Science.gov

Sample records for ground survey methods

  1. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  2. Ground-penetrating Radar Survey (GPR)

    USGS hydrologist conducts a ground-penetrating radar survey to investigate and characterize the shallow subsurface. The survey was conducted as part of an applied research effort by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch of Geophysics in 2006....

  3. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  4. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, James G.; Spencer, Charles R.; Begley, Carl L.; Meyer, H. Robert

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

  5. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

  6. Method of locating ground faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L. (Inventor); Rose, Allen H. (Inventor); Cull, Ronald C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of detecting and locating current imbalances such as ground faults in multiwire systems using the Faraday effect. As an example, for 2-wire or 3-wire (1 ground wire) electrical systems, light is transmitted along an optical path which is exposed to magnetic fields produced by currents flowing in the hot and neutral wires. The rotations produced by these two magnetic fields cancel each other, therefore light on the optical path does not read the effect of either. However, when a ground fault occurs, the optical path is exposed to a net Faraday effect rotation due to the current imbalance thereby exposing the ground fault.

  7. The WASP and NGTS ground-based transit surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    I will review the current status of ground-based exoplanet transit surveys, using the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) and the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) as specific examples. I will describe the methods employed by these surveys and show how planets from Neptune to Jupiter-size are detected and confirmed around bright stars. I will also give an overview of the remarkably wide range of exoplanet characterization that is made possible with large-telescope follow up of these bright transiting systems. This characterization includes bulk composition and spin-orbit alignment, as well as atmospheric properties such as thermal structure, composition and dynamics. Finally, I will outline how ground-based photometric studies of transiting planets will evolve with the advent of new space-based surveys such as TESS and PLATO.

  8. Enhanced analysis methods to derive the spatial distribution of 131I deposition on the ground by airborne surveys at an early stage after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E; Reed, Michael S; Blumenthal, Daniel J

    2013-08-01

    This paper applies both new and well tested analysis methods to aerial radiological surveys to extract the I ground concentrations present after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident. The analysis provides a complete map of I deposition, an important quantity incalculable at the time of the accident due to the short half-life of I and the complexity of the analysis. A map of I deposition is the first step in conducting internal exposure assessments, population dose reconstruction, and follow-up epidemiological studies. The short half-life of I necessitates the use of aerial radiological surveys to cover the large area quickly, thoroughly, and safely. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) performed aerial radiological surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. This work reports on analyses performed on a subset of the initial survey data by a joint Japan-U.S. collaboration to determine I ground concentrations. The analytical results show a high concentration of I northwest of the NPP, consistent with the previously reported radioactive cesium deposition, but also shows a significant I concentration south of the plant, which was not observed in the original cesium analysis. The difference in the radioactive iodine and cesium patterns is possibly the result of differences in the ways these materials settle out of the air. PMID:23799504

  9. Ground surveying in Surprise Valley, California

    U.S. Geological Survey researcher Noah Athens secures a magnetometer pack onto Stanford graduate student Melissa Pandika, who blogged the team’s first year’s research for USGS in Surprise Valley, Modoc County, Calif., in 2012. Traditionally, magnetometric surveying has been done on foot ...

  10. Ground-Cover Measurements: Assessing Correlation Among Aerial and Ground-Based Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. Terrance; Cox, Samuel E.; Meikle, Tim; Zuuring, Hans R.

    2008-12-01

    Wyoming’s Green Mountain Common Allotment is public land providing livestock forage, wildlife habitat, and unfenced solitude, amid other ecological services. It is also the center of ongoing debate over USDI Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) adjudication of land uses. Monitoring resource use is a BLM responsibility, but conventional monitoring is inadequate for the vast areas encompassed in this and other public-land units. New monitoring methods are needed that will reduce monitoring costs. An understanding of data-set relationships among old and new methods is also needed. This study compared two conventional methods with two remote sensing methods using images captured from two meters and 100 meters above ground level from a camera stand (a ground, image-based method) and a light airplane (an aerial, image-based method). Image analysis used SamplePoint or VegMeasure software. Aerial methods allowed for increased sampling intensity at low cost relative to the time and travel required by ground methods. Costs to acquire the aerial imagery and measure ground cover on 162 aerial samples representing 9000 ha were less than 3000. The four highest correlations among data sets for bare ground—the ground-cover characteristic yielding the highest correlations (r)—ranged from 0.76 to 0.85 and included ground with ground, ground with aerial, and aerial with aerial data-set associations. We conclude that our aerial surveys are a cost-effective monitoring method, that ground with aerial data-set correlations can be equal to, or greater than those among ground-based data sets, and that bare ground should continue to be investigated and tested for use as a key indicator of rangeland health.

  11. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F., Jr.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ≥94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ≥58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  12. Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Ippolito, C.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, R.; Yeh, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are cooperatively investigating the utility of unmanned vehicles for near-real-time autonomous surveys of geophysical data collection. Initially focused on unmanned ground vehicle collection of magnetic data, this cooperative effort has brought unmanned surveying, precision guidance, near-real-time communication, on-the-fly data processing, and near-real-time data interpretation into the realm of ground geophysical surveying, all of which offer advantages over current methods of manned collection of ground magnetic data. An unmanned ground vehicle mission has demonstrated that these vehicles can successfully complete missions to collect geophysical data, and add advantages in data collection, processing, and interpretation. We view the current experiment as an initial phase in further unmanned vehicle data-collection missions, including aerial surveying.

  13. July 1973 ground survey of active Central American volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground survey has shown that thermal anomalies of various sizes associated with volcanic activity at several Central American volcanoes should be detectable from Skylab. Anomalously hot areas of especially large size (greater than 500 m in diameter) are now found at Santiaguito and Pacaya volcanoes in Guatemala and San Cristobal in Nicaragua. Smaller anomalous areas are to be found at least seven other volcanoes. This report is completed after ground survey of eleven volcanoes and ground-based radiation thermometry mapping at these same points.

  14. Generating Ground Reference Data for a Global Impervious Surface Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; De Colstoun, Eric Brown; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin; Huang, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    We are developing an approach for generating ground reference data in support of a project to produce a 30m impervious cover data set of the entire Earth for the years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. Since sufficient ground reference data for training and validation is not available from ground surveys, we are developing an interactive tool, called HSegLearn, to facilitate the photo-interpretation of 1 to 2 m spatial resolution imagery data, which we will use to generate the needed ground reference data at 30m. Through the submission of selected region objects and positive or negative examples of impervious surfaces, HSegLearn enables an analyst to automatically select groups of spectrally similar objects from a hierarchical set of image segmentations produced by the HSeg image segmentation program at an appropriate level of segmentation detail, and label these region objects as either impervious or nonimpervious.

  15. Ground radan survey of a geothermal area in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, M.E.

    1980-04-01

    Rates of ground radon emanation, in the Puna geothermal area on the lower east rift of Kilauea volcano, were measured by alpha particle sensitive cellulose nitrate films. The survey successfully defined an area of thermal significance associated with the rift structure, and suggests that a thermally driven ground gas convection system exists within, and peripheral to, the rift. This type of survey was found suitable for the basaltic island environmnet characteristic of Hawaii and is now used in Hawaii as a routine geothermal exploration technique.

  16. Quantifying Stream Habitat: Relative Effort Versus Quality of Competing Remote Sensing & Ground-Based Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the quantity and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field sketches or ‘tape and stick’ ground-based surveys, through to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although some investigators have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the inter-comparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to quantify relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from different ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as enumerate the effort and cost in completing the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Three different traditional (“stick and tape”) survey techniques were used, including a variant using map-grade GPS. Complete topographic/bathymetric surveys were attempted at each site using separate rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR, boat-based echo-sounding (w/ ADCP), traditional airborne LiDaR, and imagery-based spectral methods. Separate, georectified aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Preliminary results from the surveys highlight that no single technique works across the full range of conditions where stream habitat surveys are needed. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each approach in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete quantification of habitat conditions in rivers.

  17. Simulating Current and Future Optical Ground Based NEO Surveys Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, Tommy; Spahr, Tim; Mainzer, Amy

    2015-08-01

    Surveys for near-Earth objects (NEOs) have undergone rapid development over the last decade. The current suite of surveys have discovered more than 12,000 NEOs to date and are now discovering more than 1,000 NEOs per year. More than 90% of NEOs larger than 1 km in diameter have been discovered to date, representing considerable progress by the astronomical community (Mainzer et al. 2011, 2012). In 2005, Congress mandated that NASA should discover 90% of objects larger than 140 meter in diameter in 15 years, i.e. before 2020. We have undertaken a project to perform high-fidelity simulations of a variety of ground-based optical surveys, including present and future facilities, to evaluate the potential of these projects to reach this Congressionally mandated goal. Our survey simulations includes NEO population models based on the orbital element models of Bottke et al. (2002), Grav et al. (2011), and Greenstreet et al. (2013) as well as physical properties derived from recent measurements of diameters and albedos from Mainzer et al. (2011, 2012). The simulations replicates the performance of the existing suite of ground-based projects such as the Catalina Sky Survey and Pan-STARRS and predicts the performance of future large scale ground-based optical surveys.

  18. Plating methods, a survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

  19. Survey of ground antenna systems for solar power satellite application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsrud, Corey; Noghanian, Sima

    The purpose of this work is to survey ground based antenna systems, specifically rectifying antennas (rectennas) for space solar powered application of Microwave Wireless Power Transfer (MWPT). The ground rectenna along with its circuit components (a receiving antenna, an input Low-Pass Filter (LPF), a rectifying circuit, and an output smoothing filter) is the basic building block of the high-power receiving array that is designed to capture and then convert the microwave energy into Direct Current (DC). Once in DC form, the energy is used for various human applications on earth.

  20. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water... Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems must provide the State, at the State's request, any existing information that will enable the State to conduct a sanitary survey. (b) For...

  1. Solar Flare Impulse Broadening from Gamma Ground Survey Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc; Burns, David; Carroll, James; Pereira, Nino

    2012-03-01

    Inexpensive gamma detectors with GPS and wireless communications have been developed and installed to provide a ground survey network for detection of unintended gamma radiation along transport routes. Signals from pedestrian borne and vehicle borne radiation sources have pulse widths that range three orders of magnitude in time from millseconds to seconds. Information collected during the 24/7 operation of this network generated unexpected signals lasting over an hour. These longer time responses have been traced to solar flare events. This paper will discuss the time and intensity correlations with known satellite sensor data. These terrestrial gamma ray flashes will be analysed further as real-time data continues to be collected.

  2. Data Management for Ground-Based Science Surveys at CASU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Mike

    2015-12-01

    In this talk I will review the data management facilities at CASU for handling large scale ground-based imaging and spectroscopic surveys. The overarching principle for all science data processing at CASU is to provide an end-to-end system that attempts to deliver fully calibrated optimally extracted data products ready for science use. The talk will outline our progress in achieving this and how end users visualize the state-of-play of the data processing and interact with the final products via our internal data repository.

  3. 30 CFR 75.704-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 75.704-1 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.704-1 Approved methods of grounding. The methods of grounding stated in § 75.701-1 will also be approved with respect to...

  4. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 77.700-1 Section... COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits... methods of grounding will be approved: (a) A solid connection to metal waterlines having low resistance...

  5. 30 CFR 77.703-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 77.703-1 Section 77.703-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Grounding § 77.703-1 Approved methods of grounding. The methods of grounding stated in §...

  6. 30 CFR 77.703-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 77.703-1 Section 77.703-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Grounding § 77.703-1 Approved methods of grounding. The methods of grounding stated in §...

  7. 30 CFR 75.704-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 75.704-1 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.704-1 Approved methods of grounding. The methods of grounding stated in § 75.701-1 will also be approved with respect to...

  8. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 77.700-1 Section... COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits... methods of grounding will be approved: (a) A solid connection to metal waterlines having low resistance...

  9. A GROUND-BASED 21 cm BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATION SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Dodelson, Scott; Marriner, John; Mcginnis, Dave; Stebbins, Albert; Stoughton, Chris; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2010-09-20

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) provide a robust standard ruler with which to measure the acceleration of the universe. The BAO feature has so far been detected in optical galaxy surveys. Intensity mapping of neutral hydrogen emission with a ground-based radio telescope provides another promising window for measuring BAO at redshifts of order unity for relatively low cost. While the cylindrical radio telescope (CRT) proposed for these measurements will have excellent redshift resolution, it will suffer from poor angular resolution (arcminutes at best). We investigate the effect of angular resolution on the standard ruler test with BAO, using the Dark Energy Task Force Figure of Merit (FoM) as a benchmark. We then extend the analysis to include variations in the parameters characterizing the telescope and the underlying physics. Finally, we optimize the survey parameters (holding total cost fixed) and present an example of a CRT BAO survey that is competitive with Stage III dark energy experiments. The tools developed here form the backbone of a publicly available code that can be used to obtain estimates of cost and FoM for any set of survey parameters.

  10. Grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics (GREATEM) survey of Aso Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Mogi, Toru; Jomori, Akira; Yuuki, Youichi

    2014-05-01

    Grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics (GREATEM), a type of semi-airborne electromagnetics, was used to examine Aso Volcano in south-west Japan, to verify its applicability to surveying deep subsurface resistivity structures. Comparison of the GREATEM resistivity values with those of ground-based transient electromagnetics (TEM) data, repeated GREATEM survey results at the same and different flight heights, and lithologic descriptions indicated that GREATEM can successfully identify underground structures as deep as ~800 m in rugged mountainous areas. An active volcanic region (Naka-Dake crater) was mapped as a low-resistivity zone from the surface to a depth of 100 m. This low-resistivity zone extended to the west-north-west, implying future volcanic activity in this area. Therefore, the GREATEM method is useful for surveying deep structures in large, inaccessible areas, such as volcanic provinces, in a quick, cost-effective way.

  11. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401 Sanitary surveys for ground water systems....

  12. Helium and ground temperature surveys at Steamboat Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.P.; Been, J.; Reimer, G.M.; Bowles, C.G.; Murrey, D.G.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    As demonstrated in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, helium and shallow temperature surveys are quick, inexpensive geothermal exploration methods that can be used together with excellent results. Steamboat Springs, in northwestern Colorado, lies primarily upon terrace gravels and alluvium with the major structure being a north-trending normal fault passing through the western portion of the city. Work by Christopherson (1979) indicates that the Steamboat warm springs are not laterally connected at shallow depth with Routt Hot Springs, 6 km to the north, although both resource areas are fault controlled. A shallow temperature survey was conducted in the city to determine the usefulness of this method in a low temperature resource area. Several extraneous factors influencing shallow temperature measurements were dealt with by field technique or subsequent analysis. A helium survey was conducted to compare with temperature results. Sixty-two soil helium samples were taken, using an interval of .1 to .2 Km, twice the density of the 18 temperature probe stations. A mobile spectrometer allowed immediate analysis of helium samples. A direct correlation of temperature to helium value at each site is not valid due to the high solubility of this gas. The contoured data from each method does correlate well and indicates that two faults control the resource in Steamboat Springs. Although these surveys should always be used to supplement other data, their utility in this study was readily apparent.

  13. Local Environmental Characterization using Gamma Ground Survey Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc; Burns, David; Katsis, Dimos; Carroll, James

    2013-04-01

    Inexpensive gamma detectors with GPS and wireless communications have been developed and installed to provide a ground survey network for detection of environmental levels of gamma radiation from naturally occurring events (i.e. radon, lightening, solar flares, etc.) and unintended gamma radiation on the battlefield and along transport routes. Signals from lightening and cosmic rays have pulse widths less than 100 us. Pedestrian borne and vehicle borne radiation sources have signatures from millseconds to seconds. The large energy associated with solar initiated disruptions (10^20J) generates a variety of ground level events that can last for hours. Data collected during the 24/7 operation of this gamma network is compared to xray, electron, and ion flux from satellite sensors. Local rainfall data is also utilized to make comparisons to local radon intensity levels. This paper will discuss the time and intensity correlations with corroborating environmental data. If the gamma signals characteristics from local environments and space-based environments can be described with enough detail, it is hoped that automated warning of unexpected radiation events can offer early warning protection to power and energy grid avoiding potentially damaging surges as well as offer local radiation health warning as necessary.

  14. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

  15. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first

  16. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground measurements to refine interpretations of AEM data; and (3) Improve the calibration and correlation of AEM information. The potential benefits of this project are as follows: (1) Develop a tool to map subsurface units at the Hanford Site in a rapid and cost effective manner; (2) Map groundwater pathways within the River Corridor; and (3) Aid development of the conceptual site model. If anomalies observed in the AEM data can be correlated with subsurface geology, then the rapid scanning and non-intrusive capabilities provided by the airborne surveys can be used at the Hanford Site to screen for areas that warrant further investigation.

  17. Survey Methods of the 1976-77 Expanded Eligibility Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, William L., II; Many, F. V.

    Methods of the 1976-77 Expanded Eligibility Survey, which was conducted for the University of California at Berkeley and the University of California System, are described. The survey was undertaken as a supplement to the 1976 High School Eligibility Study. A subsample of the 1976 Eligibility Study graduates was mailed questionnaires to determine…

  18. Generating Ground Reference Data for a Global Impervious Surface Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; deColstoun, Eric Brown; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin; Huang, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    We are engaged in a project to produce a 30m impervious cover data set of the entire Earth for the years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. The GLS data from Landsat provide an unprecedented opportunity to map global urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such as buildings, roads and parking lots. Finally, with GLS data available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005 time periods, and soon for the 2010 period, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. Our approach works across spatial scales using very high spatial resolution commercial satellite data to both produce and evaluate continental scale products at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat data. We are developing continental scale training data at 1m or so resolution and aggregating these to 30m for training a regression tree algorithm. Because the quality of the input training data are critical, we have developed an interactive software tool, called HSegLearn, to facilitate the photo-interpretation of high resolution imagery data, such as Quickbird or Ikonos data, into an impervious versus non-impervious map. Previous work has shown that photo-interpretation of high resolution data at 1 meter resolution will generate an accurate 30m resolution ground reference when coarsened to that resolution. Since this process can be very time consuming when using standard clustering classification algorithms, we are looking at image segmentation as a potential avenue to not only improve the training process but also provide a semi-automated approach for generating the ground reference data. HSegLearn takes as its input a hierarchical set of image segmentations produced by the HSeg image segmentation program [1, 2]. HSegLearn lets an analyst specify pixel locations as being either positive or negative examples, and displays a classification of the study area based on these examples. For our study, the positive examples are examples of impervious surfaces and negative examples are examples of non-impervious surfaces. HSegLearn searches the hierarchical segmentation from HSeg for the coarsest level of segmentation at which selected positive example locations do not conflict with negative example locations and labels the image accordingly. The negative example regions are always defined at the finest level of segmentation detail. The resulting classification map can be then further edited at a region object level using the previously developed HSegViewer tool [3]. After providing an overview of the HSeg image segmentation program, we provide a detailed description of the HSegLearn software tool. We then give examples of using HSegLearn to generate ground reference data and conclude with comments on the effectiveness of the HSegLearn tool.

  19. The Neural Network Method of Corrosion Diagnosis for Grounding Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Zaien; Duan Fujian; Zhang Kecun

    2008-11-06

    Safety of persons, protection of equipment and continuity of power supply are the main objectives of the grounding system of a large electrical installation. For its accurate working status, it is essential to determine every branch resistance in the system. In this paper, we present a neural network method of corrosion diagnosis for the grounding grid based on the neural network theory. The feasibility of this method is discussed by means of its application to a simulant grounding grid.

  20. Grounded Theory in Practice: Is It Inherently a Mixed Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. B.; McGowan, M. W.; Turner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We address 2 key points of contention in this article. First, we engage the debate concerning whether particular methods are necessarily linked to particular research paradigms. Second, we briefly describe a mixed methods version of grounded theory (MM-GT). Grounded theory can be tailored to work well in any of the 3 major forms of mixed methods…

  1. Traditional Ground Stroke Versus Volley Method of Teaching Beginning Tennis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrus-Bammel, Lei Lane

    1976-01-01

    A study of college women in beginning tennis classes indicated that students instructed by the volley method of teaching tennis improved significantly over those instructed by the ground stroke method, particularly in their forehand drives. (JD)

  2. Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

  3. Simulation of ground motion using the stochastic method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and powerful method for simulating ground motions is to combine parametric or functional descriptions of the ground motion's amplitude spectrum with a random phase spectrum modified such that the motion is distributed over a duration related to the earthquake magnitude and to the distance from the source. This method of simulating ground motions often goes by the name "the stochastic method." It is particularly useful for simulating the higher-frequency ground motions of most interest to engineers (generally, f>0.1 Hz), and it is widely used to predict ground motions for regions of the world in which recordings of motion from potentially damaging earthquakes are not available. This simple method has been successful in matching a variety of ground-motion measures for earthquakes with seismic moments spanning more than 12 orders of magnitude and in diverse tectonic environments. One of the essential characteristics of the method is that it distills what is known about the various factors affecting ground motions (source, path, and site) into simple functional forms. This provides a means by which the results of the rigorous studies reported in other papers in this volume can be incorporated into practical predictions of ground motion.

  4. 30 CFR 75.703-1 - Approved method of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved method of grounding. 75.703-1 Section 75.703-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703-1 Approved...

  5. 30 CFR 75.703-1 - Approved method of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved method of grounding. 75.703-1 Section 75.703-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703-1 Approved...

  6. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 77.700-1 Section 77.700-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved...

  7. Complementing Gaia from the ground. The DANCe survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Sarro, L. M.; Moraux, E.; Barrado, D.; Cuillandre, J. C.; Bouvier, J.; Berihuete, A.; Wright, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Brandner, W.; Olivares, J.

    The DANCe survey aims at complementing Gaia by providing proper motion measurements with a comparable accuracy 4 magnitudes fainter. These measurements are used to identify sub-stellar members of young nearby clusters and associations down the planetary mass regime.

  8. Methods of extending signatures and training without ground information. [data processing, pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. G.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of performing signature extension, using LANDSAT-1 data, are explored. The emphasis is on improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of large area wheat surveys. Two methods were developed: ASC, and MASC. Two methods, Ratio, and RADIFF, previously used with aircraft data were adapted to and tested on LANDSAT-1 data. An investigation into the sources and nature of between scene data variations was included. Initial investigations into the selection of training fields without in situ ground truth were undertaken.

  9. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  10. Comparison of helicopter and ground surveys for North American elk Cervus elaphus and mule deer Odocoileus hemionus population composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Myers, W.L.; Gould, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    Both ground and helicopter surveys are commonly used to collect sex and age composition data for ungulates. Little attention has been paid, however, to whether data collected by each technique are similar. We compared helicopter and ground composition data for both elk Cervus elaphus and mule deer Odocoileus hemionus across a variety of habitats in the state of Washington, USA. We found that ground and helicopter counts differed (P's < 0.002) consistently in male age structure estimates for elk, and that the two survey methods differed in estimates of adult sex ratios for mule deer (P = 0.023). Counts from helicopters provided larger sample sizes, tended to be more consistent annually in their results, and were corroborated by other demographic studies of the test populations. We conclude that helicopter and ground surveys differ for male age structure and perhaps male:female ratios, but are similar for young:female ratios. Managers should maintain a standardized technique using the same survey vehicle for trend analysis of composition data.

  11. Trachoma survey methods: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Reliable population-based prevalence data are essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating trachoma control programmes and understanding the scale of the problem, yet they are not currently available for 22 out of 56 trachoma-endemic countries. Three survey methods have been advocated for trachoma: cluster random sampling (CRS); trachoma rapid assessment (TRA); and acceptance sampling trachoma rapid assessment (ASTRA). Our review highlights the benefits of CRS being simple, efficient, repeatable and giving population-based prevalence estimates of all signs of trachoma. There are limitations to TRA, which include: non-representative sampling; does not estimate prevalence; and lacks consistency and accuracy. ASTRA advocates small sample sizes but it is relatively complex, may result in imprecise prevalence estimates and does not estimate cicatricial signs of trachoma. We conclude that CRS should therefore remain the “gold” standard for trachoma surveys. However, among the CRS surveys reviewed, we also found several methodological deficiencies of sample-size calculations, standardization of trachoma graders, reporting of confidence intervals of prevalence estimates, variability of age groups for presentation of age-specific prevalence, and lack of estimation of district prevalence estimates. Properly conducted surveys will be crucial if the objective of global elimination of blinding trachoma is to be charted and realized. Harmonization of survey methods will enhance the conduct and comparability of trachoma surveys needed for reliable mapping of prevalence within endemic countries. Consistent with WHO recommendations, we advocate for continued use of CRS as the survey design of choice for trachoma control programmes and propose ways of improving future surveys based on this method. PMID:19274367

  12. GROUND WATER PURGING AND SAMPLING METHODS: HISTORY VS. HYSTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been over 10 years since the low-flow ground water purging and sampling method was initially reported in the literature. The method grew from the recognition that well purging was necessary to collect representative samples, bailers could not achieve well purging, and high...

  13. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories. PMID:18194326

  14. Comparison of helicopter and ground surveys of waterfowl broods in southern Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabor, T.S.; Longcore, J.R.; Murkin, H.R.; Arnason, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    Managers often employ aerial survey information to manage waterfowl. Results of surveys by helicopter and from elevated platforms were compared to determine the accuracy of helicopters to detect waterfowl broods on beaver ponds in southern Ontario in 1996 and 1997. Fewer broods were detected from the helicopter than by observers in elevated platforms at wetland margins. When broods were detected by helicopter crews, >90% were correctly enumerated and >80% were correctly aged. A second helicopter survey, the day following the first survey, did not change the Visibility Correction Factor (VCF) substantially (1.79 vs. 1.53). Data from the 2 helicopter surveys combined (without ground counts) resulted in greater VCFs (2.17) than when a single helicopter survey and ground count was used (VCF = 1.79). In general, VCFs for most waterfowl broods were lower in forested or closed (emergent and scrub-shrub) wetland habitats than on open wetlands. When multiple broods were present on a wetland, sightability of the additional broods (second, third, etc.) was lower for the helicopter crew than ground crew. Surveys by helicopter are likely most useful to develop indices for waterfowl broods of diver species in large inaccessible areas. If accurate information is required on dabbler brood densities, age, and number of ducklings, quiet observation by crews in elevated platforms should be used.

  15. EMBLA 2002: an Optical and Ground Survey in Hessdalen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    2002-10-01

    A two-weeks scientific expedition to Hessdalen, aimed at investigating on field mysterious atmospheric light-phenomena, was carried out in August 2002 by the physics section of an italian team of scientists. Results are presented and discussed. Photometric analysis shows that the light-phenomenon is able to produce a luminous power of up-to 100 kW. A 3-D analysis of photo frames shows that the luminous phenomenon doesn't resemble canonical plasma features (a sharply gaussian PSF) unless the light phenomenon is caused by one recently discovered natural light-ball of BL type whose light-distribution (PSF) might be able to simulate an uniformly illuminated solid. A comparison of the light-distribution in different time-sequential frames shows that apparent slightly exponential wings of the PSF features are probably due to variations of atmospheric turbulence and transparency and not to intrinsic properties. Maximum phases of luminosity of the radiating surface are demonstrated to be due to the sudden apparition of a cluster of co-existing light-balls at constant temperature, while the inflation of light-balls is ruled out. Spectra show no resolved lines but a three-peaked feature which might be attributed both to some kind of artificial illumination system and to a mixture of many blended lines due to several chemical elements (more possibly: silicon). The results of a lab analysis of ground samples shows that some powder which was collected near a river contains an anomalous iron sphere of micrometric dimensions. A biophysical research-proposal aimed at studying the relation between the EM field produced by the phenomenon and the electrical activity of the human body is also presented. On the basis of this third explorative experience, the importance of having at disposal a sophisticated opto-electronic portable station (missing at present) is stressed for the future.

  16. Population trends from the American woodcock singing-ground survey, 1970-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Bortner, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Population trend analysis of American woodcook (Scolopax minor) using data from a singing-ground survey indicates population declines throughout the breeding range of the species between 1970 and 1988. In the eastern United States and Canada, this decline has been quite consistent throughout the period, but in the central portion of the continent the population increased during the 1970's and declined during the early 1980's. Observers differ in their ability to hear woodcock, and we document observer differences in the singing-ground survey data and incorporate them into our analyses. Habitat changes have been suggested as the most likely cause of declines in woodcock populations.

  17. Survey on large scale system control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    The problem inherent to large scale systems such as power network, communication network and economic or ecological systems were studied. The increase in size and flexibility of future spacecraft has put those dynamical systems into the category of large scale systems, and tools specific to the class of large systems are being sought to design control systems that can guarantee more stability and better performance. Among several survey papers, reference was found to a thorough investigation on decentralized control methods. Especially helpful was the classification made of the different existing approaches to deal with large scale systems. A very similar classification is used, even though the papers surveyed are somehow different from the ones reviewed in other papers. Special attention is brought to the applicability of the existing methods to controlling large mechanical systems like large space structures. Some recent developments are added to this survey.

  18. Cooperative ground-water investigations in Massachusetts by the United States Geological Survey, 1938-50

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brashears, M.L., Jr.

    1950-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Public Works in 1938 began an investigation of the ground-water conditions in Massachusetts. This work is part of a larger cooperative program that includes surface-water investigations, geologic studies, and topographic mapping. The purpose of the ground-water studies is to obtain detailed information concerning the occurrence and availability of ground water throughout the State. The information is used by the Highway Division of the Department of Public Works in connection with design, construction, and maintenance of highways. These studies also provided a basis for the more effective utilization of the ground-water resources of the State. They indicate where additional developments can be made safely or where present use may be excessive. Reports covering the ground-water studies are listed in the appendix.

  19. Identification of School Bullies by Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Joanna C. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Sheras, Peter

    2006-01-01

    How can middle school counselors identify bullies? This study compared two methods of identifying bullies in a sample of 386 middle school students. A peer nomination survey identified many more bullies than did student self-report. Moreover, self-reported and peer nominated bullies differed in their types of bullying behaviors, level of general…

  20. A Survey of Methods and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida; And Others

    Designed to assess and describe the nature and frequency of teaching methods, activities, and materials used in secondary school English courses, this survey consists of 14 questions related to teaching objectives, activities, and materials, each followed by a list of possible responses. Teachers are asked to select a course, and to circle for…

  1. Identification of School Bullies by Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Joanna C. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Sheras, Peter

    2006-01-01

    How can middle school counselors identify bullies? This study compared two methods of identifying bullies in a sample of 386 middle school students. A peer nomination survey identified many more bullies than did student self-report. Moreover, self-reported and peer nominated bullies differed in their types of bullying behaviors, level of general

  2. Estimation method of slip surface by ground surface displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, K.; Fujisawa, K.; Kojima, S.; Tanaka, H.

    2007-12-01

    After a landslide has occurred, it is important to take emergency countermeasures as soon as possible to prevent the damage from worsening. To do this, it is necessary to quickly identify the characteristics and size of movement of the landslide. However, conventional methods such as investigating the slip surface by taking core samples and monitoring the movement of land mass using vertical boring holes is time-consuming and involves risk, as the work must be carried out directly on the unstable landslide. This paper introduces a method of estimating the depth of the landslide slip surface using by ground surface displacement. The method involves dividing the landslide block and deriving a formula that approximates the line of the slip surface. Inputs for this method include the lengthwise section of the ground surface, displacement of ground surface, points of the scarp and tip of the landslide. We applied this method to several landslides and proved that the slip surface estimated by this method closely matched the actual surface determined by conventional methods, provided that measuring points were properly arranged. The results suggest that this method can estimate the slip surface of landslides. In future, it is necessary to improve systems of monitoring active landslide masses and methods of estimating their size in a quick, easy, and reliable manner to be practically applicable to disaster areas.

  3. Survey of emissivity measurement by radiometric methods.

    PubMed

    Honner, M; Honnerová, P

    2015-02-01

    A survey of the state of the art in the field of spectral directional emissivity measurements by using radiometric methods is presented. Individual quantity types such as spectral, band, or total emissivity are defined. Principles of emissivity measurement by various methods (direct and indirect, and calorimetric and radiometric) are discussed. The paper is focused on direct radiometric methods. An overview of experimental setups is provided, including the design of individual parts such as the applied reference sources of radiation, systems of sample clamping and heating, detection systems, methods for the determination of surface temperature, and procedures for emissivity evaluation. PMID:25967774

  4. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  5. Exoplanets -New Results from Space and Ground-based Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udry, Stephane

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on Earth. Its geology, from lakes and seas to broad river valleys and mountains, while carved in ice is, in its balance of processes, again most like Earth. Beneath this panoply of Earth-like processes an ice crust floats atop what appears to be a liquid water ocean. Titan is also rich in organic molecules—more so in its surface and atmosphere than anyplace in the solar system, including Earth [4]. These molecules were formed in the atmosphere, deposited on the surface and, in coming into contact with liquid water may undergo an aqueous chemistry that could replicate aspects of life's origins. I will discuss our current understanding of Titan's complex environment in view of recent exploration, in particular on the atmospheric structure (temperature and composition), and the surface nature. I will show how these and other elements can give us clues as to the origin and evolution of the satellite, and how they connect to the observations of the planet and the other satellites and rings. Future space missions to Titan can help us understand the kronian and also our Solar System as a whole. In particular, I will describe the future exploration of Titan and the Saturnian System with TSSM, a mission studied jointly by ESA and NASA in 2008 [1] and prioritized second for a launch around 2023-2025. TSSM comprises a Titan Orbiter provided by NASA that would carry two Titan in situ elements provided by ESA: a montgolfiere and a lake-landing lander. The mission would arrive 9 years later for a 4-year duration in the Saturn system. Following delivery of the ESA in situ elements to Titan, the Titan Orbiter would explore the Saturn system via a 2-year tour that includes Enceladus and Titan flybys. The montgolfiere would last at least 6 months at Titan and the lake lander 8-10 hours. Following the Saturn system tour, the Titan Orbiter would culminate in a —2-year orbit around Titan. References 1. TSSM and EJSM NASA/ESA Joint Summary Report, 16 January 2009 2. Coustenis et al. (2008). TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission. Experimenta( Astron-omy, 23, 893-946. 3. Coustenis, A., Hirtzig, M., 2009. Cassini-Huygens results on Titan's surface. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 9, 249-268. 4. Coustenis et al., 2010, Titan trace gaseous composition from CIRS at the end of the Cassini-Huygens prime mission Icarus, in press. 5. Flasar, F. M., et al., 2005. Titan's atmospheric temperatures, winds, and composition. Science, 308, 975-978. 6. Fulchignoni, M., et al, 2005. In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment. Nature, 438, 785-791, doi:10.1038/nature04126. 7. Lebreton, J-P., Coustenis, A., et al., 2009. Results from the Huygens probe on Titan. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 17, 149-179. 8. Tomasko, M. G., et al., 2005. Rain, winds and haze during the Huygens probe's descent to Titan's surface. Nature, 438, 765-778, doi: 10. 1038/nature04126.

  6. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: (1) Source, (2) Treatment, (3) Distribution system, (4) Finished water storage, (5) Pumps, pump...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401... sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must...

  7. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (1) Source, (2) Treatment, (3) Distribution system, (4) Finished water storage, (5) Pumps, pump...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401... sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must...

  8. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: (1) Source, (2) Treatment, (3) Distribution system, (4) Finished water storage, (5) Pumps, pump...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401... sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must...

  9. Ground survey of active Central American volcanoes in November - December 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Thermal anomalies at two volcanoes, Santiaguito and Izalco, have grown in size in the past six months, based on repeated ground survey. Thermal anomalies at Pacaya volcano have became less intense in the same period. Large (500 m diameter) thermal anomalies exist at 3 volcanoes presently, and smaller scale anomalies are found at nine other volcanoes.

  10. Ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic surveys at the Monroe Crossroads battlefield site, Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Richard; Strain, R.E.; Marlowe, J. I., II; Currin, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-penetrating radar survey was conducted at the Monroe Crossroads Battlefield site at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, to determine possible locations of subsurface archaeological features. An electromagnetic survey also was conducted at the site to verify and augment the ground-penetrating radar data. The surveys were conducted over a 67,200-square-foot grid with a grid point spacing of 20 feet. During the ground-penetrating radar survey, 87 subsurface anomalies were detected based on visual inspection of the field records. These anomalies were flagged in the field as they appeared on the ground-penetrating radar records and were located by a land survey. The electromagnetic survey produced two significant readings at ground-penetrating radar anomaly locations. The National Park Service excavated 44 of the 87 anomaly locations at the Civil War battlefield site. Four of these excavations produced significant archaeological features, including one at an abandoned well.

  11. Ground penetrating radar results at the Box Canyon Site - 1996 survey as part of infiltration test

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Williams, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    This data report presents a discussion of the borehole radar tomography experiment conducted at Box Canyon, Idaho. Discussion concentrates on the survey methodology, data acquisition procedures, and the resulting tomographic images and interpretations. The entire geophysics field effort for FY96 centered around the collection of the borehole radar data within the inclined boreholes R1, R2, R3, and R4 before, during, and after the ponded infiltration experiment. The well pairs R1-R2, R2-R4, and R3-R4 comprised the bulk of the field survey; however, additional data were collected between vertical boreholes within and around the infiltration basin. The intent of the inclined boreholes was to allow access beneath the infiltration basin and to enhance the ability of the radar method to image both vertical and horizontal features where flow may dominate. This data report will concentrate on the inclined borehole data and the resulting tomograms. The borehole radar method is one in which modified ground penetrating radar antennas are lowered into boreholes and high frequency electromagnetic signals are transmitted through subsurface material to a receiving antenna. The transmitted signals may be represented as multiple raypaths crossing through the zone of interest. If sufficient raypaths are recorded, a tomographic image may be obtained through computer processing. The data normally recorded are signal amplitude versus time. The information extracted from such data includes the following: (a) the transit time which depends on the wave velocity, (b) the amplitude which depends on the wave attenuation, the dispersion which indicates a change in velocity and attenuation with frequency.

  12. High performance ground penetrating radar survey of TA-49/Area 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Rangel, M.J. III

    1994-09-01

    The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory`s continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site.

  13. Ground Truth Location Using Seismic and Satellite Imagery Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, C. K.; Fisk, M.; Myers, S.

    2006-05-01

    The primary objective of this presentation is to review methods for establishing ground truth locations of industrial blasts, nuclear explosions and small magnitude earthquakes occurring in China, Indian subcontinent, Iran, North Africa and South Korea, using a synergy between the seismic and satellite imagery methods. One approach to find the ground truth locations for the industrial blasts and nuclear explosions is to apply waveform cross-correlation and master-event location technique to obtain precise relative locations of event cluster, and use the high-resolution satellite imagery to associate the clusters to observed features of the surface activities. Both nuclear explosions and industrial blasts are surface phenomena, and surface deformation caused by such events is easily identifiable on the processed satellite image. This approach has successfully identified many nuclear events in China and industrial blasts in South Korea. To establish ground truth locations of earthquakes, we look for the surface deformation caused by the events on differential interferograms processed using two satellite images, one acquired prior to and other following the occurrence of the events. Once the surface deformation associated with an earthquake is identified, the deformation field is modeled to establish the location. The depth of the seismic event is further established by separately modeling the regional and teleseismic waveform data. After establishing the epicenter from satellite data and depth from the seismogram modeling, the event location is fixed and travel-time data from all available sources are used to determine the origin time of the event. The new locations are then used to establish the source specific station corrections (SSSC) for travel times of P and S waves, which in turn, are used to relocate earthquakes occurring in their vicinity. We have successfully applied this method to earthquakes in China, Iran and North Africa. Implication of these new ground truth locations is that the events can be used to calibrate seismic travel times.

  14. Storage and retrieval of ground-water data at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Maria W.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a computerized Ground-Water Site-Inventory (GWSI) file that contains information about wells and springs at sites from all States of the United States. This file contains data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and personnel of cooperating State, local and Federal agencies. The file is easily accessible to members or users of the National Water Data Exchange. Since the establishment of the GWSI file in 1974, the data base has grown 19% per year and contains information on about 770,000 sites as of February 1981. (USGS)

  15. Biodiversity and agriculture in dynamic landscapes: Integrating ground and remotely-sensed baseline surveys.

    PubMed

    Gillison, Andrew N; Asner, Gregory P; Fernandes, Erick C M; Mafalacusser, Jacinto; Banze, Aurélio; Izidine, Samira; da Fonseca, Ambrósio R; Pacate, Hermenegildo

    2016-07-15

    Sustainable biodiversity and land management require a cost-effective means of forecasting landscape response to environmental change. Conventional species-based, regional biodiversity assessments are rarely adequate for policy planning and decision making. We show how new ground and remotely-sensed survey methods can be coordinated to help elucidate and predict relationships between biodiversity, land use and soil properties along complex biophysical gradients that typify many similar landscapes worldwide. In the lower Zambezi valley, Mozambique we used environmental, gradient-directed transects (gradsects) to sample vascular plant species, plant functional types, vegetation structure, soil properties and land-use characteristics. Soil fertility indices were derived using novel multidimensional scaling of soil properties. To facilitate spatial analysis, we applied a probabilistic remote sensing approach, analyzing Landsat 7 satellite imagery to map photosynthetically active and inactive vegetation and bare soil along each gradsect. Despite the relatively low sample number, we found highly significant correlations between single and combined sets of specific plant, soil and remotely sensed variables that permitted testable spatial projections of biodiversity and soil fertility across the regional land-use mosaic. This integrative and rapid approach provides a low-cost, high-return and readily transferable methodology that permits the ready identification of testable biodiversity indicators for adaptive management of biodiversity and potential agricultural productivity. PMID:27064732

  16. A method for reducing ground reflection effects from acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noerager, J. A.; Rice, E. J.; Feiler, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    The method involved placing foam blocks on the ground between sound source and receiver in an approximation of the wedges in an anechoic chamber. The tests were performed out of doors as a function of the receiver height and source-receiver separation distance. The spacing between blocks and the extent of ground covered were varied to estimate the optimum placement and minimum amount of foam treatment needed. Base-line tests without foam were also performed. It was found that the foam treatment reduced the amplitude of the peaks and valleys in the sound pressure spectra substantially. The foam was least effective at low frequency, especially for the low receiver height and for large source-receiver distances. Results from the base-line tests were compared with theoretically predicted results. These base-line test results were in reasonable agreement with those from theory.

  17. 30 CFR 75.703-1 - Approved method of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of grounding. In instances where the metal frames both of an offtrack direct-current machine and of the metal frames of its component parts are grounded to the same grounding medium the requirements...

  18. 30 CFR 75.703-1 - Approved method of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of grounding. In instances where the metal frames both of an offtrack direct-current machine and of the metal frames of its component parts are grounded to the same grounding medium the requirements...

  19. MODFLOW-2005 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--the ground-water flow process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents MODFLOW-2005, which is a new version of the finite-difference ground-water model commonly called MODFLOW. Ground-water flow is simulated using a block-centered finite-difference approach. Layers can be simulated as confined or unconfined. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, drains, and rivers, also can be simulated. The report includes detailed explanations of physical and mathematical concepts on which the model is based, an explanation of how those concepts are incorporated in the modular structure of the computer program, instructions for using the model, and details of the computer code. The modular structure consists of a MAIN Program and a series of highly independent subroutines. The subroutines are grouped into 'packages.' Each package deals with a specific feature of the hydrologic system that is to be simulated, such as flow from rivers or flow into drains, or with a specific method of solving the set of simultaneous equations resulting from the finite-difference method. Several solution methods are incorporated, including the Preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient method. The division of the program into packages permits the user to examine specific hydrologic features of the model independently. This also facilitates development of additional capabilities because new packages can be added to the program without modifying the existing packages. The input and output systems of the computer program also are designed to permit maximum flexibility. The program is designed to allow other capabilities, such as transport and optimization, to be incorporated, but this report is limited to describing the ground-water flow capability. The program is written in Fortran 90 and will run without modification on most computers that have a Fortran 90 compiler.

  20. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected ground moving target through the communication number of the handheld devices. The handheld devices receive and identify the activation short message, and send the current location information to the server. Therefore, the emergency tracking mode is triggered. The real time location of the filtered target can be shown on the organizer's screen, and the organizer can assign the rescue tasks to the rescuer teams and volunteers based on their real time location. The ground moving target emergency tracking prototype system is implemented using Oracle 11g, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  1. Airborne and Ground Electrical Surveys for Subsurface Mapping of the Arbuckle Aquifer, Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.; Smith, B. D.; Blome, C. D.; Osborn, N.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne and ground electrical surveys have been conducted to map the subsurface hydrogeologic character of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south central Oklahoma. An understanding of the geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics is necessary to evaluate groundwater flow through the highly faulted, structurally complex, carbonate aquifer. Results from this research will further understanding of the aquifer and will assist in managing the water resources of the region. The major issues include water quality, the allocation of water rights, and the potential impacts of pumping on springs and stream. Four areas in the Hunton anticline area, with distinctly different geology, were flown with a frequency domain helicopter electromagnetic system (HEM) in March, 2007. Ground electrical studies include dc resistivity imaging and natural field audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. The HEM resistivity and total field magnetic survey was flown in four blocks, A through D, mostly with a line spacing of 400 m. Block A extends from the Chickasaw National Recreational Area (CHIC) to Mill Creek on the west side of the anticline. The surface geology of this block is mostly dolomitic limestone of the Arbuckle Group that is in fault contact with younger Paleozoic clastic rocks. The flight line spacing was 800 meters in the western half of the block and 400 meters in the eastern part. Airborne magnetic data indicate that the Sulphur fault bends south to merge with the Mill Creek fault which substantiates an earlier hypothesis first made from interpretation of gravity data. Block B, located on the north side of the anticline consists of mostly of Arbuckle and Simpson Group rocks. Block C, covering most of the Clarita horst on the east side of the anticline, consists of the Upper Ordovician to the Lower Pennsylvanian shales. Block D, which was flown to include a deep test well site at Spears ranch, consisted of eight lines spaced at 400 meters. The HEM data are being used to more precisely locate faults, refine the lithostratigraphic units, and to map the depth and extent of shallow epikarst. The MT and AMT data revealed deep structural contacts and a transition between fresh and highly mineralized ground water between springs in the CHIC. The dc resistivity survey has greatly helped in mapping major faults both within dolomitic limestone and clastic units. Ground resistivity surveys also suggest that, in places, the faults within limestone are zones of lower resistivity and map low resistivity surficial epikarst a several meters thick. Ground penetrometer data also has been used to define the depth extent of epikarst in selected areas and the data correlate well with the dc resistivity and HEM resistivity depth sections.

  2. Exploring the diversity of exoplanet atmospheres from the ground with the ACCESS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, Nestor; Jordan, Andres; Apai, Daniel; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Rackham, Benjamin; Lewis, Nikole K.; Fraine, Jonathan; Diaz-Pérez, Ryan; Rodler, Florian; Wells, Robert; Osip, David

    2015-12-01

    One of the most exciting possibilities enabled by transiting exoplanets is to measure their atmospheric properties through the technique of transmission spectroscopy: the variation of the transit depth as a function of wavelength due to starlight interacting with the atmosphere of the exoplanet. Motivated by the need of optical transmission spectra of exoplanets, we recently launched the Arizona-CfA-Católica Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey (ACCESS), which aims at studying the atmospheres of ~20 exoplanets ranging from super-Earths to hot-Jupiters in the entire optical atmospheric window using ground-based facilities from both northern and southern hemispheres. In this talk, I will present the survey and its first results using Magellan/IMACS data, focusing on the lessons learned and future prospects of the survey.

  3. Development of Grounded Electrical Source Airborne Transient EM (GREATEM) Survey System and Its Application to Investigating a Volcano Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, T.; Jomori, A.; Jomori, N.; Azuma, Y.; Fomenko, E. Y.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed an airborne EM system that uses a grounded electrical source and an airborne magnetic field receiver to increase the depth of investigation. Using a grounded source, we can apply a large source moment with a long transmitter-receiver distance, thus we expect to obtain a greater depth of investigation. However, the area of survey is limited with this type of method, but it has some advantages such as little effect of flight level etc. We believe that a repeated survey in active area such as volcano or fault area is effective for monitoring activity in the whole area. By using the airborne survey, we will be able to make repeated survey rapidly in volcano area where it is difficult to enter by a ground survey. The initial stage of the development was reported at Mogi et al. (1998) and the survey system was named as GREATEM (Grounded electrical source airborne transient EM). Time domain data acquisition has an advantage to the deep exploration because it avoids near source field effects that occur in frequency domain measurements. To realize the method, we should overcome mainly two problems: monitoring and filtering the motion noise of the receiver and canceling the natural magnetic field variation and cultural noise without stacking in the time domain data. We prepared high accuracy fiber optic gyros to monitor the pitch and roll of the magnetic sensor in the bird to monitor the motion and also manufactured an electromagnetic receiver that can detect three components of magnetic field and a tilt meter with MI sensor which can detect up to_ 100,000 nT with a sensitivity of 0.04 mV/nT. These receiver and tilt meter are installed on a gimbal in a bird. Data acquisition system is installed in the helicopter cabin with high precision GPS synchronized with the same type GPS set in the transmitter. In this system, we designed to analyze full wave data in time-domain for investigating deep to shallow underground resistivity structure. The measured data of three-component magnetic filed, tilting, time and positioning are digitized at 25 kHz for 10 channels. We have also developed a 3D modeling scheme to investigate magnetic field responses in the air for complicated subsurface structure and topography. We carried out GREATEM surveys at Aso Volcano, southwest Japan to test the survey system and clarify the subsurface structure of the volcano. We computed the transient response of the magnetic field in the air by removing motion noise and other EM noise using special digital filters. Finally we obtained resistivity structure, assuming horizontal layer structure. The depth of investigation of present survey was estimated about 800m deep.

