to early Tertiary age record in remarkable detail this Laramide period of mountain building. On the west side of the range, a major Laramide fault (Williams Range thrust) places Precambrian rocks over Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The geologic history of the quadrangle, therefore, can be divided into four major periods: (1) Proterozoic history, (2) Pennsylvanian to pre-Laramide, Late Cretaceous history, (3) Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Laramide mountain building, and (4) post-Laramide history. In particular, the Quaternary history of the Denver West quadrangle is described in detail, based largely on extensive new mapping.

  9. Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic activity on the West Indian island of Montserrat has remained high for several years-the current activity started in 1995. However, remote sensing of the island has been difficult because of frequent cloud cover. The International Space Station crew flew north of the island on a clear day in early July (July 9, 2001) and recorded a vigorous steam plume emanating from the summit of Soufriere Hills. The image also reveals the extensive volcanic mud flows (lahars) and new deltas built out from the coast from the large amounts of volcanic debris delivered downstream by the rivers draining the mountain. As a small island (only 13 x 8 km), all of Montserrat has been impacted by the eruptions. Sources of Information: Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program Italy's Volcanoes Montserrat Volcano Observatory Digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309 was taken on 9 July 2001 from Space Station Alpha and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  10. Does the geoid drift west?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, G. E.; Parker, R. L.; Zumberge, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    In 1970 Hide and Malin noted a correlation of about 0.8 between the geoid and the geomagnetic potential at the Earth's surface when the latter is rotated eastward in longitude by about 160 degrees and the spherical harmonic expansions of both functions are truncated at degree 4. From a century of magnetic observatory data, Hide and Malin inferred an average magnetic westward drift rate of about 0.27 degrees/year. They attributed the magnetic-gravitational correlation to a core event at about 1350 A.D. which impressed the mantle's gravity pattern at long wavelengths onto the core motion and the resulting magnetic field. The impressed pattern was then carried westward 160 degrees by the nsuing magnetic westward drift. An alternative possibility is some sort of steady physical coupling between the magnetic and gravitational fields (perhaps migration of Hide's bumps on the core-mantle interface). This model predicts that the geoid will drift west at the magnetic rate. On a rigid earth, the resulting changes in sea level would be easily observed, but they could be masked by adjustment of the mantle if it has a shell with viscosity considerably less than 10 to the 21 poise. However, steady westward drift of the geoid also predicts secular changes in g, the local acceleration of gravity, at land stations. These changes are now ruled out by recent independent high-accuracy absolute measurements of g made by several workers at various locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Tectonic evolution of the west Spitsbergen fold belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, C.; Hauser, E. C.; Maher, H. D.; Sun, A. Y.; Guo-Qiang, Zhu

    1985-04-01

    The west Spitsbergen fold belt has a complex tectonic history which is recorded in a thick, nearly complete upper Proterozoic-Phanerozoic layered sequence. Work since 1977 near Bellsund allows recognition of the main deformational events in that segment of the fold belt. The strata are grouped informally into the metamorphosed Hecla Hoek (HH) sequence (Proterozoic) and the Van Keulenfjorden (VK) sequence (Carboniferous-Cretaceous), separated by a pronounced unconformity. The HH is divided into the Antoniabreen succession, the Chamberlindalen succession, and the Kapp Lyell tillite; the first two consist of diverse clastic and carbonate rocks, along with some volcanic rocks. The VK is a platform sequence of shallow marine and terrestrial sedimentary rocks. These layered rocks are intruded by a few Mesozoic dolerite sills and dikes. Subhorizontal Paleogene sedimentary rocks are preserved in a small graben. Both layered sequences have undergone strong deformation. Structures (mainly Caledonian age) in the HH can be grouped as phase 1 (small isoclinal folds, subhorizontal axial planar foliation, ridge-groove lineation in the foliation, and large recumbent folds), phase 2 (tight to isoclinal folds, axial planar foliation), and younger (weak folds and foliations, kink bands, crinkles). Structures (mainly Tertiary age) in the VK include faults (thrust, reverse, down-to-the-east bedding-plane normal, other normal); folds (symmetric, asymmetric, overturned, recumbent, isoclinal); and foliation (in some tightly folded Triassic shales). Six deformational events can be identified here, each described below in terms of age, intensity, and kinematic pattern: D 1 - Vendian or early Paleozoic; very strong; NNW-SSE shortening?, NNW transport? D 2 - Early Paleozoic (pre-Carboniferous); strong; NE-SW shortening, NE vergence. D 3 - Middle (?) Carboniferous; moderate; unclear (limited exposure). D 4 - Early Cretaceous (?); weak; extension, direction unclear. D 5 - Early (?) Tertiary

  12. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  13. Structure of the continental shelf west of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Alan K.

    1973-01-01

    The continental shelf west of San Francisco, California is divided into two structural provinces along the offshore extension of the Seal Cove fault, the Farallon and Golden Gate platforms. The Farallon platform lies west of the Seal Cove fault and is characterized by a thick sequence of Tertiary sediments with a maximum thickness of 3.5 km. These sediments are bounded at the edge of the continental shelf by a ridge of Cretaceous granitic rock which crops out at the Farallon Islands. The granitic basement is vertically displaced along the eastern flank of the granitic ridge and along two high angle reverse faults located near Point Reyes. The Point Reyes fault trends east-west and has possibly offset the granitic basement 1500 meters since late Pliocene time. Two northwest trending anticlines lie south of the Point Reyes fault. The eastern boundary of the Tertiary basin is delineated by a structural high composed of deformed basin sediments. This structural high is truncated at the Seal Cove fault. On the Golden Gate platform, the San Andreas fault zone is marked by a near surface graben, showing a maximum vertical displacement of 20 meters, and by a wider linear depression observed to a depth of 700 meters. The Pilarcitos fault continues offshore and joins the San Andreas fault south of Bolinas. The development of the present Tertiary basin under the continental shelf commenced in late Miocene time with. the initial uplift of the Farallon ridge and the compression of the eastern basin margin. Strike-slip faulting on the seal Cove fault in Pliocene time truncated middle Tertiary sediments at the fault and thus formed a distinct structural boundary between the Farallon and Golden Gate platforms. Surface extensional features observed within the San Andreas fault zone are suggestive of strike-slip faulting in late Tertiary time. The compressional high angle reverse faulting at Point Reyes occurred during the late Pliocene orogenic period of the California Coast Ranges.

  14. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  15. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  16. Petrology of the Plutonic Rocks of west-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    1970-01-01

    A series of plutons in west-central Alaska defines the Hogatza plutonic belt which extends for about 200 miles in an east-west direction from the northeastern Seward Peninsula to the Koyukuk River. The plutonic rocks have an aggregate area of about 1,200 square miles and their composition, distribution, and possible petrogenesis are discussed for the first time in this report. Field, petrographic and chemical data supported by K/Ar age dating indicate the plutonic rocks are divisible into two suites differing in age, location, and composition. The western plutons are mid-Cretaceous (~100 m.y.) in age and consist of a heterogeneous assemblage of monzonite, syenite, quartz monzonite. Associated with these granitic rocks is a group of alkaline sub-silicic rocks that forma belt of intrusive complexes extending for a distance of at least 180 miles from west-central Alaska to the Bering Sea. The complex at Granite Mountain shows a rare example of zoning from an alkaline rim to a quartz-bearing core. The occurrence of a similar complex at Cape Dezhnev on the easternmost tip of Siberia suggests the alkaline province may extend into Siberia. The easternmost plutons are Late Cretaceous (180 m.y.) in age and composed primarily of granodiorite and quartz monzonite similar to calc-alkaline plutons found throughout the North America Cordillera. The plutons are epizonal and intrude deformed but unmetamorphosed Lower Cretaceous andesitic volcanics and volcanic graywacke which constitute the highly mobile Yukon-Koyukuk volcanogenic province of west-central Alaska. No older rocks have been found within the confines of this vast tract; the occurrence of a bounding ophiolite sequence has lead to the suggestion that the province was formed by large-scale rifting and is underlain by oceanic crust. The possibility of no juvenile sialic crust over much of the area suggests that the potassium-rich magma now represented by the alkaline rocks originated in the mantle. The distribution of the

  17. Development of West African Rainy Seasons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    The development of West African rainy seasons in the observed climatology can be understood in terms of two factors: continentality, i.e., the shape and placement of the African continent, and solar forcing. First, the observed features of the West African spring and summer precipitation climatology that distinguish it from the precipitation climatology of the tropical Atlantic to the east and Central/Eastern Africa to the west are presented. These include a lingering of the precipitation maximum along the Guinean coast in June and the apparent sudden movement of the precipitation maximum into the Sahel in early July. Then, these distinguishing features of the West Africa precipitation climatology are explained in terms of the regional dynamics and, finally, related to continentality and solar forcing through the roles of the African easterly jet, land surface temperature, and seasonally-varying SSTs.

