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Sample records for ground heat flux

  1. Evaluation of six parameterization approaches for the ground heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebethal, C.; Foken, T.

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous approaches to the parameterization of the ground heat flux that use different input data, are valid for different times of the day, and deliver results of different quality. Six of these approaches are tested in this study: three approaches calculating the ground heat flux from net radiation, one approach using the turbulent sensible heat flux, one simplified in situ measurement approach, and the force-restore method. On the basis of a data set recorded during the LITFASS-2003 experiment, the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches are assessed. The quality of the best approaches (simplified measurement and force-restore) approximates that of the measured data set. An approach calculating the ground heat flux from net radiation and the diurnal amplitude of the soil surface temperature also delivers satisfactory daytime results. The remaining approaches all have such serious drawbacks that they should only be applied with care. Altogether, this study demonstrates that ground heat flux parameterization has the potential to produce results matching measured ones very well, if all conditions and restrictions of the respective approaches are taken into account.

  2. The Surface Heat Flux as a Function of Ground Cover for Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukovich, Fred M.; Wayland, Robert; Toll, David

    1997-01-01

    Surface heat fluxes were examined as a function of surface properties and meteorological conditions in a 100 km x 100 km grid square at 1-km spatial resolution centered at the location of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE), the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics site in central Maine, and a semiarid rangeland site around Walnut Gulch, Arizona. This investigation treats the surface heat flux variability within a GCM grid box to provide insight into methods for treating that variability in climate models. The heat fluxes were calculated using NOAA AVHRR and available meteorological data. The average heat fluxes that were estimated using the various area ground-cover representations were compared with the ensemble average heat fluxes for the entire area, which were assumed to be the best representation of the heat fluxes for the areas. Average beat fluxes were estimated for the entire 100 km x 100 km area based on a single ground-cover representation, and the mean error for the area sensible heat flux was about 10% and for the area latent heat flux, 21%. The estimation error was reduced, and in some cases significantly reduced, when the area heat fluxes were estimated by partitioning the area according to significant ground cover. The most significant effect of the partitioning was on the latent heat flux estimates.

  3. Mapping Ground Temperature and Radiant Hydrothermal Heat Flux on Mammoth Mountain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of ground temperatures and hydrothermal heat fluxes in volcanic and geothermal systems is important for monitoring volcanic activity, monitoring the impacts of geothermal development, and assessing resources. We used ground based thermal infrared (TIR) imaging combined with Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry to produce high-resolution (cm scale) DEMs over which images of ground temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were draped. We apply this methodology to two hydrothermal areas (Mammoth Mountain and South Side fumaroles) on Mammoth Mountain, CA, allowing us to image the detailed topography, map the thermal features at each area and assess the spatial relationships between the two efficiently and at high resolution. Mammoth Mountain is a lava-dome complex located on the southwestern rim of Long Valley caldera, CA. Unrest at Mammoth Mountain is currently manifested by seismic swarms, ground deformation, elevated 3He/4He ratios in gases at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole, and large changes in diffuse magmatic CO2 emissions from the five tree kill areas on the volcano flanks. We augment the extensive dataset collected at this site over the previous decades by quantifying ground temperatures and hydrothermal heat fluxes at the Mammoth Mountain and South Side fumarole sites. This was accomplished using a hand-held FLIR T650sc camera that simultaneously acquires visible and TIR images of the study site. Daytime and nighttime co-located visible and TIR images were acquired over each study area, and image processing was used to orthorectify and mosaic visible and TIR images, calculate radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes, construct 3D imagery of ground surface, overlay maps of ground temperatures and heat fluxes, and establish spatial relationships between topography and heat flow.

  4. Reconstructions of ground surface heat flux variations in the urals from geothermal and meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demezhko, D. Yu.; Gornostaeva, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Ground surface heat flux variations over the last 30000, 1000, and 150 years in the Urals were first estimated on the basis of geothermal reconstructions of ground surface temperature histories and meteorological data. The heat flux histories obtained and the factors affecting climate—mean annual insolation, global solar radiation, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and volcanic activity—were simultaneously analyzed. On the scale of glacial-interglacial cycles, variations in the flux of heat almost completely coincided with those in insolation in the Northern Hemisphere, and variations in the content of CO2 occurred 2000-3000 years later synchronously with the response of temperature. In the last 1000 years, heat flux variations have been determined mainly by the parameters of solar radiation; however, the influence of other factors, such as atmospheric CO2 content and volcanic activity, has also been noticeable. In the last 150 years, variations in the flux of heat have occurred in antiphase with those in the flux of solar radiation, and an increase in the atmospheric content of CO2 has mainly contributed to the observed warming.

  5. Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP) to Estimate Ground Heat Flux and Reduce Surface Energy Budget Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, Francesco; Sharma, Varun; Lunati, Ivan; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-04-01

    Ground heat flux plays a crucial role in surface energy budget: an incorrect estimation of energy storage and heat fluxes in soils occur when probes such as heat flux plates are adopted, and these mistakes can account for up to 90% of the residual variance (Higgins, GRL, 2012). A promising alternative to heat flux plates is represented by Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP). They have proven to be accurate in thermal properties and heat fluxes estimation (e.g. Cobos, VZJ, 2003) and can be used to monitor and quantify subsurface evaporation in field experiments (Xiao et al., VZJ, 2011). We perform a laboratory experiment with controlled temperature in a small Plexiglas column (20cm diameter and 40cm height). The column is packed with homogeneously saturated sandy soil and equipped with three MFHPPs in the upper 4cm and thermocouples and dielectric soil moisture probes deeper. This configuration allows for accurate and simultaneous ground heat flux, soil moisture and subsurface evaporation measurements. Total evaporation is monitored using a precision scale, while an infrared gun and a long wave radiometer measure the soil skin temperature and the outgoing long-short wave radiation, respectively. A fan and a heat lamp placed above the column allow to mimick on a smaller and more controlled scale the field conditions induced by the diurnal cycle. At a reference height above the column relative humidity, wind speed and air temperature are collected. Results are interpreted by means of numerical simulations performed with an ad-hoc-developed numerical model that simulates coupled heat and moisture transfer in soils and is used to match and interpolate the temperature and soil moisture values got at finite depths within the column. Ground heat fluxes are then estimated by integrating over almost continuous, numerically simulated temperature profiles, which avoids errors due to use of discrete data (Lunati et al., WRR, 2012) and leads to a more reliable estimate of

  6. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  7. Estimation of ground heat flux from soil temperature over a bare soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Kedong; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Zhoufeng; Zhao, Yaqian; Yang, Zeyuan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zaiyong; Duan, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Ground soil heat flux, G 0, is a difficult-to-measure but important component of the surface energy budget. Over the past years, many methods were proposed to estimate G 0; however, the application of these methods was seldom validated and assessed under different weather conditions. In this study, three popular models (force-restore, conduction-convection, and harmonic) and one widely used method (plate calorimetric), which had well performance in publications, were investigated using field data to estimate daily G 0 on clear, cloudy, and rainy days, while the gradient calorimetric method was regarded as the reference for assessing the accuracy. The results showed that harmonic model was well reproducing the G 0 curve for clear days, but it yielded large errors on cloudy and rainy days. The force-restore model worked well only under rainfall condition, but it was poor to estimate G 0 under rain-free conditions. On the contrary, the conduction-convection model was acceptable to determine G 0 under rain-free conditions, but it generated large errors on rainfall days. More importantly, the plate calorimetric method was the best to estimate G 0 under different weather conditions compared with the three models, but the performance of this method is affected by the placement depth of the heat flux plate. As a result, the heat flux plate was recommended to be buried as close as possible to the surface under clear condition. But under cloudy and rainy conditions, the plate placed at depth of around 0.075 m yielded G 0 well. Overall, the findings of this paper provide guidelines to acquire more accurate estimation of G 0 under different weather conditions, which could improve the surface energy balance in field.

  8. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  9. Late Pleistocene-Holocene ground surface heat flux changes reconstructed from borehole temperature data (the Urals, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demezhko, D. Y.; Gornostaeva, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    We use geothermal reconstruction of the ground surface temperature (GST) history early obtained in the Middle Urals to determine the surface heat flux (SHF) history over the past 35 kyr. A new algorithm of GST-SHF transformation was applied to solve this problem. The timescale of geothermal reconstructions has been corrected by comparing the estimated heat flux and annual insolation at the latitude of 60° N. The consistency of SHF and insolation changes on the interval 35-6 kyr BP with the linear correlation coefficient R = 0.99 points to orbital factors as the main cause of climatic changes during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The amplitude of SHF variations is about 1.3% of the insolation change amplitude. The increase of carbon dioxide concentrations lagged by 2-3 kyr from the SHF increase and occurred synchronously with GST changes.

  10. Measurement of the Sensible Eddy Heat Flux Based on Spatial Averaging of Continuous Ground-Based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauder, M.; Desjardins, R. L.; Pattey, E.; Gao, Z.; van Haarlem, R.

    2008-07-01

    Using the standard eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify mass and energy exchange at a single location usually results in an underestimation of vertical eddy fluxes at the surface. In order to better understand the reasons for this underestimation, an experimental set-up is presented that is based on spatial averaging of air temperature data from a network of ground-based sensors over agricultural land. For eight days during the 34-day observational period in May and June 2007, additional contributions to the sensible heat flux of more than 50Wm-2 were measured in the lower surface layer by applying the spatial EC method as opposed to the standard temporal EC method. Smaller but still significant additional sensible heat fluxes were detected for four more days. The additional energy is probably transported in organised convective structures resulting in a mean vertical wind velocity unequal to zero at the tower location. The results show that convective transport contributes significantly to the surface energy budget for measurement heights as low as 2-3 m. Since these structures may be quasi-stationary, they can hardly be captured by a single-location measurement. The spatial EC set-up presented here is capable of quantifying contributions to the sensible heat flux from structures up to the scale of our spatial sensor network, which covered an area 3.5 × 3.5 km. For future experiments aiming at closing the energy balance, the spatial EC method should be employed to measure both the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Experimental determination of the horizontal advection of sensible and latent heat should also be considered, since such transport must occur due to convergence and divergence related to convection.

  11. Heat flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat flux measurement on turbine blades operating in space shuttle main engine turbopumps. The facility is useful for durability testing at fast temperature transients.

  12. Evaluation of the ground heat flux simulated by a multi-layer land surface scheme using high-quality observations at grass land and bare soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Jan-Peter; Vogel, Gerd; Becker, Claudia; Kothe, Steffen; Ahrens, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Two parameterisations for the dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on the soil water content are compared, using the multi-layer land surface scheme TERRA of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) atmospheric model. The simulations were carried out in offline mode with identical atmospheric forcing data from the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg of the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst). The results show that the ground heat flux computed by the reference version of TERRA is systematically overestimated under dry conditions. In this version, the thermal conductivity does not depend on the simulated water content of the soil. Since the ground heat flux is part of the surface energy balance it affects the other components such as turbulent heat fluxes and surface temperature. An overestimation of the ground heat flux during daytime leads to an underestimation of the other surface fluxes and to a reduced surface warming, during afternoon and night this behaviour is reversed. The two formulations for soil thermal conductivity, presented by O. Johansen on the one hand and M. C. McCumber and R. A. Pielke on the other hand, both reduce the ground heat flux in TERRA under dry conditions, the former yielding good results while the latter is even leading to underestimations. In addition to this, the former is also applied in coupled mode in the climate version of the COSMO model, the COSMO-CLM, for Africa, resulting in improved diurnal cycles of near-surface temperature in dry regions. Furthermore, it is shown with the Lindenberg measurements that the soil temperature and hence the ground heat flux are particularly influenced by the effects of shading of the incoming solar radiation due to the vegetation cover, leading to a significantly reduced solar radiation at the sub-canopy land surface, even under a layer of grass. For future improvements of TERRA these effects should be represented.

  13. Heat Flux Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A heat flux microsensor developed under a NASP Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) has a wide range of potential commercial applications. Vatell Corporation originally designed microsensors for use in very high temperatures. The company then used the technology to develop heat flux sensors to measure the rate of heat energy flowing in and out of a surface as well as readings on the surface temperature. Additional major advantages include response to heat flux in less than 10 microseconds and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 1,200 degrees centigrade. Commercial applications are used in high speed aerodynamics, supersonic combustion, blade cooling, and mass flow measurements, etc.

  14. Electrostatic heat flux instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, P. J.; Ionson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The electrostatic cyclotron and ion acoustic instabilities in a plasma driven by a combined heat flux and current were investigated. The minimum critical heat conduction speed (above which the plasma is unstable) is given as a function of the ratio of electron to ion temperatures.

  15. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  16. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  17. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MaCarthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  18. Direct computation of the sensible heat flux.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1980-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the sensible heat flux from simple field measurements (wind speed, air and ground temperatures) has been developed. It provides a direct solution, in parametric form, which can be displayed graphically or tabularly. -from Author

  19. Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  20. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  1. Heat Flux Sensor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the following objectives: Developing secondary calibration capabilities for MSFC's (Marshall Space Flight Center) Hot Gas Facility (HGF), a Mach 4 Aerothermal Wind Tunnel; Evaluating ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) slug/ thinskin calorimeters against current HGF heat flux sensors; Providing verification of baselined AEDC (Arnold Engineering Development Center) / Medtherm gage calibrations; Addressing future calibration issues involving NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) certified radiant gages.

  2. Rotating Arc Jet Test Model: Time-Accurate Trajectory Heat Flux Replication in a Ground Test Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernard; Grinstead, Jay; Dyakonov, Artem; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2011-01-01

    Though arc jet testing has been the proven method employed for development testing and certification of TPS and TPS instrumentation, the operational aspects of arc jets limit testing to selected, but constant, conditions. Flight, on the other hand, produces timevarying entry conditions in which the heat flux increases, peaks, and recedes as a vehicle descends through an atmosphere. As a result, we are unable to "test as we fly." Attempts to replicate the time-dependent aerothermal environment of atmospheric entry by varying the arc jet facility operating conditions during a test have proven to be difficult, expensive, and only partially successful. A promising alternative is to rotate the test model exposed to a constant-condition arc jet flow to yield a time-varying test condition at a point on a test article (Fig. 1). The model shape and rotation rate can be engineered so that the heat flux at a point on the model replicates the predicted profile for a particular point on a flight vehicle. This simple concept will enable, for example, calibration of the TPS sensors on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aeroshell for anticipated flight environments.

  3. Large scale surface heat fluxes. [through oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarachik, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    The heat flux through the ocean surface, Q, is the sum of the net radiation at the surface, the latent heat flux into the atmosphere, and the sensible heat flux into the atmosphere (all fluxes positive upwards). A review is presented of the geographical distribution of Q and its constituents, and the current accuracy of measuring Q by ground based measurements (both directly and by 'bulk formulae') is assessed. The relation of Q to changes of oceanic heat content, heat flux, and SST is examined and for each of these processes, the accuracy needed for Q is discussed. The needed accuracy for Q varies from process to process, varies geographically, and varies with the time and space scale considered.

  4. Heat-Flux-Measuring Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus simulates conditions in turbine engines. Automated facility generates and measures transient and steady-state heat fluxes at flux densities from 0.3 to 6 MW/m(Sup2) and temperatures from 100 to 1,200 K. Positioning arm holds heat-flux gauge at focal point of arc lamp. Arm previously chilled gauge in liquid nitrogen in Dewar flask. Cooling water flows through lamp to heat exchanger. Used to develop heat-flux gauges for turbine blades and to test materials for durability under rapidly changing temperatures.

  5. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  6. Fundamentals of heat measurement. [heat flux transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashchenko, O. A.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods and devices for obtaining experimental data on heat flux density over wide ranges of temperature and pressure are examined. Laboratory tests and device fabrication details are supplemented by theoretical analyses of heat-conduction and thermoelectric effects, providing design guidelines and information relevant to further research and development. A theory defining the measure of correspondence between transducer signal and the measured heat flux is established for individual (isolated) heat flux transducers subject to space and time-dependent loading. An analysis of the properties of stacked (series-connected) transducers of various types (sandwich-type, plane, and spiral) is used to derive a similarity theory providing general governing relationships. The transducers examined are used in 36 types of derivative devices involving direct heat loss measurements, heat conduction studies, radiation pyrometry, calorimetry in medicine and industry and nuclear reactor dosimetry.

  7. Radial heat flux transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.

  8. High heat flux loop heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, Mark T.; Sarraf, David B.; Rosenfeld, John H.; Maidanik, Yuri F.; Vershinin, Sergey

    1997-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) can transport very large thermal power loads over long distances, through flexible, small diameter tubes against gravitational heads. In order to overcome the evaporator limit of LHPs, which is of about 0.07 MW/sq m, work was carried out to improve the efficiency by threefold to tenfold. The vapor passage geometry for the high heat flux conditions is shown. A bidisperse wick material within the circumferential vapor passages was used. Along with heat flux enhancement, several underlying issues were demonstrated, including the fabrication of bidisperse powder with controlled properties and the fabrication of a device geometry capable of replacing vapor passages with bidisperse powder.

  9. Heat flux solarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E.; Echarri, R.; Samson, I.

    2010-12-15

    The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

  10. Automated Heat-Flux-Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    Computer control speeds operation of equipment and processing of measurements. New heat-flux-calibration facility developed at Lewis Research Center. Used for fast-transient heat-transfer testing, durability testing, and calibration of heat-flux gauges. Calibrations performed at constant or transient heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 6 MW/m2 and at temperatures ranging from 80 K to melting temperatures of most materials. Facility developed because there is need to build and calibrate very-small heat-flux gauges for Space Shuttle main engine (SSME).Includes lamp head attached to side of service module, an argon-gas-recirculation module, reflector, heat exchanger, and high-speed positioning system. This type of automated heat-flux calibration facility installed in industrial plants for onsite calibration of heat-flux gauges measuring fluxes of heat in advanced gas-turbine and rocket engines.

  11. Passive heating of the ground surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyburczyk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  12. Latent heat sink in soil heat flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  13. Advanced high temperature heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W.; Hobart, H. F.; Strange, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    To fully characterize advanced high temperature heat flux sensors, calibration and testing is required at full engine temperature. This required the development of unique high temperature heat flux test facilities. These facilities were developed, are in place, and are being used for advanced heat flux sensor development.

  14. Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e(x) is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage. In terms of e(x), a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements.

  15. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOEpatents

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  16. A comparison of ground-based and satellite-derived radiative heat flux at Mt Etna: the 12 August lava fountain case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Gaetana; Calvari, Sonia; James, Mike; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The recent eruptive activity at Mt Etna has been characterized by quiet frequent, intermittent episodes of lava fountains associated with small lava flow output, occurring especially at the SE Crater. During 2011, 18 paroxysmal lava fountains were produced by a new cone, named "Sturiale Cone", on the east flank of the SE Crater. Given the high hazard posed by this activity, and the need of improving detection, description and knowledge of these events, remote monitoring through fixed cameras and satellites has becoming crucial, especially using thermal sensors. We here focus on the 12 August 2011 episode, the strongest of the lava fountains occurred in 2011, and also the best monitored, given the clear sky, absence of clouds, and possibility to collect also images from a close-up view. We disposed of a total of 8 fixed cameras working around the volcano, three of them offering a thermal view of the episode. Moreover, as satellite observations, we could use the complete data set from the SEVIRI sensor, which has a temporal resolution of 15 minutes. To compare the field- and satellite-derived radiative heat flux curves, thermal images were registered by taking into account a DEM, the GPS camera position, the relative camera rotations and first order lens distortion parameters. Moreover, it was performed a pixel by pixel correction from path length and atmospheric effects. Finally, a temperature threshold was fixed to identify the active lava area and the amount of heat lost by radiation from all the pixels covered by lava was computed. SEVIRI data were analyzed by the HOTSAT thermal monitoring system. Through automatic hot-spot detection algorithm based on dynamic thresholds, we are able to provide an estimate of the radiant heat flux for each thermally anomalous pixel and possibly convert it into time averaged discharge rate. Preliminary results showed a good agreement on timing, shape and amplitude of the radiative heat flux time series between thermal camera and

  17. Spatial resolution of anthropogenic heat fluxes into urban aquifers.

    PubMed

    Benz, Susanne A; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Jung, Stephan; Blum, Philipp

    2015-08-15

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. The objective of this study is to quantify these AHFS and the heat flow they generate in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. Thus, statistical and spatial analytical heat flux models were developed for both cities. The models include the spatial representation of various sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that the district heating networks induce the largest AHFS with values greater than 60 W/m(2) and one order of magnitude higher than fluxes from other sources. A covariance analysis indicates that the spatial distribution of the total flux depends mainly on the thermal gradient in the unsaturated zone. On a citywide scale, basements and elevated ground surface temperatures are the dominant sources of heat flow. Overall, 2.1 PJ/a and 1.0 PJ/a of heat are accumulated on average in Karlsruhe and the western part of Cologne, respectively. Extracting this anthropogenically originated energy could sustainably supply significant parts of the urban heating demand. Furthermore, using this heat could also keep groundwater temperatures from rising further. PMID:25930242

  18. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  19. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  20. Influences on shallow ground temperatures in high flux thermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubenow, Brady L.; Fairley, Jerry P.; Lindsey, Cary R.; Larson, Peter B.

    2016-09-01

    Ground temperature measurements are a useful indication of subsurface processes and heat flux, particularly in volcanic and hydrothermal systems, but obtaining reliable data at sufficient resolution can be difficult. Investigators commonly use temperature measurements at 1 m depths to minimize land surface boundary impacts; however, these measurements are time-consuming and invasive, limiting the number of points that can be surveyed. Alternatively, shallow ground temperature measurements (≤ 25 cm depth) offer a rapid and minimally-invasive way to collect a large number of observations in a target area. Although this method has obvious appeal, changing atmospheric conditions can impact the observed temperatures, and thus may reasonably be expected to influence interpretations arising from the data. Here we examine the impact of precipitation and changing air temperature on shallow ground temperatures in the vicinity of a group of hot springs located in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. We find that the mean, the range, and the skewness of the observed temperatures were decreased by changing atmospheric conditions; however, the model variogram representing data taken after several days of moderate precipitation adequately described the spatial correlation of data taken before precipitation. We therefore conclude that the ability to differentiate between high- and low-flux areas may be somewhat reduced by moderate precipitation and changing atmospheric conditions, but that interpretations made on the basis of characteristics of the inferred variograms are likely to be robust to such perturbations in high heat flux environments.

  1. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  2. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-01

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a "heat flux viscosity," is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  3. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  4. Fabrication of Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    Prototype thin film heat flux sensors have been constructed and tested. The sensors can be applied to propulsion system materials and components. The sensors can provide steady state and fast transient heat flux information. Fabrication of the sensor does not require any matching of the mounting surface. Heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference across the upper and lower surfaces of an insulation material. The sensor consists of an array of thermocouples on the upper and lower surfaces of a thin insulating layer. The thermocouples for the sensor are connected in a thermopile arrangement. A 100 thermocouple pair heat flux sensor has been fabricated on silicon wafers. The sensor produced an output voltage of 200-400 microvolts when exposed to a hot air heat gun. A 20 element thermocouple pair heat flux sensor has been fabricated on aluminum oxide sheet. Thermocouples are Pt-Pt/Rh with silicon dioxide as the insulating material. This sensor produced an output of 28 microvolts when exposed to the radiation of a furnace operating at 1000 C. Work is also underway to put this type of heat flux sensor on metal surfaces.

  5. Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daughtry, C.S.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Jackson, R. D.; Brown, P.W.; Nichols, W.D.; Gay, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under nonadvective conditions. ?? 1990.

  6. Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

  7. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Heldens, Wieke; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Albitar, Ahmad; Gabey, Andrew; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-04-01

    While Earth Observation (EO) has made significant advances in the study of urban areas, there are several unanswered science and policy questions to which it could contribute. To this aim the recently launched Horizon 2020 project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of EO to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component in the urban energy budget. The anthropogenic heat flux is the heat flux resulting from vehicular emissions, space heating and cooling of buildings, industrial processing and the metabolic heat release by people. Optical, thermal and SAR data from existing satellite sensors are used to improve the accuracy of the radiation balance spatial distribution calculation, using also in-situ reflectance measurements of urban materials are for calibration. EO-based methods are developed for estimating turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes, as well as urban heat storage flux and anthropogenic heat flux spatial patterns at city scale and local scale by employing an energy budget closure approach. Independent methods and models are engaged to evaluate the derived products and statistical analyses provide uncertainty measures as well. Ultimate goal of the URBANFLUXES is to develop a highly automated method for estimating urban energy budget components to use with Copernicus Sentinel data, enabling its integration into applications and operational services. Thus, URBANFLUXES prepares the ground for further innovative exploitation of European space data in scientific activities (i.e. Earth system modelling and climate change studies in cities) and future and emerging applications (i.e. sustainable urban planning) by exploiting the improved data quality, coverage and revisit times of the Copernicus data. The URBANFLUXES products will therefore have the potential to support both sustainable planning strategies to improve the quality of life in cities, as well as Earth system models to

  8. Critical heat flux test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Welsh, Robert E.; Doman, Marvin J.; Wilson, Edward C.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for testing, in situ, highly irradiated specimens at high temperature transients is provided. A specimen, which has a thermocouple device attached thereto, is manipulated into test position in a sealed quartz heating tube by a robot. An induction coil around a heating portion of the tube is powered by a radio frequency generator to heat the specimen. Sensors are connected to monitor the temperatures of the specimen and the induction coil. A quench chamber is located below the heating portion to permit rapid cooling of the specimen which is moved into this quench chamber once it is heated to a critical temperature. A vacuum pump is connected to the apparatus to collect any released fission gases which are analyzed at a remote location.

  9. Surface Energy Heat Fluxes Using Remotely Sensed Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David L.; Vukovich, Fred M.; Pontikes, Elizabeth G.

    1997-01-01

    Realistic estimates of surface energy heat fluxes are needed for the study of water and energy interactions between the land and atmosphere. The primary objective of this work is to study the estimation of surface heat energy fluxes using remote sensing derived parameters under different spatial and temporal conditions. Surface energy fluxes and remote sensing derived data from two sources were analyzed. First, we used surface heat flux, remote sensing, and ancillary data from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), mapped at a 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid. Second, we used NOAA AVHRR (1 km), weather station, and ancillary data to derive estimates of surface latent and sensible heat energy fluxes over a 100 sq kilometers area for three test sites: 1) First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) grassland site, Konza Prairie, Kansas; 2) Howland, Maine Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Site; and 3) Walnut Gulch, scrubland site, surrounding Tombstone, Arizona. Satellite derived estimates of land surface temperature, surface albedo, and spectral vegetation index are used in selected models to provide estimates of surface heat fluxes. Analysis of results from the 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for North America indicated there were similar, overall correlations between sensible and latent heat energy fluxes versus remotely sensed vegetation index and ground temperature during dry and wet year conditions. However, there were significant differences in correlations between years when stratified by land cover class. Analysis of 100 km x 100 km data (1 km resolution) indicated partitioning the areas in to primary versus secondary cover, with the secondary cover comprising less than 5% of the area, significantly improved surface heat energy flux estimates.

  10. Long-term evolution of anthropogenic heat fluxes into a subsurface urban heat island.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp; Schaffitel, Axel; Bayer, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Anthropogenic alterations in urban areas influence the thermal environment causing elevated atmospheric and subsurface temperatures. The subsurface urban heat island effect is observed in several cities. Often shallow urban aquifers exist with thermal anomalies that spread laterally and vertically, resulting in the long-term accumulation of heat. In this study, we develop an analytical heat flux model to investigate possible drivers such as increased ground surface temperatures (GSTs) at artificial surfaces and heat losses from basements of buildings, sewage systems, subsurface district heating networks, and reinjection of thermal wastewater. By modeling the anthropogenic heat flux into the subsurface of the city of Karlsruhe, Germany, in 1977 and 2011, we evaluate long-term trends in the heat flux processes. It revealed that elevated GST and heat loss from basements are dominant factors in the heat anomalies. The average total urban heat flux into the shallow aquifer in Karlsruhe was found to be ∼759 ± 89 mW/m(2) in 1977 and 828 ± 143 mW/m(2) in 2011, which represents an annual energy gain of around 1.0 × 10(15) J. However, the amount of thermal energy originating from the individual heat flux processes has changed significantly over the past three decades. PMID:23895264

  11. Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

  12. Towards Improved Estimates of Ocean Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentamy, Abderrahim; Hollman, Rainer; Kent, Elisabeth; Haines, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Recommendations and priorities for ocean heat flux research are for instance outlined in recent CLIVAR and WCRP reports, eg. Yu et al (2013). Among these is the need for improving the accuracy, the consistency, and the spatial and temporal resolution of air-sea fluxes over global as well as at region scales. To meet the main air-sea flux requirements, this study is aimed at obtaining and analyzing all the heat flux components (latent, sensible and radiative) at the ocean surface over global oceans using multiple satellite sensor observations in combination with in-situ measurements and numerical model analyses. The fluxes will be generated daily and monthly for the 20-year (1992-2011) period, between 80N and 80S and at 0.25deg resolution. Simultaneous estimates of all surface heat flux terms have not yet been calculated at such large scale and long time period. Such an effort requires a wide range of expertise and data sources that only recently are becoming available. Needed are methods for integrating many data sources to calculate energy fluxes (short-wave, long wave, sensible and latent heat) across the air-sea interface. We have access to all the relevant, recently available satellite data to perform such computations. Yu, L., K. Haines, M. Bourassa, M. Cronin, S. Gulev, S. Josey, S. Kato, A. Kumar, T. Lee, D. Roemmich: Towards achieving global closure of ocean heat and freshwater budgets: Recommendations for advancing research in air-sea fluxes through collaborative activities. INTERNATIONAL CLIVAR PROJECT OFFICE, 2013: International CLIVAR Publication Series No 189. http://www.clivar.org/sites/default/files/ICPO189_WHOI_fluxes_workshop.pdf

  13. A network of scintillometers for ground-truthing of surface fluxes in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.; Hong, S.; Gomez, J. D.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2007-05-01

    A network of seven scintillometer transects was established in New Mexico in 2006 covering different soils, vegetation types, and altitudes. Scintillometers measure spatially-averaged sensible heat fluxes over transects of 0.5 - 4 kms, i.e., over footprints comparable in size to several pixels of a satellite image. The Surface Energy Balance for Land (SEBAL) algorithm is applied to radiances from Landsat and MODIS to obtain net radiation Rnet, soil heat flux G, and sensible heat flux H. The latent heat flux is obtained from the energy balance equation as LE = Rnet - G - H. The scintillometer measurements are used to validate and calibrate the SEBAL sensible heat flux product. Results from this ground-truthing experiment and plans for automated and calibrated daily evapotranspiration maps will be presented.

  14. Heat-Flux Gage thermophosphor system

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    1991-08-01

    This document describes the installation, hardware requirements, and application of the Heat-Flux Gage (Version 1.0) software package developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Applied Technology Division. The developed software is a single component of a thermographic phosphor-based temperature and heat-flux measurement system. The heat-flux transducer was developed by EG G Energy Measurements Systems and consists of a 1- by 1-in. polymethylpentene sheet coated on the front and back with a repeating thermographic phosphor pattern. The phosphor chosen for this application is gadolinium oxysulphide doped with terbium. This compound has a sensitive temperature response from 10 to 65.6{degree}C (50--150{degree}F) for the 415- and 490-nm spectral emission lines. 3 refs., 17 figs.

  15. Heat flux sensors for infrared thermography in convective heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  16. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  17. Effect of haze absorption and scattering on radiative-convective-conductive heat flux divergence in Martian CO2 atmosphere and ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallmann, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents some guidelines of an improved numerical modeling effort developed to investigate the effect of an absorbing and scattering particulate phase on the temperature field of the Mars atmosphere and soil in its diurnal cycle and in response to a time-dependent convective heat transfer. Some guidelines are also formulated for the re-evaluation of Mariner 9 infrared radiometer or spectrometer inverted temperature measurements of the dust-laden atmosphere.

  18. Surface heat flux data from energy balance Bowen ratio systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Coulter, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    The 350 {times} 400 km domain of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in the southern Great Plains is equipped with 10 energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations at grassland sites; they measure the net radiation, ground heat flux, and temperature/humidity differences between 1.0 and 2.0 m heights. The latter differences provide estimates of the geometric Bowen ratio ({beta}), which are used to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes. This paper addresses the problem that occurs when the value of {beta} is near {minus}1 and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the EBBR stations in collecting energy flux data at the CART site.

  19. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  20. Heat flux boundary anomalies and thermal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Wieland; Wicht, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown strong effects of outer boundary heat flux patterns on the dynamo mechanism in planets. For example, the hemispherical field of the ancient Martian dynamo can be explained by a large scale sinusoidal anomaly of the core mantle boundary heat flux triggered by large scale mantle convection or giant impacts. The magnetic fields show typically the desired effect - though dynamo action is locally stronger where the underneath heat flux is higher. However, it remains an open question if these effects still apply for more realistic planetary parameters, such as vigor of the convection (Rayleigh number) or the rotation rate (Ekman). The sinusoidal variation of the CMB heat flux along the colatitude with larger heat flux in the southern and smaller in the northern hemisphere as used for Mars can lead to a concentration of magnetic field in the south. The shape of such a hemispherical dynamo matches the crustal magnetization pattern at the surface and seems therefore an admissible mode for the ancient Martian dynamo. As the consequence of the emerging latitudinal temperature gradients convection and induction are dominated by thermal winds. These zonal flows were found to be equatorial antisymmetric, axisymmetric, ageostrophic, of strong amplitude and have therefore a severe effect on core convection and especially the induction process. We measure the underlying thermal anomalies as a function of Rayleigh and Ekman number and show that they are responsible for the thermal winds. Our results suggest that temperature anomalies decrease clearly with the supercriticality of the convection due to faster stirring and mixing, but show no additional dependence on the Ekman number. Interestingly, the decline of the latitudinal temperature anomaly follows a recently suggested scaling law for the thickness of thermal boundary layers. Even though the convective supercriticality of planetary cores is rather large and therefore only a minor effect of thermal

  1. Crawl space assisted heat pump. [using stored ground heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ternes, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of experiments and simulations, currently being designed or underway, to determine the feasibility of conditioning the source air of an air to air heat pump using stored ground heat or cool to produce higher seasonal COP's and net energy savings are discussed. The ground would condition ambient air as it is drawn through the crawl space of a house. Tests designed to evaluate the feasibility of the concept, to determine the amount of heat or cool available from the ground, to study the effect of the system on the heating and cooling loads of the house, to study possible mechanisms which could enhance heat flow through the ground, and to determine if diurnal temperature swings are necessary to achieve successful system performance are described.

  2. Ground Source Heat Pump Computational Results

    DOE Data Explorer

    James Menart

    2013-07-31

    This data submission includes simulation results for ground loop heat pump systems located in 6 different cities across the United States. The cities are Boston, MA, Dayton, OH, Omaha, NE, Orlando, FL, Sacramento, CA, and St. Paul, MN. These results were obtained from the two-dimensional geothermal computer code called GEO2D. GEO2D was written as part of this DOE funded grant. The results included in this submission for each of the 6 cities listed above are: 1) specific information on the building being heated or cooled by the ground loop geothermal system, 2) some extreme values for the building heating and cooling loads during the year, 3) the inputs required to carry out the simulation, 4) a plot of the hourly building heating and cooling loads throughout the year, 5) a plot of the fluid temperature exiting the ground loop for a 20 year period, 6) a plot of the heat exchange between the ground loop and the ground for a 20 year period, and 7) ground and ground loop temperature contour plots at different times of the year for the 20 year period.

  3. Measurement of local high-level, transient surface heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1988-01-01

    This study is part of a continuing investigation to develop methods for measuring local transient surface heat flux. A method is presented for simultaneous measurements of dual heat fluxes at a surface location by considering the heat flux as a separate function of heat stored and heat conducted within a heat flux gage. Surface heat flux information is obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gage. Heat flux was determined over a range of 4 to 22 MW/sq m. It was concluded that the method is feasible. Possible applications are for heat flux measurements on the turbine blade surfaces of space shuttle main engine turbopumps and on the component surfaces of rocket and advanced gas turbine engines and for testing sensors in heat flux gage calibrators.

  4. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2015-05-15

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  5. Radiative convection with a fixed heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumaı̂tre, S.

    2001-10-01

    We have determined the marginal stability curve of convective instability in the usual Rayleigh-Bénard configuration with radiative transfer and a fixed total heat flux at the boundaries instead of a fixed temperature. In the Milne-Eddington approximation, radiative transfer introduces a new length scale and breaks the invariance of the Boussinesq equations under an arbitrary temperature shift, which occurs when the heat flux is fixed at the boundaries. The convergence to the limits where the non-radiative cases are expected is studied in this approximation. Then, using a second-order perturbative calculation, we show that the presence of radiation can change qualitatively the instability pattern: there is a range of optical parameters where the Cahn-Hillard equation is not anymore the one appropriate to describe the instability near the threshold.

  6. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  7. Ground-coupled heat pump demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, T.

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of a field evaluation of an innovative ground-coupled heat pump system which features a unique collector design and system control strategy aimed at maximizing heat pump performance by minimizing ground temperature change. The collector design includes several short closed loops, each consisting of a pair of polyethylene pipes buried 12 to 18 inches apart in a horizontal trench approximately six feet below ground. A micropressor is used to control flow and optimize system operation. Extrapolation of the results of experiments conducted on a unit length (250 ft.) of collector field during the 1981-82 and 1982-83 heating seasons indicates that a system seasonal performance factor of 2.75 to 3.0 will be achievable in practice.

  8. Heat flux in a granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. J.; Ruiz-Montero, M. J.

    2012-11-01

    A peculiarity of the hydrodynamic Navier-Stokes equations for a granular gas is the modification of the Fourier law, with the presence of an additional contribution to the heat flux that is proportional to the density gradient. Consequently, the constitutive relation involves, in the case of a one-component granular gas, two transport coefficients: the usual (thermal) heat conductivity and a diffusive heat conductivity. A very simple physical interpretation of this effect, in terms of the mean free path and the mean free time is provided. It leads to the modified Fourier law with an expression for the diffusive Fourier coefficient that differs in a factor of the order of unity from the expression obtained by means of the inelastic Boltzmann equation. Also, some aspects of the Chapman-Enskog computation of the new transport coefficients as well as of the comparison between simulation results and theory are discussed.

  9. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  10. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  11. Development of heat flux sensors in turbine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to develop heat flux sensors suitable for use on turbine airfoils and to verify the operation of the heat flux measurement techniques through laboratory experiments. The requirements for a program to investigate the measurement of heat flux on airfoils in areas of strong non-one-dimensional flow were also identified.

  12. Experimental Measurements of Temperature and Heat Flux in a High Temperature Black Body Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.

    1998-01-01

    During hypersonic flight, high temperatures and high heat fluxes are generated. The Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL) at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is equipped to calibrate high heat fluxes up to 1100 kW/sq m. There are numerous uncertainties associated with these heat flux calibrations, as the process is transient, there are expected to be interactions between transient conduction, natural and forced convection, radiation, and possibly an insignificant degree of oxidation of the graphite cavity. Better understanding, of these mechanisms during the calibration process, will provide more reliable heat transfer data during either ground testing or flight testing of hypersonic vehicles.

  13. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentine, Pierre; Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung-Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud-resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection.

  14. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung‐Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud‐resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection. PMID:27134320

  15. Time and Space Resolved Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2005-01-01

    The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work was to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface using a microheater array with 100x 100 square microns resolution, then numerically determine the wall to liquid heat flux. This data was then correlated with high speed (greater than l000Hz) visual recordings of The bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that microlayer evaporation and contact line heat transfer are not major heat transfer mechanisms for bubble growth. The dominant heat transfer mechanism appears to be transient conduction into the liquid as the liquid rewets the wall during the bubble departure process.

  16. Convective heat flux in a laser-heated thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, P. K. S.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis is performed to estimate the convective heating to the wall in a laser-heated thruster on the basis of a solution of the laminar boundary-layer equations with variable transport properties. A local similiarity approximation is used, and it is assumed that the gas phase is in equilibrium. For the thruster described by Wu (1976), the temperature and pressure distributions along the nozzle are obtained from the core calculation. The similarity solutions and heat flux are obtained from the freestream conditions of the boundary layer, in order to determine if it is necessary to couple the boundary losses directly to the core calculation. In addition, the effects of mass injection on the convective heat transfer across the boundary layer with large density-viscosity product gradient are examined.

  17. ACCURACY OF SOIL HEAT FLUX MEASUREMENTS MADE WITH FLUX PLATES OF CONTRASTING PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flux plate measurements of soil heat flux (G) may include significant errors unless the plates are carefully installed and known errors accounted for. The objective of this research was to quantify potential errors in G when using soil heat flux plates of contrasting designs. Five flux plates with...

  18. Effects of dynamic heat fluxes on model climate sensitivity Meridional sensible and latent heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Wang, W.-C.; Stone, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    The high- and low-latitude radiative-dynamic (HLRD) climatic model of Wang et al. (1984) was used to study the effect of meridional heat (MH) fluxes on climate changes caused by increases of CO2 abundance and solar constant variations. However, the empirical MH parameterization of the HLRD model was replaced by physically based parameterization, which gives separate meridional sensible and latent heat fluxes and provides a complete representation of the dependence of the flux on the mean temperature field. Both parameterization methods yielded about the same changes in global mean surface temperature and ice line, and both produced only small changes in meridional temperature gradient, although the latter were even smaller with the physically based parameterizations. At any latitude, the hemispheric mean surface temperature, rather than MH fluxes, dominates the surface temperature changes.

  19. Soil profile method for soil thermal diffusivity, conductivity and heat flux:Comparison to soil heat flux plates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffusive heat flux at the soil surface is commonly determined as a mean value over a time period using heat flux plates buried at some depth (e.g., 5 to 8 cm) below the surface with a correction to surface flux based on the change in heat storage during the corresponding time period in the soil lay...

  20. Critical heat flux of subcooled flow boiling with water for high heat flux application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Nariai, Hideki

    1993-11-01

    Subcooled flow boiling in water is thought to be advantageous in removing high heat load of more than 10 MW/m2. Characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF), which determines the upper limit of heat removal, are very important for the design of cooling systems. In this paper, studies on subcooled flow boiling CHF, which have been conducted by the authors, are reported. Experiments were conducted using direct current heating of stainless steel tube. For uniform heating conditions, CHF increment in small diameter tubes (1 - 3 mm inside diameter) and the CHF characteristics in tubes with internal twisted tapes were investigated, and also the existing CHF correlations for ordinary tubes (more than 3 mm inside diameter) were evaluated. For peripherally non-uniform heating conditions using the tube, whose wall thickness was partly reduced, the CHF for swirl flow was higher than the CHF under uniform heating conditions with an increase of the non-uniformity factor.

  1. Heat flux measurements on ceramics with thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond; Anderson, Robert C.; Liebert, Curt H.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic using an arc lamp Heat Flux Calibration Facility. Silicon nitride and mullite ceramics were used; two thicknesses of each material was tested, with ceramic temperatures to 1500 C. Heat flux ranged from 0.05-2.5 MW/m2(sup 2). One method for heat flux determination used an approximation technique to calculate instantaneous values of heat flux vs time; the other method used an extrapolation technique to determine the steady state heat flux from a record of transient data. Neither method measures heat flux in real time but the techniques may easily be adapted for quasi-real time measurement. In cases where a significant portion of the transient heat flux data is available, the calculated transient heat flux is seen to approach the extrapolated steady state heat flux value as expected.

  2. A heat transfer model of a horizontal ground heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, R. E.; Shtern, Yu. I.; Shtern, M. Yu.; Rogachev, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Ground-source heat pumps are gaining popularity in Eastern Europe, especially those which are using the horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX). Due to the difficulty of accessing GHX after the installation, materials and the quality of the installation must satisfy the very high requirements. An inaccurate calculation of GHX can be the reason of a scarcity of heat power in a crucial moment. So far, there isn't any appropriate mathematical description of the horizontal GHX which takes into account the mutual influence of GHX pipes on each other. To solve this problem we used the temperature wave approach. As a result, a mathematical model which describes the dependence of the heat transfer rate per unit length of the horizontal GHX pipe on the thermal properties of soil, operating time of GHX and the distance between pipes was obtained. Using this model, heat transfer rates per unit length of a horizontal GHX were plotted as functions of the distance between pipes and operating time. The modeling shows that heat transfer rates decreases rapidly with the distance between pipes lower then 2 meters. After the launch of heat pump, heat power of GHX is reduced during the first 20 - 30 days and get steady after that. The obtained results correlate with experimental data. Therefore the proposed mathematical model can be used to design a horizontal GHX with the optimal characteristics, and predict its capability during operation.

  3. Critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David Douglas

    The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon was investigated for water flow in tubes with particular emphasis on the development of methods for predicting CHF in the subcooled flow boiling regime. The Purdue University Boiling and Two-Phase Flow Laboratory (PU-BTPFL) CHF database for water flow in a uniformly heated tube was compiled from the world literature dating back to 1949 and represents the largest CHF database ever assembled with 32,544 data points from over 100 sources. The superiority of this database was proven via a detailed examination of previous databases. The PU-BTPFL CHF database is an invaluable tool for the development of CHF correlations and mechanistic models that are superior to existing ones developed with smaller, less comprehensive CHF databases. In response to the many inaccurate and inordinately complex correlations, two nondimensional, subcooled CHF correlations were formulated, containing only five adjustable constants and whose unique functional forms were determined without using a statistical analysis but rather using the parametric trends observed in less than 10% of the subcooled CHF data. The correlation based on inlet conditions (diameter, heated length, mass velocity, pressure, inlet quality) was by far the most accurate of all known subcooled CHF correlations, having mean absolute and root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 10.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The outlet (local) conditions correlation was the most accurate correlation based on local CHF conditions (diameter, mass velocity, pressure, outlet quality) and may be used with a nonuniform axial heat flux. Both correlations proved more accurate than a recent CHF look-up table commonly employed in nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic computer codes. An interfacial lift-off, subcooled CHF model was developed from a consideration of the instability of the vapor-liquid interface and the fraction of heat required for liquid-vapor conversion as opposed to that for bulk liquid heating. Severe

  4. Modeled ground magnetic signatures of flux transfer events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, Mark A.; Clauer, C. Robert

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field on the ground due to a small (not greater than 200 km scale size) localized field-aligned current (FAC) system interacting with the ionosphere is calculated in terms of an integral over the ionospheric distribution of FAC. Two different candidate current systems for flux transfer events (FTEs) are considered: (1) a system which has current flowing down the center of a cylindrical flux tube with a return current uniformly distributed along the outside edge; and (2) a system which has upward current on one half of the perimeter of a cylindrical flux tube with downward current on the opposite half. The peak magnetic field on the ground is found to differ by a factor of 2 between the two systems, and the magnetic perturbations are in different directions depending on the observer's position.

  5. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology: (1) Heat flux is one of a number of parameters, together with pressure, temperature, flow, etc. of interest to engine designers and fluid dynamists, (2) The measurement of heat flux is of interest in directly determining the cooling requirements of hot section blades and vanes, and (3)In addition, if the surface and gas temperatures are known, the measurement of heat flux provides a value for the convective heat transfer coefficient that can be compared with the value provided by CFD codes.

  6. Non-contact heat flux measurement using a transparent sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Spuckler, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    A working non-contact heat flux sensor was demonstrated using a transparent material (sapphire) and a multiwavelength pyrometer. The pyrometer is used to measure the temperatures of the two surfaces of the sensor from the spectrum of radiation originating from them. The heat conducted through the material is determined from the temperature difference of the two surfaces and the thermal conductivity of the material. The measured heat flux is equal to the incident heat flux within experimental error indicating that no calibration would be necessary. A steady state heat flux of 100 kW/sq m was easily achieved.

  7. Method for limiting heat flux in double-wall tubes

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Jaw-Yeu

    1982-01-01

    A method of limiting the heat flux in a portion of double-wall tubes including heat treating the tubes so that the walls separate when subjected to high heat flux and supplying an inert gas mixture to the gap at the interface of the double-wall tubes.