  4. Modified Universal Design Survey: Enhancing Operability of Launch Vehicle Ground Crew Worksites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Operability is a driving requirement for next generation space launch vehicles. Launch site ground operations include numerous operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform preflight maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To promote operability, a Design Quality Evaluation Survey based on Universal Design framework was developed to support Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluation for NASA s launch vehicles. Universal Design per se is not a priority for launch vehicle processing however; applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which promotes operability. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey incorporates and tailors the seven Universal Design Principles and adds new measures for Safety and Efficiency. Adapting an approach proven to measure Universal Design Performance in Product, each principle is associated with multiple performance measures which are rated with the degree to which the statement is true. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several launch vehicle ground processing worksite analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability.

  5. Application of ground-penetrating-radar methods in hydrogeologic studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beres, Milan, Jr.; Haeni, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    A ground-penetrating-radar system was used to study selected stratified-drift deposits in Connecticut. Ground-penetrating radar is a surface-geophysical method that depends on the emission, transmission, reflection, and reception of an electromagnetic pulse and can produce continuous high-resolution profiles of the subsurface rapidly and efficiently. Traverse locations on land included a well field in the town of Mansfield, a sand and gravel pit and a farm overlying a potential aquifer in the town of Coventry, and Haddam Meadows State Park in the town of Haddam. Traverse locations on water included the Willimantic River in Coventry and Mansfield Hollow Lake in Mansfield. The penetration depth of the radar signal ranged from about 20 feet in fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments to about 70 feet in coarse sand and gravel. Some land records in coarse-grained sediments show a distinct, continuous reflection from the water table about 5 to 11 feet below land surface. Parallel reflectors on the records are interpreted as fine-grained sediments. Hummocky or chaotic reflectors are interpreted as cross-bedded or coarse-grained sediments. Other features observed on some of the radar records include the till and bedrock surface. Records collected on water had distinct water-bottom multiples (more than one reflection) and diffraction patterns from boulders. The interpretation of the radar records, which required little or no processing, was verified by using lithologic logs from test holes located along some of the land traverses and near the water traverses.

  6. Assessment of some important factors affecting the singing-ground survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tautin, J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief history of the procedures used to analyze singing-ground survey data is outlined. Some weaknesses associated with the analytical procedures are discussed, and preliminary results of efforts to improve the procedures are presented. The most significant finding to date is that counts made by new observers need not be omitted when calculating an index of the woodcock population. Also, the distribution of woodcock heard singing, with respect to time after sunset, affirms the appropriateness of recommended starting times for counting woodcock. Woodcock count data fit the negative binomial probability distribution.

  7. The ground support computer and in-orbit survey data analysis program for the SEEP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, H.D.; Datlowe, D.W.; Mobilia, J.; Roselle, S.N.

    1985-02-01

    The ground support computer equipment (GSE) and production survey plot and analysis software are described for the Stimulated Emissions of Energetic Particles (SEEP) experiment on the S81-1 satellite. A general purpose satellite data acquisition circuit was developed based on a Z-80 portable microcomputer. By simply changing instrument control software and electrical connectors, automatic testing and control of the various SEEP instruments was accomplished. A new feature incorporated into the SEEP data analysis phase was the development of a correlative data base for all of the SEEP instruments. A CPU efficient survey plot program (with ephemeris) was developed to display the approximate 3100 hours of data, with a time resolution of 0.5 sec, from the ten instrument sensors. The details of the general purpose multigraph algorithms and plot formats are presented. For the first time new associations are being investigated of simultaneous particle, X-ray, optical and plasma density satellite measurements.

  8. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  9. Signature of hydrothermal alteration in ground-magnetic surveys at Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouligand, C.; Glen, J. M.; McPhee, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a very large hydrothermal system with over 10,000 thermal features. Although hydrothermal alteration in YNP has been extensively studied with field observations, remote-sensing imagery, and core drilling, the volume and geometry of hydrothermal systems at depth remain poorly constrained. Magnetic surveys can help to investigate buried hydrothermal alteration as demonstrated by the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of YNP (Finn and Morgan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 115, 207-231, 2002). Results of this survey show that magnetic lows extend over and beyond areas of hydrothermal activity. This suggests large volumes of buried demagnetized rocks due to hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic substratum. Although the interpretation of magnetic anomalies is non-unique, Finn and Morgan (2002) used these magnetic lows to estimate a minimum volume of buried altered rock assuming complete demagnetization of the substratum. This aeromagnetic survey was of relatively high resolution (flight line spacing < 500 m and flight elevation <350 m above ground), but it was insufficient for detailed mapping of individual thermal areas. In order to obtain a closer look at several areas, we performed ground-based magnetic surveys within YNP using a cesium-vapor magnetometer along 4-5 km long transects crossing four thermal areas (Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Lone Star Geyser Basin, and Smoke Jumper Hot-springs). We also performed a detailed survey over an area of about 800 m x 500 m around Lone Star Geyser. We also collected gravity data to help characterize the subsurface geologic structures and performed magnetic susceptibility, magnetic remanence, and density measurements on rock samples collected in the field and from drill cores collected in 1967-1968 to characterize physical properties of fresh and altered geologic units. The long magnetic transects show that magnetic anomalies are damped in altered areas suggesting a significant decrease in the magnetization of shallow volcanic units. The detailed magnetic map of the Lone Star Geyser displays a pronounced negative anomaly centered on the geyser mound and other hot-springs indicating demagnetization directly associated with the hydrothermal plumbing system. These surveys will be used to model the geometry of the demagnetized volcanic substratum associated with hydrothermal alteration.

  10. A comparison of vibration damping methods for ground based telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric H.; Glaese, Roger M.; Neill, Douglas

    2008-07-01

    Vibration is becoming a more important element in design of telescope structures as these structures become larger and more compliant and include higher bandwidth actuation systems. This paper describes vibration damping methods available for current and future implementation and compares their effectiveness for a model of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), a structure that is actually stiffer than most large telescopes. Although facility and mount design, structural stiffening and occasionally vibration isolation have been adequate in telescopes built to date, vibration damping offers a mass-efficient means of reducing vibration response, whether the vibration results from external wind disturbances, telescope slewing, or other internal disturbances from translating or rotating components. The paper presents several damping techniques including constrained layer viscoelastics, viscous and magnetorheological (MR) fluid devices, passive and active piezoelectric dampers, tuned mass dampers (vibration absorbers) and active resonant dampers. Basic architectures and practical implementation considerations are discussed and expected performance is assessed using a finite element model of the LSST. With a goal of reducing settling time during the telescope's surveys, and considering practicalities of integration with the telescope structure, two damping methods were identified as most appropriate: passive tuned mass dampers and active electromagnetic resonant dampers.

  11. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  12. Multidisciplinary eHealth Survey Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karras, Bryant T.; Tufano, James T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development process of an evaluation framework for describing and comparing web survey tools. We believe that this approach will help shape the design, development, deployment, and evaluation of population-based health interventions. A conceptual framework for describing and evaluating web survey systems will enable the…

  13. Multidisciplinary eHealth Survey Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karras, Bryant T.; Tufano, James T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development process of an evaluation framework for describing and comparing web survey tools. We believe that this approach will help shape the design, development, deployment, and evaluation of population-based health interventions. A conceptual framework for describing and evaluating web survey systems will enable the

  14. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods that are currently available or under development for recharge monitoring. The material is written primarily for hydrogeologists. Uses of geophysical methods for improving recharge monitoring are explored through brief discussions and case studies. The intent is to indicate how geophysical methods can be used effectively in studying recharge processes and quantifying recharge. As such, the material constructs a framework for matching the strengths of individual geophysical methods with the manners in which they can be applied for hydrologic analyses. The appendix is organized in three sections. First, the key hydrologic parameters necessary to determine the rate, timing, and patterns of recharge are identified. Second, the basic operating principals of the relevant geophysical methods are discussed. Methods are grouped by the physical property that they measure directly. Each measured property is related to one or more of the key hydrologic properties for recharge monitoring. Third, the emerging conceptual framework for applying geophysics to recharge monitoring is presented. Examples of the application of selected geophysical methods to recharge monitoring are presented in nine case studies. These studies illustrate hydrogeophysical applications under a wide range of conditions and measurement scales, which vary from tenths of a meter to hundreds of meters. The case studies include practice-proven as well as emerging applications of geophysical methods to recharge monitoring.

  15. Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Afghanistan?s geologic setting suggests significant natural resource potential. Although important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country?s potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well- accepted and cost-effective method for remotely obtaining information of the geological setting of an area. A regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed due to the security situation and the large areas of Afghanistan that have not been covered using geophysical exploration methods. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan. Data collected during this survey will provide basic information for mineral and petroleum exploration studies that are important for the economic development of Afghanistan. Additionally, use of these data is broadly applicable in the assessment of water resources and natural hazards, the inventory and planning of civil infrastructure and agricultural resources, and the construction of detailed maps. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently working in cooperation with the U.S. Agency of International Development to conduct resource assessments of the country of Afghanistan for mineral, energy, coal, and water resources, and to assess geologic hazards. These geophysical and remote sensing data will be used directly in the resource and hazard assessments.

  16. Digitized data from ground geophysical surveys in Afghanistan: A website for distribution of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polster, Sarah W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the process of digitization of a 1974 report on geophysical work undertaken by Soviet geophysicists in southern and eastern Afghanistan. These data, uncovered in Afghanistan, represent magnetic and electrical ground surveys for which locations are not well defined. Due to lack of location information, these surveys were georeferenced using the cities, rivers, and surrounding geology found on the maps used to plot survey locations. A geologic map found in the Soviet report contains profile lines that correspond to the geophysical maps, allowing these data to be georeferenced. The profiles correspond to sets of resistivity, chargeabiliy, and magnetic data. Some datasets were presented as graphs and needed to be gridded into a useable image. Only the vertical component of the magnetic field was collected, so conversion to total field anomaly was necessary. The magnetic data were collected in either gammas or milliorstead, both of which required conversion to standard SI units. To be useful to modern studies, the datasets and images contained in this report have been digitized, georeferenced, and in some cases converted into computer-ready formats.

  17. Method for Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.

  18. Method for Ground-to-Satellite Laser Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.

  19. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... earth; (b) A solid connection to a grounding conductor, other than the neutral conductor of a resistance... between such metallic enclosures and the earth....

  20. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... earth; (b) A solid connection to a grounding conductor, other than the neutral conductor of a resistance... between such metallic enclosures and the earth....

  1. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Joseph Perry; Farese, David John; Xu, Jianguo

    2002-06-11

    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  2. Survey of College Entrance Exam Preparation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Robin Faulk

    2013-01-01

    This study surveyed college freshman to determine which types of preparation if any they had before taking either the SAT and/or ACT to decide if a certain type of preparation increased their scores. Students indicated whether they used online resources, self-help resources, school workshops and/or private tutoring before taking either test. The…

  3. A ground-penetrating radar survey for archaeological investigations in an urban area (Lecce, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, V.; Carrozzo, M. T.; Negri, S.; Nuzzo, L.; Quarta, T.; Villani, A. V.

    2000-04-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey, using mostly a 500 MHz antenna, was carried out in an urban area (Lecce, Italy) to obtain a detailed characterization of the most superficial layers, where presumably archaeological structures are buried, and to quickly identify anomalous zones for excavation. In the area, the presence of remnants of a historical Franciscan friary (built in 1432 and pulled down in 1971) and, probably, of more ancient (Roman and/or Messapic) features was expected. The geological setting (mainly wet calcarenite named "Pietra Leccese") was not the most favourable for the application of GPR methodology because of an expected high attenuation of electromagnetic energy. The low penetration depth of the signal, not exceeding 1 m and even using a 100 MHz antenna, made it possible to obtain information only between the ground level and the top of the calcarenitic basement. Data recorded along parallel profiles, 1 m spaced, prevented the clear identification of the walls of the historical building constructed in "Pietra Leccese" blocks, because of the weak contrast in the electromagnetic parameters with respect to the hosting material. On the other hand, the analysis of the radar sections allowed for identification and reconstruction of the shape and extension of a barrel-vault cavity, subsequently confirmed by archaeological excavations. Time slice representations were used as a tool to locate other features including modern-day urban utilities and the planimetric development of the barrel-vault cavity.

  4. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  5. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  6. An innovative, effective and cost effective survey method using a survey-check response format.

    PubMed

    Feil, Edward G; Severson, Herbert; Taylor, Ted K; Boles, Shawn; Albert, David A; Blair, Jason

    2007-06-01

    Maximizing the response rate to surveys involves thoughtful choices about survey design, sampling and collection methods. This paper describes an innovative survey method, to provide immediate reinforcement for responding and to minimize the response cost. This method involves using a questionnaire printed as checks on security (anti-fraud) paper with questions and responses separated using a perforated tear off section. Once a participant completes the survey, the response area is detached from the questions, thus protecting the confidentiality of the subject, and the check is returned via the banking system. This report describes the survey-check methodology, the survey flow process, and the results from four research studies which have used this method. These studies include (1) a technology accessibility survey of parents with children enrolled in a low-income preschool program; (2) a parent report of their child's behavior used as screening criteria for inclusion in a computer-mediated parent education project; (3) a follow-up questionnaire as part of a longitudinal study of child behavior, covering home and classroom interventions, and service utilization, and; (4) a survey of dentists in support of efforts to recruit them to participate in a randomized control trial of tobacco cessation in dental offices. The results of using this method show great improvement in response rates over traditionally administered surveys for three of the four reported studies. Results are discussed in terms of future applications of this method, limitations, and potential cost savings. PMID:17180473

  7. Ground penetrating radar surveys of peatlands for oilfield pipelines in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jol, Harry M.; Smith, Derald G.

    1995-12-01

    Placement of buried pipelines in thick peat deposits is difficult because of the low bearing strength and high water content of the material for support of heavy construction equipment. Previously, ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to assess thickness and volume of peat as a fuel resource and horticultural material in Scandinavia and Canada. To our knowledge, GPR has not been applied to the site assessment and placement of pipelines crossing peatlands. Field experiments were conducted in the Mitsue oilfield operated by Chevron Canada Resources Ltd., located immediately southeast of Lesser Slave Lake in north-central Alberta Province, Canada. Surficial deposits consist of Holocene, linear, sandy beach ridges separated by peatlands underlain by sand. Several GPR surveys assessed the thickness of the peat along two oil pipeline right-of-ways. Results show the peat-sand contact as irregular and undulating, ranging from 0 to 3.7 m deep. Each survey, 460 and 550 m long, was completed in two hours. Such results from 1 m station spacings (sampling interval) can considerably reduce the uncertainties in planning and placement of oil, gas, and water pipelines crossing peatlands. Results indicate that thickness variations of peat can be detected more effectively in terms of quality of results, lower cost, and less time with GPR than with a peat probe or by coring.

  8. The effectiveness of ground-penetrating radar surveys in the location of unmarked burial sites in modern cemeteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Sabine; Illich, Bernhard; Berger, Jochen; Graw, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Ground-penetration radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that is commonly used in archaeological and forensic investigations, including the determination of the exact location of graves. Whilst the method is rapid and does not involve disturbance of the graves, the interpretation of GPR profiles is nevertheless difficult and often leads to incorrect results. Incorrect identifications could hinder criminal investigations and complicate burials in cemeteries that have no information on the location of previously existing graves. In order to increase the number of unmarked graves that are identified, the GPR results need to be verified by comparing them with the soil and vegetation properties of the sites examined. We used a modern cemetery to assess the results obtained with GPR which we then compared with previously obtained tachymetric data and with an excavation of the graves where doubt existed. Certain soil conditions tended to make the application of GPR difficult on occasions, but a rough estimation of the location of the graves was always possible. The two different methods, GPR survey and tachymetry, both proved suitable for correctly determining the exact location of the majority of graves. The present study thus shows that GPR is a reliable method for determining the exact location of unmarked graves in modern cemeteries. However, the method did not allow statements to be made on the stage of decay of the bodies. Such information would assist in deciding what should be done with graves where ineffective degradation creates a problem for reusing graves following the standard resting time of 25 years.

  9. Application of a Modified Universal Design Survey for Evaluation of Ares 1 Ground Crew Worksites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Operability is a driving requirement for NASA's Ares 1 launch vehicle. Launch site ground operations include several operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To support design evaluation, the Ares 1 Upper Stage (US) element Human Factors Engineering (HFE) group developed a survey based on the Universal Design approach. Universal Design is a process to create products that can be used effectively by as many people as possible. Universal Design per se is not a priority for Ares 1 because launch vehicle processing is a specialized skill and not akin to a consumer product that should be used by all people of all abilities. However, applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which is a priority for Ares 1. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey centers on the following seven principles: (1) Equitable use, (2) Flexibility in use, (3) Simple and intuitive use, (4) Perceptible information, (5) Tolerance for error, (6) Low physical effort, (7) Size and space for approach and use. Each principle is associated with multiple evaluation criteria which were rated with the degree to which the statement is true. All statements are phrased in the utmost positive, or the design goal so that the degree to which judgments tend toward "completely agree" directly reflects the degree to which the design is good. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several US analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability

  10. Robust Control Methods a Systematic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesel, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem how to recognize a level of robust controller design and is aimed show the difficulties of implementation for practical use. In the first part of paper we introduce the survey of robust controller design for SISO systems with generalization design procedure for structured and unstructured uncertainties. The second part of paper is devoted to MIMO systems. In the frequency domain robust controller design procedure we reduce to independent design of SISO subsystems and in time domain the LMI or BMI approaches with polytopic system description are favorable.

  11. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a borehole casing having low resistance to earth; (b) A solid connection to metal waterlines having low resistance to earth; (c) A solid connection to a grounding conductor, other than the neutral... ensures that there is no difference in potential between such metallic enclosures and the earth....

  12. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a borehole casing having low resistance to earth; (b) A solid connection to metal waterlines having low resistance to earth; (c) A solid connection to a grounding conductor, other than the neutral... ensures that there is no difference in potential between such metallic enclosures and the earth....

  13. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a borehole casing having low resistance to earth; (b) A solid connection to metal waterlines having low resistance to earth; (c) A solid connection to a grounding conductor, other than the neutral... ensures that there is no difference in potential between such metallic enclosures and the earth....

  14. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a borehole casing having low resistance to earth; (b) A solid connection to metal waterlines having low resistance to earth; (c) A solid connection to a grounding conductor, other than the neutral... ensures that there is no difference in potential between such metallic enclosures and the earth....

  15. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a borehole casing having low resistance to earth; (b) A solid connection to metal waterlines having low resistance to earth; (c) A solid connection to a grounding conductor, other than the neutral... ensures that there is no difference in potential between such metallic enclosures and the earth....

  16. Methods in the Post-Methods Era Report on an International Survey on Language Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Do methods still have a place in 21st century language teaching? To answer this question, an international survey was conducted in the summer of 1999. A sample of 800 language teachers world-wide randomly drawn from 17,800 TESOLers were each given a 2-page survey. The return rate was 58.5% with the actual usable data set of 448, which was analyzed…

  17. Aiming for the next bright super earth — Synergies of Ground and Space based Transiting Planets Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Bakos, Gaspar; Hartman, Joel; HATNet Team

    2015-01-01

    With the great success of the Kepler space mission, our knowledge of Exoplanets has been dramatically extended. Nevertheless, ground based transit surveys pioneered the searching of transiting planets and developed many state-of-art techniques widely adopted by the transit community. The HATNet project is one of the most fruitful ground based transit surveys. Been operated for ~10 years, the survey yields ~50 HAT planets, constitute one fourth of the known population with accurate (<=10%) mass determinations.During the operation of Kepler Mission, HATNet team used our state-of-art pipeline and our long terms of observations in Kepler field to assist the analysis of Kepler data and the discovery of new candidates. The large sky coverage of HAT observations will provide continuous supports for the ongoing and future space based transit missions, such as K2 and TESS.On the other hand, we are able to learn about our noise characteristics and candidate selection limitations with the high precision photometric data from Kepler and our simultaneous observations.By exploiting synergies between ground based transit surveys and space transit missions, we'll be able to progress towards discover of bright super earths that are suitable for follow up spectroscopic observationsto investigate their atmosphere properties and chemical compositions. In this talk, I will first briefly review the contributions from the HATNet team in the Kepler mission. I will then present our latest effort in improving the yields and statistics of ground based transit surveys by simultaneousobservations of Kepler's field and employing machine learning techniques in our candidate selection processes. To finish up, I'll demonstrate the roles ground based transit surveys would play in the context of K2 and TESS.

  18. A quality-assurance plan for district ground-water activities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, J.O.; Barber, N.L.; Burns, A.W.; Fogelman, R.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Lidwin, R.A.; Mack, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended upon to collect data of the highest quality. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing and reporting ground-water data that are quality assured and quality controlled.

  19. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  20. Methods for the survey and genetic analysis of populations

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Matthew

    2003-09-02

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  1. Guidelines for Coding and Entering Ground-Water Data into the Ground-Water Site Inventory Database Version 4.6, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    This report establishes and documents the procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center, to code and enter ground-water data into the Ground-Water Site Inventory database of the U.S. Geological Survey's Ground Water Site Inventory System. These guidelines are consistent with Version 4.6 of the system, but will be updated as each new version becomes available.

  2. A survey of payload integration methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.; Harcrow, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The most prominent payload integration methods are presented and evaluated. The paper outlines the problem and some of the difficulties encountered when analyzing a coupled booster/payload system. Descriptions of both full-scale and short-cut methods are given together with an assessment of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, an extensive list of references is included.

  3. Magnetic and ground penetrating radar surveys for the research of Medieval settlements in the inland of the Marche Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Giocoli, A.; Balasco, M.; Favulli, G.; Moscatelli, U.; Minguzzi, S.; Gnesi, D.; Virgili, S.

    2009-04-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the R.I.M.E.M. project (Research on Medieval settlements in the inland of the Marche Region, Italy.) leaded by the Universities of Macerata and Udine and having the aim to produce a significant contribution for the comprehension of the settlement process in the Central and Southern Italy during the Late Roman Period and Early Middle Ages. Then, an extensive gradiometric survey were carried out, by using a vapour caesium magnetometer, in the area included amongst the municipal districts of Caldarola, Cessapalombo and San Ginesio, sited in the area closed to Macerata between the valleys of Chienti and Fiastra rivers. Moreover, in the most interesting areas, a 400 MHz 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR)survey was carried out in order to get the precise overlapping with the magnetic method. The Magnetic method is now a standard practice in the archaeological research taken into great consideration for its non-destructivity and quickness and its capability of mapping wide areas in quite a short lapse of time (Bavusi et al., 2008). Moreover the method provides an information well correlable with remote sensing data (Gallo et al, 2008). The GPR method is extremely useful for archaeologists thanks to its non-destructivity and capability of giving real-time and high-resolution data (Basile et al., 2000). Today the effectiveness of this method was improved by powerful 3D visualisation methods as well as 3D space, time or depth slices and iso-amplitude surfaces, too (Nuzzo et al., 2002). The integrations of several geophysical methods are usual (Sambuelli et al.1999, De Domenico et al., 2001; Chianese et al., 2004) particularly when a simple comparison in cross section along the same profiles can be performed. In this work the overlapping between two kinds of data was complicated by different outputs coming from two methods: maps for the magnetic method and cross sections for the GPR one. The 3D survey design for the GPR survey and a complex processing routine was carried out in order to get both data volumes and time slices, more easily comparable with magnetic maps. Magnetic data processing included spike removal and destripe. Finally, the results revealed the presence of several target of archaeological interest and, where two methods were carried out, the results are consistent. M. Bavusi , A. Giocoli, e. Rizzo, v. Lapenna (2008). Geophysical characterisation of Carlo' s V Castle (Crotone, Italy). Journal of Applied Geophysics. DOI: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2008.09.002. Basile V., Carrozzo M.T., Negri S., Nuzzo L., Quarta T., Villani A.V., (2000). A ground-penetrating radar survey for archaeological investigations in an urban area - Lecce, Italy. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 44, 15-32. Chianese D., D'Emilio M., Di Salvia S., Lapenna V., Ragosta M., Rizzo E. (2004). Magnetic Mapping, Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys and Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements for the Study of the Archaeological Site of Serra di Vaglio (Southern Italy). Journal of Archaeological Science, 31, 633-643. De Domenico D., Giannino F., Marino A., Nuzzo L., Rizzo E., (2001). Indagini elettriche e radar: integrazione dei metodi nello studio dei resti sepolti del monastero normanno in s. Marco D'Alunzio (Messina). Atti del 21° Convegno Nazionale del GNGTS, 351-353. GalloD., Ciminale M., Beckerb H. and Masini N. (2008). Remote sensing techniques for reconstructing a vast Neolithic settlement in Southern Italy. Journal of Archaeological Science, DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2008.07.002. Nuzzo L., Leucci, G . Negri S., Carrozzo M. T. and Quarta T., (2002). Application of 3D visualization techniques in the analysis of GPR data for archaeology. Annals of Geophysics, 45 (2), 321-337. Sambuelli L., Socco L.V., Brecciaroli L., (1999). Acquisition and processing of electric, magnetic and GPR data on a Roman site(Victimulae, Salussola, Biella), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 41, 189-204

  4. Do singing-ground surveys reflect american woodcock abundance in the western Great Lakes region?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthew R. Nelson; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The Singing-ground Survey (SGS) is the primary monitoring tool used to assess population status and trends of American woodcock (Scolopax minor). Like most broad-scale surveys, the SGS cannot be directly validated because there are no independent estimates of abundance of displaying male American woodcock at an appropriate spatial scale. Furthermore, because locations of individual SGS routes have generally remained stationary since the SGS was standardized in 1968, it is not known whether routes adequately represent the landscapes they were intended to represent. To indirectly validate the SGS, we evaluated whether 1) counts of displaying male American woodcock on SGS routes related to land-cover types known to be related to American woodcock abundance, 2) changes in counts of displaying male American woodcock through time were related to changes in land cover along SGS routes, and 3) land-cover type composition along SGS routes was similar to land-cover type composition of the surrounding landscape. In Wisconsin and Minnesota, USA, counts along SGS routes reflected known American woodcock-habitat relations. Increases in the number of woodcock heard along SGS routes over a 13-year period in Wisconsin were related to increasing amounts of early successional forest, decreasing amounts of mature forest, and increasing dispersion and interspersion of cover types. Finally, the cover types most strongly associated with American woodcock abundance were represented along SGS routes in proportion to their composition of the broader landscape. Taken together, these results suggest that in the western Great Lakes region, the SGS likely provides a reliable tool for monitoring relative abundance and population trends of breeding, male American woodcock.

  5. Correlation of low level ground water contamination and soil gas survey results at a manufacturing site in Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, R.; Viellenave, J.H.; Bedard, P.C.

    1995-06-01

    A large manufacturing facility (14 acre property with 5 acre building) in Connecticut, used for manufacturing and large scale printing since World War II, was investigated to determine the sources and extent of ground water contamination by organics using a combination of soil gas surveying and traditional monitoring well sampling and analysis. The soil gas survey, the PETREX Technology, was used to limit and guide the installation of monitoring wells and allow interpolation between wells. A total of only eleven wells was used to fully define the magnitude and extent of ground water contamination across the entire site, resulting in substantial savings for the investigation of the facility. Linear regression analysis was performed on the soil gas ion responses and ground water concentrations of PCE, TCE, and TCA from the eleven monitoring wells. The ground water concentrations were near the drinking water levels and ranged from Not Detected to 17 ppb for PCE, Not Detected to 18 ppb for TCE, and Not Detected to 124 ppb for TCA. The regression calculations indicate coefficients of correlation (R) between ground water organic contaminant concentrations and soil gas ion responses of +0.93 for PCE, +0.85 for TCE, and +0.82 for TCA. We conclude that, if not influenced by soil contamination, the PETREX soil gas results can be a good predictor of the presence and the general level of an organic contaminant in ground water, and can therefore be a very useful and cost effective guide to drilling and sampling programs.

  6. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Banta, Edward R.; Hill, Mary C.; McDonald, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    MODFLOW is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. Although MODFLOW was designed to be easily enhanced, the design was oriented toward additions to the ground-water flow equation. Frequently there is a need to solve additional equations; for example, transport equations and equations for estimating parameter values that produce the closest match between model-calculated heads and flows and measured values. This report documents a new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW-2000, which is designed to accommodate the solution of equations in addition to the ground-water flow equation. This report is a user's manual. It contains an overview of the old and added design concepts, documents one new package, and contains input instructions for using the model to solve the ground-water flow equation.

  7. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  8. A Novel Method of Enhancing Grounded Theory Memos with Voice Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Rachel; Close, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the recent discovery of a novel method of supplementing written grounded theory memos with voice recording, the combination of which may provide significant analytical advantages over solely the traditional written method. Memo writing is an essential component of a grounded theory study, however it is often…

  9. in situ Measures of LED Installations: Results of Air and Ground Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric Richard; Craine, Brian L.

    2015-08-01

    Light Emitting Diode (LED) outdoor light fixtures of different types are rapidly proliferating in many communities, particularly in the form of continuous roadway, work, and parking lot lights. These lights offer a wide range of benefits, but many in the astronomical community have expressed various concerns about their impact on local observatory facilities. We have spent several years developing complementary ground-based and aerial techniques of measuring light installations in the field. Unfortunately, large community retrofits of lighting preclude comprehensive measurement of the changes that result unless baseline data have been collected prior to completion of the new installations. Because of the rapidity of conversion to LEDs, it is increasingly difficult to conduct informative before and after surveys. As a point of interest to astronomers, we offer examples of some in situ measurements of LED installations, compare those measurements to results for older light fixtures, and discuss some of the implications for astronomy. These objective data may be helpful in reaching an informed perspective on how LED lights perform in typical settings.

  10. Robust adaptive polarization analysis method for eliminating ground roll in 3C land seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiang-Yang; Qian, Zhong-Ping; Zhao, Gui-Ling

    2013-06-01

    To improve the data quality of converted waves, and better identify and suppress the strong ground-roll interference in three-component (3C) seismic recordings on land, we present an adaptive polarization filtering method, which can effectively separate the groundroll interference by combining complex polarization and instantaneous polarization analysis. The ground roll noise is characterized by elliptical plane polarization, strong energy, low apparent velocity, and low frequency. After low-pass filtering of the 3C data input within a given time-window of the ground roll, the complex covariance matrix is decomposed using the sliding time window with overlapping data and length that depends on the dominant ground-roll frequency. The ground-roll model is established using the main eigenvectors, and the ground roll is detected and identified using the instantaneous polarization area attributes and average energy constraints of the ground-roll zone. Finally, the ground roll is subtracted. The threshold of the method is stable and easy to select, and offers good groundroll detection. The method is a robust polarization filtering method. Model calculations and actual data indicate that the method can effectively identify and attenuate ground roll while preserving the effective signals.

  11. Optimal filtering methods to structural damage estimation under ground excitation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chien-Shu; Liaw, Der-Cherng; Lin, Tzu-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of shear building damage estimation subject to earthquake ground excitation using the Kalman filtering approach. The structural damage is assumed to take the form of reduced elemental stiffness. Two damage estimation algorithms are proposed: one is the multiple model approach via the optimal two-stage Kalman estimator (OTSKE), and the other is the robust two-stage Kalman filter (RTSKF), an unbiased minimum-variance filtering approach to determine the locations and extents of the damage stiffness. A numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure subject to base excitation is used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed results. PMID:24453869

  12. Optimal Filtering Methods to Structural Damage Estimation under Ground Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chien-Shu; Liaw, Der-Cherng; Lin, Tzu-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of shear building damage estimation subject to earthquake ground excitation using the Kalman filtering approach. The structural damage is assumed to take the form of reduced elemental stiffness. Two damage estimation algorithms are proposed: one is the multiple model approach via the optimal two-stage Kalman estimator (OTSKE), and the other is the robust two-stage Kalman filter (RTSKF), an unbiased minimum-variance filtering approach to determine the locations and extents of the damage stiffness. A numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure subject to base excitation is used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed results. PMID:24453869

  13. Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Shults, B.S.; Adams, L.G.; Kleckner, C.

    2006-01-01

    Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

  14. Survey of assay methods of antivenins

    PubMed Central

    Grasset, E.

    1957-01-01

    In view of the multiplicity of methods used at present for the preparation and assay of antivenins and as a first step towards the international standardization of antivenins, it seemed advisable to make a comparative study of the methods used in the institutes specializing in the production of these sera. With this end in view, the author circulated to the serologists of institutes concerned a detailed questionnaire on the assay methods used for the determination of the neutralization potency of the various types of antivenins prepared under their direction. The information supplied by these institutes is reproduced, in condensed form, in this report and is analysed by the author. The author emphasizes that the great variety in the constitution of venoms necessitates: (1) the use of monovalent standard sera against homologous “test” venoms of high activity and stability; and (2) the establishment, on a regional basis, of standard antivenins corresponding to groups of snakes characterized by venoms of common or closely related antigenic constitution. PMID:13413648

  15. Survey of methods for soil moisture determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Mckim, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Existing and proposed methods for soil moisture determination are discussed. These include: (1) in situ investigations including gravimetric, nuclear, and electromagnetic techniques; (2) remote sensing approaches that use the reflected solar, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; and (3) soil physics models that track the behavior of water in the soil in response to meteorological inputs (precipitation) and demands (evapotranspiration). The capacities of these approaches to satisfy various user needs for soil moisture information vary from application to application, but a conceptual scheme for merging these approaches into integrated systems to provide soil moisture information is proposed that has the potential for meeting various application requirements.

  16. [Historical survey of modern reversible contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Mbabajende, V

    1986-04-01

    Because of contraception, pregnancy need not be viewed by women as punishment for sexual activity but as a planned and desired event. Most of the contraceptive methods used in developing countries at present were introduced during the 1960s, but use of contraception has a long history and some methods date back to antiquity. Contraceptive pills were already used around 2000 BC in the form of mercury and arsenic tablets. Their effectiveness was questionable. The role of hormones in human reproduction began to be understood only in the early 1900s. The discovery of progesterone in a Mexican iguana in the 1940s permitted production of progesterone on a large scale. Estrogens had been identified around 1930. Human trials of a contraceptive pill beginning in 1956 in Puerto Rico demonstrated that progestins could prevent pregnancy by suppressing ovulation. Later on, estrogen was added to reduce menstrual irregularities. The 1st generation of combined oral contraceptives contained very high levels of hormones associated with high rates of side effects. Numerous formulations with lower hormonal contents became available beginning around 1970 and constitute the principal formulations in use today. A number of long acting hormonal methods based on progestins have been developed, including injectables, some IUDs and vaginal rings, and implants. The 1st commercially available injectable, norethisterone enanthate, did not acquire the wide distribution of medroxyprogesterone acetate, sold as Depo Provera and used to treat various pathological conditions as well as for contraception. The 1st true IUDs were small stones placed within the uteri of camels by nomads to prevent pregnancy during long caravans. An IUD was developed in 1909 by Richter, and the 2 most widely used models before 1960 were the Grafenberg and Ota silver rings. Use of the 2 rings became rare for medical reasons after 1935 despite their efficacy. Safe plastic IUDs which appeared beginning in the early 1960s were flexible and capable of returning to their original shape after insertion. The Lippes loop was the 1st highly successful IUD. Bioactive IUDs containing copper were developed in the 1970s. Research is underway to develop IUDs which will resist expulsion, reduce bleeding, be more appropriate for multiparas, and last longer. IUDs are used to treat intrauterine adhesions as well as for contraception. A gummy substance used to block the cervix was described in Egypt in 1850 BC. Japanese and Chinese prostitutes of antiquity placed oiled bamboo paper at the cervical opening for contraception. Diaphragms and cervical caps were developed in the 19th century in Germany. Large scale production became possible after 1880 with the development of better, more durable, and cheaper rubber. An Egyptian writing in 3500 BC began the study of spermicides. Numerous substances such as lemon juice and honey have been placed in the vagina to avoid pregnancy. Such substances are available to all women and some were reasonably effective. Current research is directed toward development of spermicides which will also prevent sexually transmitted diseases. The 1st condoms were made of animal skins by an English physician to prevent transmission of venereal diseases. Rubber condoms appeared in the early 20th century and are widely utilized in some family planning programs. Pregnancy vaccines and a reversible hormonal method for men are among methods under development. PMID:12268230

  17. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: multilevel survey methods and procedures.

    PubMed

    Taxman, Faye S; Young, Douglas W; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-04-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed. PMID:17383548

  18. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: Multilevel survey methods and procedures⋆

    PubMed Central

    Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed. PMID:17383548

  19. Methods for Bayesian power spectrum inference with galaxy surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2013-12-10

    We derive and implement a full Bayesian large scale structure inference method aiming at precision recovery of the cosmological power spectrum from galaxy redshift surveys. Our approach improves upon previous Bayesian methods by performing a joint inference of the three-dimensional density field, the cosmological power spectrum, luminosity dependent galaxy biases, and corresponding normalizations. We account for all joint and correlated uncertainties between all inferred quantities. Classes of galaxies with different biases are treated as separate subsamples. This method therefore also allows the combined analysis of more than one galaxy survey. In particular, it solves the problem of inferring the power spectrum from galaxy surveys with non-trivial survey geometries by exploring the joint posterior distribution with efficient implementations of multiple block Markov chain and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Our Markov sampler achieves high statistical efficiency in low signal-to-noise regimes by using a deterministic reversible jump algorithm. This approach reduces the correlation length of the sampler by several orders of magnitude, turning the otherwise numerically unfeasible problem of joint parameter exploration into a numerically manageable task. We test our method on an artificial mock galaxy survey, emulating characteristic features of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, such as its survey geometry and luminosity-dependent biases. These tests demonstrate the numerical feasibility of our large scale Bayesian inference frame work when the parameter space has millions of dimensions. This method reveals and correctly treats the anti-correlation between bias amplitudes and power spectrum, which are not taken into account in current approaches to power spectrum estimation, a 20% effect across large ranges in k space. In addition, this method results in constrained realizations of density fields obtained without assuming the power spectrum or bias parameters in advance.

  20. Ground penetrating radar surveys over an alluvial DNAPL site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, P.J. |; Doll, W.E.; Phillips, B.E.

    1994-09-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to map shallow sands and gravels which are DNAPL migration pathways at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. The sands and gravels occur as paleochannel deposits, at depths of 17-25 ft, embedded in Pleistocene lacustrine clays. More than 30 GPR profiles were completed over the Drop Test Area (DTA) to map the top and base of the paleochannel deposits, and to assess their lateral continuity. A bistatic radar system was used with antenna frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz. An average velocity of 0.25 ft/ns for silty and clayey materials above the paleochannel deposits was established from radar walkaway tests, profiles over culverts of known depth, and comparison of radar sections with borings. In the south portion of the DTA, strong reflections corresponded to the water table at approximately 9-10 ft, the top of the paleochannel deposits at approximately 18 ft, and to gravel horizons within these deposits. The base of these deposits was not visible on the radar sections. Depth estimates for the top of the paleochannel deposits (from 50 records) were accurate to within 2 ft across the southern portion of the DTA. Continuity of these sands and gravels could not be assessed due to interference from air-wave reflections and lateral changes in signal penetration depth. However, the sands and gravels appear to extend across the entire southern portion of the DTA, at depths as shallow as 17 ft. Ringing, air-wave reflections and diffractions from powerlines, vehicles, well casings, and metal equipment severly degraded GPR profiles in the northern portion of the DTA; depths computed from reflection times (where visible) were accurate to within 4 ft in this area. The paleochannel deposits are deeper to the north and northeast where DNAPL has apparently pooled (DNAPL was not directly imaged by the GPR, however). Existing hydrogeological models of the DTA will be revised.

  1. Health-based screening levels to evaluate U.S. Geological Survey ground water quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, P.L.; Norman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many contaminants analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, limiting the ability to evaluate the potential human-health relevance of water-quality findings. Health-based screening levels (HBSLs) were developed collaboratively to supplement existing drinking-water standards and guidelines as part of a six-year, multi-agency pilot study. The pilot study focused on ground water samples collected prior to treatment or blending in areas of New Jersey where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water. This article describes how HBSLs were developed and demonstrates the use of HBSLs as a tool for evaluating water-quality data in a human-health context. HBSLs were calculated using standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methodologies and toxicity information. New HBSLs were calculated for 12 of 32 contaminants without existing USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines, increasing the number of unregulated contaminants (those without maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)) with human-health benchmarks. Concentrations of 70 of the 78 detected contaminants with human-health benchmarks were less than MCLs or HBSLs, including all 12 contaminants with new HBSLs, suggesting that most contaminant concentrations were not of potential human-health concern. HBSLs were applied to a state-scale groundwater data set in this study, but HBSLs also may be applied to regional and national evaluations of water-quality data. HBSLs fulfill a critical need for federal, state, and local agencies, water utilities, and others who seek tools for evaluating the occurrence of contaminants without drinking-water standards or guidelines. ?? 2006 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Seasonal changes in groundwater storage estimated by absolute ground gravity and MRS surveys in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favreau, G.; Boucher, M.; Luck, B.; Pfeffer, J.; Genthon, P.; Hinderer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Important and fast groundwater storage changes occur in tropical monsoon regions in response to seasonal rainfall and subsequent surface water redistribution. In West Africa, one main goal of the GHYRAF experiment (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa, 2008-2010) is to compare absolute gravimetric measurements with dense hydrological surveys to better estimate and model water storage changes at various time scales. Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) is a non-invasive geophysical method having a signal directly related to groundwater quantity. In SW Niger, MRS surveys were performed concurrently with gravimetric (FG5) measurements for monitoring seasonal changes in groundwater storage. Water table levels were recorded on a 4-piezometers profile (~500 m) near a temporary pond (area ~2 ha) fed by sandy gullies. The volume of water drained from the pond to the phreatic aquifer was computed to be ~100,000 m3/yr. Large piezometric fluctuations (3-6 m) occurred in response to indirect recharge through the pond during the 2008 rainy season (July-Sept.), with stronger water table fluctuations recorded near the pond. Absolute gravimetric (FG5) measurements were performed at a distance of 150 m from the pond, in order to minimize the influence of 2D effects on gravimetric records. The increase in absolute gravity measured between two dates (July-Sept.) was 8.7 ± 2.6 µGal; for the same period, the measured water table rise was +3.0 m. Considering these values, a first estimate of the groundwater storage increase is 0.2 m, corresponding to a porosity filled up by the water table rise of ~7%. Repeated MRS surveys were performed at the same location for different dates (three soundings in Sept., one in Dec.). The MRS water content was 13%, with little variation in space (±3%) along the piezometric profile. In response to a 3 metres drop in the water table (Sept- Dec), there was no significant recorded change in the MRS water content and/or in the estimated MRS water table depth. MRS and absolute gravimetry are two independent methods that could be sensitive to changes in groundwater reserves. However, because MRS is integrative of the whole saturated thickness of the aquifer (here, a few tens of metres), it was shown to be comparatively less sensitive to groundwater storage fluctuations occurring at the water table. These methods provide complementary data on aquifer characteristics, MRS being useful for quantifying lateral changes in aquifer properties, whereas gravimetric measurements helped in characterizing groundwater recharge and porosity. Both methods bring pieces of information that could be used to better constrain transient groundwater modelling at site scale.

  3. Utility survey results on forecasting methods and assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, D.V.; Kazin, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    During 1992, New England Power Planning (NEPLAN) and the University of Massachusetts Department of Resource Economics conducted a mail survey of electric utilities in the U.S. and Canada to obtain information on load forecasting methods and treatment of certain forecast assumptions currently in use in the industry. The objective of the survey was to utilize the information in NEPLAN`s continual forecasting model and data base development process. Survey responses were received from 83 companies and, for the U.S. respondents, represents approximately 70% of the customers and kWh sales served by the total I-O utilities as reported by DOE. This paper presents the survey response results including forecast methods used, own-price elasticities, price elasticity studies conducted, electricity price representation, treatment of energy efficiency standards and DSM conservation programs, and the impact of standards and conservation programs on electricity price and elasticity assumptions.

  4. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  5. Checklist and Pollard Walk butterfly survey methods on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royer, R.A.; Austin, J.E.; Newton, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Checklist and Pollard Walk butterfly survey methods were contemporaneously applied to seven public sites in North Dakota during the summer of 1995. Results were compared for effect of method and site on total number of butterflies and total number of species detected per hour. Checklist searching produced significantly more butterfly detections per hour than Pollard Walks at all sites. Number of species detected per hour did not differ significantly either among sites or between methods. Many species were detected by only one method, and at most sites generalist and invader species were more likely to be observed during checklist searches than during Pollard Walks. Results indicate that checklist surveys are a more efficient means for initial determination of a species list for a site, whereas for long-term monitoring the Pollard Walk is more practical and statistically manageable. Pollard Walk transects are thus recommended once a prairie butterfly fauna has been defined for a site by checklist surveys.

  6. Method of utilizing possible alternative energy sources in ground transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This work discusses the magnitude of the problem of depleting world oil reserves and their impact on ground-transportation systems. One of several possible solutions is postulated and analyzed. The solution examined is one in which energy from various sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is converted to electricity and distributed throughout the roadway network for use by vehicles. The energy is transferred to the vehicle via an on-board noncontacting, inductively coupled, pickup. The power-distribution system is fully compatible with existing vehicles and with pedestrians. A Hedonic Choice Model is developed to predict the market penetration of electric vehicles thru the year 2030. A life-cycle-cost optimization model and a system-simulation model are developed to analyze a system for the Denver metropolitan area. Results indicate that such a system is both economically and technically feasible. About 3600 lane miles of roadway would need to be electrified. This system would serve about 90% of all metro trips and would cost less than two billion dollars The system could provide mobility equivalent to that we presently experience through the foreseeable future.

  7. A Survey of Fund Raising Methods: Implications for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duronio, Margaret; And Others

    A year-long study to examine the relationships of higher education institutional characteristics, fund raising methods, and fund raising expenditures to voluntary support outcomes in institutions of higher education was undertaken. The initial results of the survey on college fund raising methods are presented, and a discussion of the implications…

  8. Geological disaster survey based on Curvelet transform with borehole Ground Penetrating Radar in Tonglushan old mine site.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinjian; Sun, Tao; Tang, Zhijie; Zhou, Zenghui; Wei, Baoming

    2011-06-01

    Tonglushan old mine site located in Huangshi City, China, is very famous in the world. However, some of the ruins had suffered from geological disasters such as local deformation, surface cracking, in recent years. Structural abnormalities of rock-mass in deep underground were surveyed with borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out whether there were any mined galleries or mined-out areas below the ruins. With both the multiresolution analysis and sub-band directional of Curvelet transform, the feature information of targets' GPR signals were studied on Curvelet transform domain. Heterogeneity of geotechnical media and clutter jamming of complicated background of GPR signals could be conquered well, and the singularity characteristic information of typical rock mass signals could be extracted. Random noise had be removed by thresholding combined with Curvelet and the statistical characteristics of wanted signals and the noise, then direct wave suppression and the spatial distribution feature extraction could obtain a better result by making use of Curvelet transform directional. GprMax numerical modeling and analyzing of the sample data have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of our method. It is important and applicable for the analyzing of the geological structure and the disaster development about the Tonglushan old mine site. PMID:25084600

  9. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste--ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H. C., Jr.,(Edited By); Franks, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology, selected the former American Creosote Works site near Pensacola, Florida as a national research demonstration area. Seventy-nine years (1902-81) of seepage from unlined discharge impoundments had released creosote, diesel fuel, and pentachlorophenol (since 1950) wastes into the ground-water system. A cluster of from 2 to 5 wells constructed at different depths at 9 sites yielded water which revealed contamination 600 feet downgradient and to a depth of 100 feet below land surface near the site. The best cross-sectional representation of the contaminant plume was obtained from samples collected and analyzed for oxidation-reduction sensitive inorganic chemical constituents. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence detected recently formed iron carbonate in soil samples from highly reducing ground-water zones. Approximately eighty specific organic contaminants were isolated from ground-water samples by gas-chromotography/mass spectrometry. Column studies indicate the dimethyl phenols are not sorbed or degraded by the sand-and-gravel aquifer materials. Five of nineteen individual phenolic and related compounds are biodegradable based on anaerobic digestor experiments with ACW site bacterial populations. The potential impacts in the nearby Pensacola Bay biotic community are being evaluated. (USGS)

  10. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model -- GMG Linear Equation Solver Package Documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John D.; Naff, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    A geometric multigrid solver (GMG), based in the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm, has been developed for solving systems of equations resulting from applying the cell-centered finite difference algorithm to flow in porous media. This solver has been adapted to the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000. The documentation herein is a description of the solver and the adaptation to MODFLOW-2000.