  18. GOES-West Movie of Hurricane Newton

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of infrared and visible images from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows the development and movement of Hurricane Newton from Sept. 4 through Sept. 6 at 10 a.m. EDT (1400 UTC) toward Ba...

  19. Childhood and Education in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Roger

    1975-01-01

    Describes and explains the differences between schools in North America (USA and Canada) and Western Europe (France and West Germany) in terms of their contrasting notions of childhood and childrearing. (SDH)

  20. GOES-West Video of Sandra

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite showed Tropical Storm Sandra has become decoupled by strong wind shear as it was approaching landfall in western Mexico ...

  1. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). West Nile virus transmission has been documented in Europe and the Middle East, Africa, India, parts of Asia, and Australia. It was first detected ...

  2. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  3. GOES-West Satellite Sees 'Pineapple Express'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Visible and infrared images taken from NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental, or GOES-West, satellite from Feb. 7 through 9, 2014, were animated by the NASA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard ...

  4. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  5. Geochemical constraints on magma processes in a peralkaline system - The Paisano volcano, west Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonough, W. F.; Nelson, D. O.

    1984-01-01

    Petrographic and trace element data from a continuous stratigraphic sequence of flows from the peralkaline Paisano Volcano in west Texas are used to delineate magnetic processes responsible for the chemical evolution of this volcano. It is shown that crystal fractionation of the phenocrystic assemblage explains the main compositional variation, but magma mixing of a less evolved melt composition also affected the chemical evolution of the volcano.

  6. The habitat of petroleum in the Brazilian marginal and west African basins: A biological marker investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, M.R.; Soldan, A.L. ); Maxwell, J.R. ); Figueira, J. )

    1990-05-01

    A geochemical and biological marker investigation of a variety of oils from offshore Brazil and west Africa, ranging in age from Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary, has been done, with the following aims: (1) assessing the depositional environment of source rocks, (2) correlating the reservoired oils, (3) comparing the Brazilian oils with their west African counterparts. The approach was based in stable isotope data; bulk, elemental, and hydrous pyrolysis results; and molecular studies involving quantitative geological marker investigations of alkanes using GC-MS and GC-MS-MS. The results reveal similarities between groups of oils from each side of the Atlantic and suggest an origin from source rocks deposited in five types of depositional environment: lacustrine fresh water, lacustrine saline water, marine evaporitic/carbonate, restricted marine anoxic, and marine deltaic. In west Africa, the Upper Cretaceous marine anoxic succession (Cenomanian-Santonian) appears to be a major oil producer, but in Brazil it is generally immature. The Brazilian offshore oils have arisen mainly from the pre-salt sequence, whereas the African oils show a balance between origins from the pre-salt and marine sequences. The integration of the geochemical and geological data indicate that new frontiers of hydrocarbon exploration in the west African basins must consider the Tertiary reservoirs in the offshore area of Niger Delta, the reservoirs of the rift sequences in the shallow-water areas of south Gabon, Congo, and Cuanza basins, and the reservoirs from the drift sequences (post-salt) in the deep-water areas of Gabon, Congo Cabinda, and Cuanza basins.

  7. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  8. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  9. Sequence information signal processor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, John C.; Chow, Edward T.; Waterman, Michael S.; Hunkapillar, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit is used to compare two sequences, such as genetic sequences, to determine which alignment of the sequences produces the greatest similarity. The circuit includes a linear array of series-connected processors, each of which stores a single element from one of the sequences and compares that element with each successive element in the other sequence. For each comparison, the processor generates a scoring parameter that indicates which segment ending at those two elements produces the greatest degree of similarity between the sequences. The processor uses the scoring parameter to generate a similar scoring parameter for a comparison between the stored element and the next successive element from the other sequence. The processor also delivers the scoring parameter to the next processor in the array for use in generating a similar scoring parameter for another pair of elements. The electronic circuit determines which processor and alignment of the sequences produce the scoring parameter with the highest value.

  10. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, R.M.; Venter, J.C.; Gilbert, W.; Mulligan, J.; Mansfield, B.K.

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  11. Roles of repetitive sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  12. Quantifying Early Miocene in-sequence and out-of-sequence thrusting at the Alpine-Carpathian junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beidinger, A.; Decker, K.

    2014-03-01

    A detailed reconstruction of late Oligocene and Early Miocene thrusting at the leading edge of the East Alpine fold-thrust belt is achieved from well data, seismic, and interpretative cross sections. Data are used for constraining the paleogeographic positions of the Alpine thrusts, quantifying in-sequence/out-of-sequence thrust distances, assessing the timing of thrust propagation from structurally higher units into more external ones, and estimating thrust velocities. Results are depicted in five palinspastic maps for time slices between ~26 Ma and ~16 Ma. The termination of foreland-propagating thrusting at the Alpine front is apparently controlled by the subcrop topography of the European basement, which includes a major recess in the east leading to a diachronic along-strike termination of foreland-propagating thrusting with younger thrust ages and higher in-sequence thrust distances in the east. Early locking of foreland-propagating thrusting in the west causes prominent out-of-sequence thrusts which add to the in-sequence thrust distances there. Continuing consecutive detachment of foreland units in the east occurs at rather fast propagation velocities with time intervals between foreland-thrust-propagations ranging between 0.1 and 0.7 Ma. The resulting increase of in-sequence thrust distances from west to east is balanced by out-of-sequence thrusts in the west. The total amount of late Oligocene to Early Miocene thrusting is quantified with a minimum of 51 km. Average thrust velocities range between 4.6 and 5.2 mm/yr. This rate refers to the movement of the basal thrust at the leading edge of the fold-thrust belt, which occurs contemporaneous with the eastward lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps in the hinterland.

  13. Upper Devonian Catskill delta of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.C.; Lewis, J.S.; Mumcuoglu, C.; Boswell, R.; Peace, K.; Jewell, G.

    1984-12-01

    Oil and gas reservoir rocks of the Upper Devonian of West Virginia were deposited as shoreline sands along a coastal plain characterized by marine-dominant deltas (Catskill delta complex). These sandstones exhibit facies relationships between red beds and interbedded sandstones and shales that shift westward and eastward with offlap and onlap. Outcrop equivalents at Elkins, West Virginia, are correlated with the interval of Balltown to Fourth sands. Subsurface correlation indicates that maximum westward progradation occurred during deposition of the Gordon and Gordon Stray sands, and that transgression mainly characterized the younger Devonian sands of the Thirty-foot, Fifty-foot and Gantz. Regional correlations suggest that the Bradford-Balltown and Speechly (B sands of Pennsylvania Geological Survey) sands are better developed in northwestern Pennsylvania, whereas the Bayard through Gantz (D sands of Pennsylvania Geological Survey) sands are better developed in northern and central West Virginia, decreasing also in buildup toward southeastern West Virginia. The oil-bearing sandstones occur in strike trend (north-south) in north-central West Virginia connected by feeder channel sandstones with dip trends (east-west). The interpreted fluvial and tidal channels combine to represent distributary channels that supplied the sands to the barrier islands and delta front. Shoreline shifts, with regression and transgression of the ancient sea, caused corresponding changes in distal-fan accumulations with time.

  14. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  15. Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Salazar, Lucrecia; Wootton, Susan H; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N; Murray, Kristy O; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June-October). WNV testing was ordered for 281 (37%) of the 751; results indicated acute infection for 32 (11%). Characteristics associated with WNV testing were acute focal neurologic deficits; older age; magnetic resonance imaging; empirically prescribed antiviral therapy; worse clinical outcomes: and concomitant testing for mycobacterial, fungal, or other viral infections. Testing for WNV is underutilized, and testing of patients with more severe disease raises the possibility of diagnostic bias in epidemiologic studies. PMID:27537988

  16. Catastrophic collapse of the west Florida carbonate platform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, H.T.; Gardulski, A.F.; Hine, A.C.