  8. Bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Zwickl, R. D.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    ISEE 3 plasma and magnetic field data are used here to document the general characteristics of bidirectional electron heat flux events (BEHFEs). Significant field rotations often occur at the beginning and/or end of such events and, at times, the large-field rotations characteristic of 'magnetic clouds' are present. Approximately half of all BEHFEs are associated with and follow interplanetary shocks, while the other events have no obvious shock associations. When shock-associated, the delay from shock passage typically is about 13 hours, corresponding to a radial separation of about 0.16 AU. When independent of any shock association, BEHFEs typically are about 0.13 AU thick in the radial direction. It is suggested that BEHFEs are one of the more prominent signatures of coronal mass ejection events in the solar wind at 1 AU.

  9. Critical heat flux experiments in an internally heated annulus with a non-uniform, alternate high and low axial heat flux distribution (AWBA Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Beus, S.G.; Seebold, O.P.

    1981-02-01

    Critical heat flux experiments were performed with an alternate high and low heat flux profile in an internally heated annulus. The heated length was 84 inches (213 cm) with a chopped wave heat flux profile over the last 24 inches (61 cm) having a maximum-to-average heat flux ratio of 1.26. Three test sections were employed: one with an axially uniform heat flux profile as a base case and two with 60 inch (152 cm) uniform and 24 inch (61 cm) alternating high and low heat flux sections. The third test section had a 2.15 inch (5.46 cm) section with a peak-to-average heat flux ratio of 2.19 (hot patch) superimposed at the exit end of the alternating high and low heat flux profile.

  10. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    SciTech Connect

    Liebert, C.H.

    1990-11-01

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  11. Electron heat flux constraints in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, S.P.; Skoug, R.M.; Daughton, W.

    1999-06-01

    Enhanced fluctuations from electromagnetic heat flux instabilities may, through wave-particle scattering, constrain the electron heat flux which flows parallel to the background magnetic field in the solar wind. A corollary of this hypothesis is that instability thresholds should correspond to observable bounds on the heat flux. Here plasma and magnetic field data from February and March 1995 of the Ulysses mission is analyzed in terms of the core/halo electron model to yield scaling relations of dimensionless electron parameters and empirical upper bounds on the dimensionless heat flux as functions of the core {beta}. Use of these scaling relations in linear Vlasov theory for the whistler and Alfv{acute e}n heat flux instabilities in homogeneous plasmas yields threshold conditions on the dimensionless heat flux which are also functions of the electron core {beta}. The empirical bounds and the theoretical thresholds are similar and are therefore consistent with the hypothesis. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  13. The measurement of surface heat flux using the Peltier effect

    SciTech Connect

    Shewen, E.C. ); Hollands, K.G.T., Raithby, G.D. )

    1989-08-01

    Calorimetric methods for measuring surface heat flux use Joulean heating to keep the surface isothermal. This limits them to measuring the heat flux of surfaces that are hotter than their surroundings. Presented in this paper is a method whereby reversible Peltier effect heat transfer is used to maintain this isothermality, making it suitable for surfaces that are either hotter or colder than the surroundings. The paper outlines the theory for the method and describes physical models that have been constructed, calibrated, and tested. The tested physical models were found capable of measuring heat fluxes with an absolute accuracy of 1 percent over a wide range of temperature (5-50C) and heat flux (15-500 W/m{sup 2}), while maintaining isothermality to within 0.03 K. A drawback of the method is that it appears to be suited only for measuring the heat flux from thick metallic plates.

  14. Transient critical heat flux and blowdown heat-transfer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Objective of this study is to give a best-estimate prediction of transient critical heat flux (CHF) during reactor transients and hypothetical accidents. To accomplish this task, a predictional method has been developed. Basically it involves the thermal-hydraulic calculation of the heated core with boundary conditions supplied from experimental measurements. CHF predictions were based on the instantaneous ''local-conditions'' hypothesis, and eight correlations (consisting of round-tube, rod-bundle, and transient correlations) were tested against most recent blowdown heat-transfer test data obtained in major US facilities. The prediction results are summarized in a table in which both CISE and Biasi correlations are found to be capable of predicting the early CHF of approx. 1 s. The Griffith-Zuber correlation is credited for its prediction of the delay CHF that occurs in a more tranquil state with slowly decaying mass velocity. In many instances, the early CHF can be well correlated by the x = 1.0 criterion; this is certainly indicative of an annular-flow dryout-type crisis. The delay CHF occurred at near or above 80% void fraction, and the success of the modified Zuber pool-boiling correlation suggests that this CHF is caused by flooding and pool-boiling type hydrodynamic crisis.

  15. Ir Thermographic Measurements of Temperatures and Heat Fluxes in Hypersonic Plasma Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, G.; Tortora, G.; del Vecchio, A.

    2005-02-01

    The technological development achieved in instruments and methodology concerning both flights and ground hypersonic experiment (employed in space plane planning) goes towards an updating and a standardization of the heat flux technical measurements. In fact, the possibility to simulate high enthalpy flow relative to reentry condition by hypersonic arc-jet facility needs devoted methods to measure heat fluxes. Aim of this work is to develop an experimental numerical technique for the evaluation of heat fluxes over Thermal Protection System (TPS) by means of InfraRed (IR) thermographic temperature measurements and a new heat flux sensor (IR-HFS). We tackle the numerical validation of IR-HFS, apply the same one to the Hyflex nose cap model and compare the obtained results with others ones obtained by others methodology.

  16. Heat flux splitter for near-field thermal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, P.; Belarouci, A.; Frechette, L.; Biehs, S.-A.

    2015-08-03

    We demonstrate the possibility to efficiently split the near-field heat flux exchanged between graphene nano-disks by tuning their doping. This result paves the way for the development of an active control of propagation directions for heat fluxes exchanged in the near field throughout integrated nanostructured networks.

  17. Evaluation of a new, perforated heat flux plate design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate measurement of heat flux is essential to optimize structural and process design and to improve understanding of energy transfer in natural systems. Laboratory and field experiments evaluated the performance of a new, perforated heat flux plate designed for environmental applications. Labora...

  18. Development of heat flux sensors for turbine airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, Marcia A.; Strange, Richard R.

    1985-10-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop heat flux sensors suitable for installation in hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft turbine engines and to experimentally verify the operation of these heat flux sensors in a cylinder in a cross flow experiment. Embedded thermocouple and Gardon gauge sensors were developed and fabricated into both blades and vanes. These were then calibrated using a quartz lamp bank heat source and finally subjected to thermal cycle and thermal soak testing. These sensors were also fabricated into cylindrical test pieces and tested in a burner exhaust to verify heat flux measurements produced by these sensors. The results of the cylinder in cross flow tests are given.

  19. Development of heat flux sensors for turbine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, Marcia A.; Strange, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop heat flux sensors suitable for installation in hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft turbine engines and to experimentally verify the operation of these heat flux sensors in a cylinder in a cross flow experiment. Embedded thermocouple and Gardon gauge sensors were developed and fabricated into both blades and vanes. These were then calibrated using a quartz lamp bank heat source and finally subjected to thermal cycle and thermal soak testing. These sensors were also fabricated into cylindrical test pieces and tested in a burner exhaust to verify heat flux measurements produced by these sensors. The results of the cylinder in cross flow tests are given.

  20. Dimensional Analysis of Thermoelectric Modules Under Constant Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryosuke O.; Fujisaka, Takeyuki; Ito, Keita O.; Meng, Xiangning; Sui, Hong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generation is examined in the case of radiative heating. A constant heat flux is assumed in addition to consideration of the Seebeck effect, Peltier effect, and Joule heating with temperature-dependent material properties. Numerical evaluations are conducted using a combination of the finite-volume method and an original simultaneous solver for the heat transfer, thermoelectric, and electric transportation phenomena. Comparison with experimental results shows that the new solver could work well in the numerical calculations. The calculations predict that the Seebeck effect becomes larger for longer thermoelectric elements because of the larger temperature difference. The heat transfer to the cold surface is critical to determine the junction temperatures under a constant heat flux from the hot surface. The negative contribution from Peltier cooling and heating can be minimized when the current is smaller for longer elements. Therefore, a thicker TE module can generate more electric power even under a constant heat flux.

  1. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  2. Miniature Convection Cooled Plug-type Heat Flux Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1994-01-01

    Tests and analysis of a new miniature plug-type heat flux gauge configuration are described. This gauge can simultaneously measure heat flux on two opposed active surfaces when heat flux levels are equal to or greater than about 0.2 MW/m(sup 2). The performance of this dual active surface gauge was investigated over a wide transient and steady heat flux and temperature range. The tests were performed by radiatively heating the front surface with an argon arc lamp while the back surface was convection cooled with air. Accuracy is about +20 percent. The gauge is responsive to fast heat flux transients and is designed to withstand the high temperature (1300 K), high pressure (15 MPa), erosive and corrosive environments in modern engines. This gauge can be used to measure heat flux on the surfaces of internally cooled apparatus such as turbine blades and combustors used in jet propulsion systems and on the surfaces of hypersonic vehicles. Heat flux measurement accuracy is not compromised when design considerations call for various size gauges to be fabricated into alloys of various shapes and properties. Significant gauge temperature reductions (120 K), which can lead to potential gauge durability improvement, were obtained when the gauges were air-cooled by forced convection.

  3. Transient heat flux shielding using thermal metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana, Supradeep; Savo, Salvatore; Sato, Yuki

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a heat shield based on a metamaterial engineering approach to shield a region from transient diffusive heat flow. The shield is designed with a multilayered structure to prescribe the appropriate spatial profile for heat capacity, density, and thermal conductivity of the effective medium. The heat shield was experimentally compared to other isotropic materials.

  4. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbek, Metin; Yavuzturk, Cy; Pinder, George

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  5. Supercritical convection, critical heat flux, and coking characteristics of propane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Gross, R. S.; Boyd, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of propane at subcritical and supercritical pressure were experimentally evaluated using electrically heated Monel K-500 tubes. A design correlation for supercritical heat transfer coefficient was established using the approach previously applied to supercritical oxygen. Flow oscillations were observed and the onset of these oscillations at supercritical pressures was correlated with wall-to-bulk temperature ratio and velocity. The critical heat flux measured at subcritical pressure was correlated with the product of velocity and subcooling. Long duration tests at fixed heat flux conditions were conducted to evaluate coking on the coolant side tube wall and coking rates comparable to RP-1 were observed.

  6. Electron Heat Flux Instabilities: Ulysses and LEIA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Robert; Balkey, Matthew; Boivin, Robert; Kline, John; Scime, Earl

    1999-11-01

    Electron heat flux, the non-vanishing third moment of an electron velocity distribution, represent of source of free energy that can drive electromagnetic instabilities. Linear Vlasov theory calculations indicate that at high electron beta, beta 1, the whistler heat flux instability is the most unstable electromagnetic mode. Assuming that the growth of the instability leads to electron velocity space diffusion that reduces the electron heat flux, it is possible to calculate the maximum allowable electron heat flux in a high beta plasma. Observations by the Ulysses spacecraft over 1 to 5 AU are generally supportive of a model of electron heat flux regulation based on excitation of the whistler heat flux instability. To perform controlled experiments on similar high beta plasmas, an electron gun has been installed in the Large Experiment on Instabilities and Anisotropies (LEIA) space simulation chamber. The electron gun is rapidly scanned in energy to simulate an energetic electron tail, an electron heat flux. Comparisons of Ulysses and LEIA electron distribution functions and plasma parameters will be presented. The electron distributions in LEIA are measured with a retarding potential analyzer and a curved plate electrostatic analyzer probe. Measurements of electromagnetic fluctuations in LEIA will be presented if available.

  7. Investigation on critical heat flux of flow in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Senyuan

    1990-08-01

    This paper experimentally and theoretically investigates the critical heat flux of flow in pipes. From the analysis of the boiling mechanism and processing by means of the analogy principle of two-phase flow, a criterion equation to express critical heat flux has been derived. Correlated with six different coolants, 355 experimental data, the constant A and exponents K, m, and n are obtained. With a dimensionless correction term to calculate the effect on the varying slotted height of the cooling jacket, the previous equation will be a general equation to calculate the critical heat flux of flow in pipes.

  8. High-Energy Neutron Spectra and Flux Measurements Below Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roecker, Caleb; Bernstein, Adam; Marleau, Peter; Vetter, Kai

    2016-03-01

    High-energy neutrons are a ubiquitous and often poorly measured background. Below ground, these neutrons could potentially interfere with antineutrino based reactor monitoring experiments as well as other rare-event neutral particle detectors. We have designed and constructed a transportable fast neutron detection system for measuring neutron energy spectra and flux ranging from tens to hundreds of MeV. The spectrometer uses a multiplicity technique in order to have a higher effective area than traditional transportable high-energy neutron spectrometers. Transportability ensures a common detector-related systematic bias for future measurements. The spectrometer is composed of two Gd containing plastic scintillator detectors arranged around a lead spallation target. A high-energy neutron may interact in the lead producing many secondary neutrons. The detector records the correlated secondary neutron multiplicity. Over many events, the response can be used to infer the incident neutron energy spectrum and flux. As a validation of the detector response, surface measurements have been performed; results confirm agreement with previous experiments. Below ground measurements have been performed at 3 depths (380, 600, and 1450 m.w.e.); results from these measurements will be presented.

  9. Regionalization of surface heat fluxes and evapotranspiration over heterogeneous landscape of the Third Pole region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention among the international academic community. It is centered on the Tibetan Plateau, stretching from the Pamir Plateau and Hindu-Kush on the west to the Hengduan Mountains on the east, and from the Kunlun and Qilian Mts on the north to the Himalayas on the south. Covering over 5,000,000 km2 in total and with an average elevation surpassing 4000 m. The exchange of energy and evapotranspiration (ET) between land surface and atmosphere over the Third Pole region play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. The parameterization methods based on satellite data and Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) observations have been proposed and tested for deriving regional distribution of surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and ET over heterogeneous landscape. As cases study, the methods were applied to the whole Tibetan Plateau area and Nepal area. To validate the proposed methods, the ground-measured surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux in the Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) TPEP are compared to the derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables, land surface heat fluxes and ET over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. These parameters show a wide range due to the strong contrast of surface features. And the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good agreement with ground measurements, and all the absolute percent difference is less than 10% in the validation sites. It is therefore concluded that the proposed methods are successful for the retrieval of land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous

  10. Soil heat flux determined from diel water content and temperature variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil heat flux for a measurement interval is commonly determined using heat flux plates buried at some depth below the surface. The heat flux values are adjusted to represent the soil surface heat flux by determining the heat stored in the layer between the plate and surface. Heat storage is calcula...

  11. Performance of Peltier elements as a cryogenic heat flux sensor at temperatures down to 60 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, T.

    2001-05-01

    An in situ heat flux measuring technique could be a good tool to investigate the mechanism of radiation heat leak and optimize the performance of multi-layer insulation. There are several types of commercially available heat flux sensors, however, most of these sensors are mainly developed for much higher heat flux measurements, e.g., radiation from an iron furnace, heat leak from LNG tanks to the ground and so on. In cryogenic systems, the typical amount of heat flux from 300 K to the first-stage radiation shield of cryogenic system is around several W/m 2, which is three or four orders of magnitude smaller than that of an iron furnace. A conventional thermoelectric element, known as a Peltier element, has been evaluated as a heat flux sensor at cryogenic temperatures and found to be suitable due to its high output voltage. In this study, the temperature dependence of the sensitivity and thermal resistance of the Peltier elements were investigated at temperatures from 200 down to 60 K for possible practical applications.

  12. The effects of surface heat flux on plume spread and concentration - An assessment based on remote measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, T. N.; Dicristofaro, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Satellite-derived surface heat-flux maps are presented in order to illustrate the large horizontal variations in surface heating that can occur over heterogeneous terrain. Results of plume-model studies published by Lamb (1978) and Willis and Deardorff (1978) were modified to show that the ground-level pollutant concentration depend closely upon the surface heat flux for the case of an elevated plume source during periods of free convection. It is suggested that remotely determined surface heat-flux patterns can be used in making plume dispersion calculations.

  13. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  14. Variable energy, high flux, ground-state atomic oxygen source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A variable energy, high flux atomic oxygen source is described which is comprised of a means for producing a high density beam of molecules which will emit O(-) ions when bombarded with electrons; a means of producing a high current stream of electrons at a low energy level passing through the high density beam of molecules to produce a combined stream of electrons and O(-) ions; means for accelerating the combined stream to a desired energy level; means for producing an intense magnetic field to confine the electrons and O(-) ions; means for directing a multiple pass laser beam through the combined stream to strip off the excess electrons from a plurality of the O(-) ions to produce ground-state O atoms within the combined stream; electrostatic deflection means for deflecting the path of the O(-) ions and the electrons in the combined stream; and, means for stopping the O(-) ions and the electrons and for allowing only the ground-state O atoms to continue as the source of the atoms of interest. The method and apparatus are also adaptable for producing other ground-state atoms and/or molecules.

  15. THERMAL TEST ALCOVE HEATED DRIFT GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bonabian

    1996-10-03

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to analyze the stability of the Thermal Test Facility Heated Drift and to design a ground support system. The stability of the Heated Drift is analyzed considering in situ, seismic, and thermal loading conditions. A ground support system is recommended to provide a stable opening for the Heated Drift. This report summarizes the results of the analyses and provides the details of the recommended ground support system for the Heated Drift. The details of the ground support system are then incorporated into the design output documents for implementation in the field.

  16. Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

    2009-07-14

    Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground

  17. Thin-Film Resistance Heat-Flux Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Thin-film heat-flux sensors of a proposed type would offer advantages over currently available thin-film heat flux sensors. Like a currently available thin-film heat-flux sensor, a sensor according to the proposal would be based on measurement of voltages related to the temperatures of thin metal films on the hotter and colder faces of a layer of an electrically insulating and moderately thermally conductive material. The heat flux through such a device is proportional to the difference between the temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the layer. The advantages of the proposed sensors over the commercial ones would arise from the manner in which the temperature-related voltages would be generated and measured.

  18. Wind-Speed—Surface-Heat-Flux Feedback in Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Junshi; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Strong winds associated with dust devils can induce locally large heat fluxes from the surface, and resulting enhanced buoyancy may further intensify the dust devils. This positive wind—surface-heat-flux feedback is studied using a large-eddy simulation of a convective boundary layer. A comparison of the results with and without the feedback process for the same environment demonstrates the significance of the feedback process for simulated dust devils.

  19. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D

    2008-08-04

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  20. Divertor heat flux mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Maingi, R.; Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.E.; Bush, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono , Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m(-2) to 0.5-2 MW m(-2) in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of the outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  1. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campergue, A.-L.; Jacquet, P.; Bobkov, V.; Milanesio, D.; Monakhov, I.; Colas, L.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-01

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  2. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Campergue, A.-L.; Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Milanesio, D.; Colas, L.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  3. On the surface heat fluxes in the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launiainen, Jouko; Vihma, Timo

    Turbulent surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat in the Weddell Sea were studied using drifting marine meteorological buoys with satellite telemetry. In 1990-1992 a total of 5 buoys were deployed on the sea ice, in the open ocean, and on the edge of a floating continental ice shelf. The buoys measured, among others, wind speed, air temperature and humidity with duplicate sensors and yielded year-round time series. The heat fluxes were calculated by the gradient and bulk methods based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Over the sea ice, a downward flux of 15 to 20 W/m2 was observed in winter (with typical variations of 10 to 20 W/m2 between successive days) and 5 W/m2 in summer. For the latent heat flux, the results suggested a small evaporation of 0 to 5 W/m2 in summer and weak condensation in winter. The highest diurnal values, up to 20 W/m2, were connected with evaporation. Because of stable stratification, the transfer coefficients of heat and moisture were reduced to 80% of their neutral values, on the average. Over the leads and coastal polynyas, an upward sensible heat flux of 100 to 300 W/m2 was typical, except in summer when the air temperature was close to the sea surface temperature. Over the continental shelf ice, the sensible heat flux was predominantly downwards (15 to 20 W/m2), compensating the negative radiation balance of the snow surface. Over the snow and ice surfaces the magnitude of turbulent fluxes was smaller than that of radiative fluxes, while over the open water in winter sensible heat flux was the largest term. Modification of the continental air-mass flowing out from the shelf ice to the open sea was studied with aerological soundings made from a research vessel. Associated turbulent heat exchange was estimated on the basis of three methods: modification in the temperature profiles, surface observations, and diabatic resistance laws for the atmospheric boundary layer. If we estimate an area-averaged turbulent heat exchange

  4. Explosive Boiling at Very Low Heat Fluxes: A Microgravity Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Knoll, R. H.; Bentz, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents experimental observations of explosive boiling from a large (relative to bubble sizes) flat heating surface at very low heat fluxes in microgravity. The explosive boiling is characterized as either a rapid growth of vapor mass over the entire heating surface due to the flashing of superheated liquid or a violent boiling spread following the appearance of single bubbles on the heating surface. Pool boiling data with saturated Freon 113 was obtained in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. The unique features of the experimental results are the sustainability of high liquid superheat for long periods and the occurrence of explosive boiling at low heat fluxes (0.2 to 1.2 kW/sq m). For a heat flux of 1.0 kW/sq m a wall superheat of 17.9 degrees C was attained in ten minutes of heating. This was followed by an explosive boiling accompanied with a pressure spike and a violent bulk liquid motion. However, at this heat flux the vapor blanketing the heating surface could not be sustained. Stable nucleate boiling continued following the explosive boiling.

  5. Parameterization of the Meridional Eddy Heat and Momentum Fluxes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Cheng-Zhi; Gal-Chen, Tzvi

    1999-06-01

    Green's eddy diffusive transfer representation is used to parameterize the meridional eddy heat flux. The structural function obtained by Branscome for the diagonal component Kyy in the tensor of the transfer coefficients is adopted. A least squares method that uses the observed data of eddy heat flux is proposed to evaluate the magnitude of Kyy and the structure of the nondiagonal component Kyz in the transfer coefficient tensor. The optimum motion characteristic at the steering level is used as a constraint for the relationship between Kyy and Kyz. The obtained magnitude of Kyy is two to three times larger than that of the Branscome's, which is obtained in a linear analysis with the assumption of Kyz = 0.Green's vertically integrated expression for the meridional eddy momentum flux is used to test the coefficients obtained in the eddy heat flux. In this parameterization, the eddy momentum flux is related to the eddy fluxes of two conserved quantities: potential vorticity and potential temperature. The transfer coefficient is taken to be the sum of that obtained in the parameterization of eddy heat flux, plus a correction term suggested by Stone and Yao, which ensures the global net eddy momentum transport to be zero. What makes the present method attractive is that, even though only the data of eddy heat flux are used to evaluate the magnitude of the transfer coefficients, the obtained magnitude of the eddy momentum flux is in good agreement with observations. For the annual mean calculation, the obtained peak values of eddy momentum flux are 94% of the observation for the Northern Hemisphere and 101% for the Southern Hemisphere. This result significantly improves the result of Stone and Yao, who obtained 34% for the Northern Hemisphere and 16% for the Southern Hemisphere in a similar calculation, but in which Kyz = 0 was assumed.

  6. Intercomparison of Latent Heat Fluxes Over Global Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Nelkin, Eric; Ardizzone, Joe; Atlas, Robert M.; Chou, Ming-Dah

    2003-01-01

    Turbulent fluxes of momentum, moisture, and heat at the air-sea interface are essential for climate studies. Version 2 Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF2) has been derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) radiance measurements. This dataset, covering the period July 1987-December 2000 over global oceans, has a spatial resolution of 1 deg x 1 deg lat-long and a temporal resolution of 1 day. Turbulent fluxes are derived from the SSM/I surface winds and surface air humidity, as well as the 2-m air and sea surface temperatures (SST) of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, using a bulk aerodynamic algorithm based on the surface layer similarity theory. The GSSTF2 bulk flux model, and retrieved daily wind stress, latent heat flux, wind speed, and surface air humidity validate well with ship observations of ten field experiments over the tropical and midlatitude oceans during 1991-99. The global distributions of 1988-2000 annual- and seasonal-mean turbulent fluxes show reasonable patterns related to the atmospheric general circulation and seasonal variations. Latent heat fluxes and related input parameters over global oceans during 1992-93 have been compared among GSSTF1 (version 1), GSSTF2, HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data), NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and one based on COADS (Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set). Our analyses suggest that the GSSTF2 latent heat flux, surface air humidity, surface wind, and SST are quite realistic compared to the other four flux datasets examined. However, significant differences are found among these five flux datasets. The GSSTF2, available at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/CAMPAIGN_DOCS/hydrology/hd_gsstf2.O.html, is useful for climate studies.

  7. Effects of dynamical heat fluxes on model climate sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.-C.; Molnar, G.; Mitchell, T. P.; Stone, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A coupled high and low latitude radiative-dynamical model of the annual mean northern hemisphere has been constructed in order to study the interactions of the vertical and meridional heat fluxes and their feedback effect on model climate sensitivity. The model's climate sensitivity to solar constant changes and CO2 increases is investigated, and the effect of feedback in the dynamical fluxes on model climate sensitivity is examined. Nonlinear interactions between heat fluxes and other feedbacks such as radiation-temperature, ice albedo, and humidity are also discussed.

  8. An Analysis of Turbulent Heat Fluxes and the Energy Balance During the REFLEX Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tol, Christiaan van der; Timmermans, Wim; Corbari, Chiara; Carrara, Arnaud; Timmermans, Joris; Su, Zhongbo

    2015-12-01

    Three eddy covariance stations were installed at the Barrax experimental farm during the Land-Atmosphere Exchanges (REFLEX) airborne training and measurement campaign to provide ground truth data of energy balance fluxes and vertical temperature and wind profiles. The energy balance closure ratio (EBR) was 105% for a homogeneous camelina site, 86% at a sparse reforestation site, and 73% for a vineyard. We hypothesize that the lower closure in the last site was related to the limited fetch. Incorporating a vertical gradient of soil thermal properties decreased the RMSE of the energy balance at the camelina site by 16 W m-2. At the camelina site, eddy covariance estimates of sensible and latent heat fluxes could be reproduced well using mean vertical profiles of wind and temperature, provided that the Monin-Obukhov length is known. Measured surface temperature and sensible heat fluxes suggested high excess resistance for heat (kB-1 = 17).

  9. High heat flux measurements and experimental calibrations/characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Carl T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in techniques employed in the measurement of very high heat-transfer rates in reentry-type facilities at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is described. These advances include thermal analyses applied to transducer concepts used to make these measurements; improved heat-flux sensor fabrication methods, equipment, and procedures for determining the experimental time response of individual sensors; performance of absolute heat-flux calibrations at levels above 2,000 Btu/cu ft-sec (2.27 kW/cu cm); and innovative methods of performing in-situ run-to-run characterizations of heat-flux probes installed in the test facility. Graphical illustrations of the results of extensive thermal analyses of the null-point calorimeter and coaxial surface thermocouple concepts with application to measurements in aerothermal test environments are presented. Results of time response experiments and absolute calibrations of null-point calorimeters and coaxial thermocouples performed in the laboratory at intermediate to high heat-flux levels are shown. Typical AEDC high-enthalpy arc heater heat-flux data recently obtained with a Calspan-fabricated null-point probe model are included.

  10. QUANTIFICATION OF HEAT FLUX FROM A REACTING THERMITE SPRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Nixon; Michelle Pantoya

    2009-07-01

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors can not survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite spray conditions are reported. Results indicate that this newly developed energetic material heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability.

  11. A diagnostic for quantifying heat flux from a thermite spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, E. P.; Pantoya, M. L.; Prentice, D. J.; Steffler, E. D.; Daniels, M. A.; D'Arche, S. P.

    2010-02-01

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors cannot survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite sprays are reported. Results indicate that this newly designed heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability suitable for characterizing energetic material combustion.

  12. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1984-08-01

    Heat flux sensors available for installation in the hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines were developed. Two heat flux sensors were designed, fabricated, calibrated, and tested. Measurement techniques are compared in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig test. Sensors, embedded thermocouple and the Gordon gauge, were fabricated that met the geometric and fabricability requirements and could withstand the hot section environmental conditions. Calibration data indicate that these sensors yielded repeatable results and have the potential to meet the accuracy goal of measuring local heat flux to within 5%. Thermal cycle tests and thermal soak tests indicated that the sensors are capable of surviving extended periods of exposure to the environment conditions in the turbine. Problems in calibration of the sensors caused by severe non-one dimensional heat flow were encountered. Modifications to the calibration techniques are needed to minimize this problem and proof testing of the sensors in an engine is needed to verify the designs.

  13. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of heat flux sensors for gas turbine blades and vanes and the demonstration of heat transfer measurement methods are reported. The performance of the heat flux sensors was evaluated in a cylinder in cross flow experiment and compared with two other heat flux measurement methods, the slug calorimeter and a dynamic method based on fluctuating gas and surface temperature. Two cylinders, each instrumented with an embedded thermocouple sensor, a Gardon gauge, and a slug calorimeter, were fabricated. Each sensor type was calibrated using a quartz lamp bank facility. The instrumented cylinders were then tested in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig at conditions up to gas stream temperatures of 1700K and velocities to Mach 0.74. The test data are compared to other measurements and analytical prediction.

  14. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Heat flux sensors available for installation in the hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines were developed. Two heat flux sensors were designed, fabricated, calibrated, and tested. Measurement techniques are compared in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig test. Sensors, embedded thermocouple and the Gordon gauge, were fabricated that met the geometric and fabricability requirements and could withstand the hot section environmental conditions. Calibration data indicate that these sensors yielded repeatable results and have the potential to meet the accuracy goal of measuring local heat flux to within 5%. Thermal cycle tests and thermal soak tests indicated that the sensors are capable of surviving extended periods of exposure to the environment conditions in the turbine. Problems in calibration of the sensors caused by severe non-one dimensional heat flow were encountered. Modifications to the calibration techniques are needed to minimize this problem and proof testing of the sensors in an engine is needed to verify the designs.

  15. Recent trends (2003-2013) of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2015-12-01

    Novice efforts have been made in order to study the regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas utilizing high-resolution remotely sensed products, but these have been on instantaneous scale. In this study the Surface Energy Balance System model is used to obtain annual averaged maps of the land surface heat fluxes for 11 years (2003-2013) and study their annual trends on the central Himalayan region. The maps were derived at 5 km resolution using monthly input products ranging from satellite derived to Global Land Data Assimilation System meteorological data. It was found that the net radiation flux is increasing as a result of decreasing precipitation (drier environment). The sensible heat flux did not change much except for the northwestern High Himalaya and High Mountains. In northwestern High Himalaya sensible heat flux is decreasing because of decrease in wind speed, ground-air temperature difference, and increase in winter precipitation, whereas in High Mountains it is increasing due to increase in ground-air temperature difference and high rate of deforestation. The latent heat flux has an overall increasing trend with increase more pronounced in the lower regions compared to high elevated regions. It has been reported that precipitation is decreasing with altitude in this region. Therefore, the increasing trend in latent heat flux can be attributed to increase in net radiation flux under persistent forest cover and irrigation land used for agriculture.

  16. Investigation of direct expansion in ground source heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, M. D.

    A fully instrumented subscale ground coupled heat pump system was developed, and built, and used to test and obtain data on three different earth heat exchanger configurations under heating conditions (ground cooling). Various refrigerant flow control and compressor protection devices were tested for their applicability to the direct expansion system. Undistributed Earth temperature data were acquired at various depths. The problem of oil return at low evaporator temperatures and low refrigerant velocities was addressed. An analysis was performed to theoretically determine what evaporator temperature can be expected with an isolated ground pipe configuration with given length, pipe size, soil conditions and constant heat load. Technical accomplishments to data are summarized.

  17. Distribution of heat flux by working fluid in loop heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The main topics of article are construction of loop heat pipe, thermal visualization of working fluid dynamics and research results interpretation. The work deals about heat flux transport by working fluid in loop heat pipe from evaporator to condenser evolution. The result of the work give us how the hydrodynamic and thermal processes which take place inside the loop of heat pipe affect on the overall heat transport by loop heat pipe at start-up and during operation.

  18. Using MODIS and AVHRR data to determine regional surface heating field and heat flux distributions over the heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Binbin; Zhu, Zhikun; Wang, Yongjie; Zhang, Lang; Meng, Chunchun; Xu, Chao; Amatya, Pukar Man

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a parameterization methodology based on Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and in situ data is proposed and tested for deriving the regional surface heating field, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux over a heterogeneous landscape. In this case study, this method is applied to the whole Tibetan Plateau (TP) area. Four sets of AVHRR data and four sets of MODIS data (collected on 17 January 2003, 14 April 2003, 23 July 2003, and 16 October 2003) were used in this study to make comparisons between winter, spring, summer, and autumn values. The satellite-derived results were also validated using the "ground truth" as measured in the stations of CAMP/Tibet (Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) and Asia-Australia Monsoon Project on the Tibetan Plateau). The results show that the surface heating field, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux in the four seasons across the TP are in close accordance with its land surface status. These parameters range widely due to the strongly contrasting surface features found within the TP region. Also, the estimated surface heating field, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux all agree with the ground truth data, and usually, the absolute percentage difference between the two sets of data is less than 10 % at the validation stations. The AVHRR results were also in agreement with the MODIS data, with the latter usually displaying a higher level of accuracy. We have thus concluded that the proposed method was successful in retrieving surface heating field, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux values using AVHRR, MODIS, and in situ data over the heterogeneous land surface of the TP. Shortcomings and possible further improvements in the method are also discussed.

  19. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  20. Corrections of Heat Flux Measurements on Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinarts, Thomas R.; Matson, Monique L.; Walls, Laurie K.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of aerothermally induced convective heat transfer is important in the design of thermal protection systems for launch vehicles. Aerothermal models are typically calibrated via the data from circular, in-flight, flush-mounted surface heat flux gauges exposed to the thermal and velocity boundary layers of the external flow. Typically, copper or aluminum Schmidt- Boelter gauges, which take advantage of the one-dimensional Fourier's law of heat conduction, are used to measure the incident heat flux. This instrumentation, when surrounded by low-conductivity insulation, has a wall temperature significantly lower than the insulation. As a result of this substantial disturbance to the thermal boundary layer, the heat flux incident on the gauge tends to be considerably higher than it would have been on the insulation had the calorimeter not been there. In addition, radial conductive heat transfer from the hotter insulation can cause the calorimeter to indicate heat fluxes higher than actual. An overview of an effort to develop and calibrate gauge correction techniques for both of these effects will be presented.

  1. Methodology for calibration and use of heat flux transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, Michel B.; Frim, John

    1991-05-01

    The direct assessment of heat flux from the body is a basic measurement in thermal physiology. Heat flux transducers (HFTs) are being used increasingly for that purpose under different environmental conditions. However, questions have been raised regarding the accuracy of the manufacturer's constant of calibration, and also about the effect of the thermal resistance of the device on the true thermal flux from the skin. Two different types of waterproofed HFTs were checked for their calibration using the Rapid-k thermal conductivity instrument. A detailed description of the methodology used during the calibration is given. A model capable of simulating a large range of tissue insulation was used to study the effect of the underlying tissue insulation on the relative error in thermal flux due to the thermal resistance of the HFTs. The data show that the deviation from the true value of thermal flux increases with the reciprocal of the underlying tissue insulation (r = 0.99, p less than 0.001). The underestimation of the heat flux through the skin measured by an HFT is minimal when the device is used on vasoconstricted skin in cool subjects (3 to 13 pct. error), but becomes important when used on warm vasodilated subjects (29 to 35 pct. error), and even more important on metallic skin mannequins (greater than 60 pct. error). In order to optimize the accuracy of the heat flux measurements by HFTs, it is important to recalibrate the HFTs and to correct the heat flux values for the thermal resistance of the HFT when used on vasodilated tissues.

  2. Nonlinear aspects of high heat flux nucleate boiling heat transfer. Part 1, Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadasivan, P.; Unal, C.; Nelson, R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper outlines the essential details of the formulation and numerical implementation of a model used to study nonlinear aspects of the macrolayer-controlled heat transfer process associated with high heat flux nucleate boiling and the critical heat flux. The model addresses the three-dimensional transient conduction heat transfer process within the problem domain comprised of the macrolayer and heater. Heat dissipation from the heater is modeled as the sum of transient transport into the macrolayer, and the heat loss resulting from evaporation of menisci associated with vapor stems.

  3. Downstream Heat Flux Profile vs. Midplane T Profile in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2009-08-20

    The relationship between the midplane scrape-off-layer electron temperature profile and the parallel heat flux profile at the divertor in tokamaks is investigated. A model is applied which takes into account anisotropic thermal diffusion, in a rectilinear geometry with constant density. Eigenmode analysis is applied to the simplified problem with constant thermal diffusivities. A self-similar nonlinear solution is found for the more realistic problem with anisotropically temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities. Numerical solutions are developed for both cases, with spatially dependent heat flux emerging from the plasma. For both constant and temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities it is found that, below about one-half of its peak, the heat flux profile shape at the divertor, compared with the midplane temperature profile shape, is robustly described by the simplest two-point model. However the physical processes are not those assumed in the simplest two-point model, nor is the numerical coefficient relating q||div to Tmp χ||mp/L|| as predicted. For realistic parameters the peak in the heat flux, moreover, can be reduced by a factor of two or more from the two-point model scaling which fits the remaining profile. For temperature profiles in the SOL region above the x-point set by marginal stability, the heat flux profile to the divertor can be largely decoupled from the prediction of the two-point model. These results suggest caveats for data interpretation, and possibly favorable outcomes for divertor configurations with extended field lines.

  4. The use of remotely sensed surface temperature and a spectral vegetation index for evaluating heat fluxes over the Konza Prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, A. S.; Mcdowell, T. P.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between surface temperature T(s) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is examined to determine whether it can be used to characterize latent heat fluxes (LEs). The regression of T(s) on NDVI is studied in the context of surface heat fluxes over the prairie with a limited data set for four flux-measurement sites. The 17 flux-measurement stations at the sites provided data that are consistently significant at the 99-percent confidence level for the regression of T(s) on NDVI. Variations in the regression slopes are found to correlate with variations in the ground heat flux but not with LE. Important components of the regression of T(s) on NDVI include fractional vegetation cover and surface-soil moisture conditions. The relationship is important for determining the relative contributions of the soil and vegetation components of an area's total evaporative flux.

  5. Peak pool boiling heat flux in viscous liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhir, V. K.; Lienhard, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The stability of a gas jet in a surrounding viscous liquid is studied. An expression is developed for the critical velocity at which the jet becomes unstable in a returning viscous liquid. The stability analysis is made to correspond with the geometrical configuration of gas jets and liquid columns similar to those observed near the peak pool boiling heat flux. The critical velocity of the gas jet is then used to obtain the functional form of the peak heat flux on flat plates and cylindrical heaters. The expressions are compared with original observations of the peak heat flux in very viscous liquids on flat plate, and cylindrical, heaters at both earth-normal, and elevated, gravities.

  6. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.

    1993-01-01

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.

  7. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.

    1993-12-28

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.

  8. Distributed Sensible Heat Flux Measurements for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwald, H.; Brauchli, T.; Lehning, M.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance is typically computed using eddy covariance or two point profile measurements while alternative approaches such as the flux variance method based on convective scaling has been much less explored and applied. Flux variance (FV) certainly has a few limitations and constraints but may be an interesting and competitive method in low-cost and power limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the advantage of providing spatio-temporal sensible heat flux over the domain of the network. In a first step, parameters such as sampling frequency, sensor response time, and averaging interval are investigated. Then we explore the applicability and the potential of the FV method for use in WSN in a field experiment. Low-cost sensor systems are tested and compared against reference instruments (3D sonic anemometers) to evaluate the performance and limitations of the sensors as well as the method with respect to the standard calculations. Comparison experiments were carried out at several sites to gauge the flux measurements over different surface types (gravel, grass, water) from the low-cost systems. This study should also serve as an example of spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements.

  9. Simulation for heat flux mitigation by gas puffing in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Seung Bo; Kotov, Vladislav; Hong, Suk-Ho; Detlev, Reiter; Kim, Jin Yong; Na, Yong Su; Lee, Hae June

    2013-10-01

    Control of heat flux is very important to achieve high performance long pulse operation in tokamaks. There are so many efforts to reduce the heat flux like change of divertor structure, snowflake divertor, and RMP, etc. Detachment by gas puffing is used for long time to reduce the heat flux. In this paper edge plasma scenarios of KSTAR are analyzed numerically by well-known B2-Eirene code package(SOLPS4.3). High performance discharges with heating power ~ 8 MW and core flux ~ 1021 s-1 is used. Gas puffed on the outer mid-plane(OMP), both divertors is likely to stay attached. So, gas puffed on the outer target, one is near the private flux region(PFR) and the other is near the scrape-off-layer(SOL). When gas puffed near the SOL is still attached, and it is worse than gas puff from OMP because it is too close to cryo-pump. The case near the PFR shows high recycling region easily compared with OMP case. When one forth gas puffed on the PFR, results are similar with OMP case. But it is still not good for detachment operation. Detachment operation window is too small for the gas puffing on the PFR. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST)(No. 2012-0000579).

  10. Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on measuring the flow of water across the interface between surface water and ground water, rather than the hydrogeological or geochemical processes that occur at or near this interface. The methods, however, that use hydrogeological and geochemical evidence to quantify water fluxes are described herein. This material is presented as a guide for those who have to examine the interaction of surface water and ground water. The intent here is that both the overview of the many available methods and the in-depth presentation of specific methods will enable the reader to choose those study approaches that will best meet the requirements of the environments and processes they are investigating, as well as to recognize the merits of using more than one approach. This report is designed to make the reader aware of the breadth of approaches available for the study of the exchange between surface and ground water. To accomplish this, the report is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 describes many well-documented approaches for defining the flow between surface and ground waters. Subsequent chapters provide an in-depth presentation of particular methods. Chapter 2 focuses on three of the most commonly used methods to either calculate or directly measure flow of water between surface-water bodies and the ground-water domain: (1) measurement of water levels in well networks in combination with measurement of water level in nearby surface water to determine water-level gradients and flow; (2) use of portable piezometers (wells) or hydraulic potentiomanometers to measure hydraulic gradients; and (3) use of seepage meters to measure flow directly. Chapter 3 focuses on describing the techniques involved in conducting water-tracer tests using fluorescent dyes, a method commonly used in the hydrogeologic investigation and characterization of karst aquifers, and in the study of water fluxes in karst terranes. Chapter 4 focuses on heat as a tracer in hydrological

  11. Infrared Camera Diagnostic for Heat Flux Measurements on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mastrovito; R. Maingi; H.W. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore

    2003-03-25

    An infrared imaging system has been installed on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to measure the surface temperatures on the lower divertor and center stack. The imaging system is based on an Indigo Alpha 160 x 128 microbolometer camera with 12 bits/pixel operating in the 7-13 {micro}m range with a 30 Hz frame rate and a dynamic temperature range of 0-700 degrees C. From these data and knowledge of graphite thermal properties, the heat flux is derived with a classic one-dimensional conduction model. Preliminary results of heat flux scaling are reported.

  12. Toward evaluation of heat fluxes in the convective boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbjan, Z.

    1995-05-01

    This article demonstrates that vertical profiles of the heat flux in the convective boundary layer can be diagnosed through an integration over height of the time change rates of observed potential temperature profiles. Moreover, the basic characteristics of the convective boundary layer, such as the mixed-layer height z{sub t}, the depth of the interfacial (entrainment) layer, and the heat flux zero-crossing height h{sub 0} can be uniquely evaluated based on a time evolution of potential temperature profiles in the lower atmosphere. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Estimating interfacial thermal conductivity in metamaterials through heat flux mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Canbazoglu, Fatih M.; Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2015-04-06

    The variability of the thickness as well as the thermal conductivity of interfaces in composites may significantly influence thermal transport characteristics and the notion of a metamaterial as an effective medium. The consequent modulations of the heat flux passage are analytically and experimentally examined through a non-contact methodology using radiative imaging, on a model anisotropic thermal metamaterial. It was indicated that a lower Al layer/silver interfacial epoxy ratio of ∼25 compared to that of a Al layer/alumina interfacial epoxy (of ∼39) contributes to a smaller deviation of the heat flux bending angle.

  14. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  15. Heat flux instrumentation for Hyflite thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diller, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Using Thermal Protection Tile core samples supplied by NASA, the surface characteristics of the FRCI, TUFI, and RCG coatings were evaluated. Based on these results, appropriate methods of surface preparation were determined and tested for the required sputtering processes. Sample sensors were fabricated on the RCG coating and adhesion was acceptable. Based on these encouraging results, complete Heat Flux Microsensors were fabricated on the RCG coating. The issue of lead attachment was addressed with the annnealing and welding methods developed at NASA Lewis. Parallel gap welding appears to be the best method of lead attachment with prior heat treatment of the sputtered pads. Sample Heat Flux Microsensors were submitted for testing in the NASA Ames arc jet facility. Details of the project are contained in two attached reports. One additional item of interest is contained in the attached AIAA paper, which gives details of the transient response of a Heat Flux Microsensors in a shock tube facility at Virginia Tech. The response of the heat flux sensor was measured to be faster than 10 micro-s.

  16. Heat flux instrumentation for Hyflite thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diller, T. E.

    Using Thermal Protection Tile core samples supplied by NASA, the surface characteristics of the FRCI, TUFI, and RCG coatings were evaluated. Based on these results, appropriate methods of surface preparation were determined and tested for the required sputtering processes. Sample sensors were fabricated on the RCG coating and adhesion was acceptable. Based on these encouraging results, complete Heat Flux Microsensors were fabricated on the RCG coating. The issue of lead attachment was addressed with the annnealing and welding methods developed at NASA Lewis. Parallel gap welding appears to be the best method of lead attachment with prior heat treatment of the sputtered pads. Sample Heat Flux Microsensors were submitted for testing in the NASA Ames arc jet facility. Details of the project are contained in two attached reports. One additional item of interest is contained in the attached AIAA paper, which gives details of the transient response of a Heat Flux Microsensors in a shock tube facility at Virginia Tech. The response of the heat flux sensor was measured to be faster than 10 micro-s.

  17. Spatially averaged heat flux and convergence measurements at the ARM regional flux experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.; Barnes, F.; Buchwald, M.; Clements, W.; Cooper, D.; Hoard, D. ); Doran, C.; Hubbe, J.; Shaw, W. ); Coulter, R.; Martin, T. ); Kunkel, K. )

    1991-01-01

    Cloud formation and its relation to climate change is the greatest weakness in current numerical climate models. Surface heat flux in some cases causes clouds to form and in other to dissipate and the differences between these cases are subtle enough to make parameterization difficult in a numerical model. One of the goals of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is to make long term measurements at representative sites to improve radiation and cloud formation parameterization. This paper compares spatially averaged optical measurements of heat flux and convergence with a goal of determining how point measurements of heat fluxes scale up to the larger scale used for climate modeling. It was found that the various optical techniques used in this paper compared well with each other and with independent measurements. These results add confidence that spatially averaging optical techniques can be applied to transform point measurements to the larger scales needed for mesoscale and climate modeling. 10 refs., 6 figs. (MHB)

  18. Heat-Flux Sensor For Hot Engine Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Walter S.; Barrows, Richard F.; Smith, Floyd A.; Koch, John

    1989-01-01

    Heat-flux sensor includes buried wire thermocouple and thin-film surface thermocouple, made of platinum and platinum with 13 percent rhodium. Sensor intended for use in ceramic-insulated, low-heat-rejection diesel engine at temperatures of about 1,000 K. Thermocouple junction resists environment in cylinder of advanced high-temperature diesel engine created by depositing overlapping films of Pt and 0.87 Pt/0.13 Rh on iron plug. Plug also contains internal thermocouple.

  19. Variations in geothermal heat flux at Grímsvötn, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iona Reynolds, Hannah; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús

    2014-05-01

    Thermal signals from sub-surface magmatic sources are difficult to quantify, as the measurement of fluxes from the ground to the atmosphere is subject to large uncertainties. Ice cauldrons are depressions which form on the surface of glaciers due to basal melting as a result of geothermal flux from the bedrock beneath, often generated by volcanic sources. The monitoring of ice cauldrons provides a unique opportunity to quantify heat flux to a much improved accuracy, as the melting ice acts as a calorimeter. Time series data of ice surface elevation at cauldrons above Grímsvötn volcano are presented over a 14 year period, with estimates of the melt volume and surface heat flux required for this melting to have occurred. Three volcanic eruptions took place at Grímsvötn during the study period, the effects of which are visible in ice surface elevation data. However, separate thermal anomalies are observed in areas unaffected by erupted products. A peak in surface heat flux is observed following the 1998 eruption, several kilometres east of the vent, with a maximum rise of ~200 W·m-2. The anomalous signal lasts for approximately three years. Possible explanations include the intrusion of a dyke beneath this area during the eruption, or increased permeability from greater dilatational strain due to regional stress, both of which would significantly increase heat flux. We investigate possible scenarios which could produce such a thermal anomaly, using finite element modelling. The effects of cooling magmatic intrusions and changes to the parameter space for country rock conductivity and permeability are considered, in relation to heat flux and the timescales and spatial extent of associated surface anomalies. Our results advance the understanding and interpretation of thermal signals observed at ice-covered volcanoes.