  11. System and method for transferring telemetry data between a ground station and a control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Timothy J. (Inventor); Ly, Vuong T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems, computer-implemented methods, and tangible computer-readable media for coordinating communications between a ground station, a control center, and a spacecraft. The method receives a call to a simple, unified application programmer interface implementing communications protocols related to outer space, when instruction relates to receiving a command at the control center for the ground station generate an abstract message by agreeing upon a format for each type of abstract message with the ground station and using a set of message definitions to configure the command in the agreed upon format, encode the abstract message to generate an encoded message, and transfer the encoded message to the ground station, and perform similar actions when the instruction relates to receiving a second command as a second encoded message at the ground station from the control center and when the determined instruction type relates to transmitting information to the control center.

  12. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method. Occupancy modeling may be useful for standardizing estimates across large landscapes, even if survey methods differ across regions, allowing for inferences about broad-scale population dynamics of wolves.

  13. Characterization of subarctic vegetation using ground based remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnell, D.; Garnello, A.; Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Herrick, C.; Anderson, S. M.; Crill, P. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Stordalen mire is located at 68°21'N and 19°02'E in the Swedish subarctic. Climate monitoring has revealed a warming trend spanning the past 150 years affecting the mires ability to hold stable palsa/hummock mounds. The micro-topography of the landscape has begun to degrade into thaw ponds changing the vegetation cover from ombrothrophic to minerotrophic. Hummocks are ecologically important due to their ability to act as a carbon sinks. Thaw ponds and sphagnum rich transitional zones have been documented as sources of atmospheric CH4. An objective of this project is to determine if a high resolution three band camera (RGB) and a RGNIR camera could detect differences in vegetation over five different site types. Species composition was collected for 50 plots with ten repetitions for each site type: palsa/hummock, tall shrub, semi-wet, tall graminoid, and wet. Sites were differentiated based on dominating species and features consisting of open water presence, sphagnum spp. cover, graminoid spp. cover, or the presence of dry raised plateaus/mounds. A pole based camera mount was used to collect images at a height of ~2.44m from the ground. The images were cropped in post-processing to fit a one-square meter quadrat. Texture analysis was performed on all images, including entropy, lacunarity, and angular second momentum. Preliminary results suggested that site type influences the number of species present. The p-values for the ability to predict site type using a t-test range from <0.0001 to 0.0461. A stepwise discriminant analysis on site type vs. texture yielded a 10% misclassification rate. Through the use of a stepwise regression of texture variables, actual vs. predicted percent of vegetation coverage provided R squared values of 0.73, 0.71, 0.67, and 0.89 for C. bigelowii, R. chamaemorus, Sphagnum spp., and open water respectively. These data have provided some support to the notion that texture analyses can be used for classification of mire site types. Future work will involve scaling up from the 50 plots through the use of data collected from two unmanned aerial systems (UAS), as well as WorldView-2 satellite imagery collected during the years 2012-2014. Identification of methane flux regions will later be analyzed based on vegetation coverage to aid classification of increased emission zones within the mire.

  14. Scenistic Methods in Training: Definitions and Theory Grounding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to describe the scenistic approach to training with corresponding activities and the theory bases that support the approach. Design/methodology/approach: Presented is the definition of the concept of scenistic training along with the step-by-step details of the implementation of the approach. Scenistic methods,…

  15. Scenistic Methods in Training: Definitions and Theory Grounding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to describe the scenistic approach to training with corresponding activities and the theory bases that support the approach. Design/methodology/approach: Presented is the definition of the concept of scenistic training along with the step-by-step details of the implementation of the approach. Scenistic methods,

  16. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  17. Ice thickness profile surveying with ground penetrating radar at Artesonraju Glacier, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Rabatel, Antoine; McKinney, Daene; Condom, Thomas; Cochacin, Alejo; Davila Roller, Luzmilla

    2014-05-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resource systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glaciers in terms of thickness changes. In the upper Paron Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Peru), an emerging lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Artesonraju Glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create slides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Artesonraju Glacier and underlying bedrock can give us an idea of how the lake is likely to evolve in the coming decades. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2013 at the Artesonraju Glacier as part of a collaboration between the Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos (UGRH) of Peru, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of France and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) of the United States of America. Two different GPR units belonging to UGRH and UT were used for subsurface imaging to create ice thickness profiles and to characterize the total volume of ice in the glacier. A common midpoint survey was also undertaken to determine the radar velocity in the ice at Artesonraju Glacier. GPR measurements of Artesonraju Glacier show the ice thickness ranging from 20 meters at the terminus and gradually increasing to about 160 meters at the deepest part in the tongue of the glacier. After this point the bed slope begins to increase and the ice thickness decreases in the direction of the accumulation zone. A negative bed slope from the glacier terminus to the middle of the glacier tongue indicates that the conditions are favorable for the growth of a glacial lake with a potential maximum depth of about 60-80 m.

  18. Autonomous and Remote-Controlled Airborne and Ground-Based Robotic Platforms for Adaptive Geophysical Surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spritzer, J. M.; Phelps, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Low-cost autonomous and remote-controlled robotic platforms have opened the door to precision-guided geophysical surveying. Over the past two years, the U.S. Geological Survey, Senseta, NASA Ames Research Center, and Carnegie Mellon University Silicon Valley, have developed and deployed small autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles for geophysical investigations. The purpose of this line of investigation is to 1) increase the analytical capability, resolution, and repeatability, and 2) decrease the time, and potentially the cost and map-power necessary to conduct near-surface geophysical surveys. Current technology has advanced to the point where vehicles can perform geophysical surveys autonomously, freeing the geoscientist to process and analyze the incoming data in near-real time. This has enabled geoscientists to monitor survey parameters; process, analyze and interpret the incoming data; and test geophysical models in the same field session. This new approach, termed adaptive surveying, provides the geoscientist with choices of how the remainder of the survey should be conducted. Autonomous vehicles follow pre-programmed survey paths, which can be utilized to easily repeat surveys on the same path over large areas without the operator fatigue and error that plague man-powered surveys. While initial deployments with autonomous systems required a larger field crew than a man-powered survey, over time operational experience costs and man power requirements will decrease. Using a low-cost, commercially available chassis as the base for autonomous surveying robotic systems promise to provide higher precision and efficiency than human-powered techniques. An experimental survey successfully demonstrated the adaptive techniques described. A magnetic sensor was mounted on a small rover, which autonomously drove a prescribed course designed to provide an overview of the study area. Magnetic data was relayed to the base station periodically, processed and gridded. A target was located in the subsurface, and a second, higher-resolution survey was programmed and executed to give detailed data over the newly-found target.

  19. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  20. The use of high resolution ground and airborne magnetic surveys to evaluate the geometry of hydrothermal alteration zones over volcanic provinces (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouligand, C.; Glen, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical methods can provide critical constraints on the distribution and volume of hydrothermal alteration, important parameters in understanding the evolution of geothermal systems. Because hydrothermal alteration modifies the magnetic properties of the volcanic substratum, magnetic surveys can be used to provide constraints on the distribution of hydrothermal alteration at depth. Using Yellowstone caldera as an example, we show that both ground and airborne magnetic surveys can be used to map and assess the volume of hydrothermal alteration. Ground magnetic surveys over unaltered volcanic terranes display high-amplitude, short-wavelength anomalies, in contrast to smooth, subdued magnetic anomalies over volcanic substrata demagnetized by hydrothermal alteration. We use this contrast to map areas of hydrothermal alteration in detail. Inverse methods applied to high-resolution airborne and ground magnetic data can be used to create three-dimensional models of the distribution of magnetization and thus illuminate the geometry of hydrothermal alteration. Because of the non-uniqueness of potential fields, the construction of inverse models requires simplifying assumptions on the distribution of magnetization, knowledge of induced and remanent magnetization of fresh and altered geological units, and detailed geological and geophysical data. Within the three hydrothermal sites that we investigated in Yellowstone National Park, subdued short-wavelength signal indicates pervasive demagnetization (alteration) of the shallow substratum that extends over larger areas than initially mapped by geology. These data also reveal that the largest degree of demagnetization (alteration) and maximum thicknesses of demagnetized (altered) substratum, reaching a few hundred meters, are associated with hydrothermal vents and with superficial hydrothermal alteration. Our three dimensional models of magnetization provide estimates of the volume of buried hydrothermal alteration ranging from 10 to 20 km3 buried within each of our 10 x 10 km2 study areas.

  1. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E.; Reed, Michael S.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  2. An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) occur in shallow coastal habitats and can be highly visible on the sea surface. They generally rest in groups and their detection depends on factors that include sea conditions, viewing platform, observer technique and skill, distance, habitat and group size. While visible on the surface, they are difficult to see while diving and may dive in response to an approaching survey platform. We developed and tested an aerial survey method that uses intensive searches within portions of strip transects to adjust for availability and sightability biases. Correction factors are estimated independently for each survey and observer. In tests of our method using shore-based observers, we estimated detection probabilities of 0.52-0.72 in standard strip-transects and 0.96 in intensive searches. We used the survey method in Prince William Sound, Alaska to estimate a sea otter population size of 9,092 (SE = 1422). The new method represents an improvement over various aspects of previous methods, but additional development and testing will be required prior to its broad application.

  3. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey.

  4. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey. PMID:27036795

  5. A Fast Reduction Method of Survey Data in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngung

    2001-04-01

    We present a fast reduction method of survey data obtained using a single-dish radio telescope. Along with a brief review of classical method, a new method of identification and elimination of negative and positive bad channels are introduced using cloud identification code and several IRAF(Image Reduction and Analysis Facility) tasks relating statistics. Removing of several ripple patterns using Fourier Transform is also discussed. It is found that BACKGROUND task within IRAF is very efficient for fitting and subtraction of baseline with varying functions. Cloud identification method along with the possibility of its application for analysis of cloud structure is described, and future data reduction method is discussed.

  6. Using the Case Survey Method To Analyze Policy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heald, Karen A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a case study survey method that allows an analyst to aggregate (by means of a closed-ended questionnaire) the case study experiences and to assess the quality of each case study in a reliable and replicable manner. (Author/IRT)

  7. GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    GWM is a Ground?Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three?dimensional ground?water model, MODFLOW?2000. GWM uses a response?matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed?binary linear ground?water management formulations. Each management formulation consists of a set of decision variables, an objective function, and a set of constraints. Three types of decision variables are supported by GWM: flow?rate decision variables, which are withdrawal or injection rates at well sites; external decision variables, which are sources or sinks of water that are external to the flow model and do not directly affect the state variables of the simulated ground?water system (heads, streamflows, and so forth); and binary variables, which have values of 0 or 1 and are used to define the status of flow?rate or external decision variables. Flow?rate decision variables can represent wells that extend over one or more model cells and be active during one or more model stress periods; external variables also can be active during one or more stress periods. A single objective function is supported by GWM, which can be specified to either minimize or maximize the weighted sum of the three types of decision variables. Four types of constraints can be specified in a GWM formulation: upper and lower bounds on the flow?rate and external decision variables; linear summations of the three types of decision variables; hydraulic?head based constraints, including drawdowns, head differences, and head gradients; and streamflow and streamflow?depletion constraints. The Response Matrix Solution (RMS) Package of GWM uses the Ground?Water Flow Process of MODFLOW to calculate the change in head at each constraint location that results from a perturbation of a flow?rate variable; these changes are used to calculate the response coefficients. For linear management formulations, the resulting matrix of response coefficients is then combined with other components of the linear management formulation to form a complete linear formulation; the formulation is then solved by use of the simplex algorithm, which is incorporated into the RMS Package. Nonlinear formulations arise for simulated conditions that include water?table (unconfined) aquifers or head?dependent boundary conditions (such as streams, drains, or evapotranspiration from the water table). Nonlinear formulations are solved by sequential linear programming; that is, repeated linearization of the nonlinear features of the management problem. In this approach, response coefficients are recalculated for each iteration of the solution process. Mixed?binary linear (or mildly nonlinear) formulations are solved by use of the branch and bound algorithm, which is also incorporated into the RMS Package. Three sample problems are provided to demonstrate the use of GWM for typical ground?water flow management problems. These sample problems provide examples of how GWM input files are constructed to specify the decision variables, objective function, constraints, and solution process for a GWM run. The GWM Process runs with the MODFLOW?2000 Global and Ground?Water Flow Processes, but in its current form GWM cannot be used with the Observation, Sensitivity, Parameter?Estimation, or Ground?Water Transport Processes. The GWM Process is written with a modular structure so that new objective functions, constraint types, and solution algorithms can be added.

  8. AgRISTARS: Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing. Enumerator's manual, 1981 ground data survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    General information and administrative instructions are provided for individuals gathering ground truth data to support research and development techniques for estimating crop acreage and production by remote sensing by satellite. Procedures are given for personal safety with regards to organophosphorus insecticides, for conducting interviews for periodic observations, for coding the crops identified and their growth stages, and for selecting sites for placing rain gages. Forms are included for those citizens agreeing to monitor the gages and record the rainfall. Segment selection is also considered.

  9. Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Govindaswamy, Priya; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Chaum, Edward; Abramoff, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

  10. Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Chaum, Edward; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya

    2009-09-01

    In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

  11. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  12. Tomographic surveys for mineral exploration using complex resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Complex resistive method is a kind of induced polarization (IP) method which all the measurement is made in frequency domain. It transmits the current with the specified frequency through current electrodes, and measure the amplitude and phase to the transmitted current at receiver electrodes. It is also called SIP (Spectral IP) method when multi-frequency measurements are involved. Our research group has been developing the methodology and interpretation technique for SIP survey for several years, and already developed 2/3D inversion algorithms and extended them to the simultaneous inversion of multi-frequency IP data. Recently we are developing mining evaluation technique by relating the inverted property of field IP data to the measured one in the laboratory through geo-statistical relationship. L1-norm inversion using IRLS (iterative reweighted least squares) method is introduced to overcome the problem of noise sensitive characteristics of complex resistivity data, especially in phase data and effectively applied to the field data. The L1-norm inversion improves the noise characteristics of complex resistivity survey. However complex resistivity method is used only for the surface survey because it require special electrode like porous pot and layout of cables to minimize the interference between transmitters and receivers. In this study, we applied complex resistivity method to the tomographic survey using boreholes and interpret data using L1-norm inversion technique to verify applicability without special electrode and layout of cables. Survey was done for the boreholes drilled in the tunnel for prospecting possible mineralized zone. Zeta system based on GDP multi-function receiver manufactured by Zonge was used in this survey and tomographic data measurement was made for two frequencies, 0.25 and 1 Hz. 30 electrodes respectively for two boreholes, a total of 60 electrodes were used in this survey and electrode spacing was 10 meter. Quality of measured data was not good, especially in in-line measurement due to the borehole effect. Inversion was tried after removing bad data. Conductive region was identified near the ore zone which was identified by core logging in the inverted resistivity section. It was also identified in the normal resistivity tomography done for the same boreholes. Comparing these two results, section from complex resistivity shows much smoother image than normal resistivity because complex resistivity data was edited more due to its lower data quality. Similar anomaly pattern was identified in the inverted phase section because the mineralized zone was supposed to have strong IP characteristics. Proper survey cable and electrodes were crucial to get reliable complex resistivity data. But it might be a hurdle to extend its applicability to the real survey and should be treated in a proper way someday. Through the test survey, we found its usefulness for mineral exploration again even for tomographic survey and some problems on the measurement. We will continue the related study to solve this problem.

  13. Survey of modeling, planning, and ground verification of space robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-06-01

    Space robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in future space activities. Nevertheless, dynamics modeling and motion planning of a space robot are much more complex than those of a fixed-base robot, due to the dynamic coupling between the manipulator and its base. On the other hand, in order to assure the success of on-orbital missions, many experiments are required to verify the key algorithms on the ground before the space robot is launched. In this paper, the main research achievements on dynamics modeling, path planning, and ground verification are reviewed, and future studies are recommended. Firstly, we summarize the essential modeling concepts, and deduce the kinematics and dynamics equations of a space robot. Secondly, the main motion planning approaches are discussed. Then, different ground verification systems, including the air-bearing table, neutral buoyancy, airplane flying, free-falling motion, suspension system, and hybrid system, are introduced. Finally, the future research trends are forecasted.

  14. Processing the ground vibration signal produced by debris flows: the methods of amplitude and impulses compared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arattano, M.; Abancó, C.; Coviello, V.; Hürlimann, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground vibration sensors have been increasingly used and tested, during the last few years, as devices to monitor debris flows and they have also been proposed as one of the more reliable devices for the design of debris flow warning systems. The need to process the output of ground vibration sensors, to diminish the amount of data to be recorded, is usually due to the reduced storing capabilities and the limited power supply, normally provided by solar panels, available in the high mountain environment. There are different methods that can be found in literature to process the ground vibration signal produced by debris flows. In this paper we will discuss the two most commonly employed: the method of impulses and the method of amplitude. These two methods of data processing are analyzed describing their origin and their use, presenting examples of applications and their main advantages and shortcomings. The two methods are then applied to process the ground vibration raw data produced by a debris flow occurred in the Rebaixader Torrent (Spanish Pyrenees) in 2012. The results of this work will provide means for decision to researchers and technicians who find themselves facing the task of designing a debris flow monitoring installation or a debris flow warning equipment based on the use of ground vibration detectors.

  15. Integration of real time kinematic satellite navigation with ground-penetrating radar surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture, environmental mapping, and construction benefit from subsurface imaging by revealing the spatial variability of underground features. Features surveyed of agricultural interest are bedrock depth, soil horizon thicknesses, and buried–object features such as drainage pipe. For t...

  16. Radiological decontamination, survey, and statistical release method for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, M.E.; Lively, J.W.; Morris, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Earth-moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method for assessing product quality from a continuous process was adapted to the vehicle decontamination process. This method produced a sampling scheme that automatically compensates and accommodates fluctuating batch sizes and changing conditions without the need to modify or rectify the sampling scheme in the field. Vehicles are randomly selected (sampled) upon completion of the decontamination process to be surveyed for residual radioactive surface contamination. The frequency of sampling is based on the expected number of vehicles passing through the decontamination process in a given period and the confidence level desired. This process has been successfully used for 1 year at the former uranium millsite in Monticello, Utah (a cleanup site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act). The method forces improvement in the quality of the decontamination process and results in a lower likelihood that vehicles exceeding the surface contamination standards are offered for survey. Implementation of this statistical sampling method on Monticello projects has resulted in more efficient processing of vehicles through decontamination and radiological release, saved hundreds of hours of processing time, provided a high level of confidence that release limits are met, and improved the radiological cleanliness of vehicles leaving the controlled site.

  17. Mobile Ground-Based Infrared Heat Loss Survey Of 25,000 Buildings In West Allis, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraniak, David W.; Williams, C. Elgar

    1982-03-01

    This paper will offer a synopsis of a unique infrared mobile ground based heat loss scanning program undertaken by the City of West Allis, Wisconsin during the 1981 heating season. Nearly 25,000 structures were surveyed over a period of six weeks. Further, the paper will contain a brief introduction describing the 1979 pilot program which served as the base for the 1981 full City scanning program. Finally, the paper will discuss prescanning preparation, data acquisition, training programs, data dissemination and a summary of key points. An epilog will follow.

  18. A survey of ground operations tools developed to simulate the pointing of space telescopes and the design for WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabinsky, Beth

    2006-01-01

    WISE, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, is scheduled for launch in June 2010. The mission operations system for WISE requires a software modeling tool to help plan, integrate and simulate all spacecraft pointing and verify that no attitude constraints are violated. In the course of developing the requirements for this tool, an investigation was conducted into the design of similar tools for other space-based telescopes. This paper summarizes the ground software and processes used to plan and validate pointing for a selection of space telescopes; with this information as background, the design for WISE is presented.

  19. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sample volume of at least 100 mL for fecal indicator analysis regardless of the fecal indicator or analytical method used, (4) Analysis of all ground water source samples using one of the analytical methods... at least 100 mL for fecal indicator analysis regardless of the fecal indicator or analytical...

  20. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  1. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved method of grounding metallic frames... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt... only method of grounding that will be approved is the connection of all metallic frames, casings...

  2. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved method of grounding metallic frames... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt... only method of grounding that will be approved is the connection of all metallic frames, casings...

  3. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved method of grounding metallic frames... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt... only method of grounding that will be approved is the connection of all metallic frames, casings...

  4. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved method of grounding metallic frames... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt... only method of grounding that will be approved is the connection of all metallic frames, casings...

  5. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved method of grounding metallic frames... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt... only method of grounding that will be approved is the connection of all metallic frames, casings...

  6. Comparison of geostatistical methods for estimating virus inactivation rates in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.V.; Yates, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Enteric viruses are responsible for a large number of ground-waterborne disease outbreaks every year. Septic tanks are the most frequently cited causes of ground-water contamination in disease outbreaks. Controlling the placement of septic tanks such that all viruses would be non-infective by the time the effluent reached drinking water wells would likely reduce the number of waterborne viral-disease outbreaks. The study compares different geostatistical techniques (kriging, cokriging, and combined kriging and regression) that estimate virus inactivation rates in ground water. These estimates were used with the regional ground-water flow characteristics to estimate septic tank setback distances over a city-wide area. Combined kriging and regression, which eliminates the need for laboratory values of virus inactivation rates by using the linear regression relationship between temperature and inactivation rates, produced comparable results to the other two methods, yet reduced the cost of the analysis considerably.

  7. A new method of combination of electroosmosis, vacuum and surcharge preloading for soft ground improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Han-long; Cui, Yun-liang; Shen, Yang; Ding, Xuan-ming

    2014-08-01

    As a rapid and effective ground improvement method is urgently required for the booming land reclamation in China's coastal area, this study proposes a new combined method of electroosmosis, vacuum preloading and surcharge preloading. A new type of electrical prefabricated vertical drain (ePVD) and a new electroosmotic drainage system are suggested to allow the application of the new method. This combined method is then field-tested and compared with the conventional vacuum combined with surcharge preloading method. The monitoring and foundation test results show that the new method induces a settlement 20% larger than that of the conventional vacuum combined with surcharge preloading method in the same treatment period, and saves approximately half of the treatment time compared with the vacuum combined with surcharge preloading method according to the finite element prediction of the settlement. The proposed method also increases the vane shear strength of the soil significantly. The bearing capacity of the ground improved by use of the new proposed method raises 118%. In comparison, there is only a 75% rise when using the vacuum combined with surcharge preloading method during the same reinforcement period. All results indicate that the proposed combined method is effective and suitable for reinforcing the soft clay ground. Besides, the voltage applied between the anode and cathode increases exponentially versus treatment time when the output current of power supplies is kept constant. Most of the voltage potential in electroosmosis is lost at electrodes, leaving smaller than 50% of the voltage to be effectively transmitted into the soil.

  8. A projection gradient method for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hanquan

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a projection gradient method is presented for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC). We first propose the general projection gradient method for solving energy functional minimization problem under multiple constraints, in which the energy functional takes real functions as independent variables. We next extend the method to solve a similar problem, where the energy functional now takes complex functions as independent variables. We finally employ the method into finding the ground state of spin-2 BEC. The key of our method is: by constructing continuous gradient flows (CGFs), the ground state of spin-2 BEC can be computed as the steady state solution of such CGFs. We discretized the CGFs by a conservative finite difference method along with a proper way to deal with the nonlinear terms. We show that the numerical discretization is normalization and magnetization conservative and energy diminishing. Numerical results of the ground state and their energy of spin-2 BEC are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical method.

  9. A ground penetrating radar survey to assist the sedimentologic and geomorphologic interpretation of washover fans in NW Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leopold, Matthias; Callow, Nik; May, Simon Matthias

    2015-04-01

    The NW Australian coast is prone to both tropical cyclones and tsunamis which can generate extreme wave events in this region. Along the W coast of the Exmouth Gulf, distinct lobate washover fans consist of shell debris and sand layers and exhibit delta-type sedimentation patterns. Using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and unmanned aerial vehicle survey (UAV) techniques helps in a first step to locate important geomorphic points of interest for later sedimentologic, pedologic and chronologic studies. UAV surveys developed a detailed 3D surface model (cm resolution) which helps to better understand the extent and the general pattern of the geomorphic forms. A subsequent GPR survey using a bi-static 250 MHz antenna with a Mala CU-II in a continuous mode generated multiple transects which could be further interpreted. Coarse sandy-gravelly washover fan-matrix sits on top of clayey pan sediments which provide an excellent sedimentologic contrast for GPR surveys. Multiple delta like structures representing single wave activities, erosion channels and their backfill structures as well as several palaeosols could be identified in the GPR images. This information is now used in a subsequent chrono-stratigraphic approach for a final geomorphic interpretation.

  10. In situ push-pull method to determine ground water denitrification in riparian zones.

    PubMed

    Addy, Kelly; Kellogg, D Q; Gold, Arthur J; Groffman, Peter M; Ferendo, Gina; Sawyer, Carl

    2002-01-01

    To quantify ground water denitrification in discrete locations of riparian aquifers, we modified and evaluated an in situ method based on conservative tracers and 15N-enriched nitrate. Ground water was "pushed" (i.e., injected) into a mini-piezometer and then "pulled" (i.e., extracted) from the same mini-piezometer after an incubation period. This push-pull method was applied in replicate mini-piezometers at two Rhode Island riparian sites, one fresh water and one brackish water. Conservative tracer pretests were conducted to determine incubation periods, ranging from 5 to 120 h, to optimize recovery of introduced plumes. For nitrate push-pull tests, we used two conservative tracers, sulfur hexafluoride and bromide, to provide insight into plume recovery. The two conservative tracers behaved similarly. The dosing solutions were amended with 15N-enriched nitrate that enabled us to quantify the mass of denitrification gases generated during the incubation period. The in situ push-pull method detected substantial denitrification rates at a site where we had previously observed high denitrification rates. At our brackish site, we found high rates of ground water denitrification in marsh locations and minimal denitrification in soils fringing the marsh. The push-pull method can provide useful insights into spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification in riparian zones. The method is robust and results are not seriously affected by dilution or degassing from ground water to soil air. In conjunction with measurements of ground water flow-paths, this method holds promise for evaluating the influence of site and management factors on the ground water nitrate removal capacity of riparian zones. PMID:12026069

  11. Development of Computational Method of Impedance with respect to Vertical and Rotatory Symmetric Grounding Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Kawamoto, Tadashi

    It is needed to study the transient performance of grounding systems for lightning surges to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of sensitive electronics such as information devices and digital relays in substations and/or residential houses. Therefore, an easy method of estimating frequency response to represent the transient performance of grounding systems and its incorporation into Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) are highly desired. EMTP based on circuit theory has been applied to resolve the transient performance of electrical apparatus consisting of cables and conductors which are parallel to the ground surface, in which the propagation of TEM waves that are plane waves is implicated, and devices such as surge arresters represented by lumped elements. However, conductors which are vertical to the ground surface have not been modeled because TM waves propagate on such conductors and the characteristics in early time, when the approximation of plane waves is not adapted, are required. In this paper, for the vertical and rotatory symmetric grounding electrodes, we propose a computational method for the impedance, which is defined as the complex ratio of the potential of its top at the ground surface to the current flowing into it in the frequency domain. The potential is derived from the integral of the horizontal component of electric fields along the path reaching the electrode on the ground surface because the potential could be uniquely defined in the case of a horizontal plane by considering the electromagnetic field in the configuration discussed here. We then calculated the potential of the electrode and current flowing into it in the time domain by computational analysis of transient performance based on the FD-TD method (CATP) and the impedance up to 20MHz in the frequency domain were derived using the Fourier transforms of the potential and current in the time domain.

  12. Aeroelastic analysis and ground vibration survey of the NASA, Grumman American Yankee modified for spin testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A complete ground vibration and aeroelastic analysis was made of a modified version of the Grumman American Yankee. The aircraft had been modified for four empennage configurations, a wing boom was added, a spin chute installed and provisions included for large masses in the wing tip to vary the lateral and directional inertia. Other minor changes were made which have much less influence on the flutter and vibrations. Neither static divergence nor aileron reversal was considered since the wing structure was not sufficiently changed to affect its static aeroelastic qualities. The aircraft was found to be free from flutter in all of the normal modes explored in the ground shake test. The analysis demonstrated freedom from flutter up to 214 miles per hour.

  13. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Lowell B.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined.

  14. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, L.B.

    1998-08-18

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

  15. Wavelet transform-based fault diagnosis and line selection method of small current grounding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ni; Zhang, Shuqing; Zhang, Liguo; Zhang, Kexin; Sun, Lingyun

    2008-12-01

    Small current grounding system is the system that the neutral point doesn't ground or grounds across the arc suppressing coils, which has been applied commonly in distribution system of many countries. As the grounding fault occurs, current is the one caused by capacity of circuit to ground only and it is rather small. The status of fault is complexity, e.g., the electromagnet interferes together with the amplified impact of zero-order loops to high-order singularity waves and various temporary variables. All these result in the lower ratio of the fault element signal to noise caused by zero-order current. In this paper, the position of signal singularity and the magnitude of the singularity degree are analyzed based on the variable focus character of wavelet, and the time fault occurs is then determined. The series db wavelet with close sustain is adopted, and the line selection is according to the zero-order voltage of the generatrix and the current of various outlet line. It is proved by the experiment that the fault circuit diagnosis method based on wavelet analysis to the character of temporary status of single-phase grounding fault plays an important role to a finer line selection.

  16. Seeking Construct Validity Grounded in Constructivist Epistemology: Development of the Survey of Contemporary Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, Kathy L.; Kuo, Yi-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the development of a new classroom environment instrument for late-elementary students. The development of the survey of contemporary learning environments (SoCLE) followed a content analysis of three similar instruments on constructivist learning environments and the literature on characteristics of contemporary learning

  17. Seeking Construct Validity Grounded in Constructivist Epistemology: Development of the Survey of Contemporary Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, Kathy L.; Kuo, Yi-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the development of a new classroom environment instrument for late-elementary students. The development of the survey of contemporary learning environments (SoCLE) followed a content analysis of three similar instruments on constructivist learning environments and the literature on characteristics of contemporary learning…

  18. Application of ground-penetrating radar methods in determining hydrogeologic conditions in a karst area, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is useful as a surface geophysical method for exploring geology and subsurface features in karst settings. Interpretation of GPR data was used to infer lithology and hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida. This study demonstrates how GPR methods can be used to investigate the hydrogeology of an area. GPR transmits radio- frequency electromagnetic waves into the ground and receives reflected energy waves from subsurface interfaces. Subsurface profiles showing sediment thickness, depth to water table and clay beds, karst development, buried objects, and lake-bottom structure were produced from GPR traverses obtained during December 1987 and March 1990 in Pinellas, Hillsborough, and Hardee Counties in west-central Florida. Performance of the GPR method is site specific, and data collected are principally affected by the sediment and pore fluids, conductances and dielectric constants. Effective exploration depths of the GPR surveys through predominately unsaturated and saturated sand and clay sediments at five study sites ranged from a few feet to greater than 50 feet below land surface. Exploration depths were limited when high conductivity clay was encountered, whereas greater exploration depths were possible in material composed of sand. Application of GPR is useful in profiling subsurface conditions, but proper interpretation depends upon the user's knowledge of the equipment and the local hydrogeological setting, as well as the ability to interpret the graphic profile.

  19. Relationships between ground and airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, North Ras Millan, Southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed A S

    2016-02-01

    In the last decades of years, there was considerable growth in the use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. With this growth, there was an increasing need to standardize airborne measurements, so that they can be independent of survey parameters. Acceptable procedures were developed for converting airborne to ground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of total-count intensity as well as, potassium, equivalent uranium and equivalent thorium concentrations, due to natural sources of radiation. The present study aims mainly to establish relationships between ground and airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data, North Ras Millan, Southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The relationships between airborne and ground gamma-ray spectrometric data were deduced for the original and separated rock units in the study area. Various rocks in the study area, represented by Quaternary Wadi sediments, Cambro-Ordovician sandstones, basic dykes and granites, are shown on the detailed geologic map. The structures are displayed, which located on the detailed geologic map, are compiled from the integration of previous geophysical and surface geological studies. PMID:26650828

  20. Survey on the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ground beef from an industrial meat plant.

    PubMed

    Savi, R; Ricchi, M; Cammi, G; Garbarino, C; Leo, S; Pongolini, S; Arrigoni, N

    2015-06-12

    Paratuberculosis of ruminants is characterised by chronic enteritis but, at advanced stages of the disease, a systemic dissemination of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in tissues and organs can occur. MAP has been recovered from lymph nodes and muscles of clinical and sub-clinical cows. In most countries, dairy and beef cattle infected with paratuberculosis are routinely sent to slaughter and the consumption of their meat could be a possible route of human exposure to MAP. However, few studies on MAP in ground beef are currently available. During the period November 2013-March 2014 we carried out a survey on the ground beef produced in an industrial meat processing plant. One-hundred and forty samples of ground meat were analysed by IS900-qPCR and culture (VersaTrek System). The limit of detection (LOD) of qPCR was 630 MAP cells/g (107 CFU/g) while the LOD for culture was 170-230 MAP cells/g (62-115 CFU/g). No samples were positive by direct IS900 qPCR, while two samples were positive by liquid culture. Our data suggest that the presence of live MAP in raw minced meat is possible. In order to avoid exposure for humans through the consumption of contaminated meat, proper cooking of meat is recommended. PMID:25824129

  1. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste-ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, Harold C., Jr.,(Edited By); Franks, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    Ground- and surface-water contamination by pesticides used in the wood-preserving industry is widespread in the United States. Pine poles were treated with wood preservatives from 1902 to 1981 at a creosote works near Pensacola, Florida. Diesel fuel, creosote, and pentachlorophenol were discharged to two unlined impoundments that had a direct hydraulic connection to the sand-and-gravel aquifer. Evidence of wood-preserving waste contamination appears to be confined to the upper 30 meters of the aquifer. The waste plume extends downgradient approximately 300 meters south toward Pensacola Bay. In 1983, the creosote works site was selected by the U.S. Geological Survey's Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology as a national research demonstration area to apply the latest techniques for characterizing hazardous waste problems. The multidisciplinary research effort is aimed at studying processes that affect the occurrence, transport, transformations, and fate of the toxic contaminants associated with wood preservatives in the environment. Clusters of two to five wells were constructed at different depths at nine sites to define the depth of contamination. Research studies are investigating sorption, dispersion, dilution, chemical reactions, bacterially mediated transformations, quality assurance, plume hydrodynamics, and the ultimate fate of these complex organic wastes.

  2. Survey and Method for Determination of Trajectory Predictor Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rentas, Tamika L.; Green, Steven M.; Cate, Karen Tung

    2009-01-01

    A survey of air-traffic-management researchers, representing a broad range of automation applications, was conducted to document trajectory-predictor requirements for future decision-support systems. Results indicated that the researchers were unable to articulate a basic set of trajectory-prediction requirements for their automation concepts. Survey responses showed the need to establish a process to help developers determine the trajectory-predictor-performance requirements for their concepts. Two methods for determining trajectory-predictor requirements are introduced. A fast-time simulation method is discussed that captures the sensitivity of a concept to the performance of its trajectory-prediction capability. A characterization method is proposed to provide quicker, yet less precise results, based on analysis and simulation to characterize the trajectory-prediction errors associated with key modeling options for a specific concept. Concept developers can then identify the relative sizes of errors associated with key modeling options, and qualitatively determine which options lead to significant errors. The characterization method is demonstrated for a case study involving future airport surface traffic management automation. Of the top four sources of error, results indicated that the error associated with accelerations to and from turn speeds was unacceptable, the error associated with the turn path model was acceptable, and the error associated with taxi-speed estimation was of concern and needed a higher fidelity concept simulation to obtain a more precise result

  3. Pan-European survey on the occurrence of selected polar organic persistent pollutants in ground water.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Comero, Sara; Contini, Serafino; Schwesig, David; Werres, Friedrich; Balsaa, Peter; Gans, Oliver; Weiss, Stefan; Blaha, Ludek; Bolchi, Monica; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred

    2010-07-01

    This study provides the first pan-European reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European ground water. In total, 164 individual ground-water samples from 23 European Countries were collected and analysed (among others) for 59 selected organic compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, pesticides (and their transformation products), perfluorinated acids (PFAs), benzotriazoles, hormones, alkylphenolics (endocrine disrupters), Caffeine, Diethyltoluamide (DEET), and Triclosan. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and maximum concentrations detected were DEET (84%; 454 ng/L), Caffeine (83%; 189 ng/L), PFOA (66%; 39 ng/L), Atrazine (56%; 253 ng/L), Desethylatrazine (55%; 487 ng/L), 1H-Benzotriazole (53%; 1032 ng/L), Methylbenzotriazole (52%; 516 ng/L), Desethylterbutylazine (49%; 266 ng/L), PFOS (48%, 135 ng/L), Simazine (43%; 127 ng/L), Carbamazepine (42%; 390 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE(1)C) (42%; 11 microg/L), Bisphenol A (40%; 2.3 microg/L), PFHxS (35%; 19 ng/L), Terbutylazine (34%; 716 ng/L), Bentazone (32%; 11 microg/L), Propazine (32%; 25 ng/L), PFHpA (30%; 21 ng/L), 2,4-Dinitrophenol (29%; 122 ng/L), Diuron (29%; 279 ng/L), and Sulfamethoxazole (24%; 38 ng/L). The chemicals which were detected most frequently above the European ground water quality standard for pesticides of 0.1 microg/L were Chloridazon-desphenyl (26 samples), NPE(1)C (20), Bisphenol A (12), Benzotriazole (8), N,N'-Dimethylsulfamid (DMS) (8), Desethylatrazine (6), Nonylphenol (6), Chloridazon-methyldesphenyl (6), Methylbenzotriazole (5), Carbamazepine (4), and Bentazone (4). However, only 1.7% of all single analytical measurements (in total 8000) were above this threshold value of 0.1 microg/L; 7.3% were > than 10 ng/L. PMID:20554303

  4. Effects of antenna orientation on 3-D ground penetrating radar surveys: an archaeological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lualdi, Maurizio; Lombardi, Federico

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates the impact that the GPR antenna orientation, or survey direction, has on migrated image resulting from 3-D georadar acquisitions carried out on heterogeneous and anisotropic subsurface. This feature is related to the directional dependency of wave propagation effects, such as dispersion, absorption, depolarization, and scattering phenomena. We provide a proof of this with two field examples, demonstrating that a 3-D survey performed along a single direction could bring weak results in terms of target detection and reconstruction. To overcome this risk, we show the improvements that the combination of GPR 3-D data acquired along different directions on the same area can obtain: an enhancement of target detection probability and the practical advantage for the end-user of looking through a single image. Further on, we develop a stacking scheme that employs a threshold associated with amplitude comparison to adaptively handle the combination of georadar data volumes.

  5. Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

  6. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

  7. Economics of ground-water quality monitoring: A survey of experts.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, R; Tobin, G

    1992-07-01

    The cost of a monitoring program can be easily ascertained in terms of the expenditures incurred for such items as personnel, supplies, field visits, instrumentation and laboratory analyses. The benefits of a monitoring program, however, cannot be easily evaluated due to the diversity of objectives for which monitoring programs are initiated and operated. The case study and the results of the follow-up exploratory survey reported in this paper were intended to capture the objective as well as the subjective reasons employed by a group of experts in responding to selected socio-economic questions related to the design of monitoring programs. Ninety-seven individuals, through a formal questionnaire, participated in the survey. They showed definite preferences, although there was some variability in responses due to such factors as residential status, institutional affiliation, education, and the length of professional experience. It was clear that the respondents favored the inclusion of cost-effectiveness criteria in monitoring programs; were ambivalent to the idea of initiating a regulatory program to monitor the wells of a large number of private owners; and if such a program were to be initiated they recommended that individual well owners share the bulk of the financial burden. Preliminary results from such exploratory surveys can lead to the framing of insightful research questions or hypotheses for further evaluation. Confirmatory testing of such questions or hypotheses in real world settings is a valuable area for further research. PMID:24226800

  8. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  9. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  10. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  11. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  12. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  13. Investigating the Local and High Redshift Universe With Deep Survey Data and Ground-Based Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel Charles

    Large multiwavelength surveys are now driving the frontiers of astronomical research. I describe results from my work using data from two large astronomical surveys: the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), which has obtained deep photometric and spectroscopic data on two square degrees of the sky using many of the most powerful telescopes in the world, and the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) Survey, which uses the highly sensitive slitless spectroscopic capability of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect star-forming galaxies over most of the universe's history. First I describe my work on the evolution of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function, an important observational quantity constraining the growth of the supermassive black holes in the early universe. I show that the number density of faint quasars declines rapidly above z 3. This result is discussed in the context of cosmic reionization and the coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes. Next I present results of a multi-year campaign of near-infrared spectroscopy with FIRE, a world-class near-infrared spectrometer on the Magellan Baade 6.5 meter telescope in Chile, targeting emission-line galaxies at z 2 discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our results showed that the typical emission-line galaxy at this redshift has low-metallicity, low dust obscuration, high ionization parameter, and little evidence for significant active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the emission lines. We also find evidence that high redshift star-forming galaxies have enhanced nitrogen abundances. This result has interesting implications for the nature of the star formation in such galaxies -- in particular, it could mean that a large fraction of such galaxies harbor substantial populations of Wolf-Rayet stars, which are massive, evolved stars ejecting large amounts of enriched matter into the interstellar medium. Finally, I will discuss the discovery of three distant, ultracool brown dwarfs in the WISP survey. These objects, larger than massive planets but smaller than dwarf stars, are very difficult to detect, but their numbers and distribution in our galaxy have profound implications for our understanding of the formation of low-mass stars and planets. The brown dwarfs were found in the WFC3 grism spectroscopy, where they were identified through their strong atmospheric absorption features of water and methane. A systematic search for such objects in all WISP fields yielded three in total, allowing statistical inferences to be made regarding their distribution and number density in the Milky Way.

  14. Survey of ground state neutron spectroscopic factors from Li to Cr isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hui-Ching; Tsang, Betty

    2005-04-01

    The success of the Shell Model has prompted many measurements to extract the spectroscopic factors which describe the configuration of single particle orbitals. We have extracted the ground state to ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 79 nuclei ranging in Z from 3 to 24 by analyzing the past measurements of the angular distributions of (d,p) and (p,d) reactions in a systematic and consistent manner [1]. For the Ca isotopes from ^40Ca to ^48Ca, the spectroscopic factors follow the predictions of the single particle model predictions as well as predictions from shell model suggesting Ca isotopes have good spherical cores with well defined valence nucleons. For the 59 nuclei where modern shell model calculations [Oxbash] are available, with the exception of the deformed F and Ne isotopes, the experimental spectroscopic factors for most nuclei agree with predictions from modern day shell model to within 20%. This work is supported by the NSF Grant No. NSF-PHY-01-10253 and SURE. Reference: [1] X.D.Liu, M.A.Famiano,W.G.Lynch,M.B.Tsang,and J.A.Tostevin, Phys. Rev. C69 (2004) 1.

  15. Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of Oil Red O by solvatochromic shift methods.

    PubMed

    Sıdır, İsa; Gülseven Sıdır, Yadigar

    2015-01-25

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of Oil Red O (abbreviated as ORO) are recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 250-900 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic shift methods have been used to determine the ground state (μg) and excited state (μe) dipole moments depending on dielectric constant and refractive index functions. It is observed that fluorescence spectra show positive solvatochromism whereas absorption spectra do not indicates sensitive behavior to solvent polarity. Excited state dipole moment is found as higher than those of ground state for all of the used methods and it is attributed to more polar excited state of ORO. Theoretical μg has been determined by quantum chemical calculations using DFT and semi empirical methods. HOMO, LUMO, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and solvent accessible surface of ORO are calculated by using DFT-B3LYP method. PMID:25123946

  16. Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of Oil Red O by solvatochromic shift methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sıdır, İsa; Gülseven Sıdır, Yadigar

    2015-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of Oil Red O (abbreviated as ORO) are recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 250-900 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic shift methods have been used to determine the ground state (μg) and excited state (μe) dipole moments depending on dielectric constant and refractive index functions. It is observed that fluorescence spectra show positive solvatochromism whereas absorption spectra do not indicates sensitive behavior to solvent polarity. Excited state dipole moment is found as higher than those of ground state for all of the used methods and it is attributed to more polar excited state of ORO. Theoretical μg has been determined by quantum chemical calculations using DFT and semi empirical methods. HOMO, LUMO, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and solvent accessible surface of ORO are calculated by using DFT-B3LYP method.

  17. Soil Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An accurate method of surveying the soil was developed by NASA and the Department of Agriculture. The method involves using ground penetrating radar to produce subsurface graphs. By examining printouts from the system's recorder, scientists can determine whether a site is appropriate for building, etc.

  18. Flowmeter and Ground Penetrating Radar: comparison between hydrogeological and geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, A.; Basirico', S.; Arato, A.; Crosta, G. B.; Frattini, P.; Godio, A.

    2012-04-01

    A comparison between saturated hydraulic conductivity calculated with Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter (EBF) and water content obtained by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Zero Offset Profile (ZOP) is presented. EBF technique permits to obtain permeability profiles along one borehole in the saturated zone by using the Moltz (1993) method. The analysis of ZOP data provides information about the water content (Topp, 1980) in the section between two adjacent boreholes. Water content profiles in the saturated zone can be related to the porosity of the medium which, together with the permeability from EBF measurements, is fundamental for any hydrogeological characterization. These two methods have been applied to three different test-sites located in the Northern Italy. A first site regards a complex aquifer, characterized by a chaotic sequence of gypsum-marls. The other two sites are characterized by an alternation of sandy and silty-sandy layers. For each site, we adopted the EBF along screened boreholes with 0.25 m spacing, under ambient and stressed conditions. The cross-hole georadar survey was performed within the saturated zone by using 100 Hz borehole antennas with 0.25 m spacing. The results from the analysis of EBF and ZOP profiles show a general positive correlation between permeability and water content and porosity. This is reasonable for granular soils where the permeability is controlled by the pore space available for water flow, i.e., the effective porosity. For this soils, where EBF permeability and ZOP water-content profiles are in good agreement, the volume between the boreholes can be supposed to be homogeneous. On the other hand, a poor correlation suggests the presence of heterogeneity between the boreholes, which can be observed because the two techniques involve different volumes of soil: the EBF permeability refers to a portion of volume just around the borehole while the ZOP investigates the entire volume between the two boreholes. The poor correlation could be enhanced when enlarging the borehole separation, because the difference in the involved volume between the two techniques increases. Finally, the degree of correlation between the EBF permeability profile and the ZOP water content profile can indicate how much the volume investigated by EBF is effectively representative of the entire volume between the boreholes. Molz, F.J. and S.C. Young, 1993. Development and Application of Borehole Flowmeters for Environmental Assessment, The Log Analyst, 13-23. Topp G.C., J.L. Davis and A.P. Annan, 1980. Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: measurements in coaxial transmission lines, Water Resources Research, 16, 574-582.

  19. A Fast Method for Embattling Optimization of Ground-Based Radar Surveillance Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, J.

    A growing number of space activities have created an orbital debris environment that poses increasing impact risks to existing space systems and human space flight. For the safety of in-orbit spacecraft, a lot of observation facilities are needed to catalog space objects, especially in low earth orbit. Surveillance of Low earth orbit objects are mainly rely on ground-based radar, due to the ability limitation of exist radar facilities, a large number of ground-based radar need to build in the next few years in order to meet the current space surveillance demands. How to optimize the embattling of ground-based radar surveillance network is a problem to need to be solved. The traditional method for embattling optimization of ground-based radar surveillance network is mainly through to the detection simulation of all possible stations with cataloged data, and makes a comprehensive comparative analysis of various simulation results with the combinational method, and then selects an optimal result as station layout scheme. This method is time consuming for single simulation and high computational complexity for the combinational analysis, when the number of stations increases, the complexity of optimization problem will be increased exponentially, and cannot be solved with traditional method. There is no better way to solve this problem till now. In this paper, target detection procedure was simplified. Firstly, the space coverage of ground-based radar was simplified, a space coverage projection model of radar facilities in different orbit altitudes was built; then a simplified objects cross the radar coverage model was established according to the characteristics of space objects orbit motion; after two steps simplification, the computational complexity of the target detection was greatly simplified, and simulation results shown the correctness of the simplified results. In addition, the detection areas of ground-based radar network can be easily computed with the simplified model, and then optimized the embattling of ground-based radar surveillance network with the artificial intelligent algorithm, which can greatly simplifies the computational complexities. Comparing with the traditional method, the proposed method greatly improved the computational efficiency.