    1986-02-01

    A large truncation surface has been discovered on seismic reflection profiles along the distally steepened ramp of the west Florida carbonate platform margin. This structure, interpreted as a submarine slide scar, is at least 120 km across and up to 30 km wide; the slide has removed as much as 300-350 m of late Paleogene and early Neogene strata. Collapse occurred in the middle Miocene within an episode of seaward progradation during a relative sea-level highstand. Postcollapse depositional sequences thicken abruptly across the structure; this suggests catastrophic slope failure. Gravitational instability, created by high rates of sediment accumulation, is believed to have been the triggering mechanism. Such large-scale platform-margin collapse is likely to generate megabreccia debris flows as well as aid in the landward retreat of precipitous, high-relief carbonate escarpments.

  17. Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Salazar, Lucrecia; Wootton, Susan H.; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June–October). WNV testing was ordered for 281 (37%) of the 751; results indicated acute infection for 32 (11%). Characteristics associated with WNV testing were acute focal neurologic deficits; older age; magnetic resonance imaging; empirically prescribed antiviral therapy; worse clinical outcomes: and concomitant testing for mycobacterial, fungal, or other viral infections. Testing for WNV is underutilized, and testing of patients with more severe disease raises the possibility of diagnostic bias in epidemiologic studies. PMID:27537988

  18. Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2003-01-01

    The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms

  19. Functional description of the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Borisch, R.R.; McMahon, C.L.

    1990-07-01

    The primary objective of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is the solidification of approximately 2.1 million liters (560,000 gallons) of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) which resulted from the operation of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Since the original plant was not built to accommodate the processing of waste beyond storage in underground tanks, HLW solidification by vitrification presented numerous engineering challenges. Existing facilities required redesign and conversion to meet their new purpose. Vitrification technology and systems needed to be created and then tested. Equipment modifications, identified from cold test results, were incorporated into the final equipment configuration to be used for radioactive (hot) operations. Cold operations have defined the correct sequence and optimal functioning of the equipment to be used for vitrification and have verified the process by which waste will be solidified into borosilicate glass.

  20. Characterization of Virulent West Nile Virus Kunjin Strain, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Melinda J.; Zhang, Jing; Edmonds, Judith H.; Prow, Natalie A.; Gu, Xingnian; Davis, Rodney; Hornitzky, Christine; Arzey, Kathleen E.; Finlaison, Deborah; Hick, Paul; Read, Andrew; Hobson-Peters, Jody; May, Fiona J.; Doggett, Stephen L.; Haniotis, John; Russell, Richard C.; Hall, Roy A.; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the cause of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis among horses in New South Wales, Australia, in 2011, we performed genomic sequencing of viruses isolated from affected horses and mosquitoes. Results showed that most of the cases were caused by a variant West Nile virus (WNV) strain, WNVNSW2011, that is most closely related to WNV Kunjin (WNVKUN), the indigenous WNV strain in Australia. Studies in mouse models for WNV pathogenesis showed that WNVNSW2011 is substantially more neuroinvasive than the prototype WNVKUN strain. In WNVNSW2011, this apparent increase in virulence over that of the prototype strain correlated with at least 2 known markers of WNV virulence that are not found in WNVKUN. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship of the WNVNSW2011 strain to currently and previously circulating WNVKUN strains and to confirm the cause of the increased virulence of this emerging WNV strain. PMID:22516173

  1. 1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING 120. BUILDING 120 HOUSES THE PROTECTIVE FORCE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTROLLING ENTRANCE TO AND EGRESS FROM THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT WEST ENTRANCE. - Rocky Flats Plant, Guard Facility, South side of west access road, approximately 2,323 feet east of Colorado Highway 93 & West Road, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Career Academy Course Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Thom; Lenz, Robert

    This career academy course sequence guide is designed to give teachers a quick overview of the course sequences of well-known career academy and career pathway programs from across the country. The guide presents a variety of sample course sequences for the following academy themes: (1) arts and communication; (2) business and finance; (3)…

  3. T. cacao Transcriptome Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compliment the T. cacao genome sequencing initiative and to build a reference set of expressed genes for functional studies, a broad and state-of-the-art approach to transcriptome sequencing is underway. Using newly optimized methods, transcriptome sequencing libraries were prepared from RNA of o...

  4. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Todd N.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Herter, Brandi N.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications. PMID:26395152

  5. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  6. Uncorrectable sequences and telecommand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekroot, Laura; Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Swanson, L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of a tail sequence for command link transmission units is to fail to decode, so that the command decoder will begin searching for the start of the next unit. A tail sequence used by several missions and recommended for this purpose by the Consultative Committee on Space Data Standards is analyzed. A single channel error can cause the sequence to decode. An alternative sequence requiring at least two channel errors before it can possibly decode is presented. (No sequence requiring more than two channel errors before it can possibly decode exists for this code.)

  7. Stratigraphy of the Grande Savane Ignimbrite Sequence, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.; Smith, A. L.; Deuerling, K.; Killingsworth, N.; Daly, G.

    2007-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the central part of the Lesser Antilles island arc has eight potentially active volcanoes. One of these, Morne Diablotins, is a composite stratovolcano with several superimposed stratigraphic sequences ranging in age from Pliocene (4-2 Ma) to "Younger" Pleistocene (<1.8 Ma). The most recent major eruptive activity from this volcano was a series of Plinian eruptions that produced ignimbrites that gave dates of >22,000 and >40,000 years B.P. The ignimbrite sequences form four flow fans that reached both the east and west coasts of the island. One of these flow fans, the Grande Savane, on the west coast of the island, also extends off-shore for a distance of at least 14 km as a distinctive submarine fan. Stratigraphical studies of the on- shore deposits that make up this fan indicate an older sequence of block and ash flow deposits, within which occurs a distinctive vulcanian fall deposit. These are overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites containing welded horizons (ranging in thickness from around 4 m to 16m). The lack of fall deposits beneath the ignimbrites suggest they may have been formed by instantaneous continuous collapse of the eruption column. This whole succession is overlain by a series of planar and dune bedded pumiceous surge deposits with interbedded pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits, that extend laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition. Beds within this upper sequence often contain accretionary lapilli and gas cavities suggesting magma-water interaction. The youngest deposits from Morne Diablotins appear to be valley- fill deposits of both ignimbrite and block and ash flow. A comparison of the of the Grande Savane pyroclastic sequence with the Pointe Ronde (west coast) and Londonderry (east coast) pyroclastic flow fans will provide information on the eruptive history of this major Plinian episode.

  8. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  9. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  10. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011

  11. 7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. 75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5, 2010), the West Coast Salmon Plan, and regulations implementing the West.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the 2010 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5..., inseason action 11 (75 FR 54791, September, 9, 2010) imposed an open period landing and possession limit...

  13. 75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... the annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5, 2010), the West Coast.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the 2010 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY83 Fisheries Off West...

  14. 77 FR 65520 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... CSR 8--Ambient Air Quality Standards. In the Final Rules section of this Federal Register, EPA...

  15. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  16. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ..., Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 2916). We received no comments on...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach...

  17. 78 FR 59841 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... 11, 2012 (77 FR 73575), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the State of West... transportation conformity purposes for the West Virginia portion of the Area. On July 24, 2013 (78 FR 44487), EPA... emissions inventory requirements of section 172(c)(3) of the CAA. See December 11, 2012 (77 FR 73575)...

  18. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section 110.189a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any...

  19. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section 110.189a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any...

  20. PTPN22 polymorphisms may indicate a role for this gene in atopic dermatitis in West Highland white terriers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Canine atopic dermatitis is an allergic inflammatory skin disease common in West Highland white terriers. A genome-wide association study for atopic dermatitis in a population of West Highland white terriers identified a 1.3 Mb area of association on CFA17 containing canine protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid) PTPN22. This gene is a potential candidate gene for canine atopic dermatitis as it encodes a lymphoid-specific signalling mediator that regulates T-cell and possibly B-cell activity. Findings Sequencing of PTPN22 in three atopic and three non-atopic West Highland white terriers identified 18 polymorphisms, including five genetic variants with a bioinformatically predicted functional effect. An intronic polymorphic repeat sequence variant was excluded as the cause of the genome-wide association study peak signal, by large-scale genotyping in 72 West Highland white terriers (gene-dropping simulation method, P = 0.01). Conclusions This study identified 18 genetic variants in PTPN22 that might be associated with atopic dermatitis in West Highland white terriers. This preliminary data may direct further study on the role of PTPN22 in this disease. Large scale genotyping and complementary genomic and proteomic assays would be required to assess this possibility. PMID:22208456

  1. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  2. Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica

    PubMed

    Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

    2000-03-01

    The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world. PMID:10724159

  3. Unlocking hidden genomic sequence

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Jonathan M.; Cochran, Duncan A. E.; Lala, Gita H.; Adams, Peter; Bryant, Darryn; Mitchelson, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the success of conventional Sanger sequencing, significant regions of many genomes still present major obstacles to sequencing. Here we propose a novel approach with the potential to alleviate a wide range of sequencing difficulties. The technique involves extracting target DNA sequence from variants generated by introduction of random mutations. The introduction of mutations does not destroy original sequence information, but distributes it amongst multiple variants. Some of these variants lack problematic features of the target and are more amenable to conventional sequencing. The technique has been successfully demonstrated with mutation levels up to an average 18% base substitution and has been used to read previously intractable poly(A), AT-rich and GC-rich motifs. PMID:14973330

  4. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-08-15

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41[degree] API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  6. Impacts of West Nile Virus on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, E.K.; Wild, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The recent epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States proved to be unexpectedly active and was the largest epidemic of the virus ever recorded. Much remains to be discovered about the ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in the United States, including which species are important in maintaining the virus in nature, why some species are more susceptible to lethal infection, and what environmental factors are important in predicting future epidemics. These factors will likely vary regionally, depending on local ecological characteristics. Until scientists better understand the virus and factors influencing its activity, predicting its effects for future seasons is impossible. However, experts are certain about one thing: West Nile virus is here to stay.