  20. Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the heating of the quiet corona by measuring the increase of coronal luminosity with the amount of magnetic flux in the underlying network at solar minimum when there were no active regions on the face of the Sun. The coronal luminosity is measured from Fe IX/X-Fe XII pairs of coronal images from SOHO/EIT. The network magnetic flux content is measured from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. We find that the luminosity of the corona in our quiet regions increases roughly in proportion to the square root of the magnetic flux content of the network and roughly in proportion to the length of the perimeter of the network magnetic flux clumps. From (1) this result, (2) other observations of many fine-scale explosive events at the edges of network flux clumps, and (3) a demonstration that it is energetically feasible for the heating of the corona in quiet regions to be driven by explosions of granule-sized sheared-core magnetic bipoles embedded in the edges of network flux clumps, we infer that in quiet regions that are not influenced by active regions the corona is mainly heated by such magnetic activity in the edges of the network flux clumps. Our observational results together with our feasibility analysis allow us to predict that (1) at the edges of the network flux clumps there are many transient sheared-core bipoles of the size and lifetime of granules and having transverse field strengths > 100 G, (2) 30 of these bipoles are present per supergranule, and (3) most spicules are produced by explosions of these bipoles. This work was supported by NASA's Office of Space Science through its Solar and Heliospheric Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program and its Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program.

  1. Transverse flux induction heating of aluminum alloy strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waggott, R.; Walker, D. J.; Gibson, R. C.; Johnson, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    Transverse flux induction heating, an efficient electrical technique particularly suited to the continuous heat treatment of metal strip, is explained. Also described is a 1MW transverse flux inductor designed and built at the Electricity Council Research Centre, Capenhurst, and installed in a tension leveller line at Alcan Plate Ltd., Birmingham, UK. It has been successfully used for the continuous heat treatment of wide (1200-1250 mm) aluminum alloy strip, involving full and partial annealing at line speeds up to 2/ms as well as the solution treatment of certain high strength aluminum alloys. The advantages of this form of induction heating are compactness, controllability, hence ease of automation, and high efficiency. As a consequence, compared with existing batch and continuous heat treatment equipment, major economies in plant operation result due to reduced energy consumption as well as reduced capital and labor costs. The compactness of the technique allows the possibility of introducing transverse flux induction heat treatment furnaces into existing process lines.

  2. Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, R.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.

    2014-08-01

    Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies.

  3. Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research.

    PubMed

    Niedermann, R; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

    2014-08-01

    Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies. PMID:23824222

  4. Monitoring and evaluating ground-source heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltz, S.V.; Cade, D.; Mason, G.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the measured performance of four advanced residential ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems. The GSHP systems were developed by WaterFurnace International to minimize the need for electric resistance backup heating and featured multiple speed compressors, supplemental water heating, and at most sites, multiple-speed fans. Detailed data collected for a complete year starting in June 1994 shows that the advanced design is capable of maintaining comfort without the use of electric resistance backup heating. In comparison with a conventional air-source heat pump, the advanced-design GSHP reduced peak heating demand by more than 12 kilowatts (kW) per residence and provided energy savings. The report describes the cooling and heating season operation of the systems, including estimated seasonal efficiency, hours of operation, and load profiles for average days and peak days. The electrical energy input, cooling output, and efficiency are presented as a function of return air temperature and ground loop temperature.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation of the surface temperature and heat flux for saturated pool nucleate boiling at lower heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, C.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1993-10-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of local surface temperature and heat flux for saturated pool nucleate boiling are investigated parametrically using a numerical model. The numerical model consisted of solving the three-dimensional transient heat conduction equation within the heater subjected to nucleate boiling over its upper surface. The surface topography model to distribute the cavities over the boiling surface used a Monte Carlo scheme. All cavities were assumed to be conical in shape. The cavity radii are obtained using an exponential probability density function with a known mean value. Local surface temperatures showed significant spatial and temporal variations, depending upon the surface topography and the heater material and thickness. However, the surface-averaged temperature showed practically no temporal variation. The temporal variations in local temperatures caused the surface-averaged heat flux to vary significantly. The temporal variations in the surface-averaged heat flux were similar for smooth and rough and thick and thin copper and nickel plates. Results indicated that the use of a classical energy balance equation to evaluate the surface heat flux must consider the spatial variation of the temperature. Results also showed that any thermocouple embedded beneath the surface of the heater does not follow the temporal variations at the surface.

  6. Light-intensity modulator withstands high heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, H. G.; Strass, H. K.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanism modulates and controls the intensity of luminous radiation in light beams associated with high-intensity heat flux. This modulator incorporates two fluid-cooled, externally grooved, contracting metal cylinders which when rotated about their longitudinal axes present a circular aperture of varying size depending on the degree of rotation.

  7. Reconnection Between Twisted Flux Tubes - Implications for Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knizhnik, K. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Wyper, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the heating of the Sun's corona has been a long-standing unanswered problem in solar physics. Beginning with the work of Parker (1972), many authors have argued that the corona is continuously heated through numerous small-scale reconnection events known as nanoflares. In these nanoflare models, stressing of magnetic flux tubes by photospheric motions causes the field to become misaligned, producing current sheets in the corona. These current sheets then reconnect, converting the free energy stored in the magnetic field into heat. In this work, we use the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS) to perform 3D MHD simulations that dynamically resolve regions of strong current to study the reconnection between twisted flux tubes in a plane-parallel Parker configuration. We investigate the energetics of the process, and show that the flux tubes accumulate stress gradually before undergoing impulsive reconnection. We study the motion of the individual field lines during reconnection, and demonstrate that the connectivity of the configuration becomes extremely complex, with multiple current sheets being formed, which could lead to enhanced heating. In addition, we show that there is considerable interaction between the twisted flux tubes and the surrounding untwisted field, which contributes further to the formation of current sheets. The implications for observations will be discussed. This work was funded by a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship, and by the NASA TR&T Program.

  8. Integral Plug-Type Heat-Flux Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Koch, John, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Integral thermoplug gauge measures flux of heat across specimen of material. New gauge not screwed or welded into place, but instead thermoplug and annulus electrical-discharge-machined (EDM) into specimen material. EDM process leaves no interface between material and thermoplug, thus inherently increasing gauge accuracy by eliminating interface and associated temperature discontinuity. Process also conducive to accurate fabrication of minute gauges.

  9. Thermal Accommodation Coefficients Based on Heat-Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallis, Michael A.; Trott, Wayne M.; Torczynski, John R.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2006-11-01

    A new method to determine the thermal accommodation coefficient of gases on solid surfaces based on heat-flux measurements is presented. An experimental chamber and supporting diagnostics have been developed that allow accurate heat-flux measurements between two parallel plates. The heat flux is inferred from temperature-difference measurements across the plates using precision thermistors, where the plate temperatures are set with two carefully controlled thermal baths. The resulting heat flux is used in a recently derived semi-empirical formula to determine the thermal accommodation coefficient. This formula has the advantage of eliminating the ˜8% discrepancy between molecular simulations and the predictions of the more approximate Sherman-Lees formula used in most studies. Nitrogen, argon, and helium on stainless steel with various finishes and on other silicon-based surfaces are examined. The thermal accommodation coefficients thus determined indicate that the Maxwell gas-surface interaction model can adequately represent all of the experimental observations. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. A microscale thermophoretic turbine driven by external diffusive heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingcheng; Liu, Rui; Ripoll, Marisol; Chen, Ke

    2014-10-01

    We propose a theoretical prototype of a micro-scale turbine externally driven by diffusive heat flux without the need for macroscopic particle flux, which is in sharp contrast to conventional turbines. The prototypes are described analytically and validated by computer simulations. Our results indicate that a micro-scale turbine composed of anisotropic blades can rotate unidirectionally in an external temperature gradient due to the anisotropic thermophoresis effect. The rotational direction and speed depend on the temperature gradient, the geometry and the thermophoretic properties of the turbine. The proposed thermophoretic turbines can be experimentally realized and implemented on micro-devices such as computer-chips to recover waste heat or to facilitate cooling.We propose a theoretical prototype of a micro-scale turbine externally driven by diffusive heat flux without the need for macroscopic particle flux, which is in sharp contrast to conventional turbines. The prototypes are described analytically and validated by computer simulations. Our results indicate that a micro-scale turbine composed of anisotropic blades can rotate unidirectionally in an external temperature gradient due to the anisotropic thermophoresis effect. The rotational direction and speed depend on the temperature gradient, the geometry and the thermophoretic properties of the turbine. The proposed thermophoretic turbines can be experimentally realized and implemented on micro-devices such as computer-chips to recover waste heat or to facilitate cooling. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03990d

  11. Heating and Cooling from the Ground Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Explains why converting to geothermal heating and cooling is a good option when constructing or retrofitting schools. Reasons discussed include competitive installation costs, lower operating and maintenance costs, greater building-design flexibility, and greater user satisfaction. (GR)

  12. Arena retrofit includes ground-source heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The venue for Sacramento`s first professional basketball games was the {open_quotes}old Arco Arena,{close_quotes} built in 1985 just north of the downtown area and converted to offices after a large, permanent arena was constructed. In 1994, the {open_quotes}old arena{close_quotes} was acquired by a California general partnership called Del Paso Venture. To heat and cool the 3-story, 211,000-square foot structure, Del Paso has installed a ground-source heat pump system. The project is significant for the ground-source heat pump industry, because this is the first ground-source heat pump site ever designed specifically for the energy load of the building it will serve. Other projects have been calculated by rule-of-thumb. The installation and cost of the heat pump system are discussed.

  13. Forced Convection Boiling and Critical Heat Flux of Ethanol in Electrically Heated Tube Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Linne, Diane L.; Rousar, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Electrically heated tube tests were conducted to characterize the critical heat flux (transition from nucleate to film boiling) of subcritical ethanol flowing at conditions relevant to the design of a regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chamber. The coolant was SDA-3C alcohol (95% ethyl alcohol, 5% isopropyl alcohol by weight), and tests were conducted over the following ranges of conditions: pressure from 144 to 703 psia, flow velocities from 9.7 to 77 ft/s, coolant subcooling from 33 to 362 F, and critical heat fluxes up to 8.7 BTU/in(exp 2)/sec. For the data taken near 200 psia, critical heat flux was correlated as a function of the product of velocity and fluid subcooling to within +/- 20%. For data taken at higher pressures, an additional pressure term is needed to correlate the critical heat flux. It was also shown that at the higher test pressures and/or flow rates, exceeding the critical heat flux did not result in wall burnout. This result may significantly increase the engine heat flux design envelope for higher pressure conditions.

  14. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M.

    1995-08-14

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes}) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration.

  15. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mittereder, Nick; Poerschke, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  16. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-04-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  17. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  18. Azimuthal Stress and Heat Flux In Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlen, Ebru

    2016-07-01

    Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows (RIAFs) have low radiative efficiencies and/or low accretion rates. The accreting gas may retain most of its binding energy in the form of heat. This lost energy for hot RIAFs is one of the problems heavily worked on in the literature. RIAF observations on the accretion to super massive black holes (e.g., Sagittarius A* in the center of our Galaxy) have shown that the observational data are not consistent with either advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) or Bondi models. For this reason, it is very important to theoretically comprehend the physical properties of RIAFs derived from observations with a new disk/flow model. One of the most probable candidates for definition of mass accretion and the source of excess heat energy in RIAFs is the gyroviscous modified magnetorotational instability (GvMRI). Dispersion relation is derived by using MHD equations containing heat flux term based on viscosity in the energy equation. Numerical solutions of the disk equations are done and the growth rates of the instability are calculated. This additional heat flux plays an important role in dissipation of energy. The rates of the angular momentum and heat flux which are obtained from numerical calculations of the turbulence brought about by the GVMRI are also discussed.

  19. Robust Cooling of High Heat Fluxes Using Hybrid Loop Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jon; Park, Chanwoo; Sarraf, David; Paris, Anthony

    2005-02-01

    This paper discusses the development of an advanced hybrid loop technology that incorporates elements from both passive and active loop technologies. The result is a simple yet high performance cooling technology that can be used to remove high heat fluxes from large heat input areas. Operating principles and test results of prototype hybrid loops are discussed. Prototype hybrid loops have been demonstrated to remove heat fluxes in excess of 350W/cm2 from heat input areas over 4cm2 with evaporator thermal resistances between 0.008 and 0.065°C/W/cm2. Also importantly, this performance was achieved without the need to actively adjust or control the flows in the loops, even when the heat inputs varied between 0 and 350W/cm2. These performance characteristics represent substantial improvements over state of the art heat pipes, loop heat pipes and spray cooling devices. The hybrid loop technology was demonstrated to operate effectively at all orientations.

  20. Performance of thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings were exposed to the high temperature and high heat flux produced by a 30 kW plasma torch. Analysis of the specimen heating rates indicates that the temperature drop across the thickness of the 0.038 cm ceramic layer was about 1100 C after 0.5 sec in the flame. An as-sprayed ZrO2-8 percent Y203 specimens survived 3000 of the 0.5 sec cycles with failing. Surface spalling was observed when 2.5 sec cycles were employed but this was attributed to uneven heating caused by surface roughness. This surface spalling was prevented by smoothing the surface with silicon carbide paper or by laser glazing. A coated specimen with no surface modification but which was heat treated in argon also did not surface spall. Heat treatment in air led to spalling in as early as 2 cycle from heating stresses. Failures at edges were investigated and shown to be a minor source of concern. Ceramic coatings formed from ZrO2-12 percent Y2O3 or ZrO2-20 percent Y2O3 were shown to be unsuited for use under the high heat flux conditions of this study.

  1. Performance of thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings were exposed to the high temperature and high heat flux produced by a 30 kW plasma torch. Analysis of the specimen heating rates indicates that the temperature drop across the thickness of the 0.038 cm ceramic layer was about 1100 C after 0.5 sec in the flame. An as-sprayed ZrO2-8 percent Y2O3 specimens survived 3000 of the 0.5 sec cycles with falling. Surface spalling was observed when 2.5 sec cycles were employed but this was attributed to uneven heating caused by surface roughness. This surface spalling was prevented by smoothing the surface with silicon carbide paper or by laser glazing. A coated specimen with no surface modification but which was heat treated in argon also did not surface spall. Heat treatment in air led to spalling in as early as 1 cycle from heating stresses. Failures at edges were investigated and shown to be a minor source of concern. Ceramic coatings formed from ZrO2-12 percent Y2O3 or ZrO2-2O percent Y2O3 were shown to be unsuited for use under the high heat flux conditions of this study.

  2. Performance of thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings were exposed to the high temperature and high heat flux produced by a 30 kW plasma torch. Analysis of the specimen heating rates indicates that the temperature drop across the thickness of the 0.038 cm ceramic layer was about 1100 C after 0.5 sec in the flame. An as-sprayed ZrO2-8%Y2O3 specimens survived 3000 of the 0.5 sec cycles with failing. Surface spalling was observed when 2.5 sec cycles were employed but this was attributed to uneven heating caused by surface roughness. This surface spalling was prevented by smoothing the surface with silicon carbide paper or by laser glazing. A coated specimen with no surface modification but which was heat treated in argon also did not surface spall. Heat treatment in air led to spalling in as early as 2 cycle from heating stresses. Failures at edges were investigated and shown to be a minor source of concern. Ceramic coatings formed from ZrO2-12%Y2O3 or ZrO2-20%Y2O3 were shown to be unsuited for use under the high heat flux conditions of this study.

  3. Global Intercomparison of 12 Land Surface Heat Flux Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, C.; Prigent, C.; Mueller, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; McCabe, M. F.; Wood, E. F.; Rossow, W. B.; Balsamo, G.; Betts, A. K.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Fisher, J. B.; Jung, M.; Kanamitsu, M.; Reichle, R. H.; Reichstein, M.; Rodell, M.; Sheffield, J.; Tu, K.; Wang, K.

    2011-01-01

    A global intercomparison of 12 monthly mean land surface heat flux products for the period 1993-1995 is presented. The intercomparison includes some of the first emerging global satellite-based products (developed at Paris Observatory, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, University of California Berkeley, University of Maryland, and Princeton University) and examples of fluxes produced by reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, NCEP-DOE) and off-line land surface models (GSWP-2, GLDAS CLM/ Mosaic/Noah). An intercomparison of the global latent heat flux (Q(sub le)) annual means shows a spread of approx 20 W/sq m (all-product global average of approx 45 W/sq m). A similar spread is observed for the sensible (Q(sub h)) and net radiative (R(sub n)) fluxes. In general, the products correlate well with each other, helped by the large seasonal variability and common forcing data for some of the products. Expected spatial distributions related to the major climatic regimes and geographical features are reproduced by all products. Nevertheless, large Q(sub le)and Q(sub h) absolute differences are also observed. The fluxes were spatially averaged for 10 vegetation classes. The larger Q(sub le) differences were observed for the rain forest but, when normalized by mean fluxes, the differences were comparable to other classes. In general, the correlations between Q(sub le) and R(sub n) were higher for the satellite-based products compared with the reanalyses and off-line models. The fluxes were also averaged for 10 selected basins. The seasonality was generally well captured by all products, but large differences in the flux partitioning were observed for some products and basins.

  4. High-heat-flux testing of helium-cooled heat exchangers for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, D.L.; Izenson, M.G.; Baxi, C.B.; Rosenfeld, J.H.

    1996-07-01

    High-heat-flux experiments on three types of helium-cooled divertor mock-ups were performed on the 30-kW electron beam test system and its associated helium flow loop at Sandia National Laboratories. A dispersion-strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) was used in the manufacture of all the mock-ups. The first heat exchanger provides for enhanced heat transfer at relatively low flow rates and much reduced pumping requirements. The Creare sample was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 5.8 MW/m{sup 2}. The second used low pressure drops and high mass flow rates to achieve good heat removal. The GA specimen was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 9 MW/m{sup 2} while maintaining a surface temperature below 400{degree}C. A second experiment resulted in a maximum absorbed heat flux of 34 MW/m{sup 2} and surface temperatures near 533{degree}C. The third specimen was a DSCu, axial flow, helium-cooled divertor mock-up filled with a porous metal wick which effectively increases the available heat transfer area. Low mass flow and high pressure drop operation at 4.0 MPa were characteristic of this divertor module. It survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 16 MW/m{sup 2} and reached a surface temperature of 740{degree}C. Thermacore also manufactured a follow-on, dual channel porous metal-type heat exchanger, which survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 14 MW/m{sup 2} and reached a maximum surface temperature of 690{degree}C. 11refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Enceladus' extreme heat flux as revealed by its relaxed craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Michael T.; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2012-09-01

    Enceladus' cratered terrains contain large numbers of unusually shallow craters consistent with deformation by viscous relaxation of water ice under conditions of elevated heat flow. Here we use high-resolution topography to measure the relaxation fraction of craters on Enceladus far from the active South Pole. We find that many craters are shallower than expected, with craters as small as 2 km in diameter having relaxation fractions in excess of 90%. These measurements are compared with numerical simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the minimum heat flux required to reproduce these observations. We find that Enceladus' nominal cold surface temperature (70 K) and low surface gravity strongly inhibit viscous relaxation. Under such conditions less than 3% relaxation occurs over 2 Ga even for relatively large craters (diameter 24 km) and high, constant heat fluxes (150 mW m-2). Greater viscous relaxation occurs if the effective temperature at the top of the lithosphere is greater than the surface temperature due to insulating regolith and/or plume material. Even for an effective temperature of 120 K, however, heat fluxes in excess of 150 mW m-2 are required to produce the degree of relaxation observed. Simulations of viscous relaxation of Enceladus' largest craters suggest that relaxation is best explained by a relatively short-lived period of intense heating that decayed quickly. We show that infilling of craters by plume material cannot explain the extremely shallow craters at equatorial and higher northern latitudes. Thus, like Enceladus' tectonic terrains, the cratered regions of Enceladus have experienced periods of extreme heat flux.

  6. Surface thermocouples for measurement of pulsed heat flux in the divertor of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.

    2012-03-15

    A novel set of thermocouple sensors has been developed to measure heat fluxes arriving at divertor surfaces in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, a magnetic confinement fusion experiment. These sensors operate in direct contact with the divertor plasma, which deposits heat fluxes in excess of {approx}10 MW/m{sup 2} over an {approx}1 s pulse. Thermoelectric EMF signals are produced across a non-standard bimetallic junction: a 50 {mu}m thick 74% tungsten-26% rhenium ribbon embedded in a 6.35 mm diameter molybdenum cylinder. The unique coaxial geometry of the sensor combined with its single-point electrical ground contact minimizes interference from the plasma/magnetic environment. Incident heat fluxes are inferred from surface temperature evolution via a 1D thermal heat transport model. For an incident heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}, surface temperatures rise {approx}1000 deg. C/s, corresponding to a heat flux flowing along the local magnetic field of {approx}200 MW/m{sup 2}. Separate calorimeter sensors are used to independently confirm the derived heat fluxes by comparing total energies deposited during a plasma pulse. Langmuir probes in close proximity to the surface thermocouples are used to test plasma-sheath heat transmission theory and to identify potential sources of discrepancies among physical models.

  7. Natural convection flow in porous enclosure with localized heating from below with heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiki, Md. Noor-A.-Alam; Molla, Md. Mamun; Saha, Suvash C.

    2016-07-01

    Unsteady natural convection flow in a two dimensional fluid saturated porous enclosure with localized heating from below with heat flux, symmetrical cooling from the sides and the insulated top wall has been investigated numerically. The governing equations are the Darcy's law for the porous media and the energy equation for the temperature field has been considered. The non-dimensional Darcy's law in terms of the stream function is solved by finite difference method using the successive over-relaxation (SOR) scheme and the energy equation is solved by Alternative Direction Alternative (ADI) scheme. The uniform heat flux source is located centrally at the bottom wall. The numerical results are presented in terms of the streamlines and isotherms, as well as the local and average rate of heat transfer for the wide range of the Darcy's Rayleigh number and the length of the heat flux source at the bottom wall.

  8. Constraints on hydrothermal heat flux through the oceanic lithosphere from global heat flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Carol A.; Stein, Seth

    1994-01-01

    A significant discrepancy exists between the heat flow measured at the seafloor and the higher values predicted by thermal models of the cooling lithosphere. This discrepancy is generally interpreted as indicating that the upper oceanic crust is cooled significantly by hydrothermal circulation. The magnitude of this heat flow discrepancy is the primary datum used to estimate the volume of hydrothermal flow, and the variation in the discrepancy with lithospheric age is the primary constraint on how the hydrothermal flux is divided between near-ridge and off-ridge environments. The resulting estimates are important for investigation of both the thermal structure of the lithosphere and the chemistry of the oceans. We reevaluate the magnitude and age variation of the discrepancy using a global heat flow data set substantially larger than in earlier studies, and the GDHI (Global Depth and Heat Flow) model that better predicts the heat flow. We estimate that of the predicted global oceanic heat flux of 32 x 10(exp 12) W, 34% (11 x 10(exp 12) W) occurs by hydrothermal flow. Approximately 30% of the hydrothermal heat flux occurs in crust younger than 1 Ma, so the majority of this flux is off-ridge. These hydrothermal heat flux estimates are upper bounds, because heat flow measurements require sediment at the site and so are made preferentially at topographic lows, where heat flow may be depressed. Because the water temperature for the near-ridge flow exceeds that for the off-ridge flow, the near-ridge water flow will be even a smaller fraction of the total water flow. As a result, in estimating fluxes from geochemical data, use of the high water temperatures appropriate for the ridge axis may significantly overestimate the heat flux for an assumed water flux or underestimate the water flux for an assumed heat flux. Our data also permit improved estimates of the 'sealing' age, defined as the age where the observed heat flow approximately equals that predicted, suggesting

  9. A high heat flux experiment for verification of thermostructural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.

    1988-01-01

    A major concern in advancing the state of the art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of handling the high heat fluxes during flight. The leading edges of such systems must not only tolerate the maximum heating rates, but must also minimize distortions to the flow field due to excessive blunting and/or thermal warping of the compression surface to achieve the high inlet performance required. A combined analytical and experimental effort to study the aerothermodynamic loads on actively cooled structures for hypersonic applications was established. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine was modified to establish a high enthalpy high heat flux environment. The facility provides heat flux levels from about 200 up to 10000 Btu/sq ft/sec. Cross flow and parallel flow regeneratively cooled model can be tested and analyzed by using cooling fluids of water and hydrogen. Results are presented of the experiment and the characteristics of the Hot Gas Test Facility. The predicted temperature results of the cross flow model are compared with the experimental data on the first monolithic specimens and are found to be in good agreement. Thermal stress analysis results are also presented.

  10. Heat flux and quantum correlations in dissipative cascaded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Salvatore; Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Palma, G. Massimo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2015-02-01

    We study the dynamics of heat flux in the thermalization process of a pair of identical quantum systems that interact dissipatively with a reservoir in a cascaded fashion. Despite that the open dynamics of the bipartite system S is globally Lindbladian, one of the subsystems "sees" the reservoir in a state modified by the interaction with the other subsystem and hence it undergoes a non-Markovian dynamics. As a consequence, the heat flow exhibits a nonexponential time behavior which can greatly deviate from the case where each party is independently coupled to the reservoir. We investigate both thermal and correlated initial states of S and show that the presence of correlations at the beginning can considerably affect the heat-flux rate. We carry out our study in two paradigmatic cases—a pair of harmonic oscillators with a reservoir of bosonic modes and two qubits with a reservoir of fermionic modes—and compare the corresponding behaviors. In the case of qubits and for initial thermal states, we find that the trace distance discord is at any time interpretable as the correlated contribution to the total heat flux.

  11. Heat flux in soil amended with biochar: modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lipiec, Jerzy; Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Temperature of soil has important influences on many soil processes and plant growth. It depends on the energy balance on the active surface, where the process of energy exchange between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere occurs. Heat flux is one of the components of the energy balance and can be influenced by biochar application to the soil, along with inherent texture and variables: moisture, density, and temperature of soil, as well as external conditions like climate, topography and surface properties related to the land use and vegetation cover. In this work we present the statistical-physical modelling approach for predicting the thermal conductivity and soil heat flux dynamics, based on temperature and soil moisture measurements, obtained from bare and grass fields with different rates of biochar. Adding biochar caused significant reduction of the thermal conductivity, diffusivity and heat capacity of the soil in the dry state and their significant increase in the wet state. The soil heat fluxes in bare and grassed soil were similar or different, depending on weather conditions, insolation, plant growth stage and changed with the soil depth, moisture as well as the rate of biochar applied.

  12. Scaling Relationships for ELM Diverter Heat Flux on DIII D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E. A.; Makowski, M. A.; Leonard, A. W.

    2015-11-01

    Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) are periodic plasma instabilities that occur during H-mode operation in tokamaks. Left unmitigated, these instabilities result in concentrated particle and heat fluxes at the divertor and stand to cause serious damage to the plasma facing components of tokamaks. The purpose of this research is to find scaling relationships that predict divertor heat flux due to ELMs based on plasma parameters at the time of instability. This will be accomplished by correlating characteristic ELM parameters with corresponding plasma measurements and analyzing the data for trends. One early assessment is the effect of the heat transmission coefficient ? on the in/out asymmetry of the calculated ELM heat fluxes. Using IR camera data, further assessments in this study will continue to emphasize in/out asymmetry in ELMs, as this has important implications for ITER operation. Work supported in part by the US DOE, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-FC02-04ER54698, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  13. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  14. Heat Flux and Wall Temperature Estimates for the NASA Langley HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuda, Vincent, Jr.; Hass, Neal E.

    2010-01-01

    An objective of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program Flight 2 is to provide validation data for high enthalpy scramjet prediction tools through a single flight test and accompanying ground tests of the HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig (HDCR) tested in the NASA LaRC Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF). The HDCR is a full-scale, copper heat sink structure designed to simulate the isolator entrance conditions and isolator, pilot, and combustor section of the HIFiRE flight test experiment flowpath and is fully instrumented to assess combustion performance over a range of operating conditions simulating flight from Mach 5.5 to 8.5 and for various fueling schemes. As part of the instrumentation package, temperature and heat flux sensors were provided along the flowpath surface and also imbedded in the structure. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the surface heat flux and wall temperature of the Zirconia coated copper wall can be obtained with a water-cooled heat flux gage and a sub-surface temperature measurement. An algorithm was developed which used these two measurements to reconstruct the surface conditions along the flowpath. Determinations of the surface conditions of the Zirconia coating were conducted for a variety of conditions.

  15. A 2-D imaging heat-flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. ); Beshears, D.L.; Sartory, W.K.; Tobin, K.W.; Williams, R.K. ); Turley, W.D. . Santa Barbara Operations)

    1991-07-01

    This report describes a new leadless two-dimensional imaging optical heat-flux gauge. The gauge is made by depositing arrays of thermorgraphic-phosphor (TP) spots onto the faces of a polymethylpentene is insulator. In the first section of the report, we describe several gauge configurations and their prototype realizations. A satisfactory configuration is an array of right triangles on each face that overlay to form squares when the gauge is viewed normal to the surface. The next section of the report treats the thermal conductivity of TPs. We set up an experiment using a comparative longitudinal heat-flow apparatus to measure the previously unknown thermal conductivity of these materials. The thermal conductivity of one TP, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, is 0.0137 W/cm{center dot}K over the temperature range from about 300 to 360 K. The theories underlying the time response of TP gauges and the imaging characteristics are discussed in the next section. Then we discuss several laboratory experiments to (1) demonstrate that the TP heat-flux gauge can be used in imaging applications; (2) obtain a quantum yield that enumerates what typical optical output signal amplitudes can be obtained from TP heat-flux gauges; and (3) determine whether LANL-designed intensified video cameras have sufficient sensitivity to acquire images from the heat-flux gauges. We obtained positive results from all the measurements. Throughout the text, we note limitations, areas where improvements are needed, and where further research is necessary. 12 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Heat flux sensors for burner liners and turbine blades and vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwang, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of heat flux measurement is addressed. The development of total heat flux sensors for burner liners and also the demonstration of total and radiant heat flux sensors in a combustor test is covered. A thorough review of potential approaches is conducted including both transient and steady state measurements. Measurement of total heat flux was emphasized, consequently configurations are sought which produce minimum disturbance to the heat flux which would be present without the sensor in place. Approaches to the turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor program are discussed.

  17. Diamond Microchannel Heat Sink Designs For High Heat Flux Thermal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Michael V.; DeBenedictis, Matthew M.; James, David B.; LeBlanc, Stephen P.; Paradis, Leo R.

    2002-08-01

    Directed energy weapons, wide band gap semiconductor based radars, and other powerful systems present significant thermal control challenges to component designers. heat Flux levels approaching 2000 W/cm(2) are encountered at the base of laser diodes, and levels as high as 500 WI /cm(2) are expected in laser slabs and power amplifier tube collectors. These impressive heat flux levels frequently combine with strict operating temperature requirements to further compound the thermal control problem. Many investigators have suggested the use of diamond heat spreaders to reduce flux levels at or near to its source, and some have suggested that diamond microchannel heat sinks ultimately may play a significant role in the solution of these problems. Design engineers at Raytheon Company have investigated the application of all-diamond microchannel heat sinks to representative high heat flux problems and have found the approach promising. Diamond microchannel fabrication feasibility has been demonstrated; integration into packaging systems and the accompanying material compatibility issues have been addressed; and thermal and hydrodynamic performance predictions have been made for selected, possible applications. An example of a practical, all diamond microchannel heat sink has been fabricated, and another is in process and will be performance tested. The heat sink assembly is made entirely of optical quality, CVD diamond and is of sufficient strength to withstand the thermal and pressure-induced mechanical loads associated with manufacture and use in tactical weapons environment. The work presented describes the development program's accomplishments to date, and highlights many of the areas for future study.

  18. Plant Canopy Temperature and Heat Flux Profiles: What Difference Does an Isothermal Skin Make?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crago, R. D.; Qualls, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature Ts plays a vital role in the determination of sensible (H) and latent heat flux, upwelling long-wave radiation, and ground heat flux. While it is widely recognized that there is a range of skin temperatures represented in even a homogeneous canopy, it is often necessary or convenient to treat the surface as isothermal. This study investigates, at the sub-canopy scale, the implications of assuming that a canopy is isothermal. The focus is on profiles within the canopy of air, foliage, and soil surface temperature, and of sensible and latent heat flux source strength. Data from a dense grassland at the Southern Great Plains experiment in 1997 (SGP97) were used to assess the ability of a multi-layer canopy model to match measured sensible and latent heat fluxes along with radiometric surface temperatures. In its standard mode, the model solves the energy balance for each canopy layer and uses Localized Near Field (LNF) theory to model the turbulent transport. The results suggest the model captures the most important features of canopy flux generation and transport, and support its use to investigate scalar profiles within canopies. For 112 data points at SGP97, the model produced realistic temperature and sensible heat flux source profiles. In addition, it was run in a mode that seeks the isothermal (soil and foliage) skin temperature (Ti) that provides the same Hproduced by the model in its standard mode. This produces profiles of air and foliage temperature and of sensible heat source strength that differ significantly from profiles from the standard mode. Based on these simulations, realistic canopies may have a mixture of positive and negative sensible heat flux sources at various heights, typically with large contributions from the soil surface. There is frequently a discontinuity between foliage temperatures near the soil and the actual soil surface temperature. For isothermal canopies, heat sources at all levels had the same sign and

  19. Phase-controlled superconducting heat-flux quantum modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giazotto, F.; Martínez-Pérez, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    We theoretically put forward the concept of a phase-controlled superconducting heat-flux quantum modulator. Its operation relies on phase-dependent heat current predicted to occur in temperature-biased Josephson tunnel junctions. The device behavior is investigated as a function of temperature bias across the junctions, bath temperature, and junctions asymmetry as well. In a realistic Al-based setup the structure could provide temperature modulation amplitudes up to ˜50 mK with flux-to-temperature transfer coefficients exceeding ˜125 mK/Φ0 below 1 K, and temperature modulation frequency of the order of a few MHz. The proposed structure appears as a promising building-block for the implementation of caloritronic devices operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Method of fission heat flux determination from experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, F.A.

    1999-09-28

    A method is provided for determining the fission heat flux of a prime specimen inserted into a specimen of a test reactor. A pair of thermocouple test specimens are positioned at the same level in the holder and a determination is made of various experimental data including the temperature of the thermocouple test specimens, the temperature of bulk water channels located in the test holder, the gamma scan count ratios for the thermocouple test specimens and the prime specimen, and the thicknesses of the outer clads, the fuel fillers, and the backclad of the thermocouple test specimen. Using this experimental data, the absolute value of the fission heat flux for the thermocouple test specimens and prime specimen can be calculated.

  1. Method of fission heat flux determination from experimental data

    DOEpatents

    Paxton, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for determining the fission heat flux of a prime specimen inserted into a specimen of a test reactor. A pair of thermocouple test specimens are positioned at the same level in the holder and a determination is made of various experimental data including the temperature of the thermocouple test specimens, the temperature of bulk water channels located in the test holder, the gamma scan count ratios for the thermocouple test specimens and the prime specimen, and the thicknesses of the outer clads, the fuel fillers, and the backclad of the thermocouple test specimen. Using this experimental data, the absolute value of the fission heat flux for the thermocouple test specimens and prime specimen can be calculated.

  2. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2015-10-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q{sup 2}, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.

  3. A microscale thermophoretic turbine driven by external diffusive heat flux.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingcheng; Liu, Rui; Ripoll, Marisol; Chen, Ke

    2014-11-21

    We propose a theoretical prototype of a micro-scale turbine externally driven by diffusive heat flux without the need for macroscopic particle flux, which is in sharp contrast to conventional turbines. The prototypes are described analytically and validated by computer simulations. Our results indicate that a micro-scale turbine composed of anisotropic blades can rotate unidirectionally in an external temperature gradient due to the anisotropic thermophoresis effect. The rotational direction and speed depend on the temperature gradient, the geometry and the thermophoretic properties of the turbine. The proposed thermophoretic turbines can be experimentally realized and implemented on micro-devices such as computer-chips to recover waste heat or to facilitate cooling. PMID:25268245

  4. Heat and Flux Configurations on Offshore Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucuksahin, D.; Bot, E. T. G.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to determine the best configurations of the Heat and Flux concept for more profitable and utilizable settings in a wind farm in terms of increase in the energy yield and reduction in loadings. The computations are performed with alteration of a single parameter at a time. The reference farm for this study is EWTW, the ECN test farm in Wieringermeer, as this farm was also the reference for the validation of both the Heat and Flux concept and the software tool FarmFlow. All the studies are performed with FarmFlow developed by ECN, which computes wake deficits and turbulence intensities, resulting in the energy yield of all turbines in the farm.

  5. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Ground Water Tracers Near Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/ground water exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, California, during a 10-hour surface water sodium bromide injection test. Three cross sections that comprise six shallow (<1 m) piezometers were installed at the upper, middle, and lower sections of a 17 km long study reach, to monitor temperatures and bromide concentrations in the shallow ground water beneath the stream. A heat and ground water transport simulation model and a closely related solute and ground water transport simulation model were matched up for comparison of simulated and observed temperatures and bromide concentrations in the streambed. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of sediment temperature were fitted to observed temperature results, to yield apparent streambed hydraulic conductivities in each cross section. The temperature-based hydraulic conductivities were assigned to a solute and ground water transport model to predict sediment bromide concentrations, during the sodium bromide injection test. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of bromide concentrations in the sediments yielded a good match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters except solute dispersivities. This indicates that, for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and fluxes for sediments near streams. In other settings, caution should be used due to differences in the nature of conservative (bromide) versus nonconservative (heat) tracers, particularly when preferential flowpaths are present.

  6. Dual Nature of Heat Flux in Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P.; Sharan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of heat flux (H) with respect to the stability parameter (ζ) in stable surface layer (SSL) is analyzed with in the framework of Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory. The analytical expressions of H are obtained as functions of wind speed (U) and wind shear (dU/dz) using the linear similarity functions and accordingly two cases, (i) U = δ (constant) and (ii) dU/dz = δ are considered. The mathematical analysis shows that the magnitude of H increases with ζ till it attains a maximum value at ζ =ζc and then starts decreasing with increasing stability suggesting the dual characteristic of heat flux with stability parameter. The point of maximum heat flux is found to be dependent on the roughness length (z0) as well as the height above the surface. An attempt has been made to analyze the sensitivity of this dual characteristic of H with ζ using the non-linear similarity functions. The analysis shows that the dual nature of H persists in the case of linear as well as non-linear similarity functions. However, the point of extremum appears to be dependent on the nature of the similarity functions. Turbulent data over a tropical site Ranchi (India) is analyzed to validate the observed nature of H with the theoretical nature as predicted by MOS. The analysis of observational data reveals the non-existence of any preferred stability state in SSL as speculated by Wang and Bras (2010, 2011) and supports the conclusions of Malhi 1995, Derbyshire 1999, van de Wiel et al. 2007, Basu et al. 2008, and van de Wiel et al. 2011. Thus, the non-uniqueness of MOS equations does not appear to be a mathematical artifact and it is consistent with the observations as far as the nature of heat flux with respect to stability parameter in SSL is concerned.

  7. Solid propellant combustion response to oscillatory radiant heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Weil, M. T.; Cohen, N. S.

    1989-01-01

    A progress report is given on a research project to use the microwave Doppler velocimeter technique to measure the combustion response to an oscillating thermal radiation source (CO2 laser). The test technique and supporting analyses are described, and the results are presented for an initial test series on the nonmetallized, composite propellant, Naval Weapons Center formulation A-13. It is concluded that in-depth transmission of radiant heat flux is not a factor at the CO2 laser wave length.

  8. Measuring Response Of Propellant To Oscillatory Heat Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, Leon D.; Schwartz, Ken; Burns, Shawn P.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for research in combustion of solid propellants measures oscillatory response of rate of burning to oscillating thermal radiation from modulated CO2 laser. Determines response to rate of burning to equivalent oscillation in pressure. Rod of propellant mounted in burner assembly including waveguide at one end and infrared window at other end. Microwave Doppler velocimeter measures motion of combustion front. Microwave, laser-current, and heat-flux signals processed into and recorded in forms useful in determining desired response of propellent.

  9. Heat flux instrumentation for HYFLITE thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diller, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Tasks performed in this project were defined in a September 9, 1994 meeting of representatives of Vatell, NASA Lewis and Virginia Tech. The overall objective agreed upon in the meeting was 'to demonstrate the viability of thin film techniques for heat flux and temperature sensing in HYSTEP thermal protection systems'. We decided to attempt a combination of NASA's and Vatell's best heat flux sensor technology in a sensor which would be tested in the Vortek facility at Lewis early in 1995. The NASA concept for thermocouple measurement of surface temperature was adopted, and Vatell methods for fabrication of sensors on small diameter substrates of aluminum nitride were used to produce a sensor. This sensor was then encapsulated in a NARloy-Z housing. Various improvements to the Vatell substrate design were explored without success. The basic NASA and Vatell sensor layouts were analyzed by finite element modeling, in an attempt to better understand the effects of material properties, dimensions and thermal differential element location on sensor symmetry, bandwidth and sensitivity. This analysis showed that, as long as the thermal resistivity of the thermal differential element material is much larger (10X) than that of the substrate material, the simplest arrangement of layer is best. During calibration of the sensor produced in this project, undesirable side-effects of combining the heat flux and temperature sensor return leads were observed. The sensor did not cleanly separate the heat flux and temperature signals, as sensors with four leads have consistently done before. Task 7 and 8 discussed in the meeting will be performed with a continuation of funding in 1995. The following is a discussion of each of the tasks performed as outlined in the statement of work dated september 26, 1994. Task 1A was added to cover further investigation into the NASA sensor concept.

  10. Development of advanced high-temperature heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Various configurations of high temperature, heat flux sensors were studied to determine their suitability for use in experimental combustor liners of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. It was determined that embedded thermocouple sensors, laminated sensors, and Gardon gauge sensors, were the most viable candidates. Sensors of all three types were fabricated, calibrated, and endurance tested. All three types of sensors met the fabricability survivability, and accuracy requirements established for their application.

  11. Heat flux induced dryout and rewet in thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroes, Gustave; Fricker, Darren; Issacci, Farrokh; Catton, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Heat flux induced dryout of thin liquid films on an inclined copper plate was studied. Rewet of the dried out area is also considered. The four fluids used to form the thin films exhibited very different dryout and rewet characteristics. The contact angle and hysteresis effects were found to be important, but they must be considered in context with other parameters. No single variable was found to independently determine the pattern of dryout and rewet.

  12. Analytic solution for modeling of the ground heat exchanger and groundwater system:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, A. D.; Olfman, M.

    2009-12-01

    An analytical solution has been developed for the simulation of the effect on the subsurface of operating a geothermal U-Loop type vertical ground heat exchanger. The model results in a solution which allows one to determine a vertical profile of the various thermal properties, including the thermal conductivity. Based on all of the experimental evidence and various assumptions, a hypothesis regarding the cause of the vertical variation in temperature rise is formed: (1) The vertical variation of temperature rise is wholly caused by the vertical variation in thermal conductivity. Thus thermal conductivity is highest where temperature rise is highest, thermal conductivity is lowest where temperature rise is lowest. It follows that the radial heat flux function also has the same pattern as the thermal conductivity so that the most heat transfer occurs where the temperature rise is the highest and the least heat transfer occurs where the temperature rise is the lowestThus a further hypothesis, regarding the nature of the radial heat flux function, is formed: (2) The radial heat flux function takes on the same characteristic shape as the thermal conductivity function. This mathematical model is considered adequate as it predicts the subsurface behaviour observed experimentally and appears to be useful for predictive modelling.

  13. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

  14. Observational & modeling analysis of surface heat and moisture fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.

    1995-09-01

    An observational and modeling study was conducted to help assess how well current GCMs are predicting surface fluxes under the highly variable cloudiness and flow conditions characteristic of the real atmosphere. The observational data base for the study was obtained from a network of surface flux stations operated during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The study included examination of a surface-driven secondary circulation in the boundary layer resulting from a persistent cross-site gradient in soil moisture, to demonstrate the sensitivity of boundary layer dynamics to heterogeneous surface fluxes, The performance of a biosphere model in reproducing the measured surface fluxes was evaluated with and without the use of satellite retrieval of three key canopy variables with RMS uncertainties commensurate with those of the measurements themselves. Four sensible heat flux closure schemes currently being used in GCMs were then evaluated against the FIFE observations. Results indicate that the methods by which closure models are calibrated lead to exceedingly large errors when the schemes are applied to variable boundary layer conditions. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Effects of a Ground Source Heat Pump in Discontinuous Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R.; Garber-Slaght, R.; Daanen, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    A ground source heat pump (GSHP) was installed in a discontinuous permafrost region of Fairbanks Alaska in 2013 with the primary aim of determining the effect of different ground cover options on the long-term subterranean temperature regime. Three different surface treatments were applied to separate loops of the GSHP; grass, sand, and gravel, and temperature monitoring was established at several depths above and below the heat sink loops. The GSHP has been actively utilized to supplement the heat in a hydronic heating system of a neighboring 5000 ft2 research facility. The ground immediately surrounding the GSHP was not permafrost when initially installed. Numerical modeling simulations were used to predict the long-term ground temperature regime surrounding the GSHP loops, and results indicate that permafrost would begin to form after the first year. A pseudo-steady state temperature regime would establish in approximately 8 years with a yearly fluctuation of -14°C to -2°C. Simulations also indicate that permafrost could be prevented with a 15 W/m recharge during the summer, such as from a solar thermal system. The ground surface treatments have negligible effect on the ground temperature below 1 meter and therefore have no long-term effect on the active region the GSHP. Data collected from thermistors in the two years since installation indicate that permafrost has not yet been established, although the ground is now becoming seasonally frozen due to the GSHP energy removal. Yearly average temperatures are declining, and extrapolation indicates that permafrost will establish in future years. The GSHP coefficient of performance (COP) was initially 3.6 and is declining with the decreasing ground temperatures. Economic modeling indicates that the system may become uneconomical in future years, although volatile energy costs have a substantial effect of the prediction.

  16. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  17. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  18. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-09-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima.

  19. Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  20. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  1. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1993-04-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  2. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  3. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  4. 2D divertor heat flux distribution using a 3D heat conduction solver in National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    PubMed

    Gan, K F; Ahn, J-W; Park, J-W; Maingi, R; McLean, A G; Gray, T K; Gong, X; Zhang, X D

    2013-02-01

    The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as α and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of α led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated. PMID:23464209

  5. 2D divertor heat flux distribution using a 3D heat conduction solver in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, K. F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Park, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Gray, T. K.; Gong, X.; Zhang, X. D.

    2013-02-01

    The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as α and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of α led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated.

  6. GROUND WATER PROTECTION ISSUES WITH GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1999-10-01

    Closed loop vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps are grouted to facilitate heat transfer and prevent ground water contamination. The grout must exhibit suitable thermal conductivity as well as adequate hydraulic sealing characteristics. Permeability and infiltration tests were performed to assess the ability of cementitious grout to control vertical seepage in boreholes. It was determined that a superplasticized cement-sand grout is a more effective borehole sealant than neat cement over a range of likely operational temperatures. The feasibility of using non-destructive methods to verify bonding in heat exchangers is reviewed.

  7. New technique of the local heat flux measurement in combustion chambers of steam boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Sobota, Tomasz; Dzierwa, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    A new method for measurement of local heat flux to water-walls of steam boilers was developed. A flux meter tube was made from an eccentric tube of short length to which two longitudinal fins were attached. These two fins prevent the boiler setting from heating by a thermal radiation from the combustion chamber. The fins are not welded to the adjacent water-wall tubes, so that the temperature distribution in the heat flux meter is not influenced by neighbouring water-wall tubes. The thickness of the heat flux tube wall is larger on the fireside to obtain a greater distance between the thermocouples located inside the wall which increases the accuracy of heat flux determination. Based on the temperature measurements at selected points inside the heat flux meter, the heat flux absorbed by the water-wall, heat transfer coefficient on the inner tube surface and temperature of the water-steam mixture was determined.