  20. Survey of NASA V and V Processes/Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Nelson, Stacy

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe current NASA Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques and to explain how these techniques are applicable to 2nd Generation RLV Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) software. It also contains recommendations for special V&V requirements for IVHM. This report is divided into the following three sections: 1) Survey - Current NASA V&V Processes/Methods; 2) Applicability of NASA V&V to 2nd Generation RLV IVHM; and 3) Special 2nd Generation RLV IVHM V&V Requirements.

  1. The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. I. Description of the Survey and Analysis Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oemler Jr., Augustus; Dressler, Alan; Gladders, Michael G.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bai, Lei; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines.With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

  2. THE IMACS CLUSTER BUILDING SURVEY. I. DESCRIPTION OF THE SURVEY AND ANALYSIS METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Dressler, Alan; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Gladders, Michael G.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bai Lei; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-06-10

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines. With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

  3. A Method for Retrieving Ground Flash Fraction from Satellite Lightning Imager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2009-01-01

    A general theory for retrieving the fraction of ground flashes in N lightning observed by a satellite-based lightning imager is provided. An "exponential model" is applied as a physically reasonable constraint to describe the measured optical parameter distributions, and population statistics (i.e., mean, variance) are invoked to add additional constraints to the retrieval process. The retrieval itself is expressed in terms of a Bayesian inference, and the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) solution is obtained. The approach is tested by performing simulated retrievals, and retrieval error statistics are provided. The ability to retrieve ground flash fraction has important benefits to the atmospheric chemistry community. For example, using the method to partition the existing satellite global lightning climatology into separate ground and cloud flash climatologies will improve estimates of lightning nitrogen oxides (NOx) production; this in turn will improve both regional air quality and global chemistry/climate model predictions.

  4. Ground magnetometer survey in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trible, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    A reconnaissance magnetometer survey was conducted with both total- and vertical-field magnetometers. The large, sharp, narrow total magnetic anomalies observed over a zone of relict fumaroles in Broken Mountain Valley showed spectacular agreement with the surficial geology. Such a correlation is a strong indication that accumulations of magnetic minerals have been preserved along these fissure vents at shallow depths. Since large magnetic anomalies were measured near fumarolic markings along all of the traverses, it is proposed that the retention of sublimates along fumarolic vents is common throughout the Valley. The generally concentric contours of the vertical magnetic anomaly at the head of the Valley suggest that the dome of Novarupta is merely the surficial expression of a very massive conical-shaped intrusive centered just northeast of the dome. The magnetometer survey indicates that the pyroclastics in the Valley may be over 150 meters thick. Such an estimate is compatible with the volume of eruptive material needed to compensate for the subsidence surrounding Novarupta as well as a sizable amount of other regional subsidence.

  5. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  6. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  7. A method for analyzing a survey of scintillating radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyukh, V. S.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.

    1996-09-01

    A method for an automated analysis of data from a survey of scintillating radio sources to be obtained using the Large Phased Array of the Lebedev Institute of Physics has been developed. Difference and median filters are used to remove effects interfering with the detection of scintillating sources. The parameters for these filters are chosen so as to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio, which is very important when searching for extremely weak scintillating sources. Model calculations are used to give the probability of missing a signal as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio for a given acceptable probability of false detection of 0.001. The analysis method presented will make it possible to obtain a scintillating source survey complete in radio sources having scintillation dispersions equal to the noise dispersion, with the expected number of false detections being one in 1000. Estimates of the errors of the measured coordinates of the scintillating radio sources and of the scintillation dispersions as functions of the signal-to-noise ratio are obtained.

  8. Analytic Perturbation Method for Estimating Ground Flash Fraction from Satellite Lightning Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William; Solakiewicz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    An analytic perturbation method is introduced for estimating the lightning ground flash fraction in a set of N lightning flashes observed by a satellite lightning mapper. The value of N is large, typically in the thousands, and the observations consist of the maximum optical group area produced by each flash. The method is tested using simulated observations that are based on Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data. National Lightning Detection NetworkTM (NLDN) data is used to determine the flash-type (ground or cloud) of the satellite-observed flashes, and provides the ground flash fraction truth for the simulation runs. It is found that the mean ground flash fraction retrieval errors are below 0.04 across the full range 0-1 under certain simulation conditions. In general, it is demonstrated that the retrieval errors depend on many factors (i.e., the number, N, of satellite observations, the magnitude of random and systematic measurement errors, and the number of samples used to form certain climate distributions employed in the model).

  9. Occurrence of selected radionuclides in ground water used for drinking water in the United States; a reconnaissance survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Szabo, Zoltan; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Mullin, Ann H.; Barringer, Thomas H.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the American Water Works Association, and the American Water Works Service Company, completed a targeted national reconnaissance survey of selected radionuclides in public ground-water supplies. Radionuclides analyzed included radium-224 (Ra-224), radium-226 (Ra-226), radium-228 (Ra-228), polonium-210 (Po-210) and lead-210 (Pb-210).This U.S. Geological Survey reconnaissance survey focused intentionally on areas with known or suspected elevated concentrations of radium in ground water to determine if Ra-224 was also present in the areas where other isotopes of radium had previously been detected and to determine the co-occurrence characteristics of the three radium isotopes (Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228) in those areas. Ninety-nine raw-water samples (before water treatment) were collected once over a 6-month period in 1998 and 1999 from wells (94 of which are used for public drinking water) in 27 States and 8 physiographic provinces. Twenty-one of the 99 samples exceeded the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) for combined radium (Ra-226 + Ra-228). Concentrations of Ra-224 were reported to exceed 1 pCi/L in 30 percent of the samples collected, with a maximum concentration of 73.6 pCi/L measured in water from a nontransient, noncommunity, public-supply well in Maryland. Radium-224 concentrations generally were higher than those of the other isotopes of radium. About 5 percent of the samples contained concentrations of Ra-224 greater than 10 pCi/L, whereas only 2 percent exceeded 10 pCi/L for either Ra-226 or Ra-228. Concentrations of Ra-226 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 33 percent of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 16.9 pCi/L measured in water from a public-supply well in Iowa. Concentrations of Ra-228 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 22 samples, with a maximum concentration of 72.3 pCi/L measured in water from a non-transient, noncommunity, public-supply well in Maryland.Radium-224, which is a decay product of Ra-228 in the Th-232 decay series, was significantly correlated with Ra-228 (Spearman?s rank correlation coefficient ?r? equals 0.82) and to a lesser degree with Ra-226 (r equals 0.69), which is an isotope in the U-238 decay series. The rank correlation coefficient between Ra-226 and Ra-228 was 0.63. The high correlation between Ra-224 and Ra-228 concentrations and the corresponding isotopic ratios of the two (about 1:1 in 90 percent of the samples) indicates that the two radionuclides occur in approximately equal concentrations in most ground water sampled. Thus, Ra-228 can be considered as a reasonable proxy indicator for the occurrence of Ra-224 in ground water.The maximum concentration of Po-210 was 4.85 pCi/L and exceeded 1 pCi/L in only two samples. The maximum concentration of Pb-210 was 4.14 pCi/L, and about 10 percent of the samples exceeded 1 pCi/L. Areas with known, or suspected, elevated concentrations of polonium and lead were not targeted in this survey.Three major implications are drawn for future radionuclide monitoring on the basis of this information: (1) grossalpha particle analyses of ground water should be done within about 48?72 hours after collection to determine the presence of the short-lived, alpha-particle emitting isotopes, such as Ra-224, which was detected in elevated concentrations in many of the samples collected for this survey; (2) the isotope ratios of Ra-224 to Ra-228 in ground water are variable on a national scale, but the two radioisotopes generally occur in ratios near 1:1, therefore, the more commonly measured Ra-228 can be used as an indicator of Ra-224 occurrence for some general purposes other than compliance; and (3) the isotopic ratios of Ra-226 to Ra-228 were less than 3:2 in many samples. These ratios corroborate results of previous studies that have shown the presence of Ra-228

  10. Evolution of Ground Deformation Zone on Normal Fault Using Distinct Element Method and Centrifuge Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jhen-Yi; Chang, Yu-Yi; Lee, Chung-Jung; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2015-04-01

    The depth and character of the overlying earth deposit contribute to fault rupture path. For cohesive soil, for instance, clay, tension cracks on the ground happen during faulting, limiting the propagation of fracture in soil mass. The cracks propagate downwards while the fracture induced by initial displacement of faulting propagates upwards. The connection of cracks and fracture will form a plane that is related to tri-shear zone. However the mechanism of the connection has not been discussed thoroughly. By obtaining the evolution of ground deformation zone we can understand mechanism of fault propagation and crack-fracture connection. A series of centrifuge tests and numerical modeling are conducted at this study with acceleration conditions of 40g, 50g, 80g and dip angle of 60° on normal faulting. The model is with total overburden thick, H, 0.2m, vertical displacement of moving wall, ∆H. At the beginning, hanging wall and the left-boundary wall moves along the plane of fault. When ∆H/H equals to 25%, both of the walls stop moving. We then can calculate the width of ground deformation in different depth of each model by a logic method. Models of this study consist of two different type overburden material to simulate sand and clay in situ. Different from finite element method, with application of distinct element method the mechanism of fault propagation in soil mass and the development of ground deformation zone can be observed directly in numerical analysis of faulting. The information of force and deformation in the numerical model are also easier to be obtained than centrifuge modeling. Therefore, we take the results of centrifuge modeling as the field outcrop then modify the micro-parameter of numerical analysis to make sure both of them have the same attitude. The results show that in centrifuge modeling narrower ground deformation zone appears in clayey overburden model as that of sandy overburden model is wider on footwall. Increasing the strength of clay will decreases the range of ground deformation. At higher acceleration condition the grounded formation zone become narrower; especially one that is near the fault plane. The results calculated from numerical model show agreement.

  11. Efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates based on their characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Weizhu; Chern, I-Liang; Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan ; Zhang, Yanzhi

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we propose efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) with/without the Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic field B(x). When B(x)≠0, a numerical method is introduced to compute the ground states and it is also applied to study properties of ground states. Numerical results suggest that the densities of m{sub F}=±1 components in ground states are identical for any nonzero B(x). In particular, if B(x)≡B≠0 is a constant, the ground states satisfy the single-mode approximation. When B(x)≡0, efficient and simpler numerical methods are presented to solve the ground states of spin-1 BECs based on their ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic characterizations. Numerical simulations show that our methods are more efficient than those in the literature. In addition, some conjectures are made from our numerical observations.

  12. The application of ground-penetrating radar method for detecting buried human bodies on the Cikutra graveyard, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditama, Iqbal Fauzi; Syaifullah, Khalid Istiqlal; Saputera, Durra Handri; Widodo

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to study shallow subsurface of the earth. GPR can be utilized to detect buried human bodies that suffered landslides or buried by other causes. A detailed ground-penetrating survey was conducted in the Cikutra graveyard, Bandung on a corpse buried two weeks from the time of the survey. Processing the data was carried out to filter out noise and to improve the resolution. The radar profiles from this survey produced hyperbolic reflections, emanated from the corpse. The hyperbolic reflection was strongest in the abdomen region compared to the head and the legs of the corpse. The result of data processing shows similarity between data from the survey and the actual location of the human body. We obtained the hyperbolic reflection at around 1.5 meters depth which is consistent with the depth of the buried corpse.

  13. A Method of Ground Simulation of Physiological Effects of Hypogravity on Humans.

    PubMed

    Baranov, M V; Katuntsev, V P; Shpakov, A V; Baranov, V M

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of ground simulation in humans of physiological effects induced by the stay on the surface of celestial bodies with hypogravity was developed and successfully tested. This method is based on the change of gravity force angle, which decreases the gravitational component of the blood hydrostatic pressure characteristic of human vertical posture on the Earth and the load-weight onto the locomotor apparatus to the lower values expected at celestial bodies with hypogravity. The methodological requirements for ground simulation of the physiological effects of lunar gravity on human body are specified and substantiated by theoretical calculations. The experimental study revealed redistribution of liquid media in the human organism, functional changes in the cardiorespiratory system, and a decrease in the load-weight applied to the locomotor apparatus. PMID:26742752

  14. An HPLC method for the detection of ergot in ground and pelleted feeds.

    PubMed

    Rottinghaus, G E; Schultz, L M; Ross, P F; Hill, N S

    1993-04-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described for detecting ergot in ground or pelleted forages and grains. Samples were extracted with alkaline chloroform, filtered, and applied to silica gel/organic binder cleanup columns. Following elution of pigments with acetone: chloroform, ergopeptine alkaloids were eluted with methanol and analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Average recovery of ergotamine, the major ergopeptine alkaloid produced by Claviceps, was 93%, with a relative standard deviation of 4.9%. The detection limit of ergotamine was approximately 50 ppb in all feedstuffs. Confirmation of ergopeptine alkaloids was accomplished by treating the parent ergopeptine alkaloids with 0.2% acetic acid to produce their -inine isomers and reexamining by HPLC with fluorescence detection or silica gel/organic binder column cleanup in combination with tandem mass spectroscopy. The method described is a valid alternative to microscopic inspection for detecting ergot contamination in ground or pelleted feedstuffs. PMID:8507703

  15. Nodal ground state solution to a biharmonic equation via dual method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Claudianor O.; Nóbrega, Alânnio B.

    2016-03-01

    Using dual method we establish the existence of nodal ground state solution for the following class of problems $$ \\left\\{ \\begin{array}{l} \\Delta^2 u = f(u), \\quad \\mbox{in} \\quad \\Omega, \\\\ u =Bu=0,\\quad\\mbox{on} \\quad \\partial \\Omega \\end{array} \\right. $$ where $\\Delta^2$ is the biharmonic operator, $B=\\Delta$ or $B=\\dfrac{\\partial}{\\partial \

  16. A new fabrication method for precision antenna reflectors for space flight and ground test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, G. Richard; Wanhainen, Joyce S.; Ketelsen, Dean A.

    1991-01-01

    Communications satellites are using increasingly higher frequencies that require increasingly precise antenna reflectors for use in space. Traditional industry fabrication methods for space antenna reflectors employ successive modeling techniques using high- and low-temperature molds for reflector face sheets and then a final fit-up of the completed honeycomb sandwich panel antenna reflector to a master pattern. However, as new missions are planned at much higher frequencies, greater accuracies will be necessary than are achievable using these present methods. A new approach for the fabrication of ground-test solid-surface antenna reflectors is to build a rigid support structure with an easy-to-machine surface. This surface is subsequently machined to the desired reflector contour and coated with a radio-frequency-reflective surface. This method was used to fabricate a 2.7-m-diameter ground-test antenna reflector to an accuracy of better than 0.013 mm (0.0005 in.) rms. A similar reflector for use on spacecraft would be constructed in a similar manner but with space-qualified materials. The design, analysis, and fabrication of the 2.7-m-diameter precision antenna reflector for antenna ground tests and the extension of this technology to precision, space-based antenna reflectors are described.

  17. Ground reaction: intrinsic and extrinsic variability assessment and related method for artefact treatment.

    PubMed

    Rabuffetti, M; Frigo, C

    2001-03-01

    Ground reaction (GR) components measured by a dynamometric platform represent the dynamic interaction of the moving human body with the ground and depend on the subject-platform relative position and orientation. The observed variability among the GR measurements of the walking trials of an individual is either due to variability in the motor performance (intrinsic variability) or due to changes in the direction of walking and in the position and orientation of the striking foot relative to the platform (extrinsic variability). A method, based on the median operator, is presented here which lets us quantify the two components of variability. The application of the method to a large data set of normal subjects evidenced changes in progression direction/foot orientation (95th percentile value is 6.9 degrees ), which can dramatically change the patterns of GR components. This result warns about improper analysis of ground reaction measurement. An algorithm for restoring GR measurements affected by artefact was derived from the above method. This tool can be of valuable aid in clinical practice where patients' conditions suggest to not insist on repetition of trials even if the required number of correct foot placements has not been achieved. The artefact correction algorithm has been applied to a large data set artificially corrupted to evaluate its robustness. PMID:11182128

  18. Quantum Monte Carlo method for the ground state of many-boson systems

    SciTech Connect

    Purwanto, Wirawan; Zhang Shiwei

    2004-11-01

    We formulate a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method for calculating the ground state of many-boson systems. The method is based on a field-theoretical approach, and is closely related to existing fermion auxiliary-field QMC methods which are applied in several fields of physics. The ground-state projection is implemented as a branching random walk in the space of permanents consisting of identical single-particle orbitals. Any single-particle basis can be used, and the method is in principle exact. We illustrate this method with a trapped atomic boson gas, where the atoms interact via an attractive or repulsive contact two-body potential. We choose as the single-particle basis a real-space grid. We compare with exact results in small systems and arbitrarily sized systems of untrapped bosons with attractive interactions in one dimension, where analytical solutions exist. We also compare with the corresponding Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) mean-field calculations for trapped atoms, and discuss the close formal relation between our method and the GP approach. Our method provides a way to systematically improve upon GP while using the same framework, capturing interaction and correlation effects with a stochastic, coherent ensemble of noninteracting solutions. We discuss various algorithmic issues, including importance sampling and the back-propagation technique for computing observables, and illustrate them with numerical studies. We show results for systems with up to N{approx}400 bosons.

  19. A survey on methods of design features identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    It is widely accepted that design features are one of the most attractive integration method of most fields of engineering activities such as a design modelling, process planning or production scheduling. One of the most important tasks which are realized in the integration process of design and planning functions is a design translation meant as design data mapping into data which are important from process planning needs point of view, it is manufacturing data. A design geometrical shape translation process can be realized with application one of the following strategies: (i) designing with previously prepared design features library also known as DBF method it is design by feature, (ii) interactive design features recognition IFR, (iii) automatic design features recognition AFR. In case of the DBF method design geometrical shape is created with design features. There are two basic approaches for design modelling in DBF method it is classic in which a part design is modelled from beginning to end with application design features previously stored in a design features data base and hybrid where part is partially created with standard predefined CAD system tools and the rest with suitable design features. Automatic feature recognition consist in an autonomic searching of a product model represented with a specific design representation method in order to find those model features which might be potentially recognized as design features, manufacturing features, etc. This approach needs the searching algorithm to be prepared. The searching algorithm should allow carrying on the whole recognition process without a user supervision. Currently there are lots of AFR methods. These methods need the product model to be represented with B-Rep representation most often, CSG rarely, wireframe very rarely. In the IFR method potential features are being recognized by a user. This process is most often realized by a user who points out those surfaces which seem to belong to a currently identified feature. In the IFR method system designer defines a set of features and sets a collection of recognition process parameters. It allows to unambiguously identifying individual features in automatic or semiautomatic way directly in CAD system or in an external application to which the part model might be transferred. Additionally a user is able to define non-geometrical information such as: overall dimensions, surface roughness etc. In this paper a survey on methods of features identification and recognition is presented especially in context of AFR methods.

  20. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems. 77.701-1 Section 77.701-1 Mineral...-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems, the following methods of grounding...

  1. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems. 77.701-1 Section 77.701-1 Mineral...-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems, the following methods of grounding...

  2. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems. 77.701-1 Section 77.701-1 Mineral...-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems, the following methods of grounding...

  3. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems. 77.701-1 Section 77.701-1 Mineral...-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems, the following methods of grounding...

  4. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems. 77.701-1 Section 77.701-1 Mineral...-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems, the following methods of grounding...

  5. Surveying abandoned mine shafts with Remote Radio Transmitter EM methods and Selfpotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, F. P.; Gurk, M.

    2009-04-01

    Abandoned near subsurface mining constructions from the 19th and early 20th century in urbanized areas placed upon former ore mines near the city of Aachen (Germany), as well as in many other regions of the world, provide hazardous risks concerning possible collapses. In many cases, the exact locations of such constructions are not known anymore. For instance, to map covered shafts of one meter diameter on large survey areas, high resolution methods with rapid measurement progress are necessary. Enhanced developments of the traditional Very Low Frequency (VLF) technique such as VLF-gradient and Radiomagnetotellurics (RMT) fulfill these requirements. Continuous ground-contactless VLF-gradient survey quickly provides maps indicating the lateral electric resistivity heterogeneity distribution. Inversions of RMT data provide 2D-resistivity-depth sections and also the interpretation of Self-Potential data gives information about the nature of the VLF-gradient anomalies. The successful combination of the three methods for detecting mineshafts near to the city if Aachen is presented for both an electromagnetic undisturbed and noisy location.

  6. Furanocoumarins in celery and parsnips: method and multiyear Canadian survey.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, G A; Siemens, K H; Pellaers, P; Mankotia, M; Ng, W

    2001-01-01

    The natural occurrence of biologically active furanocoumarins in common vegetables is an area of increasing interest with respect to human health. In this study, an efficient, rugged, and sensitive liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet photodiode array detection was developed for the estimation of 5 biologically active furanocoumarins (psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, trioxsalen, and angelicin) in celery and parsnips. When authentic samples were spiked with a mixture of furanocoumarins at individual levels of 2 to 10 microg/g, the method produced overall recoveries of 77 and 75% of all furanocoumarins from celery and parsnips, respectively. The method was applied in 2 laboratories to a multiyear survey of more than 200 samples. Of 110 parsnips samples, 109 (99%) contained quantitatable levels of furanocoumarins. The mean level of total furanocoumarins in the positive parsnip samples was 15.1 microg/g; the maximum level detected was 145 microg/g. Of 114 celery samples, 88 (77%) contained quantitatable levels of furanocoumarins. The mean level of total furanocoumarins in the positive celery samples was 1.9 microg/g; the maximum level detected was 15.2 microg/g. Xanthotoxin and bergapten were the most commonly detected furanocoumarins in both celery (68 and 63%) and parsnips (97 and 96%). Xanthotoxin had the highest mean level of positives in both celery (1.3 microg/g) and parsnips (8.5 microg/g). Little year-to-year variation in either total furanocoumarin levels or incidence was noted. PMID:11501915

  7. Application of SSULI ground calibration methods to retrieval of spectral emissions on flight instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, P. W.; Budzien, S. A.; Thonnard, S. E.; Nicholas, A. C.; Dymond, K. F.

    2007-09-01

    The SSULI (Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager) is a low-resolution hyperspectral far- and extreme-ultraviolet limb-scanning imager designed to monitor ionospheric and thermospheric airglow. SSULI has a spectral range from 80 to 170 nm, and a nominal resolution of 2.1 nm (at 147 nm). The instrument is scheduled to fly aboard all DMSP Block 5D3 weather satellites. The first SSULI instrument was launched in fall 2003, aboard DMSP F16, and has been collecting data since December 2003. The second SSULI flight aboard DMSP F17 began in fall 2006. On the ground, the SSULI instruments are calibrated using a monochromator to isolate single emission features of interest produced by a gas discharge lamp, whereas the flight spectra consists of numerous overlapping emissions. The determination of individual emission feature contribution against the entire airglow spectrum is determined using the multiple linear regression technique with basis functions defining each observable emission. The accuracy of the emission extraction depends primarily on the ability to model the characteristics of the instrument line-shape, encompassing both optical and electronic effects. In the course of developing the ground calibration algorithms, we are now able to produce line-shapes much more faithful to the observed calibration features, as well as model instrument characteristics such as scattered light and detector background components. This improved instrument characterization can then be passed to the operational orbital emission extraction software to increase the fidelity of retrieved altitude profiles for observed ultraviolet emissions. In addition, the techniques used with the ground calibration can monitor deviations in line-shape and instrument sensitivity as a function of observed count rate, and these modified line-shapes can also be passed to the ground analysis software. Validation of this method using SSULI 003 and 004 ground calibration data will be presented.

  8. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Benchmarks for Ground-State Properties.

    PubMed

    Dral, Pavlo O; Wu, Xin; Spörkel, Lasse; Koslowski, Axel; Thiel, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected OMx methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by including additional interactions in the electronic structure calculation. When augmented with empirical dispersion corrections, the resulting OMx-Dn approaches offer a fast and robust treatment of noncovalent interactions. Here we evaluate the performance of the OMx and OMx-Dn methods for a variety of ground-state properties using a large and diverse collection of benchmark sets from the literature, with a total of 13035 original and derived reference data. Extensive comparisons are made with the results from established semiempirical methods (MNDO, AM1, PM3, PM6, and PM7) that also use the NDDO (neglect of diatomic differential overlap) integral approximation. Statistical evaluations show that the OMx and OMx-Dn methods outperform the other methods for most of the benchmark sets. PMID:26771261

  10. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING GROUND-WATER PUMPAGE FOR IRRIGATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage for irrigation was measured at 32 sites on the eastern Snake River Plain in southern Idaho during 1983. Pumpage at these sites also was estimated by three commonly used methods, and pumpage estimates were compared to measured values to determine the accuracy of each estimate. Statistical comparisons of estimated and metered pumpage using an F-test showed that only estimates made using the instantaneous discharge method were not significantly different ( alpha equals 0. 01) from metered values. Pumpage estimates made using the power consumption method reflect variability in pumping efficiency among sites. Pumpage estimates made using the crop-consumptive use method reflect variability in water-management practices. Pumpage estimates made using the instantaneous discharge method reflect variability in discharges at each site during the irrigation season.

  11. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Benchmarks for Ground-State Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected OMx methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by including additional interactions in the electronic structure calculation. When augmented with empirical dispersion corrections, the resulting OMx-Dn approaches offer a fast and robust treatment of noncovalent interactions. Here we evaluate the performance of the OMx and OMx-Dn methods for a variety of ground-state properties using a large and diverse collection of benchmark sets from the literature, with a total of 13035 original and derived reference data. Extensive comparisons are made with the results from established semiempirical methods (MNDO, AM1, PM3, PM6, and PM7) that also use the NDDO (neglect of diatomic differential overlap) integral approximation. Statistical evaluations show that the OMx and OMx-Dn methods outperform the other methods for most of the benchmark sets. PMID:26771261

  12. Characteristics of Earthquake Ground Motion in Tapachula, Chiapas (mexico) from Empirical and Theorical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, F.; Alguacil, G.; Rodríguez, L.; Navarro, M.; Ruiz, A.; Aguirre, J.; Acosta, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Mora, J.; Reyes, M.

    2013-05-01

    The high seismic hazard level of Tapachula city (Chiapas, Mexico) requires a better understanding of the characteristics of earthquake ground motion to implement risk reduction policies in this urban area. A map of ground predominant period estimated with Nakamura technique already shows four different zones: the largest one in the downtown with 0.2-0.4s, two small zones (concentric to the previous one) of 0.4-0.7s and 0.7-0.9 s, respectively, and the smallest zone (on the edge of the city) with the higher values 0.9-1.1s. During 44 days more than 220 events were recorded by a temporal seismic network installed by the UNAM at 6 sites distributed in Tapachula. The magnitude Mw and hypocentral distance of the events were reassessed and range from 3.3 to 4.5 and 60 to 190 km, respectively. After selecting the accelerograms with the best signal/noise ratio, a set of key engineering ground-motion parameters such as peak values of strong motion, acceleration and velocity response spectra, Arias intensity, cumulative absolute velocity, relative significant duration, the Housner spectrum-intensity, the energy input spectrum and H/V spectral ratio were calculated for the selected events. The ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) of each parameter as function of magnitude and distance were also estimated. On the other hand, synthetic seismic traces were obtained at each station site after modeling a seismic source of magnitude 7.2 by using the empirical Green's function method. Thus, a shake-map scenario was generated for an earthquake similar to that of the September 10, 1993. The parameters here obtained show different shake levels and frequency content at each site. All sites present amplification for 0.25 and 0.5 s. TACA, TAPP y TATC stations, located near the two rivers bordering Tapachula, are those with the largest ground amplification. The characteristics of strong ground motion obtained from synthetic accelerograms are in agreement with those from the empirical method.

  13. Electron excitation from ground state to first excited state: Bohmian mechanics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Shuang, Zhao; Fu-Ming, Guo; Yu-Jun, Yang; Su-Yu, Li

    2016-03-01

    The excitation process of electrons from the ground state to the first excited state via the resonant laser pulse is investigated by the Bohmian mechanics method. It is found that the Bohmian particles far away from the nucleus are easier to be excited and are excited firstly, while the Bohmian particles in the ground state is subject to a strong quantum force at a certain moment, being excited to the first excited state instantaneously. A detailed analysis for one of the trajectories is made, and finally we present the space and energy distribution of 2000 Bohmian particles at several typical instants and analyze their dynamical process at these moments. Project supported by the Doctoral Research Start-up Funding of Northeast Dianli University, China (Grant No. BSJXM-201332), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11547114, 11534004, 11474129, 11274141, 11447192, and 11304116), and the Graduate Innovation Fund of Jilin University, China (Grant No. 2015091).

  14. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm - Local Search Method for Ground-Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Y.; Nishikawa, T.; Martin, P.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-water management problems commonly are formulated as a mixed-integer, non-linear programming problem (MINLP). Relying only on conventional gradient-search methods to solve the management problem is computationally fast; however, the methods may become trapped in a local optimum. Global-optimization schemes can identify the global optimum, but the convergence is very slow when the optimal solution approaches the global optimum. In this study, we developed a hybrid optimization scheme, which includes a genetic algorithm and a gradient-search method, to solve the MINLP. The genetic algorithm identifies a near- optimal solution, and the gradient search uses the near optimum to identify the global optimum. Our methodology is applied to a conjunctive-use project in the Warren ground-water basin, California. Hi- Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-manager in the basin, plans to construct a wastewater treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the ground-water system. The treated wastewater instead will recharge the ground-water basin via percolation ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy, subject to State regulations (e.g. minimum distances and travel times). HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctive-use strategies that control ground-water levels, meet regulations, and identify new production-well locations. As formulated, the MINLP objective is to minimize water-delivery costs subject to constraints including pump capacities, available recharge water, water-supply demand, water-level constraints, and potential new-well locations. The methodology was demonstrated by an enumerative search of the entire feasible solution and comparing the optimum solution with results from the branch-and-bound algorithm. The results also indicate that the hybrid method identifies the global optimum within an affordable computation time. Sensitivity analyses, which include testing different recharge-rate scenarios, pond layouts, and water-supply constraints, indicate that the number of new wells is insensitive to water-supply constraints; however, pumping rates and patterns of the existing wells are sensitive. The locations of new wells are mildly sensitive to the pond layout.

  15. Further Tests of the Seismo-Lineament Method for Recognizing Seismogenic Faults at the Ground Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, M. A.; Campbell, R. D.; Lindsay, R. D.; Secrest, S. H.; Cronin, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    The importance of locating the surface trace of faults that can produce earthquakes is self-evident, particularly in California where avoidance of ground-rupture hazards is a legal requirement. We have developed a method that utilizes earthquake focal mechanism solutions coupled with field reconnaissance to locate the surface trace of probable seismogenic faults. We project a fault-plane solution from the boundaries of the uncertainty region around the earthquake focus to the surface of a DEM to define a seismo-lineament -- a zone within which the surface trace of the fault associated with the earthquake is likely to be located. Field work is then undertaken to evaluate the hypothesis that a seismogenic fault exists within the seismo-lineament. If a fault is found within the seismo-lineament, the fault’s orientation and direction of slip are statistically compared with the orientation and slip data from the fault-plane solution to complete the spatial correlation of the fault with the earthquake. To evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure, we selected 6 historic earthquakes that caused fault displacement of the ground surface and used the seismo-lineament method to indicate the probable location of the surface trace of the fault. Earthquakes analyzed in this study include the Parkfield (2004, M6), Denali (2002, M7.9), Hector Mine (1999, M7.1), Superstition Hills (1987, M6.2 and M6.6), and Borah Peak (1983, M7.3) earthquakes. In all 6 test cases, the actual ground-rupture zone associated with the main shock was located within the seismo-lineament. In addition to using focal-mechanism solutions associated with the main shocks to define seismo-lineaments, we have used data from several major aftershocks associated with these events. Seismo-lineaments defined by aftershocks also coincided with the surface trace of the seismogenic fault. Based on results from this study, the seismo-lineament method is likely to be useful in identifying probable seismogenic faults in areas where high-quality focal-mechanism solutions are available for small earthquakes that did not cause ground rupture. This method will be particularly useful in locating probable seismogenic faults that reach the ground surface in highland areas where there is no in-situ Holocene material available to be analyzed through trench studies.

  16. First orbit determination with numerical methods based on short arcs acquired in space debris surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Beutler, Gerhard; Schildknecht, Thomas

    Surveys for space debris aim at improving our knowledge of the space debris population. The survey results are fed either into space debris environment models or into orbital element catalogue of space debris objects, depending on whether the objects should be tracked later on. In both cases first orbit determination is a crucial step. The determined orbital elements together with estimated of the magnitude of the object allow first estimates of the object size. The orbital elements are also the central input to validate and improve the space debris environment models. Considering catalogue build-up and maintenance, the results from the first orbit determination set important constraints for the correlation of the new object with the catalogue, the re-acquisition and finally the identification of the object. In the case of space debris surveys first orbits must be determined from very short arcs of observations, which are due to the limits of the current sensor technology, in particular due to the limited field-of-view diameter of the telescopes used for optical surveys. The quality of the first orbits is in any case a function of the measurement accuracy. We present an approach for first orbit determination, which is derived from the boundary value method implemented in the CelMech program system (Beutler, 2005). The approach considers angular measurements, as derived from optical observation systems. The CelMech module ORBDET was generalized to perform a two-dimensional search by systematically varying the topocentric ranges at the boundary epochs of the observed arc. The search aims at identifying local minima of a least-square adjustment of all available observations using a truncated Taylor series to approximate the particular solution of the equation of motion for the debris considered. We apply this method to observations from ongoing space debris surveys of ESA using the 1-m telescope at the Optical Ground Station in Tenerife. Furthermore we apply this approach to a proposed space-based optical observation system. Last, but not least we consider the inclusion of range observations in our algorithm. Beutler G (2005) Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York

  17. Hierarchical scheduling method of UAV resources for emergency surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junxiao; Zhu, Qing; Shen, Fuqiang; Miao, Shuangxi; Cao, Zhenyu; Weng, Qiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Traditional mission scheduling methods are unable to meet the timeliness requirements of emergency surveying. Different size and overlaps of different missions lead to inefficient scheduling and poor mission returns. Especially for UAVs, based on their agile and flexible ability, the scheduling result becomes diversiform; as affected by environment and unmanned aerial vehicle performance, different scheduling will lead to different time costs and mission payoffs. An effective scheduling solution is to arrange the UAVs reasonably to complete as many as missions possible with better quality and satisfaction of different demands. This paper proposes a method for mission decomposition or aggregation to generate a mission unit for specific UAVs based on the spatio-temporal constraints of different missions and UAV observation ability demands. In this way, the problems of lack or redundancy of resource scheduling, which can be caused by mission overload, various information demands and spatial overlapping will be effectively reduced. Furthermore, the global efficiency evaluation function is built by considering typical scheduling objectives, such as mission returns, priority and load balancing of resources. Then, an improved ant colony algorithm is designed to acquire an optimal scheduling scheme and the dynamic adjustment strategy is employed. Finally, the correctness and validity are demonstrated by the simulation experiment.

  18. A double-observer method to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated double-observer methods for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our study in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat observers immediately following an observation by the rear-seat observer (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including observer, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included observer effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate observer-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-observers, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat observers, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat observers. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of observer-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated observer-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-observer, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat observer, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat observer. Estimated observer detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an observer, because observers did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-observer methods with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl surveys where birds are distributed at low density in remote areas that are inaccessible by ground crews. Double-observer methods, however, estimate only detection rate of animals that are potentially observable given the survey method applied. Auxiliary data and methods must be considered to estimate overall detection rate.

  19. The decremented average ground-temperature method for predicting the thermal performance of underground walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ackridge, J.M.; Poulos, J.F.J.

    1983-06-01

    At present, the only accurate method for predicting the thermal performance of underground structures is through the use of large computer models and finite difference equations. Due to the prohibitively high cost of setting up and running these computer models, thermal analysis of subsurface buildings is inaccessible to many prospective users. The existing manual methods for calculating loads on underground buildings provide only rough estimates of thermal performance. All of the existing manual methods ignore the effect of the building on the adjacent ground temperature during an annual cycle, resulting in conservative estimates of the building's heating performance and optimistic estimates of the cooling performance. This paper presents a manual calculation method for accurately predicting the thermal performance of underground walls and gives a table of DECREMENT FACTORS which account for the decreasing thermal loss from underground walls over time.

  20. A New Curb Detection Method for Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using 2D Sequential Laser Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Wang, Jinling; Liu, Daxue

    2013-01-01

    Curb detection is an important research topic in environment perception, which is an essential part of unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operations. In this paper, a new curb detection method using a 2D laser range finder in a semi-structured environment is presented. In the proposed method, firstly, a local Digital Elevation Map (DEM) is built using 2D sequential laser rangefinder data and vehicle state data in a dynamic environment and a probabilistic moving object deletion approach is proposed to cope with the effect of moving objects. Secondly, the curb candidate points are extracted based on the moving direction of the vehicle in the local DEM. Finally, the straight and curved curbs are detected by the Hough transform and the multi-model RANSAC algorithm, respectively. The proposed method can detect the curbs robustly in both static and typical dynamic environments. The proposed method has been verified in real vehicle experiments. PMID:23325170

  1. A new curb detection method for unmanned ground vehicles using 2D sequential laser data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Wang, Jinling; Liu, Daxue

    2013-01-01

    Curb detection is an important research topic in environment perception, which is an essential part of unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operations. In this paper, a new curb detection method using a 2D laser range finder in a semi-structured environment is presented. In the proposed method, firstly, a local Digital Elevation Map (DEM) is built using 2D sequential laser rangefinder data and vehicle state data in a dynamic environment and a probabilistic moving object deletion approach is proposed to cope with the effect of moving objects. Secondly, the curb candidate points are extracted based on the moving direction of the vehicle in the local DEM. Finally, the straight and curved curbs are detected by the Hough transform and the multi-model RANSAC algorithm, respectively. The proposed method can detect the curbs robustly in both static and typical dynamic environments. The proposed method has been verified in real vehicle experiments. PMID:23325170

  2. Comparison of the effects of filtration and preservation methods on analyses for strontium-90 in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, L.L.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    From 1952 to 1988, about 140 curies of strontium-90 were discharged in liquid waste to disposal ponds and wells at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory). Water from four wells was sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's quality-assurance program to evaluate the effects of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in ground water at the INEL. Water from each well was filtered through eithera 0.45- or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered water samples were collected at each well. One of the two sets of water samples was field acidified. Strontium-90 concentrations ranged from below the reporting level to 52 ?? 4 picocuries per liter. Descriptive statistics were used to determine reproducibility of the analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from each well. Comparisons were made with unfiltered, acidified samples at each well. Analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from well 88 were not in statistical agreement between the unfiltered, acidified sample and the filtered (0.45 micrometer), acidified sample. The strontium-90 concentration for water from well 88 was less than the reporting level. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94 percent or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collection do not significantly affect reproducibility of strontium-90 analyses in ground water at the INEL.

  3. Revisions to some parameters used in stochastic-method simulations of ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David; Thompson, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    The stochastic method of ground‐motion simulation specifies the amplitude spectrum as a function of magnitude (M) and distance (R). The manner in which the amplitude spectrum varies with M and R depends on physical‐based parameters that are often constrained by recorded motions for a particular region (e.g., stress parameter, geometrical spreading, quality factor, and crustal amplifications), which we refer to as the seismological model. The remaining ingredient for the stochastic method is the ground‐motion duration. Although the duration obviously affects the character of the ground motion in the time domain, it also significantly affects the response of a single‐degree‐of‐freedom oscillator. Recently published updates to the stochastic method include a new generalized double‐corner‐frequency source model, a new finite‐fault correction, a new parameterization of duration, and a new duration model for active crustal regions. In this article, we augment these updates with a new crustal amplification model and a new duration model for stable continental regions. Random‐vibration theory (RVT) provides a computationally efficient method to compute the peak oscillator response directly from the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration. Because the correction factor used to account for the nonstationarity of the ground motion depends on the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration, we also present new RVT correction factors for both active and stable regions.

  4. A pose estimation method for unmanned ground vehicles in GPS denied environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamjidi, Amirhossein; Ye, Cang

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a pose estimation method based on the 1-Point RANSAC EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) framework. The method fuses the depth data from a LIDAR and the visual data from a monocular camera to estimate the pose of a Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) in a GPS denied environment. Its estimation framework continuy updates the vehicle's 6D pose state and temporary estimates of the extracted visual features' 3D positions. In contrast to the conventional EKF-SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) frameworks, the proposed method discards feature estimates from the extended state vector once they are no longer observed for several steps. As a result, the extended state vector always maintains a reasonable size that is suitable for online calculation. The fusion of laser and visual data is performed both in the feature initialization part of the EKF-SLAM process and in the motion prediction stage. A RANSAC pose calculation procedure is devised to produce pose estimate for the motion model. The proposed method has been successfully tested on the Ford campus's LIDAR-Vision dataset. The results are compared with the ground truth data of the dataset and the estimation error is ~1.9% of the path length.

  5. Computer program for simulation of variable recharge with the U. S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kontis, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Variable-Recharge Package is a computerized method designed for use with the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional finitedifference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW-88) to simulate areal recharge to an aquifer. It is suitable for simulations of aquifers in which the relation between ground-water levels and land surface can affect the amount and distribution of recharge. The method is based on the premise that recharge to an aquifer cannot occur where the water level is at or above land surface. Consequently, recharge will vary spatially in simulations in which the Variable- Recharge Package is applied, if the water levels are sufficiently high. The input data required by the program for each model cell that can potentially receive recharge includes the average land-surface elevation and a quantity termed ?water available for recharge,? which is equal to precipitation minus evapotranspiration. The Variable-Recharge Package also can be used to simulate recharge to a valley-fill aquifer in which the valley fill and the adjoining uplands are explicitly simulated. Valley-fill aquifers, which are the most common type of aquifer in the glaciated northeastern United States, receive much of their recharge from upland sources as channeled and(or) unchanneled surface runoff and as lateral ground-water flow. Surface runoff in the uplands is generated in the model when the applied water available for recharge is rejected because simulated water levels are at or above land surface. The surface runoff can be distributed to other parts of the model by (1) applying the amount of the surface runoff that flows to upland streams (channeled runoff) to explicitly simulated streams that flow onto the valley floor, and(or) (2) applying the amount that flows downslope toward the valley- fill aquifer (unchanneled runoff) to specified model cells, typically those near the valley wall. An example model of an idealized valley- fill aquifer is presented to demonstrate application of the method and the type of information that can be derived from its use. Documentation of the Variable-Recharge Package is provided in the appendixes and includes listings of model code and of program variables. Comment statements in the program listings provide a narrative of the code. Input-data instructions and printed model output for the package are included.

  6. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  7. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the

  8. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  9. Efficient reconstruction method for ground layer adaptive optics with mixed natural and laser guide stars.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Roland; Helin, Tapio; Obereder, Andreas; Ramlau, Ronny

    2016-02-20

    The imaging quality of modern ground-based telescopes such as the planned European Extremely Large Telescope is affected by atmospheric turbulence. In consequence, they heavily depend on stable and high-performance adaptive optics (AO) systems. Using measurements of incoming light from guide stars, an AO system compensates for the effects of turbulence by adjusting so-called deformable mirror(s) (DMs) in real time. In this paper, we introduce a novel reconstruction method for ground layer adaptive optics. In the literature, a common approach to this problem is to use Bayesian inference in order to model the specific noise structure appearing due to spot elongation. This approach leads to large coupled systems with high computational effort. Recently, fast solvers of linear order, i.e., with computational complexity O(n), where n is the number of DM actuators, have emerged. However, the quality of such methods typically degrades in low flux conditions. Our key contribution is to achieve the high quality of the standard Bayesian approach while at the same time maintaining the linear order speed of the recent solvers. Our method is based on performing a separate preprocessing step before applying the cumulative reconstructor (CuReD). The efficiency and performance of the new reconstructor are demonstrated using the OCTOPUS, the official end-to-end simulation environment of the ESO for extremely large telescopes. For more specific simulations we also use the MOST toolbox. PMID:26906596

  10. New method for assessment of gait variability based on wearable ground reaction force sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new quantitative method of analyzing gait variability using a developed wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system is presented. The design of the sensor system is based on the use of five small 3-axial sensors distributed on the underside of a shoe, so that in human dynamics analysis this system can continuously measure vertical pressure force and bio-directional friction forces referring to anterior-posterior friction force and mediolateral friction force. Compared to existing spatio-temporal evaluation methods using traditional force plates or instrumented treadmills, the new method was developed based on measurements of ambulatory or wearable force sensor which can continuously measure ground reaction force in various environments not limited to the laboratory environment. The area of the center of pressure (CoP) distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the 3-axial GRF, which correlate strongly with the distribution of CoP, are suggested parameters for quantifying gait variability. To certify the effectiveness of these parameters, we conducted an experimental study on a group of volunteer subjects who walked under a designed experimental protocol. PMID:19163171

  11. A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.

    2004-01-01

    Swarms of intelligent autonomous spacecraft, involving complex behaviors and interactions, are being proposed for future space exploration missions. Such missions provide greater flexibility and offer the possibility of gathering more science data than traditional single spacecraft missions. The emergent properties of swarms make these missions powerful, but simultaneously far more difficult to design, and to assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. These missions are also considerably more complex than previous types of missions, and NASA, like other organizations, has little experience in developing or in verifying and validating these types of missions. A significant challenge when verifying and validating swarms of intelligent interacting agents is how to determine that the possible exponential interactions and emergent behaviors are producing the desired results. Assuring correct behavior and interactions of swarms will be critical to mission success. The Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm (ANTS) mission is an example of one of the swarm types of missions NASA is considering. The ANTS mission will use a swarm of picospacecraft that will fly from Earth orbit to the Asteroid Belt. Using an insect colony analogy, ANTS will be composed of specialized workers for asteroid exploration. Exploration would consist of cataloguing the mass, density, morphology, and chemical composition of the asteroids, including any anomalous concentrations of specific minerals. To perform this task, ANTS would carry miniaturized instruments, such as imagers, spectrometers, and detectors. Since ANTS and other similar missions are going to consist of autonomous spacecraft that may be out of contact with the earth for extended periods of time, and have low bandwidths due to weight constraints, it will be difficult to observe improper behavior and to correct any errors after launch. Providing V&V (verification and validation) for this type of mission is new to NASA, and represents the cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.

  12. Methodical questions and accuracy problems of GPS observations by the example of the geodynamic proving ground in Bishkek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzikov, S. I.

    2014-11-01

    The key questions concerning the modern methodical tasks and accuracy of GPS measurements of crustal motion spanning are discussed for a full cycle of the survey from the organization of the field operations to the interpretation of the final results. The presented data rely on the 20-year experience of the geophysicists of the Research Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Bishkek (RS RAS) in GPS monitoring at the Geodynamic Proving Ground in Bishkek (GPGB) and in a large part of Central Asia. The comparative characteristics of the constellations of visible GPS and GLONASS satellites are analyzed from the standpoint of their practical application for precise scientific observations of crustal motions. The studies of the contemporary movements of the Earth's crust by the methods of satellite geodesy generally comprise three stages: (1) organization of the measurement networks and acquisition of the data; (2) data processing; and (3) interpretation of the results. Each stage is associated with its own block of the tasks and problems, and neither is guaranteed against uncertainties and errors which may affect the results, conclusions, and reconstructions.

  13. Weighted adaptive threshold estimating method and its application to Satellite-to-Ground optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Qiwen; Yang, Zhonghua; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Liao, Huixi; Liu, Qingfeng

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, a weighted adaptive threshold estimating method is proposed to deal with long and deep channel fades in Satellite-to-Ground optical communications. During the channel correlation interval where there are sufficient correlations in adjacent signal samples, the correlations in its change rates are described by weighted equations in the form of Toeplitz matrix. As vital inputs to the proposed adaptive threshold estimator, the optimal values of the change rates can be obtained by solving the weighted equation systems. The effect of channel fades and aberrant samples can be mitigated by joint use of weighted equation systems and Kalman estimation. Based on the channel information data from star observation trails, simulations are made and the numerical results show that the proposed method have better anti-fade performances than the D-value adaptive threshold estimating method in both weak and strong turbulence conditions.