  7. Multiplexed Fragaria Chloroplast Genome Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to sequence multiple chloroplast genomes that uses the sequencing depth of ultra high throughput sequencing technologies was recently described. Sequencing complete chloroplast genomes can resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels and identify point mutations and indels tha...

  8. Ilheus Virus Isolation in the Pantanal, West-Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L.; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M. S.; Nogueira, Rita M. R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal. PMID:23875051

  9. Functional Analysis of West Nile Virus Proteins in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Kaufusi, Pakieli H; Tseng, Alanna; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2016-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) lineage 2 strains have been responsible for large outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease in the United States and Europe between 1999 and 2012. Different strains in this lineage have previously been shown to produce either severe or mild neuroinvasive disease in mice. Phylogenetic and amino acid comparisons between highly or less virulent lineage 2 strains have demonstrated that the nonstructural (NS) gene(s) were most variable. However, the roles of some of the NS proteins in virus life cycle are unknown. The aim of this chapter is to describe simple computational and experimental approaches that can be used to: (1) explore the possible roles of the NS proteins in virus life cycle and (2) test whether the subtle amino acid changes in WNV NS gene products contributed to the evolution of more virulent strains. The computational approaches include methods based on: (1) sequence similarity, (2) sequence motifs, and (3) protein membrane topology predictions. Highlighted experimental procedures include: (1) isolation of viral RNA from WNV-infected cells, (2) cDNA synthesis and PCR amplification of WNV genes, (3) cloning into GFP expression vector, (4) bacterial transformation, (5) plasmid isolation and purification, (6) transfection using activated dendrimers (Polyfect), and (7) immunofluorescence staining of transfected mammalian cells. PMID:27188549

  10. West Nile Virus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Nasci, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in North America in 1999,West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16 196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780 000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND

  11. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  12. Hydrocarbon accumulations of Mississippian Berea sandstone in west-central West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.L. )

    1988-08-01

    The Berea Sandstone is a widely recognized producer of oil and gas in the Appalachian basin. Subsurface mapping, core analysis, and production data from producing wells have been evaluated in west-central West Virginia, where the Berea Sandstone represents a wide range of nearshore and coastal environments. Fluvial system deposits are found in southern Jackson County as channel sands (Gay-Fink) and adjacent deltaic facies. Coastal sediments were deposited to the north as intertidal shoals, tidal flats, and coarse-grained tidal-creek point bars. Marine shelf sands are found to the west.

  13. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  14. M&m Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Harris S.; Shiflett, Ray C.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a sequence recursively formed as follows: Start with three real numbers, and then when k are known, let the (k +1)st be such that the mean of all k +1 equals the median of the first k. The authors conjecture that every such sequence eventually becomes stable. This article presents results related to their conjecture.

  15. Cosmetology: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a cosmetology vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  16. Twin Mitochondrial Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Yosr; Martinez, Selena; Gong, Henry; Dumas, Kevin; Shieh, Joseph T C

    2013-09-01

    When applying genome-wide sequencing technologies to disease investigation, it is increasingly important to resolve sequence variation in regions of the genome that may have homologous sequences. The human mitochondrial genome challenges interpretation given the potential for heteroplasmy, somatic variation, and homologous nuclear mitochondrial sequences (numts). Identical twins share the same mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from early life, but whether the mitochondrial sequence remains similar is unclear. We compared an adult monozygotic twin pair using high throughput-sequencing and evaluated variants with primer extension and mitochondrial pre-enrichment. Thirty-seven variants were shared between the twin individuals, and the variants were verified on the original genomic DNA. These studies support highly identical genetic sequence in this case. Certain low-level variant calls were of high quality and homology to the mitochondrial DNA, and they were further evaluated. When we assessed calls in pre-enriched mitochondrial DNA templates, we found that these may represent numts, which can be differentiated from mtDNA variation. We conclude that twin identity extends to mitochondrial DNA, and it is critical to differentiate between numts and mtDNA in genome sequencing, particularly since significant heteroplasmy could influence genome interpretation. Further studies on mtDNA and numts will aid in understanding how variation occurs and persists. PMID:24040623

  17. Sequences for Student Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided investigation. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…

  18. Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

  19. Depositional environments and paleogeography of the Upper Miocene Wassuk Group, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golia, R.T.; Stewart, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the Miocene Wassuk Group, exposed in Coal Valley, west-central Nevada, are divided into five lithofacies: (1) diatomite, claystone, siltstone, and carbonaceous siltstone deposited in a lake with paludal conditions at the margin; (2) upward-coarsening sequences of sandstone deposited on a delta and fan-delta; (3) channel-form sandstone deposited on a distal braided alluvial plain; (4) clast-supported conglomerate deposited on a proxial braided alluvial plain or distal alluvial fan; and (5) matrix-supported conglomerate deposited on a distal to middle alluvial fan. Petrographic analysis records an upsection change from a predominantly andesitic to a predominantly plutonic provenance. This change, combined with the overall upward-coarsening of the Wassuk Group and the great thickness (2400 m) of the sequence, suggests active uplift and rapid subsidence during deposition of the group. Facies relationships and paleocurrent directions indicate source areas to the south, southeast and west of Coal Valley. The Miocene Wassuk Group was deposited in an intra-arc basin with penecontemporaneous volcanism and tectonic activity. Syndepositional faulting at the southern margin of Coal Valley between 13 and 11 m.y. ago suggests an early episode of northeast-southwest extension prior to the onset of east-west basin and range extension. ?? 1984.

  20. Protein sequence databases.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, Rolf; Bairoch, Amos; Wu, Cathy H

    2004-02-01

    A variety of protein sequence databases exist, ranging from simple sequence repositories, which store data with little or no manual intervention in the creation of the records, to expertly curated universal databases that cover all species and in which the original sequence data are enhanced by the manual addition of further information in each sequence record. As the focus of researchers moves from the genome to the proteins encoded by it, these databases will play an even more important role as central comprehensive resources of protein information. Several the leading protein sequence databases are discussed here, with special emphasis on the databases now provided by the Universal Protein Knowledgebase (UniProt) consortium. PMID:15036160

  1. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  2. Nucleosome dynamics: Sequence matters.

    PubMed

    Eslami-Mossallam, Behrouz; Schiessel, Helmut; van Noort, John

    2016-06-01

    About three quarter of all eukaryotic DNA is wrapped around protein cylinders, forming nucleosomes. Even though the histone proteins that make up the core of nucleosomes are highly conserved in evolution, nucleosomes can be very different from each other due to posttranslational modifications of the histones. Another crucial factor in making nucleosomes unique has so far been underappreciated: the sequence of their DNA. This review provides an overview of the experimental and theoretical progress that increasingly points to the importance of the nucleosomal base pair sequence. Specifically, we discuss the role of the underlying base pair sequence in nucleosome positioning, sliding, breathing, force-induced unwrapping, dissociation and partial assembly and also how the sequence can influence higher-order structures. A new view emerges: the physical properties of nucleosomes, especially their dynamical properties, are determined to a large extent by the mechanical properties of their DNA, which in turn depends on DNA sequence. PMID:26896338

  3. A phylogenetic approach to following West Nile virus in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John F.; Vossbrinck, Charles R.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Iton, Anthony; Beckwith, William H.; Mayo, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 outbreak of West Nile (WN) virus in the northeastern United States was the first known natural occurrence of this flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere. In 1999 and 2000, 82 independent Connecticut WN virus isolates were cultured from nine species of birds, five species of mosquitoes, and one striped skunk. Nucleotide sequences obtained from these isolates identified 30 genetic changes, compared with WN-NY99, in a 921-nt region of the viral genome beginning at nucleotide position 205 and ending at 1125. This region encodes portions of the nucleocapsid and envelope proteins and includes the entire coding regions for the premembrane and membrane proteins. Amino acid changes occurred at seven loci in six isolates relative to the WN-NY99 strain. Although 34 of the isolates showed sequences identical to the WN-NY99 isolate, we were able to show geographical-based clusters of mutations. In particular, 26 isolates were characterized by mutation of C to T at position 858. This group apparently originated in Stamford, CT and disseminated to sites located as far as 54 miles from Stamford. Sequences of WN virus isolated from both brain and heart tissues from the same avian host were identical in all 14 tested individual birds, suggesting that the mutations we have documented are real and not caused by culture, RNA extraction, or PCR procedures. We conclude that this portion of the viral genome will enable us to follow the geographical and temporal movement of variant WN virus strains as they adapt to North America. PMID:11606791

  4. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  5. Booker T. Washington: Rural West Virginia Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Althea M.

