Sample records for ground survey methods

  1. Ground-penetrating Radar Survey (GPR)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist conducts a ground-penetrating radar survey to investigate and characterize the shallow subsurface. The survey was conducted as part of an applied research effort by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch of Geophysics in 2006....

  2. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

  3. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

  4. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  5. Correlated supernova systematics and ground based surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Alex G.; Linder, Eric V., E-mail: agkim@lbl.gov, E-mail: evlinder@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Supernova distances provide a direct probe of cosmic acceleration, constraining dark energy. This leverage increases with survey redshift depth at a rate bounded by the systematic uncertainties. We investigate the impact of a wavelength-dependent, global correlation model of systematics in comparison to the standard local-redshift correlation model. This can arise from subclass uncertainties as features in the supernova spectrum redshift out of the observer photometric filters or spectral range. We explore the impact of such a systematic on ground-based supernova surveys such as Dark Energy Survey and LSST, finding distinctive implications. Extending the wavelength sensitivity to 1.05 ?m through ''extreme red'' CCDs can improve the dark energy figure of merit by up to a factor 2.

  6. Assessing modern ground survey methods and airborne laser scanning for digital terrain modelling: A case study from the Lake District, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Lloyd, Christopher D.; McKinley, Jennifer; Barry, Lorraine

    2013-02-01

    This paper compares the applicability of three ground survey methods for modelling terrain: one man electronic tachymetry (TPS), real time kinematic GPS (GPS), and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Vertical accuracy of digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from GPS, TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is assessed. Point elevations acquired by the four methods represent two sections of a mountainous area in Cumbria, England. They were chosen so that the presence of non-terrain features is constrained to the smallest amount. The vertical accuracy of the DTMs was addressed by subtracting each DTM from TPS point elevations. The error was assessed using exploratory measures including statistics, histograms, and normal probability plots. The results showed that the internal measurement accuracy of TPS, GPS, and TLS was below a centimetre. TPS and GPS can be considered equally applicable alternatives for sampling the terrain in areas accessible on foot. The highest DTM vertical accuracy was achieved with GPS data, both on sloped terrain (RMSE 0.16 m) and flat terrain (RMSE 0.02 m). TLS surveying was the most efficient overall but veracity of terrain representation was subject to dense vegetation cover. Therefore, the DTM accuracy was the lowest for the sloped area with dense bracken (RMSE 0.52 m) although it was the second highest on the flat unobscured terrain (RMSE 0.07 m). ALS data represented the sloped terrain more realistically (RMSE 0.23 m) than the TLS. However, due to a systematic bias identified on the flat terrain the DTM accuracy was the lowest (RMSE 0.29 m) which was above the level stated by the data provider. Error distribution models were more closely approximated by normal distribution defined using median and normalized median absolute deviation which supports the use of the robust measures in DEM error modelling and its propagation.

  7. Quantifying Stream Habitat: Relative Effort Versus Quality of Competing Remote Sensing & Ground-Based Survey Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Bangen; J. M. Wheaton; N. Bouwes

    2010-01-01

    Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the quantity and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field sketches or `tape and stick' ground-based surveys, through to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although some investigators have assessed the quality of

  8. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F., Jr.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ?94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ?58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  9. Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Ippolito, C.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, R.; Yeh, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are cooperatively investigating the utility of unmanned vehicles for near-real-time autonomous surveys of geophysical data collection. Initially focused on unmanned ground vehicle collection of magnetic data, this cooperative effort has brought unmanned surveying, precision guidance, near-real-time communication, on-the-fly data processing, and near-real-time data interpretation into the realm of ground geophysical surveying, all of which offer advantages over current methods of manned collection of ground magnetic data. An unmanned ground vehicle mission has demonstrated that these vehicles can successfully complete missions to collect geophysical data, and add advantages in data collection, processing, and interpretation. We view the current experiment as an initial phase in further unmanned vehicle data-collection missions, including aerial surveying.

  10. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Ground floor Plan Framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Ground floor Plan - Framing and seating Original Plan by Benjamin H. Latrobe 1816 Copy of plan in Church Office - St. John's Church, Sixteenth & H Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF BLUEPRINTS OF GROUNDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF BLUEPRINTS OF GROUNDS October 20, 1887 Original in National Archives, Washington, D.C. - U. S. Marine Hospital & Gates, 800 Saint Anthony Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  12. The potential of terrestrial laser scanners for digital ground surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Lichti; J. Franke; W. Cannell; K. D. Wheeler

    2005-01-01

    Digital ground surveys are typically conducted by total station prior to road (re)construction to obtain a three?dimensional model of natural and man?made features within the corridor. A study has been undertaken to ascertain whether two types of terrestrial laser scanner could meet the Main Roads Western Australia accuracy standard for digital ground survey Results indicate that the Standard can be

  13. Ground surveying in Surprise Valley, California

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey researcher Noah Athens secures a magnetometer pack onto Stanford graduate student Melissa Pandika, who blogged the team’s first year’s research for USGS in Surprise Valley, Modoc County, Calif., in 2012. Traditionally, magnetometric surveying has been done on foot ...