  14. Topsoil thickness mapping at watershed scale by integration of field survey, geophysics and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, Alain Pascal; Lubczynski, Maciek

    2010-05-01

    The adequate parameterisation of near subsurface is a critical issue due to the large spatial variability of soil properties. Direct observations made by common invasive field sampling procedures through drilling and trench excavations can be complemented in an efficient way by non-invasive geophysical methods, improving spatial data coverage in cost and time efficient way. The geophysical methods measure a physical property of subsurface that is convertible into the parameter or variable of interest. Such conversion requires development of data integration method. In this study, we present a methodology of data integration to assess spatially the topsoil thickness at the watershed scale. To integrate the spatial variability of the soil characteristics, we used a combination of field survey, ground-geophysics, satellite and aerial imagery processing and statistical estimation techniques. The ground-geophysics was used to complement and extend the direct field observations of the topsoil thickness. The conversion of the geophysical data in topsoil thickness and the estimation of the topsoil thickness over the catchment were done through statistical methods that integrated auxiliary variables derived from the remote sensing imagery (soil and geomorphology classifications and terrain attributes). A simple and expedite soil classification based on multi-resolution segmentation of image objects and fuzzy logic was derived from a high-resolution multispectral QuickBird image combined with aerial photograph. Landform classes and terrain attributes were computed from the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite. We applied this methodology to the Pisões catchment (~19 km2, Portugal) where the AB horizon, following the standard pedologic classification, is characterized by its high concentration in swelling clay. In the first step, we elaborated the sampling schema of the geophysical survey using a dataset compiled from previous studies of 48 observations of the topsoil thickness made through augering, profiling and drilling. We opted to measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) using a GeonicsTM ground conductivity meter EM-31 because: i) the AB horizon thickness was within the range of penetration depth of this instrument; ii) a significant contrast between the electrical conductivities of the AB and C horizons was expected and confirmed by measurements. We assumed that the spatial variation of ECa over the study area was mainly controlled by the high clay content and the thickness of the AB horizon. The influence of the soil moisture content was minimized by taking the ECa measurements at the end of the dry season. We executed 6 transects, perpendicular to the main streams, which constituted 424 survey locations separated by a median distance of 21 m. Complementary direct observations were also made by using percussion drilling and digging at 22 locations along the geophysical transects. The second step was to convert the ECa measurements into topsoil thickness using a linear regression (LR) model. The obtained dataset was used in the third and last step to estimate the topsoil thickness over the catchment selecting the appropriate geostatistical mixed linear model (MLM). In these two last steps, the remote sensing derived auxiliary variables were tested and integrated in the models to improve the relationship. To avoid collinearity effects in the models, the auxiliary predictors were selected using principal component analysis. The selection of the appropriate geostatistical MLM was done by testing the normality and the spatial correlation of the residuals (respectively Shapiro-Wilk and Moran tests). The error propagation in the models was considered and integrated in the results. Final assessment of the estimation was made by computing the root mean square error (RMSE) at 61 locations of the observed dataset.

  15. Comparison of Methods for the Recovery of Virus Inoculated into Ground Beef

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, John T.; Sullivan, Robert; Larkin, Edward P.; Peeler, James T.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for the recovery of virus inoculated into ground beef were investigated in an attempt to develop a sensitive system that could be used to detect viral contaminants in market foods. A 100-g sample, inoculated with poliovirus 1, was suspended in 150 to 900 ml of Eagle minimum essential medium, pH 8.5, and mixed in either plastic bags or plastic cups on a mechanical shaker. The particulate materials were removed by means of cheese cloth, glass wool, woven fiber glass, or low-speed centrifugation. Large volumes of fluid were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Microbiological contamination was controlled by high antibiotic concentrations or by filtration. Quantitative plaque-forming-unit recovery of the virus was determined by utilizing an agar overlay technique on Vero cell cultures. The data indicated that from 20 to 50% of the seeded virus could be recovered from a 100-g sample of ground beef. The glass wool and woven fiber glass methods were the most effective, with recovery of approximately 50% of the inoculated virus. PMID:4356467

  16. A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

    1996-01-01

    Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

  17. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  18. Results of a Flight Simulation Software Methods Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    A ten-page questionnaire was mailed to members of the AIAA Flight Simulation Technical Committee in the spring of 1994. The survey inquired about various aspects of developing and maintaining flight simulation software, as well as a few questions dealing with characterization of each facility. As of this report, 19 completed surveys (out of 74 sent out) have been received. This paper summarizes those responses.

  19. A wavelet-based baseline drift correction method for grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan 1Ji, Yanju 2Li, Suyi 13Lin, Jun 12Zhou, Fengdao 1Yang, Guihong

    2013-09-01

    A grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system on an airship enjoys high depth of prospecting and spatial resolution, as well as outstanding detection efficiency and easy flight control. However, the movement and swing of the front-fixed receiving coil can cause severe baseline drift, leading to inferior resistivity image formation. Consequently, the reduction of baseline drift of GREATEM is of vital importance to inversion explanation. To correct the baseline drift, a traditional interpolation method estimates the baseline `envelope' using the linear interpolation between the calculated start and end points of all cycles, and obtains the corrected signal by subtracting the envelope from the original signal. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of the removal is found to be low. Considering the characteristics of the baseline drift in GREATEM data, this study proposes a wavelet-based method based on multi-resolution analysis. The optimal wavelet basis and decomposition levels are determined through the iterative comparison of trial and error. This application uses the sym8 wavelet with 10 decomposition levels, and obtains the approximation at level-10 as the baseline drift, then gets the corrected signal by removing the estimated baseline drift from the original signal. To examine the performance of our proposed method, we establish a dipping sheet model and calculate the theoretical response. Through simulations, we compare the signal-to-noise ratio, signal distortion, and processing speed of the wavelet-based method and those of the interpolation method. Simulation results show that the wavelet-based method outperforms the interpolation method. We also use field data to evaluate the methods, compare the depth section images of apparent resistivity using the original signal, the interpolation-corrected signal and the wavelet-corrected signal, respectively. The results confirm that our proposed wavelet-based method is an effective, practical method to remove the baseline drift of GREATEM signals and its performance is significantly superior to the interpolation method.

  20. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Radke, L.F.; Heffern, E.L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C.D.; Hower, J.C.; Hower, J.M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R.J.; ter, Schure A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K.L.; Stracher, G.B.; Henke, K.R.; Olea, R.A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

  1. Correction method for obtaining the variationally best ground-state pair density

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Masahiko; Higuchi, Katsuhiko

    2011-10-15

    We present a correction method for the pair density (PD) to get close to the ground-state one. The PD is corrected to be a variationally best PD within the search region that is extended by adding the uniformly scaled PDs to its elements. The corrected PD is kept N-representable and satisfies the virial relation rigorously. The validity of the present method is confirmed by numerical calculations of neon atom. It is shown that the root-mean-square error of the electron-electron interaction and external potential energies, which is a good benchmark for the error of the PD, is reduced by 69.7% without additional heavy calculations.

  2. A Deep Percolation Model for Estimating Ground-Water Recharge: Documentation of Modules for the Modular Modeling System of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A daily water-budget model for estimating ground-water recharge, the Deep Percolation Model, was modularized for inclusion into the U.S. Geological Survey's Modular Modeling System. The model was modularized in order to facilitate estimation of ground-water recharge under a large range in climatic, landscape, and land-use and land-cover conditions. The model can be applied to areas as large as regions or as small as a field plot. An overview of the Modular Modeling System and the Deep Percolation Model is presented. Data requirements, parameters, and variables for the model are described. The modules that compose the Deep Percolation Model are documented.

  3. Ground penetrating radar survey on the cross-stratified overbank deposits from the 2006 eruption of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin Douillet, Guilhem; Abolghasem, Amir; Rémi Dujardin, Jean; Kueppers, Ulrich; Hall, Jonathan; Mothes, Patricia; Dingwell, Donald

    2013-04-01

    The deposits of the 2006 pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) at Tungurahua are organized as 1) massive, coarse-grained deposits confined to valleys of the drainage network and 2) cross-stratified, ash-dominated overbank deposits from dilute PDCs. These overbank deposits are exceptionally well preserved and show dune bedforms shaping the surface of the outcrops. In order to gain insights into the depositional mechanisms of the latter, we combined a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) survey with a ground penetrating radar (GPR) dense network of profiles. The GPR survey permits to look at the internal cross stratification patterns in a non-destructive way. Three antennas with frequencies at 250, 500 and 800 MHz, respectively, permitted to image down to 10, 7 and 3 m depth. While the 800 MHz antenna was found to be very efficient to image cross-lamination, the 250 MHz antenna permitted to recognize major flow units. The GPR dataset profits from the TLS topography data, which are integrated in the processing of the data. From a dense array (profiles at 10 cm spacing) over different types of dune bedforms with the 800 MHz antenna, we manage to reconstruct the 3D internal patterns. Using the 250 MHz antenna, >50 profiles (20-80 m length) over a zone ca. 300*300 m permit to reconstruct and follow the major flow units on the overbanks and their 3D evolution as well as the pre-eruptive paleosoil. Notable results are: (1) the revelation of several units of dense pyroclastic flow deposits below the dilute PDC deposits on the overbanks. This may indicate that the valleys were filled by the time of deposition of the dune bedforms, a result not inferred in previous studies. Moreover, the number of units is greater than previously accessed. (2) For dune bedforms, the root of a structure is found to be located deeper than expected with striking spatial stability during the whole deposition stage, indicating that these bedforms are triggered by basal topographic disturbance. (3) Looking at their 3D patterns, most dune bedforms have a monotone profile, ruling out genesis from currents with different orientations. (4) In some outcrops however, cross-stratifications evolve laterally from stoss-erosive through aggrading to stoss-aggrading, implying that a single dune bedform can show both downstream and upstream migrating crests during the same stage of the flow. (5) Several structures cannibalized by a larger one show proof that the bed rapidly accommodates temporal changes in the dynamics of the currents.

  4. Analysis of subglacial hydrodynamics and ice dynamics through combined terrestrial laser scanning and ground penetrating radar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbud, Chrystelle; Rüttimann, Sébastien; Micheletti, Natan; Irving, James; Lane, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    This study shows how high resolution surveys of subglacial channel morphology combined with high resolution terrestrial laser scanner survey of an Alpine glacier help to understand subglacial hydrological forcing of ice dynamics. The study area is the Haut Glacier d'Arolla in Switzerland, an Alpine valley glacier for which subglacial drainage system has been well studied. A new generation of terrestrial laser scanners was used to investigate glacier surface ablation and other elements of glacial hydrodynamics at exceptionally high spatial and temporal resolution. The LiDAR RIEGL VZ-6000 scanner, with a laser 3B specifically designed for measurements of snow and ice cover surfaces, was tested at seasonal and daily scales. The data revealed spatial variations in the patterns of surface melt, controlled by both aspect and differential debris cover at the seasonal scale, and controlled by ogive-related differences in ice surface debris content at the daily scale. More tentatively, intra-daily scale measurements pointed to possible hydraulic jacking of the glacier associated with short-term water pressure rises at the downstream part of the glacier. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) field campaign was conducted a year later in the location where possible hydraulic jacking had been detected previously. The aims of this campaign were (i) to assess GPR usage for subglacial channel detection; (ii) identify more precisely the channel morphology; and (iii) investigate further the hydraulic jacking hypothesis. 100 MHz antennas were used to map a 240 x 34 m area near the glacier snout where the ice thickness did not exceed 50 m. The corresponding data, after processing, allowed reconstruction of the bed topography and the morphology of subglacial channels in 3D, showing two of the latter in this area. One channel was followed for approximately 20 m upglacier and corresponding morphology estimates were performed. These data allowed for 3D reconstructions of both the bed topography and channel morphology. The channels had much higher aspect ratios than is traditionally assumed in the analysis of subglacial hydrological channels in Alpine systems, such that water is more laterally distributed at the bed than is commonly thought. This could help to explain why hydraulic jacking might occur even in systems with highly channelized subglacial drainage.

  5. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2015-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo type accelerometers for two horizontal and one vertical component combined with 24 bit AD converter. In the presentation current achievements and activities of research group, preliminary results of microtremor array measurement surveys and recorded data by the newly installed stations will be introduced.

  6. Evaluation of three methods for sampling ground-dwelling Ants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Cauê T; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the efficiency of methods for sampling ants, especially in regions with highly variable vegetation physiognomies such as the Cerrado region of central Brazil. Here we compared three methods to collect ground-dwelling ants: pitfall traps, sardine baits, and the Winkler litter extractor. Our aim was to determine which method would be most appropriate to characterize the ant assemblages inhabiting different vegetation types. More species were collected with pitfall traps and with the Winkler extractor than with sardine baits. Pitfall traps collected more species in the cerrado (savanna) physiognomies, particularly in those with a poor litter cover, whereas the Winlker extractor was more efficient in the forest physiognomies, except the one subject to periodic inundations. There was a low similarity in species composition between forest and cerrado physiognomies, and this pattern was detected regardless of the method used to sampling ants. Therefore, even the use of a single, relatively selective method of collection can be enough for studies comparing highly distinct habitats and/or conditions. However, if the purpose of the sampling is to produce a more thoroughly inventory of the ant fauna, we suggest the use of a combination of methods, particularly pitfall traps and the Winkler extractor. Therefore, the Ants of the Leaf-Litter (ALL) Sampling Protocol appear to be an adequate protocol for sampling ants in the highly-threatened Brazilian cerrado biome. PMID:18813741

  7. A double-observer method for reducing bias in faecal pellet surveys of forest ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, K.J.; Manly, B.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Faecal surveys are used widely to study variations in abundance and distribution of forest-dwelling mammals when direct enumeration is not feasible. The utility of faecal indices of abundance is limited, however, by observational bias and variation in faecal disappearance rates that obscure their relationship to population size. We developed methods to reduce variability in faecal surveys and improve reliability of faecal indices. 2. We used double-observer transect sampling to estimate observational bias of faecal surveys of Roosevelt elk Cervus elaphus roosevelti and Columbian black-tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus columbianus in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We also modelled differences in counts of faecal groups obtained from paired cleared and uncleared transect segments as a means to adjust standing crop faecal counts for a standard accumulation interval and to reduce bias resulting from variable decay rates. 3. Estimated detection probabilities of faecal groups ranged from < 0.2-1.0 depending upon the observer, whether the faecal group was from elk or deer, faecal group size, distance of the faecal group from the sampling transect, ground vegetation cover, and the interaction between faecal group size and distance from the transect. 4. Models of plot-clearing effects indicated that standing crop counts of deer faecal groups required 34% reduction on flat terrain and 53% reduction on sloping terrain to represent faeces accumulated over a standard 100-day interval, whereas counts of elk faecal groups required 0% and 46% reductions on flat and sloping terrain, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Double-observer transect sampling provides a cost-effective means of reducing observational bias and variation in faecal decay rates that obscure the interpretation of faecal indices of large mammal abundance. Given the variation we observed in observational bias of faecal surveys and persistence of faeces, we emphasize the need for future researchers to account for these comparatively manageable sources of bias before comparing faecal indices spatially or temporally. Double-observer sampling methods are readily adaptable to study variations in faecal indices of large mammals at the scale of the large forest reserve, natural area, or other forested regions when direct estimation of populations is problematic. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  8. A greedy-based multiquadric method for LiDAR-derived ground data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuanfa; Yan, Changqing; Cao, Xuewei; Guo, Jinyun; Dai, Honglei

    2015-04-01

    A new greedy-based multiquadric method (MQ-G) has been developed to perform LiDAR-derived ground data reduction by selecting a certain amount of significant terrain points from the raw dataset to keep the accuracy of the constructed DEMs as high as possible, while maximally retaining terrain features. In the process of MQ-G, the significant terrain points were selected with an iterative process. First, the points with the maximum and minimum elevations were selected as the initial significant points. Next, a smoothing MQ was employed to perform an interpolation with the selected critical points. Then, the importance of all candidate points was assessed by interpolation error (i.e. the absolute difference between the interpolated and actual elevations). Lastly, the most significant point in the current iteration was selected and used for point selection in the next iteration. The process was repeated until the number of selected points reached a pre-set level or no point was found to have the interpolation error exceeding a user-specified accuracy tolerance. In order to avoid the huge computing cost, a new technique was presented to quickly solve the systems of MQ equations in the global interpolation process, and then the global MQ was replaced with the local one when a certain amount of critical points were selected. Four study sites with different morphologies (i.e. flat, undulating, hilly and mountainous terrains) were respectively employed to comparatively analyze the performances of MQ-G and the classical data selection methods including maximum z-tolerance (Max-Z) and the random method for reducing LiDAR-derived ground datasets. Results show that irrespective of the number of selected critical points and terrain characteristics, MQ-G is always more accurate than the other methods for DEM construction. Moreover, MQ-G has a better ability of preserving terrain feature lines, especially for the undulating and hilly terrains.

  9. A multi-method high-resolution geophysical survey in the Machado de Castro museum, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grangeia, Carlos; Matias, Manuel; Figueiredo, Fernando; Hermozilha, Hélder; Carvalho, Pedro; Silva, Ricardo

    2011-06-01

    Restoration of historical buildings is a delicate operation as they are often built over more ancient and important structures. The Machado de Castro Museum, Coimbra, Central Portugal, has suffered several interventions in historical times and lies over the ancient Roman forum of Coimbra. This building went through a restoration project. These works were preceded by an extensive geophysical survey that aimed at investigating subsurface stratigraphy, including archeological remains, and the internal structure of the actual walls. Owing to the needs of the project, geophysical data interpretation required not only integration but also high resolution. The study consisted of data acquisition over perpendicular planes and different levels that required detailed survey planning and integration of data from different locations that complement images of the surveyed area. Therefore a multi-method, resistivity imaging and a 3D ground probing radar (GPR), high-resolution geophysical survey was done inside the museum. Herein, radargrams are compared with the revealed stratigraphy so that signatures are interpreted, characterized and assigned to archeological structures. Although resistivity and GPR have different resolution capabilities, their data are overlapped and compared, bearing in mind the specific characteristics of this survey. It was also possible to unravel the inner structure of the actual walls, to establish connections between walls, foundations and to find older remains with the combined use and spatial integration of the GPR and resistivity imaging data.

  10. Relative efficiency of four parameter-estimation methods in steady-state and transient ground-water flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Parameters in numerical ground-water flow models have been successfully estimated using nonlinear-optimization methods such as the modified Gauss-Newton (GN) method and conjugate-direction methods. This paper investigates the relative efficiency of GN and three conjugate-direction parameter-estimation methods on two-dimensional, steady-state and transient ground-water flow test cases. The steady-state test cases are included to compare the performance of the algorithm with published examples. The three conjugate-direction methods are the Fletcher-Reeves (FR) and quasi-Newton (QN) regression methods, and combination Fletcher-Reeves quasi-Newton (FR-QN). All three are combined with Newton's method of calculating step size. The numerical ground-water flow model is described by McDonald and Harbaugh.

  11. Comparison of annual accumulation rates derived from in situ and ground penetrating radar methods across Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, D.; Gusmeroli, A.; Oneel, S.; Sass, L. C.; Arendt, A. A.; Wolken, G. J.; Kienholz, C.; McNeil, C.

    2013-12-01

    Constraining annual snowfall accumulation in mountain glacier environments is essential for determining the annual mass balance of individual glaciers and predicting seasonal meltwater runoff to river and marine ecosystems. However, large spatial and elevation gradients, coupled with sparse point measurements preclude accurate quantification of this variable using traditional methods. Here, we report on an extensive field campaign conducted in March-May 2013 on key benchmark glaciers in Alaska, including Taku Glacier near Juneau, Scott Glacier near Cordova, both Eklutna and Wolverine Glacier near Anchorage and Gulkana Glacier in the interior Alaska Range. Over 50 km of 500 MHz common-offset ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were collected on each glacier, with an emphasis on capturing spatial variability in the accumulation zone. Frequent in situ observations were collected for comparison with the GPR, including probe depths, snow pits and shallow firn cores (~8 m). We report on spatial and elevation gradients across this suite of glaciers and across numerous climatic zones and discuss differences between GPR and in situ derived annual accumulation estimates. This comparison is an essential first step in order to effectively evaluate regional atmospheric re-analysis products.

  12. The ZInEP Epidemiology Survey: background, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Warnke, Inge; Hengartner, Michael P; Landolt, Karin; Hagenmuller, Florence; Meier, Magali; Tse, Lee-Ting; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Passardi, Marco; Knöpfli, Daniel; Schönfelder, Herdis; Eisele, Jochen; Rüsch, Nicolas; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces the design, sampling, field procedures and instruments used in the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey. This survey is one of six ZInEP projects (Zürcher Impulsprogramm zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Psychiatrie, i.e. the "Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services"). It parallels the longitudinal Zurich Study with a sample comparable in age and gender, and with similar methodology, including identical instruments. Thus, it is aimed at assessing the change of prevalence rates of common mental disorders and the use of professional help and psychiatric sevices. Moreover, the current survey widens the spectrum of topics by including sociopsychiatric questionnaires on stigma, stress related biological measures such as load and cortisol levels, electroencephalographic (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) examinations with various paradigms, and sociophysiological tests. The structure of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey entails four subprojects: a short telephone screening using the SCL-27 (n of nearly 10,000), a comprehensive face-to-face interview based on the SPIKE (Structured Psychopathological Interview and Rating of the Social Consequences for Epidemiology: the main instrument of the Zurich Study) with a stratified sample (n = 1500), tests in the Center for Neurophysiology and Sociophysiology (n = 227), and a prospective study with up to three follow-up interviews and further measures (n = 157). In sum, the four subprojects of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey deliver a large interdisciplinary database. PMID:24942564

  13. Sensitivity of Spaceborne and Ground Radar Comparison Results to Data Analysis Methods and Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    With the availability of active weather radar observations from space from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TR.MM) satellite, numerous studies have been performed comparing PR reflectivity and derived rain rates to similar observations from ground-based weather radars (GR). These studies have used a variety of algorithms to compute matching PR and GR volumes for comparison. Most studies have used a fixed 3-dimensional Cartesian grid centered on the ground radar, onto which the PR and GR data are interpolated using a proprietary approach and/or commonly available GR analysis software (e.g., SPRINT, REORDER). Other studies have focused on the intersection of the PR and GR viewing geometries either explicitly or using a hybrid of the fixed grid and PR/GR common fields of view. For the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, a prototype DPR/GR comparison algorithm based on similar TRMM PR data has been developed that defines the common volumes in terms of the geometric intersection of PR and GR rays, where smoothing of the PR and GR data are minimized and no interpolation is performed. The PR and GR volume-averaged reflectivity values of each sample volume are accompanied by descriptive metadata, for attributes including the variability and maximum of the reflectivity within the sample volume, and the fraction of range gates in the sample average having reflectivity values above an adjustable detection threshold (typically taken to be 18 dBZ for the PR). Sample volumes are further characterized by rain type (Stratiform or Convective), proximity to the melting layer, underlying surface (land/water/mixed), and the time difference between the PR and GR observations. The mean reflectivity differences between the PR and GR can differ between data sets produced by the different analysis methods; and for the GPM prototype, by the type of constraints and categorization applied to the data. In this paper, we will show results comparing the 3-D gridded analysis "black box" approach to the GPM prototype volume-matching approach, using matching TRMM PR and WSR-88D ground radar data. The affects of applying data constraints and data categorizations on the volume-matched data to the results will be shown, and explanations of the differences in terms of data and analysis algorithm characteristics will be presented. Implications of the differences to the determination of PR/DPR calibration differences and use of ground radar data to evaluate the PR and DPR attenuation correction algorithms will be discussed.

  14. Evaluation of ground motion scaling methods for analysis of structural systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, A. P.; Beltsar, O.A.; Kurama, Y.C.; Kalkan, E.; Taflanidis, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ground motion selection and scaling comprises undoubtedly the most important component of any seismic risk assessment study that involves time-history analysis. Ironically, this is also the single parameter with the least guidance provided in current building codes, resulting in the use of mostly subjective choices in design. The relevant research to date has been primarily on single-degree-of-freedom systems, with only a few studies using multi-degree-of-freedom systems. Furthermore, the previous research is based solely on numerical simulations with no experimental data available for the validation of the results. By contrast, the research effort described in this paper focuses on an experimental evaluation of selected ground motion scaling methods based on small-scale shake-table experiments of re-configurable linearelastic and nonlinear multi-story building frame structure models. Ultimately, the experimental results will lead to the development of guidelines and procedures to achieve reliable demand estimates from nonlinear response history analysis in seismic design. In this paper, an overview of this research effort is discussed and preliminary results based on linear-elastic dynamic response are presented. ?? ASCE 2011.

  15. A Validation of Extraction Methods for Noninvasive Sampling of Glucocorticoids in Free-Living Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Jill M.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.

    2008-01-01

    Fecal hormone assays provide a powerful tool for noninvasive monitoring of endocrine status in wild animals. In this study we validated a protocol for extracting and measuring glucocorticoids in free-living and captive Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). We first compared two commonly used extraction protocols to determine which performed better with commercially available antibodies. We next verified the preferred extraction method by correlating circulating and fecal glucocorticoid measures from a group of individuals over time. For this comparison, we used both a cortisol and a corticosterone antibody to determine which had greater affinity to the fecal metabolites. Cortisol was the primary circulating glucocorticoid, but both hormones were present in well above detectable concentrations in the blood, which does not occur in other sciurids. In addition, the cortisol antibody showed greater binding with the fecal extracts than did the corticosterone antibody. Finally, we used adrenocorticotropic hormone and dexamethasone challenges to demonstrate that changes in adrenal functioning are reflected in changing fecal corticoid levels. These results suggest that our extraction protocol provides a fast, reliable assay of stress hormones in free-living ground squirrels without the confounding influence of short-term rises in glucocorticoid concentrations caused by handling and restraint stress and that it can facilitate ecological and evolutionary studies of stress in wild species. PMID:16228945

  16. Thermodynamic ground state of MgB{sub 6} predicted from first principles structure search methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 ; LeBlanc, K. A.; Gao, Bo; Yao, Yansun; Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0X4

    2014-01-28

    Crystalline structures of magnesium hexaboride, MgB{sub 6}, were investigated using unbiased structure searching methods combined with first principles density functional calculations. An orthorhombic Cmcm structure was predicted as the thermodynamic ground state of MgB{sub 6}. The energy of the Cmcm structure is significantly lower than the theoretical MgB{sub 6} models previously considered based on a primitive cubic arrangement of boron octahedra. The Cmcm structure is stable against the decomposition to elemental magnesium and boron solids at atmospheric pressure and high pressures up to 18.3 GPa. A unique feature of the predicted Cmcm structure is that the boron atoms are clustered into two forms: localized B{sub 6} octahedra and extended B{sub ∞} ribbons. Within the boron ribbons, the electrons are delocalized and this leads to a metallic ground state with vanished electric dipoles. The present prediction is in contrast to the previous proposal that the crystalline MgB{sub 6} maintains a semiconducting state with permanent dipole moments. MgB{sub 6} is estimated to have much weaker electron-phonon coupling compared with that of MgB{sub 2}, and therefore it is not expected to be able to sustain superconductivity at high temperatures.

  17. Using a fast Fourier method to model sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere over a stratified porous-elastic ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooms, S.; Attenborough, K.

    1990-01-01

    Using a Fast Fourier integration method and a global matrix method for solution of the boundary condition equations at all interfaces simultaneously, a useful tool for predicting acoustic propagation in a stratified fluid over a stratified porous-elastic solid was developed. The model for the solid is a modified Biot-Stoll model incorporating four parameters describing the pore structure corresponding to the Rayleigh-Attenborough rigid-porous structure model. The method is also compared to another Fast Fourier code (CERL-FFP) which models the ground as an impedance surface under a horizontally stratified air. Agreement with the CERL FFP is good. The effects on sound propagation of a combination of ground elasticity, complex ground structure, and atmospheric conditions are demonstrated by theoretical results over a snow layer, and experimental results over a model ground surface.

  18. Sightability adjustment methods for aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinhorst, R.K.; Samuel, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys are routinely conducted to estimate the abundance of wildlife species and the rate of population change. However, sightability of animal groups is acknowledged as a significant source of bias in these estimates. Recent research has focused on the development of sightability models to predict the probability of sighting groups under various conditions. Given such models, we show how sightability can be incorporated into the estimator of population size as a probability of response using standard results from sample surveys. We develop formulas for the cases where the sighting probability must be estimated. An example, using data from a helicopter survey of moose in Alberta (Jacobson, Alberta Oil Sands Research Project Report, 1976), is given to illustrate the technique.

  19. Method for Studying a Human Ecology: An Adaptation of the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Mark L.; Scott, Karen Wilson

    Constructivist grounded theory is focused on discovery through understanding data in a human ecology. The procedures outlined in this paper are designed to guide the beginning theorist through the process of creating a theory grounded in data that is a product of the human ecology under study. These new procedures extend grounded theory, providing…

  20. Investigations of the interference scattering and methods for its suppression in near-ground radar backscattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethke, K. H.

    1985-06-01

    Electromagnetic wave scattering in near-ground measurements was studied with examples of ground reflection and wedge diffraction to reach high dynamic ranges for field strength measurements with a controlled suppression of the scattering signals in near-ground level. The effects of the ground reflection on the intensity distribution of the electric field strength were studied. Experimental results at 10 GHz under real conditions were compared with theory. The suppression of the ground reflected signals with screening fences is described. Electromagnetic wave diffraction was investigated using the Fresnel diffraction theory. The diffraction on a slit screen was studied to obtain a dimensioning method for optimal strip grid construction as well as the diffraction on a large slot. Computerized simulation results are confirmed on simple grid structures and the limits of application of the Fresnel diffraction theory are determined.

  1. The Karystian Kampos Survey Project: Methods And Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankosic, Z.; Chidiroglou, M.

    The Karystian Plain (the Kampos) is part of the Karystia that had not been archaeologically explored in a systematic way despite its obvious economic importance for the inhabitants of southern Euboea. In the course of two seasons of fieldwork the Kampos Survey was able to cover approximately forty percent of the designated survey area. In the process we located 36 previously unknown archaeological findspots ranging in date from the end of the Neolithic to the Late Byzantine times. In this paper we present our preliminary results. Our data suggest that the Kampos was as important to the ancient Karystian as it is to the area's inhabitants today.

  2. Simulation of cylindrical flow to a well using the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    1993-01-01

    Cylindrical (axisymmetric) flow to a well is an important specialized topic of ground-water hydraulics and has been applied by many investigators to determine aquifer properties and determine heads and flows in the vicinity of the well. A recent modification to the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Three-Dimensional Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model provides the opportunity to simulate axisymmetric flow to a well. The theory involves the conceptualization of a system of concentric shells that are capable of reproducing the large variations in gradient in the vicinity of the well by decreasing their area in the direction of the well. The computer program presented serves as a preprocessor to the U.S. Geological Survey model by creating the input data file needed to implement the axisymmetric conceptualization. Data input requirements to this preprocessor are described, and a comparison with a known analytical solution indicates that the model functions appropriately.

  3. Methods for Using Ground-Water Model Predictions to Guide Hydrogeologic Data Collection, with Applications to the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System

    SciTech Connect

    Claire R. Tiedeman; M.C. Hill; F.A. D'Agnese; C.C. Faunt

    2001-07-31

    Calibrated models of ground-water systems can provide substantial information for guiding data collection. This work considers using such models to guide hydrogeologic data collection for improving model predictions, by identifying model parameters that are most important to the predictions. Identification of these important parameters can help guide collection of field data about parameter values and associated flow-system features that can lead to improved predictions. Methods for identifying parameters important to predictions include prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), which account for uncertainty on individual parameters as well as prediction sensitivity to parameters, and a new ''value of improved information'' (VOII) method, which includes the effects of parameter correlation in addition to individual parameter uncertainty and prediction sensitivity. The PSS and VOII methods are demonstrated using a model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The predictions of interest are advective-transport paths originating at sites of past underground nuclear testing. Results show that for two paths evaluated, the most important parameters include a subset of five or six of the 23 defined model parameters. Some of the parameters identified as most important are associated with flow-system attributes that do not lie in the immediate vicinity of the paths. Results also indicate that the PSS and VOII methods can identify different important parameters. Because the methods emphasize somewhat different criteria for parameter importance, it is suggested that parameters identified by both methods be carefully considered in subsequent data collection efforts aimed at improving model predictions.

  4. Path durations for use in the stochastic‐method simulation of ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    The stochastic method of ground‐motion simulation assumes that the energy in a target spectrum is spread over a duration DT. DT is generally decomposed into the duration due to source effects (DS) and to path effects (DP). For the most commonly used source, seismological theory directly relates DS to the source corner frequency, accounting for the magnitude scaling of DT. In contrast, DP is related to propagation effects that are more difficult to represent by analytic equations based on the physics of the process. We are primarily motivated to revisit DT because the function currently employed by many implementations of the stochastic method for active tectonic regions underpredicts observed durations, leading to an overprediction of ground motions for a given target spectrum. Further, there is some inconsistency in the literature regarding which empirical duration corresponds to DT. Thus, we begin by clarifying the relationship between empirical durations and DT as used in the first author’s implementation of the stochastic method, and then we develop a new DP relationship. The new DP function gives significantly longer durations than in the previous DP function, but the relative contribution of DP to DT still diminishes with increasing magnitude. Thus, this correction is more important for small events or subfaults of larger events modeled with the stochastic finite‐fault method.

  5. A new method to obtain uniform distribution of ground control points based on regional statistical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chao; An, Wei; Deng, Xinpu

    2015-10-01

    The Ground Control Points (GCPs) is an important source of fundamental data in geometric correction for remote sensing imagery. The quantity, accuracy and distribution of GCPs are three factors which may affect the accuracy of geometric correction. It is generally required that the distribution of GCP should be uniform, so they can fully control the accuracy of mapping regions. In this paper, we establish an objective standard of evaluating the uniformity of the GCPs' distribution based on regional statistical information (RSI), and get an optimal distribution of GCPs. This sampling method is called RSIS for short in this work. The Amounts of GCPs in different regions by equally partitioning the image in regions in different manners are counted which forms a vector called RSI vector in this work. The uniformity of GCPs' distribution can be evaluated by a mathematical quantity of the RSI vector. An optimal distribution of GCPs is obtained by searching the RSI vector with the minimum mathematical quantity. In this paper, the simulation annealing is employed to search the optimal distribution of GCPs that have the minimum mathematical quantity of the RSI vector. Experiments are carried out to test the method proposed in this paper, and sampling designs compared are simple random sampling and universal kriging model-based sampling. The experiments indicate that this method is highly recommended as new GCPs sampling design method for geometric correction of remotely sensed imagery.

  6. An ultra-wideband dielectric material characterization method using grounded coplanar waveguide and genetic algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjloum, Massinissa; El Gibari, Mohammed; Li, Hongwu; Daryoush, Afshin S.

    2015-10-01

    An ultra-wideband complex permittivity extraction method is reported here using numerical fitting of scattering parameters to measured results. A grounded coplanar waveguide transmission line is realized on an unknown dielectric material, whose dielectric constant and loss tangent are extracted by the best fitting of the simulated magnitude, |S21|, and phase, ϕ21, of forward scattering parameter using an electromagnetic full-wave simulator (high frequency structure simulator) to the measured results. The genetic algorithm is employed for optimum rapid extraction, where errors between the numerically simulated and measured S21 (|S21| and ϕ21) are minimized in an iterative manner. As long as the convergence criterion is not satisfied, modifications to dielectric properties are made with this genetic algorithm implemented in Matlab. Feasibility of this extraction technique is validated on benzocyclobutane polymer from 10 MHz to 40 GHz.

  7. Ground-penetrating radar methods used in surface-water discharge measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeni, F.P.; Buursink, Marc L.; Costa, John E.; Melcher, Nick B.; Cheng, Ralph T.; Plant, William J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, an experiment was conducted to see if a combination of complementary radar methods could be used to calculate the discharge of a river without having any of the measuring equipment in the water. The cross-sectional area of the 183-meter wide Skagit River in Washington State was measured using a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system with a single 100-MHz antenna. A van-mounted, side-looking pulsed-Doppler radar system was used to collect water-surface velocity data across the same section of the river. The combined radar data sets were used to calculate the river discharge and the results compared closely to the discharge measurement made by using the standard in-water measurement techniques.

  8. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Trains Using Seismic Reflectivity Methods for a Porous Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NELSON, J. T.

    2000-03-01

    Biot's model of wave propagation in porous isotropic materials is explored for predicting ground vibration from rail vehicles on vertically heterogeneous isotropic saturated soil and rock using seismic reflectivity methods combined with a multi-degree-of-freedom model of a transit vehicle bogie. A sketch of the mathematical theory, canonical results for step loads on a porous half-space, spectral responses for simple layer profiles, and an example of a prediction for rail transit vehicles are presented. The model indicates that saturation of the soil introduces excess attenuation in the vibration response of the soil, and that both pitch and roll moments in addition to vertical forces caused by the vehicle bogie may be significant sources of vibration.

  9. A Socratic Method for Surveying Students' Readiness to Study Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students' understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects…

  10. Cross Cultural Methods for Survey Research in Black Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word, Carl O.

    This paper summarizes the development of a new approach to survey research in black urban communities, in part by adapting standard techniques. Attention is directed at a group of salient assumptions underlying social science investigations, namely: (1) the universality of majority culture models of attitude structure; (2) sociolinguistic and…

  11. A Socratic Method for Surveying Students' Readiness to Study Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students' understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects

  12. FOREST SURVEY METHODS USED IN THE USDA FOREST SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing need for forest resource inventory data to contribute to various objectives of different agencies and organizations. Monitoring forest health is one area of interest for which existing forest survey data may be useful. There are many different samplin...

  13. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida; preliminary results, US Geological Survey Toxic Waste-Ground Water Contamination Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in central Florida. The most important hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, consisting of fractured limestone and dolomite limestone. Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impacts of these land uses on ground-water quality by comparison with a fourth land use representing the absence of human activity in another area of recharge are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticides, which include the organic compounds simazine, ametryne, chlordane, DDE , bromacil, aldicarb, EDB, trifluralin, and diazinon, and the trace elements zinc and copper; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, napthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

  14. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  15. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially

  16. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida - Preliminary results: U. S. Geological Survey Toxic Waste - Ground-Water Contamination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impact of these land uses on groundwater quality are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticide; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. 29 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Detection of conduit-controlled ground-water flow in northwestern Puerto Rico using aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Richards, Ronald T.

    2000-01-01

    The development potential of ground-water resources in the karst limestone of northwestern Puerto Rico, in an area extending from the Río Camuy to Aguadilla, is uncertain as a result of limited knowledge of the location of areas where a high density of cavities (interconnected fractures, conduits, and other dissolution features) might suggest the occurrence of high water yields. The presence in northwestern Puerto Rico of numerous coastal submarine springs, cavernous porosity in some of the wells, and rivers with entrenched and underground paths, indicate that it is probable that water-bearing, subterranean interconnected cavities occur in the area between the Río Camuy and Aguadilla. The number of exploratory wells needed to determine the location of these conduits or zones of enhanced secondary porosity could be substantially reduced if more information were available about the location of these subterranean features, greatly reducing the drilling costs associated with a trial-and-error exploratory process. A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, to detect the presence of cavities that might suggest the occurrence of conduit-controlled groundwater flow. Aerial photographs, geologic and topographic maps, and field reconnaissance were used to identify such linear terrain features as ridges, entrenched canyons, and fracture traces. Natural potential and gravity geophysical methods were also used. The following sites were selected for the aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical testing: Caimital Bajo uplands and former Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla; Quebrada de los Cedros between Aguadilla and Isabela; the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Otilio dairy farm, and Pozo Brujo in Isabela; the Monte Encantado area in Moca and Isabela; and the Rio Camuy cave system in Hatillo and Camuy. In general, the degree of success varied with site and the geophysical method used. At some sites such as Pozo Brujo, the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, and Monte Encantado area, natural potential anomalies strongly suggest the existence of conduits with flowing water. At most sites, however, the results obtained did not clearly reveal the presence of subsurface cavities that might be associated with the occurrence of conduit-controlled ground-water flow. Sites such as the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Pozo Brujo, and Quebrada de los Cedros warrant a more detailed analysis, including a test well drilling phase to confirm the presence of suspected high-yield water-bearing zones.

  18. Survey of Technetium Analytical Production Methods Supporting Hanford Nuclear Materials Processing

    SciTech Connect

    TROYER, G.L.

    1999-11-03

    This document provides a historical survey of analytical methods used for measuring {sup 99}Tc in nuclear fuel reprocessing materials and wastes at Hanford. Method challenges including special sludge matrices tested are discussed. Special problems and recommendations are presented.

  19. Survey of Machine Learning Methods for Database Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamra, Ashish; Ber, Elisa

    Application of machine learning techniques to database security is an emerging area of research. In this chapter, we present a survey of various approaches that use machine learning/data mining techniques to enhance the traditional security mechanisms of databases. There are two key database security areas in which these techniques have found applications, namely, detection of SQL Injection attacks and anomaly detection for defending against insider threats. Apart from the research prototypes and tools, various third-party commercial products are also available that provide database activity monitoring solutions by profiling database users and applications. We present a survey of such products. We end the chapter with a primer on mechanisms for responding to database anomalies.

  20. Innovative method used for radiological survey at FUSRAP site

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    A pneumatically deployed membrane system was used to conduct radiological surveys of the pipes and drains at a Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site in Adrian, Michigan. Remedial action consisted of the removal of residual radioactive sludge and oil. The innovative technology was used to transport a high-sensitivity probe specifically designed for this application, through designated pipes and drains. Use of this system made it possible to survey over 1,000 linear ft of underground drain line in one week, with no significant safety hazards. This was the first time this technology had been field tested at a site, resulting in cost savings of more than $1.5 million.

  1. A method to automate the radiological survey process

    SciTech Connect

    Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the USRAD system, a hardware/software ranging and data transmission system, that provides real-time position data and combines it with other portable instrument measurements. Live display of position data and onsite data reduction, presentation, and formatting for reports and automatic transfer into databases are among the unusual attributes of USRADS. Approximately 25% of any survey-to-survey report process is dedicated to data recording and formatting, which is eliminated by USRADS. Cost savings are realized by the elimination of manual transcription of instrument readout in the field and clerical formatting of data in the office. Increased data reliability is realized by ensuring complete survey coverage of an area in the field, by elimination of mathematical errors in conversion of instrument readout to unit concentration, and by elimination of errors associated with transcribing data from the field into report format. The USRAD system can be adapted to measure other types of pollutants or physical/chemical/geological/biological conditions in which portable instrumentation exists. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Concordance and discordance of sequence survey methods for molecular epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Nur A.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Robison, Richard A.; Johnson, W. Evan; Crandall, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The post-genomic era is characterized by the direct acquisition and analysis of genomic data with many applications, including the enhancement of the understanding of microbial epidemiology and pathology. However, there are a number of molecular approaches to survey pathogen diversity, and the impact of these different approaches on parameter estimation and inference are not entirely clear. We sequenced whole genomes of bacterial pathogens, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. (60 new genomes), and combined them with 55 genomes from GenBank to address how different molecular survey approaches (whole genomes, SNPs, and MLST) impact downstream inferences on molecular evolutionary parameters, evolutionary relationships, and trait character associations. We selected isolates for sequencing to represent temporal, geographic origin, and host range variability. We found that substitution rate estimates vary widely among approaches, and that SNP and genomic datasets yielded different but strongly supported phylogenies. MLST yielded poorly supported phylogenies, especially in our low diversity dataset, i.e., Y. pestis. Trait associations showed that B. pseudomallei and Y. pestis phylogenies are significantly associated with geography, irrespective of the molecular survey approach used, while Brucella spp. phylogeny appears to be strongly associated with geography and host origin. We contrast inferences made among monomorphic (clonal) and non-monomorphic bacteria, and between intra- and inter-specific datasets. We also discuss our results in light of underlying assumptions of different approaches. PMID:25737810

  3. Survey on the estimation of mutual information methods as a measure of dependency versus correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencaga, D.; Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In this survey, we present and compare different approaches to estimate Mutual Information (MI) from data to analyse general dependencies between variables of interest in a system. We demonstrate the performance difference of MI versus correlation analysis, which is only optimal in case of linear dependencies. First, we use a piece-wise constant Bayesian methodology using a general Dirichlet prior. In this estimation method, we use a two-stage approach where we approximate the probability distribution first and then calculate the marginal and joint entropies. Here, we demonstrate the performance of this Bayesian approach versus the others for computing the dependency between different variables. We also compare these with linear correlation analysis. Finally, we apply MI and correlation analysis to the identification of the bias in the determination of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) by the satellite based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the ground based AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). Here, we observe that the AOD measurements by these two instruments might be different for the same location. The reason of this bias is explored by quantifying the dependencies between the bias and 15 other variables including cloud cover, surface reflectivity and others.

  4. A method for mapping corn using the US Geological Survey 1992 National Land Cover Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Nuckols, J.R.; Ward, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to elevated nitrate levels in community drinking water supplies has been associated with an elevated risk of several cancers including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, colon cancer, and bladder cancer. To estimate human exposure to nitrate, specific crop type information is needed as fertilizer application rates vary widely by crop type. Corn requires the highest application of nitrogen fertilizer of crops grown in the Midwest US. We developed a method to refine the US Geological Survey National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) (including map and original Landsat images) to distinguish corn from other crops. Overall average agreement between the resulting corn and other row crops class and ground reference data was 0.79 kappa coefficient with individual Landsat images ranging from 0.46 to 0.93 kappa. The highest accuracies occurred in Regions where corn was the single dominant crop (greater than 80.0%) and the crop vegetation conditions at the time of image acquisition were optimum for separation of corn from all other crops. Factors that resulted in lower accuracies included the accuracy of the NLCD map, accuracy of corn areal estimates, crop mixture, crop condition at the time of Landsat overpass, and Landsat scene anomalies. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. GLACIER MONITORING SYSTEM IN COLOMBIA - complementing glaciological measurements with laser-scanning and ground-penetrating radar surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Jorge; Micheletti, Natan; Rabatel, Antoine; Mölg, Nico; Zemp, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Colombia (South America) has six small glaciers (total glacierized area of 45 Km2); their geographical location, close to zero latitude, makes them very sensitive to climate changes. An extensive monitoring program is being performed since 2006 on two glaciers, with international cooperation supports. This presentation summarizes the results of glacier changes in Colombia and includes the latest results obtained within the CATCOS Project - Phase 1 (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems) signed between Colombia and Switzerland, and within the Joint Mixte Laboratory GREAT-ICE (IRD - France), with the application of LiDAR technology and GPR-based ice thickness measurements at Conejeras Glacier. Conejeras Glacier (Lat. N. 4° 48' 56"; Long. W. 75° 22' 22"; Alt. Max. 4915m.; Alt. Min. 4730m. Area 0.2 Km2) is located on the north-western side of Santa Isabel Volcano. This glacier belongs to global glacier monitoring network of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS-ID: 2721). The surface mass balance is calculated monthly using the direct glaciological method. Between April 2006 and May 2014, Conejeras Glacier showed a cumulative loss of -21 m w.e. The CATCOS Project allowed to improve the glacier monitoring system in Colombia with two main actions: (1) a terrestrial laser scanner survey (RIEGL VZ-6000 terrestrial laser scanner, property of Universities of Lausanne and Fribourg); and (2) ice thickness measurements (Blue System Integration Ltd. Ice Penetrating Radar of property of IRD). The terrestrial laser-scanning survey allowed to realize an accurate digital terrain model of the glacier surface with 13 million points and a decimetric resolution. Ice thickness measurements showed an average glacier thickness of 22 meters and a maximum of 52 meters.

  6. Horvitz-Thompson survey sample methods for estimating large-scale animal abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Garton, E.O.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale surveys to estimate animal abundance can be useful for monitoring population status and trends, for measuring responses to management or environmental alterations, and for testing ecological hypotheses about abundance. However, large-scale surveys may be expensive and logistically complex. To ensure resources are not wasted on unattainable targets, the goals and uses of each survey should be specified carefully and alternative methods for addressing these objectives always should be considered. During survey design, the impoflance of each survey error component (spatial design, propofiion of detected animals, precision in detection) should be considered carefully to produce a complete statistically based survey. Failure to address these three survey components may produce population estimates that are inaccurate (biased low), have unrealistic precision (too precise) and do not satisfactorily meet the survey objectives. Optimum survey design requires trade-offs in these sources of error relative to the costs of sampling plots and detecting animals on plots, considerations that are specific to the spatial logistics and survey methods. The Horvitz-Thompson estimators provide a comprehensive framework for considering all three survey components during the design and analysis of large-scale wildlife surveys. Problems of spatial and temporal (especially survey to survey) heterogeneity in detection probabilities have received little consideration, but failure to account for heterogeneity produces biased population estimates. The goal of producing unbiased population estimates is in conflict with the increased variation from heterogeneous detection in the population estimate. One solution to this conflict is to use an MSE-based approach to achieve a balance between bias reduction and increased variation. Further research is needed to develop methods that address spatial heterogeneity in detection, evaluate the effects of temporal heterogeneity on survey objectives and optimize decisions related to survey bias and variance. Finally, managers and researchers involved in the survey design process must realize that obtaining the best survey results requires an interactive and recursive process of survey design, execution, analysis and redesign. Survey refinements will be possible as further knowledge is gained on the actual abundance and distribution of the population and on the most efficient techniques for detection animals.