  8. Experimental Performance of a Micromachined Heat Flux Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, S.; DeAnna, R. G.; Mehregany, M.

    1998-01-01

    Steady-state and frequency response calibration of a microfabricated heat-flux sensor have been completed. This sensor is batch fabricated using standard, micromachining techniques, allowing both miniaturization and the ability to create arrays of sensors and their corresponding interconnects. Both high-frequency and spatial response is desired, so the sensors are both thin and of small cross-sectional area. Thin-film, temperature-sensitive resistors are used as the active gauge elements. Two sensor configurations are investigated: (1) a Wheatstone-bridge using four resistors; and (2) a simple, two-resistor design. In each design, one resistor (or pair) is covered by a thin layer (5000 A) thermal barrier; the other resistor (or pair) is covered by a thick (5 microns) thermal barrier. The active area of a single resistor is 360 microns by 360 microns; the total gauge area is 1.5 mm square. The resistors are made of 2000 A-thick metal; and the entire gauge is fabricated on a 25 microns-thick flexible, polyimide substrate. Heat flux through the surface changes the temperature of the resistors and produces a corresponding change in resistance. Sensors were calibrated using two radiation heat sources: (1) a furnace for steady-state, and (2) a light and chopper for frequency response.

  9. A Novel Coil Distribution for Transverse Flux Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Wang, Youhua; Yang, Xiaoguang; Pang, Lingling

    For solving the problem of inhomogeneous temperature distribution on the surface of the work piece at the transverse flux induction heating (TFIH) device outlet, a novel coil distribution of the inductor is presented in this paper. The relationship between coil geometry and temperature distribution was analyzed firstly. According to the theoretical analysis results, the novel coil geometry was designed in order to get a uniform temperature distribution. Then the non-linear coupled electromagnetic- thermal problem in TFIH was simulated. The distributions of the magnetic flux density and eddy current of the novel and the traditional rectangular coil geometry were presented. Finally, a prototype was developed according to the numerical results. The experimental results of the temperature distribution agreed with the numerical analysis.

  10. Performance of an Advanced Stirling Convertor Based on Heat Flux Sensor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Dcott D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two highefficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower, Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center. The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot-end and cold-end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given heat input. It is difficult to measure heat input to Stirling convertors due to the complex geometries of the hot components, temperature limits of sensor materials, and invasive integration of sensors. A thin-film heat flux sensor was used to directly measure heat input to an ASC. The effort succeeded in designing and fabricating unique sensors, which were integrated into a Stirling convertor ground test and exposed to test temperatures exceeding 700 C in air for 10,000 hr. Sensor measurements were used to calculate thermal efficiency for ASC-E (Engineering Unit) #1 and #4. The post-disassembly condition of the sensors is also discussed.

  11. Performance of an Advanced Stirling Convertor Based on Heat Flux Sensor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower, Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center. The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot-end and cold-end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given heat input. It is difficult to measure heat input to Stirling convertors due to the complex geometries of the hot components, temperature limits of sensor materials, and invasive integration of sensors. A thin-film heat flux sensor was used to directly measure heat input to an ASC. The effort succeeded in designing and fabricating unique sensors, which were integrated into a Stirling convertor ground test and exposed to test temperatures exceeding 700 C in air for 10,000 hr. Sensor measurements were used to calculate thermal efficiency for ASC-E (Engineering Unit) #1 and #4. The post-disassembly condition of the sensors is also discussed.

  12. Heat flux distribution and rectification of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zonghua; Wu, Xiang; Yang, Huijie; Gupte, Neelima; Li, Baowen

    2010-02-01

    It was recently found that the heterogeneity of complex networks can enhance transport properties such as epidemic spreading, electric energy transfer, etc. A trivial deduction would be that the presence of hubs in complex networks can also accelerate the heat transfer although no concrete research has been done so far. In the present study, we have studied this problem and have found a surprising answer: the heterogeneity does not favor but prevents the heat transfer. We present a model to study heat conduction in complex networks and find that the network topology greatly affects the heat flux. The heat conduction decreases with the increase of heterogeneity of the network caused by both degree distribution and the clustering coefficient. Its underlying mechanism can be understood by using random matrix theory. Moreover, we also study the rectification effect and find that it is related to the degree difference of the network, and the distance between the source and the sink. These findings may have potential applications in real networks, such as nanotube/nanowire networks and biological networks.

  13. Modeling of a heat sink and high heat flux vapor chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadnjal, Aleksander

    An increasing demand for a higher heat flux removal capability within a smaller volume for high power electronics led us to focus on a novel cold plate design. A high heat flux evaporator and micro channel heat sink are the main components of a cold plate which is capable of removing couple of 100 W/cm2. In order to describe performance of such porous media device a proper modeling has to be addressed. A universal approach based on the volume average theory (VAT) to transport phenomena in porous media is shown. An approach on how to treat the closure for momentum and energy equations is addressed and a proper definition for friction factors and heat transfer coefficients are discussed. A numerical scheme using a solution to Navier-Stokes equations over a representative elementary volume (REV) and the use of VAT is developed to show how to compute friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. The calculation show good agreement with the experimental data. For the heat transfer coefficient closure, a proper average for both fluid and solid is investigated. Different types of heating are also investigated in order to determine how it influences the heat transfer coefficient. A higher heat fluxes in small area condensers led us to the micro channels in contrast to the classical heat fin design. A micro channel can have various shapes to enhance heat transfer, but the shape that will lead to a higher heat flux removal with a moderate pumping power needs to be determined. The standard micro-channel terminology is usually used for channels with a simple cross section, e.g. square, round, triangle, etc., but here the micro channel cross section is going to be expanded to describe more complicated and interconnected micro scale channel cross sections. The micro channel geometries explored are pin fins (in-line and staggered) and sintered porous micro channels. The problem solved here is a conjugate problem involving two heat transfer mechanisms; (1) porous media

  14. Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Hern, Shawn; McDowell, Tim; Munk, Jeffrey D; Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

  15. Subsurface environment database for application of ground heat exchanger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, H.; Hachinohe, S.; Shiraishi, H.; Takashi, I.; Sasaka, K.; Miyakoshi, A.; Goto, S.

    2010-12-01

    Ground heat exchanger system is economical and environmentally friendly technology and widely used in Europe and North America, while it is rarely used in Japan. One of the causes is relatively complex topography and geological structure in Japan in comparison with those in Europe and North America. Complex structures produce regional differences in subsurface thermal properties and temperature structure, leading to regional variation in efficiency of heat exchanger system. It is thus important to evaluate available subsurface heat energy through thermal response tests and/or numerical simulation and to design appropriate systems (depth and number of boreholes for heat exchange). Information on subsurface environment in target areas is necessary for evaluation of potential subsurface heat energy, but little information has been published. Center for Environmental Science in Saitama is a research institute established by a local government, Saitama prefecture, which is located on the north of Tokyo and has a population of over seven million. We have been collecting various subsurface environmental data in Saitama (e.g., lithological column data on over 10,000 boreholes). We have compiled the accumulated data and obtained new data (geological information, subsurface temperature distribution, and hydrogeological properties) to construct a database for application of ground heat exchanger systems in Saitama. It is important to estimate demand for heat energy in the target areas as well as available subsurface heat energy. We therefore compile meteorological data (air temperature and solar radiation) necessary for estimation for the demand and investigate regional variation in meteorological condition. We intend to disclose the database and research products using web GIS (geographic information system) in the future. It will assist spread of ground heat exchanger systems in the target areas. Investigation methods of subsurface environment survey and database

  16. Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Previously, from analysis of SOHO coronal images in combination with Kitt Peak magnetograms, we found that the quiet corona is the sum of two components: the large-scale corona and the coronal network. The large-scale corona consists of all coronal-temperature (T approximately 10(exp 6) K) structures larger than supergranules (greater than approximately 30,000 kilometers). The coronal network (1) consists of all coronal-temperature structures smaller than supergranules, (2) is rooted in and loosely traces the photospheric magnetic network, (3) has its brightest features seated on polarity dividing lines (neutral lines) in the network magnetic flux, and (4) produces only about 5% of the total coronal emission in quiet regions. The heating of the coronal network is apparently magnetic in origin. Here, from analysis of EIT coronal images of quiet regions in combination with magnetograms of the same quiet regions from SOHO/MDI and from Kitt Peak, we examine the other 95% of the quiet corona and its relation to the underlying magnetic network. We find: (1) Dividing the large-scale corona into its bright and dim halves divides the area into bright "continents" and dark "oceans" having spans of 2-4 supergranules. (2) These patterns are also present in the photospheric magnetograms: the network is stronger under the bright half and weaker under the dim half. (3) The radiation from the large-scale corona increases roughly as the cube root of the magnetic flux content of the underlying magnetic network. In contrast, the coronal radiation from an active region increases roughly linearly with the magnetic flux content of the active region. We assume, as is widely held, that nearly all of the large-scale corona is magnetically rooted in the network. Our results suggest that either the coronal heating in quiet regions has a large non-magnetic component, or, if the heating is predominantly produced via the magnetic field, the mechanism is significantly different than in active

  17. On the relation between coronal heating, flux tube divergence, and the solar wind proton flux and flow speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandbaek, Onulf; Leer, Egil; Hansteen, Viggo H.

    1994-01-01

    A one-fluid solar wind model is used to investigate some relations between coronal heating, the flux tube divergence near the Sun, and the solar wind proton flux and flow speed. The effects of energy addition to the supersonic region of the flow are also studied. We allow for a mechanical energy flux that heats the corona, and an Alfven wave energy flux that adds energy, mainly to the supersonic flow, both as momentum and as heat. We find that the mechanical energy flux determines the solar wind mass flux, and in order to keep an almost constant proton flux at the orbit of Earth with changing flow geometry, that the mechanical energy flux must vary linearly with the magnetic field in the inner corona. This thermally driven wind generally has a low asymptotic flow speed. When Alfven waves are added to the thermally driven flow, the asymptotic flow speed is increased and is determined by the ratio of the Alfven wave and the mechanical energy fluxes at the coronal base. Flow speeds characteristic of recurrent high-speed solar wind streams can be obtained only when the Alfven wave energy flux, deposited in the supersonic flow, is larger than the mechanical energy flux heating the corona.

  18. Applicability of copper alloys for DEMO high heat flux components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, Steven J.

    2016-02-01

    The current state of knowledge of the mechanical and thermal properties of high-strength, high conductivity Cu alloys relevant for fusion energy high heat flux applications is reviewed, including effects of thermomechanical and joining processes and neutron irradiation on precipitation- or dispersion-strengthened CuCrZr, Cu-Al2O3, CuNiBe, CuNiSiCr and CuCrNb (GRCop-84). The prospects for designing improved versions of wrought copper alloys and for utilizing advanced fabrication processes such as additive manufacturing based on electron beam and laser consolidation methods are discussed. The importance of developing improved structural materials design criteria is also noted.

  19. USE OF PELTIER COOLERS AS SOIL HEAT FLUX TRANSDUCERS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, H.L.; Campbell, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Peltier coolers were modified and calibrated to serve as soil heat flux transducers. The modification was to fill their interiors with epoxy. The average calibration constant on 21 units was 13. 6 plus or minus 0. 8 kW m** minus **2 V** minus **1 at 20 degree C. This sensitivity is about eight times that of the two thermopile transducers with which comparisons were made. The thermal conductivity of the Peltier cooler transducers was 0. 4 W m** minus **1 degree C** minus **1, which is comparable to that of dry soil.

  20. A Summary of Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration Data

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, A. V.; Fraser, G. T.; DeWitt, D. P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical evaluation of the responsivity data on a number of heat-flux sensors, calibrated using an electrical substitution radiometer as a transfer standard up to 5 W·cm−2. The sensors, furnished by the customers, were of circular-foil or thermopile type. Comparison of the NIST and the customer measured responsivity values showed that the measurements agree within 3 % for more than half the number of sensors tested, so far. Considering the variation in the customer calibration techniques and the wide measuring range of the sensors used in the calibration, the agreement is encouraging. PMID:27308106

  1. Investigation of Instabilities and Heat Transfer Phenomena in Supercritical Fuels at High Heat Flux and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Meyer, Michael L.; Braun, Donald C.; Keller, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    A series of heated tube experiments was performed to investigate fluid instabilities that occur during heating of supercritical fluids. In these tests, JP-7 flowed vertically through small diameter tubes at supercritical pressures. Test section heated length, diameter, mass flow rate, inlet temperature, and heat flux were varied in an effort to determine the range of conditions that trigger the instabilities. Heat flux was varied up to 4 BTU/sq in./s, and test section wall temperatures reached as high as 1950 F. A statistical model was generated to explain the trends and effects of the control variables. The model included no direct linear effect of heat flux on the occurrence of the instabilities. All terms involving inlet temperature were negative, and all terms involving mass flow rate were positive. Multiple tests at conditions that produced instabilities provided inconsistent results. These inconsistencies limit the use of the model as a predictive tool. Physical variables that had been previously postulated to control the onset of the instabilities, such as film temperature, velocity, buoyancy, and wall-to-bulk temperature ratio, were evaluated here. Film temperatures at or near critical occurred during both stable and unstable tests. All tests at the highest velocity were stable, but there was no functional relationship found between the instabilities and velocity, or a combination of velocity and temperature ratio. Finally, all of the unstable tests had significant buoyancy at the inlet of the test section, but many stable tests also had significant buoyancy forces.

  2. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Mick Y.; Wang, Lixin; Parkes, Stephen D.; Strauss, Josiah; McCabe, Matthew F.; Evans, Jason P.; Griffiths, Alan D.

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10 m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (∼1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  3. Transectional heat transfer in thermoregulating bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) - a 2D heat flux model.

    PubMed

    Boye, Jess; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard; Malte, Hans

    2009-11-01

    We developed a 2D heat flux model to elucidate routes and rates of heat transfer within bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe 1839 in both steady-state and time-dependent settings. In modeling the former situation, we adjusted the efficiencies of heat conservation in the red and the white muscle so as to make the output of the model agree as closely as possible with observed cross-sectional isotherms. In modeling the latter situation, we applied the heat exchanger efficiencies from the steady-state model to predict the distribution of temperature and heat fluxes in bigeye tuna during their extensive daily vertical excursions. The simulations yielded a close match to the data recorded in free-swimming fish and strongly point to the importance of the heat-producing and heat-conserving properties of the white muscle. The best correspondence between model output and observed data was obtained when the countercurrent heat exchangers in the blood flow pathways to the red and white muscle retained 99% and 96% (respectively) of the heat produced in these tissues. Our model confirms that the ability of bigeye tuna to maintain elevated muscle temperatures during their extensive daily vertical movements depends on their ability to rapidly modulate heating and cooling rates. This study shows that the differential cooling and heating rates could be fully accounted for by a mechanism where blood flow to the swimming muscles is either exclusively through the heat exchangers or completely shunted around them, depending on the ambient temperature relative to the body temperature. Our results therefore strongly suggest that such a mechanism is involved in the extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities of endothermic bigeye tuna. PMID:19880733

  4. Using Gravity Inversion to Estimate Antarctic Geothermal Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; (Sasha) Golynsky, A. V.; Rogozhina, Irina

    2014-05-01

    New modelling studies for Greenland have recently underlined the importance of GHF for long-term ice sheet behaviour (Petrunin et al. 2013). Revised determinations of top basement heat-flow for Antarctica and adjacent rifted continental margins using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (Chappell & Kusznir 2008), using BedMap2 data have provided improved estimates of geothermal heat flux (GHF) in Antarctica where it is very poorly known. Continental lithosphere thinning and post-breakup residual thicknesses of continental crust determined from gravity inversion have been used to predict the preservation of continental crustal radiogenic heat productivity and the transient lithosphere heat-flow contribution within thermally equilibrating rifted continental and oceanic lithosphere. The sensitivity of present-day Antarctic top basement heat-flow to initial continental radiogenic heat productivity, continental rift and margin breakup age has been examined. Recognition of the East Antarctic Rift System (EARS), a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km (Ferraccioli et al. 2011) and is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system, highlights that crustal variability in interior Antarctica is much greater than previously assumed. GHF is also important to understand proposed ice accretion at the base of the EAIS in the GSM and its links to sub-ice hydrology (Bell et al. 2011). References Bell, R.E., Ferraccioli, F., Creyts, T.T., Braaten, D., Corr, H., Das, I., Damaske, D., Frearson, N., Jordan, T., Rose, K., Studinger, M. & Wolovick, M. 2011. Widespread persistent thickening of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet by freezing from the base. Science, 331 (6024), 1592-1595. Chappell, A.R. & Kusznir, N.J. 2008. Three-dimensional gravity inversion for Moho depth at rifted continental margins

  5. A study of heat flux induced dryout in capillary grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Timothy J.

    1992-12-01

    This is an experimental study of ethanol flowing in the narrow grooves of a copper plate which is subjected to heat fluxes sufficient to evaporate more liquid than can be replaced by capillary pumping. Three groove geometries are used: square, rectangle, and trapezoid. The objective is to simulate aspects of liquid flow in heat pipes with axial grooves. In order to validate analytical models of capillary flow in grooves, the capillary limit, dryout front location, and dryout front movement in response to power draw downs are documented. The results show the rewet performance of the groove is dependent on geometry. Grooves of higher heat transfer capacity can be poor for recovering from dryout, like the trapezoidal groove. Comparisons of the theoretical maximum heat transfer with the data are good for the square and rectangle, but overestimate the value for the trapezoid. No theory sufficiently predicted the location of the dryout front for the three geometries. For both a quiescent dryout front and a boiling dryout front, the theory does not utilize an accurate description of the geometry of the liquid front which is critical for determining the capillary pressure difference.

  6. An analysis of turbulent sensible heat fluxes within a heterogeneous black spruce boreal forest in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, Derek

    Turbulent sensible heat fluxes within the heterogeneous canopy of a black spruce boreal forest in Interior Alaska are evaluated at three different scales in order to assess their spatial variability, and to determine the feasibility of upscaling locally measured flux values to the landscape scale for modeling applications and climate studies. The first evaluation is performed locally at a single micrometeorological tower in an area of the boreal forest with a mean canopy height of 4.7 m. The data were taken across winter, spring and summer of 2012 from two sonic anemometers, one below the canopy at 3 m above ground, and one above the canopy at 12 m above ground. A multiresolution analysis is used to isolate coherent structures from the turbulent temperature time series at both instruments. When mean global statistics of coherent structures are analyzed at the two levels independently, results show an average of 8 structures per period, a mean duration of 85 s, and a mean sensible heat flux contribution of 48%. A spectral version of the Stokes parameters is applied to the turbulent horizontal wind components to show that 31% of the coherent turbulent structures detected at 12 m, and 13% at 3 m, may be complicated by canopy waves due to the prevalence of stable flows at this high latitude location. The second evaluation quantifies differences in turbulent sensible heat fluxes horizontally between two micrometeorological towers 600 m apart, one in a denser canopy (DC) and the other in a sparser canopy (SC), but under approximately similar atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Results show that SC is ˜ 3 °C cooler and more stably stratified than DC during nighttime. This suggests that changes in the height and density of the canopy impact local temperature and stability regimes. Most importantly, the sensible heat flux at DC is greater during midday periods, with that difference exceeding 30% of the measured flux and over 30 W m-2 in magnitude more than 60% of the

  7. Antifreeze acceptability for ground-coupled heat pump ground loops in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Den Braven, K.R.

    1998-10-01

    When designing and installing closed-loop ground-coupled heat pumps systems, it is necessary to be aware of applicable environmental regulations. Within the United States, nearly half of the states have regulations specifying or restricting the use of particular antifreezes or other fluids within the ground loop of a ground-coupled heat pump system. A number of other states have regulations pending. While all of these regulations are based on the need to preserve groundwater and/or aquifer quality, the list of acceptable antifreezes varies among those states with specified fluids. Typical antifreezes in use include ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, brines, alcohols, and potassium acetate. Each of these has its benefits and drawbacks. The status of the regulations has been determined for all of the states. An overview of the regulations is presented in this paper, along with a summary of the states` concerns.

  8. Diamond thin film temperature and heat-flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Yang, G. S.; Masood, A.; Fredricks, R.

    1995-01-01

    Diamond film temperature and heat-flux sensors are developed using a technology compatible with silicon integrated circuit processing. The technology involves diamond nucleation, patterning, doping, and metallization. Multi-sensor test chips were designed and fabricated to study the thermistor behavior. The minimum feature size (device width) for 1st and 2nd generation chips are 160 and 5 micron, respectively. The p-type diamond thermistors on the 1st generation test chip show temperature and response time ranges of 80-1270 K and 0.29-25 microseconds, respectively. An array of diamond thermistors, acting as heat flux sensors, was successfully fabricated on an oxidized Si rod with a diameter of 1 cm. Some problems were encountered in the patterning of the Pt/Ti ohmic contacts on the rod, due mainly to the surface roughness of the diamond film. The use of thermistors with a minimum width of 5 micron (to improve the spatial resolution of measurement) resulted in lithographic problems related to surface roughness of diamond films. We improved the mean surface roughness from 124 nm to 30 nm by using an ultra high nucleation density of 10(exp 11)/sq cm. To deposit thermistors with such small dimensions on a curved surface, a new 3-D diamond patterning technique is currently under development. This involves writing a diamond seed pattern directly on the curved surface by a computer-controlled nozzle.

  9. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  10. Ground water applications of the heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the ground water portion of a hydrologic investigation of eastern South Dakota using data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite. The satellite carries a two-channel radiometer (0.5-1.1 and 10.5-12.5 microns) in a sun synchronous orbit and collects data at approximately 0230 and 1330 local standard time with repeat coverage of 5 to 16 days depending on latitude. It is shown that HCMM data acquired at appropriate periods of the diurnal and annual temperature cycle can provide useful information on shallow ground water.

  11. Flow and heat transfer of ferrofluids over a flat plate with uniform heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, W. A.; Khan, Z. H.; Haq, R. U.

    2015-04-01

    The present work is dedicated to analyze the flow and heat transport of ferrofluids along a flat plate subjected to uniform heat flux and slip velocity. A magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the plate. Moreover, three different kinds of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, CoFe2O4, Mn-ZnFe2O4 are incorporated within the base fluid. We have considered two different kinds of base fluids (kerosene and water) having poor thermal conductivity as compared to solid magnetic nanoparticles. Self-similar solutions are obtained and are compared with the available data for special cases. A simulation is performed for each ferrofluid mixture by considering the dominant effects of slip and uniform heat flux. It is found that the present results are in an excellent agreement with the existing literature. The variation of skin friction and heat transfer is also performed at the surface of the plate and then the better heat transfer and of each mixture is analyzed. Kerosene-based magnetite Fe3O4 provides the higher heat transfer rate at the wall as compared to the kerosene-based cobalt ferrite and Mn-Zn ferrite. It is also concluded that the primary effect of the magnetic field is to accelerate the dimensionless velocity and to reduce the dimensionless surface temperature as compared to the hydrodynamic case, thereby increasing the skin friction and the heat transfer rate of ferrofluids.

  12. Vertical heat fluxes through the Beaufort Sea Thermohaline staircase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padman, Laurie; Dillon, Thomas M.

    1987-09-01

    Microstructure profiles of temperature, conductivity, and velocity shear during the Arctic Internal Wave Experiment (AIWEX) in March-April 1985 in the Beaufort Sea are used to investigate the thermodynamic processes in a diffusive thermohaline staircase. The staircase occurs between depths of about 320 and 430 m, above the core of the relatively warm, salty Atlantic water, where the mean temperature and salinity are increasing with depth. Individual isothermal layers can be tracked for at least several hours, suggesting a horizontal length scale of several hundred meters or more, assuming a typical relative velocity of 0.01 m s-1 at this time. Over the depth range 320-430 m the mean (average over several steps) density ratio = β varies between 4 and 6, while the typical temperature difference between layers decreases from 0.012° to 0.004°C. The mean thickness of the layers also varies, from 1 m at 320 m depth to 2 m at 430 m. The relationship proposed by Kelley (1984), relating layer height to , , and molecular properties of the fluid, overestimates the mean layer thickness by about a factor of 2. The variability of staircase characteristics suggests that oceanic staircases may rarely, if ever, be steady state, but in general be slowly evolving from previous perturbations. Heat fluxes estimated from laboratory-based flux laws, involving Rρ and ΔT, are in the range 0.02 heat fluxes through the maximum interfacial temperature gradients. There are no interfaces where the kinetic energy dissipation rate (averaged over 0.5 m) exceeds the lower limit for diapycnal mixing, 24.5νN2.

  13. Robust estimates of soil moisture and latent heat flux coupling strength obtained from triple collocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Wade T.; Lei, Fangni; Hain, Christopher; Anderson, Martha C.; Scott, Russell L.; Billesbach, David; Arkebauer, Timothy

    2015-10-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are often applied to predict the one-way coupling strength between surface soil moisture (SM) and latent heat (LH) flux. However, the ability of LSMs to accurately represent such coupling has not been adequately established. Likewise, the estimation of SM/LH coupling strength using ground-based observational data is potentially compromised by the impact of independent SM and LH measurements errors. Here we apply a new statistical technique to acquire estimates of one-way SM/LH coupling strength which are nonbiased in the presence of random error using a triple collocation approach based on leveraging the simultaneous availability of independent SM and LH estimates acquired from (1) LSMs, (2) satellite remote sensing, and (3) ground-based observations. Results suggest that LSMs do not generally overestimate the strength of one-way surface SM/LH coupling.

  14. Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Lu; Cullin, James; Spitler, Jeffery; Im, Piljae; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

  15. Estimating Antarctic Geothermal Heat Flux using Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V.; Sasha Rogozhina, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal heat flux (GHF) in Antarctica is very poorly known. We have determined (Vaughan et al. 2012) top basement heat-flow for Antarctica and adjacent rifted continental margins using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). Continental lithosphere thinning and post-breakup residual thicknesses of continental crust determined from gravity inversion have been used to predict the preservation of continental crustal radiogenic heat productivity and the transient lithosphere heat-flow contribution within thermally equilibrating rifted continental and oceanic lithosphere. The sensitivity of present-day Antarctic top basement heat-flow to initial continental radiogenic heat productivity, continental rift and margin breakup age has been examined. Knowing GHF distribution for East Antarctica and the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) region in particular is critical because: 1) The GSM likely acted as key nucleation point for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS); 2) the region may contain the oldest ice of the EAIS - a prime target for future ice core drilling; 3) GHF is important to understand proposed ice accretion at the base of the EAIS in the GSM and its links to sub-ice hydrology (Bell et al. 2011). An integrated multi-dataset-based GHF model for East Antarctica is planned that will resolve the wide range of estimates previously published using single datasets. The new map and existing GHF distribution estimates available for Antarctica will be evaluated using direct ice temperature measurements obtained from deep ice cores, estimates of GHF derived from subglacial lakes, and a thermodynamic ice-sheet model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet driven by past climate reconstructions and each of analysed heat flow maps, as has recently been done for the Greenland region (Rogozhina et al. 2012). References Bell, R.E., Ferraccioli, F., Creyts, T.T., Braaten, D., Corr, H., Das, I., Damaske, D., Frearson, N

  16. The Influence of Aircraft Speed Variations on Sensible Heat-Flux Measurements by Different Airborne Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sabrina; Bange, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Crawford et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 66:237-245, 1993) showed that the time average is inappropriate for airborne eddy-covariance flux calculations. The aircraft's ground speed through a turbulent field is not constant. One reason can be a correlation with vertical air motion, so that some types of structures are sampled more densely than others. To avoid this, the time-sampled data are adjusted for the varying ground speed so that the modified estimates are equivalent to spatially-sampled data. A comparison of sensible heat-flux calculations using temporal and spatial averaging methods is presented and discussed. Data of the airborne measurement systems , Helipod and Dornier 128-6 are used for the analysis. These systems vary in size, weight and aerodynamic characteristics, since the is a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the Helipod a helicopter-borne turbulence probe and the Dornier 128-6 a manned research aircraft. The systematic bias anticipated in covariance computations due to speed variations was neither found when averaging over Dornier, Helipod nor UAV flight legs. However, the random differences between spatial and temporal averaging fluxes were found to be up to 30 % on the individual flight legs.

  17. An Investigation of the Compatibility of Radiation and Convection Heat Flux Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determining time-resolved absorbed surface heat flux and surface temperature in radiation and convection environments is described. The method is useful for verification of aerodynamic, heat transfer and durability models. A practical heat flux gage fabrication procedure and a simple one-dimensional inverse heat conduction model and calculation procedure are incorporated in this method. The model provides an estimate of the temperature and heat flux gradient in the direction of heat transfer through the gage. This paper discusses several successful time-resolved tests of this method in hostile convective heating and cooling environments.

  18. Ground State Properties of the 1/2 Flux Harper Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Colin; Burton, William Cody; Chung, Woo Chang; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    The Harper Hamiltonian describes the motion of charged particles in an applied magnetic field - the spectrum of which exhibits the famed Hofstadter's butterfly. Recent advances in driven optical lattices have made great strides in simulating nontrivial Hamiltonians, such as the Harper model, in the time-averaged sense. We report on the realization of the ground state of bosons in the Harper Hamiltonian for 1/2 flux per plaquette utilizing a tilted two-dimensional lattice with laser assisted tunneling. We detail progress in studying various ground state properties of the 1/2 flux Harper Hamiltonian including ground state degeneracies, gauge-dependent observables, effects of micromotion, adiabatic loading schemes, and emergence and decay of coherence. Additionally, we describe prospects for flux rectification using a period-tripled superlattice and generalizations to three dimensions. MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  19. In Situ Monitoring of Soil Thermal Properties and Heat Flux during Freezing and Thawing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When soil freezes or thaws, latent heat fluxes occur and conventional methods for monitoring soil heat flux are inaccurate, often wildly so. This prevents the forcing of surface energy balance closure that is used in Bowen ratio flux measurements and the assessment of closure that is used as a check...

  20. Improving surface energy balance closure by reducing errors in soil heat flux measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flux plate method is the most commonly employed method for measuring soil heat flux (G) in surface energy balance studies. Although relatively simple to use, the flux plate method is susceptible to significant errors. Two of the most common errors are heat flow divergence around the plate and fa...

  1. A Comparison of Latent Heat Fluxes over Global Oceans for Four Flux Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Nelkin, Eric; Ardizzone, Joe; Atlas, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    To improve our understanding of global energy and water cycle variability, and to improve model simulations of climate variations, it is vital to have accurate latent heat fluxes (LHF) over global oceans. Monthly LHF, 10-m wind speed (U10m), 10-m specific humidity (Q10h), and sea-air humidity difference (Qs-Q10m) of GSSTF2 (version 2 Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes) over global Oceans during 1992-93 are compared with those of HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data), NCEP (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis). The mean differences, standard deviations of differences, and temporal correlation of these monthly variables over global Oceans during 1992-93 between GSSTF2 and each of the three datasets are analyzed. The large-scale patterns of the 2yr-mean fields for these variables are similar among these four datasets, but significant quantitative differences are found. The temporal correlation is higher in the northern extratropics than in the south for all variables, with the contrast being especially large for da Silva as a result of more missing ship data in the south. The da Silva has extremely low temporal correlation and large differences with GSSTF2 for all variables in the southern extratropics, indicating that da Silva hardly produces a realistic variability in these variables. The NCEP has extremely low temporal correlation (0.27) and large spatial variations of differences with GSSTF2 for Qs-Q10m in the tropics, which causes the low correlation for LHF. Over the tropics, the HOAPS LHF is significantly smaller than GSSTF2 by approx. 31% (37 W/sq m), whereas the other two datasets are comparable to GSSTF2. This is because the HOAPS has systematically smaller LHF than GSSTF2 in space, while the other two datasets have very large spatial variations of large positive and negative LHF differences with GSSTF2 to cancel and to produce smaller regional-mean differences. Our analyses suggest that the GSSTF2 latent heat flux

  2. The surface latent heat flux anomalies related to major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Feng; Shen, Xuhui; Kang, Chunli; Xiong, Pan; Hong, Shunying

    2011-12-01

    SLHF (Surface Latent Heat Flux) is an atmospheric parameter, which can describe the heat released by phase changes and dependent on meteorological parameters such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed etc. There is a sharp difference between the ocean surface and the land surface. Recently, many studies related to the SLHF anomalies prior to earthquakes have been developed. It has been shown that the energy exchange enhanced between coastal surface and atmosphere prior to earthquakes can increase the rate of the water-heat exchange, which will lead to an obviously increases in SLHF. In this paper, two earthquakes in 2010 (Haiti earthquake and southwest of Sumatra in Indonesia earthquake) have been analyzed using SLHF data by STD (standard deviation) threshold method. It is shows that the SLHF anomaly may occur in interpolate earthquakes or intraplate earthquakes and coastal earthquakes or island earthquakes. And the SLHF anomalies usually appear 5-6 days prior to an earthquake, then disappear quickly after the event. The process of anomaly evolution to a certain extent reflects a dynamic energy change process about earthquake preparation, that is, weak-strong-weak-disappeared.

  3. Latent Heat and Sensible Heat Fluxes Simulation in Maize Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, B.

    2015-12-01

    Latent Heat (LE) and Sensible Heat (H) flux are two major components of the energy balance at the earth's surface which play important roles in the water cycle and global warming. There are various methods for their estimation or measurement. Eddy covariance is a direct and accurate technique for their measurement. Some limitations lead to prevention of the extensive use of the eddy covariance technique. Therefore, simulation approaches can be utilized for their estimation. ANNs are the information processing systems, which can inspect the empirical data and investigate the relations (hidden rules) among them, and then make the network structure. In this study, multi-layer perceptron neural network trained by the steepest descent Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm was tested to simulate LE and H flux above two maize sites (rain-fed & irrigated) near Mead, Nebraska. Network training and testing was fulfilled using hourly data of including year, local time of day (DTime), leaf area index (LAI), soil water content (SWC) in 10 and 25 cm depths, soil temperature (Ts) in 10 cm depth, air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), wind speed (WS), irrigation and precipitation (P), net radiation (Rn), and the fraction of incoming Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy (fPAR), which were selected from days of year (DOY) 169 to 222 for 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009. The results showed high correlation between actual and estimated data; the R² values for LE flux in irrigated and rain-fed sites were 0.9576, and 0.9642; and for H flux 0.8001, and 0.8478, respectively. Furthermore, the RMSE values ranged from 0.0580 to 0.0721 W/m² for LE flux and from 0.0824 to 0.0863 W/m² for H flux. In addition, the sensitivity of the fluxes with respect to each input was analyzed over the growth stages. Thus, the most powerful effects among the inputs for LE flux were identified net radiation, leaf area index, vapor pressure deficit, wind speed, and for H

  4. Organization of ice flow by localized regions of elevated geothermal heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittard, M. L.; Galton-Fenzi, B. K.; Roberts, J. L.; Watson, C. S.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of localized regions of elevated geothermal heat flux on ice sheet dynamics is largely unknown. Simulations of ice dynamics are produced using poorly resolved and low-resolution estimates of geothermal heat flux. Observations of crustal heat production within the continental crust underneath the Lambert-Amery glacial system in East Antarctica indicate that high heat flux regions of at least 120 mW m-2 exist. Here we investigate the influence of simulated but plausible, localized regions of elevated geothermal heat flux on ice dynamics using a numerical ice sheet model of the Lambert-Amery glacial system. We find that high heat flux regions have a significant effect across areas of slow-moving ice with the influence extending both upstream and downstream of the geothermal anomaly, while fast-moving ice is relatively unaffected. Our results suggest that localized regions of elevated geothermal heat flux may play an important role in the organization of ice sheet flow.

  5. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m2 with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.

  6. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m(2) with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s. PMID:27370482

  7. Development of advanced high-temperature heat flux sensors. Phase 2: Verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    A two-phase program is conducted to develop heat flux sensors capable of making heat flux measurements throughout the hot section of gas turbine engines. In Phase 1, three types of heat flux sensors are selected; embedded thermocouple, laminated, and Gardon gauge sensors. A demonstration of the ability of these sensors to operate in an actual engine environment is reported. A segmented liner of each of two combustors being used in the Broad Specification Fuels Combustor program is instrumented with the three types of heat flux sensors then tested in a high pressure combustor rig. Radiometer probes are also used to measure the radiant heat loads to more fully characterize the combustor environment. Test results show the heat flux sensors to be in good agreement with radiometer probes and the predicted data trends. In general, heat flux sensors have strong potential for use in combustor development programs.

  8. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  9. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  10. ESTIMATION OF BARE-SOIL EVAPORATION USING A CALORIMETRIC APPROACH WITH HEAT FLUX MEASURED AT MULTIPLE DEPTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assumption in calorimetric methods for soil heat flux is that sensible heat terms can be balanced (i.e., if the heat flux is known at one depth, the heat flux at another depth may be determined by monitoring the change in heat storage). Latent heat from water evaporation is assigned to the energy...

  11. Analysis of the operational error of heat flux transducers placed on wall surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Ono, Akira; Hattori, Susumu

    1985-07-01

    The operational error in the heat flux measurements is theoretically investigated when the heat flux from a furnace wall to the environment is measured by a heat flux transducer. Change of the original heat flux, which is caused by placing a transducer on the furnace wall, is clarified by solving a three-dimensional heat transfer problem. The operational error is explicitly given by a simple equation taking into account the thermal properties of the furnace wall and the transducer. Numerical results are also provided for a typical application to industrial furnaces.

  12. Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Previously, from analysis of SOHO/EIT coronal images in combination with Kitt Peak magnetograms (Falconer et al 1998, ApJ, 501, 386-396), we found that the quiet corona is the sum of two components: the e-scale corona and the coronal network. The large-scale corona consists of all coronal-temperature (T approx. 10(exp 6) K) structures larger than supergranules (>approx.30,000 km). The coronal network (1) consists of all coronal-temperature structures smaller than supergranules, (2) is rooted in and loosely traces the photospheric magnetic network, (3) has its brightest features seated on polarity dividing fines (neutral lines) in the network magnetic flux, and (4) produces only about 5% of the total coronal emission in quiet regions. The heating of the coronal network is apparently magnetic in origin. Here, from analysis of EIT coronal images of quiet regions in combination with magnetograms of the same quiet regions from SOHO/MDI and from Kitt Peak, we examine the other 95% of the quiet corona and its relation to the underlying magnetic network. We find: (1) Dividing the large-scale corona into its bright and dim halves divides the area into bright "continents" and dark "oceans" having spans of 2-4 supergranules. (2) These patterns are also present in the photospheric magnetograms: the network is stronger under the bright half and weaker under the dim half. (3) The radiation from the large-scale corona increases roughly as the cube root of the magnetic flux content of the underlying magnetic network. In contrast, Fisher et A (1998, ApJ, 508, 985-998) found that the coronal radiation from an active region increases roughly linearly with the magnetic flux content of the active region. We assume, as is widely held, that nearly all of the large-scale corona is magnetically rooted in the network. Our results, together with the result of Fisher et al (1999), suggest that either the coronal heating in quiet regions has a large non-magnetic component, or, if the heating

  13. Heat flux sensor research and development: The cool film calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abtahi, A.; Dean, P.

    1990-01-01

    The goal was to meet the measurement requirement of the NASP program for a gauge capable of measuring heat flux into a 'typical' structure in a 'typical' hypersonic flight environment. A device is conceptually described that has fast response times and is small enough to fit in leading edge or cowl lip structures. The device relies heavily on thin film technology. The main conclusion is the description of the limitations of thin film technology both in the art of fabrication and in the assumption that thin films have the same material properties as the original bulk material. Three gauges were designed and fabricated. Thin film deposition processes were evaluated. The effect of different thin film materials on the performance and fabrication of the gauge was studied. The gauges were tested in an arcjet facility. Survivability and accuracy were determined under various hostile environment conditions.

  14. High heat flux mirror design for an undulator beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnessen, Thomas W.; Fisher, Steven E.; Anthony, Frank M.; Lunt, David L.; Khounsary, Ali M.; Randall, Kevin J.; Gluskin, Efim S.; Yun, Wenbing

    1993-11-01

    A-high-heat-load, horizontally deflecting/focusing mirror is designed for installation on an APS undulator beamline. The main design objective has been to keep the total tangential RMS slope error, including the thermally induced component, to less than 2 (mu) rad with an absorbed beam power on the mirror of 2 kW and a peak flux of 3.2 W/mm2. Extensive examination of various design parameters and detailed thermal/structural analyses has resulted in a mirror design that meets the tight slope-error requirement. Design features include a silicon substrate, a tailored pin-post cooling scheme, a moderate coolant flow rate, primary and secondary cooling areas, a multi-strip coating on the reflecting surface, and inlet/outlet cooling manifolds through an attached Ni-Fe mounting structure.

  15. Wedge Heat-Flux Indicators for Flash Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2003-01-01

    Wedge indicators have been proposed for measuring thermal radiation that impinges on specimens illuminated by flash lamps for thermographic inspection. Heat fluxes measured by use of these indicators would be used, along with known thermal, radiative, and geometric properties of the specimens, to estimate peak flash temperatures on the specimen surfaces. These indicators would be inexpensive alternatives to high-speed infrared pyrometers, which would otherwise be needed for measuring peak flash surface temperatures. The wedge is made from any suitable homogenous material such as plastic. The choice of material is governed by the equation given. One side of the wedge is covered by a temperature sensitive compound that decomposes irreversibly when its temperature exceeds a rated temperature (T-rated). The uncoated side would be positioned alongside or in place of the specimen and exposed to the flash, then the wedge thickness at the boundary between the white and blackened portions measured.

  16. A laser-induced heat flux technique for convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. R.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Hingst, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to the heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the local surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficients were generally higher than the theoretical predictions for flat plate laminar boundary layers. However, the results indicate that this nonintrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to measure surface convective heat transfer coefficients in high-speed flowfields.

  17. A laser-induced heat flux technique for convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. R.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Hingst, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to the heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the local surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficients were generally higher than the theoretical predictions for flat plate laminar boundary layers. However, the results indicate that this nonintrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to measure surface convective heat transfer coefficients in high speed flow fields.

  18. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  19. Heat flux from magmatic hydrothermal systems related to availability of fluid recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J. V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C. F.; Bloomberg, S.; Hernández, P. A.; Mazot, A.; Viveiros, F.; Werner, C.

    2015-09-01

    Magmatic hydrothermal systems are of increasing interest as a renewable energy source. Surface heat flux indicates system resource potential, and can be inferred from soil CO2 flux measurements and fumarole gas chemistry. Here we compile and reanalyze results from previous CO2 flux surveys worldwide to compare heat flux from a variety of magma-hydrothermal areas. We infer that availability of water to recharge magmatic hydrothermal systems is correlated with heat flux. Recharge availability is in turn governed by permeability, structure, lithology, rainfall, topography, and perhaps unsurprisingly, proximity to a large supply of water such as the ocean. The relationship between recharge and heat flux interpreted by this study is consistent with recent numerical modeling that relates hydrothermal system heat output to rainfall catchment area. This result highlights the importance of recharge as a consideration when evaluating hydrothermal systems for electricity generation, and the utility of CO2 flux as a resource evaluation tool.

  20. Approaching the limits of two-phase boiling heat transfer: High heat flux and low superheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palko, J. W.; Zhang, C.; Wilbur, J. D.; Dusseault, T. J.; Asheghi, M.; Goodson, K. E.; Santiago, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate capillary fed porous copper structures capable of dissipating over 1200 W cm-2 in boiling with water as the working fluid. Demonstrated superheats for this structure are dramatically lower than those previously reported at these high heat fluxes and are extremely insensitive to heat input. We show superheats of less than 10 K at maximum dissipation and varying less than 5 K over input heat flux ranges of 1000 W cm-2. Fabrication of the porous copper layers using electrodeposition around a sacrificial template allows fine control of both microstructure and bulk geometry, producing structures less than 40 μm thick with active region lateral dimensions of 2 mm × 0.3 mm. The active region is volumetrically Joule heated by passing an electric current through the porous copper bulk material. We analyze the heat transfer performance of the structures and suggest a strong influence of pore size on superheat. We compare performance of the current structure to existing wick structures.

  1. Heat conduction in nanoscale materials: a statistical-mechanics derivation of the local heat flux.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiantao

    2014-09-01

    We derive a coarse-grained model for heat conduction in nanoscale mechanical systems. Starting with an all-atom description, this approach yields a reduced model, in the form of conservation laws of momentum and energy. The model closure is accomplished by introducing a quasilocal thermodynamic equilibrium, followed by a linear response approximation. Of particular interest is the constitutive relation for the heat flux, which is expressed nonlocally in terms of the spatial and temporal variation of the temperature. Nanowires made of copper and silicon are presented as examples. PMID:25314400

  2. Measurements of absorbed heat flux and water-side heat transfer coefficient in water wall tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Kowal, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    The tubular type instrument (flux tube) was developed to identify boundary conditions in water wall tubes of steam boilers. The meter is constructed from a short length of eccentric tube containing four thermocouples on the fire side below the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. The fifth thermocouple is located at the rear of the tube on the casing side of the water-wall tube. The boundary conditions on the outer and inner surfaces of the water flux-tube are determined based on temperature measurements at the interior locations. Four K-type sheathed thermocouples of 1 mm in diameter, are inserted into holes, which are parallel to the tube axis. The non-linear least squares problem is solved numerically using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The heat transfer conditions in adjacent boiler tubes have no impact on the temperature distribution in the flux tubes.

  3. Evaluation of sensible heat flux from remote sensing and eddy correlation data for two Portuguese cork-oak forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, John; Paço, Teresa A.; Silva, Filipe Costa e.; David, Jorge S.; Pereira, João S.; Rufino, Iana; Galvão, Carlos; Valente, Fernanda

    2015-04-01

    Energy balance is a major determinant of Earth surface temperature and climate. However, the physics of energy balance computations are complex and vary in space and in time. Most of the data available on the energy balance of non-agricultural systems is from local measurements, only representative of the area around the measuring point. To overcome this, remote sensing techniques have been widely used, particularly in studies on the temporal land-cover changes and on their influences on the energy and water balances. Several remote sensors with different spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions have been used to understand these processes. In many applications, the main objective is to understand how landscape's changes over time can influence regional climate. Orbital information enables the analysis of the spatial and temporal features of the Earth's surface, and to understand the interactions between different land-cover types with topography, atmospheric and anthropogenic action. However, to test for accuracy and precision, data from satellite sensors and their derivatives need to be compared with ground-level field data. This study evaluates and tests sensible heat flux data obtained from the SEBAL algorithm using images by Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor aboard Landsat 5 satellite. These sensible heat flux data were compared with those of two ground level experiments, with the Eddy Covariance technique, in Évora and Coruche, Portugal. The footprints of the sensible heat flux measurements were calculated for six scenes of sensor TM, allowing the comparison between satellite data and surface flux data. Results showed a high correlation between sensible heat flux data derived from remote sense and ground-level measurements (R2=0.94). We conclude that the remote sensing technique is useful in estimating this energy balance component and may contribute to the understanding of vegetation dynamics.