    1985-01-01

    The biographical sketch focuses on the early teaching career of Booker T. Washington at Tinkersville School in his hometown of Malden, West Virginia, from 1876-1878. Recollections of Washington's own education in Sunday school, the Tinkersville School, and Hampton Institute are included. (NEC)

  6. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

  7. Intermountain West Military Lands Planting Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This guide provides recommendations on plant materials for Department of Defense (DoD) land restoration at military facilties in the Intermountain West of the United States. These guidelines provide military land managers new options for revegetating military training lands. Most other guides for l...

  8. Model Program: West Springfield High School, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alukonis, J. T.; Settar, Scott

    2008-01-01

    West Springfield High School sits on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., in Fairfax County, Virginia. WSHS is home to a thriving and growing technology education program. In recent years, the program has exploded from less than 175 students to well over 425. These numbers are expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future. In 2002, the…

  9. Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary ME; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa. PMID:25429316

  10. Open Syllable Lengthening in West Germanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Aditi; Dresher, B. Elan

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to show that open syllable lengthening (OSL) was part of the grammar of the West Germanic languages: Middle English, Middle Dutch, and Middle High German. Claims that all three languages endeavored to maintain and maximize the Germanic foot, and OSL contributed in different ways to do so. (Author/VWL)

  11. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  12. Learning to Be: From East and West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The argument of this article is that whilst humanity has evolved for millions of years as a single species, different groups have developed their own cultural differences as they live in different parts of the world, and we learn within our cultures. Research has demonstrated that we do learn differently, in East and West, since we are brought up…

  13. Learning Under Siege on the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    1975-01-01

    Birzeit College, the only secular institution of higher education in the Israeli-occupied territories, continues to operate with 500 Palestinians attending classes on the West Bank of the Jordan River Valley even though its president, expelled for alleged subversive activities, continues to run the college from Beirut. (JT)

  14. Missing Chapters: West Virginia Women in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Women's Commission, Charleston.

    Nine women whose lives have contributed to West Virginia history are profiled in these collected essays. These women have made significant contributions to history as: midwife, physician, journalist, photographer, educator, musician, civic activist, and social reformer. The stereotypical image of a powerless, barefooted, uneducated girl is proven…

  15. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  16. Retooling Teacher Preparation in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchin, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses West Virginia's public schools, and their long struggle with student achievement levels in reading and math. Levels are significantly below the national average and there are poverty-based achievement gaps within the state. In 2013, a cross section of educators and education policy leaders from a range of experiences,…

  17. Go West, Young Man (and Woman)!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites on the American West, the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, Gold Rush, Donner Party, mountain men and the fur trade, Native Americans, cowboys, and western folklore. Lists related books, activity books, and CD-ROMs on cowboys, migration, and settling. (PEN)

  18. An Interdisciplinary Project and the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    This project began with a list of the kinds of topics that would be of most interest in a study of the old west. Some of the topics that were mentioned for the project included Lewis and Clark, Native American tribes and nations, early pioneers, the fur trade, Texas independence, the Pony Express, homesteaders, gunfighters, the Indian wars, and…

  19. 77 FR 40793 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You can also find later actions concerning... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 948 West Virginia Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Interim final...

  20. West Virginia U. Violated Procedures, Panel Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Administrators at West Virginia University violated procedures and displayed poor judgment in their "seriously flawed" response to an inquiry about a high-profile academic transcript, according to a report issued last week by an independent panel. The harshly worded report found that when the "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" raised questions last October…

  1. Writing the New West: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

  2. The West Virginia Health Education Assessment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Kamal, Khalid M.; Chapman, Don

    2005-01-01

    Well-designed school health education should provide students with the knowledge and skills to prevent the health risk behaviors most responsible for the major causes of morbidity and mortality. This paper reports the methodology and findings of a West Virginia statewide health education assessment initiative and describes how the findings are…

  3. 76 FR 67637 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You can also find later actions... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 948 West Virginia Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule...

  4. Natural Hazards within the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the vulnerability of the West Indies to various natural hazards, especially hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Reviews the geologic and meteorologic causes and consequences of the hazards. Suggests methods of incorporating hazards information in geography classes. Includes maps and a hurricane tracking chart. (DK)

  5. Fast Recession of a West Antarctic Glacier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry observations of Pine Island Glacier, in West Antarctica, reveal that the hinge-line position of this major ice stream retreated 1.2+/-0.2 km per year between 1992 and 1996, which in turn implies ice thinning at 3.5+/-0.6m ice per year.

  6. West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Anna; Hailey, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference held at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee on October 14, 2006. The conference theme, Turning the Pages: A Focus on Children's Literature, was emphasized throughout the day. During the conference, the early childhood classroom teachers, preservice teachers, and administrators…

  7. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This West Virginia edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

  8. WEST-3 wind turbine simulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.; Sridhar, S.

    1985-01-01

    The software developed for WEST-3, a new, all digital, and fully programmable wind turbine simulator is given. The process of wind turbine simulation on WEST-3 is described in detail. The major steps are, the processing of the mathematical models, the preparation of the constant data, and the use of system software generated executable code for running on WEST-3. The mechanics of reformulation, normalization, and scaling of the mathematical models is discussed in detail, in particulr, the significance of reformulation which leads to accurate simulations. Descriptions for the preprocessor computer programs which are used to prepare the constant data needed in the simulation are given. These programs, in addition to scaling and normalizing all the constants, relieve the user from having to generate a large number of constants used in the simulation. Also given are brief descriptions of the components of the WEST-3 system software: Translator, Assembler, Linker, and Loader. Also included are: details of the aeroelastic rotor analysis, which is the center of a wind turbine simulation model, analysis of the gimbal subsystem; and listings of the variables, constants, and equations used in the simulation.

  9. WEST LOUISVILLE AIR TOXICS STUDY (WLATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WLATS was a cooperative effort among the Louisville Metro Air Pollution Control District, the Commonwealth of Kentucky, the West Jefferson County Community Task Force, the University of Louisville, and EPA Region 4 whose purpose was to determine whether residents of the Rubbertow...

  10. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.349 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West... County (part): The city of Weirton, including Butler and Clay magisterial districts X New...

  11. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 81.349 see the List of CFR Sections Affected... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West... classified Better than national standards Hancock County (part): The city of Weirton, including Butler...

  12. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.349 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West... County (part): The city of Weirton, including Butler and Clay magisterial districts X New...

  13. Feature Project--The Old West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Pat

    1984-01-01

    The teaching activities presented in this paper focus on transforming the classroom into the Old West as a means of providing endless opportunities for writing, speaking, and listening in the areas of math, science, social studies, history, geography, music, and art. The paper contains directions for helping students to create scenes, in the…

  14. The West Indian Peridinetini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Baridinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two genera and eight species of Peridinetini are recognized in the West Indies; four of the species are newly described. Peridinetus Schönherr occurs in the Greater Antilles with P. concentricus (Olivier), P. decipiens Prena sp. n., P. fuscosignum Prena sp. n., P. roeselii (Boheman) and P. sexguttat...