  7. Proposed expansion of the City of Albuquerque/U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level monitoring network for the middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico, extending from Cochiti Lake on the north to San Acacia on the south, covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground-water withdrawals in the basin are concentrated in and around the city of Albuquerque. Because of rapid increases in population and associated ground-water pumpage, a network of wells was established cooperatively by the City of and the U.S. Geological Survey between April 1982 and September 1983 to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin. Expansion of this network has been identified as an essential element in plans to study the relation between surface water and ground water in the basin. An inventory of existing wells in the Albuquerque metropolitan area has brought together information on about 400 wells that either are being monitored for water levels or would be good candidates for monitoring. About 115 wells or well sites are proposed as additions to the current 128-well ground-water-level monitoring network for the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Despite the extensive network that would be created by the addition of the proposed existing wells, however, certain parts of the Albuquerque metropolitan area would remain without adequate coverage areally and/or with depth in the Santa Fe Group aquifer until the installation of the proposed new monitoring wells.

  8. Structure and genesis of the Thabor rock glacier (Northern French Alps) determined from morphological and ground-penetrating radar surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, Sébastien; Camerlynck, Christian; Rejiba, Fayçal; Kinnard, Christophe; Feuillet, Thierry; Dhemaied, Amine

    2011-11-01

    Landform analysis and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) were used to investigate the Thabor rock glacier, in the Northern French Alps. The surface features of the rock glacier were classified and described, with emphasis on massive ice exposures. The retreat of the former Thabor glacier since the Little Ice Age (LIA) was documented through an analysis of historical sources, and recent movements of the rock glacier were inferred from orthophoto-based measurements. Two-dimensional (2-D) models of the radar wave velocity were derived from the raw GPR data, using the numerous diffraction hyperbolae for local determinations of the velocity and kriging interpolation techniques. Subsequently, the profiles were migrated through a 2-D Kirchhoff migration method using the interpolated velocities. The 2-D velocity models exhibit pronounced spatial variations and, in several locations, high values (> 0.15 m ns -1) potentially corresponding to massive ice. On the other hand, while the migrated profiles show numerous layers, the internal stratigraphy of the rock glacier is dominated by a few prominent internal boundaries. The integration of morphology, radar wave velocity, and internal stratigraphy allowed us to identify the main structural units of the rock glacier as well as to explain its genesis: the rock glacier was formed by the imbrication of a massive ice core, originating from the retreat of the former Thabor glacier since the LIA, into pre-existing glacial deposits.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey laboratory method for methyl tert-Butyl ether and other fuel oxygenates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.; Rose, Donna L.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was found in shallow ground-water samples in a study of 8 urban and 20 agricultural areas throughout the United States in 1993 and 1994 (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 1). The compound is added to gasoline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels in the air. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), near Denver, uses state-of-the-art technology to analyze samples for MTBE as part of the USGS water-quality studies. In addition, the NWQL offers custom analyses to determine two other fuel oxygenates--ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The NWQL was not able to obtain a reference standard for tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), another possible fuel oxygenate (Shelley and Fouhy, 1994, p. 63). The shallow ground-water samples were collected as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These samples were collected from 211 urban wells or springs and 562 agricultural wells sampled by the USGS in 1993 and 1994. The wells were keyed to specific land-use areas to assess the effects of different uses on ground-water quality (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 2). Ground-water samples were preserved on site to pH less than or equal to 2 with a solution of 1:1 hydrochloric acid. All samples were analyzed at the NWQL within 2 weeks after collection. The purpose of this fact sheet is to explain briefly the analytical method implemented by the USGS for determining MTBE and other fuel oxygenates. The scope is necessarily limited to an overview of the analytical method (instrumentation, sample preparation, calibration and quantitation, identification, and preservation of samples) and method performance (reagent blanks, accuracy, and precision).

  10. Determining concentrations of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and dibromopropene in ground water using quantitative methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panshin, Sandra Y.

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining levels of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 2,3-dibromopropene from ground-water samples using liquid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were extracted from the water using three aliquots of dichloromethane. The aliquots were combined and reduced in volume by rotary evaporation followed by evaporation using a nitrogen stream. The extracts were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the full-scan mode. Estimated method detection limits were 30 nanograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 10 nanograms per liter for 2,3-dibromopropene. Recoveries were determined by spiking three matrices at two concentration levels (0.540 and 5.40 micrograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol; and 0.534 and 5.34micro-grams per liter for dibromopropene). For seven replicates of each matrix at the high concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.9 to 64.9 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 87.5 to 99.3 percent for dibromopropene. At the low concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.8 to 95.2 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 71.3 to 84.9 percent for dibromopropene.

  11. Laser optoacoustic method for quantitative nondestructive evaluation of the subsurface damage depth in ground silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podymova, N. B.; Karabutov, A. A.; Cherepetskaya, E. B.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is a report on the novel laser optoacoustic method for nondestructive evaluation of the depth of the subsurface damage in ground single-crystal silicon wafers. It is based on different mechanisms of laser excitation of ultrasound by absorption of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses at the fundamental wavelength: the concentration-deformation mechanism in the undamaged single-crystal silicon and the thermoelastic one in the subsurface damaged layer. Due to the uniform heating of the whole damaged layer during the laser pulse action the amplitude of the compression phase of the laser-induced ultrasonic signal is proportional to the damaged depth. The rarefaction phase of this signal arises by absorption of the remaining laser energy in the single-crystal silicon beneath the damaged layer. The empirical relation between the depth of the subsurface damage and the ratio of the amplitudes of compression and rarefaction phases of the laser-induced ultrasonic signal can be fitted by a linear function within the depth variation and the corresponding spread of the signal amplitudes. The proposed method attracts some interest for in situ control of the solid surface condition that is important in different tasks of linear and nonlinear optics.

  12. Efficient continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method for the ground state of correlated fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Iazzi, Mauro; Corboz, Philippe; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    We present the ground state extension of the efficient continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice fermions of M. Iazzi and M. Troyer, Phys. Rev. B 91, 241118 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.241118. Based on continuous-time expansion of an imaginary-time projection operator, the algorithm is free of systematic error and scales linearly with projection time and interaction strength. Compared to the conventional quantum Monte Carlo methods for lattice fermions, this approach has greater flexibility and is easier to combine with powerful machinery such as histogram reweighting and extended ensemble simulation techniques. We discuss the implementation of the continuous-time projection in detail using the spinless t -V model as an example and compare the numerical results with exact diagonalization, density matrix renormalization group, and infinite projected entangled-pair states calculations. Finally we use the method to study the fermionic quantum critical point of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice and confirm previous results concerning its critical exponents.

  13. Ground-based airglow imaging interferometer. Part 2: forward model and inverse method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanhe; Duan, Xiaodong; Gao, Haiyang; Qu, Ouyang; Jia, Qijie; Cao, Xiangang; Wei, Shenni; Yang, Rui

    2014-04-10

    The ground-based airglow imaging interferometer (GBAII) observes the nighttime airglow of the O₂(0-1) 867.7 nm line, peaked at 94 km altitude, to measure the upper atmospheric wind and temperature field. Its forward model, a code package in interactive data language (IDL), is developed to simulate the expected imaging interference fringes. It includes eight modules to simulate the light source, the atmospheric radiation transmission, the wide-angle Michelson interferometer, the interference filter, the optical system decay function, the responsivity, the imaging CCD, and the noises. The inverse method is also developed for obtaining the rest phase calibration, temperature, and wind. By means of both theoretical tools, we carry out a comparison of theoretical results with a field observation case. The apparent quantities J(1-p) from the forward model has the deviation of 1.5%-2.5% compared with that from the observation image. The temperature falls mainly in the range of 167-196 K with the precision of 2 K. The zonal and meridional winds are mainly in the region of 5.1 to 46.5  m/s and 12.5 to 48.3  m/s respectively, with errors of 13.2 to 21.5  m/s. The consistent trends between the observation results and standard models (MSISE90 and HWM93) suggest that the forward model and inverse method are suitable for GBAII. PMID:24787394

  14. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-01-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  15. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-05-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  16. The swift UVOT stars survey. I. Methods and test clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Linevsky, Jacquelyn S.; Bond, Howard E.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Berrier, Joshua L.; Gronwall, Caryl A.; Holland, Stephen T.; Breeveld, Alice A.; Brown, Peter J. E-mail: blp14@psu.edu E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu E-mail: aab@mssl.ucl.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    We describe the motivations and background of a large survey of nearby stellar populations using the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. UVOT, with its wide field, near-UV sensitivity, and 2.″3 spatial resolution, is uniquely suited to studying nearby stellar populations and providing insight into the near-UV properties of hot stars and the contribution of those stars to the integrated light of more distant stellar populations. We review the state of UV stellar photometry, outline the survey, and address problems specific to wide- and crowded-field UVOT photometry. We present color–magnitude diagrams of the nearby open clusters M67, NGC 188, and NGC 2539, and the globular cluster M79. We demonstrate that UVOT can easily discern the young- and intermediate-age main sequences, blue stragglers, and hot white dwarfs, producing results consistent with previous studies. We also find that it characterizes the blue horizontal branch of M79 and easily identifies a known post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  17. Modern methods of repairing coke oven batteries (a survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Shteinberg, E.A.; Lobov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The analysis of modern methods of repairing ovens generate the following conclusions: (1) present methods of wet hot repair are rather effective. With proper organization and timely performance of the work, the coke batteries will operate for a long time subsequently; (2) dry hot repair methods should be considered promising: flame guniting and ceramic welding; and (3) the repair method should be chosen with consideration of the state of oven linings, the nature of the damage, and economic feasibility. 29 references.

  18. Comparing Coral Reef Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on Coral Reef Survey Management and Assessment Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on coral reef survey management and assessment methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "Coral Reef Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of Coral Reef Survey and Management

  19. Comparing Coral Reef Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on Coral Reef Survey Management and Assessment Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on coral reef survey management and assessment methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "Coral Reef Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of Coral Reef Survey and Management…

  20. Parallel octree-based multiresolution mesh method for large-scale earthquake ground motion simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eui Joong

    Large scale ground motion simulation requires supercomputing systems in order to obtain reliable and useful results within reasonable elapsed time. In this study, we develop a framework for terascale ground motion simulations in highly heterogeneous basins. As part of the development, we present a parallel octree-based multiresolution finite element methodology for the elastodynamic wave propagation problem. The octree-based multiresolution finite element method reduces memory use significantly and improves overall computational performance. The framework is comprised of three parts; (1) an octree-based mesh generator, Euclid developed by TV and O'Hallaron, (2) a parallel mesh partitioner, ParMETIS developed by Karypis et al.[2], and (3) a parallel octree-based multiresolution finite element solver, QUAKE developed in this study. Realistic earthquakes parameters, soil material properties, and sedimentary basins dimensions will produce extremely large meshes. The out-of-core versional octree-based mesh generator, Euclid overcomes the resulting severe memory limitations. By using a parallel, distributed-memory graph partitioning algorithm, ParMETIS partitions large meshes, overcoming the memory and cost problem. Despite capability of the Octree-Based Multiresolution Mesh Method ( OBM3), large problem sizes necessitate parallelism to handle large memory and work requirements. The parallel OBM 3 elastic wave propagation code, QUAKE has been developed to address these issues. The numerical methodology and the framework have been used to simulate the seismic response of both idealized systems and of the Greater Los Angeles basin to simple pulses and to a mainshock of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, for frequencies of up to 1 Hz and domain size of 80 km x 80 km x 30 km. In the idealized models, QUAKE shows good agreement with the analytical Green's function solutions. In the realistic models for the Northridge earthquake mainshock, QUAKE qualitatively agrees, with at most a factor of 2.5, with the observational data. Through simulations for several models, ranging in size from 400,000 to 300 million degrees of freedom on the 512-processors Cray T3E and the 3000-processors HP-Compaq AlphaServer Cluster at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, we achieve excellent performance and scalability.

  1. Comparison of two methods for delineating land use near monitoring wells used for assessing quality of shallow ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Cowdery, T.K.; Stoner, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Two methods were compared for delineating land use near shallow monitoring wells. These wells were used to assess the effects of agricultural cropland on the quality of recently recharged ground water in two sand and gravel aquifers located near land surface. The two methods for delineating land use near wells were (1) the sector method, which used potentiometric-surface maps to estimate average flow direction and a ground-water-flow model to estimate maximum length of contributing area to the monitoring well within an upgradient sector; and (2) the circle method, which used a 500- meter radius circle around the well based on a national empirical analysis. Land uses were compiled for 29 wells in each of two surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin within the area defined by each method. Land use near each well was interpreted from orthorectified photographs and site inspection for both delineation methods. Land use near individual wells characterized by each method varied greatly, which can affect the results of statistical correlations between land use and water quality. Land use determined by the circle method related more closely to the land use for each entire study area. Land use determined by the sector method (within 200 meters from the wells) compared more favorably to ground-water quality based on nitrate concentrations. The maximum length of contributing areas to wells estimated in this study may be of value for other studies of unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers with similar hydrogeological characteristics of permeability, water-table slopes, recharge, and depth to water. The additional effort required for estimating the model delineation of land use and land cover for the sector method must be weighed against the improved confidence in statistical correlation between land use and the quality of shallow ground water. Improved scientific confidence and understanding of relations between land use and quality of ground water may encourage more effective implementation of land and water management for protecting water quality

  2. A blind deconvolution method for ground based telescopes and Fizeau interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, M.; La Camera, A.; Bonettini, S.; Rebegoldi, S.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.

    2015-10-01

    In the case of ground-based telescopes equipped with adaptive optics systems, the point spread function (PSF) is only poorly known or completely unknown. Moreover, an accurate modeling of the PSF is in general not available. Therefore in several imaging situations the so-called blind deconvolution methods, aiming at estimating both the scientific target and the PSF from the detected image, can be useful. A blind deconvolution problem is severely ill-posed and, in order to reduce the extremely large number of possible solutions, it is necessary to introduce sensible constraints on both the scientific target and the PSF. In a previous paper we proposed a sound mathematical approach based on a suitable inexact alternating minimization strategy for minimizing the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence, assuring global convergence. In the framework of this method we showed that an important constraint on the PSF is the upper bound which can be derived from the knowledge of its Strehl ratio. The efficacy of the approach was demonstrated by means of numerical simulations. In this paper, besides improving the previous approach by the use of a further constraint on the unknown scientific target, we extend it to the case of multiple images of the same target obtained with different PSFs. The main application we have in mind is to Fizeau interferometry. As it is known this is a special feature of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Of the two expected interferometers for LBT, one, LINC-NIRVANA, is forthcoming while the other, LBTI, is already operating and has provided the first Fizeau images, demonstrating the possibility of reaching the resolution of a 22.8 m telescope. Therefore the extension of our blind method to this imaging modality seems to be timely. The method is applied to realistic simulations of imaging both by single mirrors and Fizeau interferometers. Successes and failures of the method in the imaging of stellar fields are demonstrated in simple cases. These preliminary results look promising at least in specific situations. The IDL code of the proposed method is available on request and will be included in the forthcoming version of the Software Package AIRY (v.6.1).

  3. Application of a method for the automatic detection and Ground-Based Velocity Track Display (GBVTD) analysis of a tornado crossing the Hong Kong International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, P. W.; Wurman, J.; Shun, C. M.; Robinson, P.; Kosiba, K.

    2012-03-01

    A weak tornado with a maximum Doppler velocity shear of about 40 m s - 1 moved across the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) during the evening of 20 May 2002. The tornado caused damage equivalent to F0 on the Fujita Scale, based on a damage survey. The Doppler velocity data from the Hong Kong Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) are studied using the Ground-Based Velocity Track Display (GBVTD) method of single Doppler analysis. The GBVTD analysis is able to clearly depict the development and decay of the tornado though it appears to underestimate its magnitude. In the pre-tornadic state, the wind field is characterized by inflow toward the center near the ground and upward motion near the center. When the tornado attains its maximum strength, an eye-like structure with a downdraft appears to form in the center. Several minutes later the tornado begins to decay and outflow dominates at low levels. Assuming cyclostrophic balance, the pressure drop 200 m from the center of the tornado at its maximum strength is calculated to be about 6 hPa. To estimate the maximum ground-relative wind speed of the tornado, the TDWR's Doppler velocities are adjusted for the ratio of the sample-volume size of the radar and the radius of the tornado, resulting in a peak wind speed of 28 m s - 1 , consistent with the readings from a nearby ground-based anemometers and the F0 damage observed. An automatic tornado detection algorithm based on Doppler velocity difference (delta-V) and temporal and spatial continuity is applied to this event. The locations and the core flow radii of the tornado as determined by the automatic method and by subjective analysis agree closely.

  4. Aerothermodynamic methods for a Mars environmental survey Mars entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics models for the thermodynamics and transport properties used in an equilibrium version of the Langley aerothermodynamics upwind relaxation algorithm (LAURA) for Mars atmospheric entries are described. In addition, the physical models used in a nonequilibrium version of LAURA for Mars-entry flows are described. Uncertainties exist in defining constants used in the transport properties for the equilibrium model and in many of the physical models for the nonequilibrium version. Solutions from the two codes using the best available constants are examined at the Mars-entry conditions characteristics of the Mars environmental survey mission. While the flowfields are near thermal equilibrium, chemical nonequilibrium effects are present in the entry cases examined. Convective heating at the stagnation point for these flows (assuming fully catalytic wall boundary conditions) is approximately 100 W/cm(exp 2). Radiative heating is negligible.

  5. Elevation Change of Drangajokull, Iceland, from Cloud-Cleared ICESat Repeat Profiles and GPS Ground-Survey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Sigurdsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard, Jr.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    Located on the Vestfirdir Northwest Fjords), DrangaJokull is the northernmost ice map in Iceland. Currently, the ice cap exceeds 900 m in elevation and covered an area of approx.l46 sq km in August 2004. It was about 204 sq km in area during 1913-1914 and so has lost mass during the 20th century. Drangajokull's size and accessibility for GPS surveys as well as the availability of repeat satellite altimetry profiles since late 2003 make it a good subject for change-detection analysis. The ice cap was surveyed by four GPS-equipped snowmobiles on 19-20 April 2005 and has been profiled in two places by Ice, Cloud. and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) 'repeat tracks,' fifteen times from late to early 2009. In addition, traditional mass-balance measurements have been taken seasonally at a number of locations across the ice cap and they show positive net mass balances in 2004/2005 through 2006/2007. Mean elevation differences between the temporally-closest ICESat profiles and the GPS-derived digital-elevation model (DEM)(ICESat - DEM) are about 1.1 m but have standard deviations of 3 to 4 m. Differencing all ICESat repeats from the DEM shows that the overall elevation difference trend since 2003 is negative with losses of as much as 1.5 m/a from same season to same season (and similar elevation) data subsets. However, the mass balance assessments by traditional stake re-measurement methods suggest that the elevation changes where ICESat tracks 0046 and 0307 cross Drangajokull are not representative of the whole ice cap. Specifically, the area has experienced positive mass balance years during the time frame when ICESat data indicates substantial losses. This analysis suggests that ICESat-derived elevations may be used for multi-year change detection relative to other data but suggests that large uncertainties remain. These uncertainties may be due to geolocation uncertainty on steep slopes and continuing cloud cover that limits temporal and spatial coverage across the area.

  6. Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundelach, Volker

    2010-05-01

    Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is a possible geophysical method to get detailed information about the structure of the soil. Mining activities and the burning coal are leaving voids which collapse or still exist as dangerous areas. With GPR it is possible to detect voids and clefts. Crevices are potential paths for oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. The knowledge of these structures would help to extinguish the fire. The heat of the burning coal changes the permittivity and the conductivity of the rock. This affects the radar signal and makes it possible to separate burning zones from intact zones. Monitoring of the burning zones helps to find optimal solutions for fire extinguishing strategies. Several field campaigns were made in China. One campaign was in the province Xinjiang with a 50 MHz system from Mala on a steep dipping coal seam. Other campaigns were in the Inner Mongolia with 40 MHz to 200 MHz antennae from GSSI on shallow dipping coal seams. The experiences from these measurements will be shown. The surveys were collected in rough terrain. The data from the unshielded antennae contained a lot of effects coming through the air. The limits of detecting crevices with GPR will be demonstrated. Some parts of the measurements over burning coal were influenced by strong anomalies of the magnetization. Modeling of the radar signal helps at the interpretation. Parts of the interpretation from the surveys can be validated by the outcrop of the investigated structures. A spatial visualization of the results is the basis for discussions.

  7. Teaching and Assessment Methods in Undergraduate Economics: A Fourth National Quinquennial Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Schaur, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Surveys in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 investigated teaching and assessment methods in different undergraduate courses. In this article, the authors offer basic results from the 2010 survey. "Chalk and talk" remains the dominant teaching style, but there were drops in mean (although not median) values for those pedagogies and some growth in the use…

  8. Survey of Teaching Methods of Brookdale Community College Full-Time Teaching Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paoni, Frank John

    A study was conducted to investigate the teaching methods used by full-time faculty at Brookdale Community College (BCC). The study sought to collect relevant demographic data; survey the teaching methods used in an average semester and the factors influencing the selection of teaching methods; identify changes in teaching methods; and survey…

  9. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: a quantitative comparison between SCUBA-2 data reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Graves, S.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; JCMT Gould Belt survey Team

    2015-12-01

    Performing ground-based submillimetre observations is a difficult task as the measurements are subject to absorption and emission from water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere and time variation in weather and instrument stability. Removing these features and other artefacts from the data is a vital process which affects the characteristics of the recovered astronomical structure we seek to study. In this paper, we explore two data reduction methods for data taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The JCMT Legacy Reduction 1 (JCMT LR1) and The Gould Belt Legacy Survey Legacy Release 1 (GBS LR1) reduction both use the same software (STARLINK) but differ in their choice of data reduction parameters. We find that the JCMT LR1 reduction is suitable for determining whether or not compact emission is present in a given region and the GBS LR1 reduction is tuned in a robust way to uncover more extended emission, which better serves more in-depth physical analyses of star-forming regions. Using the GBS LR1 method, we find that compact sources are recovered well, even at a peak brightness of only three times the noise, whereas the reconstruction of larger objects requires much care when drawing boundaries around the expected astronomical signal in the data reduction process. Incorrect boundaries can lead to false structure identification or it can cause structure to be missed. In the JCMT LR1 reduction, the extent of the true structure of objects larger than a point source is never fully recovered.

  10. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) method for measurements of soil moisture in cropped fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of soil moisture at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. This study evaluates the applicability of the Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for integral quantification of seasonal soil moisture in the root zone at the scale of a field or small watershed, making use of the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator relative to other landscape materials. GANS measurements were performed at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations and seasonal conditions. Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a lowland Bornim farmland (Brandenburg) cropped with sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. At both sites depth profiles of soil moisture were measured at several locations in parallel by frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) for comparison and calibration. Initially, calibration parameters derived from a previous study with corn cover were tested under sunflower and winter rye periods at the same farmland. GANS soil moisture based on these parameters showed a large discrepancy compared to classical soil moisture measurements. Therefore, two new calibration approaches and four different ways of integration the soil moisture profile to an integral value for GANS were evaluated in this study. This included different sets of calibration parameters based on different growing periods of sunflower. New calibration parameters showed a good agreement with FDR network during sunflower period (RMSE = 0.023 m3 m-3), but they underestimated soil moisture in the winter rye period. The GANS approach resulted to be highly affected by temporal changes of biomass and crop types which suggest the need of neutron corrections for long-term observations with crop rotation. Finally, Bornim sunflower parameters were transferred to Schaefertal catchment for further evaluation. This study proves GANS potential to close the measurement gap between point scale and remote sensing scale; however, its calibration needs to be adapted for vegetation in cropped fields.

  11. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were estimated, including volume of clay matrix, volume of matrix other than clay, density of matrix other than clay, density of matrix, intrinsic permeability, specific yield, and specific storage. Geophysical logs were used to (1) determine lithology, (2) correlate lithologic and permeable zones, (3) calibrate seismic reprocessing, (4) calibrate transient-electromagnetic surveys, and (5) calibrate uphole-survey interpretations. Logs were used at the drill site to (1) determine permeability zones, (2) determine dissolved-solids content, which is a function of water resistivity, and (3) design wells accordingly. Data and properties derived from logs were used to determine transmissivity and specific yield of aquifer materials.

  12. Simulations of Strong Ground Motion in the Los Angeles Basin Using the Spectral-Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatitsch, D.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Suess, P.; Shaw, J.

    2003-04-01

    We use the spectral-element method (SEM) to simulate strong ground motion in the Los Angeles basin. Our basin velocity model was constructed using sonic log and stacking velocity information provided by oil industry sources. The method includes effects due to attenuation, topography and bathymetry. The basin model is embedded into the regional model of Hauksson (2000). Our mesh honors the bottom part of the 8.5 km deep sedimentary pocket underneath downtown Los Angeles, as well as topography and bathymetry, and the Moho map of Zhu and Kanamori (2000). We double the mesh twice in the vertical direction based upon a conforming doubling `brick'. This allows us to increase the resolution of the SEM calculations near the surface, in low-velocity sediments. We obtain a high-quality mesh based upon a heuristic rule to prevent elements in the doubling regions from becoming too flat. The SEM is implemented on a parallel computer based upon a message-passing algorithm (MPI), and run on a large PC cluster, a so-called Beowulf machine. This allows us to model wave propagation in a large region that includes most of the TriNet stations. Results are shown for two small events (M = 4.2) that can be treated as point sources, the September 2001 Hollywood earthquake, and the September 2002 Yorba Linda event. We use a three-dimensional centroid-moment tensor inversion based upon the SEM and the basin model to determine the mechanisms and locations of these events. Excellent agreement is obtained for the three components of the data down to a period of 2 seconds.

  13. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Bracke, Tatiana; McNaughton, Sarah A; Parnell, Winsome; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Pereira, Rosangela A; Lee, Haeng-Shin; van't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1) to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2) to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3) to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall), occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys. PMID:25984745

  14. Finding a fox: an evaluation of survey methods to estimate abundance of a small desert carnivore.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Steven J; Gese, Eric M; Kluever, Bryan M

    2014-01-01

    The status of many carnivore species is a growing concern for wildlife agencies, conservation organizations, and the general public. Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) were classified as abundant and distributed in the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, but is now considered rare throughout its range. Survey methods have been evaluated for kit foxes, but often in populations where abundance is high and there is little consensus on which technique is best to monitor abundance. We conducted a 2-year study to evaluate four survey methods (scat deposition surveys, scent station surveys, spotlight survey, and trapping) for detecting kit foxes and measuring fox abundance. We determined the probability of detection for each method, and examined the correlation between the relative abundance as estimated by each survey method and the known minimum kit fox abundance as determined by radio-collared animals. All surveys were conducted on 15 5-km transects during the 3 biological seasons of the kit fox. Scat deposition surveys had both the highest detection probabilities (p = 0.88) and were most closely related to minimum known fox abundance (r2 = 0.50, P = 0.001). The next best method for kit fox detection was the scent station survey (p = 0.73), which had the second highest correlation to fox abundance (r2 = 0.46, P<0.001). For detecting kit foxes in a low density population we suggest using scat deposition transects during the breeding season. Scat deposition surveys have low costs, resilience to weather, low labor requirements, and pose no risk to the study animals. The breeding season was ideal for monitoring kit fox population size, as detections consisted of the resident population and had the highest detection probabilities. Using appropriate monitoring techniques will be critical for future conservation actions for this rare desert carnivore. PMID:25148102

  15. Evaluation of In-Service Education: A Survey of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Lillian M.

    1974-01-01

    The following methods of evaluation of inservice programs are very briefly discussed: a) behavioral objectives; b) diagnosis; c) learner outcomes; d) effects on teachers; e) classroom observation, and f) questionnaires following inservice activity. (HMD)

  16. A Survey of Methods of Teaching Mathematics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, L. D.

    Several methods of teaching college-level mathematics sequences are examined for their advantages, disadvantages, and costs. Materials considered include textbooks, film sequences, videotaped lectures, and individualized teaching machines. (SD)

  17. Survey of methods for secure connection to the internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Shouichi

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a study of a security method of protecting inside network computers against outside miscreants and unwelcome visitors and a control method when these computers are connected with the Internet. In the present Internet, a method to encipher all data cannot be used, so that it is necessary to utilize PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail) capable of the encipherment and conversion of secret information. For preventing miscreant access by eavesdropping password, one-time password is effective. The most cost-effective method is a firewall system. This system lies between the outside and inside network. By limiting computers that directly communicate with the Internet, control is centralized and inside network security is protected. If the security of firewall systems is strictly controlled under correct setting, security within the network can be secured even in open networks such as the Internet.

  18. Survey and Chase: A New Method of Observations For The Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Kira J.; Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin S.; Matney, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    For more than 40 years astronauts have been observing Earth, taking photographs or digital images from their spacecraft. Today, a robust program of observation from the International Space Station (ISS) has yielded hundreds of thousands of images of the Earth s surface collected since 2001. Seeing Earth through the eyes of an astronaut is exciting to the general public, and the images are popular in classrooms. Because the ISS has an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees (the north-south limits of the orbit are at 51.6 degrees latitude), high latitude observations are common. Some of the most striking images collected include views of polar phenomena. Astronauts routinely pass above brilliant red and green aurora; view high, wispy clouds at the top of the atmosphere; or look down on glaciers and floating ice rafts. These images, framed and captured by humans, are easily interpreted by students and teachers. Astronaut observations provide a way to visualize complicated polar phenomena and communicate about them to students of all ages. Over the next two years, astronauts aboard the ISS will formally focus their observations on polar phenomena as participants in the International Polar Year (IPY). Imagery acquisition from the ISS will be coordinated with other IPY scientists staging studies and field campaigns on the ground. The imagery collected from the ISS will be cataloged and served on NASA s web-based database of images, http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov . The website allows investigators, students and teachers to search through the imagery, assemble image datasets, and download the imagery and the metadata. We display some of the most spectacular examples of polar imagery and demonstrate NASA s database of astronaut images of Earth.

  19. Collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from whole, cracked, or flaked and ground spices.

    PubMed

    Glaze, L E

    1975-05-01

    An improved method has been developed for the extraction of light filth from whole, cracked, or flaked spices (basil, bay leaves, clery leaves, chervil, chives, dill weed, mint flakes, parsley, rosemary, sage, tarragon, thyme, and vegetable flakes) and from ground spices (cloves, cumin, marjoram, mustard seed, oregano, sage, and thyme). The method involves a chloroform or isopropanol defatting, followed by a direct flotation from 40% isopropanol with Tween 80-EDTA (1+1) and mineral oil-heptane (85+15). Collaborative results show that the proposed method is more rapid to perform and yields better filth recoveries than the official first action methods for ground spices, 44.116, and whole, cracked, or flaked spices, 44.129. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:1170162

  20. A survey of machine learning methods for secondary and supersecondary protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hui Kian; Zhang, Lei; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri; Martin, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we provide a survey of protein secondary and supersecondary structure prediction using methods from machine learning. Our focus is on machine learning methods applicable to β-hairpin and β-sheet prediction, but we also discuss methods for more general supersecondary structure prediction. We provide background on the secondary and supersecondary structures that we discuss, the features used to describe them, and the basic theory behind the machine learning methods used. We survey the machine learning methods available for secondary and supersecondary structure prediction and compare them where possible. PMID:22987348

  1. A survey of design methods for failure detection in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    A number of methods for detecting abrupt changes (such as failures) in stochastic dynamical systems are surveyed. The class of linear systems is concentrated on but the basic concepts, if not the detailed analyses, carry over to other classes of systems. The methods surveyed range from the design of specific failure-sensitive filters, to the use of statistical tests on filter innovations, to the development of jump process formulations. Tradeoffs in complexity versus performance are discussed.

  2. A survey of design methods for failure detection in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    A number of methods for the detection of abrupt changes (such as failures) in stochastic dynamical systems were surveyed. The class of linear systems were emphasized, but the basic concepts, if not the detailed analyses, carry over to other classes of systems. The methods surveyed range from the design of specific failure-sensitive filters, to the use of statistical tests on filter innovations, to the development of jump process formulations. Tradeoffs in complexity versus performance are discussed.

  3. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

  4. Computer Program for Thin Wire Antenna over a Perfectly Conducting Ground Plane. [using Galerkins method and sinusoidal bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is presented for a thin-wire antenna over a perfect ground plane. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain, and the exterior medium is free space. The antenna may have finite conductivity and lumped loads. The output data includes the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, and gain. The program uses sinusoidal bases and Galerkin's method.

  5. Comparison of visual survey and seining methods for estimating abundance of an endangered, benthic stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, F.; Jelks, H.L.; Bortone, S.A.; Dorazio, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    We compared visual survey and seining methods for estimating abundance of endangered Okaloosa darters, Etheostoma okaloosae, in 12 replicate stream reaches during August 2001. For each 20-m stream reach, two divers systematically located and marked the position of darters and then a second crew of three to five people came through with a small-mesh seine and exhaustively sampled the same area. Visual surveys required little extra time to complete. Visual counts (24.2 ?? 12.0; mean ?? one SD) considerably exceeded seine captures (7.4 ?? 4.8), and counts from the two methods were uncorrelated. Visual surveys, but not seines, detected the presence of Okaloosa darters at one site with low population densities. In 2003, we performed a depletion removal study in 10 replicate stream reaches to assess the accuracy of the visual survey method. Visual surveys detected 59% of Okaloosa darters present, and visual counts and removal estimates were positively correlated. Taken together, our comparisons indicate that visual surveys more accurately and precisely estimate abundance of Okaloosa darters than seining and more reliably detect presence at low population densities. We recommend evaluation of visual survey methods when designing programs to monitor abundance of benthic fishes in clear streams, especially for threatened and endangered species that may be sensitive to handling and habitat disturbance. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  6. A Survey of Methods in the Human Potential Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Fredric

    1977-01-01

    Training methods which affect the mind, body consciousness, values, and purpose of life, according to this article, include biofeedback, extrasensory perception, Yoga, transcendental meditation, and Zen. The article describes some elements common to these systems, lists a number of the systems with their costs, and gives some considerations in…

  7. NCES Handbook of Survey Methods. NCES 2011-609

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Shelley, Ed.; Wang, Xiaolei, Ed.; Henning, Alexandra, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Since its inception, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has been committed to the practice of documenting its statistical methods for its customers and of seeking to avoid misinterpretation of its published data. The reason for this policy is to assure customers that proper statistical standards and techniques have been observed,…

  8. A survey of numerical methods for shock physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Hydrocodes or more accurately, shock physics analysis packages, have been widely used in the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and elsewhere around the world for over 30 years. Initial applications included weapons effects studies where the pressure levels were high enough to disregard the material strength, hence the term hydrocode. Over the last 30 years, Sandia has worked extensively to develop and apply advanced hydrocodes to armor/anti-armor interactions, warhead design, high explosive initiation, and nuclear weapon safety issues. The needs of the DOE have changed over the last 30 years, especially over the last decade. A much stronger emphasis is currently placed on the details of material deformation and high explosive initiation phenomena. The hydrocodes of 30 years ago have now evolved into sophisticated analysis tools that can replace testing in some situations and complement it in all situations. A brief history of the development of hydrocodes in the US will be given. The author also discusses and compares the four principal methods in use today for the solution of the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for shock physics applications. The techniques discussed are the Eulerian methods currently employed by the Sandia multi-dimensional shock physics analysis package known as CTH; the element based Lagrangian method currently used by codes like DYNA; the element free Lagrangian method (also known as smooth particle hydrodynamics) used by codes like the Los Alamos code SPHINX; and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian methods used by codes like the Lawrence Livermore code CALE or the Sandia code ALEGRA.

  9. Ground-penetrating radar survey on the island of Pantelleria (Italy) reveals an ancient architectural complex with likely Punic and Roman components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Thomas M.; Murray, Carrie Ann; Vella, Clive; Lahikainen, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey conducted on the small volcanic island of Pantelleria, in the Strait of Sicily, south-central Mediterranean, revealed an apparent complex of Punic/Roman architecture. The survey focused on the Lago di Venere area, where a previously investigated ritual Punic site was built alongside a brackish volcanic lake. The site also exhibits evidence of earlier Eneolithic components and later Roman components. The full extent of the site has remained undetermined, however, with only the small area of the Punic ritual complex having been excavated from 1996 to 2002. The GPR survey was intended to explore whether additional architecture remained unseen in surrounding areas, thus taking a first step toward determining the site's full spatial extent and archaeological potential. This survey revealed a complex of architectural ruins beneath an active agricultural field immediately west of the previously excavated features, and extending to a depth of approximately 2 m. These newly discovered features expand the known architectural footprint of the immediate site by three-fold. This GPR study is the first published archaeo-geophysical investigation on the island.

  10. A Delphi Method Analysis to Create an Emergency Medicine Educational Patient Satisfaction Survey

    PubMed Central

    London, Kory S.; Singal, Bonita; Fowler, Jennifer; Prepejchal, Rebecca; Simmons, Stefanie; Finefrock, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Feedback on patient satisfaction (PS) as a means to monitor and improve performance in patient communication is lacking in residency training. A physician’s promotion, compensation and job satisfaction may be impacted by his individual PS scores, once he is in practice. Many communication and satisfaction surveys exist but none focus on the emergency department setting for educational purposes. The goal of this project was to create an emergency medicine-based educational PS survey with strong evidence for content validity. Methods We used the Delphi Method (DM) to obtain expert opinion via an iterative process of surveying. Questions were mined from four PS surveys as well as from group suggestion. The DM analysis determined the structure, content and appropriate use of the tool. The group used four-point Likert-type scales and Lynn’s criteria for content validity to determine relevant questions from the stated goals. Results Twelve recruited experts participated in a series of seven surveys to achieve consensus. A 10-question, single-page survey with an additional page of qualitative questions and demographic questions was selected. Thirty one questions were judged to be relevant from an original 48-question list. Of these, the final 10 questions were chosen. Response rates for individual survey items was 99.5%. Conclusion The DM produced a consensus survey with content validity evidence. Future work will be needed to obtain evidence for response process, internal structure and construct validity. PMID:26759663

  11. A Comparison between Survey and Verbal Choice Methods of Identifying Potential Reinforcers among Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron

    2006-01-01

    Two methods of assessing preference for stimuli (i.e., potential reinforcers) were compared for adult administrative assistant employees. During Phase 1, a survey method and a verbal choice method of assessing preference for 6 stimuli were administered. During Phase 2, a coupon system was used to determine which categories of stimuli actually…

  12. New inverse method for simultaneous reconstruction of object buried beneath rough ground and the ground surface structure using SAMM forward model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firoozabadi, Reza; Miller, Eric L.; Rappaport, Carey M.; Morgenthaler, Ann W.

    2005-03-01

    A new inverse scattering method is presented to reconstruct the rough interface separating the air and ground as well as the structure of the object buried beneath this interface. Simultaneous reconstruction of the interface and object is posed as a nonlinear least-squares optimization problem for a parametric representation of the boundaries with a cost function defined by the misfit of modelled to true data. We make use of a newly-developed forward model, the Semi-Analytic Mode Matching method (SAMM), within the context of the inversion procedure where a moderately low-order superposition of cylindrical modes (in 2-D configuration) satisfying the Helmholtz wave equation are used to represent the scattered fields from the interface and object. The proposed inverse method is a combined analytical-numerical algorithm to decrease the cost function by optimizing the boundary control parameters in an iterative procedure. The shape of the object as well as the interface is defined in low-dimensional parametric form modelled by B-spline curves which are parameterized by the collection of "control points". Accuracy and reliability of this method is verified by numerical experiments.

  13. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  14. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and

  15. Using mark–recapture distance sampling methods on line transect surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burt, Louise M.; Borchers, David L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Marques, Tigao A

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis and applications. Mark–recapture DS is a widely used method for estimating animal density and abundance when detection of animals at distance zero is not certain. Two observer configurations and three statistical models are described, and it is important to choose the most appropriate model for the observer configuration and target species in question. By way of making the methods more accessible to practicing ecologists, we describe the key ideas underlying MRDS methods, the sometimes subtle differences between them, and we illustrate these by applying different kinds of MRDS method to surveys of two different target species using different survey configurations.

  16. Advanced Grounding Methods in the Presence of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leininger, M.; Thurecht, F.; Pfeiffer, E.; Ruddle, A.

    2012-05-01

    Lightweight satellite structures are usually of sandwich type where the core is formed of a honeycomb-like structure made of aluminium foil. The outer facesheets are made of aluminium and serve as a ground reference plane. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP), however, is a composite material having an electrical conductivity that is about 2000 times lower than the conductivity of aluminium. Since such a material is not suitable to carry electrical current of high value a network of metal sheets (grounding rails) connects all equipment mounted on the satellite structure. This paper describes an evaluation whether the classical grounding rail system can be replaced by a network of round wires while the high-frequency portion of the current is flowing along the CFRP sheet.

  17. A comparison between protein crystals grown with vapor diffusion methods in microgravity and protein crystals using a gel liquid-liquid diffusion ground-based method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y.; He, Xiao-Min; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Crystals of human serum albumin have been successfully grown in a variety of gels using crystallization conditions otherwise equivalent to those utilized in the popular hanging-drop vapor-equilibrium method. Preliminary comparisons of gel grown crystals with crystals grown by the vapor diffusion method via both ground-based and microgravity methods indicate that crystals superior in size and quality may be grown by limiting solutal convection. Preliminary X-ray diffraction statistics are presented.

  18. The Application of Identification Method of Ground Surfacesusing Fractal Dimension to Millimeter Wave Radar Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Kan

    Data of scattering coefficient on vertical incidence against ground surface at U-band are obtained by Millimeter Wave Radar Altimeter using FM-CW ranging. Noise suppression by wavelet shrinkage can be utilized to extract feature parameter in high spatial frequency band, in which level of fractal noise is dominated by that of white noise. We propose approximate algorithm for estimation of local fractal dimension in high spatial frequency band which is the most effective parameter for identification for classification of ground surfaces such as vegetation, town area and rice field.

  19. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey at the Giribaile site (upper Guadalquivir valley; southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, J.; Rey, J.; Gutiérrez, L. M.; Novo, A.; Ortiz, A. J.; Alejo, M.; Galdón, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Giribaile archaeological site is one of the most important Iberian enclaves of the Alto Guadalquivir (Southern Spain). However, to date, only minimal excavation work has been performed at the site. Evaluation requires a preliminary, non-destructive general analysis to determine high-interest areas. This stage required a geophysical survey. Specifically, a 100 m2 grid was selected, where an initial campaign of nine electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) profiles was performed, where each profile was 111 m in length; these profiles were previously located using a detailed topographical survey. A total of 112 electrodes were used for each profile, spaced at 1 m apart with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Secondly, 201 GPR profiles were created using a 500 MHz antenna. The 100 m long profiles were spaced 0.5 m apart and parallel to one another. The present research analyses the efficiency of each of these geophysical tools in supporting archaeological research. Using these methodologies, the position, morphology, and depth of different buried structures can be determined. 3D interpretation of the geophysical survey in 100 × 100 m grid allowed to differentiate structures square and rectangular, interesting buildings in a semicircle (interpreted as ovens) plus delineate different streets. From the geophysical survey follows the Carthaginian presence inside this ancient Iberian enclave.

  20. Density and location of simulated signs of injury affect efficacy of ground surveys for Asian longhorned beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for the detection and delimitation of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) currently rely upon visual examination of trees to discover the presence of signs of attack such as oviposition pits and exit holes. Understanding the factors ...

  1. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional division of Chinese materia medica resources, interview of key information holders and standardization of information.' In particular, using "snowball method" can effectively identify traditional knowledge holder in the targeted regions and ensuring traditional knowledge holders receiving prior informed concerned before sharing the information with researcher to make sure the rights of traditional knowledge holders are protected. Employing right survey methods is not only the key to obtain traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources, but also the pathway to fulfill the objectives of access and benefit sharing stipulated in Convention on Biological Resources. It will promote the legal protection of TCM traditional knowledge and conservation of TCM intangible, cultural heritage. PMID:25898568

  2. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model : user guide to the LMT6 package, the linkage with MT3DMS for multi-species mass transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Chunmiao; Hill, Mary Catherine; Hsieh, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    MODFLOW-2000, the newest version of MODFLOW, is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium using a finite-difference method. MT3DMS, the successor to MT3D, is a computer program for modeling multi-species solute transport in three-dimensional ground-water systems using multiple solution techniques, including the finite-difference method, the method of characteristics (MOC), and the total-variation-diminishing (TVD) method. This report documents a new version of the Link-MT3DMS Package, which enables MODFLOW-2000 to produce the information needed by MT3DMS, and also discusses new visualization software for MT3DMS. Unlike the Link-MT3D Packages that coordinated previous versions of MODFLOW and MT3D, the new Link-MT3DMS Package requires an input file that, among other things, provides enhanced support for additional MODFLOW sink/source packages and allows list-directed (free) format for the flow model produced flow-transport link file. The report contains four parts: (a) documentation of the Link-MT3DMS Package Version 6 for MODFLOW-2000; (b) discussion of several issues related to simulation setup and input data preparation for running MT3DMS with MODFLOW-2000; (c) description of two test example problems, with comparison to results obtained using another MODFLOW-based transport program; and (d) overview of post-simulation visualization and animation using the U.S. Geological Survey?s Model Viewer.

  3. Ground deformation associated with post-mining activity at the French-German border revealed by novel InSAR time series method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Sergey; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Smets, Benoît

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel methodology for integration of multiple InSAR data sets for computation of two dimensional time series of ground deformation. The proposed approach allows combination of SAR data acquired with different acquisition parameters, temporal and spatial sampling and resolution, wavelength and polarization. Produced time series have combined coverage, improved temporal resolution and lower noise level. We apply this methodology for mapping coal mining related ground subsidence and uplift in the Greater Region of Luxembourg along the French-German border. For this we processed 167 Synthetic Aperture Radar ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images acquired between 1995 and 2009 from one ascending (track 29) and one descending (track 337) tracks and created over five hundred interferograms that were used for time series analysis. Derived vertical and east-west linear deformation rates show with remarkable precision a region of localized ground deformation located above and caused by mining and post-mining activities. Time series of ground deformation display temporal variability: reversal from subsidence to uplift and acceleration of subsidence in the vertical component, and horizontal motion toward the center of the subsidence on the east-west component. InSAR results are validated by leveling measurements collected by the French Geological Survey (BRGM) during 2006-2008. We determined that deformation rate changes are mainly caused by water level variations in the mines. Due to higher temporal and spatial resolution the proposed space-borne method detected a larger number of subsidence and uplift areas in comparison to leveling measurements restricted to annual monitoring of benchmark points along roads. We also identified one deformation region that is not precisely located above the mining sites. Comparison of InSAR measurements with the water levels measured in the mining pits suggest that part of the water that filled the galleries after termination of the dewatering systems may come from this region. Providing that enough SAR data is available, this method opens new opportunities for detecting and locating man-made and natural ground deformation signals with high temporal resolution and precision.

  4. Orthogonal phase modulation with self homodyne detect laser communication method for the satellite-to-ground link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianfeng; Hou, Peipei; Ma, Xiaoping; Liu, Liren

    2015-09-01

    Signal laser propagation will pass through the random atmosphere turbulence channel in satellite-to-ground laser communication application. The turbulence will cause the wavefront distortion in the receiver telescope front. For direct detection laser communication system, atmospheric turbulence can affect the coupling efficiency from space laser to the detector. For coherent detection laser communication system, Atmosphere turbulence not only affects the coupling efficiency, but also can seriously reduce the heterodyne detection efficiency. Coherent detection communication receiver must use small aperture telescopes or large aperture telescope with adaptive wavefront compensation system. To mitigate the influence of the atmosphere turbulence, we proposed a new method base orthogonal phase modulation with self homodyne detect. This method can not only mitigate the influence of the turbulence, but also adjust the communication date rate steplessly. The experiment results show that the method is very suitable to the satellite-to-ground link.