  4. Dynamics of Soil Heat Flux in Lowland Area: Estimating the Soil Thermal Conductivy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, T.; Silveira, M. V.; Roberti, D. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, it is shown soil thermal conductivity estimates in a flooded irrigated rice culture located at the Paraíso do Sul city for two distinct periods. The thermal conductivity is higher when the heat storage is higher and the soil surface temperature is lower. The soil thermal conductivity is also dependant on the soil texture, porosity and moisture. Therefore, it varies from soil to soil and in the same soil, depending on its soil moisture. For approximately 80% of its growing season, lowland flooded irrigated rice ecosystems stay under a 5 - 10 cm water layer. It affects the partitioning of the energy and water balance components. Furthermore this planting technique differs substantially from any other upland non-irrigated or irrigated crop ecosystems where the majority of observational studies have been conducted. In the present work, the dynamic of soil heat flux (G) is analyzed and the soil thermal conductivity (Ks) is estimated using experimental data form soil heat flux and soil temperature in a rice paddy farm in a subtropical location in Southern Brazil. In this region, rice grows once a year at river lowlands and wetlands while the ground is kept bare during the remaining of the year. The soil type is Planossolo Hidromórfico Distrófico, characterized as a mix between sandy and clay soil. The soil heat flux (G) was experimentally estimated with the sensor Hukseflux (HFP01SC-L) at 7 cm bellow the soil surface. The soil temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm was experimentally estimated using the sensor STP01. The experimental soil heat flux was compared with estimated soil heat flux by two forms: (1) using a know Ks from literature for this type of soil in saturated conditions (Ks=1.58); (2) using Ks estimated using the inversion of the equation Qg=-ks* ((T10-T5)/ (Z2-Z1)), where T10 and T5 are the temperature in 10 and 5 cm above the soil and Z2-Z1 is the difference between the positions in temperature measurement. The study period for estimating the Ks

  5. Critical Heat Flux In Inclined Rectangular Narrow Long Channel

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; S. W. Noh; Y. H. Kim; K. Y. Suh; F.B.Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2005-05-01

    In the TMI-2 accident, the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel had been overheated and then rather rapidly cooled down, as was later identified in a vessel investigation project. This accounted for the possibility of gap cooling feasibility. For this reason, several investigations were performed to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) from the standpoint of invessel retention. The experiments are conducted to investigate the general boiling phenomena, and the triggering mechanism for the CHF in a narrow gap using a 5 x 105 mm2 crevice type heater assembly and de-mineralized water. The test parameters include the gap size of 5 mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward facing position (180o) to the vertical position (90o). The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape from the narrow gap. The CHF is less than that in a shorter channel, compared with the previous experiments having a heated length of 35 mmin the copper test section.

  6. Numerical simulation of heat fluxes in a two-temperature plasma at shock tube walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E. A.; Poniaev, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulation of a two-temperature three-component Xenon plasma flow is presented. A solver based on the OpenFOAM CFD software package is developed. The heat flux at the shock tube end wall is calculated and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the heat flux due to electrons can be as high as 14% of the total heat flux.

  7. Fast nanoscale heat-flux modulation with phase-change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Joulain, K.; Ben Abdallah, P.; Greffet, J. J.; Chevrier, J.

    2011-05-01

    We introduce a concept for electrically controlled heat-flux modulation. A flux contrast larger than 10 dB is expected with switching time on the order of tens of nanoseconds. Heat-flux modulation is based on the interplay between radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale and phase-change materials. Such large contrasts are not obtainable in solids, or in far field. As such, this opens up new horizons for temperature modulation and actuation at the nanoscale.

  8. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  9. Environmental Assessment of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, P.; Saner, D.; Juraske, R.; Kübert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Ground source heat pump systems (GSHPs) represent the most frequent geothermal application. Because of the economic and environmental benefits of GSHPs in comparison with other technologies for space-heating, cooling, and warm-water provision, an exponential growth rate for these systems is predicted for the coming decades. GSHPs are considered to have a low environmental impact. However, they are not fully renewable. Devices such as borehole heat exchangers have to be installed and maintained, and during operation a heat pump continuously consumes electricity from the grid. In order to assess the environmental benefits of such technologies, the complete life-cycle of all technological elements has to be examined. This life-cycle includes drilling, installation, operation and disposal phase of GSHP application, and all background process for device production, transport and power generation. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of a GSHP life cycle. The environmental relevance of individual technological elements is rated for a number of environmental indicators, including CO2 savings potential, ozone layer depletion, soil ecotoxicological potential, and impacts on the local aquifer. The role of primary energy used for heat pump operation is discussed, and comparison is made with alternative conventional space-conditioning systems.

  10. Critical Heat Flux in Inclined Rectangular Narrow Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong J. Kim; Yong H. Kim; Seong J. Kim; Sang W. Noh; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-06-01

    In light of the TMI-2 accident, in which the reactor vessel lower head survived the attack by molten core material, the in-vessel retention strategy was suggested to benefit from cooling the debris through a gap between the lower head and the core material. The GAMMA 1D (Gap Apparatus Mitigating Melt Attack One Dimensional) tests were conducted to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) in narrow gaps with varying surface orientations. The CHF in an inclined gap, especially in case of the downward-facing narrow gap, is dictated by bubble behavior because the departing bubbles are squeezed. The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape of the bubbles from the narrow gap. The test parameters include gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm and the open periphery, and the orientation angles range from the fully downward-facing (180o) to the vertical (90o) position. The 15 ×35 mm copper test section was electrically heated by the thin film resistor on the back. The heater assembly was installed to the tip of the rotating arm in the heated water pool at the atmospheric pressure. The bubble behavior was photographed utilizing a high-speed camera through the Pyrex glass spacer. It was observed that the CHF decreased as the surface inclination angle increased and as the gap size decreased in most of the cases. However, the opposing results were obtained at certain surface orientations and gap sizes. Transition angles, at which the CHF changed in a rapid slope, were also detected, which is consistent with the existing literature. A semi-empirical CHF correlation was developed for the inclined narrow rectangular channels through dimensional analysis. The correlation provides with best-estimate CHF values for realistically assessing the thermal margin to failure of the lower head during a severe accident involving relocation of the core material.

  11. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  12. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Robert V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  13. Tests of a robust eddy correlation system for sensible heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanford, J. H.; Gay, L. W.

    1992-03-01

    Sensible heat flux estimates from a simple, one-propeller eddy correlation system (OPEC) were compared with those from a sonic anemometer eddy correlation system (SEC). In accordance with similarity theory, the performance of the OPEC system improved with increasing height of the sensor above the surface. Flux totals from the two systems at sites with adequate fetch were in excellent agreement after frequency response corrections were applied. The propeller system appears suitable for long periods of unattended measurement. The sensible heat flux measurements can be combined with net radiation and soil heat flux measurements to estimate latent heat as a residual in the surface energy balance.

  14. Effects of Temperature Gradients and Heat Fluxes on High-Temperature Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-04-01

    The effects of a temperature gradient and heat flux on point defect diffusion in protective oxide scales were examined. Irreversible thermodynamics were used to expand Fick’s first law of diffusion to include a heat-flux term—a Soret effect. Oxidation kinetics were developed for the oxidation of cobalt and of nickel doped with chromium. Research is described to verify the effects of a heat flux by oxidizing pure cobalt in a temperature gradient at 900 °C, and comparing the kinetics to isothermal oxidation. No evidence of a heat flux effect was found.

  15. Surface heat flux variability of a large lake: Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The heat budget of a lake is a fundamental component of physical limnology, and is strongly dependent on the surface heat flux. However, the surface energy exchange depends on several factors, making it difficult to estimate. In this study we employed several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's surface heat flux. Combination of different surface heat flux terms leads to a surface heat exchange model which requires various data. Different data sources were used in the heat flux estimates. Meteorological data were taken from an operational numerical weather prediction model, namely COSMO-2 (run by the Swiss meteorological service), while satellite imagery was used for the lake surface water temperature (LSWT). In order to find the best combination of the bulk formulas and to calibrate the model, the temporal evolution of the heat budget was estimated using long-term time series of vertical temperature profiles. Vertical temperature profiles at two points (one in the Lake Geneva's large basin and one in its small basin) were used. A sensitivity analysis was performed to find the key parameters, and more significantly the optimal combination of different heat flux terms. Finally, the spatio-temporal surface heat flux variation was calculated according to the proposed model. In addition, the relationship between variability of the surface heat flux and meteorological forcing was assessed. The different models, which are of differing complexity, gave reasonably consistent results, with differences attributed to simplifications inherent in them. The modeling results revealed that the LSWT and wind forcing are dominant factors underlying Lake Geneva surface heat flux spatial variation, while its temporal variability is mainly due to the global radiation and air temperature changes. In conclusion, the bulk heat balance approach is a useful tool to estimate various heat flux terms as well as their monthly or seasonally contributions. But, in large lakes where the LSWT is

  16. Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Alfred J.; Kurzeja, Robert J.; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Bollinger, James S.; Pendergast, Malcolm M.

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q" from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation σ of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q" can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing σ. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q" and σ when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between σ and q" of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q" computed from a function of σ and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q" (0.84 and 0.89). Finally, this research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

  17. Correlations of Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Flux for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    J. Yang; F. B. Cheung; J. L. Rempe; K. Y. Suh; S. B. Kim

    2005-07-01

    Four types of steady-state boiling experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of two distinctly different heat transfer enhancement methods for external reactor vessel cooling under severe accident conditions. One method involved the use of a thin vessel coating and the other involved the use of an enhanced insulation structure. By comparing the results obtained in the four types of experiments, the separate and integral effect of vessel coating and insulation structure were determined. Correlation equations were obtained for the nucleate boiling heat transfer and the critical heat flux. It was found that both enhancement methods were quite effective. Depending on the angular location, the local critical heat flux could be enhanced by 1.4 to 2.5 times using vessel coating alone whereas it could be enhanced by 1.8 to 3.0 times using an enhanced insulation structure alone. When both vessel coating and insulation structure were used simultaneously, the integral effect on the enhancement was found much less than the product of the two separate effects, indicating possible competing mechanisms (i.e., interference) between the two enhancement methods.

  18. Heat flux determination at the AWJ cutting zone using IR thermography and inverse heat conduction problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.S.; Kovacevic, R.; Beardsley, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    In abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting, the cutting tool is a thin stream of high velocity abrasive waterjet slurry which can be considered as a moving line heat source that increases the temperature of the narrow zone along the cut kerf wall. A suitably defined inverse heat conduction problem which uses the experimentally determined temperature histories at various points in the workpiece, is adopted to determine the heat flux at the cutting zone. Temperature distribution in the workpiece and the cutting nozzle during AWJ cutting is monitored using infrared thermography. A suitable strategy for on-line monitoring of the radial and axial wear of the AWJ nozzle based on the nozzle temperature distribution is also proposed.

  19. Apparatus for measuring high-flux heat transfer in radiatively heated compact exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus is described which can deliver uniform heat flux densities of up to 80 W/sq cm over an area 7.8 cm x 15.2 cm for use in measuring the heat transfer and pressure drop in thin (6 mm or less), compact heat exchangers. Helium gas at flow rates of 0 to 40 kg/h and pressures to 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) is the working fluid. The instrumentation used in the apparatus and the methods for analyzing the data is described. The apparatus will be used initially to test the performance of prototype cooling jackets for the engine struts of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).

  20. Thermal response to the surface heat flux in a macrotidal coastal region (Nuevo Gulf, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Andrés L.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Dellatorre, Fernando G.

    2016-07-01

    At mid-latitudes, sea water temperature shows a strong seasonal cycle forced by the incident surface heat flux. As depth decreases, the heat flux incidence is damped by the horizontal flux, which prevents the indefinite growth of the seasonal temperature range. In the present work, cross-shore transport in the west coast of Nuevo Gulf (Argentina) was analyzed. Processes tending to cool the coastal waters in summer and to warm the coastal waters in winter, were identified through temperature measurements, surface heat flux and tidal height. The simplified models proposed here provide a feedback mechanism that links changes in surface heat flux with changes in the horizontal heat flux during both seasons. On shorter time scales, tide produces significant variations in the height of the water column, therefore influencing temperature fluctuations and the direction of the horizontal flow.

  1. Heat Flux From the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. J.; McDuff, R. E.; Stahr, F. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Jakuba, M.

    2005-12-01

    The very essence of a hydrothermal system is transfer of heat by a convecting fluid, yet the flux of heat remains a poorly known quantity. Past studies of heat flux consisted primarily of point measurements of temperature and fluid flow at individual vent sites and inventories of the neutrally buoyant plume above the field. In 2000 the Flow Mow project used the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) to determine heat flux from Main Endeavour Field (MEF) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge by intersecting the stems of rising buoyant plumes. ABE carries instruments to measure conductivity, temperature and depth, and a MAVS current meter to determine the vertical velocity of the fluid, after correcting for vehicle motion. Complementary work on horizontal fluxes suggests that the vertical flux measured by ABE includes both the primary high buoyancy focused "smoker" sources and also entrained diffuse flow. In 2004, ABE was again used to determine heat flux not only from MEF, but also from the other four fields in the Endeavour Segment RIDGE 2000 Integrated Study Site. In this four year interval the flux of heat from MEF has declined by approximately a factor of two. The High Rise vent field has the greatest heat flux, followed by MEF, then Mothra, Salty Dawg and Sasquatch (of order 500, 300, 100, 50 MW respectively; heat flux at Sasquatch was below detection).

  2. Correlation of critical heat flux data for uniform tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Jafri, T.; Dougherty, T.J.; Yang, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    A data base of more than 10,000 critical heat flux (CHF) data points has been compiled and analyzed. Two regimes of CHF are observed which will be referred to as the high CHF regime and the low CHF regime. In the high CHF regime, for pressures less than 110 bar, CHF (q{sub c}) is a determined by local conditions and is adequately represented by q{sub c} = (1.2/D{sup 1/2}) exp[-{gamma}(GX{sub t}){sup 1/2}] where the parameter {gamma} is an increasing function of pressure only, X{sub t} the true mass fraction of steam, and all units are metric but the heat flux is in MWm{sup -2}. A simple kinetic model has been developed to estimate X{sub t} as a function of G, X, X{sub i}, and X{sub O}, where X{sub i} is the inlet quality and X{sub O} represents the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization (OSV) which is estimated from the Saha-Zuber (S-Z) correlation. The model is based on a rate equation for vaporization suggested by, and consistent with, the S-Z correlation and contains no adjustable parameters. When X{sub i}X{sub O}, X{sub t} depends on X{sub i}, a nonlocal variable, and, in this case, CHF, although determined by local conditions, obeys a nonlocal correlation. This model appears to be satisfactory for pressures less than 110 bar, where the S-Z correlation is known to be reliable. Above 110 bar the method of calculating X{sub O}, and consequently X{sub t}, appears to fail, so this approach can not be applied to high pressure CHF data. Above 35 bar, the bulk of the available data lies in the high CHF regime while, at pressures less than 35 bar, almost all of the available data lie in the low CHF regime and appear to be nonlocal.

  3. Satellite estimates of ocean-air heat fluxes during cold air outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Atlas, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for estimating the heat and moisture fluxes of coastal waters using the cloud free path, the sea surface temperature, and the saturation water vapor mixing ratio is presented. Generalized nomograms for the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are developed using the Stage and Businger (1981) mixed-layer model. The fluxes are found to be slightly dependent on wind speed. The results are found to be applicable to any path within the cloud-free region, with heat fluxes obtainable by multiplication of the mean heating by the mean wind speed in the boundary layer. Higher stability causes lowered heating. It is shown that the latent heat flux is linear. Applications of the method to lake-effect snowstorms and for verification of boundary-layer models are indicated.

  4. Comparison of Sensible Heat Flux from Eddy Covariance and Scintillometer over different land surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeweldi, D. A.; Gebremichael, M.; Summis, T.; Wang, J.; Miller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The large source of uncertainty in satellite-based evapotranspiration algorithm results from the estimation of sensible heat flux H. Traditionally eddy covariance sensors, and recently large-aperture scintillometers, have been used as ground truth to evaluate satellite-based H estimates. The two methods rely on different physical measurement principles, and represent different foot print sizes. In New Mexico, we conducted a field campaign during summer 2008 to compare H estimates obtained from the eddy covariance and scintillometer methods. During this field campaign, we installed sonic anemometers; one propeller eddy covariance (OPEC) equipped with net radiometer and soil heat flux sensors; large aperture scintillometer (LAS); and weather station consisting of wind speed, direction and radiation sensors over three different experimental areas consisting of different roughness conditions (desert, irrigated area and lake). Our results show the similarities and differences in H estimates obtained from these various methods over the different land surface conditions. Further, our results show that the H estimates obtained from the LAS agree with those obtained from the eddy covariance method when high frequency thermocouple temperature, instead of the typical weather station temperature measurements, is used in the LAS analysis.

  5. Ground-based estimates of outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation fluxes into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Rodger, Craig J.; Gamble, Rory J.; Ulich, Thomas; Raita, Tero; SeppäLä, Annika; Green, Janet C.; Thomson, Neil R.; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Parrot, Michel

    2010-12-01

    AARDDVARK data from a radio wave receiver in Sodankylä, Finland have been used to monitor transmissions across the auroral oval and just into the polar cap from the very low frequency communications transmitter, call sign NAA (24.0 kHz, 44°N, 67°W, L = 2.9), in Maine, USA, since 2004. The transmissions are influenced by outer radiation belt (L = 3-7) energetic electron precipitation. In this study, we have been able to show that the observed transmission amplitude variations can be used to determine routinely the flux of energetic electrons entering the upper atmosphere along the total path and between 30 and 90 km. Our analysis of the NAA observations shows that electron precipitation fluxes can vary by 3 orders of magnitude during geomagnetic storms. Typically when averaging over L = 3-7 we find that the >100 keV POES "trapped" fluxes peak at about 106 el. cm-2 s-1 sr-1 during geomagnetic storms, with the DEMETER >100 keV drift loss cone showing peak fluxes of 105 el. cm-2 s-1 sr-1, and both the POES >100 keV "loss" fluxes and the NAA ground-based >100 keV precipitation fluxes showing peaks of ˜104 el. cm-2 s-1 sr-1. During a geomagnetic storm in July 2005, there were systematic MLT variations in the fluxes observed: electron precipitation flux in the midnight sector (22-06 MLT) exceeded the fluxes from the morning side (0330-1130 MLT) and also from the afternoon sector (1130-1930 MLT). The analysis of NAA amplitude variability has the potential of providing a detailed, near real-time, picture of energetic electron precipitation fluxes from the outer radiation belts.

  6. Model sensitivity of ice flux over the grounding line to present-day climatic forcing and geothermal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Thomas; Humbert, Angelika

    2016-04-01

    Large uncertainties remain in the current and future contribution to sea level change from Antarctica from observations and numerical flow modelling. Within the SeaRISE project atmospheric, oceanic, and subglacial forcing scenarios were applied to different ice-sheet models to assess Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity over a 500 year timescale. The scenario results have been compared to the individual state of each model at the end of its spin-up. It has been shown, that the model results highly depend on the chosen climate forcing and spin-up strategy. Here we use the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) to perform spin-up simulations across different data sets for present-day boundary conditions for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (surface temperature, surface mass balance and geothermal flux). The utilized spin-up methods include free evolving and geometry constrained simulations. Here we present our analysis of the ice flux over the grounding line for each set-up and compare the fluxes from large drainage basin units with estimates derived from remote sensing.

  7. A 3-year dataset of sensible and latent heat fluxes from the Tibetan Plateau, derived using eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maoshan; Babel, Wolfgang; Chen, Xuelong; Zhang, Lang; Sun, Fanglin; Wang, Binbin; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong; Foken, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has become a focus of strong scientific interest due to its role in the global water cycle and its reaction to climate change. Regional flux estimates of sensible and latent heat are important variables for linking the energy and hydrological cycles at the TP's surface. Within this framework, a 3-year dataset (2008-2010) of eddy covariance measured turbulent fluxes was compiled from four stations on the TP into a standardised workflow: corrections and quality tests were applied using an internationally comparable software package. Second, the energy balance closure ( C EB) was determined and two different closure corrections applied. The four stations (Qomolangma, Linzhi, NamCo and Nagqu) represent different locations and typical land surface types on the TP (high altitude alpine steppe with sparse vegetation, a densely vegetated alpine meadow, and bare soil/gravel, respectively). We show that the C EB differs between each surface and undergoes seasonal changes. Typical differences in the turbulent energy fluxes occur between the stations at Qomolangma, Linzhi and NamCo, while Nagqu is quite similar to NamCo. Specific investigation of the pre-monsoon, the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon, post-monsoon and winter periods within the annual cycle reinforces these findings. The energy flux of the four sites is clearly influenced by the Tibetan Plateau monsoon. In the pre-monsoon period, sensible heat flux is the major energy source delivering heat to the atmosphere, whereas latent heat flux is greater than sensible heat flux during the monsoon season. Other factors affecting surface energy flux are topography and location. Land cover type also affects surface energy flux. The energy balance residuum indicates a typically observed overall non-closure in winter, while closure (or `turbulent over-closure') is achieved during the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon at the Nagqu site. The latter seems to depend on ground heat flux, which is higher in the

  8. Dispersion of Heat Flux Sensors Manufactured in Silicon Technology.

    PubMed

    Ziouche, Katir; Lejeune, Pascale; Bougrioua, Zahia; Leclercq, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the dispersion performances related to the manufacturing process of heat flux sensors realized in CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semi-conductor) compatible 3-in technology. In particular, we have studied the performance dispersion of our sensors and linked these to the physical characteristics of dispersion of the materials used. This information is mandatory to ensure low-cost manufacturing and especially to reduce production rejects during the fabrication process. The results obtained show that the measured sensitivity of the sensors is in the range 3.15 to 6.56 μV/(W/m²), associated with measured resistances ranging from 485 to 675 kΩ. The dispersions correspond to a Gaussian-type distribution with more than 90% determined around average sensitivity S e ¯ = 4.5 µV/(W/m²) and electrical resistance R ¯ = 573.5 kΩ within the interval between the average and, more or less, twice the relative standard deviation. PMID:27294929

  9. Comparative Calibration of Heat Flux Sensors in Two Blackbody Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, A. V.; Tsai, B. K.; Saunders, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of heat flux sensor calibrations in two blackbody facilities: the 25 mm variable temperature blackbody (VTBB) primary facility and a recently developed 51 mm aperture spherical blackbody (SPBB) facility. Three Schmidt-Boelter gages and a Gardon gage were calibrated with reference to an electrical substitution radiometer in the VTBB. One of the Schmidt-Boelter gages thus calibrated was used as a reference standard to calibrate other gages in the SPBB. Comparison of the Schmidt-Boelter gages calibrations in the SPBB and the VTBB agreed within the measurement uncertainties. For the Gardon gage, the measured responsivity in the SPBB showed a gradual decrease with increasing distance from the aperture. When the gage was located close to the aperture, a distance less than the aperture radius, the responsivity in the SPBB agreed with VTBB measurements. At a distance of about three times the aperture radius, the responsivity showed a decrease of about 4 %. This is probably due to higher convection loss from the Gardon gage surface compared to the Schmidt-Boelter sensor.

  10. Dispersion of Heat Flux Sensors Manufactured in Silicon Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ziouche, Katir; Lejeune, Pascale; Bougrioua, Zahia; Leclercq, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the dispersion performances related to the manufacturing process of heat flux sensors realized in CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semi-conductor) compatible 3-in technology. In particular, we have studied the performance dispersion of our sensors and linked these to the physical characteristics of dispersion of the materials used. This information is mandatory to ensure low-cost manufacturing and especially to reduce production rejects during the fabrication process. The results obtained show that the measured sensitivity of the sensors is in the range 3.15 to 6.56 μV/(W/m2), associated with measured resistances ranging from 485 to 675 kΩ. The dispersions correspond to a Gaussian-type distribution with more than 90% determined around average sensitivity Se¯ = 4.5 µV/(W/m2) and electrical resistance R¯ = 573.5 kΩ within the interval between the average and, more or less, twice the relative standard deviation. PMID:27294929

  11. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  12. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of High Heat Fluxes During Transient Blackbody Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.; Horn, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    High heat fluxes are encountered in numerous applications, such as hypersonic vehicles in flight, fires, and engines, Calibration of heat flux gages may be performed in a dual cavity cylindrical blackbody resulting in a transient calibration environment. To characterize the transient heat fluxes. experiments were performed on a dual cavity cylindrical blackbody at nominal temperatures varying from 800 C to 1900 C in increments of 100 C. Based on experiments, the optimum heat flux sensor insertion location as measured from the center partition was determined. The pre-insertion steady state axial temperature profile is compared experimentally, numerically, and analytically. The effect of convection in the blackbody cavity during the insertion is calculated and found to be less than 2 per cent. Also, an empirical correlation for predicting the emissivity of the blackbody is included. Detailed transient thermal models have been developed to simulate the heat flux calibration process at two extreme fluxes. The high (1MW/sq m) and relatively low (70 kw/sq m) fluxes are reported in this article. The transient models show the effect of inserting a heat flux gage at room temperature on the thermal equilibrium of the blackbody at 1800 C and 800 C nominal temperatures, respectively. Also, heat flux sensor outputs are derived from computed sensor temperature distributions and compared to experimental results.

  13. Use of boundary fluxes when simulating solute transport with the MODFLOW ground-water transport process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; Hornberger, G.Z.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes modifications to a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) threedimensional solute-transport model (MODFLOWGWT), which is incorporated into the USGS MODFLOW ground-water model as the Ground- Water Transport (GWT) Process. The modifications improve the capability of MODFLOW-GWT to accurately simulate solute transport in simulations that represent a nonzero flux across an aquifer boundary. In such situations, the new Boundary Flux Package (BFLX) will allow the user flexibility to assign the flux to specific cell faces, although that flexibility is limited for certain types of fluxes (such as recharge and evapotranspiration, which can only be assigned to the top face if either is to be represented as a boundary flux). The approach is consistent with that used in the MODPATH model. The application of the BFLX Package was illustrated using a test case in which the Lake Package was active. The results using the BFLX Package showed noticeably higher magnitudes of velocity in the cells adjacent to the lake than previous results without the BFLX Package. Consequently, solute was transported slightly faster through the lake-aquifer system when the BFLX Package is active. However, the overall solute distributions did not differ greatly from simulations made without using the BFLX Package.

  14. Time and Space Resolved Heat Transfer Measurements Under Nucleate Bubbles with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2003-01-01

    Investigations into single bubble pool boiling phenomena are often complicated by the difficulties in obtaining time and space resolved information in the bubble region. This usually occurs because the heaters and diagnostics used to measure heat transfer data are often on the order of, or larger than, the bubble characteristic length or region of influence. This has contributed to the development of many different and sometimes contradictory models of pool boiling phenomena and dominant heat transfer mechanisms. Recent investigations by Yaddanapyddi and Kim and Demiray and Kim have obtained time and space resolved heat transfer information at the bubble/heater interface under constant temperature conditions using a novel micro-heater array (10x10 array, each heater 100 microns on a side) that is semi-transparent and doubles as a measurement sensor. By using active feedback to maintain a state of constant temperature at the heater surface, they showed that the area of influence of bubbles generated in FC-72 was much smaller than predicted by standard models and that micro-conduction/micro-convection due to re-wetting dominated heat transfer effects. This study seeks to expand on the previous work by making time and space resolved measurements under bubbles nucleating on a micro-heater array operated under constant heat flux conditions. In the planned investigation, wall temperature measurements made under a single bubble nucleation site will be synchronized with high-speed video to allow analysis of the bubble energy removal from the wall.

  15. Pressure and heat flux effects on the heat transfer characteristics of liquid methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Chance P.

    The heat transfer effects on liquid methane are investigated with the use of a carbo-thermal rig at the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) located at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). The cSETR carbo-thermal rig design approach is presented along with the design of a methane condensing mobile unit (MCMU) to supply the laboratory and rig with liquid methane. The proposed research will generate useful insight in to heat transfer coefficient behavior, non-dimensional correlations, different flow conditions, varied inlet conditions, and varied heat flux for a subscale test article applicable to a regenerative cooled rocket engine cooling channel. The data found will also improve the knowledge base for liquid methane and non-toxic propulsion. Planned test parameters are from 1.03 to 2.07 MPa (150 to 300 psi) supply tank pressure, and 3.9 to 19 MW/m2 (2.39 to 11.6 Btu/in2-s). Presented are transient and steady state heat transfer response results depicting transient and steady state heat transfer effects tested at turbulent Reynolds numbers (15000 to 360000).

  16. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  17. A constitutive function for the heat flux in short-fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    A constitutive function for heat flux in short-fiber-reinforced composites is developed. The fiber orientation distribution is considered using second-order orientation tensor; therefore, the constitutive function for the heat flux will depend on the orientation tensor. The resulting orthotropic equation is discussed also in the context of energy efficiency of buildings.

  18. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  1. Regulation of the solar wind electron heat flux from 1 to 5 AU: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect

    Scime, E.E.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gary, S.P.; Phillips, J.L.; Balogh, A.

    1994-12-01

    In this study the authors use observations from the three-dimensional electron spectrometer and magnetometer aboard the Ulysses spacecraft to examine the solar wind electron heat flux from 1.2 to 5.4 AU in the ecliptic plane. Throughout Ulysses` transit to 5.4 AU, the electron heat flux decreases more rapidly ({approximately}R{sup {minus}3.0}) than simple collisionless expansion along the local magnetic field and is smaller than expected for a thermal gradient heat flux, q{sub {parallel}}e(r)={minus}k{sub {parallel}}{del}{sub {parallel}}T{sub e}(r). The radial gradients and magnitudes expected for a number of electron heat flux regulatory mechanisms are examined and compared to the observations. The best agreement is found for heat flux regulation by the whistler heat flux instability. The upper bound and radial scaling for the electron heat flux predicted for the whistler heat flux instability are consistent with observations.

  2. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Starks, Patrick; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated fluxes were compared with fluxes measured over wheat. The model Cupid was used to model the fluxes. Two or more automated weather stations, interrogated by radio frequency and other means, were utilized to examine some of the climatic variability of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) site, to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams from various locations at the site and to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes with measured values. Some bidirectional reflected and emitted radiation data were collected from 23 locations throughout the FIFE site. Analysis of these data along with analysis of the measured sensible and latent heat fluxes is just beginning.

  3. Arctic mass, freshwater and heat fluxes: methods and modelled seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Fawcett, Stephen; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-10-13

    Considering the Arctic Ocean (including sea ice) as a defined volume, we develop equations describing the time-varying fluxes of mass, heat and freshwater (FW) into, and storage of those quantities within, that volume. The seasonal cycles of fluxes and storage of mass, heat and FW are quantified and illustrated using output from a numerical model. The meanings of 'reference values' and FW fluxes are discussed, and the potential for error through the use of arbitrary reference values is examined. PMID:26347537

  4. Equation of DNB Heat Flux for Upward Forced Flow of Cryogenic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiotsu, M.; Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Hata, K.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.; Kinoshita, K.

    Knowledge of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) heat flux is important for design of superconducting systems cooled by cryogenic liquids. We have already presented the equation of DNB heat flux that can describe the experimental data of liquid hydrogen. To see the applicability of the equation to other cryogenic liquids, similar heat transfer tests in forced flow of liquid nitrogen are performed for wide ranges of conditions in this work. It was confirmed that the DNB heat flux equation derived by the authors can express not only the data for liquid hydrogen but also those for liquid nitrogen.

  5. Thin film heat flux sensor for Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine environment stresses engine components to their design limits and beyond. The extremely high temperatures and rapid temperature cycling can easily cause parts to fail if they are not properly designed. Thin film heat flux sensors can provide heat loading information with almost no disturbance of gas flows or of the blade. These sensors can provide steady state and transient heat flux information. A thin film heat flux sensor is described which makes it easier to measure small temperature differences across very thin insulating layers.

  6. The impact of land-surface wetness heterogeneity on mesoscale heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fei; Avissar, Roni

    1994-01-01

    Vertical heat fluxes associated with mesoscale circulations generated by land-surface wetness discontinuities are often stronger than turbulent fluxes, especially in the upper part of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer. As a result, they contribute significantly to the subgrid-scale fluxes in large-scale atmospheric models. Yet they are not considered in these models. To provide some insights into the possible parameterization of these fluxes in large-scale models, a state-of-the-art mesoscale numerical model was used to investigate the relationships between mesoscale heat fluxes and atmospheric and land-surface characteristics that play a key role in the generation of mesoscale circulations. The distribution of land-surface wetness, the wavenumber and the wavelength of the land-surface discontinuities, and the large-scale wind speed have a significant impact on the mesoscale heat fluxes. Empirical functions were derived to characterize the relationships between mesoscale heat fluxes and the spatial distribution of land-surface wetness. The strongest mesoscale heat fluxes were obtained for a wavelength of forcing corresponding approximately to the local Rossby deformation radius. The mesoscale heat fluxes are weakened by large-scale background winds but remain significant even with moderate winds.

  7. Evaporation on/in Capillary Structures of High Heat Flux Two-Phase Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faghri, Amir; Khrustalev, Dmitry

    1996-01-01

    Two-phase devices (heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, loop heat pipes, and evaporators) have become recognized as key elements in thermal control systems of space platforms. Capillary and porous structures are necessary and widely used in these devices, especially in high heat flux and zero-g applications, to provide fluid transport and enhanced heat transfer during vaporization and condensation. However, some unexpected critical phenomena, such as dryout in long heat pipe evaporators and high thermal resistance of loop heat pipe evaporators with high heat fluxes, are possible and have been encountered in the use of two-phase devices in the low gravity environment. Therefore, a detailed fundamental investigation is proposed to better understand the fluid behavior in capillary-porous structures during vaporization at high heat fluxes. The present paper addresses some theoretical aspects of this investigation.

  8. Formation of extreme surface turbulent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilinina, N. D.; Gulev, S. K.; Gavrikov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The role of extreme surface turbulent fluxes in total oceanic heat loss in the North Atlantic is studied. The atmospheric circulation patterns enhancing ocean-atmosphere heat flux in regions with significant contributions of the extreme heat fluxes (up to 60% of the net heat loss) are analyzed. It is shown that extreme heat fluxes in the Gulf Stream and the Greenland and Labrador Seas occur in zones with maximal air pressure gradients, i.e., in cyclone-anticyclone interaction zones.

  9. The prototype of a detector for monitoring the cosmic radiation neutron flux on ground

    SciTech Connect

    Lelis Goncalez, Odair; Federico, Claudio Antonio; Mendes Prado, Adriane Cristina; Galhardo Vaz, Rafael; Tizziani Pazzianotto, Mauricio

    2013-05-06

    This work presents a comparison between the results of experimental tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the efficiency of a detector prototype for on-ground monitoring the cosmic radiation neutron flux. The experimental tests were made using one conventional {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source in several incidence angles and the results were compared to that ones obtained with a Monte Carlo simulation made with MCNPX Code.

  10. Influence of Leaf Area Index Prescriptions on Simulations of Heat, Moisture, and Carbon Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kala, Jatin; Decker, Mark; Exbrayat, Jean-Francois; Pitman, Andy J.; Carouge, Claire; Evans, Jason P.; Abramowitz, Gab; Mocko, David

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-area index (LAI), the total one-sided surface area of leaf per ground surface area, is a key component of land surface models. We investigate the influence of differing, plausible LAI prescriptions on heat, moisture, and carbon fluxes simulated by the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLEv1.4b) model over the Australian continent. A 15-member ensemble monthly LAI data-set is generated using the MODIS LAI product and gridded observations of temperature and precipitation. Offline simulations lasting 29 years (1980-2008) are carried out at 25 km resolution with the composite monthly means from the MODIS LAI product (control simulation) and compared with simulations using each of the 15-member ensemble monthly-varying LAI data-sets generated. The imposed changes in LAI did not strongly influence the sensible and latent fluxes but the carbon fluxes were more strongly affected. Croplands showed the largest sensitivity in gross primary production with differences ranging from -90 to 60 %. PFTs with high absolute LAI and low inter-annual variability, such as evergreen broadleaf trees, showed the least response to the different LAI prescriptions, whilst those with lower absolute LAI and higher inter-annual variability, such as croplands, were more sensitive. We show that reliance on a single LAI prescription may not accurately reflect the uncertainty in the simulation of the terrestrial carbon fluxes, especially for PFTs with high inter-annual variability. Our study highlights that the accurate representation of LAI in land surface models is key to the simulation of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence this will become critical in quantifying the uncertainty in future changes in primary production.

  11. CVD diamond for optics applications in high heat flux environments

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Diamond has a cubic lattice structure and a very wide bandgap, which suggests that this material should exhibit excellent optical properties at wavelengths ranging from the far infrared to the near ultraviolet. Since diamond also exhibits unusually favorable properties in terms of mechanical strength, chemical stability, and thermal conductivity, there is considerable interest in using diamond for optics applications that involve adverse environmental conditions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated assessment of some of the issues that arise in connection with the use of chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond for applications such as missile system windows or domes, and for designing components that must function in the high photon flux of high-power lasers. Specifically, since the flight velocities of future air-intercept missiles are projected to far exceed those of contemporary systems, this raises the issue of how to assess the capability of window/dome material candidates in an aero-thermal shock environment. In this context, it can be demonstrated that, compared to other candidate materials, diamond windows promise to deliver superior performances and should be able to meet any foreseeable requirement. Operation at high speeds, however, imposes limits on the tolerable window emittance to prevent blinding the seeker, and this issue leads to the conclusion that diamond is intrinsically unsuitable for operation in the 3- to 5-{micro}m spectral band. Concerning high-energy lasers, note that operational systems always include an optical train consisting of mirrors and windows, which must be capable of transporting and directing the beam without seriously degrading the nominal performance of the laser. In this regard, mirror-faceplate material candidates can be ranked on the basis of appropriate figures of merit, which demonstrate that diamond is of particular promise for high-heat-load applications that require efficient cooling.

  12. Steady-State and Frequency Response of a Thin-Film Heat Flux Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Bhatt, Hemanshu D.; Cho, Chistopher S.

    1997-01-01

    A new and simpler design of thin-film heat flux gauge has been developed for use In high-heat-flux environments. Heat flux gauges of the same design were fabricated on three different substrates and tested. The heat flux gauge comprises a thermopile and a thermocouple junction, which measures the surface temperature. The thermopile has 40 pairs of S-type thermocouples and is covered by two thermal resistance layers. Calibration and testing of these gauges were first carried out in an arc-lamp calibration facility. Sensitivity of the gauge was discussed in terms of the relative conductivity and surface temperature. The heat flux calculated from the gauge output was In good agreement with the precalibrated standard sensor. The steady-state and the transient response characteristics of the heat flux gauge were also investigated using a carbon dioxide pulse laser as a heat source. The dynamic frequency response was evaluated in terms of the nondimensional amplitude ratio with respect to the frequency spectrum of a chopped laser bcam. The frequency response of the gauge was determined to be about 3 kHz. The temperature profiles in the thin-film heat flux gauge were obtained numerically in steady-state conditions using FLUENT and compared with the experimental results.

  13. Effects of an externally imposed electric field on subcooled boiling critical heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, V.; Carrica, P.M.

    1995-07-01

    The effects of an externally imposed electric field on critical heat flux in subcooled pool boiling have been experimentally studied. The test section was a 0.3 mm diameter platinum wire electrically heated. A coaxial cage with high voltage provided the outer electrode forming a cylindrical symmetric electric field around the heater. It was observed that the effect of the electric field on critical heat flux decreases as subcooling increases.

  14. Estimation of the average surface heat flux over an inhomogeneous terrain from the vertical velocity variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eilts, M. D.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Evans, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    An indirect method of estimating the surface heat flux from observations of vertical velocity variance at the lower mid-levels of the convective atmospheric boundary layer is described. Comparison of surface heat flux estimates with those from boundary-layer heating rates is good, and this method seems to be especially suitable for inhomogeneous terrain for which the surface-layer profile method cannot be used.

  15. Uncertainty analysis of heat flux measurements estimated using a one-dimensional, inverse heat-conduction program.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas; Figueroa, Victor G.; Murphy, Jill E.

    2005-02-01

    The measurement of heat flux in hydrocarbon fuel fires (e.g., diesel or JP-8) is difficult due to high temperatures and the sooty environment. Un-cooled commercially available heat flux gages do not survive in long duration fires, and cooled gages often become covered with soot, thus changing the gage calibration. An alternate method that is rugged and relatively inexpensive is based on inverse heat conduction methods. Inverse heat-conduction methods estimate absorbed heat flux at specific material interfaces using temperature/time histories, boundary conditions, material properties, and usually an assumption of one-dimensional (1-D) heat flow. This method is commonly used at Sandia.s fire test facilities. In this report, an uncertainty analysis was performed for a specific example to quantify the effect of input parameter variations on the estimated heat flux when using the inverse heat conduction method. The approach used was to compare results from a number of cases using modified inputs to a base-case. The response of a 304 stainless-steel cylinder [about 30.5 cm (12-in.) in diameter and 0.32-cm-thick (1/8-in.)] filled with 2.5-cm-thick (1-in.) ceramic fiber insulation was examined. Input parameters of an inverse heat conduction program varied were steel-wall thickness, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity; insulation thickness, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity, temperature uncertainty, boundary conditions, temperature sampling period; and numerical inputs. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed in all cases. Results of the analysis show that, at the maximum heat flux, the most important parameters were temperature uncertainty, steel thickness and steel volumetric heat capacity. The use of a constant thermal properties rather than temperature dependent values also made a significant difference in the resultant heat flux; therefore, temperature-dependent values should be used. As an example, several parameters were varied to

  16. Induced convective enhancement of the critical heat flux from partially heated horizontal flat plates in saturated pool boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Bockwoldt, T.S.; Jeter, S.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Hartley, J.G. )

    1992-05-01

    Current developments in high-power electronics and other energy-intensive applications have accentuated the need for higher performance heat transfer. Nucleate boiling heat transfer is one of the most effective modes of heat transfer, with pool boiling being perhaps the simplest type of passive two-phase cooling. Unfortunately, the maximum heat flux attainable in nucleate pool boiling is limited by the relatively low critical heat flux at the onset of film boiling. Several methods have been suggested to enhance the critical heat flux. In particular, Costello et al. showed that the critical heat flux in saturated pool boiling could be enhanced by simply increasing the width of the pool while maintaining a fixed heater size. Elkassabgi and Lienhard examined the combined effects of immersion depth and pool size on the critical heat flux for a small-diameter horizontal cylinder in saturated pool boiling. No similar study for flat plate heaters appears in the literature. While as noted above the effect of heater appears in the literature. While as noted above the effect of heater appears in the literature. While as noted above the effect of heater size and immersion depth have been studied independently, no systematic investigation of the combined effects has been conducted previously. This paper presents the results of such a study.

  17. Diurnal and seasonal trends in total gaseous mercury flux from three urban ground surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Mark C.; Williamson, Derek G.; Zhang, Hong; Brooks, Steve; Lindberg, Steve

    Total gaseous mercury flux measurements were carried out over three urban ground surfaces for 1 year in Tuscaloosa, AL, USA. The objective was to provide insight into the characteristics of gaseous mercury flux from urban surface covers. Bare soil, grass, and pavement surfaces were sampled as the most representative terrestrial surfaces throughout Tuscaloosa. Measurements were quantified over diurnal and seasonal periods and relationships were developed between flux from each surface and major meteorological parameters. Averaging data over the entire year, fluxes from each surface were as follows: bare soil (6.48 ng/m -2 h), pavement (0.02 ng/m -2 h), and grass (0.28 ng/m -2 h). Pavement and many grass fluxes were small and arguably indistinguishable from chamber blanks. The soil surface displayed the largest difference between evening and daytime flux, particularly during the spring and summer seasons (i.e., evening low (12 ng/m -2 h) to daytime high (30 ng/m -2 h) during summer). The grass surface showed the largest amount of atmospheric deposition, mainly during the spring and fall periods (up to -2.31 ng/m -2 h), with pavement showing somewhat less (up to -1.05 ng/m -2 h). Bare soil showed very little to negligible deposition. Diurnal flux variance was greater than seasonal flux variance for all surfaces. The regression results demonstrate that despite the highly dissimilar physical and geochemical make-up of pavement, bare soil, and grass, each surface displayed similar responses to time series change in meteorological parameters. However, each surface may be seasonally controlled or limited by different sets of meteorological parameters.

  18. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, V. D.; Rice, K.; Murphy, R.; Munk, J.; Ally, Moonis; Shen, Bo; Craddick, William; Hearn, Shawn A.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test

  19. Comparative Calculation of Heat Exchange with the Ground in Residential Building Including Periodes of Heat Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszczuk, Anna; Kuczyński, Tadeusz; Wojciech, Magdalena; Ziembicki, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    The paper provides verification of 3D transient ground-coupled model to calculation of heat exchange between ground and typical one-storey, passive residential building. The model was performed with computer software WUFI®plus and carried out to estimate the indoor air temperatures during extending hot weather periods. For verifying the results of calculations performed by the WUFI®plus software, the most recent version of EnergyPlus software version was used. Comparison analysis of calculation results obtained with the two above mentioned calculation method was made for two scenarios of slab on ground constructions: without thermal insulation and with thermal insulation under the whole slab area. Comprehensive statistical analysis was done including time series analysis and descriptive statistics parameters.

  20. Experimental study on measurement and calculation of heat flux in supersonic combustor of scramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cong; Yao, Zhanli; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen

    2015-06-01

    An experimental measurement and calculation method which consist of thermal response model, convergence criteria and control algorithms, is proposed in this paper for the determination of heat flux in a scramjet combustor. Numerical simulations are done to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and experiments are made in the direct-connect hydrocarbon fueled scramjet combustor of Mach-6 flight for different equivalence ratios. The distribution of heat flux along the axial and circumferential directions can be obtained using the proposed method. The distribution of heat flux is uneven which is caused by the aerodynamic heating, combustion heat release and changes of section area, and the peak heat flux can be more than 2MW/m2 during the experiments. Heat flux increases with the increase in equivalence ratio for the same Mach number. And axial distribution of heat flux is uniform for different equivalence ratios. In addition, the combustion heat release area of the combustion chamber can therefore be concluded which is useful for guiding the structural design of the thermal protection system.

  1. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219

  2. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature.

    PubMed

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219

  3. Elastic thickness and heat flux estimates for the uranian satellite Ariel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, G.; Nimmo, F.; Schenk, P.

    2015-04-01

    The surface of Ariel, an icy satellite orbiting Uranus, shows extensional tectonic features suggesting an episode of endogenic heating in the satellite's past. Using topography derived from stereo-photoclinometry, we identified flexural uplift at a rift zone suggesting elastic thickness values in the range 3.8-4.4 km. We estimate the temperature at the base of the lithosphere to be in the range 99-146 K, depending on the strain rate assumed, with corresponding heat fluxes of 28-92 mW/m2. Neither tidal heating, assuming Ariel's current eccentricity, nor radiogenic heat production from the silicate core are enough to cause the inferred heat fluxes. None of three proposed ancient mean-motion resonances produce equilibrium tidal heating values in excess of 4.3 mW/m2. Thus, the origin of the inferred high heat fluxes is currently mysterious.

  4. Enhancement of critical heat flux in tubes using staged tangential flow injection: (Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Dhir, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of the enhancement in single and two phase heat transfer from tubes subjected to tangential flow injection have been continuing. Investigations using water as the test liquid have been focused on: single phase heat transfer coefficients; two phase heat transfer coefficients under subcooled boiling conditions; subcooled critical heat fluxes; and modeling of the enhancement under swirl flow conditions. With tangential injection up to four fold increase in the average heat transfer coefficient has been observed. During subcooled boiling the enhancement is relatively small. However swirl induced centripetal force increases vapor escape velocity and as a result higher critical heat fluxes can be accommodated. In the range of flow parameters studied up to 40% enhancement in critical heat flux has been observed with single stage injection. This enhancement is slightly less than that obtained with Freon-113. The mechanistic reasons for this observation are currently being investigated.

  5. Enhancement of critical heat flux in tubes using staged tangential flow injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhir, V. K.

    Experimental studies of the enhancement in single and two phase heat transfer from tubes subjected to tangential flow injection have been continuing. Investigations using water as the test liquid have been focused on: single phase heat transfer coefficients; two phase heat transfer coefficients under subcooled boiling conditions; subcooled critical heat fluxes; and modeling of the enhancement under swirl flow conditions. With tangential injection up to four fold increase in the average heat transfer coefficient has been observed. During subcooled boiling the enhancement is relatively small. However swirl induced centripetal force increases vapor escape velocity and as a result higher critical heat fluxes can be accommodated. In the range of flow parameters studied up to 40% enhancement in critical heat flux has been observed with single stage injection. This enhancement is slightly less than that obtained with Freon-113. The mechanistic reasons for this observation are currently being investigated.

  6. The effect of ocean heat flux on seasonal ice growth in Young Sound (Northeast Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Sergei; Dmitrenko, Igor; Babb, David; Rysgaard, Søren; Barber, David

    2015-07-01

    The seasonal ice cover plays an important role in the climate system limiting the exchange of heat and momentum across the air-water interface. Among other factors, sea ice is sensitive to the ocean heat flux. In this study, we use in situ oceanographic, sea ice, and meteorological data collected during winter 2013/2014 in Young Sound (YS) fjord in Northeast Greenland to estimate the ocean heat flux to the landfast ice cover. During the preceding ice-free summer, incident solar radiation caused sea surface temperatures of up to 5-6°C. Subsequently, this heat was transferred down to the intermediate depths, but returned to the surface and retarded ice growth throughout winter. Two different approaches were used to estimate the ocean heat fluxes; (i) a residual method based on a 1-D thermodynamic ice growth model and (ii) a bulk parameterization using friction velocities and available heat content of water beneath the ice. The average heat flux in the inner YS varied from 13 W m-2 in October-December to less than 2 W m-2 in January-May. An average heat flux of 9 W m-2 was calculated for the outer YS. Moreover, we show that the upward heat flux in the outer fjord is strongly modulated by surface outflow, which produced two maxima in heat flux (up to 18-24 W m-2) during 26 December to 27 January and from 11 February to 14 March. By May 2014, the upward ocean heat flux reduced the landfast ice thickness by 18% and 24% in the inner and outer YS, respectively.