  15. West Africa 2013: Re-examining Ebola.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Daniel G; Rojek, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) that occurred from 2013 to 2016 in the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, with imported cases to three neighboring African countries as well as to the United States and Europe, constituted a major humanitarian disaster. The outbreak numbered over 28,500 cases, more than 10 times the number cumulatively registered from all previous EVD outbreaks combined, with at least 11,000 deaths, and resulted in billions of dollars of lost economic growth to an already impoverished region. The unprecedented scale of West Africa 2013 took the world by surprise and laid bare deficiencies in our response capacity to complex humanitarian disasters of highly infectious and lethal pathogens. However, the magnitude of West Africa 2013 also provided an, albeit unwelcome, unique opportunity and obligation to better understand the biology and epidemiology of EVD and, equally as important, the many scientific, economic, social, political, ethical, and logistical challenges in confronting emerging diseases in the modern era. Here we re-examine EVD, reviewing the unique challenges and scientific advances of West Africa 2013, contrasting them with the prior assumptions and classical teachings, identifying what they have taught us and what we still have to learn. PMID:27337474

  16. Compensatory Education Policy and the Intermountain West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael J.; And Others

    Concerned with the impact of Title I, as national education policy on four mountain west states (Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana), this study concludes that Title I has not been internalized, integrated, or institutionalized in this region of the country or in any of the four individual states. The rejection of Title I policy rests on two basic…

  17. East-West Perspectives on Elder Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and conceptualizes the meaning of lifelong learning from two cultural perspectives--East and West. It examines the different principles underpinning lifelong learning that explain why and how elders in the two cultures engage differently in continued learning. Finally, it discusses the cultural impact on elder learning by…

  18. Cultural Astronomy of parts of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, J. O.

    Indigenous endogenous traditional or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies West Africa like the rest of Africa is home to many long-standing cultural traditions that include beliefs practices and observations relating to the sky However the cultural astronomy of the West African sub-region is among the least investigated in the African continent The cultural astronomy of West Africa is rich with mythic figures cosmology and cosmogony divination methods that utilize observations of celestial bodies and many other sky-related beliefs and traditions In a region such as West Africa where there is little or no interest in modern astronomy cultural astronomy is a very powerful tool for creating general awareness and sensitization on modern astronomy Here we discuss some aspects of the culture and tradition of some of the ethnic groups in this region and how they relate to and could serve as a means of popularization of modern astronomy

  19. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  20. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  3. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  4. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  5. Assessing the continuity of the blue ice climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Kate; Woodward, John; Dunning, Stuart A.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Hein, Andrew S.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Bingham, Robert G.; Marrero, Shasta M.; Sugden, David E.; Ross, Neil

    2016-03-01

    We use high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to assess the continuity of the Blue Ice Area (BIA) horizontal climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica. The sequence contains three pronounced changes in deuterium isotopic values at ~18 cal ka, ~12 cal ka, and ~8 cal ka. GPR surveys along the climate sequence reveal continuous, conformable dipping isochrones, separated by two unconformities in the isochrone layers, which correlate with the two older deuterium shifts. We interpret these unconformities as discontinuities in the sequence, rather than direct measures of climate change. Ice sheet models and Internal Layer Continuity Index plots suggest that the unconformities represent periods of erosion occurring, as the former ice surface was scoured by katabatic winds in front of mountains at the head of Horseshoe Valley. This study demonstrates the importance of high-resolution GPR surveys for investigating both paleoflow dynamics and interpreting BIA climate records.

  6. Cluster analysis of earthquake swarms - results from West Bohemia and South-West Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermáková, Hana; Cesca, Simone; Horálek, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake swarms are specific type of seismic activity when strain energy is released in numerous mostly shallow earthquakes, which are missing a single large event; instead a few dominant earthquakes reach similar magnitudes so that smaller events are not associated with any identifiable mainshock. Earthquake swarms distinctively cluster in time and space and last from several hours to several months. They occur at boundaries of the lithospheric plates (interplate), within the plates (intraplate), and they are very often related to the volcanic areas, geothermal fields and ocean ridges. In our study we explored the behaviour of earthquake swarms within a tectonic plate, in a boundary of tectonic plates and in volcanic areas in order to understand why the energy is released successively by sequences of small events in contrast to mainshock-aftershock earthquakes. We used catalogue data from West Bohemia-Vogtland region (WB) situated within a tectonic plate, and three different tectonic basis in South-West Iceland (SWI), namely boundary of tectonic plates (Krísuvík), the edge of a zone where typically mainshock-aftershock earthquakes occur (Olfus, South Iceland Sesmic Zone) and the volcanic area (Hengill). In case of WB we analyzed two swarms, 2000 and 2008, which occurred on the same fault segments. We analyzed distribution of events in a view of a spatial metric obtained from relative locations and time metric (in case of WB and SWI), and a focal mechanism metric based on double couple (DC) solutions (in case of WB). For this purpose we used clustering method by Cesca et al. (2014). The results are strongly affected by the subjective choice of two parameters which describe the desired density of points to infer a cluster. For the tested applications, we repeated the clustering several times to decide the best combination of these parameters. The cluster analysis applied to the double-difference locations disclosed several separate clusters in each area

  7. Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker outside the fenced facility area - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, West Camera Bunker, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 451. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 451. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Production Filling & Storage Building, 1050 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 980 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND 243 (LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 3. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Evaporator & Storage Building, 800 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. West Lawn Site and Planting Plans Oklahoma City Civic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Lawn Site and Planting Plans - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  16. 17. INTERIOR VIEW (WEST) AT TOP OF THE SECOND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW (WEST) AT TOP OF THE SECOND FLOOR STAIRS SHOWING TRIPLE-HUNG WINDOW WITH ORIGINAL SIDELIGHTS AT LANDING LEVEL - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  17. 1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE TO THE WEST, FACING EAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  18. Partial Northeast Elevation Mill #5 East & #5 West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Northeast Elevation - Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4), Typical Floor - Partial Plan Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  19. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building, 3250 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 1750 feet West of E Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 8. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF WASTEGATE AND BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF WASTEGATE AND BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM THE SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT - Woodville Canal Company, West side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Woodville, Bingham County, ID

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING SWITCHING LEVER CONTROL PANEL. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  2. 253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, AND 1829, SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  3. 12. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF EAST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF EAST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  4. 11. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF ENTRY TO AUDITORIUM, EAST ELEVATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF ENTRY TO AUDITORIUM, EAST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  5. 7. VIEW WEST; EAST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST; EAST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  6. 19. VIEW WEST; CENTRAL ROOM, NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING, SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW WEST; CENTRAL ROOM, NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING, SECOND FLOOR. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  7. 16. VIEW WEST; GROUND FLOOR CLASSROOM, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW WEST; GROUND FLOOR CLASSROOM, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  8. 8. VIEW WEST; EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. Naval Undersea ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW WEST; EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  9. 9. VIEW EAST; EXTERIOR DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION INCLUDING COLUMBUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW EAST; EXTERIOR DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION INCLUDING COLUMBUS HALL. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  10. 22. VIEW WEST; CENTRAL ROOM, NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING, THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW WEST; CENTRAL ROOM, NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  11. 26. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF AUDITORIUM INTERIOR WINDOW CORNICE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF AUDITORIUM INTERIOR WINDOW CORNICE. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  12. 4. VIEW EAST; WEST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST; WEST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  13. Elevation of information window on west wall of south lobby ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of information window on west wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  15. INTERIOR VIEW, SECONDSTORY PASSAGE LOOKING WEST FROM ITS MIDPOINT. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SECOND-STORY PASSAGE LOOKING WEST FROM ITS MIDPOINT. THE PANELED OPENING IN THE FOREGROUND MARKS THE ORIGINAL WEST WALL - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. View of west elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area No. 21 in foreground. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. View of west elevation of Building No. 46.. Note walkway. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west elevation of Building No. 46.. Note walkway. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. View of north end of west elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north end of west elevation of Building No. 46. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. View of south end of west elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south end of west elevation of Building No. 46. Looking east/northeast - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, looking south towards building no. 121 (tennis courts) across W. Pennington Ave. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Greenhouse, West Pennington Avenue, East of Building No. 139, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. 19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. 2 AND 3, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  2. 18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 AND 2, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  3. View of headframe, looking west from Powell Memorial Orphan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of headframe, looking west from Powell Memorial - Orphan Lode Mine, Headframe, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. 2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING BOILER HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  5. CORNICE AND WINDOW DETAIL, WEST ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST (LIGHT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CORNICE AND WINDOW DETAIL, WEST ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST (LIGHT AND DARK EXPOSURES). - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Caustic Fusion Building, 450 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 4. WEST SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING WEATHERBOARD LOG COVERING, DOOR CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING WEATHERBOARD LOG COVERING, DOOR CUT INTO WEST WALL TO ENTER DOG TROT, AND UPROOTED TREE WHERE LATER SECOND PEN WAS LOCATED (4 x 5 negative) - Thomas Jefferson Walling Log Cabin, Henderson, Rusk County, TX