  5. Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the application of nonlinear-regression methods to a numerical model of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico. In the Albuquerque Basin, ground water is the primary source for most water uses. Ground-water withdrawal has steadily increased since the 1940's, resulting in large declines in water levels in the Albuquerque area. A ground-water flow model was developed in 1994 and revised and updated in 1995 for the purpose of managing basin ground- water resources. In the work presented here, nonlinear-regression methods were applied to a modified version of the previous flow model. Goals of this work were to use regression methods to calibrate the model with each of six different configurations of the basin subsurface and to assess and compare optimal parameter estimates, model fit, and model error among the resulting calibrations. The Albuquerque Basin is one in a series of north trending structural basins within the Rio Grande Rift, a region of Cenozoic crustal extension. Mountains, uplifts, and fault zones bound the basin, and rock units within the basin include pre-Santa Fe Group deposits, Tertiary Santa Fe Group basin fill, and post-Santa Fe Group volcanics and sediments. The Santa Fe Group is greater than 14,000 feet (ft) thick in the central part of the basin. During deposition of the Santa Fe Group, crustal extension resulted in development of north trending normal faults with vertical displacements of as much as 30,000 ft. Ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin occurs primarily in the Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group deposits. Water flows between the ground-water system and surface-water bodies in the inner valley of the basin, where the Rio Grande, a network of interconnected canals and drains, and Cochiti Reservoir are located. Recharge to the ground-water flow system occurs as infiltration of precipitation along mountain fronts and infiltration of stream water along tributaries to the Rio Grande; subsurface flow from adjacent regions; irrigation and septic field seepage; and leakage through the Rio Grande, canal, and Cochiti Reservoir beds. Ground water is discharged from the basin by withdrawal; evapotranspiration; subsurface flow; and flow to the Rio Grande, canals, and drains. The transient, three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow to which nonlinear-regression methods were applied simulates flow in the Albuquerque Basin from 1900 to March 1995. Six different basin subsurface configurations are considered in the model. These configurations are designed to test the effects of (1) varying the simulated basin thickness, (2) including a hypothesized hydrogeologic unit with large hydraulic conductivity in the western part of the basin (the west basin high-K zone), and (3) substantially lowering the simulated hydraulic conductivity of a fault in the western part of the basin (the low-K fault zone). The model with each of the subsurface configurations was calibrated using a nonlinear least- squares regression technique. The calibration data set includes 802 hydraulic-head measurements that provide broad spatial and temporal coverage of basin conditions, and one measurement of net flow from the Rio Grande and drains to the ground-water system in the Albuquerque area. Data are weighted on the basis of estimates of the standard deviations of measurement errors. The 10 to 12 parameters to which the calibration data as a whole are generally most sensitive were estimated by nonlinear regression, whereas the remaining model parameter values were specified. Results of model calibration indicate that the optimal parameter estimates as a whole are most reasonable in calibrations of the model with with configurations 3 (which contains 1,600-ft-thick basin deposits and the west basin high-K zone), 4 (which contains 5,000-ft-thick basin de

  6. A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, John V.; Seeley, Stacy K.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    An iodometric assay that allows the ground-level ozone concentration to be determined with an inexpensive sampling apparatus and a homemade photometer is described. This laboratory experiment applies a variety of different fundamental concepts including oxidation-reduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis and also provides…

  7. A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, John V.; Seeley, Stacy K.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    An iodometric assay that allows the ground-level ozone concentration to be determined with an inexpensive sampling apparatus and a homemade photometer is described. This laboratory experiment applies a variety of different fundamental concepts including oxidation-reduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis and also provides

  8. Methods for gully characterization in agricultural croplands using ground-based light detection and ranging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gullies constitute an important source of sediment from agricultural fields. In order to properly understand gully formation and evolution over time, as well as, sediment yield, detailed topographic representations of agricultural fields are required. New technologies such as ground-based Light Dete...

  9. A survey about methods dedicated to epistasis detection.

    PubMed

    Niel, Clément; Sinoquet, Christine; Dina, Christian; Rocheleau, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) improved our knowledge and understanding of disease genetics. To date, thousands of SNPs have been associated with diseases and other complex traits. Statistical analysis typically looks for association between a phenotype and a SNP taken individually via single-locus tests. However, geneticists admit this is an oversimplified approach to tackle the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered. Unfortunately, epistasis detection gives rise to analytic challenges since analyzing every SNP combination is at present impractical at a genome-wide scale. In this review, we will present the main strategies recently proposed to detect epistatic interactions, along with their operating principle. Some of these methods are exhaustive, such as multifactor dimensionality reduction, likelihood ratio-based tests or receiver operating characteristic curve analysis; some are non-exhaustive, such as machine learning techniques (random forests, Bayesian networks) or combinatorial optimization approaches (ant colony optimization, computational evolution system). PMID:26442103

  10. A survey about methods dedicated to epistasis detection

    PubMed Central

    Niel, Clément; Sinoquet, Christine; Dina, Christian; Rocheleau, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) improved our knowledge and understanding of disease genetics. To date, thousands of SNPs have been associated with diseases and other complex traits. Statistical analysis typically looks for association between a phenotype and a SNP taken individually via single-locus tests. However, geneticists admit this is an oversimplified approach to tackle the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered. Unfortunately, epistasis detection gives rise to analytic challenges since analyzing every SNP combination is at present impractical at a genome-wide scale. In this review, we will present the main strategies recently proposed to detect epistatic interactions, along with their operating principle. Some of these methods are exhaustive, such as multifactor dimensionality reduction, likelihood ratio-based tests or receiver operating characteristic curve analysis; some are non-exhaustive, such as machine learning techniques (random forests, Bayesian networks) or combinatorial optimization approaches (ant colony optimization, computational evolution system). PMID:26442103

  11. A Field Test of Electromigration as a Method for Remediating Sulfate from Shallow Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, C.G.; Runnells, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Electromigration offers a potential tool for remediating ground water contaminated with highly soluble components, such as Na+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO4-. A field experiment was designed to test the efficacy of electromigration for preconcentrating dissolved SO42- in ground water associated with a fossil-fuel power plant. Two shallow wells, 25 feet apart (one 25 feet deep, the other 47 feet deep), were constructed in the upper portion of an unconfined alluvial aquifer. The wells were constructed with a double-wall design, with an outer casing of 4-inch PVC and an inner tube of 2-inch PVC; both were fully slotted (0.01 inch). Electrodes were constructed by wrapping the inner tubing with a 100-foot length of rare-earth metal oxide/copper wire. An electrical potential of 10.65 volts DC was applied, and tests were run for periods of 12, 44, and 216 hours. Results showed large changes in the pH from the initial pH of ground water of about 7.5 to values of approximately 2 and 12 at the anode and cathode, respectively. Despite the fact that the test conditions were far from ideal, dissolved SO42- was significantly concentrated at the anode. Over a period of approximately nine days, the concentration of SO42- at the anode reached what appeared to be a steady-state value of 2200 mg/L, compared to the initial value in ground water of approximately 1150 mg/L. The results of this field test should encourage further investigation of electromigration as a tool in the remediation of contaminated ground water.

  12. Survey of sodium removal methods: LMFBR conceptual design study, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    At the project design review of the nuclear island maintenance on May 5, 1981, DOE requested a survey of current sodium cleaning methods and facilities. Stone & Webster provided a plan and schedule for providing this survey. This plan was approved by Boeing Engineering and Construction Company. The purpose of this survey is to document the sodium removal technology and experience as it relates to the CDS Large Developmental Plant, summarize the information, and provide a prospective for the CDS project. The recommendations generated are intended to provide input for a design and layout review of the Nuclear Island Maintenance Building (NIMB).

  13. Conditional pseudolikelihood methods for clustered ordinal, multinomial, or count outcomes with complex survey data.

    PubMed

    Brumback, Babette A; Cai, Zhuangyu; He, Zhulin; Zheng, Hao W; Dailey, Amy B

    2013-04-15

    In order to adjust individual-level covariate effects for confounding due to unmeasured neighborhood characteristics, we have recently developed conditional pseudolikelihood methods to estimate the parameters of a proportional odds model for clustered ordinal outcomes with complex survey data. The methods require sampling design joint probabilities for each within-neighborhood pair. In the present article, we develop a similar methodology for a baseline category logit model for clustered multinomial outcomes and for a loglinear model for clustered count outcomes. All of the estimators and asymptotic sampling distributions we present can be conveniently computed using standard logistic regression software for complex survey data, such as sas proc surveylogistic. We demonstrate validity of the methods theoretically and also empirically by using simulations. We apply the new method for clustered multinomial outcomes to data from the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in order to investigate disparities in frequency of dental cleaning both unadjusted and adjusted for confounding by neighborhood. PMID:22976045

  14. Indigo snake capture methods: effectiveness of two survey techniques for Drymarchon couperi in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Cooper, R.J.; Stevenson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a federally threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain, has presented challenges for surveyors, with few reliable methods developed for its detection or monitoring. Surveys for D. couperi at potential underground shelters conducted in late fall through early spring have been relatively successful when conducted by experienced surveyors, especially in the northern portions of the range. However, trapping efforts for D. couperi conducted throughout the range have met with limited success. To further evaluate detection methods, we conducted trapping and surveying from December 2002 to April 2004 in areas known to support D. couperi in southeastern Georgia. We captured 18 D. couperi through surveys of potential underground shelters from December 2002 to March 2003 (14 person-hours per capture) and six individuals through trapping (141 trap days or 27 in-field person-hours per capture). Trapping was most successful during early fall, a period when surveys are often less effective compared to those conducted in late fall through early spring. We recommend a combination of surveys from mid-fall through March in conjunction with trapping, especially from late-summer through fall in the northern portions of the snake?s range. We also recommend further experimentation with alternative trap designs and survey methods for D. couperi.

  15. 3D temporal evolution and modeling of ground deformation recorded on Mt. Etna from the 2007 to 2008 through the SISTEM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, A.; Guglielmino, F.; Puglisi, G.

    2012-04-01

    A study of the ground deformation pattern of Mount Etna volcano, based on the results of the SISTEM (Simultaneous and Integrated Strain Tensor Estimation from geodetic and satellite deformation Measurements) integration method is reported. The SISTEM enables integrating geodetic in situ ground deformation measurements (GPS) with satellite interferometric measurements (ENVISAT), in order to obtain high resolution 3D displacement maps, allowing to overcome the limitations of each technique and take advantage of the particular features of each of them. In this work ground motion data provided by GPS surveys are integrated with the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) Envisat data, collected from 2007 to 2008, to provide 3D displacements maps. We imaged the time evolution of ground displacement measured along the Line Of Sight (LOS) of the Envisat satellite for both ascending and descending Envisat geometries. The main deformation episode occurred on Mt. Etna during the 2007-2008 time period was the May 2008 dike intrusion and the following 2008-2009 eruption. It started on May 13th, 2008, with the opening of an eruptive fissure propagating inside the topographical depression of the Valle del Bove, where the lava flows expanded. The eruption produced a lava flow of about 6 Km length, and it was preceded and accompanied by strong seismic release, and lava fountaining activity. The 3D temporal evolution of ground deformation was analyzed in order to define the dynamics preceding and accompanying the onset of the 2008-2009 Mt. Etna eruption. In particular, this analysis reveals a slight inflation visible on the upper western side of the volcano in the pre-eruptive period (form June 2007 to May 2008) characterized by a small amplitude of the ground deformation, except on the eastern flank. Data inversions detected a pressurizing source located beneath the western flank of the volcano at a depth of about 3Km bsl. In the period encompassing the eruption onset, the main ground deformation occurred around the summit craters, in the nearby of the eruptive fissures. The displacement pattern reveals also a rapid decay of the deformation gradient with the altitude confirming the shallow depth of the intrusion. The northward dyke propagation, occurred after the beginning of the eruption, was well detected by the SISTEM integrated displacement maps; it was confirmed by on field structural surveys that revealed a dry fracture field, propagating from the summit area towards the NNW direction for about 2.5 km. The inversion results confirm a dike located under the vents of the eruption and extending towards NNW, westward dipping. In the post-intrusion period (from May to July 2008), a deflation of the volcano was detected, according to a depressurizing source, localized by data inversion, beneath the summit craters.

  16. How should social mixing be measured: comparing web-based survey and sensor-based methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Contact surveys and diaries have conventionally been used to measure contact networks in different settings for elucidating infectious disease transmission dynamics of respiratory infections. More recently, technological advances have permitted the use of wireless sensor devices, which can be worn by individuals interacting in a particular social context to record high resolution mixing patterns. To date, a direct comparison of these two different methods for collecting contact data has not been performed. Methods We studied the contact network at a United States high school in the spring of 2012. All school members (i.e., students, teachers, and other staff) were invited to wear wireless sensor devices for a single school day, and asked to remember and report the name and duration of all of their close proximity conversational contacts for that day in an online contact survey. We compared the two methods in terms of the resulting network densities, nodal degrees, and degree distributions. We also assessed the correspondence between the methods at the dyadic and individual levels. Results We found limited congruence in recorded contact data between the online contact survey and wireless sensors. In particular, there was only negligible correlation between the two methods for nodal degree, and the degree distribution differed substantially between both methods. We found that survey underreporting was a significant source of the difference between the two methods, and that this difference could be improved by excluding individuals who reported only a few contact partners. Additionally, survey reporting was more accurate for contacts of longer duration, and very inaccurate for contacts of shorter duration. Finally, female participants tended to report more accurately than male participants. Conclusions Online contact surveys and wireless sensor devices collected incongruent network data from an identical setting. This finding suggests that these two methods cannot be used interchangeably for informing models of infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24612900

  17. Informetric Theories and Methods for Exploring the Internet: An Analytical Survey of Recent Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Ilan, Judit; Peritz, Bluma C.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a selective review of research based on the Internet, using bibliometric and informetric methods and tools. Highlights include data collection methods on the Internet, including surveys, logging, and search engines; and informetric analysis, including citation analysis and content analysis. (Contains 78 references.) (Author/LRW)

  18. Comparative analysis of different survey methods for monitoring fish assemblages in coastal habitats

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Duncan G.L.; McIver, Reba; Schmidt, Allison L.; Thériault, Marie-Hélène; Boudreau, Monica; Courtenay, Simon C.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive yet increasingly threatened marine ecosystems worldwide. Particularly vegetated habitats, such as eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds, play important roles in providing key spawning, nursery and foraging habitats for a wide range of fauna. To properly assess changes in coastal ecosystems and manage these critical habitats, it is essential to develop sound monitoring programs for foundation species and associated assemblages. Several survey methods exist, thus understanding how different methods perform is important for survey selection. We compared two common methods for surveying macrofaunal assemblages: beach seine netting and underwater visual census (UVC). We also tested whether assemblages in shallow nearshore habitats commonly sampled by beach seines are similar to those of nearby eelgrass beds often sampled by UVC. Among five estuaries along the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, our results suggest that the two survey methods yield comparable results for species richness, diversity and evenness, yet beach seines yield significantly higher abundance and different species composition. However, sampling nearshore assemblages does not represent those in eelgrass beds despite considerable overlap and close proximity. These results have important implications for how and where macrofaunal assemblages are monitored in coastal ecosystems. Ideally, multiple survey methods and locations should be combined to complement each other in assessing the entire assemblage and full range of changes in coastal ecosystems, thereby better informing coastal zone management. PMID:27018396

  19. Comparative analysis of different survey methods for monitoring fish assemblages in coastal habitats.

    PubMed

    Baker, Duncan G L; Eddy, Tyler D; McIver, Reba; Schmidt, Allison L; Thériault, Marie-Hélène; Boudreau, Monica; Courtenay, Simon C; Lotze, Heike K

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive yet increasingly threatened marine ecosystems worldwide. Particularly vegetated habitats, such as eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds, play important roles in providing key spawning, nursery and foraging habitats for a wide range of fauna. To properly assess changes in coastal ecosystems and manage these critical habitats, it is essential to develop sound monitoring programs for foundation species and associated assemblages. Several survey methods exist, thus understanding how different methods perform is important for survey selection. We compared two common methods for surveying macrofaunal assemblages: beach seine netting and underwater visual census (UVC). We also tested whether assemblages in shallow nearshore habitats commonly sampled by beach seines are similar to those of nearby eelgrass beds often sampled by UVC. Among five estuaries along the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, our results suggest that the two survey methods yield comparable results for species richness, diversity and evenness, yet beach seines yield significantly higher abundance and different species composition. However, sampling nearshore assemblages does not represent those in eelgrass beds despite considerable overlap and close proximity. These results have important implications for how and where macrofaunal assemblages are monitored in coastal ecosystems. Ideally, multiple survey methods and locations should be combined to complement each other in assessing the entire assemblage and full range of changes in coastal ecosystems, thereby better informing coastal zone management. PMID:27018396

  20. Inclusion of trial functions in the Langevin equation path integral ground state method: Application to parahydrogen clusters and their isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Matthew; Constable, Steve; Ing, Christopher; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    We developed and studied the implementation of trial wavefunctions in the newly proposed Langevin equation Path Integral Ground State (LePIGS) method [S. Constable, M. Schmidt, C. Ing, T. Zeng, and P.-N. Roy, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7461 (2013)]. The LePIGS method is based on the Path Integral Ground State (PIGS) formalism combined with Path Integral Molecular Dynamics sampling using a Langevin equation based sampling of the canonical distribution. This LePIGS method originally incorporated a trivial trial wavefunction, ψT, equal to unity. The present paper assesses the effectiveness of three different trial wavefunctions on three isotopes of hydrogen for cluster sizes N = 4, 8, and 13. The trial wavefunctions of interest are the unity trial wavefunction used in the original LePIGS work, a Jastrow trial wavefunction that includes correlations due to hard-core repulsions, and a normal mode trial wavefunction that includes information on the equilibrium geometry. Based on this analysis, we opt for the Jastrow wavefunction to calculate energetic and structural properties for parahydrogen, orthodeuterium, and paratritium clusters of size N = 4 - 19, 33. Energetic and structural properties are obtained and compared to earlier work based on Monte Carlo PIGS simulations to study the accuracy of the proposed approach. The new results for paratritium clusters will serve as benchmark for future studies. This paper provides a detailed, yet general method for optimizing the necessary parameters required for the study of the ground state of a large variety of systems.

  1. Methods and Sources of Data Used to Develop Selected Water-Quality Indicators for Streams and Ground Water for EPA's 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Wilson, John T.; Moran, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was one of numerous governmental agencies, private organizations, and the academic community that provided data and interpretations for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report. This report documents the sources of data and methods used to develop selected water?quality indicators for the 2007 edition of the report compiled by USEPA. Stream and ground?water?quality data collected nationally in a consistent manner as part of the USGS?s National Water?Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) were provided for several water?quality indicators, including Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; Pesticides in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; and Nitrate and Pesticides in Shallow Ground Water in Agricultural Watersheds. In addition, the USGS provided nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite) and phosphorus riverine load estimates calculated from water?quality and streamflow data collected as part of its National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and its Federal?State Cooperative Program for the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Discharge from Large Rivers indicator.

  2. Gaussian-Basis Monte Carlo Method for Numerical Study on Ground States of Itinerant and Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aimi, Takeshi; Imada, Masatoshi

    2007-08-01

    We examine Gaussian-basis Monte Carlo (GBMC) method introduced by Corney and Drummond. This method is based on an expansion of the density-matrix operator \\hatρ by means of the coherent Gaussian-type operator basis \\hatΛ and does not suffer from the minus sign problem. The original method, however, often fails in reproducing the true ground state and causes systematic errors of calculated physical quantities because the samples are often trapped in some metastable or symmetry broken states. To overcome this difficulty, we combine the quantum-number projection scheme proposed by Assaad, Werner, Corboz, Gull, and Troyer in conjunction with the importance sampling of the original GBMC method. This improvement allows us to carry out the importance sampling in the quantum-number-projected phase-space. Some comparisons with the previous quantum-number projection scheme indicate that, in our method, the convergence with the ground state is accelerated, which makes it possible to extend the applicability and widen the range of tractable parameters in the GBMC method. The present scheme offers an efficient practical way of computation for strongly correlated electron systems beyond the range of system sizes, interaction strengths and lattice structures tractable by other computational methods such as the quantum Monte Carlo method.

  3. MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model - documentation of shared node local grid refinement (LGR) and the boundary flow and head (BFH) package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the addition of shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) to MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model. LGR provides the capability to simulate ground-water flow using one block-shaped higher-resolution local grid (a child model) within a coarser-grid parent model. LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling two separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundary. LGR can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined ground-water systems. Traditional one-way coupled telescopic mesh refinement (TMR) methods can have large, often undetected, inconsistencies in heads and fluxes across the interface between two model grids. The iteratively coupled shared-node method of LGR provides a more rigorous coupling in which the solution accuracy is controlled by convergence criteria defined by the user. In realistic problems, this can result in substantially more accurate solutions and require an increase in computer processing time. The rigorous coupling enables sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty analysis that reflects conditions in both model grids. This report describes the method used by LGR, evaluates LGR accuracy and performance for two- and three-dimensional test cases, provides input instructions, and lists selected input and output files for an example problem. It also presents the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package, which allows the child and parent models to be simulated independently using the boundary conditions obtained through the iterative process of LGR.

  4. An UAV scheduling and planning method for post-disaster survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  5. A method for continuous monitoring of the Ground Reaction Force during daily activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Quintana, Jason; Emery, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling have identified peak cyclic force levels (or cyclic tissue strain energy density), number of daily loading cycles, and load (strain) rate as possible contributors to bone modeling and remodeling stimulus. To test our theoretical model and further investigate the influence of mechanical forces on bone density, we have focused on the calcaneus as a model site loaded by calcaneal surface tractions which are predominantly determined by the magnitude of the external ground reaction force (GRF).

  6. A Method for Calculating the Probability of Successfully Completing a Rocket Propulsion Ground Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenge of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Over the last decade NASA s propulsion test facilities have performed hundreds of tests, collected thousands of seconds of test data, and exceeded the capabilities of numerous test facility and test article components. A logistic regression mathematical modeling technique has been developed to predict the probability of successfully completing a rocket propulsion test. A logistic regression model is a mathematical modeling approach that can be used to describe the relationship of several independent predictor variables X(sub 1), X(sub 2),.., X(sub k) to a binary or dichotomous dependent variable Y, where Y can only be one of two possible outcomes, in this case Success or Failure of accomplishing a full duration test. The use of logistic regression modeling is not new; however, modeling propulsion ground test facilities using logistic regression is both a new and unique application of the statistical technique. Results from this type of model provide project managers with insight and confidence into the effectiveness of rocket propulsion ground testing.

  7. 3D Monitoring under the Keciova Mosque (Casbah-Algier, Algeria) with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf; Deniz, Kiymet; Akin Akyol, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Keciova (Ketchaoua) Mosque, in Casbah-Algiers, the capital of Algeria, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Keciova Mosque was originally built in 1612 by the Ottoman Empire. A RAMAC CU II GPR system and a 250 MHz shielded antenna have been employed inside of the Mosque including the Cathedral and inside of the burial chambers under the Cathedral Site on parallel profiles spaced approximately 0.30 m apart to measure data. After applying standard two-dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) imaging techniques, transparent 3D imaging techniques have been used to photograph the foundational infrastructures, buried remains and safety problems of the Mosque. The results showed that we obtained 3D GPR visualization until 12.0 m in depth. Firstly we imaged the base floor including corridors. Then we monitored buried remains under the first ground level between 5.0-7.0 m in depths. Finally we indicated 3D GPR photographs a spectacular protected buried old mosque structures under the second ground level between 9.0-12.0 m in depths. This project has been supported by Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA). This study is a contribution to the EU funded COST action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground penetrating Radar".

  8. Surface Signature Characterization at SPE through Ground-Proximal Methods: Methodology Change and Technical Justification

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.

    2015-09-09

    A portion of LANL’s FY15 SPE objectives includes initial ground-based or ground-proximal investigations at the SPE Phase 2 site. The area of interest is the U2ez location in Yucca Flat. This collection serves as a baseline for discrimination of surface features and acquisition of topographic signatures prior to any development or pre-shot activities associated with SPE Phase 2. Our team originally intended to perform our field investigations using previously vetted ground-based (GB) LIDAR methodologies. However, the extended proposed time frame of the GB LIDAR data collection, and associated data processing time and delivery date, were unacceptable. After technical consultation and careful literature research, LANL identified an alternative methodology to achieve our technical objectives and fully support critical model parameterization. Very-low-altitude unmanned aerial systems (UAS) photogrammetry appeared to satisfy our objectives in lieu of GB LIDAR. The SPE Phase 2 baseline collection was used as a test of this UAS photogrammetric methodology.

  9. Theoretical grounds of relativistic methods for calculation of spin–spin coupling constants in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusakova, I. L.; Rusakov, Yu Yu; Krivdin, L. B.

    2016-04-01

    The theoretical grounds of the modern relativistic methods for quantum chemical calculation of spin–spin coupling constants in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra are considered. Examples and prospects of application of relativistic calculations of these constants in the structural studies of organic and heteroorganic compounds are discussed. Practical recommendations on relativistic calculations of spin–spin coupling constants using the available software are given. The bibliography includes 622 references.

  10. Identifying reasons for delays in acute hospitals using the Day-of-Care Survey method.

    PubMed

    Reid, Erica; King, Andrew; Mathieson, Alex; Woodcock, Thomas; Watkin, Simon W

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a new tool called 'Day-of-Care Survey', developed to assess inpatient delays in acute hospitals. Using literature review, iterative testing and feedback from professional groups, a national multidisciplinary team developed the survey criteria and methodology. Review teams working in pairs visited wards and used case records and bedside charts to assess the patient's status against severity of illness and service intensity criteria. Patients who did not meet the survey criteria for acute care were identified and delays were categorised. From March 2012 to December 2013, nine acute hospitals across Scotland, Australia and England were surveyed. A total of 3,846 adult general inpatient beds (excluding intensive care and maternity) were reviewed. There were 145 empty beds at the time of surveys across the nine sites, with 270 definite discharges planned on the day of the survey. The total number of patients not meeting criteria for acute care was 798/3,431 (23%, range 18-28%). Six factors accounted for 61% (490/798) of the reasons why patients not meeting acute care criteria remained in hospital. This survey gives important insights into the challenges of managing inpatient flow using system level information as a method to target interventions designed to address delay. PMID:25824060

  11. A NEW METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE GROWTH RATE FROM GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi; Branchini, Enzo; Davis, Marc E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it

    2012-01-10

    Given a redshift survey of galaxies with measurements of apparent magnitudes, we present a novel method for measuring the growth rate f({Omega}) of cosmological linear perturbations. We use the galaxy distribution within the survey to solve for the peculiar velocity field which depends in linear perturbation theory on {beta} = f({Omega})/b, where b is the bias factor of the galaxy distribution. The recovered line-of-sight peculiar velocities are subtracted from the redshifts to derive the distances, which thus allows an estimate of the absolute magnitude of each galaxy. A constraint on {beta} is then found by minimizing the spread of the estimated magnitudes from their distribution function. We apply the method to the all sky K = 11.25 2MASS Redshift Survey and derive {beta} = 0.35 {+-} 0.1 at z {approx} 0, remarkably consistent with our previous estimate from the velocity-velocity comparison. The method could easily be applied to subvolumes extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to derive the growth rate at z {approx} 0.1. Further, it should also be applicable to ongoing and future spectroscopic redshift surveys to trace the evolution of f({Omega}) to z {approx} 1. Constraints obtained from this method are entirely independent from those obtained from the two-dimensional distortion of {xi}(s) and provide an important check on f({Omega}), as alternative gravity models predict observable differences.

  12. A Preliminary Survey of Benthos from the Nephrops norvegicusMud Grounds in the North-western Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    A preliminary survey of benthic infauna from an extensive basin of soft mud in the Irish Sea was carried out in 1992. A total of 110 taxa were recorded of which polychaete worms (Phylum Annelida) constituted 77·8% of all taxa recorded. Hierarchical classification and detrended correspondence analysis divided the area studied into five regions which could be correlated to the differences in superficial sediments and depth across the basin. Although much of the fauna was ubiquitous, a change in trophic structure was observed, with tubiculous polychaetes becoming progressively less common in deeper softer sediment areas where surface and non-selective deposit-feeding taxa predominated.

  13. Methods of the NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS).

    PubMed

    Booth, M L; Denney-Wilson, E; Okely, A D; Hardy, L L

    2005-09-01

    The NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS 2004) (N = 5407) was a representative population survey, conducted February-May 2004, among New South Wales (Australia) school students aged 4 y-16 y. Physical activity, fitness, fundamental movement skill proficiency and food habits are all related to overweight and obesity and were a focus of this study. The last population-based survey in NSW was conducted in 1997 and use of the same measurement instruments (with the exception of food habits) allowed examination of secular trends. Overweight and obese children are at risk for a number of serious, long-term health problems, and a sub-sample (n = 500) of urban dwelling Year 10 students (mean age 15.4 years) gave a fasting blood sample which was analysed for the presence of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. This paper describes the methods of the NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey 2004 (SPANS 2004). PMID:16248469

  14. Different Views on Inquiry: A Survey of Science and Mathematics Methods Instructors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withee, Thomas; Lindell, Rebecca

    2006-02-01

    The national science standards encourage the use of inquiry-based instruction to teach difficult scientific concepts. As part of a larger study to investigate teachers' views on the nature of inquiry-based instruction, a survey was administered to Science and Mathematics methods course instructors to determine their views on inquiry, as well as to explore the success and difficulties associated with teaching this difficult concept. In addition, we wished to obtain their views on the "5 E's" method, an inquiry method specifically designed to promote conceptual change that is often taught as "the" method to utilize. Initial survey data suggests there are many different views among Science and Mathematics methods course instructors about the nature of inquiry. This paper discusses the difficulties encountered with the "5 E's" and teaching inquiry-based methods to teachers.

  15. Detection of contaminant plumes in ground water of Long Island, New York, by electromagnetic terrain-conductivity surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, T.J.; Maus, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic terrain conductivity surveys were conducted at four landfills in Suffolk county and at an artificial recharge site in Nassau County to assess the feasibility of this technique for detecting contaminant plumes. The technique was successful at three of the landfills; results compared closely with those indicated by specific conductance of water from observation wells on the sites. Data from the three sites for which the technique was successful--the Horseblock Road landfill , the Manorville scavenger waste disposal facility, and the Riverhead landfill--revealed pronounced terrain conductivity anomalies that reflect known contaminant plumes. Plumes at the other two sites--Blydenburgh landfill and the East Meadow artificial recharge site--could not be detected because cultural interferences were too great and, at the Blydenburgh site, depth to water was too great. The interferences included pipelines, utility cables, and traffic. Given favorable conditions, such as high plume conductivity, lack of cultural interferences, and a depth of less than 100 ft to the plume, electromagnetic surveying can provide a rapid means of locating contaminant plumes. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Compilation of field methods used in geochemical prospecting by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, Hubert William; Ward, Frederick Norville; Almond, Hy

    1952-01-01

    The field methods described in this report are those currently used in geochemical prospecting by the U. S. Geological Survey. Some have been published, others are being processed for publication, while others are still being investigated. The purpose in compiling these methods is to make them readily available in convenient form. The methods have not been thoroughly tested and none is wholly satisfactory. Research is being continued.

  17. Shaking Maps for Scenario Earthquakes by Applying the Upgraded Version of the Strong Ground Motion Prediction Method ``Recipe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Nobuyuki; Senna, Shigeki; Hayakawa, Yuzuru; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    The strong ground motion prediction method "Recipe" was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan. HERP has applied this method to prepare shaking maps for scenario earthquakes in specific active faults. Recently, Recipe was updated following its verification by simulations of strong ground motions associated with the Mw = 6.6 off-shore earthquake west of Fukuoka prefecture in 2005, which occurred in the northwest part of the Kego fault zone located in northern Kyushu, Japan. One of the prominent changes in the upgraded version of Recipe is the inclusion of a procedure to evaluate seismic intensities on the ground surface from waveforms of S-wave velocity of 400 m/s on the engineering bedrock. By applying the upgraded version of Recipe, we have made shaking-maps for earthquakes in the southeast part of the Kego fault zone, which is located directly below the mega-city of Fukuoka. We assume four source models for scenario earthquakes; the locations of the asperities and the hypocenters vary between the models. The results show that in all cases, disastrous seismic intensities can strike a wide area of Fukuoka city. Differences in the distributions of seismic intensities among the four cases can be clearly observed in the area located on the extension of the source fault. Furthermore, we construct a velocity-layer structure model on the engineering bedrock for the central area of Fukuoka city. We assess not only the distribution of seismic intensities but also waveforms on the ground by using an equivalent linear method for the central area of Fukuoka city.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey program on toxic waste--ground-water contamination; proceedings of the Third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1987-01-01

    Because of the widespread distribution of creosote in the environment, an abandoned wood-treatment plant in Pensacola, Fla., was selected by the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology as one of three national research demonstration areas in order to increase our understanding of hydrologic processes affecting the distributions of contaminants in ground water. The site was selected because of its long, uninterrupted history (1902 81) of discharging wastewaters to unlined surface impoundments, availability of a preliminary data base (Troutman and others, 1984), and the high probability of useful technology transfer from an investigation of the fate of organic compounds associated with wood-preserving wastewaters in the subsurface environment.

  19. A data input program (MFI2K) for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2002-01-01

    MFI2K is a data-input (entry) program for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water model, MODFLOW-2000. MFI2K runs on personal computers. MFI2K supports the solute transport and parameter-estimation capabilities that are incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. Data for MODPATH, a particle-tracking program for use with MODFLOW-2000, also can be entered using MFI2K. MFI2K is designed to be easy to use; data are entered interactively through a series of display screens. MFI2K also can be used in conjunction with other data-input programs so that the different parts of a model dataset can be entered using the most suitable program. MFI2K interfaces to an external program for entering or editing two-dimensional arrays and lists of stress data. This report provides instructions for using MFI2K.

  20. A Method for Calculating the Probability of Successfully Completing a Rocket Propulsion Ground Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Bradley P.

    2004-01-01

    Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenges of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Due to budgetary and schedule constraints, NASA and industry customers are pushing to test more components, for less money, in a shorter period of time. As these new rocket engine component test programs are undertaken, the lack of technology maturity in the test articles, combined with pushing the test facilities capabilities to their limits, tends to lead to an increase in facility breakdowns and unsuccessful tests. Over the last five years Stennis Space Center's propulsion test facilities have performed hundreds of tests, collected thousands of seconds of test data, and broken numerous test facility and test article parts. While various initiatives have been implemented to provide better propulsion test techniques and improve the quality, reliability, and maintainability of goods and parts used in the propulsion test facilities, unexpected failures during testing still occur quite regularly due to the harsh environment in which the propulsion test facilities operate. Previous attempts at modeling the lifecycle of a propulsion component test project have met with little success. Each of the attempts suffered form incomplete or inconsistent data on which to base the models. By focusing on the actual test phase of the tests project rather than the formulation, design or construction phases of the test project, the quality and quantity of available data increases dramatically. A logistic regression model has been developed form the data collected over the last five years, allowing the probability of successfully completing a rocket propulsion component test to be calculated. A logistic regression model is a mathematical modeling approach that can be used to describe the relationship of several independent predictor variables X(sub 1), X(sub 2),..,X(sub k) to a binary or dichotomous dependent variable Y, where Y can only be one of two possible outcomes, in this case Success or Failure. Logistic regression has primarily been used in the fields of epidemiology and biomedical research, but lends itself to many other applications. As indicated the use of logistic regression is not new, however, modeling propulsion ground test facilities using logistic regression is both a new and unique application of the statistical technique. Results from the models provide project managers with insight and confidence into the affectivity of rocket engine component ground test projects. The initial success in modeling rocket propulsion ground test projects clears the way for more complex models to be developed in this area.

  1. Single-Event Effects Ground Testing and On-Orbit Rate Prediction Methods: The Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Kinnison, Jim; Pickel, Jim; Buchner, Stephen; Marshall, Paul W.; Kniffin, Scott; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 27 years, or so, increased concern over single event effects in spacecraft systems has resulted in research, development and engineering activities centered around a better understanding of the space radiation environment, single event effects predictive methods, ground test protocols, and test facility developments. This research has led to fairly well developed methods for assessing the impact of the space radiation environment on systems that contain SEE sensitive devices and the development of mitigation strategies either at the system or device level.

  2. A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Maloy, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

  3. Modifications of the U.S. Geological Survey modular, finite-difference, ground-water flow model to read and write geographic information system files

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orzol, Leonard L.; McGrath, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents modifications to the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model, commonly called MODFLOW, so that it can read and write files used by a geographic information system (GIS). The modified model program is called MODFLOWARC. Simulation programs such as MODFLOW generally require large amounts of input data and produce large amounts of output data. Viewing data graphically, generating head contours, and creating or editing model data arrays such as hydraulic conductivity are examples of tasks that currently are performed either by the use of independent software packages or by tedious manual editing, manipulating, and transferring data. Programs such as GIS programs are commonly used to facilitate preparation of the model input data and analyze model output data; however, auxiliary programs are frequently required to translate data between programs. Data translations are required when different programs use different data formats. Thus, the user might use GIS techniques to create model input data, run a translation program to convert input data into a format compatible with the ground-water flow model, run the model, run a translation program to convert the model output into the correct format for GIS, and use GIS to display and analyze this output. MODFLOWARC, avoids the two translation steps and transfers data directly to and from the ground-water-flow model. This report documents the design and use of MODFLOWARC and includes instructions for data input/output of the Basic, Block-centered flow, River, Recharge, Well, Drain, Evapotranspiration, General-head boundary, and Streamflow-routing packages. The modification to MODFLOW and the Streamflow-Routing package was minimized. Flow charts and computer-program code describe the modifications to the original computer codes for each of these packages. Appendix A contains a discussion on the operation of MODFLOWARC using a sample problem.

  4. A survey of functional behavior assessment methods used by behavior analysts in practice.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Anthony C; Pratt, Leigh A; Normand, Matthew P

    2015-12-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially descriptive assessments. Moreover, the data suggest that the majority of students are being formally taught about the various FBA methods and that educators are emphasizing the range of FBA methods in their teaching. However, less than half of the respondents reported using functional analyses in practice, although many considered descriptive assessments and functional analyses to be the most useful FBA methods. Most respondents reported using informant and descriptive assessments more frequently than functional analyses, and a majority of respondents indicated that they "never" or "almost never" used functional analyses to identify the function of behavior. PMID:26411336

  5. Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

  6. Determination of chlorophyll photosynthetic potential in vegetation using ground-based and satellite methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botvich, Irina; Alexander, Sidko; Pisman, Tamara; Shevyrnogov, Anatoly

    An integrated study of the vegetation in the south of Krasnoyarsk Territory was carried out on the basis of ground-based and satellite remote measurements. The research objects were agricultural crops (wheat, oats) during the vegetation period. The satellite calculations were based on the data having high (Landsat 7 ETM+) and medium spatial resolution (Terra-Modis). Both kinds of data were used to calculate the chlorophyll photosynthetic potential (CPSP) as the area of the triangle made up by the reflection values in the green, red and near infrared spectrum regions. The connection was determined between the ground-based and satellite measurements of CPSP. Having analyzed the remote field and satellite measurements of the brightness spectral ratios of agricultural crops during vegetation, we showed the possibility of estimation of structural changes in the near infrared spectrum region. A lack or excess of water in plants causes structural changes in their phytoelements, which affects their reflectance. We showed the possibility of assessing morpho-physiological changes and species composition of crops. We determined the correlation between the spectral reflectance in various crops with chlorophyll content in plants and biomass changes.

  7. Warm and cold gas in low-mass protostars : Herschel Space Observatory and ground-based surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Umut

    2013-05-01

    The primary focus of this thesis is the formation of low-mass protostars, specifically the earliest deeply embedded phase, when material from the collapsing envelope is still accreted onto the growing young star. Rotational transitions of CO and O2 data are obtained by the Herschel Space Observatory key projects, WISH and HOP, together with ground-based observations from APEX and the JCMT. We have found that CO and its isotopologs have different line profiles tracing different materials in the protostellar regions. Our new high-J rotational transitons of CO is key to characterize the warmer parts of the protostellar envelope and quantify feedback of the protostars on their surroundings in terms of shocks, ultraviolet (UV) heating, photodissociation, and outflow dispersal. Radiative transfer modeling was performed to determine the CO abundance structure in the envelope, showing evidence for significant freeze-out in the coldest regions in the parts of the envelope where the temperature exceeds 25 K. A tentative detection of O2 is reported toward the source position of a protostar, which originates from the surrounding cloud. These kind of detailed studies of the physical and chemical structure of low-mass protostars are important for a complete understanding of the evolution of young stellar objects (YSOs).

  8. Experimental Methods to Evaluate Science Utility Relative to the Decadal Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widergren, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The driving factor for competed missions is the science that it plans on performing once it has reached its target body. These science goals are derived from the science recommended by the most current Decadal Survey. This work focuses on science goals in previous Venus mission proposals with respect to the 2013 Decadal Survey. By looking at how the goals compare to the survey and how much confidence NASA has in the mission's ability to accomplish these goals, a method was created to assess the science return utility of each mission. This method can be used as a tool for future Venus mission formulation and serves as a starting point for future development of create science utility assessment tools.

  9. Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Jordan, John K.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

  10. Methods of Gas Phase Capture of Iodine from Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas: A Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Daryl Haefner

    2007-02-01

    A literature survey was conducted to collect information and summarize the methods available to capture iodine from fuel reprocessing off-gases. Techniques were categorized as either wet scrubbing or solid adsorbent methods, and each method was generally described as it might be used under reprocessing conditions. Decontamination factors are quoted only to give a rough indication of the effectiveness of the method. No attempt is made to identify a preferred capture method at this time, although activities are proposed that would provide a consistent baseline that would aid in evaluating technologies.

  11. GBFEL-TIE (Ground-Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) sample survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, T.J.; Doleman, W.H.

    1988-09-30

    Three locations on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, are under consideration as alternatives for the proposed Ground-Based Free-Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE). The study conducted jointly by Prewitt and Associates, Inc., and the Office of Contract Archeology, was designed to provide input into the GBFEL-TIE Draft Environmental Impact Statement concerning the potential impact of the proposed project on cultural resources in each of the alternatives. The input consists of a series of predictions based on data gathered from two sources: (1) a cultural resource sample survey (15%) of two alternatives conducted as part of this study, and (2) from a previous survey of the third alternative. A predictive model was devleoped and applied using these data that estimated the potential impact of the GBFEL-TIE facility on the cultural resources within each alternative. The predictions indicate that the NASA alternatives, by far, the least favorable location for the facility followed by the Orogrande and Stallion Alternatives.

  12. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  13. A Survey of Singular Value Decomposition Methods and Performance Comparison of Some Available Serial Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plassman, Gerald E.

    2005-01-01

    This contractor report describes a performance comparison of available alternative complete Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) methods and implementations which are suitable for incorporation into point spread function deconvolution algorithms. The report also presents a survey of alternative algorithms, including partial SVD's special case SVD's, and others developed for concurrent processing systems.

  14. Random Qualitative Validation: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the process and value of Random Qualitative Validation (RQV) in the development and interpretation of survey data. RQV is a method of gathering clarifying qualitative data that improves the validity of the quantitative analysis. This paper is concerned with validity in relation to the participants'…

  15. Survey of spatial data needs and land use forecasting methods in the electric utility industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A representative sample of the electric utility industry in the United States was surveyed to determine industry need for spatial data (specifically LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data) and the methods used by the industry to forecast land use changes and future energy demand. Information was acquired through interviews, written questionnaires, and reports (both published and internal).

  16. Methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood associations with health using complex survey data.

    PubMed

    Brumback, Babette A; Cai, Zhuangyu; Dailey, Amy B

    2014-05-15

    Reasons for health disparities may include neighborhood-level factors, such as availability of health services, social norms, and environmental determinants, as well as individual-level factors. Investigating health inequalities using nationally or locally representative data often requires an approach that can accommodate a complex sampling design, in which individuals have unequal probabilities of selection into the study. The goal of the present article is to review and compare methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood influences with complex survey data. We considered 3 types of methods, each generalized for use with complex survey data: ordinary regression, conditional likelihood regression, and generalized linear mixed-model regression. The relative strengths and weaknesses of each method differ from one study to another; we provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each method theoretically, in terms of the nature of the estimable associations and the plausibility of the assumptions required for validity, and also practically, via a simulation study and 2 epidemiologic data analyses. The first analysis addresses determinants of repeat mammography screening use using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. The second analysis addresses disparities in preventive oral health care using data from the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. PMID:24723000

  17. Randomized Inquiry vs. Conventional Questionnaire Method in Estimating Drug Usage Rates Through Mail Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.

    This report is a product of research conducted under a program exploring improved methods of acquiring data on sensitive topics, such as the scope and intensity of current social problems. In this case, the problem studied was drug abuse in the Army. A mail survey dealing with illicit drug use was conducted, comparing the data acquisition…

  18. Sample size methods for estimating HIV incidence from cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Konikoff, Jacob; Brookmeyer, Ron

    2015-12-01

    Understanding HIV incidence, the rate at which new infections occur in populations, is critical for tracking and surveillance of the epidemic. In this article, we derive methods for determining sample sizes for cross-sectional surveys to estimate incidence with sufficient precision. We further show how to specify sample sizes for two successive cross-sectional surveys to detect changes in incidence with adequate power. In these surveys biomarkers such as CD4 cell count, viral load, and recently developed serological assays are used to determine which individuals are in an early disease stage of infection. The total number of individuals in this stage, divided by the number of people who are uninfected, is used to approximate the incidence rate. Our methods account for uncertainty in the durations of time spent in the biomarker defined early disease stage. We find that failure to account for this uncertainty when designing surveys can lead to imprecise estimates of incidence and underpowered studies. We evaluated our sample size methods in simulations and found that they performed well in a variety of underlying epidemics. Code for implementing our methods in R is available with this article at the Biometrics website on Wiley Online Library. PMID:26302040

  19. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  20. Evaluation of the Total Design Method in a survey of Japanese dentists

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Yukie; Milgrom, Peter; Yoshida, Toshiko; Ishihara, Chikako; Shimono, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    Background This study assessed the application of the Total Design Method (TDM) in a mail survey of Japanese dentists. The TDM was chosen because survey response rates in Japan are unacceptably low and the TDM had previously been used in a general population survey. Methods Four hundred and seventy eight dentist members of the Okayama Medical and Dental Practitioner's Association were surveyed. The nine-page, 27-item questionnaire covered dentist job satisfaction, physical practice, and dentist and patient characteristics. Respondents to the first mailing or the one-week follow-up postcard were defined as early responders; others who responded were late responders. Responder bias was assessed by examining age, gender and training. Results The overall response rate was 46.7% (223/478). The response rates by follow-up mailing were, 18% after the first mailing, 35.4% after the follow-up postcard, 42.3% after the second mailing, and 46.7% after the third mailing. Respondents did not differ from non-respondents in age or gender, nor were there differences between early and late responders. Conclusion The application of TDM in this survey of Japanese dentists produced lower rates of response than expected from previous Japanese and US studies. PMID:16115323

  1. Detection of planets in extremely weak central perturbation microlensing events via next-generation ground-based surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2014-04-20

    Even though the recently discovered high-magnification event MOA-2010-BLG-311 had complete coverage over its peak, confident planet detection did not happen due to extremely weak central perturbations (EWCPs, fractional deviations of ≲ 2%). For confident detection of planets in EWCP events, it is necessary to have both high cadence monitoring and high photometric accuracy better than those of current follow-up observation systems. The next-generation ground-based observation project, Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), satisfies these conditions. We estimate the probability of occurrence of EWCP events with fractional deviations of ≤2% in high-magnification events and the efficiency of detecting planets in the EWCP events using the KMTNet. From this study, we find that the EWCP events occur with a frequency of >50% in the case of ≲ 100 M {sub E} planets with separations of 0.2 AU ≲ d ≲ 20 AU. We find that for main-sequence and sub-giant source stars, ≳ 1 M {sub E} planets in EWCP events with deviations ≤2% can be detected with frequency >50% in a certain range that changes with the planet mass. However, it is difficult to detect planets in EWCP events of bright stars like giant stars because it is easy for KMTNet to be saturated around the peak of the events because of its constant exposure time. EWCP events are caused by close, intermediate, and wide planetary systems with low-mass planets and close and wide planetary systems with massive planets. Therefore, we expect that a much greater variety of planetary systems than those already detected, which are mostly intermediate planetary systems, regardless of the planet mass, will be significantly detected in the near future.

  2. Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: a case study of Irish Sea beaches.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W

    2012-10-15

    In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq (137)Cs within large areas (10-20 km(2)h(-1)), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1-2 km(2) h(-1) can detect buried (137)Cs sources of 0.5MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq (137)Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at <15m ground clearance and <2 ms(-1) ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed. PMID:22947616

  3. Grounding electrode and method of reducing the electrical resistance of soils

    DOEpatents

    Koehmstedt, Paul L.