  7. On the heating mechanism of magnetic flux loops in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, M. T.; Wu, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of physical heating mechanisms due to the ponderomotive forces exerted by turbulent waves along the solar atmosphere's curved magnetic flux loops. Results indicate that the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the flux loop can be classified into three parts, two of which represent the cooling or heating effect exerted by the ponderomotive force, while the third is the heating effect due to turbulent energy conversion from the localized plasma. This heating mechanism is used to illustrate solar atmospheric heating by means of an example that leads to the formulation of plages.

  8. Ground water discharge and the related nutrient and trace metal fluxes into Quincy bay, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Poppe, L J; Moffett, A M

    1993-03-01

    Measurement of the rate and direction of ground water flow beneath Wollaston Beach, Quincy, Massachusetts by use of a heat-pulsing flowmeter shows a mean velocity in the bulk sediment of 40 cm d(-1). The estimated total discharge of ground water into Quincy Bay during October 1990 was 1324-2177 m(3) d(-1), a relatively low ground water discharge rate. The tides have only a moderate effect on the rate and direction of this flow. Other important controls on the rate and volume of ground water flow are the limited thickness, geographic extent, and permeability of the aquifer. Comparisons of published streamflow data and estimates of ground water discharge indicate that ground water makes up between 7.4-12.1% of the gaged freshwater input into Quincy Bay. The data from this study suggest the ground water discharge is a less important recharge component to Quincy Bay than predicted by National Urban Runoff Program (NURP) models.The high nitrate and low nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the ground water at the backshore well sites and low nitrate and high nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the water flowing from the foreshore suggests that denitrification is active in the sediments. The low ground water flow rates and low nitrate concentrations in the foreshore samples suggest that little or no nitrate is surviving the denitrification process to affect the planktonic community. Similarly, oxidizing conditions in the aquifer and low trace metal concentrations in the ground water samples suggest that the metals may be precipitating and binding to sedimentary phases before impacting the bay. PMID:24227453

  9. An assessment of air-sea heat fluxes from ocean and coupled reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivieso, Maria; Haines, Keith; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Chang, You-Soon; Drevillon, Marie; Ferry, Nicolas; Fujii, Yosuke; Köhl, Armin; Storto, Andrea; Toyoda, Takahiro; Wang, Xiaochun; Waters, Jennifer; Xue, Yan; Yin, Yonghong; Barnier, Bernard; Hernandez, Fabrice; Kumar, Arun; Lee, Tong; Masina, Simona; Andrew Peterson, K.

    2015-10-01

    Sixteen monthly air-sea heat flux products from global ocean/coupled reanalyses are compared over 1993-2009 as part of the Ocean Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP). Objectives include assessing the global heat closure, the consistency of temporal variability, comparison with other flux products, and documenting errors against in situ flux measurements at a number of OceanSITES moorings. The ensemble of 16 ORA-IP flux estimates has a global positive bias over 1993-2009 of 4.2 ± 1.1 W m-2. Residual heat gain (i.e., surface flux + assimilation increments) is reduced to a small positive imbalance (typically, +1-2 W m-2). This compensation between surface fluxes and assimilation increments is concentrated in the upper 100 m. Implied steady meridional heat transports also improve by including assimilation sources, except near the equator. The ensemble spread in surface heat fluxes is dominated by turbulent fluxes (>40 W m-2 over the western boundary currents). The mean seasonal cycle is highly consistent, with variability between products mostly <10 W m-2. The interannual variability has consistent signal-to-noise ratio (~2) throughout the equatorial Pacific, reflecting ENSO variability. Comparisons at tropical buoy sites (10°S-15°N) over 2007-2009 showed too little ocean heat gain (i.e., flux into the ocean) in ORA-IP (up to 1/3 smaller than buoy measurements) primarily due to latent heat flux errors in ORA-IP. Comparisons with the Stratus buoy (20°S, 85°W) over a longer period, 2001-2009, also show the ORA-IP ensemble has 16 W m-2 smaller net heat gain, nearly all of which is due to too much latent cooling caused by differences in surface winds imposed in ORA-IP.

  10. Ground-based estimates of outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation fluxes into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodger, C. J.; Clilverd, M.; Gamble, R. J.; Ulich, T.; Raita, T.; Seppälä, A. M.; Green, J. C.; Thomson, N. R.; Sauvaud, J.; Parrot, M.

    2010-12-01

    The variations of subionospheric VLF amplitudes observed at ground-based receivers can be used to determine the flux of electrons precipitating into the ionosphere along the path between the transmitter and receiver. A network of VLF receivers has been established to observe the upper atmosphere (~40-85 km), and tools are being developed to extract electron precipitation fluxes from the observations of this network, which is termed AARDDVARK (Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-belt (Dynamic) Deposition - VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortium). AARDDVARK data from a radiowave receiver in Sodankylä, Finland have been used to monitor transmissions across the auroral oval and just into the polar cap from the very low frequency communications transmitter, call sign NAA, (24.0 kHz, 44°N, 67°W, L=2.9) in Maine, USA, since 2004. The propagating signals are influenced by outer radiation belt (L=3-7) energetic electron precipitation. In this study we show that the observed amplitude variations can be used to routinely determine the flux of energetic electrons entering the upper atmosphere along the entire path, and between 30-90 km in altitude. Our analysis of the NAA observations shows that electron precipitation fluxes can vary by three orders of magnitude during geomagnetic storms. Typically when averaging over L=3-7 we find that the >100 keV POES ‘trapped’ fluxes peak at about 106 el.cm-2s-1sr-1 during geomagnetic storms, with the DEMETER >100 keV drift loss cone showing peak fluxes of 105 el.cm-2s-1sr-1, and both the POES >100 keV ‘loss’ fluxes and the NAA ground-based >100 keV precipitation fluxes showing peaks of ~104 el.cm-2s-1sr-1. During a geomagnetic storm in July 2005 there were systematic MLT variations in the fluxes observed: electron precipitation flux in the midnight sector (22-06 MLT) exceeded the fluxes from the morning side (0330-1130 MLT) and also from the afternoon sector (1130-1930 MLT). The analysis of NAA amplitude variability has the potential of

  11. Ground surface temperature and continental heat gain: uncertainties from underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature changes at the Earth's surface propagate and are recorded underground as perturbations to the equilibrium thermal regime associated with the heat flow from the Earth's interior. Borehole climatology is concerned with the analysis and interpretation of these downward propagating subsurface temperature anomalies in terms of surface climate. Proper determination of the steady-state geothermal regime is therefore crucial because it is the reference against which climate-induced subsurface temperature anomalies are estimated. Here, we examine the effects of data noise on the determination of the steady-state geothermal regime of the subsurface and the subsequent impact on estimates of ground surface temperature (GST) history and heat gain. We carry out a series of Monte Carlo experiments using 1000 Gaussian noise realizations and depth sections of 100 and 200 m as for steady-state estimates depth intervals, as well as a range of data sampling intervals from 10 m to 0.02 m. Results indicate that typical uncertainties for 50 year averages are on the order of ±0.02 K for the most recent 100 year period. These uncertainties grow with decreasing sampling intervals, reaching about ±0.1 K for a 10 m sampling interval under identical conditions and target period. Uncertainties increase for progressively older periods, reaching ±0.3 K at 500 years before present for a 10 m sampling interval. The uncertainties in reconstructed GST histories for the Northern Hemisphere for the most recent 50 year period can reach a maximum of +/- 0.5 K in some areas. We suggest that continuous logging should be the preferred approach when measuring geothermal data for climate reconstructions, and that for those using the International Heat Flow Commission database for borehole climatology, the steady-state thermal conditions should be estimated from boreholes as deep as possible and using a large fitting depth range (˜100 m).

  12. Ground surface temperature and continental heat gain: Uncertainties from underground.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2015-04-01

    Temperature changes at the Earth's surface propagate and are recorded underground as perturbations to the equilibrium thermal regime associated with heat flow from the Earth's interior. Interpretation of these downward propagating subsurface temperature anomalies in terms of surface climate is the central role of Borehole Climatology. Robust determination of the steady-state geothermal regime is nevertheless crucial for these efforts, because it is the reference against which climate induced subsurface temperature anomalies are estimated. Here we examine the effects of data noise on the determination of the subsurface steady-state geothermal regime and the subsequent impact on estimates of ground surface temperature (GST) history and heat gain. We perform sets of Monte Carlo experiments using 1000 Gaussian noise realizations and depth sections of 100 and 200 m as depth intervals for steady-state estimates, as well as a range of data sampling intervals from 10 m to 0.02 m. Results indicate that typical uncertainties for 50-year averages are on the order of +/- 0.02 K for the most recent 100-year period. These uncertainties grow with decreasing sampling interval reaching about +/- 0.1 K for a 10-m sampling interval under identical conditions and target period. Uncertainties increase for progressively older periods, reaching +/- 0.3 K at 500 years before present for a 10-m sampling interval. The uncertainties in reconstructed GST histories for the Northern Hemisphere for the most recent 50-yr period can reach a maximum of +/- 0.5 K in some areas. We suggest that continuous logging should be the preferred approach when measuring geothermal data for climate reconstructions, and that for those using the International Heat Flow Commission database for borehole climatology, the steady-state thermal conditions should be estimated from boreholes as deep as possible and using a large fitting depth range (~100 m).

  13. Impact of ice cover in the Arctic on ocean-atmosphere turbulent heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selivanova, J. V.; Tilinina, N. D.; Gulev, S. K.; Dobrolubov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of spatiotemporal variability of the ice-covered area in the Arctic on the value and interannual dynamics of turbulent heat fluxes on the ocean-atmosphere border is considered. An expected inverse dependence of the heat fluxes integrated over the Arctic area and the area of ice is not detected. The largest interannual oscillations of heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere are timed to the varying position of the ice edge and, to a lesser extent, are connected with total area of ice. The role of the marginal ice zone in oceanic heat transfer is analyzed. In particular, it is shown that while moving along the marginal zone from the ice-free surface to the surface with an ice concentration of 0.8, latent and sensible heat fluxes are reduced by a factor of 2.5-3.

  14. E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kosuga, Y.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Gürcan, Ö. D.

    2014-05-15

    A novel theory to describe the formation of E×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing of the phase space density. The inclusion of the finite response time changes the model equation for avalanche dynamics from Burgers equation to a nonlinear telegraph equation. Based on the telegraph equation, the formation of heat flux jams is predicted. The growth rate and typical interval of jams are calculated. The connection of the jam interval to the typical step size of the E×B staircase is discussed.

  15. A study of oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents seas using the gridded Navy Fleet Numerical Oceanography Central surface analysis and the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) IIc cloudiness data bases. Monthly and annual means of net and turbulent heat fluxes are computed for the FGGE year 1979. The FGGE IIb data base consisting of individual observations provides particularly good data coverage in this region for a comparison with the gridded Navy winds and air temperatures. The standard errors of estimate between the Navy and FGGE IIb winds and air temperatures are 3.6 m/s and 2.5 C, respectively. The computations for the latent and sensible heat fluxes are based on bulk formulas with the same constant heat exchange coefficient of 0.0015. The results show extremely strong wintertime heat fluxes in the northern Greenland Sea and especially in the Barents Sea in contrast to previous studies.

  16. Self-Regulated Plasma Heat Flux Mitigation Due to Liquid Sn Vapor Shielding.

    PubMed

    van Eden, G G; Morgan, T W; Aussems, D U B; van den Berg, M A; Bystrov, K; van de Sanden, M C M

    2016-04-01

    A steady-state high-flux H or He plasma beam was balanced against the pressure of a Sn vapor cloud for the first time, resulting in a self-regulated heat flux intensity near the liquid surface. A temperature response of the liquid surface characterized by a decoupling from the received heating power and significant cooling of the plasma in the neutral Sn cloud were observed. The plasma heat flux impinging on the target was found to be mitigated, as heat was partially dissipated by volumetric processes in the vapor cloud rather than wholly by surface effects. These results motivate further exploration of liquid metal solutions to the critical challenge of heat and particle flux handling in fusion power plants. PMID:27081983

  17. Self-Regulated Plasma Heat Flux Mitigation Due to Liquid Sn Vapor Shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eden, G. G.; Morgan, T. W.; Aussems, D. U. B.; van den Berg, M. A.; Bystrov, K.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-04-01

    A steady-state high-flux H or He plasma beam was balanced against the pressure of a Sn vapor cloud for the first time, resulting in a self-regulated heat flux intensity near the liquid surface. A temperature response of the liquid surface characterized by a decoupling from the received heating power and significant cooling of the plasma in the neutral Sn cloud were observed. The plasma heat flux impinging on the target was found to be mitigated, as heat was partially dissipated by volumetric processes in the vapor cloud rather than wholly by surface effects. These results motivate further exploration of liquid metal solutions to the critical challenge of heat and particle flux handling in fusion power plants.

  18. New technique for the fabrication of miniature thin film heat flux gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Matthew; Chana, Kam; Povey, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    This paper details the improvements made to the design and fabrication of thin-film heat flux gauges at Oxford. These improvements have been driven by the desire to improve measurement accuracy and resolution in short duration wind-tunnel experiments. A thin-film heat flux gauge (TFHFG) measures heat flux by recording the temperature history of thin film resistive temperature sensors sputtered onto an insulating substrate. The heat flux can then be calculated using Fourier’s law of heat conduction. A new fabrication process utilising technology from the manufacture of flexible printed circuit boards is outlined, which enables the production of significantly smaller and more robust gauges than those previously used.

  19. Surface Catalysis and Oxidation on Stagnation Point Heat Flux Measurements in High Enthalpy Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, David M.; Terrazas-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Heat flux sensors are routinely used in arc jet facilities to determine heat transfer rates from plasma plume. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of surface composition changes on these heat flux sensors. Surface compositions can change due to oxidation and material deposition from the arc jet. Systematic surface analyses of the sensors were conducted before and after exposure to plasma. Currently copper is commonly used as surface material. Other surface materials were studied including nickel, constantan gold, platinum and silicon dioxide. The surfaces were exposed to plasma between 0.3 seconds and 3 seconds. Surface changes due to oxidation as well as copper deposition from the arc jets were observed. Results from changes in measured heat flux as a function of surface catalycity is given, along with a first assessment of enthalpy for these measurements. The use of cupric oxide is recommended for future heat flux measurements, due to its consistent surface composition arc jets.

  20. Parametric representation of heat and moisture fluxes in cloud-topped mixed layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penc, Richard S.; Albrecht, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    The Betts (1973, 1978) parametrization of heat and moisture fluxes is tested using measurements made in thin, broken, and solid stratocumulus clouds by the NCAR Electra off the California coast in June 1976. The turbulence data are used to determine updraft-downdraft properties, heat and moisture fluxes, spectra, and cospectra. From the convective properties, vertical mass flux profiles are obtained and examined for consistency. A convective scaling which is appropriate for cloud-topped mixed layers is discussed. The results demonstrate the usefulness of a mass flux formulation in modeling applications for cloud conditions varying between solid and broken.

  1. Estimates of land surface heat fluxes of the Mt. Everest region over the Tibetan Plateau utilizing ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Cunbo; Ma, Yaoming; Chen, Xuelong; Su, Zhongbo

    2016-02-01

    Regional land surface albedo, land surface temperature, net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were derived in the Mt. Everest area utilizing topographical enhanced surface energy balance system (TESEBS) model and nine scenes of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data under clear-sky and in-situ measurements at the QOMS station (the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The parameterization schemes for diffused and reflected downward shortwave radiation flux of the TESEBS model were improved by introducing the parameters sky-view factor (SVF) and terrain configuration factor (Ct). Then, a so-called C-correction method for land surface albedo was coupled into the TESEBS model to reduce the influences of topography. After topographical correction, the albedo of the dark tilted surface facing away from the Sun was compensated and albedo of the brightness surface facing the Sun was restrained. The downward shortwave radiation flux was broken down into three components including solar direct radiation flux, solar diffused radiation flux, and reflected solar radiation flux by surrounding terrain. The solar diffused radiation flux ranges from about 30 to 60 W/m2 at the satellite passing time on 6 January 2008. The reflected solar radiation flux changes from 0 to more than 100 W/m2 in the area covered by glaciers and snows. Thus, it is important to take the topographical effects into account in estimation of surface radiation balance in the mountainous area, especially in the glacier area. The retrieved land surface parameters, land surface radiation balance components, and the land surface energy balance components were evaluated by the field measurements in the QOMS station. The estimated results were very close to the in-situ observations with low mean bias errors, low root mean square errors and high correlation coefficients

  2. Electron heat flux dropouts in the solar wind - Evidence for interplanetary magnetic field reconnection?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Phillips, J. L.; Bame, S. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Smith, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    An examination of ISEE-3 data from 1978 reveal 25 electron heat flux dropout events ranging in duration from 20 min to over 11 hours. The heat flux dropouts are found to occur in association with high plasma densities, low plasma velocities, low ion and electron temperatures, and low magnetic field magnitudes. It is suggested that the heat flux dropout intervals may indicate that the spacecraft is sampling plasma regimes which are magnetically disconnected from the sun and instead are connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends.

  3. Extended hydrodynamic theory of the peak and minimum pool boiling heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linehard, J. H.; Dhir, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrodynamic theory of the extreme pool boiling heat fluxes is expanded to embrace a variety of problems that have not previously been analyzed. These problems include the prediction of the peak heat flux on a variety of finite heaters, the influence of viscosity on the Taylor and Helmoltz instability mechanisms with application to film boiling and to the peak heat flux in viscous liquids, the formalization of the analogy between high-current-density electrolysis and boiling, and the description of boiling in the low-gravity limit. The predictions are verified with a large number of new data.

  4. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program test report. Heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassnacht, P. O.

    1971-01-01

    A heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions is presented. Three tests were authorized to investigate whether heat flux measurements may be used as effective hazards evaluation criteria to determine safe quantity distances for pyrotechnics. A passive sensor study was conducted simultaneously to investigate their usefulness in recording events and conditions. It was concluded that heat flux measurements can effectively be used to evaluate hazards criteria and that passive sensors are an inexpensive tool to record certain events in the vicinity of deflagrating pyrotechnic stacks.

  5. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for high heat flux thrust chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Christopher M.

    -section components has become critical, but at the same time the service conditions have put our best alloy systems to their limits. As a result, implementation of cooling holes and thermal barrier coatings are new advances in hot-section technologies now looked at for modifications to reach higher temperature applications. Current thermal barrier coatings used in today's turbine applications is known as 8%yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and there are no coatings for current thrust chambers. Current research is looking at the applicability of 8%yttria-stabilized hafnia (YSH) for turbine applications and the implementation of 8%YSZ onto thrust chambers. This study intends to determine if the use of thermal barrier coatings are applicable for high heat flux thrust chambers using industrial YSZ will be advantageous for improvements in efficiency, thrust and longer service life by allowing the thrust chambers to be used more than once.

  6. Effects of Heat Flux, Oxygen Concentration and Glass Fiber Volume Fraction on Pyrolysate Mass Flux from Composite Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, D. B.; Lautenberger, C. W.; Yuan, Z.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental work on the effects of heat flux, oxygen concentration and glass fiber volume fraction on pyrolysate mass flux from samples of polypropylene/glass fiber composite (PP/G) is underway. The research is conducted as part of a larger project to develop a test methodology for flammability of materials, particularly composites, in the microgravity and variable oxygen concentration environment of spacecraft and space structures. Samples of PP/G sized at 30 x 30 x 10 mm are flush mounted in a flow tunnel, which provides a flow of oxidizer over the surface of the samples at a fixed value of 1 m/s and oxygen concentrations varying between 18 and 30%. Each sample is exposed to a constant external radiant heat flux at a given value, which varies between tests from 10 to 24 kW/sq m. Continuous sample mass loss and surface temperature measurements are recorded for each test. Some tests are conducted with an igniter and some are not. In the former case, the research goal is to quantify the critical mass flux at ignition for the various environmental and material conditions described above. The later case generates a wider range of mass flux rates than those seen prior to ignition, providing an opportunity to examine the protective effects of blowing on oxidative pyrolysis and heating of the surface. Graphs of surface temperature and sample mass loss vs. time for samples of 30% PPG at oxygen concentrations of 18 and 21% are presented in the figures below. These figures give a clear indication of the lower pyrolysis rate and extended time to ignition that accompany a lower oxygen concentration. Analysis of the mass flux rate at the time of ignition gives good repeatability but requires further work to provide a clear indication of mass flux trends accompanying changes in environmental and material properties.

  7. Effects of Heat Flux, Oxygen Concentration and Glass Fiber Volume Fraction on Pyrolysate Mass Flux from Composite Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, D. B.; Lautenberger, C. W.; Yuan, Z.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental work on the effects of heat flux, oxygen concentration and glass fiber volume fraction on pyrolysate mass flux from samples of polypropylene/glass fiber composite (PP/G) is underway. The research is conducted as part of a larger project to develop a test methodology for flammability of materials, particularly composites, in the microgravity and variable oxygen concentration environment of spacecraft and space structures. Samples of PP/G sized at 30x30x10 mm are flush mounted in a flow tunnel, which provides a flow of oxidizer over the surface of the samples at a fixed value of 1 m/s and oxygen concentrations varying between 18 and 30%. Each sample is exposed to a constant external radiant heat flux at a given value, which varies between tests from 10 to 24 kW/m2. Continuous sample mass loss and surface temperature measurements are recorded for each test. Some tests are conducted with an igniter and some are not. In the former case, the research goal is to quantify the critical mass flux at ignition for the various environmental and material conditions described above. The later case generates a wider range of mass flux rates than those seen prior to ignition, providing an opportunity to examine the protective effects of blowing on oxidative pyrolysis and heating of the surface. Graphs of surface temperature and sample mass loss vs. time for samples of 30% PPG at oxygen concentrations of 18 and 21% are presented in the figures below. These figures give a clear indication of the lower pyrolysis rate and extended time to ignition that accompany a lower oxygen concentration. Analysis of the mass flux rate at the time of ignition gives good repeatability but requires further work to provide a clear indication of mass flux trends accompanying changes in environmental and material properties.

  8. Institute for High Heat Flux Removal (IHHFR). Phases I, II, and III

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    2014-08-31

    The IHHFR focused on interdisciplinary applications as it relates to high heat flux engineering issues and problems which arise due to engineering systems being miniaturized, optimized, or requiring increased high heat flux performance. The work in the IHHFR focused on water as a coolant and includes: (1) the development, design, and construction of the high heat flux flow loop and facility; (2) test section development, design, and fabrication; and, (3) single-side heat flux experiments to produce 2-D boiling curves and 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements for single-side heated test sections. This work provides data for comparisons with previously developed and new single-side heated correlations and approaches that address the single-side heated effect on heat transfer. In addition, this work includes the addition of single-side heated circular TS and a monoblock test section with a helical wire insert. Finally, the present work includes: (1) data base expansion for the monoblock with a helical wire insert (only for the latter geometry), (2) prediction and verification using finite element, (3) monoblock model and methodology development analyses, and (4) an alternate model development for a hypervapotron and related conjugate heat transfer controlling parameters.

  9. An airborne study of boundary layer heat and moisture fluxes for project FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of work accomplished during the first International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment is presented. The Wyoming King Air participated in Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) 3 and 4 in 1987, which were committed to a combination of airborne sensible and latent heat flux measurements and soil moisture mappings, with the University of Kansas' X-band side-looking airborne radar (SLAR). A total of 9 flux missions were flown in 1987 using several different flight designs. A critical decision in the first round of aircraft flux analyses, agreed to by all the flux aircraft investigators, was to pass the aircraft data through a high-pass filter prior to the eddy-correlation flux calculations. Several conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) boundary layer (BL) profiles of heat fluxes were usually linear; (2) high-pass filtering applied to the aircraft data did not add to the disagreement between the profile; (3) undersampling at high frequencies could have accounted for as much as a 15 percent underestimate of surface fluxes; (4) disagreement between the aircraft and surface latent heat fluxes changed signs between summer and fall; (5) magnitude and sign of disagreement between aircraft and surface heat fluxes varied systematically with BL depth or height of aircraft profile; and (6) Bowen ratios from both detrended and filtered aircraft data agreed with surface values better for moist, summer cases than for dry cases.

  10. Combining Heat and Mass Flux Methods for Estimating Real-Time Evaporation from a Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, T. J.; Schladow, G.; Hook, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the heat and mass fluxes associated with evaporation from lakes and reservoirs is achallenge for hydrologists and water managers. This is in large part due to a lack of comprehensivemeasurement data for most systems, which is itself related to the inherent difficulties associated withmeasuring turbulent quantities. An alternative to direct measurement is to develop better models for theevaporative flux, based on the mean terms (as opposed to the turbulent terms) that drive evaporation.Algorithms for the evaporative heat and mass flux must reflect changes in heat storage in the system aswell as the other components of a mass balance (inflow, outflow, and precipitation). The energy budget basedapproach requires records of all the other energy fluxes across the air-water interface to separateout the latent heat component. Other approaches utilize the similarity between atmospheric velocity,temperature and humidity profiles. This study seeks to combine these approaches to build and calibrateheat flux models that can be used to accurately recreate a long-term record of mass storage changefrom a sub-set of meteorological data, lake surface temperature data, and hydrologic observations. Highfrequency lake level data are used to check that the mass balance is in fact achieved. Good agreement isshown between the heat flux methods and the mass balance results through comparison with a three-yearrecord of lake level. The results demonstrate that a combination of mass and heat flux approaches canbe used to generate accurate values of evaporation on daily or even sub-daily time-scales.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Flow Through Equilateral Triangular Duct Under Constant Wall Heat Flux Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Kumar, Anoop; Goel, Varun

    2016-06-01

    The force convective heat transfer in an equilateral triangular duct of different wall heat flux configurations was analysed for the laminar hydro-dynamically developed and thermally developing flow by the use of finite volume method. Unstructured meshing was generated by multi-block technique and set of governing equations were discretized using second-order accurate up-wind scheme and numerically solved by SIMPLE Algorithm. For ensuring accuracy, grid independence study was also done. Numerical methodology was verified by comparing results with previous work and predicted results showed good agreement with them (within error of ±5 %). The different combinations of constant heat flux boundary condition were analysed and their effect on heat transfer and fluid flow for different Reynolds number was also studied. The results of different combinations were compared with the case of force convective heat transfer in the equilateral triangular duct with constant heat flux on all three walls.

  12. Influence of heat generation and heat flux on peristaltic flow with interacting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Raza, M.; Ellahi, R.

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we have examined the peristaltic flow of three different nanoparticles with water as base fluid under the influence of slip boundary conditions through a vertical asymmetric porous channel in the presence of MHD. The selected nanoparticles are titanium dioxide ( TiO2 , copper oxide (CuO) and silicon dioxide ( SiO2 . The Brownian motion shows that the effective conductivity increases to result in a lower temperature gradient for a given heat flux. To examine these transport phenomena thoroughly, we also consider the thermal conductivity model of Brownian motion for nanofluids, this increases the effect of the particle size, particle volume fraction and temperature dependence. The mathematical formulation is presented. Exact solutions are obtained from the resulting equations. The obtained expressions for pressure gradient, temperature and velocity profile are described through graphs for the various relevant parameters. The streamlines are drawn for some physical quantities to discuss the trapping phenomenon.

  13. A capital cost comparison of commercial ground-source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the report is to compare capital costs associated with the three designs of ground source heat pumps. Specifically, the costs considered are those associated with the heat source/heat sink or ground source portion of the system. In order to standardize the heat rejection over the three designs, it was assumed that the heat pump loop would operate at a temperature range of 85{degree} (to the heat pumps) to 95{degree} (from the heat pumps) under peak conditions. The assumption of constant loop temperature conditions for all three permits an apples-to-apples comparison of the alternatives.

  14. An Experimental Study of a Radially Arranged Thin Film Heat Flux Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Christoper S. K.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Bhatt, Hemanshu D.

    1997-01-01

    A new thin-film heat-flux gauge was designed and fabricated on three different substrate materials. Forty pairs of Pt-Pt/10% Rh thermocouple junctions were deposited in a circular pattern on the same plane of the substrate. Over the thermocouples, 5 and 10 micron thick thermal resistance layers were deposited to create a temperature gradient across those layers. Calibration and testing of these gauges were carried out in an arc-lamp calibration facility. The heat flux calculated from the gauge output is in good agreement with the value obtained from the pre-calibrated standard sensor. A CO2 laser was also used to test the steady-state and dynamic responses of the heat-flux gauge. During the steady-state test, the time constant for the heating period was 30 s. The frequency response of the heat-flux gauge was measured in the frequency domain using a CO2 laser and a chopper. The responses from an infrared detector and the heat-flux gauge were measured simultaneously and compared. It was found that the thin-film heat-flux gauge has a dynamic frequency response of 3 kHz.

  15. Icebase: A suborbital survey to map geothermal heat flux under an ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purucker, Michael E.; Connerney, John E. P.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bracken, Robert E.; Nowicki, Sophie; Le, Guan; Sabaka, Terence J.; Bonalsky, Todd M.; Kuang, Weijia; Ravat, Dhananjay; Ritz, Catherine; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Gaina, Carmen; McEnroe, Suzanne; Lesur, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    NASA will solicit suborbital missions as part of its Earth Venture program element in the coming year. These missions are designed as complete PI-led investigations to conduct innovative hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing questions in Earth System science. We propose to carry out a suborbital magnetic survey of Greenland using NASA's Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to produce the first-ever map of the geothermal heat flux under an ice sheet. Better constraints on geothermal heat flux will reduce the uncertainty in future sea level rise, in turn allowing a more informed assessment of its impact on society. The geothermal heat flux depends on conditions such as mantle heat flux, and the tectonic history and heat production of the crust, all of which vary spatially. Underneath ice sheets, the geothermal heat flux influences the basal ice. Therefore heat flux is an important boundary condition in ice sheet modeling. Using magnetic data to constrain heat flux is possible because the magnetic properties of rocks are temperature dependent until they reach the Curie temperature. The technique has applications to understanding the response of Greenland ice sheet to climate forcing because the basal heat flux provides one of the boundary conditions. The technique also helps to locate the oldest ice. The oldest ice in Greenland should be found in areas of very low heat flux, and the identification of those areas is provided by this technique. Ice cores from the areas of oldest ice help to decipher past temperatures and CO2 contents. Our latest model of the geothermal heat flux under the Greenland ice sheet (http://websrv.cs.umt.edu/isis/index.php/Greenland_Basal_Heat_Flux) is based on low- resolution satellite observations collected by the CHAMP satellite between 2000 and 2010. Those observations will be enhanced by the upcoming Swarm gradient satellite mission, but the resolution will improve by less than a factor of two, from 400 km

  16. Effects of Surface Sensible Heat Fluxes on the Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhanhong; Fei, Jianfang

    2016-04-01

    The contributions of surface sensible heat fluxes (SHX) to the evolution of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity and structure are examined in this study by conducting cloud-resolving simulations. Results suggest that although the peak values of SHX could account for nearly 30% of those of the total surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, the impact of SHX on TC intensification is nonetheless not distinct. However, the TC size shows great sensitivity to the SHX that the storm is shrunk by over 20% after removing the SHX. The reduced total surface enthalpy fluxes due to the removal of SHX do not necessarily result in weakened TCs, while the larger surface latent heat fluxes (LHX) basically correspond to stronger TCs. This suggests that the TC intensity is largely dependent on the LHX rather than the total surface enthalpy fluxes, although the latter is generally dominated by the former.

  17. Above- and below-ground methane fluxes and methanotrophic activity in a landfill-cover soil.

    PubMed

    Schroth, M H; Eugster, W; Gómez, K E; Gonzalez-Gil, G; Niklaus, P A; Oester, P

    2012-05-01

    Landfills are a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH(4)). However, much of the CH(4) produced during the anaerobic degradation of organic waste is consumed by methanotrophic microorganisms during passage through the landfill-cover soil. On a section of a closed landfill near Liestal, Switzerland, we performed experiments to compare CH(4) fluxes obtained by different methods at or above the cover-soil surface with below-ground fluxes, and to link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH(4) ingress (loading) from the waste body at selected locations. Fluxes of CH(4) into or out of the cover soil were quantified by eddy-covariance and static flux-chamber measurements. In addition, CH(4) concentrations at the soil surface were monitored using a field-portable FID detector. Near-surface CH(4) fluxes and CH(4) loading were estimated from soil-gas concentration profiles in conjunction with radon measurements, and gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) were performed to quantify rates of microbial CH(4) oxidation. Eddy-covariance measurements yielded by far the largest and probably most representative estimates of overall CH(4) emissions from the test section (daily mean up to ∼91,500μmolm(-2)d(-1)), whereas flux-chamber measurements and CH(4) concentration profiles indicated that at the majority of locations the cover soil was a net sink for atmospheric CH(4) (uptake up to -380μmolm(-2)d(-1)) during the experimental period. Methane concentration profiles also indicated strong variability in CH(4) loading over short distances in the cover soil, while potential methanotrophic activity derived from GPPTs was high (v(max)∼13mmolL(-1)(soil air)h(-1)) at a location with substantial CH(4) loading. Our results provide a basis to assess spatial and temporal variability of CH(4) dynamics in the complex terrain of a landfill-cover soil. PMID:22143049

  18. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  19. A novel heat flux study of a geothermally active lake - Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, Maurice A.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Walker, Sharon L.; Fornari, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    A new technique for measuring conductive heat flux in a lake was adapted from the marine environment to allow for multiple measurements to be made in areas where bottom sediment cover is sparse, or even absent. This thermal blanket technique, pioneered in the deep ocean for use in volcanic mid-ocean rift environments, was recently used in the geothermally active Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand. Heat flow from the lake floor propagates into the 0.5 m diameter blanket and establishes a thermal gradient across the known blanket thickness and thereby provides an estimate of the conductive heat flux of the underlying terrain. This approach allows conductive heat flux to be measured over a spatially dense set of stations in a relatively short period of time. We used 10 blankets and deployed them for 1 day each to complete 110 stations over an 11-day program in the 6 × 3 km lake. Results show that Lake Rotomahana has a total conductive heat flux of about 47 MW averaging 6 W/m2 over the geothermally active lake. The western half of the lake has two main areas of high heat flux; 1) a high heat flux area averaging 21.3 W/m2 along the western shoreline, which is likely the location of the pre-existing geothermal system that fed the famous Pink Terraces, mostly destroyed during the 1886 eruption 2) a region southwest of Patiti Island with a heat flux averaging 13.1 W/m2 that appears to be related to the explosive rift that formed the lake in the 1886 Tarawera eruption. A small rise in bottom water temperature over the survey period of 0.01 °C/day suggests the total thermal output of the lake is ~ 112-132 MW and when compared to the conductive heat output suggests that 18-42% of the total thermal energy is by conductive heat transfer.

  20. Critical Heat Flux Phenomena at HighPressure & Low Mass Fluxes: NEUP Final Report Part I: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael; Wu, Qiao

    2015-04-30

    This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embedded in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.

  1. RF-sheath heat flux estimates on Tore Supra and JET ICRF antennae. Extrapolation to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, L.; Portafaix, C.; Goniche, M.; Jacquet, Ph.

    2009-11-26

    RF-sheath induced heat loads are identified from infrared thermography measurements on Tore Supra ITER-like prototype and JET A2 antennae, and are quantified by fitting thermal calculations. Using a simple scaling law assessed experimentally, the estimated heat fluxes are then extrapolated to the ITER ICRF launcher delivering 20 MW RF power for several plasma scenarios. Parallel heat fluxes up to 6.7 MW/m{sup 2} are expected very locally on ITER antenna front face. The role of edge density on operation is stressed as a trade-off between easy RF coupling and reasonable heat loads. Sources of uncertainty on the results are identified.

  2. Performance comparison of air- and ground-coupled heat pump systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.D.; Kavanaugh, S.; Ramanathan, R.

    1984-01-01

    Research initiated in 1979 to compare the performance of air-coupled and ground-coupled heat pumps is described. Three heat pump systems were installed in small, neighboring all-electric residences served by the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company in Perkins, Oklahoma. An air-coupled heat pump and two ground-coupled heat pumps - one with solar assistance - were field tested. However, equipment and instrumentation problems precluded gathering meaningful data for the solar-assisted ground-coupled system. Generally, the unassisted ground-coupled heat pump system proved superior to the air-coupled system, both in reducing peak demand and in consuming less energy on an annual basis. The unassisted ground-coupled system reduced summer and winter peak demand, and experienced no performance degradation due to buildup of rejected waste heat in the ground well. A polyethylene U-tube ground heat exchanger was installed in both ground-coupled systems midway through the project, replacing a five-inch annular PVC pipe arrangement that had functioned poorly. The U-tube performed well throughout the remainder of research. Differing lifestyles and thermostat changes by building occupants during the monitoring period produced quite different demands and loads in the test houses, but when results were normalized through simulation, the superior performance of the unassisted ground-coupled heat pump was confirmed.

  3. Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) for heating and cooling in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimera, Nikoletta

    This report presents the results of a theoretical study about the feasibility of closed loop Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) for heating and cooling in Greece in terms of their impact on the capital and running costs of the building services systems of the buildings. The main aim of carrying out this study was to investigate if the heating and cooling potential of the ground could be utilized cost efficiently to serve the buildings energy demand in the Greek region. At first, an existing implementation of a closed loop GSHP system in Greece is presented and its efficiency is discussed. The aim of doing so was to understand the way of sizing such systems and the efficiency of this technology in Greek climatic and ground conditions. In a separate part of this report, the impact of different user behaviour and of various ways of sizing a GSHP system is investigated in terms of the cost impact of the examined different options as well as of their effect on the internal health and comfort conditions. After the building simulation under different scenarios, it was concluded that the user behavior - the operation of windows mostly - can result in great savings on the annual energy bills. The conclusions of this first part of the report about the user behaviour and the way of sizing GSHP systems were utilized in the next part of it, where a GSHP system is proposed for a building currently under construction in central Greece. A simple 30-year cost analysis was used in order to estimate the performance of the proposed GSHP system in economic terms and to compare it with the conventional HVAC system commonly used in Greece. According to the results of the analysis, the capital cost of installing a GSHP system for heating and cooling in buildings in Greece appears higher than the cost of conventional HVAC systems. More specifically, the capital cost of an installation for heating including gas boilers and a cooling system based on air conditioning split units is about the

  4. Heat flux measurement from vertical temperature profile and thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Damien; Finizola, Anthony; Beauducel, François; Brothelande, Elodie; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Delcher, Eric; Peltier, Aline

    2014-05-01

    Hydrothermal systems are associated to most of the dormant volcanoes. Heat is transported by steam from the hot magma body in the connected porosity and the fissures of the rock to the surface. If the flux is low enough (<500 W/m²), the steam mainly condensates in the soil close to surface, and a significant proportion of the heat is transported to the surface by conduction, producing a gradient of temperature and a thermal anomaly detectable at the surface. Detecting and monitoring these fluxes is crucial for hazard management, since it reflects the state of the magma body in depth. In order to quantify this flux two methods are considered. First, a vertical profile of temperature is measured by a series of thermocouples, and the conducted flux is estimated thanks to the Fourier law. Secondly, a more recent method uses the thermal infrared imagery to monitor the surface temperature anomaly (STA) between the studied zone and an equivalent zone not affected by the geothermal flux. The heat flux from the soil to the atmosphere is computed as the sum of (1) the radiative flux, (2) the sensible flux and (3) the residual steam flux. These two methods are complementary and have an equivalent uncertainty of approximately 20%, which would allow to track the major changes in the hydrothermal system. However, the surface and sub-surface temperatures are strongly influenced by the climate. For instance, it has been widely demonstrated that the surface temperature dramatically decreases after a rainfall. In order to estimate the reliability of the measurements, a numerical model simulating the evolution of the subsurface temperature in low flux fumarolic zone has been built. In depth, the heat can be transported either by conduction, or by the rising steam, or by condensed water. In surface, both the radiative flux and the sensible flux (convection of the atmosphere) are taken into account. This model allows to estimate the changes of temperature due to a variation of solar

  5. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Verma, Shashi B.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Starks, Patrick; Hays, Cynthia; Norman, John M.; Waltershea, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The primary objectives of the 1985 study were to test the feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations and to evaluate the use of the data collected by the automated weather stations for modeling the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation over wheat. The model Cupid was used to calculate these fluxes which were compared with fluxes of these entities measured using micrometeorological techniques. The primary objectives of the 1986 study were to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams at a few locations within the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) site and to compare modeled and measured latent heat and sensible heat fluxes from the prairie vegetation.

  6. Sensitivity of a climatologically-driven sea ice model to the ocean heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Good, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Ocean heat flux sensitivity was studied on a numerical model of sea ice covering the Weddell Sea region of the southern ocean. The model is driven by mean monthly climatological atmospheric variables. For each model run, the ocean heat flux is uniform in both space and time. Ocean heat fluxes below 20 W m to the minus 2 power do not provide sufficient energy to allow the ice to melt to its summertime thicknesses and concentrations by the end of the 14 month simulation, whereas ocean heat fluxes of 30 W m to the minus 2 power and above result in too much ice melt, producing the almost total disappearance of ice in the Weddell Sea by the end of the 14 months. These results are dependent on the atmospheric forcing fields.

  7. The Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Solid Samples by Heat Flux Differantial Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kök, M.; Aydoǧdu, Y.

    2007-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of polyvinylchloride (PVC), polysytrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) were measured by heat flux DSC. Our results are in good agreement with the results observed by different methods.

  8. SURFACE HEAT FLUX DERIVED FROM SODAR AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY DATA: A COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sensible heat flux measurements were made in an agricultural setting near Champaign, Illinois by using doppler sodar, eddy correlations and profile methods during convective conditions during an experimental study called VOICE, (Vertical Observations Involving Convective Exchange...

  9. On the solenoidal heat-flux in quasi-ballistic thermal conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramu, Ashok T.; Bowers, John E.

    2015-09-01

    The Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is recast directly in terms of the heat-flux by means of iteration followed by truncation at the second order in the spherical harmonic expansion of the distribution function. This procedure displays the heat-flux in an explicitly coordinate-invariant form, and leads to a natural decomposition into two components, namely, the solenoidal component in addition to the usual irrotational component. The solenoidal heat-flux is explicitly shown to arise by applying the heat-flux equation to a right-circular cylinder. These findings are important in the context of phonon resonators that utilize the strong quasi-ballistic thermal transport reported recently in silicon membranes at room temperature.

  10. On The Solenoidal Heat Flux in Quasi-Ballistic Thermal Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramu, Ashok; Bowers, John

    The Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is recast directly in terms of the heat-flux by means of iteration followed by truncation at the second order in the spherical harmonic expansion of the distribution function. This procedure displays the heat-flux in an explicitly coordinate-invariant form, and leads to a natural decomposition into two components, namely the solenoidal component in addition to the usual irrotational component. The solenoidal heat-flux is explicitly shown to arise in a right-circular cylinder when the transport is in the quasi-ballistic regime. These findings are important in the context of phonon resonators that utilize the strong quasi-ballistic thermal transport reported recently in silicon membranes at room temperature. Effects due to circulating heat fluxes are noted in the effective thermal conductivity of silicon discs. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation, USA under Project Number CMMI-1363207.

  11. Dynamos driven by weak thermal convection and heterogeneous outer boundary heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Swarandeep; Sreenivasan, Binod; Amit, Hagay

    2016-01-01

    We use numerical dynamo models with heterogeneous core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux to show that lower mantle lateral thermal variability may help support a dynamo under weak thermal convection. In our reference models with homogeneous CMB heat flux, convection is either marginally supercritical or absent, always below the threshold for dynamo onset. We find that lateral CMB heat flux variations organize the flow in the core into patterns that favour the growth of an early magnetic field. Heat flux patterns symmetric about the equator produce non-reversing magnetic fields, whereas anti-symmetric patterns produce polarity reversals. Our results may explain the existence of the geodynamo prior to inner core nucleation under a tight energy budget. Furthermore, in order to sustain a strong geomagnetic field, the lower mantle thermal distribution was likely dominantly symmetric about the equator.

  12. High temperature thermocouple and heat flux gauge using a unique thin film-hardware hot juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Holanda, R.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Andracchio, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    A special thin film-hardware material thermocouple (TC) and heat flux gauge concept for a reasonably high temperature and high flux flat plate heat transfer experiment was fabricated and tested to gauge temperatures of 911 K. This concept was developed for minimal disturbance of boundary layer temperature and flow over the plates and minimal disturbance of heat flux through the plates. Comparison of special heat flux gauge Stanton number output at steady-state conditions with benchmark literature data was good and agreement was within a calculated uncertainty of the measurement system. Also, good agreement of special TC and standard TC outputs was obtained and the results are encouraging. Oxidation of thin film thermoelements was a primary failure mode after about 5 of operation.

  13. Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent years.…

  14. On the heat flux vector for flowing granular materials--part II: derivation and special cases

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2006-09-10

    Heat transfer plays a major role in the processing of many particulate materials. The heat flux vector is commonly modelled by the Fourier's law of heat conduction and for complex materials such as non-linear fluids, porous media, or granular materials, the coefficient of thermal conductivity is generalized by assuming that it would depend on a host of material and kinematical parameters such as temperature, shear rate, porosity or concentration, etc. In Part I, we will give a brief review of the basic equations of thermodynamics and heat transfer to indicate the importance of the modelling of the heat flux vector. We will also discuss the concept of effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in granular and porous media. In Part II, we propose and subsequently derive a properly frame-invariant constitutive relationship for the heat flux vector for a (single phase) flowing granular medium. Standard methods in continuum mechanics such as representation theorems and homogenization techniques are used. It is shown that the heat flux vector in addition to being proportional to the temperature gradient (the Fourier's law), could also depend on the gradient of density (or volume fraction), and D (the symmetric part of the velocity gradient) in an appropriate manner. The emphasis in this paper is on the idea that for complex non-linear materials it is the heat flux vector which should be studied; obtaining or proposing generalized form of the thermal conductivity is not always appropriate or sufficient.

  15. Experimental investigation and mechanism of critical heat flux enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer with nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamatchi, R.; Venkatachalapathy, S.; Nithya, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized from graphite using modified Hummer and chemical reduction methods. Various characterizations techniques are carried out to study the in-plane crystallite size, number of layers, presence of functional groups and surface morphology. Different concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 g/l of rGO/water nanofluids are prepared by dispersing the flakes in DI water. The colloidal stability of 0.3 g/l concentration is measured after 5 days using Zetasizer and found to be stable. The rGO/water nanofluids are then used to study the effect on the enhancement of critical heat flux (CHF) in pool boiling heat transfer. Results indicate an enhancement in CHF ranging from 145 to 245 % for the tested concentrations. The mechanisms of CHF enhancement are analyzed based on surface wettability, surface roughness, and porous layer thickness. The macrolayer dryout model sufficiently supports the mechanism of CHF enhancement of thin wire with rGO deposits, which is not reported yet.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Transient Insertion of Heat Flux Gages in a Cylindrical Black Body Cavity at 1100 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, A. N.; Horn, T.

    2006-01-01

    Initial transient thermal models have been developed to simulate a heat flux gage calibration process capable of generating high heat flux levels of interest to reciprocating and gas turbine engine industries as well as the aerospace industry. These transient models are based on existing, experimentally validated, steady state models of the cylindrical blackbody calibration system. The steady state models were modified to include insertion of a heat flux gage into the hot zone of the calibration system and time varying electrical current passing through the resistance heated blackbody. Heat fluxes computed using the initial transient models were compared to experimental measurements. The calculated and measured transient heat fluxes were within 5% indicating that the major physical phenomena in the transient calibration had been captured by the models. The predicted and measured transient heat fluxes were also compared at two different gage insertion depths. These results indicated that there is an optimum insertion position which maximizes heat flux and minimizes cavity disturbance.