  9. South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view to southeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  10. 2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM IN MIDDLE GROUND, WEST DAM IN DISTANCE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  11. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND WEST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND WEST END OF ENGINE REPAIR HOUSE, HARBISON-WALKER QUARRY - Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, Engine Repair House, West end of Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  12. 1. General view to west, showing context in berth, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view to west, showing context in berth, at high tide. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. SHOP, YPOLE, MR. WEST'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. SHOP, Y-POLE, MR. WEST'S HOUSE AND POLE SWELL - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  14. VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER SECTION, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER SECTION, LOOKING WEST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  15. VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER PORTAL ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER PORTAL ON WEST BANK SIDE LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  16. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE WITH 28422 IMMEDIATELY LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE WITH 28422 IMMEDIATELY LEFT (WEST); VIEW TO NORTH. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28502, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. 1. TIP TOP MINE. WEST SIDE OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TIP TOP MINE. WEST SIDE OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  18. 11. EAST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EAST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING WEST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  19. 10. WEST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WEST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  20. 12. CANAL SLUICE GATE LOCATED 150' WEST OF POWER PLANT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CANAL SLUICE GATE LOCATED 150' WEST OF POWER PLANT. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  1. 2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Explosives Blending Building, 2180 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. Perspective, environmental view looking from the intersection of West Lanvale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective, environmental view looking from the intersection of West Lanvale Street and North Carrollton Avenue - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. 27. In context, from west facing east on Pine Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. In context, from west facing east on Pine Street, west side of Building E-6, far left. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  4. 2. View facing north of west and south elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing north of west and south elevations of Dixie Cotton Mill. The brick structure that forms the west elevation was added in 1913. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  5. 17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  6. 16. VIEW OF THE HOUSE INTERIOR, WEST AND NORTH WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE HOUSE INTERIOR, WEST AND NORTH WALLS OF THE BASEMENT SHOWING FOUNDATION MATERIALS; LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Richard M. Fairbourn Farm, 170 West, 11,400 South, South Jordan, Salt Lake County, UT

  7. 4. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING STEAM PIPES CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING STEAM PIPES CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS AT BASE OF BERM. - Loring Air Force Base, Double Cantilever Hangar, East of Arizona Road, west of southern portion of Taxiway J, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  8. WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE WEST PIER OF THE CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  9. 340. Caltrans, Photographer October 14, 1935 "TUNNEL WEST PORTAL"; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    340. Caltrans, Photographer October 14, 1935 "TUNNEL - WEST PORTAL"; VIEW OF TUNNEL - WEST PORTAL' UNDER CONSTRUCTION SHOWING EXCAVATION OF TUNNEL AFTER POUR. 5-1669 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  11. 1. View looking northwest, showing Saybrook west breakwater and Lynde ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northwest, showing Saybrook west breakwater and Lynde Point Lighthouse in the right background - Saybrook Breakwater Light, South tip of west end of Saybrook Breakwater, Old Saybrook, Middlesex County, CT

  12. 4. CENTER COURTYARD, FROM WEST SIDE OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CENTER COURTYARD, FROM WEST SIDE OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF BUILDING, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND LOWER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 17. UPPER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. UPPER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 16. UPPER STATION, WEST FACADE, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. Monongahela ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER STATION, WEST FACADE, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 14. UPPER STATION, FRONT AND WEST FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UPPER STATION, FRONT AND WEST FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Detail of arched window by main entry on west elevation; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of arched window by main entry on west elevation; showing Stone Foundation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING WEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING WEST AT FOUNDATION WHICH IS CONTIGUOUS TO WEST WALL OF THE JONATHAN HAGER HOUSE - Jonathan Hager House (Foundation), Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

  19. 21. View to westnorthwest west in electrical room, first floor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View to west-northwest west in electrical room, first floor, showing AC-DC converters and control panel. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  20. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO WEST FRONT ENTRANCE VISABLE TO THE RIGHT - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  1. General view looking west from eastern edge of complex. Kilns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking west from eastern edge of complex. Kilns have been demolished but kiln stacks still stand. - Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, West end of Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  2. 15. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OLD FAITHFUL INN. THE INN'S NAMESAKE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OLD FAITHFUL INN. THE INN'S NAMESAKE, OLD FAITHFUL GEYSER IS AT LEFT. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  3. 2. Northeast end and southeast side. View to west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northeast end and southeast side. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 13. Relationship of east tool shed, west tool shed, residence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Relationship of east tool shed, west tool shed, residence, claim house, and privy to each other and immediate surroundings, looking north - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  5. 12. Relationship of est tool shed, west tool shed, residence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Relationship of est tool shed, west tool shed, residence, claim house, and chicken house to each other and immediate surroundings, looking southeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  6. 11. Relationship of barn, east tool shed, west tool shed, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Relationship of barn, east tool shed, west tool shed, and residence to overall farmstead site, looking southeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  7. 4. Detail of siding beneath plywood on west side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of siding beneath plywood on west side of claim house, also showing closed off door - George Spangerberger Farmstead, John Siegrist Claim House, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  8. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF WEST WING. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF WEST WING. THE VAULT ROOM IS ATTACHED TO THE WEST WALL, SHOWN AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Army Base, General Purpose Administration Building, Chungking & Algiers Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. VIEW OF CIPPOLETTI WEIR BELOW TUMALO DIVERSION DAM. FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CIPPOLETTI WEIR BELOW TUMALO DIVERSION DAM. FROM WEST BANK OF TUMALO CREEK. LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  10. VIEW OF COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL (UPSTREAM) AND THE WEST BRANCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL (UPSTREAM) AND THE WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL DIVERSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  11. VIEW OF GERKING FLUME INTAKE WITH TRASHRACK, WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF GERKING FLUME INTAKE WITH TRASHRACK, WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL. LOOKING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  12. VIEW ACROSS COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL AND THE WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ACROSS COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL AND THE WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL DIVERSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING NORTH - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  13. 6. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTH & WEST FACADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTH & WEST FACADES WITH SHED ROOF BUILDING 8 JUTTING FROM NORTH FACADE OF WEST BAY. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  14. Detail of main doors on east elevation; camera facing west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of main doors on east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of H1 on right; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Detail of central portion of southeast elevation; camera facing west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of central portion of southeast elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Ward, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Interior detail of scrolled brackets on post, west side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of scrolled brackets on post, west side of first floor by rear entrance; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. General view of central and west wings with loading dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of central and west wings with loading dock from north - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mess Hall, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Building L west elevation oblique from cartway (between Buildings L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building L west elevation oblique from cartway (between Buildings L and M), also showing west elevation of Building J - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building L, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 422. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 422. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Administration-Laboratory- Change House-Bomb Rail, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 530 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 2. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. Shows 499-501, Munoz House (AZ-73-37) on far right. - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  2. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  3. 24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING WEST FACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING WEST FACE, photographer unknown, ca. 1931. (Print in possession of the Washington County Highway Department). - Hegeman-Hill Street Bridge, Spanning Batten Kill, .65 mile West of Greenwich, Easton, Washington County, NY

  4. 46. OCTAGONAL & WEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. OCTAGONAL & WEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH WEST WING ROOF - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 45. OCTAGONAL, WEST & NORTHWEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. OCTAGONAL, WEST & NORTHWEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. VIEW OF THE SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 63, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 63, FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Station, Enlisted Men's Barracks, West corner of Central Street & Midway Drive, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  7. VIEW OF THE WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 63, FACING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 63, FACING EAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Station, Enlisted Men's Barracks, West corner of Central Street & Midway Drive, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 2. BUILDING 324, WEST SIDE, FROM NEAR SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 324, WEST SIDE, FROM NEAR SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 322, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Commanding Officers Residences, Between E & F Streets, West of Fourth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. Contextual view of building 505 showing west elevation from marsh; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 505 showing west elevation from marsh; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Detail of main entry on east elevation; camera facing west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of main entry on east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. 11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH WALLS, SHOWING TWO TIERS OF COLUMNS WITH SECOND FLOOR REMOVED - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 3. Photocopy of Photograph Alfred, Garrett, Photographer, worked in West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of Photograph Alfred, Garrett, Photographer, worked in West Chester, Pennsylvania between 1864 and 1878 NORTHEAST CORNER - Hickman Fountain, 225 North Matlack Street (moved from Chester County Courthouse, High & Market Streets), West Chester, Chester County, PA