    1980-01-01

    A first solution of an electrolyte is injected underground into a volume of soil having negative surface charges on its particles. A cationic surfactant suspended in this solution neutralizes these surface charges of the soil particles within the volume. Following the first solution, a cationic asphalt emulsion suspended in a second solution is injected into the volume. The asphalt emulsion diffuses through the volume and electrostatically bonds with additional soil surrounding the volume such that an electrically conductive water repellant shell enclosing the volume is formed. This shell prevents the leaching of electrolyte from the volume into the additional soil. The second solution also contains a dissolved deliquescent salt which draws water into the volume prior to the formation of the shell. When electrically connected to an electrical installation such as a power line tower, the volume constitutes a grounding electrode for the tower.

  4. Investigation of chatter marks on ground surfaces by means of optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, J. A.; Vernes, A.; Vellekoop, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    In order to characterise chatter marks, in this work, various ground samples are investigated by means of two different optical surface analysis techniques: by using a confocal white light microscope and an angle-resolved light scattering sensor, respectively. The latter is also applied to an industrial belt grinding process in both roughness- and waviness-modes of measuring. These in-process measurements are found in good agreement with those of visual counting. Data processing in terms of the Fourier transformation it is shown to equally well accesses the wavelength of chatter marks in both roughness- and waviness-modes. Therefore it is concluded that chatter marks occurring during the industrial belt grinding can be seen as a superposition of roughness changes and waviness.

  5. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  6. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelto, P. J.; Winegardner, W. K.; Gallucci, R. H. V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause consequence diagrams, GO methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  7. Multidisciplinary teams, and parents, negotiating common ground in shared-care of children with long-term conditions: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited negotiation around care decisions is believed to undermine collaborative working between parents of children with long-term conditions and professionals, but there is little evidence of how they actually negotiate their respective roles. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar this paper reports on a multi-method study of social interaction between multidisciplinary teams and parents as they shared clinical care. Methods Phases 1 and 2: a telephone survey mapping multidisciplinary teams’ parent-educative activities, and qualitative interviews with 112 professionals (Clinical-psychologists, Dietitians, Doctors, Nurses, Play-specialists, Pharmacists, Therapists and Social-workers) exploring their accounts of parent-teaching in the 12 British children’s kidney units. Phase 3: six ethnographic case studies in two units involving observations of professional/parent interactions during shared-care, and individual interviews. We used an analytical framework based on concepts drawn from Communities of Practice and Activity Theory. Results Professionals spoke of the challenge of explaining to each other how they are aware of parents’ understanding of clinical knowledge, and described three patterns of parent-educative activity that were common across MDTs: Engaging parents in shared practice; Knowledge exchange and role negotiation, and Promoting common ground. Over time, professionals had developed a shared repertoire of tools to support their negotiations with parents that helped them accomplish common ground during the practice of shared-care. We observed mutual engagement between professionals and parents where a common understanding of the joint enterprise of clinical caring was negotiated. Conclusions For professionals, making implicit knowledge explicit is important as it can provide them with a language through which to articulate more clearly to each other what is the basis of their intuition-based hunches about parents’ support needs, and may help them to negotiate with parents and accelerate parents’ learning about shared caring. Our methodology and results are potentially transferrable to shared management of other conditions. PMID:23835151

  8. A simple method to assess unsaturated zone time lag in the travel time from ground surface to receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Marcelo R.; Jones, Jon P.; Frind, Emil O.; Rudolph, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In contaminant travel from ground surface to groundwater receptors, the time taken in travelling through the unsaturated zone is known as the unsaturated zone time lag. Depending on the situation, this time lag may or may not be significant within the context of the overall problem. A method is presented for assessing the importance of the unsaturated zone in the travel time from source to receptor in terms of estimates of both the absolute and the relative advective times. A choice of different techniques for both unsaturated and saturated travel time estimation is provided. This method may be useful for practitioners to decide whether to incorporate unsaturated processes in conceptual and numerical models and can also be used to roughly estimate the total travel time between points near ground surface and a groundwater receptor. This method was applied to a field site located in a glacial aquifer system in Ontario, Canada. Advective travel times were estimated using techniques with different levels of sophistication. The application of the proposed method indicates that the time lag in the unsaturated zone is significant at this field site and should be taken into account. For this case, sophisticated and simplified techniques lead to similar assessments when the same knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity field is assumed. When there is significant uncertainty regarding the hydraulic conductivity, simplified calculations did not lead to a conclusive decision.

  9. Multi-determinant electron-nuclear quantum Monte Carlo method for ground state solution of molecular Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambasivam, Abhinanden; Elward, Jennifer; Chakraborty, Arindam

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this work is to obtain the ground state energy of the non-relativistic spin-independent molecular Hamiltonian without making the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation. In addition to avoiding the BO approximation, this approach avoids imposing separable-rotor and harmonic oscillator approximations. The ground state solution is obtained variationally using multi-determinant variational Monte Carlo method where all nuclei and electrons in the molecule are treated quantum mechanically. The multi-determinant VMC provides the right framework for including explicit correlation in a multi-determinant expansion. This talk will discuss the construction of the basis functions and optimization of the variational coefficient. The electron-nuclear VMC method will be applied to H2, He2 and H2O and comparison of the VMC results with other methods will be presented. The results from these calculations will provide the necessary benchmark values that are needed in development of other multicomponent method such as electron-nuclear DFT and electron-nuclear FCIQMC.

  10. Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

  11. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

  12. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

  13. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

  14. Reconciling simulated melting and ground-state properties of metals with a modified embedded-atom method potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushko, G. B.; Verkhovtsev, A. V.; Kexel, Ch; Korol, A. V.; Schramm, S.; Solov'yov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a modification of the embedded-atom method-type potential aiming at reconciling simulated melting and ground-state properties of metals by means of classical molecular dynamics. Considering titanium, magnesium, gold, and platinum as case studies, we demonstrate that simulations performed with the modified force field yield quantitatively correctly both the melting temperature of the metals and their ground-state properties. It is shown that the accounting for the long-range interatomic interactions noticeably affects the melting point assessment. The introduced modification weakens the interaction at interatomic distances exceeding the equilibrium one by a characteristic vibration amplitude defined by the Lindemann criterion, thus allowing for the correct simulation of melting, while keeping its behavior in the vicinity of the ground state minimum. The modification of the many-body potential has a general nature and can be applicable to metals with different characteristics of the electron structure as well as for many different molecular and solid state systems experiencing phase transitions.

  15. Is the simple auger coring method reliable for below-ground standing biomass estimation in Eucalyptus forest plantations?

    PubMed Central

    Levillain, Joseph; Thongo M'Bou, Armel; Deleporte, Philippe; Saint-André, Laurent; Jourdan, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite their importance for plant production, estimations of below-ground biomass and its distribution in the soil are still difficult and time consuming, and no single reliable methodology is available for different root types. To identify the best method for root biomass estimations, four different methods, with labour requirements, were tested at the same location. Methods The four methods, applied in a 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantation in Congo, were based on different soil sampling volumes: auger (8 cm in diameter), monolith (25 × 25 cm quadrate), half Voronoi trench (1·5 m3) and a full Voronoi trench (3 m3), chosen as the reference method. Key Results With the reference method (0–1m deep), fine-root biomass (FRB, diameter <2 mm) was estimated at 1·8 t ha−1, medium-root biomass (MRB diameter 2–10 mm) at 2·0 t ha−1, coarse-root biomass (CRB, diameter >10 mm) at 5·6 t ha−1 and stump biomass at 6·8 t ha−1. Total below-ground biomass was estimated at 16·2 t ha−1 (root : shoot ratio equal to 0·23) for this 800 tree ha−1 eucalypt plantation density. The density of FRB was very high (0·56 t ha−1) in the top soil horizon (0–3 cm layer) and decreased greatly (0·3 t ha−1) with depth (50–100 cm). Without labour requirement considerations, no significant differences were found between the four methods for FRB and MRB; however, CRB was better estimated by the half and full Voronoi trenches. When labour requirements were considered, the most effective method was auger coring for FRB, whereas the half and full Voronoi trenches were the most appropriate methods for MRB and CRB, respectively. Conclusions As CRB combined with stumps amounted to 78 % of total below-ground biomass, a full Voronoi trench is strongly recommended when estimating total standing root biomass. Conversely, for FRB estimation, auger coring is recommended with a design pattern accounting for the spatial variability of fine-root distribution. PMID:21572093

  16. A field trial of a survey method for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Mark; Feleke, Teshome; Sadler, Kate; Collins, Steve

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a survey method for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes in humanitarian emergencies. METHODS: The trial survey used a stratified design with strata that were defined using the centric systematic area sample method. Thirty 100 km2 quadrats were sampled. The communities located closest to the centre of each quadrat were sampled using a case-finding approach. FINDINGS: The method proved simple and rapid to implement and allowed overall and per-quadrat coverage to be estimated. Overall coverage was 20.0% (95% confidence intervals, 13.8-26.3%). Per-quadrat coverage ranged from zero (in nine quadrats) to 50% (in one quadrat). Coverage was highest in the quadrats closest to therapeutic feeding centres and in quadrats containing major roads leading to the towns in which therapeutic feeding centres were located. CONCLUSION: The method should be used, in preference to WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)-derived survey methods, for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes. Its use should also be considered when evaluating the coverage of other selective entry programmes or when coverage is likely to be spatially inhomogeneous. PMID:15682245

  17. Application of passive source surface-wave method in site engineering seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaofan; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Lihui; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Dong

    2014-02-01

    Site engineering seismic survey provides basic data for seismic effect analysis. As an important parameter of soil, shear-wave velocity is usually obtained through wave velocity testing in borehole. In this paper, the passive source surface-wave method is introduced into the site engineering seismic survey and practically applied in an engineering site of Shijingshan District. By recording the ubiquitous weak vibration on the earth surface, extract the dispersion curve from the surface-wave components using the SPAC method and obtain the shear-wave velocity structure from inversion. Over the depth of 42 m underground, it totally consists of five layers with interface depth of 3.31, 4.50, 7.23, 17.41, and 42.00 m; and shear-wave velocity of 144.0, 198.3, 339.4, 744.2, and 903.7 m/s, respectively. The inversion result is used to evaluate site classification, determine the maximum shear modulus of soil, provide basis for further seismic hazard analysis and site assessment or site zoning, etc. The result shows that the passive source surface-wave method is feasible in the site engineering seismic survey and can replace boreholes, shorten survey period, and reduce engineering cost to some extent.

  18. The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - PCGN: A Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Solver with Improved Nonlinear Control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, Richard L.; Banta, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The preconditioned conjugate gradient with improved nonlinear control (PCGN) package provides addi-tional means by which the solution of nonlinear ground-water flow problems can be controlled as compared to existing solver packages for MODFLOW. Picard iteration is used to solve nonlinear ground-water flow equations by iteratively solving a linear approximation of the nonlinear equations. The linear solution is provided by means of the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm where preconditioning is provided by the modi-fied incomplete Cholesky algorithm. The incomplete Cholesky scheme incorporates two levels of fill, 0 and 1, in which the pivots can be modified so that the row sums of the preconditioning matrix and the original matrix are approximately equal. A relaxation factor is used to implement the modified pivots, which determines the degree of modification allowed. The effects of fill level and degree of pivot modification are briefly explored by means of a synthetic, heterogeneous finite-difference matrix; results are reported in the final section of this report. The preconditioned conjugate gradient method is coupled with Picard iteration so as to efficiently solve the nonlinear equations associated with many ground-water flow problems. The description of this coupling of the linear solver with Picard iteration is a primary concern of this document.

  19. Mapping Ground Water in Three Dimensions - An Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Surveys of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Cochise County, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of two airborne geophysical surveys conducted in the upper San Pedro Valley of southeastern Arizona in 1997 and 1999. The combined surveys cover about 1,000 square kilometers and extend from the Huachuca Mountains on the west to the Mule Mountains and Tombstone Hills on the east and from north of the Babocomari River to near the Mexican border on the south. The surveys included the acquisition of high-resolution magnetic data, which were used to map depth to the crystalline basement rocks underlying the sediments filling the basin. The magnetic inversion results show a complex basement morphology, with sediment thickness in the center of the valley ranging from ~237 meters beneath the city of Sierra Vista to ~1,500 meters beneath Huachuca City and the Palominas area near the Mexican border. The surveys also included acquisition of 60-channel time-domain electromagnetic (EM) data. Extensive quality analyses of these data, including inversion to conductivity vs. depth (conductivity-depth-transform or CDT) profiles and comparisons with electrical well logs, show that the electrical conductor mapped represents the subsurface water-bearing sediments throughout most of the basin. In a few places (notably the mouth of Huachuca Canyon), the reported water table lies above where the electrical conductor places it. These exceptions appear to be due to a combination of outdated water-table information, significant horizontal displacement between the wells and the CDT profiles, and a subtle calibration issue with the CDT algorithm apparent only in areas of highly resistive (very dry) overburden. These occasional disparities appear in less than 5 percent of the surveyed area. Observations show, however, that wells drilled in the thick unsaturated zone along the Huachuca Mountain front eventually intersect water, at which point the water rapidly rises high into the unsaturated zone within the wellbore. This rising of water in a wellbore implies some sort of confinement below the thick unsaturated zone, a confinement that is not identified in the available literature. Occasional disparities notwithstanding, maps of the electrical conductor derived from the airborne EM system provide a synoptic view of the presence of water underlying the upper San Pedro Valley, including its three-dimensional distribution. The EM data even show faults previously only inferred from geologic mapping. The magnetic and electromagnetic data together appear to show the thickness of the sediments, the water in the saturated sediments down to a maximum of about 400 meters depth, and even places where the main ground-water body is not in direct contact with the San Pedro River. However, the geophysical data cannot reveal anything directly about hydraulic conductivity or ground-water flow. Estimating these characteristics requires new hydraulic modeling based in part on this report. One concern to reviewers of this report is the effect that clays may have on the electrical conductor mapped with the airborne geophysical system. Although the water in the basin is unusually conductive, averaging 338 microsiemens per centimeter, reasoning cited below suggests that the contribution of clays to the overall conductivity would be relatively small. Basic principles of sedimentary geology suggest that silts and clays should dominate the center of the basin, while sands and gravels would tend to dominate the margins. Although clay content may increase the amplitude of the observed electrical conductors somewhat, it will not affect the depths to the conductor derived from depth inversions. Further, fine-grained sediments generally have higher porosity and tend to lie toward a basin center, a fact in general agreement with the observed geophysical data.

  20. The survey activities in whole Japan done by Tadataka Inou using the methods of Yoshitoki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakoiwa, Eiichi

    2005-06-01

    In 2001, 207 sheets of copies of Japanese map were discovered in the Library of Congress of USA in Washington D.C. Those maps called "Daizu" were surveyed by Tadataka Inou who was a surveyor in Edo era. Last year, home coming exhibitions for those maps were held in all over Japan during one year. These highly accurate maps were surveyed by Tadataka Inou who entered into a private school of Yoshitoki Takahashi who was a governmental official regarding astronomy of the Edo shogunate using theory of astronomy and methods of surveying learned from Yoshitoki Inou completed these maps spending 3,727 days and traveling 39,000 km distance on foot.

  1. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: Rationale, Methods, Description of Participants, and Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Waruiru, Wanjiru; Kim, Andrea A.; Kimanga, Davies O.; Ng’ang’a, James; Schwarcz, Sandra; Kimondo, Lucy; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Umuro, Mamo; Mwangi, Mary; Ojwang’, James K.; Maina, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional population-based surveys are essential surveillance tools for tracking changes in HIV epidemics. In 2007, Kenya implemented the first AIDS Indicator Survey [Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007)], a nationally representative, population-based survey that collected demographic and behavioral data and blood specimens from individuals aged 15–64 years. Kenya’s second AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was conducted to monitor changes in the epidemic, evaluate HIV prevention, care, and treatment initiatives, and plan for an efficient and effective response to the HIV epidemic. Methods KAIS 2012 was a cross-sectional 2-stage cluster sampling design, household-based HIV serologic survey that collected information on households as well as demographic and behavioral data from Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years. Participants also provided blood samples for HIV serology and other related tests at the National HIV Reference Laboratory. Results Among 9300 households sampled, 9189 (98.8%) were eligible for the survey. Of the eligible households, 8035 (87.4%) completed household-level questionnaires. Of 16,383 eligible individuals aged 15–64 years and emancipated minors aged less than 15 years in these households, 13,720 (83.7%) completed interviews; 11,626 (84.7%) of the interviewees provided a blood specimen. Of 6302 eligible children aged 18 months to 14 years, 4340 (68.9%) provided a blood specimen. Of the 2094 eligible children aged 10–14 years, 1661 (79.3%) completed interviews. Conclusions KAIS 2012 provided representative data to inform a strategic response to the HIV epidemic in the country. PMID:24732819

  2. A method of increasing the sensitivity of protection from single-phase short-circuits to ground in the 6 - 10 kV network

    SciTech Connect

    Manilov, A. M.; Mel'nik, D. A.

    2012-07-15

    A method of increasing the sensitivity of protection from single-phase short-circuits to ground by acting on the signal with brief dummy grounding of the neutral is described. After determining the damage, the neutral is again grounded through a high resistance and an arc-quenching reactor. An increase in the protection sensitivity is thereby obtained, the damage detection time is shortened, and the probability of the single-phase short-circuit to ground converting into double and multipoint earth faults is reduced.

  3. Stable imaging tracking method based on learning online for ground moving target with multi-DSP processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Zhong, Sheng

    2011-11-01

    A stable imaging tracking method based on learning online for ground moving target with multi-DSP processing is presented in this paper. Background window is set to track and predict the background image and supervise the intruder. The target learning online based on background prediction revises the accumulated tracking error. Different tracking strategy during different tracking states and risk level of intruder improves the stability and accuracy of tracking system especially in a long time of continual tracking. The parallel processing based on multiple DSP makes a real-time tracking system be possible.

  4. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration--A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously. PMID:25970254

  5. Method and basis set dependence of anharmonic ground state nuclear wave functions and zero-point energies: application to SSSH.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Stephen J; Jordan, Meredith J T

    2010-02-01

    One of the largest remaining errors in thermochemical calculations is the determination of the zero-point energy (ZPE). The fully coupled, anharmonic ZPE and ground state nuclear wave function of the SSSH radical are calculated using quantum diffusion Monte Carlo on interpolated potential energy surfaces (PESs) constructed using a variety of method and basis set combinations. The ZPE of SSSH, which is approximately 29 kJ mol(-1) at the CCSD(T)/6-31G* level of theory, has a 4 kJ mol(-1) dependence on the treatment of electron correlation. The anharmonic ZPEs are consistently 0.3 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy than the harmonic ZPEs calculated at the Hartree-Fock and MP2 levels of theory, and 0.7 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy at the CCSD(T)/6-31G* level of theory. Ideally, for sub-kJ mol(-1) thermochemical accuracy, ZPEs should be calculated using correlated methods with as big a basis set as practicable. The ground state nuclear wave function of SSSH also has significant method and basis set dependence. The analysis of the nuclear wave function indicates that SSSH is localized to a single symmetry equivalent global minimum, despite having sufficient ZPE to be delocalized over both minima. As part of this work, modifications to the interpolated PES construction scheme of Collins and co-workers are presented. PMID:20136303

  6. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously. PMID:25970254

  7. Application of classification-tree methods to identify nitrate sources in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.; Showers, W.J.; Howe, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if nitrate sources in ground water (fertilizer on crops, fertilizer on golf courses, irrigation spray from hog (Sus scrofa) wastes, and leachate from poultry litter and septic systems) could be classified with 80% or greater success. Two statistical classification-tree models were devised from 48 water samples containing nitrate from five source categories. Model I was constructed by evaluating 32 variables and selecting four primary predictor variables (??15N, nitrate to ammonia ratio, sodium to potassium ratio, and zinc) to identify nitrate sources. A ??15N value of nitrate plus potassium 18.2 indicated inorganic or soil organic N. A nitrate to ammonia ratio 575 indicated nitrate from golf courses. A sodium to potassium ratio 3.2 indicated spray or poultry wastes. A value for zinc 2.8 indicated poultry wastes. Model 2 was devised by using all variables except ??15N. This model also included four variables (sodium plus potassium, nitrate to ammonia ratio, calcium to magnesium ratio, and sodium to potassium ratio) to distinguish categories. Both models were able to distinguish all five source categories with better than 80% overall success and with 71 to 100% success in individual categories using the learning samples. Seventeen water samples that were not used in model development were tested using Model 2 for three categories, and all were correctly classified. Classification-tree models show great potential in identifying sources of contamination and variables important in the source-identification process.

  8. Chloride mass-balance method for estimating ground water recharge in arid areas: Examples from western Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bazuhair, A.S.; Wood, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The chloride mass-balance method, which integrates time and aerial distribution of ground water recharge, was applied to small alluvial aquifers in the wadi systems of the Asir and Hijaz mountains in western Saudi Arabia. This application is an extension of the method shown to be suitable for estimating recharge in regional aquifers in semi-arid areas. Because the method integrates recharge in time and space it appears to be, with certain assumptions, particularly well suited for and areas with large temporal and spatial variation in recharge. In general, recharge was found to be between 3 to 4% of precipitation - a range consistent with recharge rates found in other arid and semi-arid areas of the earth.

  9. Ground motion simulation for the 23 August 2011, Mineral, Virginia earthquake using physics-based and stochastic broadband methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Xiaodan; Hartzell, Stephen; Rezaeian, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    Three broadband simulation methods are used to generate synthetic ground motions for the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and compare with observed motions. The methods include a physics‐based model by Hartzell et al. (1999, 2005), a stochastic source‐based model by Boore (2009), and a stochastic site‐based model by Rezaeian and Der Kiureghian (2010, 2012). The ground‐motion dataset consists of 40 stations within 600 km of the epicenter. Several metrics are used to validate the simulations: (1) overall bias of response spectra and Fourier spectra (from 0.1 to 10 Hz); (2) spatial distribution of residuals for GMRotI50 peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity, and pseudospectral acceleration (PSA) at various periods; (3) comparison with ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for the eastern United States. Our results show that (1) the physics‐based model provides satisfactory overall bias from 0.1 to 10 Hz and produces more realistic synthetic waveforms; (2) the stochastic site‐based model also yields more realistic synthetic waveforms and performs superiorly for frequencies greater than about 1 Hz; (3) the stochastic source‐based model has larger bias at lower frequencies (<0.5  Hz) and cannot reproduce the varying frequency content in the time domain. The spatial distribution of GMRotI50 residuals shows that there is no obvious pattern with distance in the simulation bias, but there is some azimuthal variability. The comparison between synthetics and GMPEs shows similar fall‐off with distance for all three models, comparable PGA and PSA amplitudes for the physics‐based and stochastic site‐based models, and systematic lower amplitudes for the stochastic source‐based model at lower frequencies (<0.5  Hz).

  10. EVALUATION OF SAMPLING AND FIELD FILTRATION METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRACE METALS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected groundwater sampling and filtering methods were evaluated to determine their effects on field parameters and trace metal concentrations in samples collected under several types of field conditions. he study focused on sampling in conventional standpipe monitoring wells u...

  11. Comparing the Cloud Vertical Structure Derived from Several Methods Based on Radiosonde Profiles and Ground-based Remote Sensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Suros, M.; Calbo, J.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-08-27

    The cloud vertical distribution and especially the cloud base height, which is linked to cloud type, is an important characteristic in order to describe the impact of clouds in a changing climate. In this work several methods to estimate the cloud vertical structure (CVS) based on atmospheric sounding profiles are compared, considering number and position of cloud layers, with a ground based system which is taken as a reference: the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL). All methods establish some conditions on the relative humidity, and differ on the use of other variables, the thresholds applied, or the vertical resolution of the profile. In this study these methods are applied to 125 radiosonde profiles acquired at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during all seasons of year 2009 and endorsed by GOES images, to confirm that the cloudiness conditions are homogeneous enough across their trajectory. The overall agreement for the methods ranges between 44-88%; four methods produce total agreements around 85%. Further tests and improvements are applied on one of these methods. In addition, we attempt to make this method suitable for low resolution vertical profiles, which could be useful in atmospheric modeling. The total agreement, even when using low resolution profiles, can be improved up to 91% if the thresholds for a moist layer to become a cloud layer are modified to minimize false negatives with the current data set, thus improving overall agreement.

  12. A new method to obtain ground control points based on SRTM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; An, Wei; Deng, Xin-pu; Zhang, Xi

    2013-09-01

    The GCPs are widely used in remote sense image registration and geometric correction. Normally, the DRG and DOM are the major data source from which GCPs are extracted. But the high accuracy products of DRG and DOM are usually costly to obtain. Some of the production are free, yet without any guarantee. In order to balance the cost and the accuracy, the paper proposes a method of extracting the GCPs from SRTM data. The method consist of artificial assistance, binarization, data resample and reshape. With artificial assistance to find out which part of SRTM data could be used as GCPs, such as the islands or sharp coast line. By utilizing binarization algorithm , the shape information of the region is obtained while other information is excluded. Then the binary data is resampled to a suitable resolution required by specific application. At last, the data would be reshaped according to satellite imaging type to obtain the GCPs which could be used. There are three advantages of the method proposed in the paper. Firstly, the method is easy for implementation. Unlike the DRG data or DOM data that charges a lot, the SRTM data is totally free to access without any constricts. Secondly, the SRTM has a high accuracy about 90m that is promised by its producer, so the GCPs got from it can also obtain a high quality. Finally, given the SRTM data covers nearly all the land surface of earth between latitude -60° and latitude +60°, the GCPs which are produced by the method can cover most important regions of the world. The method which obtain GCPs from SRTM data can be used in meteorological satellite image or some situation alike, which have a relative low requirement about the accuracy. Through plenty of simulation test, the method is proved convenient and effective.

  13. Methods for implementing a medicine outlet survey: lessons from the anti-malarial market

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years an increasing number of public investments and policy changes have been made to improve the availability, affordability and quality of medicines available to consumers in developing countries, including anti-malarials. It is important to monitor the extent to which these interventions are successful in achieving their aims using quantitative data on the supply side of the market. There are a number of challenges related to studying supply, including outlet sampling, gaining provider cooperation and collecting accurate data on medicines. This paper provides guidance on key steps to address these issues when conducting a medicine outlet survey in a developing country context. While the basic principles of good survey design and implementation are important for all surveys, there are a set of specific issues that should be considered when conducting a medicine outlet survey. Methods This paper draws on the authors’ experience of designing and implementing outlet surveys, including the lessons learnt from ACTwatch outlet surveys on anti-malarial retail supply, and other key studies in the field. Key lessons and points of debate are distilled around the following areas: selecting a sample of outlets; techniques for collecting and analysing data on medicine availability, price and sales volumes; and methods for ensuring high quality data in general. Results and conclusions The authors first consider the inclusion criteria for outlets, contrasting comprehensive versus more focused approaches. Methods for developing a reliable sampling frame of outlets are then presented, including use of existing lists, key informants and an outlet census. Specific issues in the collection of data on medicine prices and sales volumes are discussed; and approaches for generating comparable price and sales volume data across products using the adult equivalent treatment dose (AETD) are explored. The paper concludes with advice on practical considerations, including questionnaire design, field worker training, and data collection. Survey materials developed by ACTwatch for investigating anti-malarial markets in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia provide a helpful resource for future studies in this area. PMID:23383972

  14. Estimation of cloud height using ground-based stereophotography: methods, error analysis, and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Maksim S.; Chulichkov, Alexey I.; Emilenko, Aleksander S.; Medvedev, Andrey P.; Postylyakov, Oleg V.

    2014-11-01

    Retrieval errors of the atmospheric composition using optical methods (DOAS et al.) are under the determining influence of the cloudiness during the measurements. If there is information about the clouds, the optical model of the atmosphere used to interpret the measurements can be adjusted, and the retrieval errors are reduced. For the reconstruction of the parameters of clouds a method was developed based on taking pictures of the sky by a pair of digital photocameras and subsequent processing of the obtained sequence of stereo frames by a method of morphological analysis of images. Since the directions of the optical axes of the cameras are not exactly known, the calibration of the direction of sight of the cameras was conducted at the first stage using the photographs of the stars in the night sky. At the second stage, the relative shift of the image of the cloud fragment on the second frame of the pair was calculated. Stereo pairs obtained by simultaneous photography, allowed us to estimate the height of cloud. The report describes a mathematical model of measurement, pose and solve the problem of calibration of direction of sight of the cameras, describes methods of combining of image fragments by morphological method, the problem of estimating cloud height and speed of their movement is formulated and solved. The examples of evaluations in a real photo are analyzed and validated by the way of comparing with the results of measurement by laser rangefinder.

  15. A ground electromagnetic survey used to map sulfides and acid sulfate ground waters at the abandoned Cabin Branch Mine, Prince William Forest Park, northern Virginia gold-pyrite belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Prince William Forest Park is situated at the northeastern end of the Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt northwest of the town of Dumfries, VA. The U. S. Marine Corps Reservation at Quantico borders the park on the west and south, and occupies part of the same watershed. Two abandoned mines are found within the park: the Cabin Branch pyrite mine, a historic source of acid mine drainage, and the Greenwood gold mine, a source of mercury contamination. Both are within the watershed of Quantico Creek (Fig.1). The Cabin Branch mine (also known as the Dumfries mine) lies about 2.4 km northwest of the town of Dumfries. It exploited a 300 meter-long, lens-shaped body of massive sulfide ore hosted by metamorphosed volcanic rocks; during its history over 200,000 tons of ore were extracted and processed locally. The site became part of the National Capitol Region of the National Park Service in 1940 and is currently managed by the National Park Service. In 1995 the National Park Service, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy reclaimed the Cabin Branch site. The Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt, also known as the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, is host to numerous abandoned metal mines (Pavlides and others, 1982), including the Cabin Branch deposit. The belt itself extends from its northern terminus near Cabin Branch, about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. It is underlain by metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (non-carbonate) sedimentary rocks, originally deposited approximately 460 million years ago during the Ordovician Period (Horton and others, 1998). Three kinds of deposits are found in the belt: volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, and gold placer deposits. The massive sulfide deposits such as Cabin Branch were historically mined for their sulfur, copper, zinc, and lead contents, but also yielded byproduct gold and silver. The environmental impact of massive sulfide deposits can be substantial. These deposits are characterized by high concentrations of heavy-metal sulfide minerals, hosted by silicate rocks. Thus, weathering of these deposits and their mine wastes has the potential to generate heavy-metal laden sulfuric acid that can have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In addition, lead associated with solid mine wastes has the potential for human health impacts through ingestion. The heavy metals that are encountered in these deposits and are most likely to cause environmental impacts include copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. In addition, the weathering of pyrite releases large amounts of iron, and the acid generated attacks the country rocks and causes the release of large amounts of aluminum, which also can severely impact aquatic ecosystems. A reclamation attempt was made at the site in 1995, including construction of storm-water diversion trenches around the abandoned mine area, grading tailings away from the stream bank, addition of pulverized limestone and topsoil, and revegetation. The post-reclamation chemistry of shallow groundwaters (<3 meters deep) shows a neutral pH on the southwestern bank of the stream but pH of 4.1 to 4.5 on the northeastern bank. The dominant ions are Fe2+ and SO42- (Seal, Haffner, Meier, and Pollio, 1999) A ground electromagnetic survey was conducted over the site in 1999 as part of a wider study ( Seal, Haffner, and Meier, 1998a,b, 1999). It was hoped that a 3-D map of the soil conductivity derived from the survey could provide insight into the distribution of the mobilized sulfides present under the ground. This study was conducted in cooperation with the National Park Service

  16. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers

    2005-05-13

    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  17. Study on the Technology and Method of Land Cover Classification for Geographic National Conditions Surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Li, H. T.; Gu, H. Y.; Han, Y. S.

    2013-07-01

    Land Cover is the basis of geographic national conditions monitoring, extracting land cover information timely and accurately has become one of important tasks in the geographic national conditions surveying project. For the current situation of complex land cover type and large amount of data, there has emerged various new classification techniques and methods. However, the big difficult of classification,the large amount of data, the heavy workload of post-editing and other factors have seriously hampered the progress of the project. In this paper, it chooses high-resolution remote sensing image as original data, comprehensivly elaborates present research situation of oriented land cover classification. By the systematical analysis and summary of the basic and key problems of the land cover classification technology, relying on the geographic national information classification and standard system, discusses the available methods preliminarily to improve the accuracy of land cover classification which based on geographic national conditions surveying.

  18. [The topological method of analysis of ground contamination of former nuclear test sites].

    PubMed

    Makarenko, N G; Karimova, L M; Beliashov, D N; Komarov, I I; Aristova, I L; Kardashev, A V; Iushkov, A V

    1999-01-01

    The method of topological description of former nuclear tests in demonstrated in this paper. The information about the field is extracted from the topology of 2D crossections of 3D surfaces constructed on experimental data. The complexity of izolines' system for each cross section in estimated by algebraic sum of contours bounded the areas where the field is higher then the given level. That gives a possibility to do morphological analysis of radionuclide fields using archive data and can be used for ecological diagnosis of different contaminations. The using of this method is shown on some examples. PMID:10576021

  19. Ground difference compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  20. Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: Analytic energy gradients for ground and excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Ledermller, Katrin; Schtz, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest.

  1. Precision grid survey apparatus and method for the mapping of hidden ferromagnetic structures

    DOEpatents

    von Wimmerspeg, Udo

    2004-11-16

    The present invention is for a precision grid surveyor having a stationary unit and a roving unit. The stationary unit has a light source unit that emits a light beam and a rotator to project the light beam toward detectors on a roving unit. The roving unit moves over an area to be surveyed. Further the invention is for a method of mapping details of hidden underground iron pipelines, and more particularly the location of bell joints.

  2. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output. PMID:26430292

  3. Examining the Potential of Combining the Methods of Grounded Theory and Narrative Inquiry: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Shalini; Suto, Melinda; Ungar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, qualitative researchers are combining methods, processes, and principles from two or more methodologies over the course of a research study. Critics charge that researchers adopting combined approaches place too little attention on the historical, epistemological, and theoretical aspects of the research design. Rather than…

  4. Assessment of Two Methods of Sequencing Ground Trainer Practice for Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gary B.; And Others

    The study was an operational evaluation of two methods of instruction sequencing for the T-38 phase of Undergraduate Pilot Training. Scheduling of concentrated trainer phases prior to aircraft flight improved student performance for early aircraft rides as compared with an intermixed trainer and aircraft schedule. Although grade differences washed…

  5. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  6. Method of estimation of cloud base height using ground-based digital stereophotography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulichkov, Alexey I.; Andreev, Maksim S.; Emilenko, Aleksandr S.; Ivanov, Victor A.; Medvedev, Andrey P.; Postylyakov, Oleg V.

    2015-11-01

    Errors of the retrieval of the atmospheric composition using optical methods (DOAS et al.) are under the determining influence of the cloudiness during the measurements. Information on cloud characteristics helps to adjust the optical model of the atmosphere used to interpret the measurements and to reduce the retrieval errors are. For the reconstruction of some geometrical characteristics of clouds a method was developed based on taking pictures of the sky by a pair of digital photo cameras and subsequent processing of the obtained sequence of stereo frames to obtain the height of the cloud base. Since the directions of the optical axes of the stereo cameras are not exactly known, a procedure of adjusting of obtained frames was developed which use photographs of the night starry sky. In the second step, the method of the morphological analysis of images is used to determine the relative shift of the coordinates of some fragment of cloud. The shift is used to estimate the searched cloud base height. The proposed method can be used for automatic processing of stereo data and getting the cloud base height. The report describes a mathematical model of stereophotography measurement, poses and solves the problem of adjusting of optical axes of the cameras, describes method of searching of cloud fragments at another frame by the morphological image analysis; the problem of estimating the cloud base height is formulated and solved. Theoretical investigation shows that for the stereo base of 60 m and shooting with a resolution of 1600x1200 pixels in field of view of 60° the errors do not exceed 10% for the cloud base height up to 4 km. Optimization of camera settings can farther improve the accuracy. Available for authors experimental setup with the stereo base of 17 m and a resolution of 640x480 pixels preliminary confirmed theoretical estimations of the accuracy in comparison with laser rangefinder.

  7. Random Sampling of Quantum States: a Survey of Methods. And Some Issues Regarding the Overparametrized Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed.

  8. Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper lidar surveys for coastal studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of airborne laser altimetry for surveys of coastal topography, and describes the methods used in the acquisition and processing of NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) surveys that cover much of the conterminous US coastline. This form of remote sensing, also known as "topographic lidar", has undergone extremely rapid development during the last two decades, and has the potential to contribute within a wide range of coastal scientific investigations. Various airborne laser surveying (ALS) applications that are relevant to coastal studies are being pursued by researchers in a range of Earth science disciplines. Examples include the mapping of "bald earth" land surfaces below even moderately dense vegetation in studies of geologic framework and hydrology, and determination of the vegetation canopy structure, a key variable in mapping wildlife habitats. ALS has also proven to be an excellent method for the regional mapping of geomorphic change along barrier island beaches and other sandy coasts due to storms or long-term sedimentary processes. Coastal scientists are adopting ALS as a basic method in the study of an array of additional coastal topics. ALS can provide useful information in the analysis of shoreline change, the prediction and assessment of landslides along seacliffs and headlands, examination of subsidence causing coastal land loss, and in predicting storm surge and tsunami inundation.

  9. A fast method for quantifying observational selection effects in asteroid surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Granvik, Mikael; Beshore, Ed

    2016-03-01

    We present a fast method to calculate an asteroid survey's 'bias' - essentially a correction factor from the observed number of objects to the actual number in the population. The method builds upon the work of Jedicke and Metcalfe (Jedicke, R., Metcalfe, T.S. [1998]. Icaurs 131, 245-260) and Granvik et al. (Granvik, M., Vaubaillon, J., Jedicke, R. [2012]. Icarus 218, 262-277) and essentially efficiently maps out the phase space of orbit elements that can appear in a field-of-view. It does so by 'integrating' outwards in geocentric distance along a field's boresite from the topocentric location of the survey and calculating the allowable angular elements for each desired combination of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination. We then use a contour algorithm to map out the orbit elements that place an object at the edge of the field-of-view. We illustrate the method's application to calculate the bias correction for near Earth Objects detected with the Catalina Sky Survey (Christensen, E. et al. [2012]. AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts, vol. 44, p. 210.13; Larson, S. et al. [1998]. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, vol. 30, p. 1037).

  10. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Maio, Rosa; Meola, Carosena; Fedi, Maurizio; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2010-05-01

    An integration of high-resolution non-destructive techniques is presented for the inspection and evaluation of ancient architectonic structures. Infrared thermography (IRT) represents a valuable tool for nondestructive evaluation of architectonic structures and artworks because it is capable of giving indications about most of the degradation sources of artworks and buildings of both historical interest and civil use. In particular, it is possible to detect cracks, disbondings, alteration of material consistency, etc. Indeed, by choosing the most adequate thermographic technique, it is possible to monitor the conservation state of artworks in time and to detect the presence of many types of defects (e.g., voids, cracks, disbondings, etc.) in different types of materials (e.g., concrete, masonry structures, bronze, etc.). The main advantages of infrared thermography when dealing with precious artworks may be summarized with three words: non-contact, non-invasive, and two-dimensionality. It is possible to inspect either a large surface such as the facade of a palace, or a very small surface of only few square millimetres. Conversely, the inspection depth is quite small; generally, of the order of centimetres. However, as demonstrated in previous work, IRT well matches with electric-and electromagnetic-type geophysical methods to characterize the overlapping zone from low-to-high depth in masonry structures. In particular, the use of high-frequency electromagnetic techniques, such as the ground penetrating radar (GPR), permits to reach investigation depths of some ten of centimetres by choosing appropriate frequencies of the transmitted electromagnetic signal. In the last decade a large utilisation of the GPR methodology to non-destructive analysis of engineering and architectural materials and structures has been experienced. This includes diverse features, such as definition of layer thickness, characterisation of different constructive materials, identification of voids and/or degraded zones, water content mapping, location of reinforcing bars and metal elements in concrete structures. The attention of this work is focused on the integration of both techniques for inspection of architectonic structures. First, an integration of techniques is performed in laboratory by considering an ad hoc specimen with insertion of anomalies. Then, the techniques are used for the inspection in situ of some important Italian archaeological sites, such as Pompei (Naples) and Nora (Cagliari). In the first site, the exploration is devoted to the analysis of wall decoration of the architectonical complex of Villa Imperiale with the aim to support the hypothesis that attributes the Villa to Imperial property as well as to evaluate the state of conservation of frescoes and underneath structure. As main findings, the applied techniques allows for detection of hidden previous decorative layers and for discrimination of different types of paint used as well as for identification of areas damaged by ingression in-depth of moisture and/or by disaggregation of the constituent materials. In the archaeological area of Nora, instead, the prospecting is devised to the evaluation of the state of degradation of two significant buildings of the ancient site: the temple and the theatre. Due to the very high horizontal and vertical resolution of the performed surveys, detailed physical anomaly maps of the investigated structures are obtained. Large portions of the masonry walls appear interested by decomposition of the mortar binding the stone blocks, which sometimes propagates along the whole stone wall. The information coming from a joint interpretation of IRT and GPR data allows detailed 3D images of the two investigated buildings, which are useful for future restoration planning.

  11. A generalized finite-difference formulation for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Modular Ground-Water Flow Model assumes that model nodes are in the center of cells and that transmissivity is constant within a cell. Based on these assumptions, the model calculates coefficients, called conductance, that are multiplied by head difference to determine flow between cells. Although these are common assumptions in finite-difference models, other assumptions are possible. A new option to the model program reads conductance as input data rather than calculating it. This optional lows the user to calculate conductance outside of the model. The user thus has the flexibility to define conductance using any desired assumptions. For a water-table condition, horizontal conductance must change as water level varies. To handle this situation, the new option reads conductance divided by thickness (CDT) as input data. The model calculates saturated thickness and multiplies it by CDT to obtain conductance. Thus, the user is still free from the assumptions of centered nodes and constant transmissivity in cells. The model option is written in FORTRAN77 and is fully compatible with the existing model. This report documents the new model option; it includes a description of the concepts, detailed input instructions, and a listing of the code.

  12. Comparison of ground-based measurements of natural radiation to airborne radiation survey data on transects from coastal California to the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, P. W.; Hernández, L.; Messina, P.; Dearaujo, J.; Li, A.; Hicks, A.; White, L.

    2008-12-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements were collected with a hand-held Geiger counter at nearly 400 locations on two general transects across the southwestern United States. The data are used to provide ground-truth comparison to published airborne radiation surveys of the region. The first transect was collected by high school students in the SF-ROCKS program at San Francisco State University in the summer of 2008 starting in San Francisco. Data were collected across the Sierra Nevada Range on I-80, and across Highway 50 in Nevada, and I-70 in Utah. Data were collected in and around Great Basin, Arches, Capitol Reef, Bryce, and Zion National Parks, and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. A second transect extends from San José, California to Flagstaff, Arizona and includes the Mojave National Reserve, Death Valley region, and locations throughout the Navajo Reservation region in northern Arizona and western New Mexico. Radiation data (with GPS reference) were collected from all the major sedimentary rock formations and igneous rocks of the Colorado Plateau and from many igneous and metamorphic rocks throughout the Great Basin and southern California deserts. Anomalously high localized levels were noted in selected sedimentary units associated with uranium exploration targets in the Colorado Plateau region, and in caverns and rock fissures where radon gas (and accumulation of derivative fission products) are the inferred sources.

  13. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  14. A method for synthesis of small arrays of printed dipole antennas backed by a ground plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Branko D.

    1987-11-01

    A method is proposed for synthesis of antenna arrays consisting of narrow strip-dipole antennas printed on a thin dielectric substrate. Approximately antiresonant dipoles (i.e., dipoles about one wavelength long) are considered, because by moderate variation of their width and length their impedance can be varied in a wide range. A method for analysis of such arrays is described first, in which the printed strip dipoles are replaced by approximately equivalent circular-cylindrical dipoles with coaxial magnetic coating, using recently proposed generalization of equivalent radius of thin cylindrical antennas. An interactive optimization procedure is next applied for synthesis, which enables arrays to be obtained having array radiation pattern and, particularly, dipole impedances close to the desired.

  15. System and Method for Suppression of Unwanted Noise in Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q. (Inventor); Clem, Michelle M. (Inventor); Fagan, Amy F. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for the suppression of unwanted noise from a jet discharging into a duct are disclosed herein. The unwanted noise may be in the form of excited duct modes or howl due to super resonance. A damper member is used to reduce acoustic velocity perturbations at the velocity anti-node, associated with the half-wave resonance of the duct, weakening the resonance condition and reducing the amplitudes of the spectral peaks.

  16. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    DOEpatents

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  17. Novel survey method finds dramatic decline of wild cotton-top tamarin population.

    PubMed

    Savage, Anne; Thomas, Len; Leighty, Katherine A; Soto, Luis H; Medina, Felix S

    2010-01-01

    The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a critically endangered primate, endemic to the tropical forests of Colombia. Population monitoring is essential to evaluate the success of conservation efforts, yet standard survey methods are ineffective because animals flee silently before they are seen. We developed a novel technique that combines the use of playbacks of territorial vocalizations with traditional transect surveys. We used remote sensing to identify potential habitat within the species' historic range, and visited the 27% that we could survey safely. Of this, only 99 km(2) was extant forest, containing an estimated 2,045 animals (95% confidence interval 1,587-2,634). Assuming comparable densities in non-surveyed areas, approximately 7,394 wild cotton-top tamarins remain in Colombia. With 20-30,000 animals exported to the United States in the late 1960s, this must represent a precipitous decline. Habitat destruction and capture for the illegal pet trade are ongoing. Urgent conservation measures are required to prevent extinction in the wild. PMID:20975684

  18. Novel survey method finds dramatic decline of wild cotton-top tamarin population

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Anne; Thomas, Len; Leighty, Katherine A.; Soto, Luis H.; Medina, Felix S.

    2010-01-01

    The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a critically endangered primate, endemic to the tropical forests of Colombia. Population monitoring is essential to evaluate the success of conservation efforts, yet standard survey methods are ineffective because animals flee silently before they are seen. We developed a novel technique that combines the use of playbacks of territorial vocalizations with traditional transect surveys. We used remote sensing to identify potential habitat within the species' historic range, and visited the 27% that we could survey safely. Of this, only 99 km2 was extant forest, containing an estimated 2,045 animals (95% confidence interval 1,587–2,634). Assuming comparable densities in non-surveyed areas, approximately 7,394 wild cotton-top tamarins remain in Colombia. With 20–30,000 animals exported to the United States in the late 1960s, this must represent a precipitous decline. Habitat destruction and capture for the illegal pet trade are ongoing. Urgent conservation measures are required to prevent extinction in the wild. PMID:20975684

  19. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer survey data application in spatial methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnahan, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology that used geographic information system (GIS) tools to convert airborne gamma-ray spectrometer (AGRS) survey data to various spatial data formats for use in radiological hazard mapping and risk assessments. The importance of this conversion methodology results from the versatility and consistency of spatial interpolations using commercially supported software as opposed to previous methods. Maps of interpolated AGRS data provide potential radiological hazard boundaries, delineated by user-defined limits, to guide intense field surveys. Resulting GIS products may be combined with other risk assessment inputs to model and monitor hazardous environments. The AGRS data used in this research was collected during the 1991 sitewide survey at Savannah River site (SRS) as part of the comprehensive integrated remote sensing (CIRS) program conducted by EG&G for the SRS. The AGRS survey component of the program is designed to provide a database for studying the transport of manufactured radionuclides through the environment at the SRS and surrounding areas. The AGRS data have historically been presented only in hardcopy format as acetate overlays on aerial photography. Recently, digital files representing contoured isotopic response have been delivered to the SRS as GIS themes. Since AGRS data are often a collection of dense sample points, interpolation of the data has previously been conducted by connecting points in series along flight paths. To improve on the original algorithm used to contour AGRS data, a triangulated irregular network (TIN) was used as the data model for contour and raster generation.

  20. A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Yun, Bin

    2012-04-01

    Based on nonlinear theory and field measurements, a hybrid method for modeling the time history of structural vibrations resulting from impact loading in the vicinity of a structure is presented in this paper. The characteristics of the medium present between the impact source and a measured location inside of a structure are depicted by a nonlinear system that can be modeled by a Volterra functional series. The nonlinear system can be identified by the inputs and the corresponding output signals, which can be obtained by performing in situ experiments. Then, the predicted signal induced by a known impact loading at the measured location can be calculated using the identified Volterra functional series. Moreover, the structural vibration under a known impulse train can be controlled by adjusting the delay period according to the predicted results. In addition, the method has been verified by applying it in two practical applications: the cases of impact loading induced by either the impact of a hammer or blasting. The results show that the method features convenient application, high precision and extensive applicability for various types of impact loadings.