  17. An Integral Method to Evaluate Wall Heat Flux Suitable For Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Alireza; Mehdi, Faraz; White, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    An integral method to evaluate wall heat flux in turbulent boundary layers is presented. The method is mathematically exact and has the advantage of having no explicit streamwise gradient terms, thus making it amenable to experimental data. Using existing data sets, the method is shown to work in both zero- and adverse-pressure gradient boundary layers. The method is particularly useful for the latter case where Reynolds analogy does not hold and the wall heat flux must be measured directly.

  18. Heat flux due to poloidal electric field in the banana regime

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The heat flux due to poloidally varying electrostatic potential is calculated in the banana regime. This electrostatic potential determined self-consistently from charge neutrality is shown to increase the electron heat flux by a factor {radical}{ital m}{sub {ital i}}/{ital m}{sub {ital e}} compared with that when this potential is neglected, where {ital m}{sub {ital e}} and {ital m}{sub {ital i}} are the masses of electron and ion, respectively.

  19. Estimation of boundary heat flux using experimental temperature data in turbulent forced convection flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parwani, Ajit K.; Talukdar, Prabal; Subbarao, P. M. V.

    2014-09-01

    Heat flux at the boundary of a duct is estimated using the inverse technique based on conjugate gradient method (CGM) with an adjoint equation. A two-dimensional inverse forced convection hydrodynamically fully developed turbulent flow is considered. The simulations are performed with temperature data measured in the experimental test performed on a wind tunnel. The results show that the present numerical model with CGM is robust and accurate enough to estimate the strength and position of boundary heat flux.

  20. Estimation of boundary heat flux using experimental temperature data in turbulent forced convection flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parwani, Ajit K.; Talukdar, Prabal; Subbarao, P. M. V.

    2015-03-01

    Heat flux at the boundary of a duct is estimated using the inverse technique based on conjugate gradient method (CGM) with an adjoint equation. A two-dimensional inverse forced convection hydrodynamically fully developed turbulent flow is considered. The simulations are performed with temperature data measured in the experimental test performed on a wind tunnel. The results show that the present numerical model with CGM is robust and accurate enough to estimate the strength and position of boundary heat flux.

  1. The turbulent heat flux in low Mach number flows with large density variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orourke, Peter J.; Collins, Lance R.

    1988-01-01

    A transport equation has been derived which is the difference between the volume- and mass-averaged velocities and is simply related to the turbulent heat flux phi sup h. Using this equation and an assumption analogous to the drift flux approximation of two-phase flow modeling, an algebraic closure relation for phi sup h that exibits fluxes due to directed transport proportional to -del anti p and due to gradient transport proportional to -del tau has been obtained.

  2. Reflectance-Based Estimation of Soil Heat Fluxes in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil heat flux (G) is one of the terms required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) rates using an energy balance. Numerous reflectance-based models are available in the literature for estimating G fluxes. However, these models have shown wide variation in their performance. Therefore, operationa...

  3. Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, CO2 caused by a large wind farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX) provides a platform to investigate the effect of wind turbines and large wind farms on surface fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture and carbon dioxide (CO2). In 2010 and 2011, eddy covariance flux stations were installed between two lines of turbines at the south...

  4. Evaluation of soil heat flux density as a function of soil management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moratiel Yugueros, R.; García Moreno, R.

    2012-04-01

    Soil energy is an important parameter in order to understand the flux of energy between the plant and the soil. This parameter could determine the potential for future production of soil. Pattern of surface energy flux varies depending on several factors, mainly on coverage. Also, this behaviour is strongly conditioned by the physical condition of soil. In order to evaluate the trend and behaviour of soil energy depending on soil coverage the aim of the present study was to evaluate soil heat flux density (G) in three different soil conditions depending on seasonal weather temperatures. Therefore, the authors monitored soil energy every half hour from soil located on bare soil, on soil covered by crops at root level and in between crop rows. The selected crop was corn. Soil heat flux density was measured with a heat flux plate sensor buried at a depth of 0.05 m in experimental sites. The change in heat storage in the soil layer above the heat flux plates was measured by inserting temperature sensors at an angle from near the bottom to near the top of the soil layer (above the plate sensor). The results indicated that the soil energy flux depends mainly on radiation and soil conditions. Although net radiation (Rn) was the same for all the sites, the evolution for G is different. Greater G fluctuation is produced in bared soils and decreases as soil is covered by the crops, especially at root level.

  5. High geothermal heat flux measured below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew T; Mankoff, Kenneth D; Tulaczyk, Slawek M; Tyler, Scott W; Foley, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The geothermal heat flux is a critical thermal boundary condition that influences the melting, flow, and mass balance of ice sheets, but measurements of this parameter are difficult to make in ice-covered regions. We report the first direct measurement of geothermal heat flux into the base of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), below Subglacial Lake Whillans, determined from the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of sediment under the lake. The heat flux at this site is 285 ± 80 mW/m(2), significantly higher than the continental and regional averages estimated for this site using regional geophysical and glaciological models. Independent temperature measurements in the ice indicate an upward heat flux through the WAIS of 105 ± 13 mW/m(2). The difference between these heat flux values could contribute to basal melting and/or be advected from Subglacial Lake Whillans by flowing water. The high geothermal heat flux may help to explain why ice streams and subglacial lakes are so abundant and dynamic in this region. PMID:26601210

  6. Broadening of divertor heat flux profile with increasing number of ELM filaments in NSTX

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ahn, J. -W.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; Gan, K. F.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A. G.

    2014-11-13

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, owing to cyclical high peak heat fluxes on divertor plasma facing surfaces. One ameliorating factor has been that the heat flux characteristic profile width has been observed to broaden with the size of the ELM, as compared with the inter-ELM heat flux profile. In contrast, the heat flux profile has been observed to narrow during ELMs under certain conditions in NSTX. Here we show that the ELM heat flux profile width increases with the number of filamentary striations observed, i.e., profile narrowing is observed with zero or very fewmore » striations. Because NSTX often lies on the long wavelength current-driven mode side of ideal MHD instabilities, few filamentary structures can be expected under many conditions. Lastly, ITER is also projected to lie on the current driven low-n stability boundary, and therefore detailed projections of the unstable modes expected in ITER and the heat flux driven in ensuing filamentary structures is needed.« less

  7. A new method for simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in car underhood applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, M.; Garnier, B.; Harambat, F.; Peerhossaini, H.

    2010-02-01

    A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, © Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented.

  8. The Impact of Trends in the Large Scale Atmospheric Circulation on Mediterranean Surface Turbulent Heat Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanski, Joy; Hameed, Sultan

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variations of latent heat fluxes (LHF) and sensible heat fluxes (SHF) over the Mediterranean for the boreal winter season (DJF) show positive trends during 1958-2011. Using reanalysis and satellite-based products, the variability and trends in the heat fluxes are compared with variations in three atmospheric teleconnection patterns: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the pressure and position of the Azores High (AH), and the East Atlantic-West Russia teleconnection pattern (EAWR). Comparison of correlations between the heat fluxes and teleconnections, along with analysis of composites of surface temperature, humidity, and wind fields for different teleconnection states, demonstrates that the AH explains the heat flux changes more successfully than NAO and EAWR. Trends in pressure and longitude of the Azores High show a strengthening and an eastward shift. Variations of the Azores High occur along an axis defined by lower pressure and westward location at one extreme and higher pressure and eastward location at the other extreme. The shift of the AH from predominance of the low/west state to the high/east state induces trends in Mediterranean Sea surface winds, temperature, and moisture. These, combined with sea surface warming trends, produce trends in wintertime sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  9. The whistler heat flux instability: Threshold conditions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. Peter; Scime, Earl E.; Phillips, John L.; Feldman, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Solar wind electrons are observed often to consist of two components: a core and a halo. The anisotropics and relative average speeds of these components correspond to a heat flux that has the potential to excite several different electromagetic instabilities; wave-particle scattering by the resulting enhanced fluctuations can limit this heat flux. This manuscript describes theoretical studies using the linear Vlasco dispersion equation for drifting bi-Maxwellian component distributions in a homogeneous plasma to examine the threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. Expressions for this threshold are obtained from two different parametric baselines: a local model that yields scalings as functions of local dimensionless plasma paramaters, and a global model based on average electron properties observed during the in-eliptic phase of the Ulysses mission. The latter model yields an expression for the heat flux at threshold of the whistler instability as a function of helisopheric radius that scales in the same way as the average heat flux observed form Ulysses and that provides an approximate upper bound for that same quantity. This theoretical scaling is combined with the observational results to yield a semi-empirical closure relation for the average electron heat flux in the solar wind between 1 and 5 AU.

  10. High geothermal heat flux measured below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Andrew T.; Mankoff, Kenneth D.; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Tyler, Scott W.; Foley, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The geothermal heat flux is a critical thermal boundary condition that influences the melting, flow, and mass balance of ice sheets, but measurements of this parameter are difficult to make in ice-covered regions. We report the first direct measurement of geothermal heat flux into the base of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), below Subglacial Lake Whillans, determined from the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of sediment under the lake. The heat flux at this site is 285 ± 80 mW/m2, significantly higher than the continental and regional averages estimated for this site using regional geophysical and glaciological models. Independent temperature measurements in the ice indicate an upward heat flux through the WAIS of 105 ± 13 mW/m2. The difference between these heat flux values could contribute to basal melting and/or be advected from Subglacial Lake Whillans by flowing water. The high geothermal heat flux may help to explain why ice streams and subglacial lakes are so abundant and dynamic in this region. PMID:26601210

  11. The whistler heat flux instability: Threshold conditions in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, S.P.; Scime, E.E.; Phillips, J.L.; Feldman, W.C.

    1994-12-01

    Solar wind electrons are observed often to consist of two components: a core and a halo. The anisotropies and relative average speeds of these two components correspond to a heat flux that has the potential to excite several different electromagnetic instabilities; wave-particle scattering by the resulting enhanced fluctuations can limit this heat flux. This manuscript describes theoretical studies using the linear Vlasov dispersion equation for drifting bi-Maxwellian component distributions in a homogeneous plasma to examine the threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. Expressions for this threshold are obtained from two different parametric baselines: a local model that yields scalings as functions of local dimensionless plasma parameters, and a global model based on average electron properties observed during the in-ecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission. The latter model yields an expression for the heat flux at threshold of the whistler instability as a function of heliospheric radius that scales in the same way as the average heat flux observed from Ulysses and that provides an approximate upper bound for that same quantity. This theoretical scaling is combined with the observational results to yield a semiempirical closure relation for the average electron heat flux in the solar wind between 1 and 5 AU. 29 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A Comparative Study for Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids with Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Mustafa, Meraj

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in flows of viscoelastic fluids. Flow is generated by a linear stretching sheet. Influence of thermal relaxation time in the considered heat flux is seen. Mathematical formulation is presented for the boundary layer approach. Suitable transformations lead to a nonlinear differential system. Convergent series solutions of velocity and temperature are achieved. Impacts of various influential parameters on the velocity and temperature are sketched and discussed. Numerical computations are also performed for the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. Our findings reveal that the temperature profile has an inverse relationship with the thermal relaxation parameter and the Prandtl number. Further the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower for Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model in comparison to the classical Fourier's law of heat conduction. PMID:27176779

  13. Rarefied gas flow behavior in micro/nanochannels under specified wall heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaj, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Hassan; Roohi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of convective heat transfer on the argon gas flow through micro/nanochannels subject to uniform wall heat flux (UWH) boundary condition using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Both the hot wall (qwall > 0) and the cold wall (qwall < 0) cases are considered. We consider the effect of wall heat flux on the centerline pressure, velocity profile and mass flow rate through the channel in the slip regime. The effects of rarefaction, property variations and compressibility are considered. We show that UWH boundary condition leads to the thermal transpiration. Our investigations showed that this thermal transpiration enhances the heat transfer rate at the walls in the case of hot walls and decreases it where the walls are being cooled. We also show that the deviation of the centerline pressure distribution from the linear distribution depends on the direction of the wall heat flux.

  14. A Comparative Study for Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids with Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Mustafa, Meraj

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in flows of viscoelastic fluids. Flow is generated by a linear stretching sheet. Influence of thermal relaxation time in the considered heat flux is seen. Mathematical formulation is presented for the boundary layer approach. Suitable transformations lead to a nonlinear differential system. Convergent series solutions of velocity and temperature are achieved. Impacts of various influential parameters on the velocity and temperature are sketched and discussed. Numerical computations are also performed for the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. Our findings reveal that the temperature profile has an inverse relationship with the thermal relaxation parameter and the Prandtl number. Further the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower for Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model in comparison to the classical Fourier’s law of heat conduction. PMID:27176779

  15. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have

  16. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  17. Combined buoyancy and flow direction effects on saturated boiling critical heat flux in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    Buoyancy effects on the critical heat flux and general data trends for a liquid nitrogen internal flow system were determined by comparison of upflow and downflow data under identical test conditions. The test section had a 1.28 cm diameter flow passage and a 30.5 cm heated length which was subjected to uniform heat fluxes through resistance heating. Test conditions covered a range of pressures from 3.4 to 10.2 atm, inlet velocities from 0.23 to 3.51 m/sec, with the liquid nitrogen temperature at saturated inlet conditions. Data comparisons showed that the critical heat flux for downflow could be up to 36 percent lower than for upflow. A nonmonotonic relationship between the critical heat flux and velocity was determined for upflow but not for downflow. A limiting inlet velocity of 4.12 m/sec was determined to be the minimum velocity required to completely suppress the influence of buoyancy on the critical heat flux for this saturated inlet flow system. A correlation of this limiting fluid velocity is presented that was developed from previously published subcooled liquid nitrogen data and the saturated data of this investigation.

  18. A capital cost comparison of commercial ground-source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1995-02-01

    In the March 1994 issue of the Quarterly Bulletin, a Geo-Heat Center Research Project involving ground-source heat pumps (GSHP) systems for commercial buildings was introduced. This project which evaluated the capital costs associated with three different ground-source designs was completed in June 1994. As a result of this work, a final report {open_quotes}A Capital Cost Comparison of Commercial Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems{close_quotes} was issued. This article is a summary of that report. The full report is available from the Geo-Heat Center.

  19. Evidence of systematic biases in ocean surface heat fluxes simulated by AGCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Randall, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project has provided a unique opportunity to evaluate atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations made with realistic boundary forcing. Here we report on some results from AMIP Subproject No. 5, making use of a suite of observationally-based estimates of ocean surface heat fluxes to evaluate the seasonal cycle of surface heating as simulated by AGCMs.

  20. Estimation of surface heat flux for ablation and charring of thermal protection material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei-qi; He, Kai-feng; Zhou, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Ablation of the thermal protection material of the reentry hypersonic flight vehicle is a complex physical and chemical process. To estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperature measurement is much more complex than the conventional inverse heat conduction problem case. In the paper, by utilizing a two-layer pyrogeneration-plane ablation model to model the ablation and charring of the material, modifying the finite control volume method to suit for the numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with variable-geometry, the CGM along with the associated adjoint problem is developed to estimate the surface heat flux. This estimation method is verified with a numerical example at first, the results show that the estimation method is feasible and robust. The larger is the measurement noise, the greater is the deviation of the estimated result from the exact value, and the measurement noise of ablated surface position has a significant and more direct influence on the estimated result of surface heat flux. Furthermore, the estimation method is used to analyze the experimental data of ablation of blunt Carbon-phenolic material Narmco4028 in an arc-heater. It is shown that the estimated surface heat flux agrees with the heating power value of the arc-heater, and the estimation method is basically effective and potential to treat the engineering heat conduction problem with ablation.

  1. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J. A.; Keltner, N. R.; Nicolette, V. F.; Wix, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    For final qualification of shipping containers for transport of hazardous materials, thermal testing in accordance with regulations such as 10CFR71 must be completed. Such tests typically consist of 30 minute exposures with the container fully engulfed in flames from a large, open pool of JP4 jet engine fuel. Despite careful engineering analyses of the container, testing often reveals design problems that must be solved by modification and expensive retesting of the container. One source of this problem is the wide variation in surface heat flux to the container that occurs in pool fires. Average heat fluxes of 50 to 60 kW/m{sup 2} are typical and close the values implied by the radiation model in 10CFR71, but peak fluxes up to 150 kW/m{sup 2} are routinely observed in fires. Heat fluxes in pool fires have been shown to be a function of surface temperature of the container, height above the pool, surface orientation, wind, and other variables. If local variations in the surface heat flux to the container could be better predicted, design analyses would become more accurate, and fewer problems will be uncovered during testing. The objective of the calorimeter design described in this paper is to measure accurately pool fire heat fluxes under controlled conditions, and to provide data for calibration of improved analytical models of local flame-surface interactions.

  2. Viscous hydrodynamic instability theory of the peak and minimum pool boiling heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhir, V. K.

    1972-01-01

    Liquid viscosity was included in the Bellman-Pennington theory of the Taylor wave in a liquid vapor interface. Predictions of the most susceptible wavelength, and of the wave frequency, were made as a function of a liquid viscosity parameter and the Bond number. The stability of a gas jet in a viscous liquid was studied and the result is used to predict the peak heat flux on large horizontal heaters. Experimental measurements of the dominant Taylor wave and its growth rate were made during the film boiling of cyclohexanol on cylindrical heaters. The results bear out the predictions quite well. The thickness of the vapor blanket surrounding a cylindrical heater was measured and a correlation suggested. The effect of large fluxes of vapor volume on the dominant wavelength was also noted. Theoretical results of the peak heat flux are compared with the experimental data, and the effect of finite geometry of flat plate heaters on the peak heat flux is also discussed.

  3. Prediction of critical heat flux in water-cooled plasma facing components using computational fluid dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, James H.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Several commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes now have the capability to analyze Eulerian two-phase flow using the Rohsenow nucleate boiling model. Analysis of boiling due to one-sided heating in plasma facing components (pfcs) is now receiving attention during the design of water-cooled first wall panels for ITER that may encounter heat fluxes as high as 5 MW/m2. Empirical thermalhydraulic design correlations developed for long fission reactor channels are not reliable when applied to pfcs because fully developed flow conditions seldom exist. Star-CCM+ is one of the commercial CFD codes that can model two-phase flows. Like others, it implements the RPI model for nucleate boiling, but it also seamlessly transitions to a volume-of-fluid model for film boiling. By benchmarking the results of our 3d models against recent experiments on critical heat flux for both smooth rectangular channels and hypervapotrons, we determined the six unique input parameters that accurately characterize the boiling physics for ITER flow conditions under a wide range of absorbed heat flux. We can now exploit this capability to predict the onset of critical heat flux in these components. In addition, the results clearly illustrate the production and transport of vapor and its effect on heat transfer in pfcs from nucleate boiling through transition to film boiling. This article describes the boiling physics implemented in CCM+ and compares the computational results to the benchmark experiments carried out independently in the United States and Russia. Temperature distributions agreed to within 10 C for a wide range of heat fluxes from 3 MW/m2 to 10 MW/m2 and flow velocities from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in these devices. Although the analysis is incapable of capturing the stochastic nature of critical heat flux (i.e., time and location may depend on a local materials defect or turbulence phenomenon), it is highly reliable in determining the heat flux where boiling instabilities begin

  4. Heat flux decay length during RF power operation in the Tore Supra tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corre, Y.; Gunn, J. P.; Firdaouss, M.; Carpentier, S.; Chantant, M.; Colas, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Lipa, M.; Loarer, T.; Courtois, X.; Guilhem, D.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    2014-01-01

    The upgrade of its ion cyclotron resonance (ICRH) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) heating systems makes the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak particularly well suited to address the physics and technology of high-power and steady-state plasma-surface interactions. High radio frequency (RF) heating powers have been successfully applied up to 12.2 MW coupled to the plasma, in which about 7.85 MW flows through the scrape-off layer. Thermal calculation based on thermography measurements gives the heat flux density distribution on the TS toroidal limiter located at the bottom of the machine. The target heat flux densities are divided by the incidence angle of the field lines with the surface and mapped to the magnetic flux surface to evaluate the power flowing in the scrape-off layer (SOL). The power profile shows a narrow component near the last closed flux surface and a wide component in the rest of the SOL. The narrow component is attributed to significant cross-field heat flux density around the plasma contact point, about 0.8% of the parallel heat flux density in the SOL, when incident angles are nearly tangential to the surface. The wide component is used to derive the experimental heat flux decay length (λq) and parallel heat flux in the SOL. The power widths are measured for a series of 1 MA/3.8 T discharges involving a scan of RF injected power 3.5 ⩽ Ptot ⩽ 12.2 MW. Independently of the heating power, we measured λq,OMP = 14.5 ± 1.5 mm at the outer mid-plane and parallel heat flux in the SOL in the range 130\\le Q_{\\parallel}^{LCFS}\\le 490\\,MW\\,m^{-2} . TS values obtained with L-mode limiter plasmas are broader than those derived from L-mode divertor plasmas, confirming earlier results obtained with an ohmically heated plasma leaning on the inboard wall of TS.

  5. Stationary and Transient Fluctuation Theorems for Effective Heat Fluxes between Hydrodynamically Coupled Particles in Optical Traps.

    PubMed

    Bérut, A; Imparato, A; Petrosyan, A; Ciliberto, S

    2016-02-12

    We experimentally study the statistical properties of the energy fluxes between two trapped Brownian particles, interacting through dissipative hydrodynamic coupling, and submitted to an effective temperature difference ΔT, obtained by random forcing the position of one trap. We identify effective heat fluxes between the two particles and show that they satisfy an exchange fluctuation theorem in the stationary state. We also show that after the sudden application of a temperature gradient ΔT, the total hot-cold flux satisfies a transient exchange fluctuation theorem for any integration time, whereas the total cold-hot flux only does it asymptotically for long times. PMID:26919017

  6. Estimating Regional Surface Heat and Moisture Fluxes above Prairie Cropland from Surface and Upper-Air Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Alan G.; Strong, G. S.

    1996-10-01

    Upper-air budget methods can be used to estimate the surface sensible and latent heat flux densities on a regional scale. This study assesses the application of radiosonde-based budget methods above homogeneous cropland. Serial daytime soundings were released from Kenaston and Saskatoon, Canada, on fair-weather days between 24 June and 31 July 1991.Two independent methods were used to establish ground truth: surface-layer Bowen ratio-energy balance and Priestley-Taylor. This study was the fist to extend the surface-layer Bowen ratio method to conventional upper-air soundings. The two ground-truth methods agreed to within 20% at both locations and gave mean daytime Bowen ratios of 0.33.The upper-air budget surface flux estimates agreed most consistently with ground truth when the budget was integrated over the atmospheric boundary layer (BL) and used parameterized entrainment with a value for the entrainment parameter AR of 0.4. The BL budget with AR of 0.4 closed the daytime surface energy balance to within 4% at Kenaston and 7% at Saskatoon and gave a mean estimate for the Bowen ratio that agreed to within 20% of the mean ground-truth estimates. However, the BL budget estimates for 2-3-h periods were quite variable, and it was necessary to average the budget estimates over periods of 12 days or longer to produce credible values. Random sampling errors and uncertainty in horizontal advection were partly responsible for the high variability of the budget estimates, but these terms averaged to zero over extended periods. More seriously, the BL budget estimates for the surface latent heat flux were quite sensitive to the method for estimating entrainment. Because the authors were unable to establish a preferred entrainment estimate a priori, the BL budget estimates for the surface latent heat flux were considered to be unreliable. Further study is needed to develop a reliable and independent method for specifying the value for AR.

  7. Uncertainties in global ocean surface heat flux climatologies derived from ship observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Weare, B.C.

    1995-08-01

    A methodology to define uncertainties associated with ocean surface heat flux calculations has been developed and applied to a revised version of the Oberhuber global climatology, which utilizes a summary of the COADS surface observations. Systematic and random uncertainties in the net oceanic heat flux and each of its four components at individual grid points and for zonal averages have been estimated for each calendar month and the annual mean. The most important uncertainties of the 2{degree} x 2{degree} grid cell values of each of the heat fluxes are described. Annual mean net shortwave flux random uncertainties associated with errors in estimating cloud cover in the tropics yield total uncertainties which are greater than 25 W m{sup {minus}2}. In the northern latitudes, where the large number of observations substantially reduce the influence of these random errors, the systematic uncertainties in the utilized parameterization are largely responsible for total uncertainties in the shortwave fluxes which usually remain greater than 10 W m{sup {minus}2}. Systematic uncertainties dominate in the zonal means because spatial averaging has led to a further reduction of the random errors. The situation for the annual mean latent heat flux is somewhat different in that even for grid point values the contributions of the systematic uncertainties tend to be larger than those of the random uncertainties at most all latitudes. Latent heat flux uncertainties are greater than 20 W m{sup {minus}2} nearly everywhere south of 40{degree}N, and in excess of 30 W m{sup {minus}2} over broad areas of the subtropics, even those with large numbers of observations. Resulting zonal mean latent heat flux uncertainties are largest ({approximately}30 W m{sup {minus}2}) in the middle latitudes and subtropics and smallest ({approximately}10--25 W m{sup {minus}2}) near the equator and over the northernmost regions.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  9. Impacts of Soil-aquifer Heat and Water Fluxes on Simulated Global Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krakauer, N.Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Climate models have traditionally only represented heat and water fluxes within relatively shallow soil layers, but there is increasing interest in the possible role of heat and water exchanges with the deeper subsurface. Here, we integrate an idealized 50m deep aquifer into the land surface module of the GISS ModelE general circulation model to test the influence of aquifer-soil moisture and heat exchanges on climate variables. We evaluate the impact on the modeled climate of aquifer-soil heat and water fluxes separately, as well as in combination. The addition of the aquifer to ModelE has limited impact on annual-mean climate, with little change in global mean land temperature, precipitation, or evaporation. The seasonal amplitude of deep soil temperature is strongly damped by the soil-aquifer heat flux. This not only improves the model representation of permafrost area but propagates to the surface, resulting in an increase in the seasonal amplitude of surface air temperature of >1K in the Arctic. The soil-aquifer water and heat fluxes both slightly decrease interannual variability in soil moisture and in landsurface temperature, and decrease the soil moisture memory of the land surface on seasonal to annual timescales. The results of this experiment suggest that deepening the modeled land surface, compared to modeling only a shallower soil column with a no-flux bottom boundary condition, has limited impact on mean climate but does affect seasonality and interannual persistence.

  10. Converting the patterns of local heat flux via thermal illusion device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, N. Q.; Shen, X. Y.; Huang, J. P.

    2015-05-01

    Since the thermal conduction equation has form invariance under coordinate transformation, one can design thermal metamaterials with novel functions by tailoring materials' thermal conductivities. In this work, we establish a different transformation theory, and propose a layered device with anisotropic thermal conductivities. The device is able to convert heat flux from parallel patterns into non-parallel patterns and vice versa. In the mean time, the heat flux pattern outside the device keeps undisturbed as if this device is absent. We perform finite-element simulations to confirm the converting behavior. This work paves a different way to manipulate the flow of heat at will.

  11. Remote Heat Flux Using a Self Calibration Multiwavelength Pyrometer and a Transparent Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    A self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer was used to conduct remote heat flux measurements using a transparent sapphire disk by determining the sapphire disk's front and back surface temperatures. Front surface temperature (Tfs) was obtained from detection of surface emitted radiation at long wavelengths (k = 6 gm). Back surface temperature (Tbs) was obtained from short wavelength (1 to 5 gm) radiation transmitted through the sapphire disk. The thermal conductivity of the sapphire disk and the heat transfer coefficients h, and h2 of its surfaces are determined experimentally. An analysis of the heat flux measurement is presented.

  12. Remote Heat Flux Measurement Using a Self Calibration Multiwavelength Pyrometer and a Transparent Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    A self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer was used to conduct remote heat flux measurements using a transparent sapphire disk by determining the sapphire disk's front and back surface temperatures. Front surface temperature (Tfs) was obtained from detection of surface emitted radiation at long wavelengths (lambda > 6 micrometers). Back surface temperature (Tbs) was obtained from short wavelength (1 to 5 micrometers) radiation transmitted through the sapphire disk. The thermal conductivity k of the sapphire disk and the heat transfer coefficients h(sub 1) and h(sub 2) of its surfaces are determined experimentally. An analysis of the heat flux measurement is presented.

  13. Variability of Winter Extreme Heat Flux Events in Kuroshio Extension and Gulf Stream Extension Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Chang, P.; Wu, D.; Lin, X.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed extreme surface heat flux events, defined by daily sensible (latent) heat flux greater than 80 percentile value (hereafter referred to as high-flux events) associated with boreal winter (NDJFM) cold-air outbreaks (CAOs) in the Kuroshio Extension Region (KER) of the Northwestern Pacific, using the high-resolution NCEP-CFSR (1979-2009) and NCEP-NCAR (1948-2009) reanalysis, and compared the results to those in the Gulf Stream Region (GSR) of the Northwestern Atlantic. The average accumulated number of days of the Pacific high-flux events, which typically last fewer than 3 days, is only less than 20% of the winter period but contributes significantly (>30%) to the total sensible and latent heat fluxes during the entire winter season in the KER. These high flux events are characterized by "cold storms" with a positive geopotential height anomaly (anti-cyclone) over Japan and a negative geopotential height anomaly (cyclone) further downstream, in between which there is an anomalous northerly wind that brings cold and dry air from the Eurasian continent to the KER. In contrast, non-event days are characterized by "warm storms" that have a cyclone (an anti-cyclone) to the west (east) of the KER, bringing warm and moist air from the subtropics to the KER. There are important differences between the Pacific and Atlantic CAOs. Generally, the Atlantic CAOs occur more frequently with stronger intensity and shorter duration than those in the Pacific. The "cold storms" in the KER also differ from those in the GSR in terms of their detailed structure and orientation relative to geographic location. However, in both the Pacific and Atlantic, interannual and longer term variations of sensible and latent heat flux are determined by the high flux events, suggesting that extreme winter storm events play an important role in the mid-latitude climate system. In the Pacific basin, decadal variability dominates the low-frequency variability of total and event-day sensible and

  14. Effect of rolling motion on critical heat flux for subcooled flow boiling in vertical tube

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J. S.; Park, I. U.; Park, M. Y.; Park, G. C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents defining characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube operation under rolling motion in marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor having the rolling motion in order to increase the safety of the reactor. Marine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) tests are conducted to measure the critical heat flux using R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. MARMS was rotated by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass fluxes range from 285 to 1300 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1}, inlet subcooling from 3 to 38 deg. C and outlet pressures from 13 to 24 bar. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 to 40 degrees and periods from 6 to 12 sec. To convert the test conditions of CHF test using R-134a in water, Katto's fluid-to-fluid modeling was used in present investigation. A CHF correlation is presented which accounts for the effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling and rolling angle over all conditions tested. Unlike existing transient CHF experiments, CHF ratio of certain mass flux and pressure are different in rolling motion. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1} at 13, 16 (region of relative low mass flux), CHF ratio was decreased but was increased above that mass flux (region of relative high mass flux). Moreover, CHF tend to enhance in entire mass flux at 24 bar. (authors)

  15. Heat flux and crustal radio-activity near the Sudbury neutrino observatory, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, J.; Perry, C.; Jaupart, C.

    2009-05-01

    During its next phase, the Sudbury neutrino observatory (SNO) will detect geoneutrinos, antineutrinos produced by the decay of U and Th in the Earth. These observations will provide direct constraints on the contribution of radiogenic heat production in the crust and mantle to the energy budget of the Earth. The geoneutrino flux at SNO depends on the local level of crustal radio-activity. Surface heat flux data record average crustal radio-activity unaffected by small scale heterogeneities. We review all available heat flux data measurements in the Sudbury structure as well as measurements of U, Th, and K concentrations in the main geological units of the area. With all available data, the average heat flux in the Sudbury basin is ~53mW m-2, higher than the mean value of 42mW m-2 for the entire Canadian Shield. The elevated heat flux is due to high heat production in the shallow crust. We estimate that the average heat production of the upper crust near Sudbury is >1.5μ W m-3 compared to an average of 0.95μ W m-3 for the Superior Province. The high crustal radio-activity near Sudbury results in an about 50% increase of the local crustal component of the geoneutrino flux. Crustal radio-activity is highest in the southern part of the structure, near the Creighton mine where SNO is located. High heat flux and heat production values are also found in the Southern Province, on the margin of the Superior Province. An azimuthal variation in the geoneutrino flux with a higher flux from the south than from the north is expected on the basis on the present information. However, we shall need better estimates of the contribution of the rocks in the Superior Province to the North to assess the extent of azimuthal effects. The many available exploration drill holes and core samples provide an opportunity to determine the spatial variations in crustal radioactivity near SNO and improve the interpretation of future measurements of the geoneutrino flux.

  16. Signature of a Sudden Stratospheric Warming in the near-ground 7Be flux.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacini, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a study of the impact of one Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) upon the atmospheric vertical dynamics based on 7Be measurements in near ground air, using both numerical and conceptual. In late September 2002, an unprecedented SSW event occurred in the southern hemisphere (SH), causing changes in the tropospheric circulation, ozone depletion and weakening of the polar jet in the mesosphere. There is an observational evidence suggesting that anomalies in the stratosphere play an important role in driving tropospheric weather producing tropospheric changes that can persists for up to 60 days in NH and up to about 90 days in the SH, as observed after the 2002 SSW (Thompson et al., 2005). Radioactive environmental techniques for tracing large-scale air-mass transport have been applied in studies of atmospheric dynamics for decades and they are becoming more and more precise due to the improvement of the instrumental sensitivity and associated modeling. Temporal variations of the cosmogenic 7Be concentration in the near-surface atmosphere can provide information on the air mass dynamics, precipitation patterns, stratosphere-troposphere coupling and cosmic ray variations. The present study is based on an analysis of 7Be concentration measured in near-ground air in the city of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil between 1987 and 2009. Using a simplified tropospheric 7Be model deposition based on a two-layer transport model, Pacini (2011) reported that the occurrence of strong downward air flux leave an imprint of the 3D motion of air masses to the near-ground air 7Be data in the studied region. In this work, we have further developed the two-layer model by adding one more layer: the lower stratosphere (LS). In normal conditions, the contribution of the LS 7Be to the near-ground isotopic variability would be very small. On the other hand, stratospheric source can be crucial for the SSW event, indicating that a strong stratospheric air intrusion

  17. Saturated critical heat flux in a multi-microchannel heat sink fed by a split flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, A.W.; Toto, D.; Thome, J.R.; Vanoli, G.P.

    2010-01-15

    An extensive experimental campaign has been carried out for the measurement of saturated critical heat flux in a multi-microchannel copper heat sink. The heat sink was formed by 29 parallel channels that were 199 {mu}m wide and 756 {mu}m deep. In order to increase the critical heat flux and reduce the two-phase pressure drop, a split flow system was implemented with one central inlet at the middle of the channels and two outlets at either end. The base critical heat flux was measured using three HFC Refrigerants (R134a, R236fa and R245fa) for mass fluxes ranging from 250 to 1500 kg/m{sup 2} s, inlet subcoolings from -25 to -5 K and saturation temperatures from 20 to 50 C. The parametric effects of mass velocity, saturation temperature and inlet subcooling were investigated. The analysis showed that significantly higher CHF was obtainable with the split flow system (one inlet-two outlets) compared to the single inlet-single outlet system, providing also a much lower pressure drop. Notably several existing predictive methods matched the experimental data quite well and quantitatively predicted the benefit of higher CHF of the split flow. (author)

  18. Effects of Crack on Heat Flux in Hypersonic Shock/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Hiroshi; Hanai, Katsuhisa; Kitamura, Keiichi; Mori, Koichi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    A small crack on body surface led to a tragic accident in 2003, which is the Columbia accident. During the shuttle's re-entry, high temperature gas penetrated crack on leading-edge of the left wing and melted the aluminum structure, finally the Columbia blew up. Since early times, there are many fundamental studies about simple cavity-flow formed on body surface in hypersonic speeds. However, an investigation of Shock/Boundary-Layer Interaction (SBLI) on crack has not been researched. For multistage space transportation vehicle such as TSTO, SBLI is an inevitable problem, and then SBLI on crack becomes a critical issue for TSTO development. In this study, the effects of crack, where SBLI occurs, were investigated for TSTO hypersonic speed (M∞ = 8.1). A square crack locates at SBLI point on the TSTO booster. Results show that a crack and its depth strongly effect on peak heat flux and aerodynamic interaction flow-field. In the cases of shallow crack (d/C ≤ 0.10), there exist two high heat flux regions on crack floor, which locates at a flow reattachment region and a back end wall of crack. In this case, a peak heat flux at flow reattachment region becomes about 2 times as large as the stagnation point heat flux, which value becomes larger compared with a peak heat flux in the case of No-Crack TSTO. While in the case of deep crack (d/C = 0.20), overall heat flux on crack floor decreases to below the stagnation point heat flux. These results provide useful data for a development of TSTO thermal protection system (TPS) such as thermal protection tile.

  19. Effect of the Heat Flux Density on the Evaporation Rate of a Distilled Water Drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Konstantin; Orlova, Evgeniya; Feoktistov, Dmitry

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the experimental dependence of the evaporation rate of a nondeaerated distilled water drop from the heat flux density on the surfaces of non-ferrous metals (copper and brass). A drop was placed on a heated substrate by electronic dosing device. To obtain drop profile we use a shadow optical system; drop symmetry was controlled by a high-speed video camera. It was found that the evaporation rate of a drop on a copper substrate is greater than on a brass. The evaporation rate increases intensively with raising volume of a drop. Calculated values of the heat flux density and the corresponding evaporation rates are presented in this work. The evaporation rate is found to increase intensively on the brass substrate with raising the heat flux density.

  20. Temporal variation of heat and moisture flux divergence in the FIFE atmospheric boundary layer during spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    A one-day investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is reported in which an aircraft monitors the temporal and spatial variations of heat and moisture turbulent-flux divergences. Incoming solar radiation is similar over natural prairie land and agriculturally developed land although the heat and moisture values show significant differences over the surfaces. Other temporal variations are noted which demonstrate that ABL transport of sensible and latent heat is affected by complex variables even under simple synoptic conditions.

  1. Investigation of Body Force Effects on Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hui; Mudawar, Issam; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2002-01-01

    The bubble coalescence and interfacial instabilities that are important to modeling critical heat flux (CHF) in reduced-gravity systems can be sensitive to even minute body forces. Understanding these complex phenomena is vital to the design and safe implementation of two-phase thermal management loops proposed for space and planetary-based thermal systems. While reduced gravity conditions cannot be accurately simulated in 1g ground-based experiments, such experiments can help isolate the effects of the various forces (body force, surface tension force and inertia) which influence flow boiling CHF. In this project, the effects of the component of body force perpendicular to a heated wall were examined by conducting 1g flow boiling experiments at different orientations. FC-72 liquid was boiled along one wall of a transparent rectangular flow channel that permitted photographic study of the vapor-liquid interface at conditions approaching CHF. High-speed video imaging was employed to capture dominant CHF mechanisms. Six different CHF regimes were identified: Wavy Vapor Layer, Pool Boiling, Stratification, Vapor Counterflow, Vapor Stagnation, and Separated Concurrent Vapor Flow. CHF showed great sensitivity to orientation for flow velocities below 0.2 m/s, where very small CHF values where measured, especially with downflow and downward-facing heated wall orientations. High flow velocities dampened the effects of orientation considerably. Figure I shows representative images for the different CHF regimes. The Wavy Vapor Layer regime was dominant for all high velocities and most orientations, while all other regimes were encountered at low velocities, in the downflow and/or downward-facing heated wall orientations. The Interfacial Lift-off model was modified to predict the effects of orientation on CHF for the dominant Wavy Vapor Layer regime. The photographic study captured a fairly continuous wavy vapor layer travelling along the heated wall while permitting liquid

  2. Wavelet and Fractal Analysis of Remotely Sensed Surface Temperature with Applications to Estimation of Surface Sensible Heat Flux Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schieldge, John

    2000-01-01

    Wavelet and fractal analyses have been used successfully to analyze one-dimensional data sets such as time series of financial, physical, and biological parameters. These techniques have been applied to two-dimensional problems in some instances, including the analysis of remote sensing imagery. In this respect, these techniques have not been widely used by the remote sensing community, and their overall capabilities as analytical tools for use on satellite and aircraft data sets is not well known. Wavelet and fractal analyses have the potential to provide fresh insight into the characterization of surface properties such as temperature and emissivity distributions, and surface processes such as the heat and water vapor exchange between the surface and the lower atmosphere. In particular, the variation of sensible heat flux density as a function of the change In scale of surface properties Is difficult to estimate, but - in general - wavelets and fractals have proved useful in determining the way a parameter varies with changes in scale. We present the results of a limited study on the relationship between spatial variations in surface temperature distribution and sensible heat flux distribution as determined by separate wavelet and fractal analyses. We analyzed aircraft imagery obtained in the thermal infrared (IR) bands from the multispectral TIMS and hyperspectral MASTER airborne sensors. The thermal IR data allows us to estimate the surface kinetic temperature distribution for a number of sites in the Midwestern and Southwestern United States (viz., San Pedro River Basin, Arizona; El Reno, Oklahoma; Jornada, New Mexico). The ground spatial resolution of the aircraft data varied from 5 to 15 meters. All sites were instrumented with meteorological and hydrological equipment including surface layer flux measuring stations such as Bowen Ratio systems and sonic anemometers. The ground and aircraft data sets provided the inputs for the wavelet and fractal analyses

  3. A selection rule for the directions of electronic fluxes during unimolecular pericyclic reactions in the electronic ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manz, Jörn; Yamamoto, Kentaro

    2012-05-01

    Unimolecular pericyclic reactions in a non-degenerate electronic ground state proceed under the constraint of zero electronic angular momentum. This restriction engenders a selection rule on the directions of electronic fluxes. Accordingly, clockwise or counter-clockwise fluxes are 'forbidden', whereas pincer-like fluxes (which consist of concerted clockwise and counter-clockwise fluxes) are 'allowed'. The selection rule is illustrated for three reactions: the degenerate Cope rearrangement of hexadiene, hydrogen transfer in malonaldehyde, and double proton transfer in the formic acid dimer.

  4. Fundamental experiments of steady-state high heat fluxes using spray cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Ortiz, Lester

    1996-11-01

    Spray cooling has been considered as one of the most efficient alternatives for the removal of high heat fluxes and is currently used in several modern industrial and technological applications to dissipate high amounts of heat from their components such as in electronics, lasers, metallurgical, and nuclear. In many of these applications steady-state high heat fluxes (SSHHF) removal is required. In this research, experiments were conducted to determine parameters that affect the steady-state behavior of high heat fluxes when using spray cooling. The parameters taken in consideration included the mass flow rate, the heated surface roughness, the liquid subcooling temperature, and the spray angle. Water was used as the working fluid in the experiments. An experimental apparatus was built to carry- out the experiments, consisting of a copper heater with a disc shaped surface, an atomizer system that used commercial nozzles, and a data acquisition systems to accurately measure temperatures, heat fluxes, flow rates, and room conditions. The commercial nozzles generated mean droplet diameters ranging from 85 to 100 micrometers and flow rates between 1.48 and 1.9L/hr. Two surface conditions were sued; one polished with 0.25 micrometers liquid solution and the other polished with 600 grit silicon carbide grinding paper. The SSHHF was determined by observing the transient response of the surface temperature and the surface heat flux. Steady- state heat fluxes in the order of 100W/cm2 were obtained in most cases. Results indicated that higher SSHHF can be obtained with increasing mass flow rates and it was easier to achieve them with smooth surfaces. Results also showed that subcooling may not be significant when high mass flow rates. Curves indicating maximum SSHHF were generated as function of the parameters investigated.

  5. The sensivity of geomagnetic reversal frequency to core-mantle boundary heat flux magnitude and heterogeneity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metman, Maurits; de Groot, Lennart; Thieulot, Cedric; Biggin, Andrew; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    For a number of decades the core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux has been thought to be a key parameter controlling the geomagnetic field. A CMB heat flow increase is assumed to destabilize the geodynamo, increasing and decreasing the reversal frequency and dipole moment, respectively. The opposite case where a CMB flux decrease induces a relatively high dipole moment, as well as a low reversal frequency, would correspond to the characteristics of a superchron (Biggin et al., 2012). So far, only the magnitude of the CMB heat flux has been subject of research. However, the temporal and spatial heat flux distribution across the CMB also appears to have an influence on the geomagnetic reversal frequency. For example, the amount of heat flux heterogeneity may also be associated with a destabilization of the dynamo, increasing the reversal frequency (Olson et al., 2010). In this work we set out to assess: - (1) How the geomagnetic field intensity and reversals are predominantly sensitive to CMB heat flux magnitude or heterogeneity; - (2) what combination of magnitude and heterogeneity best reproduces the geomagnetic record on the 10 Myr timescale. To this end we use the PARODY software and test for a number of CMB heat flow modes (spherical harmonics of increasing degree and order, with an amplitude of 10 mW/m^2) and magnitudes (ranging from 20 to 100 mW/m^2). We will show our modeling results of how CMB heat flow magnitude and heterogeneity control the paleomagnetic record in terms of reversal frequency and dipole moment. Also relevant snapshots in time of outer core convection and thermal/magnetic structure will be shown. References Biggin et al. (2012). Nature Geoscience, 5(8):526-533. Olson et al. (2010). PEPI, 180(1-2):66 - 79.

  6. Numerical investigation of the thermal stratification in cryogenic tanks subjected to wall heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chinshun; Hasan, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The flow pattern and thermal stratification of a cryogenic cylindrical tank are numerically studied. The tank sidewall is subjected to either a uniform heat-flux or two discrete levels of uniform heat-flux at the upper and lower halves of the tank wall. The tank bottom is kept at a constant temperature controlled by the heat exchanger of a thermodynamic vent system. The tank pressure is also assumed constant resulting in a constant saturation temperature at the interface which is higher than the tank bottom temperature. The effects of vapor motion and vapor superheat on the mass and heat transfer processes at the interface are assumed negligible such that the calculations of liquid region can be decoupled from the vapor region. Dimensionless steady-state conservation equations are solved by a finite-difference method. The effects of modified Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, tank aspect ratio, wall heat-flux parameter, and wall heat-flux distribution on the liquid velocity and temperature fields are investigated. Also, their effects on the rate of heat transfer through the interface and the tank bottom are examined.

  7. Electron Heat Flux in Pressure Balance Structures at Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Sakurai, Takashi; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common feature in the high-latitude solar wind near solar minimum. Rom previous studies, PBSs are believed to be remnants of coronal plumes and be related to network activity such as magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. We investigated the magnetic structures of the PBSs, applying a minimum variance analysis to Ulysses/Magnetometer data. At 2001 AGU Spring meeting, we reported that PBSs have structures like current sheets or plasmoids, and suggested that they are associated with network activity at the base of polar plumes. In this paper, we have analyzed high-energy electron data at Ulysses/SWOOPS to see whether bi-directional electron flow exists and confirm the conclusions more precisely. As a result, although most events show a typical flux directed away from the Sun, we have obtained evidence that some PBSs show bi-directional electron flux and others show an isotropic distribution of electron pitch angles. The evidence shows that plasmoids are flowing away from the Sun, changing their flow direction dynamically in a way not caused by Alfven waves. From this, we have concluded that PBSs are generated due to network activity at the base of polar plumes and their magnetic structures axe current sheets or plasmoids.

  8. Seasonal and Diurnal Fluxes of Radiation, Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide over a Suburban Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwaki, R.; Kanda, M.

    2004-11-01

    Based on 1 yr of field measurements, the diurnal, seasonal, and annual fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) at a residential area of Tokyo, Japan, are described. The major findings are as follows. 1) The storage heat flux G in the daytime had little seasonal variation, irrespective of significant seasonal change of net all-wave radiation Rn. 2) The latent heat flux in the summer daytime was large despite the small areal fraction of natural coverage (trees and bare soil). The estimated local latent heat flux per unit natural coverage was 2 times the available energy (Rn - G), which indicates that the “oasis effect” was significant. 3) The CO2 flux was always upward throughout the year and the magnitude was larger in winter, mainly because of an increase of fossil fuel consumption. The annual total CO2 flux was 6 times the downward CO2 flux at a typical temperate deciduous forest.