  13. CAR SHOP TRANSFER TABLE, IN STORAGE AT WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR SHOP TRANSFER TABLE, IN STORAGE AT WEST SIDE OF SHOPS, WEST END JOURNAL BEARING AND WHEELSET DETAIL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Pitless Transfer Table, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 11. West room, first floor. View looking east. Front porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. West room, first floor. View looking east. Front porch visible through window. - Fort Hill Farm, Mansion, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  16. 18. West room, second floor. View looking southeast. Center hall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. West room, second floor. View looking southeast. Center hall visible through doorway. - Fort Hill Farm, Mansion, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  17. 3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  18. 1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL SPILLWAY AT LEFT CENTER, VIEW EAST - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  19. 3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, HEADGATE STRUCTURE AT CENTER - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  20. 2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISMS AT LEFT - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  1. View of Boiler from west, Steam Engine for shop line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Boiler from west, Steam Engine for shop line shaft in foreground - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Machine Shop, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  2. 19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  3. 21. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT ABOVE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT ABOVE THE OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  4. 20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE SOUTH OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE SOUTH OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. 3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Gas House, 100 block of South Washington Avenue, west side, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. Rainbow Pool, Eastern portion of West Potomac Park; bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rainbow Pool, Eastern portion of West Potomac Park; bounded by Elm Walks to the north and south, Seventeenth Street to the east and the Reflecting Pool to the west, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM WEST EDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM WEST EDGE OF PARKING LOT, FACING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ordinance Operations Building, West Loch, First Street near Whiskey Wharves W1 & W2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) eastsoutheast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) east-southeast or upstream. (Deer Creek flows east to west). 90mm lens. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  10. House, east side, looking west (bunkhouse in background left) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    House, east side, looking west (bunkhouse in background left) - John Moulton Homestead, House, Approximately 70 feet west of Mormon Row Road, and 300 feet north of Antelope Flats Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  11. Battery Weymouth Combined Observation Station ruin, collapsed; view to west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Weymouth Combined Observation Station ruin, collapsed; view to west - Fort McKinley, Battery Weymouth Combined Observation Station, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  12. 1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND - Pettinos Brothers Graphite Manufacturing Mill, On Sand Island, south side of Lehigh Canal, west of Hill-to-Hill Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  13. View of east elevation along California Avenue; camera facing west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east elevation along California Avenue; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. 345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS WEST ANCHOR ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-1023 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  16. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  17. Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. 2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, South Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  19. 8. Approach spans (two warren pony trusses), west side, detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Approach spans (two warren pony trusses), west side, detail of lower chords and pier no. 2 (west pier); looking south. - Bridge 4666, Minnesota Trunk Highway 19 spanning Minnesota River, North Redwood, Redwood County, MN

  20. 4. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE WEST, SHOWING REFLECTING POOL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE WEST, SHOWING REFLECTING POOL IN FOREGROUND (CLOSER VIEW) - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. SOUTH (FRONT) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (FRONT) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Solid Waste Disposal Facility, Off Connecticut Road, west of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  2. 9. SOUTH END OF GENE PUMPING STATION LOOKING WEST WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SOUTH END OF GENE PUMPING STATION LOOKING WEST WITH DELIVERY LINES IN BACKGROUND. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  4. Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Magazine No. 2, Railroad Avenue, west side near intersection with Imhoff Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE PLAQUE ON WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE PLAQUE ON WEST SIDE OF SOUTH POST AT WEST APPROACH TO BRIDGE, FACING EAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  6. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE) SHOWING SOLID CONCRETE BENT, WEST SIDE, FACING EAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  7. ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM WEST ABUTMENT TO BENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM WEST ABUTMENT TO BENT NO. 36 AT WEST APPROACH, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-E1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  8. 4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows with metal sash and reinforced concrete lintels and sills. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  9. 3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  10. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL LOOKING WEST LATHE ON LEFT DELTA BAND SAW LEFT, DELTA 6' JOINTS AND DELTA TABLE SAW ON RIGHT. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  11. 3. VIEW WEST OF HEADRACE UNDER WAREHOUSE; SLUICE GATES AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW WEST OF HEADRACE UNDER WAREHOUSE; SLUICE GATES AT LEFT CENTER - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  12. Route No. 1 near west edge of Badlands Topographical Area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near west edge of Badlands Topographical Area, view to west - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  13. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    PubMed Central

    Chisenhall, Daniel M; Mores, Christopher N

    2009-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken

  14. Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. )

    1993-09-01

    Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

  15. 75 FR 51183 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the 2010 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5... the annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5, 2010), the West...

  16. The crustal thickness of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

    2014-01-01

    P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

  17. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin`s moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers.

  18. Nitrogen in West Africa: the regional cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, G.P.; Rosswall, T.

    1986-03-01

    A nitrogen cycle budget has been calculated for West Africa south of the northern Sahara that quantifies biologically important pools of nitrogen in the region and major fluxes associated with these pools. Major compartments of the model include noncultivated systems broken down by vegetation zone, successional status, and plant components, annual and perennial crops each broken down by crop species and plant and harvest components; wetlands; anthropic systems, and soils and sediments. Base reference year is 1978. Biological nitrogen fixation and precipitation fluxes dominated nitrogen inputs to West Africa in 1978. Approximately 12 x 10/sup 9/ kg were fixed in noncultivated systems; about half of this was fixed in early successional (0-6 yr) rain forests, and much of the rest in grazed or fallow savanna grasslands and woodlands. Less than 0.7 x 10/sup 9/ kg were fixed in cultivated systems; legumes accounted for approx. = 25% of this. Total anthropic sources (fossil fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and agricultural commodity imports) were minor (< 0.3 x 10/sup 9/ kg). Precipitation inputs to the region were approx. = 0.4 x 10/sup 9/ kg. Most nitrogen leaving West Africa did so volatilized by fire (approx. = 8.3 x 10/sup 9/ kg), principally in non-cropped systems. Major losses also occurred via hydrologic export to the Atlantic Ocean (1.5 x 10/sup 9/ kg) and via denitrification (1.1 x 10/sup 9/ kg). Total N losses from West Africa exceeded 11.0 x 10/sup 9/ kg. The overall budget balances within 1%, despite independent calculations of all major fluxes. The balance portrays a nitrogen cycle dominated by pools and fluxes in noncropped systems. Indirect human influences, however, mainly through effects on vegetation cover, appear to be a major determinant of both the rates at which nitrogen is cycled in West Africa and the relative importance of most pools and fluxes.

  19. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian Thomas; Leitner, Thomas Kenneth; Apetrei, Cristian; Hahn, Beatrice; Mizrachi, Ilene; Mullins, James; Rambaut, Andrew; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette Tina Marie

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  20. Holocene mangrove swamps of West Africa sedimentology and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marius, C.; Lucas, J.

    The mangrove swamps of West African Coast belong to the Atlantic type which is characterized by a small number of species. They colonize tidal environments which are dissected by numerous meandering tidal channels and are presently subject to a low rate of sediment accumulation. The mangrove vegetation exhibits a characteristic zonation pattern that basically reflects the adaptation of the various species to saline conditions. The typical zonation sequence is: Rhizophora racemosa (or Rh. mangle), Rh. mangle + Avicennia africana, Avicennia, flooded tanne, barren tanne, herbaceous tanne. The tannes are generated by aridic climatic conditions, heavy soil and water salt content, and are, in a way a peculiar feature of mangrove swamps in West Africa. The sediment colonized by the mangroves is relatively homogenous. Mineralogically, they are dominated by quartz and clay to which are associated halite, pyrite and jarosite. The clay suite is mainly composed of smectite and kaolinite. Smectite is predominant in the inlet areas and is replaced inland by kaolinite. Chemically, the sediments contain very low amounts of Ca, bases and trace elements. The mangrove swamp floodwaters have a chemical composition similar to that of seawater. It is dominated by sodium and chloride. Morphologically, the ripening of the soils appears with a chestnut mash colour horizon and buttery consistency in relation with the decomposition of fibrous roots of Rhizophora and also with pale yellow jarosite mottles in the top horizons of the tanne profiles due to the oxidation of pyrine. The two main properties of the mangrove soils of West Africa are acidity and salinity; the first is related to the high content of sulphur and the second to the sea influence. The acidity has to be connected mainly to the Rhizophora vegetation whose the root system is a real trap for catching the pyrites resulting from the reduction of the sulphates of sea water by the sulphate reducing bacteria, in a reduced