  9. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  10. Above- and below-ground methane fluxes and methanotrophic activity in a landfill-cover soil

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth, M.H.; Eugster, W.; Gomez, K.E.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Niklaus, P.A.; Oester, P.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantify above- and below-ground CH{sub 4} fluxes in a landfill-cover soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} loading from the waste body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane loading and emissions are highly variable in space and time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eddy covariance measurements yield largest estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential methanotrophic activity is high at a location with substantial CH{sub 4} loading. - Abstract: Landfills are a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH{sub 4}). However, much of the CH{sub 4} produced during the anaerobic degradation of organic waste is consumed by methanotrophic microorganisms during passage through the landfill-cover soil. On a section of a closed landfill near Liestal, Switzerland, we performed experiments to compare CH{sub 4} fluxes obtained by different methods at or above the cover-soil surface with below-ground fluxes, and to link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} ingress (loading) from the waste body at selected locations. Fluxes of CH{sub 4} into or out of the cover soil were quantified by eddy-covariance and static flux-chamber measurements. In addition, CH{sub 4} concentrations at the soil surface were monitored using a field-portable FID detector. Near-surface CH{sub 4} fluxes and CH{sub 4} loading were estimated from soil-gas concentration profiles in conjunction with radon measurements, and gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) were performed to quantify rates of microbial CH{sub 4} oxidation. Eddy-covariance measurements yielded by far the largest and probably most representative estimates of overall CH{sub 4} emissions from the test section (daily mean up to {approx}91,500 {mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), whereas flux-chamber measurements and CH{sub 4} concentration profiles indicated that at the majority of locations the cover soil was a

  11. Comparison of heat flux estimations from two turbulent exchange models based on thermal UAV data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Helene; Nieto, Hector; Jensen, Rasmus; Friborg, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Advantages of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) data-collection, compared to more traditional data-collections are numerous and already well-discussed (Berni et al., 2009; Laliberte et al., 2011; Turner et al., 2012). However studies investigating the quality and applications of UAV-data are crucial if advantages are to be beneficial for scientific purposes. In this study, thermal data collected over an agricultural site in Denmark have been obtained using a fixed-wing UAV and investigated for the estimation of heat fluxes. Estimation of heat fluxes requires high precision data and careful data processing. Latent, sensible and soil heat fluxes are estimates through two models of the two source energy modelling scheme driven by remotely sensed observations of land surface temperature; the original TSEB (Norman et al., 1995) and the DTD (Norman et al., 2000) which builds on the TSEB. The DTD model accounts for errors arising when deriving radiometric temperatures and can to some extent compensate for the fact that thermal cameras rarely are accurate. The DTD model requires an additional set of remotely sensed data during morning hours of the day at which heat fluxes are to be determined. This makes the DTD model ideal to use when combined with UAV data, because acquisition of data is not limited by fixed time by-passing tracks like satellite images (Guzinski et al., 2013). Based on these data, heat fluxes are computed from the two models and compared with fluxes from an eddy covariance station situated within the same designated agricultural site. This over-all procedure potentially enables an assessment of both the collected thermal UAV-data and of the two turbulent exchange models. Results reveal that both TSEB and DTD models compute heat fluxes from thermal UAV data that is within a very reasonable range and also that estimates from the DTD model is in best agreement with the eddy covariance system.

  12. Heat flux reduction mechanism induced by a combinational opposing jet and cavity concept in supersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Jiang, Yan-ping; Yan, Li; Liu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The thermal protection on the surface of hypersonic vehicles attracts an increasing attention worldwide, especially when the vehicle enters the atmosphere at high speed. In the current study, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the Menter's shear stress transport (SST) model have been employed to investigate the heat flux reduction mechanism induced by the variations of the cavity configuration, the jet pressure ratio and the injectant molecular weight in the combinational opposing jet and cavity concept. The length of the cavity is set to be 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm in order to make sure that the cavity configuration is the "open" cavity, and the jet pressure ratio is set to be 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 in order to make sure that the flow field is steady. The injectant is set to be nitrogen and helium. The obtained results show that the aft angle of the cavity only has a slight impact on the heat flux reduction, and the heat flux peak decreases with the decrease of the length of the cavity. The design of the thermal protection system for the hypersonic blunt body is a multi-objective design exploration problem, and the heat flux distribution depends on the jet pressure ratio, the aft wall of the cavity and the injectant molecular weight. The heat flux peak decreases with the increase of the jet pressure ratio when the aft angle of the cavity is large enough, and this value is 45°.

  13. The Impact of Trends in the Large Scale Atmospheric Circulation on Mediterranean Surface Turbulent Heat Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanski, Joy; Hameed, Sultan

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variations of latent heat fluxes (LHF) and sensible heat fluxes (SHF) over the Mediterranean for the boreal winter season (DJF) show positive trends during 1958-2011. Comparison of correlations between the heat fluxes and the intensity and location of the Azores High (AH), and the NAO and East Atlantic-West Russia (EAWR) teleconnections, along with analysis of composites of surface temperature, humidity and wind fields for different teleconnection states, demonstrates that variations of the AH are found to explain the heat flux changes more successfully than the NAO and the EAWR. Trends in sea level pressure and longitude of the Azores High during DJF show a strengthening, and an eastward shift. DJF Azores High pressure and longitude are shown to co-vary such that variability of the Azores High occurs along an axis defined by lower pressure and westward location at one extreme, and higher pressure and eastward location at the other extreme. The shift of the Azores High from predominance of the low/west state to the high/east state induces trends in Mediterranean Sea surface winds, temperature and moisture. These, combined with sea surface warming trends, produce trends in wintertime Mediterranean Sea sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  14. Mechanisms controlling the SST air-sea heat flux feedback and its dependence on spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Ute; Czaja, Arnaud; Marshall, John

    2016-05-01

    The turbulent air-sea heat flux feedback (α , in {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} ) is a major contributor to setting the damping timescale of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. In this study we compare the spatial distribution and magnitude of α in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, as estimated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The comparison is rationalized in terms of an upper bound on the heat flux feedback, associated with "fast" atmospheric export of temperature and moisture anomalies away from the marine boundary layer, and a lower bound associated with "slow" export. It is found that regions of cold surface waters (≤ 10° C) are best described as approaching the slow export limit. This conclusion is not only valid at the synoptic scale resolved by the reanalysis data, but also on basin scales. In particular, it applies to the heat flux feedback acting as circumpolar SST anomaly scales are approached in the Southern Ocean, with feedbacks of ≤ 10 {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} . In contrast, the magnitude of the heat flux feedback is close to that expected from the fast export limit over the Gulf Stream and its recirculation with values on the order of ≈40 {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} . Further analysis suggests that this high value reflects a compensation between a moderate thermodynamic adjustment of the boundary layer, which tends to weaken the heat flux feedback, and an enhancement of the surface winds over warm SST anomalies, which tend to enhance the feedback.

  15. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: cluster observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, O.

    2014-11-20

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ∼10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor β {sub e∥} is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for β {sub e∥} ≥ 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  16. High heat flux testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories - New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, D.L.; McDonald, J.M.; Wold, L.S.

    1994-12-31

    High heat flux testing for the United States fusion power program is the primary mission of the Plasma Materials Test Facility (PMTF) located at Sandia National Laboratories - New Mexico. This facility, which is owned by the United States Department of Energy, has been in operation for over 17 years and has provided much of the high heat flux data used in the design and evaluation of plasma facing components for many of the world`s magnetic fusion, tokamak experiments. In addition to domestic tokamaks such as Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton and the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics, components for international experiments like TEXTOR, Tore-Supra, and JET also have been tested at the PMTF. High heat flux testing spans a wide spectrum including thermal shock tests on passively cooled materials, thermal response and thermal fatigue tests on actively cooled components, critical heat flux-burnout tests, braze reliability tests and safety related tests. The objective of this article is to provide a brief overview of the high heat flux testing capabilities at the PMTF and describe a few of the experiments performed over the last year.

  17. Whistler Mode Waves and the Electron Heat Flux in the Solar Wind: Cluster Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; de Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.

    2014-11-01

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ~10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor β e∥ is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for β e∥ >= 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  18. Simulation of tokamak SOL and divertor region including heat flux mitigation by gas puffing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Woo; Na, Y. S.; Hong, S. H.; Ahn, J.W.; Kim, D. K.; Han, Hyunsun; Shim, Seong Bo; Lee, Hae June

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D), scrape-off layer (SOL)-divertor transport simulations are performed using the integrated plasma-neutral-impurity code KTRAN developed at Seoul National University. Firstly, the code is applied to reproduce a National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) discharge by using the prescribed transport coefficients and the boundary conditions obtained from the experiment. The plasma density, the heat flux on the divertor plate, and the D (alpha) emission rate profiles from the numerical simulation are found to follow experimental trends qualitatively. Secondly, predictive simulations are carried out for the baseline operation mode in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) to predict the heat flux on the divertor target plates. The stationary peak heat flux in the KSTAR baseline operation mode is expected to be 6.5 MW/m(2) in the case of an orthogonal divertor. To study the mitigation of the heat flux, we investigated the puffing effects of deuterium and argon gases. The puffing position is assumed to be in front of the strike point at the outer lower divertor plate. In the simulations, mitigation of the peak heat flux at the divertor target plates is found to occur when the gas puffing rate exceeds certain values, similar to 1.0 x 10(20) /s and similar to 5.0 x 10(18) /s for deuterium and argon, respectively. Multi-charged impurity transport is also investigated for both NSTX and KSTAR SOL and divertor regions.

  19. Heat flux and information backflow in cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Maniscalco, S.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-07-01

    We examine non-Markovian effects in an open quantum system from the point of view of information flow. To this end, we consider the spin-boson model with a cold reservoir, accounting for the exact time-dependent correlations between the system and the bath to study the exchange of information and heat. We use an information-theoretic measure of the relevant memory effects and demonstrate that the information backflow from the reservoir to the system does not necessarily correlate with the backflow of heat. We also examine the influence of temperature and coupling strength on the loss and gain of information between the system and the bath. Finally, we discuss how additional driving changes the backflow of information, giving rise to potential applications in reservoir engineering.

  20. Estimating sensible heat flux in agricultural screenhouses by the flux-variance and half-order time derivative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiman, Ori; Mekhmandarov, Yonatan; Pirkner, Moran; Tanny, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have established that the eddy covariance (EC) technique is reliable for whole canopy flux measurements in agricultural crops covered by porous screens, i.e., screenhouses. Nevertheless, the eddy covariance technique remains difficult to apply in the farm due to costs, operational complexity, and post-processing of data - thereby inviting alternative techniques to be developed. The subject of this research was estimating the sensible heat flux by two turbulent transport techniques, namely, Flux-Variance (FV) and Half-order Time Derivative (HTD) whose instrumentation needs and operational demands are not as elaborate as the EC. The FV is based on the standard deviation of high frequency temperature measurements and a similarity constant CT. The HTD method requires mean air temperature and air velocity data. Measurements were carried out in two types of screenhouses: (i) a banana plantation in a light shading (8%) screenhouse; (ii) a pepper crop in a dense insect-proof (50-mesh) screenhouse. In each screenhouse an EC system was deployed for reference and high frequency air temperature measurements were conducted using miniature thermocouples installed at several levels to identify the optimal measurement height. Quality control analysis showed that turbulence development and flow stationarity conditions in the two structures were suitable for flux measurements by the EC technique. Energy balance closure slopes in the two screenhouses were larger than 0.71, in agreement with results for open fields. Regressions between sensible heat flux measured by EC and estimated by FV resulted with CT values that were usually larger than 1, the typical value for open field. In both shading and insect-proof screenhouses the CT value generally increased with height. The optimal measurement height, defined as the height with maximum R2 of the regression between EC and FV sensible heat fluxes, was just above the screen. CT value at optimal height was 2.64 and 1.52 for

  1. Establishing more truth in space-time integration of surface turbulent heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulev, Sergey; Belyaev, Konstantin

    2016-04-01

    Space-time integration of surface turbulent heat fluxes is important for obtaining area-averaged budget estimates and for producing climatologies of surface fluxes. Uncertainty of the integration or averaging of fluxes in space and in time are especially high when the data are sparse as in the case of the use of information from Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) which are characterized by inhomogeneous sampling density in contrast to NWP products and satellite data sets. In order to minimize sampling impact onto local and larger scale surface flux averages we suggest an approach based upon analysis of surface fluxes in the coordinates of steering parameters (vertical surface temperature and humidity gradients on one hand and wind speed on the other). These variables are distributed according to the Modified Fisher-Tippett (MFT) distribution (temperature and humidity gradients) and Weibull distribution (wind speed) which imply a 2-dimentional distribution for the fluxes. Since the fluxes in these coordinates are determined in a unique manner (within a chosen bulk transfer algorithm), they can be easily integrated in the space of 2-dimentional distribution in order to get the averaged values dependent on the parameters of the MFT and Weibull distributions. Conceptually, the approach is similar to that oceanographers apply for analysing volumetric T,S-diagrams of water mass properties. We developed an algorithm for applying this approach and also provided the analysis of integrated surface fluxes for different regions of the North Atlantic for which heat flux estimates can be obtained from oceanographic cross-sections. Analysis was performed for the last 5 decades. 2-dimensitonal diagrams also make it possible to analyse temporal variability of integrated surface fluxes in the dimension of steering parameters and to further compare estimates with changes in the ocean heat content.

  2. Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick; Liu, Xiaobing; Munk, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A

  3. Testing of actively cooled high heat flux mock-ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödig, M.; Duwe, R.; Kühnlein, W.; Linke, J.; Scheerer, M.; Smid, I.; Wiechers, B.

    1998-10-01

    Several un-irradiated CFC monoblock mock-ups have been loaded in thermal fatigue tests up to 1000 cycles at power densities <25 MW/m 2. No indication of failure was observed for these loading conditions. Two of the mock-ups were inspected by ultra-sonic methods before thermal cycling. It could be proved that the voids found in the post-mortem metallography existed before and had no effect on the integrity of the mock-up. For the first time, neutron-irradiated CFC monoblock mock-ups have been tested in the electron beam facility JUDITH. These mock-ups had been irradiated before in the High Flux Reactor at Petten up to 0.3 dpa at 320°C and 770°C. All samples showed a significant increase of surface temperature, due to the irradiation induced decrease in thermal conductivity of the CFC materials.

  4. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  5. Heat flux: thermohydraulic investigation of solar air heaters used in agro-industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati Aidinlou, H.; Nikbakht, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    A new design of solar air heater simulator is presented to comply with the extensive applications inagro-industry. A wise installation of increased heat transfer surface area provided uniform and efficient heat diffusion over the duct. Nusselt number and friction factor have been investigated based on the constant roughness parameters such as relative roughness height (e/D), relative roughness pitch (P/e), angle of attack (α) and aspect ratio with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 19,000 in the fully developed region. Heat fluxes of 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 were provided. The enhancement in friction factor is observed to be 3.1656, 3.47 and 3.0856 times, and for the Nusselt number either, augmentation is calculated to be 1.4437, 1.4963 and 1.535 times, respectively, over the smooth duct for 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 heat fluxes. Thermohydraulic performance is plotted versus the Reynolds number based on the aforementioned roughness parameters at varying heat fluxes. The results show up that thermohydraulic performance is found to be maximum for 1000 Wm-2 at the average Reynolds number of 5151. Based on the results, we can verify that the introduced solar simulator can help analyzing and developing solar collector installations at the simulated heat fluxes.

  6. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Finger heat flux/temperature as an indicator of thermal imbalance with application for extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Coca, Aitor

    2005-11-01

    The designation of a simple, non-invasive, and highly precise method to monitor the thermal status of astronauts is important to enhance safety during extravehicular activities (EVA) and onboard emergencies. Finger temperature ( Tfing), finger heat flux, and indices of core temperature ( Tc) [rectal ( Tre), ear canal ( Tec)] were assessed in 3 studies involving different patterns of heat removal/insertion from/to the body by a multi-compartment liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG). Under both uniform and nonuniform temperature conditions on the body surface, Tfing and finger heat flux were highly correlated with garment heat flux, and also highly correlated with each other. Tc responses did not adequately reflect changes in thermal balance during the ongoing process of heat insertion/removal from the body. Overall, Tfing/finger heat flux adequately reflected the initial destabilization of thermal balance, and therefore appears to have significant potential as a useful index for monitoring and maintaining thermal balance and comfort in extreme conditions in space as well as on Earth.

  8. Characterization of Turbulent Latent and Sensible Heat Flux Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Ocean in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture across the atmosphere-ocean interface are fundamental components of the Earth's energy and water balance. Characterizing both the spatiotemporal variability and the fidelity of these exchanges of heat and moisture is critical to understanding the global water and energy cycle variations, quantifying atmosphere-ocean feedbacks, and improving model predictability. This study examines the veracity of the recently completed NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) product with respect to its representation of the surface turbulent heat fluxes. A validation of MERRA turbulent heat fluxes and near-surface bulk variables at local, high-resolution space and time scales is achieved by making comparisons to a large suite of direct observations. Both in situ and satellite-observed gridded surface heat flux estimates are employed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the surface fluxes with respect to their annual mean climatologies, their seasonal covariability of near-surface bulk parameters, and their representation of extremes. The impact of data assimilation on the near-surface parameters is assessed through evaluation of incremental analysis update tendencies produced by the assimilation procedure. It is found that MERRA turbulent surface heat fluxes are relatively accurate for typical conditions but have systematically weak vertical gradients in moisture and temperature and have a weaker covariability between the near-surface gradients and wind speed than found in observations. This results in an underestimate of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes over the western boundary current and storm track regions. The assimilation of observations mostly acts to bring MERRA closer to observational products by increasing moisture and temperature near the surface and decreasing the near-surface wind speeds. The major patterns of spatial and temporal variability of the turbulent heat

  9. Characterization of Turbulent Latent and Sensible Heat Flux Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Ocean in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture across the atmosphere-ocean interface are fundamental components of the Earth s energy and water balance. Characterizing both the spatiotemporal variability and the fidelity of these exchanges of heat and moisture is critical to understanding the global water and energy cycle variations, quantifying atmosphere-ocean feedbacks, and improving model predictability. This study examines the veracity of the recently completed NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) product with respect to its representation of the surface turbulent heat fluxes. A validation of MERRA turbulent heat fluxes and near-surface bulk variables at local, high-resolution space and time scales is achieved by making comparisons to a large suite of direct observations. Both in situ and satellite-observed gridded surface heat flux estimates are employed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the surface fluxes with respect to their annual mean climatologies, their seasonal covariability of near-surface bulk parameters, and their representation of extremes. The impact of data assimilation on the near-surface parameters is assessed through evaluation of incremental analysis update tendencies produced by the assimilation procedure. It is found that MERRA turbulent surface heat fluxes are relatively accurate for typical conditions but have systematically weak vertical gradients in moisture and temperature and have a weaker covariability between the near-surface gradients and wind speed than found in observations. This results in an underestimate of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes over the western boundary current and storm track regions. The assimilation of observations mostly acts to bring MERRA closer to observational products by increasing moisture and temperature near the surface and decreasing the near-surface wind speeds. The major patterns of spatial and temporal variability of the turbulent heat

  10. Benchmark Wall Heat Flux Data for a GO2/GH2 Single Element Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Pal, Sibtosh; Woodward, Roger d.; Santoro, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Wall heat flux measurements in a 1.5 in. diameter circular cross-section rocket chamber for a uni-element shear coaxial injector element operating on gaseous oxygen (GOz)/gaseous hydrogen (GH,) propellants are presented. The wall heat flux measurements were made using arrays of Gardon type heat flux gauges and coaxial thermocouple instrumentation. Wall heat flux measurements were made for two cases. For the first case, GOZ/GHz oxidizer-rich (O/F=l65) and fuel-rich preburners (O/F=1.09) integrated with the main chamber were utilized to provide vitiated hot fuel and oxidizer to the study shear coaxial injector element. For the second case, the preburners were removed and ambient temperature gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen propellants were supplied to the study injector. Experiments were conducted at four chamber pressures of 750, 600, 450 and 300psia for each case. The overall mixture ratio for the preburner case was 6.6, whereas for the ambient propellant case, the mixture ratio was 6.0. Total propellant flow was nominally 0.27-0.29 Ibm/s for the 750 psia case with flowrates scaled down linearly for lower chamber pressures. The axial heat flux profile results for both the preburner and ambient propellant cases show peak heat flux levels a t axial locations between 2.0 and 3.0 in. from the injector face. The maximum heat flux level was about two times greater for the preburner case. This is attributed to the higher injector fuel-to-oxidizer momentum flux ratio that promotes mixing and higher initial propellant temperature for the preburner case which results in a shorter reaction zone. The axial heat flux profiles were also scaled with respect to the chamber pressure to the power 0.8. The results at the four chamber pressures for both cases collapsed to a single profile indicating that at least to first approximation, the basic fluid dynamic structures in the flow field are pressure independent as long as the chamber/njector/nozzle geometry and injection velocities

  11. Heat flux modifications related to climate-induced warming of large European lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Gabriel; Schmid, Martin; Wahl, Bernd; Wolf, Thomas; Wüest, Alfred

    2014-03-01

    Within the last decades, the water temperature of several European lakes has risen. It is assumed that these temperature increases are due to a reconfiguration of the heat-balance components. This study explores the dominant modifications of heat exchange with the atmosphere and their temporal evolutions. The objective is to identify the primary changes in heat fluxes and the sequence of events of the reconfiguration for the period 1984-2011. For this purpose, a model was applied to Lake Constance to estimate the contributions of the individual heat fluxes to the total heat balance. The results show that increasing absorption of solar radiation (+0.21 ± 0.13 W m-2 yr-1) and of longwave radiation (+0.25 ± 0.11 W m-2 yr-1) was responsible for the lake surface warming of 0.046 ± 0.011°C yr-1. Heat losses to the atmosphere by longwave emission (-0.24 ± 0.06 W m-2 yr-1) and by latent heat flux (-0.27 ± 0.12 W m-2 yr-1) have intensified in parallel due to higher lake surface temperatures. The heat budget is in a quasi-steady state, whereas incoming solar radiation and the warmer atmosphere increased the lake surface temperature; the warmer surface emits more longwave radiation and more water is evaporated. At each level of the slowly increasing water temperature, the heat fluxes are balanced. The overall change of the total heat content, however, is relatively little. Although the cooling effect of inflowing rivers decreased, this contribution is also small.

  12. Surface heat flux parameterizations and tropical Pacific sea surface temperature simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, B.S. University Corp. for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO ); Cayan, D.R. )

    1993-04-15

    The authors report on a study of the problem of getting good model results for the sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific ocean. The tropical Pacific is particularly important because of its size, the large areas of warm surface temperature, its impact on global atmospheric circulation, and the fact that it serves as an indicator of climatic variations. To simulate sea surface temperature it is necessary to have an energy budget which fits into a general ocean circulation model. The main input, from solar flux, is not well known in the tropical Pacific. The authors use two different models to describe the latent flux and the radiative flux at the sea surface. Parameters of concern include the relative humidity, air-sea temperature difference, latent heat formulae, and radiative heat flux. They use these parameters in their models in different ways, and compare results with measurement sets from the Tropical Pacific.

  13. Dry Block Calibrator Using Heat Flux Sensors and an Adiabatic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, M.; Marin, S.; Schalles, M.; Krapf, G.; Fröhlich, T.

    2015-08-01

    The main problems of conventional dry block calibrators are axial temperature gradients and calibration results which are strongly influenced by the geometry and the thermal properties of the thermometers under test. To overcome these disadvantages, a new dry block calibrator with improved homogeneity of the inner temperature field was developed for temperatures in the range from room temperature up to . The inner part of the dry block calibrator is a cylindrical normalization block which is divided into three parts in the axial direction. Between these parts, heat flux sensors are placed to measure the heat flux in the axial direction inside the normalization block. Each part is attached to a separate tube-shaped heating zone of which the heating power can be controlled in a way that the axial heat flux measured by means of the heat flux sensors is zero. Additionally, an internal reference thermometer is used to control the absolute value of the temperature inside the normalization block. To minimize the radial heat flux, an adiabatic shield is constructed which is composed of a secondary heating zone that encloses the whole assembly. For rapid changes of the set point from high to low temperatures, the design contains an additional ventilation system to cool the normalization block. The present paper shows the operating principle as well as the results of the design process, in which numerical simulations based on the finite element method were used to evaluate and optimize the design of the dry block calibrator. The final optimized design can be used to build a prototype of the dry block calibrator.

  14. One-dimensional, steady compressible flow with friction factor and uniform heat flux at the wall specified

    SciTech Connect

    Landram, C.S.

    1997-10-27

    The purpose of this work is to present generalized graphical results to readily permit passage design for monatomic gases, the results including accommodation of any independently specified friction factor, heat transfer coefficient, and wall heat flux. Only constant area passages are considered, and the specified wall heat flux is taken to be uniform.

  15. The Development of Novel, High-Flux, Heat Transfer Cells for Thermal Control in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Marc K.; Glezer, Ari

    1996-01-01

    In order to meet the future needs of thermal management and control in space applications such as the Space Lab, new heat-transfer technology capable of much larger heat fluxes must be developed. To this end, we describe complementary numerical and experimental investigations into the fundamental fluid mechanics and heat-transfer processes involved in a radically new, self contained, heat transfer cell for microgravity applications. In contrast to conventional heat pipes, the heat transfer in this cell is based on a forced droplet evaporation process using a fine spray. The spray is produced by a novel fluidic technology recently developed at Georgia Tech. This technology is based on a vibration induced droplet atomization process. In this technique, a liquid droplet is placed on a flexible membrane and is vibrated normal to itself. When the proper drop size is attained, the droplet resonates with the surface motion of the membrane and almost immediately bursts into a shower of very fine secondary droplets. The small droplets travel to the opposite end of the cell where they impact a heated surface and are evaporated. The vapor returns to the cold end of the cell and condenses to form the large droplets that are fragmented to form the spray. Preliminary estimates show that a heat transfer cell based on this technology would have a heat-flux capacity that is an order of magnitude higher than those of current heat pipes designs used in microgravity applications.

  16. Atlantic Ocean baroclinic heat flux at 24 to 26° N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil Baringer, Molly; Molinari, Robert

    The spatially varying, interior geostrophic baroclinic heat flux component of the total meridional oceanic heat flux near 24°N in the Atlantic Ocean is examined using four transatlantic hydrographic sections including the October 1957 DISCOVERY II IGY section, the September 1981 ATLANTIS section, the August 1992 HESPERIDES section, the February 1998 RONALD H. BROWN section and the 1982 Levitus and the Lozier, Owens, Curry climatologies. The 1992 section is complemented by shorter western boundary sections obtained concurrently during the Trident cruise. We find an average southward baroclinic heat flux of 0.9±0.3 PW with an annual cycle amplitude of ±0.3 PW. More than 90% of the annual cycle is captured within 30° of the western boundary.

  17. Heat flux in a non-Maxwellian plasma. [in realistic solar coronal loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ljepojevic, N. N.; Macneice, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hybrid numerical scheme is applied to solve the Landau equation for the electron distribution function over all velocity space. Evidence is presented for the first time of the degree and character of the failure of the classical Spitzer-Haerm heat flux approximation in a realistic solar coronal loop structure. In the loop model used, the failure is so severe at some points that the role of the heat flux in the plasma's energy balance is completely misinterpreted. In the lower corona the Spitzer-Haerm approximation predicts that the heat flux should act as an energy source, whereas the more accurate distribution functions calculated here show this to be an energy sink.

  18. Observation of heat flux and plasma flow in scrape off layer in QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchi, T.; Mahira, Y.; Nagaoka, K.; Tashima, S.; Banerjee, S.; Mishra, K.; Idei, H.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Kuzmin, A.; Watanabe, O.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.

    2015-08-01

    Thermal probe with double function of thermocouples and Langmuir probe has been developed, and the initial data observed in far-SOL in QUEST is obtained. Heat flux of megawatt per square meters related to energetic electrons and sonic plasma flow in far-SOL have been observed in the current rump-up phase although no high power inductive force like ohmic winding is applied. The heat flux and the flow are suppressed after the current is built up. In the quasi-steady state, plasma current starts and keeps sawtooth-like oscillation with 20 Hz frequency. The heat flux and the flow in far-SOL have clear responses to the oscillation.

  19. Measurement of Heat Flux and Heat Transfer Coefficient Due to Spray Application for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant spray application experiments were conducted for the die casting process. The heat flux was measured in situ using a differential thermopile sensor for three application techniques. First, the lubricant was applied under a constant flowrate while the nozzle was held in the same position. Second, the lubricant was applied in a pulsed, static manner, in which the nozzle was held over the same surface while it was turned on and off several times. Third, the lubricant was applied in a sweeping manner, in which the nozzle was moved along the die surface while it was held open. The experiments were conducted at several die temperatures and at sweep speeds of 20, 23, and 68 cm/s. The heat flux data, which were obtained with a sensor that was located in the centre of the test plate, were presented and discussed. The sensor can be used to evaluate lubricants, monitor the consistency of die lubrication process, and obtain useful process data, such as surface temperature, heat flux, and heat transfer coefficients. The heat removed from the die surface during lubricant application is necessary for (a) designing the cooling channels in the die, i.e. their size and placement, and (b) performing accurate numerical simulations of the die casting process.

  20. Heat flux solutions of the 13-moment approximation transport equations in a multispecies gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Wu; Taieb, C.

    1993-09-01

    The authors study steady state heat flux equations by means of the 13-moment approximation for situations applicable to aeronomy and space plasmas. They compare their results with Fourier`s law applied to similar problems, to test validity conditions for it. They look at the flux of oxygen and hydrogen ions in the high-latitude ionosphere, and compare calculations with observations from EISCAT radar measurements. These plasma components are observed to have strongly non-Maxwellian distributions.

  1. High heat flux burnout in subcooled flow boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celata, G. P.; Cumo, M.; Mariani, A.

    1995-09-01

    The paper reports the results of an experimental research carried out at the Heat Transfer Division of the Energy Department, C.R. Casaccia, on the thermal hydraulic characterization of subcooled flow boiling CHF under typical conditions of thermonuclear fusion reactors, i.e. high liquid velocity and subcooling. The experiment was carried out exploring the following parameters: channel diameter (from 2.5 to 8.0 mm), heated length (10 and 15 cm), liquid velocity (from 2 to 40 m/s), exit pressure (from atmospheric to 5.0 MPa), inlet temperature (from 30 to 80 °C), channel orientation (vertical and horizontal). A maximum CHF value of 60.6 MW/m2 has been obtained under the following conditions: T in=30°, p=2.5 MPa, u=40 m/s, D=2.5 mm (smooth channel) Turbulence promoters (helically coiled wires) have been employed to further enhance the CHF attainable with subcooled flow boiling. Helically coiled wires allow an increase of 50% of the maximum CHF obtained with smooth channels.

  2. Zoning of the territory of Russia by the effectiveness of low-potential heat of the ground and atmospheric air for heating buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, G. P.; Kolesova, M. V.; Gornov, V. F.; Yurchenko, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    The article represents the results of researches to zone the territory of Russia and Europe division into districts of by efficiency of using for the heat supply of buildings of low-potential thermal energy of ground and free air and their combination. While modeling the heat regime of geothermal HPS in climatic conditions of different regions of the territory of Russia, the influence of the long-term extraction of geothermal heat energy on the ground heat regime has been taken into account as well as the influence of phase transitions of pore moisture in ground on the efficiency of operation of geothermal heat-pump heat-supply systems. Also considered were the sinking of temperatures of ground massif by long-term extraction of the heat energy from the ground as calculation parameters of the heat energy from the ground, and as calculation parameters of ground massif temperatures.

  3. Estimation of turbulent sensible heat and momentum fluxes over a heterogeneous urban area using a large aperture scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Kim, Bo-Young

    2015-08-01

    The accurate determination of surface-layer turbulent fluxes over urban areas is critical to understanding urban boundary layer (UBL) evolution. In this study, a remote-sensing technique using a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was investigated to estimate surface-layer turbulent fluxes over a highly heterogeneous urban area. The LAS system, with an optical path length of 2.1 km, was deployed in an urban area characterized by a complicated land-use mix (residential houses, water body, bare ground, etc.). The turbulent sensible heat ( Q H) and momentum fluxes (τ) were estimated from the scintillation measurements obtained from the LAS system during the cold season. Three-dimensional LAS footprint modeling was introduced to identify the source areas ("footprint") of the estimated turbulent fluxes. The analysis results showed that the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes for the highly heterogeneous urban area revealed reasonable temporal variation during daytime on clear days, in comparison to the land-surface process-resolving numerical modeling. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the overall uncertainty in the LAS-derived daytime Q H was within 20%-30% in terms of the influence of input parameters and the nondimensional similarity function for the temperature structure function parameter, while the estimation errors in τ were less sensitive to the factors of influence, except aerodynamic roughness length. The 3D LAS footprint modeling characterized the source areas of the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes in the heterogeneous urban area, revealing that the representative spatial scales of the LAS system deployed with the 2.1 km optical path distance ranged from 0.2 to 2 km2 (a "micro- a scale"), depending on local meteorological conditions.

  4. Study on heat flux from resin to mold in injection molding process

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiwaki, Nobuhiko; Hori, Sankei

    1999-07-01

    Recently, an injection molding of thermoplastic is widely used in many industries, because this manufacturing method is very suitable for mass production. For injection molding processes, a number of software packages for simulating an injection molding process have been developed. It is assumed in these software packages that the heat transfer coefficient between the resin and the mold surface is constant at the filling or cooling stages. In general, when melted resin flows into the mold, heat is generated in the flowing resin because of the high viscosity at the filling stage. Moreover at the cooling stage, a separation of the molded part from the mold surface generally occurs because of shrinkage of the molded material. Therefore, the heat transfer coefficient has not been accurately obtained yet at these stages. In this paper, the temperature near the surface of the mold cavity has been experimentally measured, so the heat flux that flows from the resin to the mold has been able to be analytically estimated by an inverse conduction method. On the other hand, the separating behavior of the resin from the mold surface has been measured using an ultrasonic transducer attached to the outer surface of the stationary mold. The heat flux that flows from the resin to the mold has been analytically estimated. The apparent heat transfer coefficient can be obtained from the heat flux and the representative temperature difference, which is measured by an ultrasonic technique. It was discovered that the heat flux and the apparent heat transfer coefficient are hardly influenced by the separation.

  5. Elastic thickness and heat flux estimates for the Uranian satellite Ariel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, G.; Nimmo, F.; Schenk, P.

    2013-12-01

    The exterior of Ariel, an icy satellite orbiting Uranus, shows tectonic features suggesting an episode of endogenic heating in the satellite's past [1]. Using topography derived from stereo images, we identified flexural uplift at two different rift zones. The elastic thickness is estimated using the wavelength of the deformation [2], yielding elastic thickness values of 2-4 km for the first region and 5-8 km for the second region. Using creep parameters for ice [3] and the approach of [4], we estimate the temperature at the base of the lithosphere to be in the range 110 to 140 K, depending on the strain rate assumed. The corresponding heat fluxes are 40-120 mW/m^2 and 20-50 mW/m^2, respectively. Neither tidal heating assuming Ariel's current eccentricity nor radiogenic heat production from the silicate core are enough to cause the inferred heat flux. Unstable resonant configurations of the Uranian satellites may have occurred in the past [5], including a 2:1 mean-motion resonance between Ariel and Umbriel. This resonance would have generated a higher eccentricity, possibly explaining the endogenic heat source. However, the maximum equilibrium heating rate in Ariel due to this resonance [1] is 2.9 GW (0.6 mW/m2), inadequate to cause the inferred heat flux. The origin of the inferred high heat fluxes is thus currently mysterious. [1] Peale 1999 [2] Turcotte and Schubert 2002 [3] Goldsby and Kohlstedt 2001 [4] Nimmo et al. 2002 [5] Dermott et al. 1988

  6. Transport of radial heat flux and second sound in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Guercan, Oe. D.; Berionni, V.; Hennequin, P.; Morel, P.; Vermare, L.; Diamond, P. H.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kosuga, Y.

    2013-02-15

    Simple flux-gradient relations that involve time delay and radial coupling are discussed. Such a formulation leads to a rather simple description of avalanches and may explain breaking of gyroBohm transport scaling. The generalization of the flux-gradient relation (i.e., constitutive relation), which involve both time delay and spatial coupling, is derived from drift-kinetic equation, leading to kinetic definitions of constitutive elements such as the flux of radial heat flux. This allows numerical simulations to compute these cubic quantities directly. The formulation introduced here can be viewed as an extension of turbulence spreading to include the effect of spreading of cross-phase as well as turbulence intensity, combined in such a way to give the flux. The link between turbulence spreading and entropy production is highlighted. An extension of this formulation to general quasi-linear theory for the distribution function in the phase space of radial position and parallel velocity is also discussed.

  7. New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyonyi, Y.; Maharaj, S. D.; Govinder, K. S.

    2013-11-01

    We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conformally flat metrics.

  8. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yao; Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic-continuum bridging.

  9. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yao Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging.

  10. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensor Development for Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Zhu, Dongming; Laster, Kimala L.; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Gregory, Otto J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has an on-going effort for developing high temperature thin film sensors for advanced turbine engine components. Stable, high temperature thin film ceramic thermocouples have been demonstrated in the lab, and novel methods of fabricating sensors have been developed. To fabricate thin film heat flux sensors for Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems, the rough and porous nature of the CMC system posed a significant challenge for patterning the fine features required. The status of the effort to develop thin film heat flux sensors specifically for use on silicon carbide (SiC) CMC systems with these new technologies is described.

  11. Counterintuitive Constraints on Chaos Formation Set by Heat Flux through Europa's Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Models for the formation of disruptive chaos features on the icy surface of Europa fall into two broad categories: either chaos is formed when basal heating causes localized melting and thinning of the ice shell, or basal heating drives diapiric convection within the ice shell. We argue that in both of these cases, heating of the ice shell from below does not lead to chaos formation at the location of heating. If chaos is formed when a localized oceanic heat source, such as a hydrothermal plume, "melts through" the ice crust, we must consider what happens to the melted liquid. If Europa's ocean is salty, the melt will form a buoyant pool inside the melted cavity, leading to a stable interface between cold fresh meltwater and warm salty seawater. This stable interface acts like an ablative heat shield, protecting the ice from further damage. Some heat can be transferred across the stable layer by double diffusion, but this transfer is very inefficient. We calculate that local ocean heating cannot be balanced by local flux through the stable layer: instead, the warm ocean water must spread laterally until it is delivering heat to the ice base on a regional or global scale (a heating zone hundreds or thousands of km across, for conservative parameters.) If chaos is formed by diapiric solid-state convection within the ice shell, many investigators have assumed that diapirism and chaos should be most prevalent where the basal heat flux is strongest. We argue that this is not the case. In Rayleigh-Benard convection, increasing the heat flux will make convection more vigorous --- if and only if the convecting layer thickness does not change. We argue that increased basal heat flux will thin the ice shell, reducing its Rayleigh number and making convection less likely, not more. This insight allows us to reverse the logic of recent discussions of the relationship between ocean circulation and chaos (for instance, Soderlund et al, 2013 LPSC). We argue that global oceanic

  12. Conifer encroachment and hydrology: Altered above and below ground hydrologic fluxes in western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, R. J.; Link, T. E.; Heinse, R.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) occupy 9 million acres in Oregon, California, Idaho, and Nevada. In many of these areas juniper has expanded 10-fold since Euro-American settlement into what was mostly sagebrush steppe due to grazing, changes in fire regimes, and climate. Despite the importance of elucidating if juniper encroachment appreciably changes semi-arid hydrology, there have been few process-based studies linking above and below ground hydrologic fluxes or that assess variations across a gradient of shrub to tree-dominated areas. Our objectives are to determine: A) the differences in interception and throughfall at a lower density juniper stand dominated by low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula) and a moderate density juniper stand dominated by juniper, B) soil moisture dynamics between lower and moderate density juniper stands, and C) how those above and below ground processes are linked. Our study area was located at the USDA-ARS Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains of southwestern Idaho. We used multiple methods to measure and estimate above and below ground hydrologic fluxes. Above ground precipitation was estimated with large (approximately 5.5 m2) precipitation lysimeters; two located under tree canopies and two in the open. Soil moisture was measured continuously at four trees and across both plots once every 1 - 2 months once snow melted. Continuous measurements under the canopy consisted of four soil moisture probes each; two outside and under the canopy at 15 cm and 60 cm. Plot wide soil moisture changes were estimated based on changes in conductivity measured with electromagnetic induction (EMI) at both 0-75 cm and 0-150 cm. Results show some clear patterns in differences in hydrologic fluxes across the two stands. Rain and snow throughfall from mid-October through mid-April under the canopy was 289 mm, compared to 381 mm outside the canopy, therefore interception was 24% of incoming precipitation. Snowmelt rates

  13. Computation of the gas mass and heat fluxes in a rectangular channel in the free molecular regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germider, O. V.; Popov, V. N.; Yushkanov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    The problem of heat- and mass transfer in a long rectangular channel of a constant cross section is solved in the free molecular regime. The distributions of the mass flow rate and the heat flux vector over the channel cross section are calculated. The specific gas mass flux and heat flux are calculated. The results are compared with those obtained for nearly free molecular flows.

  14. A neural network to retrieve the mesoscale instantaneous latent heat flux over oceans from SSM/I observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourras, D.; Eymard, L.; Liu, W. T.

    2000-01-01

    The turbulent latent and sensible heat fluxes are necessary to study heat budget of the upper ocean or initialize ocean general circulation models. In order to retrieve the latent heat flux from satellite observations authors mostly use a bulk approximation of the flux whose parameters are derived from different instrument. In this paper, an approach based on artificial neural networks is proposed and compared to the bulk method on a global data set and 3 local data sets.

  15. Estimating ocean-air heat fluxes during cold air outbreaks by satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S. H.; Atlas, D.

    1981-01-01

    Nomograms of mean column heating due to surface sensible and latent heat fluxes were developed. Mean sensible heating of the cloud free region is related to the cloud free path (CFP, the distance from the shore to the first cloud formation) and the difference between land air and sea surface temperatures, theta sub 1 and theta sub 0, respectively. Mean latent heating is related to the CFP and the difference between land air and sea surface humidities q sub 1 and q sub 0 respectively. Results are also applicable to any path within the cloud free region. Corresponding heat fluxes may be obtained by multiplying the mean heating by the mean wind speed in the boundary layer. The sensible heating estimated by the present method is found to be in good agreement with that computed from the bulk transfer formula. The sensitivity of the solutions to the variations in the initial coastal soundings and large scale subsidence is also investigated. The results are not sensitive to divergence but are affected by the initial lapse rate of potential temperature; the greater the stability, the smaller the heating, other things being equal. Unless one knows the lapse rate at the shore, this requires another independent measurement. For this purpose the downwind slope of the square of the boundary layer height is used, the mean value of which is also directly proportional to the mean sensible heating. The height of the boundary layer should be measurable by future spaceborn lidar systems.

  16. Method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of geothermal field

    DOEpatents

    Poppendiek, Heinz F.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of a geothermal field, and mapping the entire field, is based upon an elongated heat-flux transducer (10) comprised of a length of tubing (12) of relatively low thermal conductivity with a thermopile (20) inside for measuring the thermal gradient between the ends of the transducer after it has been positioned in a borehole for a period sufficient for the tube to reach thermal equilibrium. The transducer is thermally coupled to the surrounding earth by a fluid annulus, preferably water or mud. A second transducer comprised of a length of tubing of relatively high thermal conductivity is used for a second thermal gradient measurement. The ratio of the first measurement to the second is then used to determine the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., from a precalculated graph, and using the value of thermal conductivity thus determined, then determining the vertical earth temperature gradient, b, from predetermined steady state heat balance equations which relate the undisturbed vertical earth temperature distributions at some distance from the borehole and earth thermal conductivity to the temperature gradients in the transducers and their thermal conductivity. The product of the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and the earth's undisturbed vertical temperature gradient, b, then determines the earth's vertical heat flux. The process can be repeated many times for boreholes of a geothermal field to map vertical heat flux.

  17. Effect of radiator position and mass flux on the dryer room heat transfer rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmanto, M.; Sulistyowati, E. D.; Okariawan, I. D. K.

    A room radiator as usually used in cold countries, is actually able to be used as a heat source to dry goods, especially in the rainy season where the sun seldom shines due to much rain and cloud. Experiments to investigate effects of radiator position and mass flux on heat transfer rate were performed. This study is to determine the best position of the radiator and the optimum mass flux. The radiator used was a finned radiator made of copper pipes and aluminum fins with an overall dimension of 220 mm × 50 mm × 310 mm. The prototype room was constructed using plywood and wood frame with an overall size of 1000 mm × 1000 mm × 1000 mm. The working fluid was heated water flowing inside the radiator and air circulating naturally inside the prototype room. The nominal mass fluxes employed were 800, 900 and 1000 kg/m2 s. The water was kept at 80 °C at the radiator entrance, while the initial air temperature inside the prototype room was 30 °C. Three positions of the radiator were examined. The results show that the effect of the mass flux on the forced and free convection heat transfer rate is insignificant but the radiator position strongly affects the heat transfer rate for both forced and free convection.

  18. Power Law Regression Analysis of Heat Flux Width in Type I ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, C. D.; Makowski, M. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.

    2014-10-01

    In this project, a database of Type I ELM characteristics has been assembled and will be used to investigate possible dependencies of the heat flux width on physics and engineering parameters. At the edge near the divertor, high impulsive heat loads are imparted onto the surface. The impact of these ELMs can cause a reduction in divertor lifetime if the heat flux is great enough due to material erosion. A program will be used to analyze data, extract relevant, measurable quantities, and record the quantities in the table. Care is taken to accurately capture the complex space/time structure of the ELM. Then correlations between discharge and equilibrium parameters will be investigated. Power law regression analysis will be used to help determine the dependence of the heat flux width on these various measurable quantities and parameters. This will enable us to better understand the physics of heat flux at the edge. Work supported in part by the National Undergraduate Fellowship Program in Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Sciences and the US DOE under DE-FG02-04ER54761, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  19. Estimating the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal Ground Source Heat Pumps in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, R.; Verhoef, A.; Vidale, P. L.; Gan, G.; Chong, A.; Clark, D.

    2012-04-01

    By 2020, the UK will need to generate 15% of its energy from renewables to meet our contribution to the EU renewable energy target. Heating and cooling systems of buildings account for 30%-50% of the global energy consumption; thus, alternative low-carbon technologies such as horizontal Ground Couple Heat Pumps (GCHPs) can contribute to the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Horizontal GCHPs currently represent a small fraction of the total energy generation in the UK. However, the fact that semi-detached and detached dwellings represent approximately 40% of the total housing stocks in the UK could make the widespread implementation of this technology particularly attractive in the UK and so could significantly increase its renewable energy generation potential. Using a simulation model, we analysed the dynamic interactions between the environment, the horizontal GCHP heat exchanger and typical UK dwellings, as well as their combined effect on heat pump performance and CO2 mitigation potential. For this purpose, a land surface model (JULES, Joint UK Land Environment Simulator), which calculates coupled soil heat and water fluxes, was combined with a heat extraction model. The analyses took into account the spatio-temporal variability of soil properties (thermal and hydraulic) and meteorological variables, as well as different horizontal GCHP configurations and a variety of building loads and heat demands. Sensitivity tests were performed for four sites in the UK with different climate and soil properties. Our results show that an installation depth of 1.0m would give us higher heat extractions rates, however it would be preferable to install the pipes slightly deeper to avoid the seasonal influence of variable meteorological conditions. A value of 1.5m for the spacing between coils (S) for a slinky configuration type is recommended to avoid thermal disturbances between neighbouring coils. We also found that for larger values of the spacing between the coils

  20. Prototype thin-film thermocouple/heat-flux sensor for a ceramic-insulated diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Walter S.; Barrows, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A platinum versus platinum-13 percent rhodium thin-film thermocouple/heat-flux sensor was devised and tested in the harsh, high-temperature environment of a ceramic-insulated, low-heat-rejection diesel engine. The sensor probe assembly was developed to provide experimental validation of heat transfer and thermal analysis methodologies applicable to the insulated diesel engine concept. The thin-film thermocouple configuration was chosen to approximate an uninterrupted chamber surface and provide a 1-D heat-flux path through the probe body. The engine test was conducted by Purdue University for Integral Technologies, Inc., under a DOE-funded contract managed by NASA Lewis Research Center. The thin-film sensor performed reliably during 6 to 10 hr of repeated engine runs at indicated mean surface temperatures up to 950 K. However, the sensor suffered partial loss of adhesion in the thin-film thermocouple junction area following maximum cyclic temperature excursions to greater than 1150 K.