  14. Generating Ground Reference Data for a Global Impervious Surface Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; De Colstoun, Eric Brown; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin; Huang, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    We are developing an approach for generating ground reference data in support of a project to produce a 30m impervious cover data set of the entire Earth for the years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. Since sufficient ground reference data for training and validation is not available from ground surveys, we are developing an interactive tool, called HSegLearn, to facilitate the photo-interpretation of 1 to 2 m spatial resolution imagery data, which we will use to generate the needed ground reference data at 30m. Through the submission of selected region objects and positive or negative examples of impervious surfaces, HSegLearn enables an analyst to automatically select groups of spectrally similar objects from a hierarchical set of image segmentations produced by the HSeg image segmentation program at an appropriate level of segmentation detail, and label these region objects as either impervious or nonimpervious.

  15. Comparison of aerial and ground surveying of subsidence over an active longwall

    SciTech Connect

    LaScola, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines repeatedly surveyed a grid of monuments over an active longwall mine panel in southwestern Pennsylvania during a 1-yr period. Both conventional ground surveying techniques and photogrammetry were used. The objective of this investigation was to compare elevation measurements of subsidence obtained from aerial and ground survey methods under dynamic ground conditions. The results of a statistical analysis of the survey data show that the mean of the differences between 372 matched pairs of elevation measurements was 0.20 ft (61 mm) with a 95-pct-confidence interval of 0.05 ft (15 mm). The mean of the absolute values of the differences was 0.38 ft (116 mm) with a 95-pct-confidence interval of 0.04 ft (12 mm). Ninety-five percent of the absolute values of the differences were less than 1.11 ft (338 mm).

  16. Simulating the Performance of Ground-Based Optical Asteroid Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Eric J.; Shelly, Frank C.; Gibbs, Alex R.; Grauer, Albert D.; Hill, Richard E.; Johnson, Jess A.; Kowalski, Richard A.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2014-11-01

    We are developing a set of asteroid survey simulation tools in order to estimate the capability of existing and planned ground-based optical surveys, and to test a variety of possible survey cadences and strategies. The survey simulator is composed of several layers, including a model population of solar system objects and an orbital integrator, a site-specific atmospheric model (including inputs for seeing, haze and seasonal cloud cover), a model telescope (with a complete optical path to estimate throughput), a model camera (including FOV, pixel scale, and focal plane fill factor) and model source extraction and moving object detection layers with tunable detection requirements. We have also developed a flexible survey cadence planning tool to automatically generate nightly survey plans. Inputs to the cadence planner include camera properties (FOV, readout time), telescope limits (horizon, declination, hour angle, lunar and zenithal avoidance), preferred and restricted survey regions in RA/Dec, ecliptic, and Galactic coordinate systems, and recent coverage by other asteroid surveys. Simulated surveys are created for a subset of current and previous NEO surveys (LINEAR, Pan-STARRS and the three Catalina Sky Survey telescopes), and compared against the actual performance of these surveys in order to validate the model’s performance. The simulator tracks objects within the FOV of any pointing that were not discovered (e.g. too few observations, too trailed, focal plane array gaps, too fast or slow), thus dividing the population into “discoverable” and “discovered” subsets, to inform possible survey design changes. Ongoing and future work includes generating a realistic “known” subset of the model NEO population, running multiple independent simulated surveys in coordinated and uncoordinated modes, and testing various cadences to find optimal strategies for detecting NEO sub-populations. These tools can also assist in quantifying the efficiency of novel yet unverified survey cadences (e.g. the baseline LSST cadence) that sparsely spread the observations required for detection over several days or weeks.

  17. Using ground-penetrating radar to update soil survey information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Schellentrager; J. A. Doolittle; T. E. Calhoun; C. A. Wettstein

    2008-01-01

    Rapid changes in land use in many areas of the USA, and evolving concepts of soils and soil mapping have resulted in the need to update information gathered as part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey Program. In Florida, because of optimum soil conditions, large amounts of soil information can be gathered at a rapid rate by using ground-penetrating radar

  18. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  19. Comparing LiDAR-Generated to Ground-Surveyed Channel Cross-Sectional Profiles

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    ), and density of forest overstory and understory vegetation (Reutebuch et al. 2003). Other factors pertain and Ranging (LiDAR) holds promise to provide an alternative to traditional ground-based survey methods on Cal Poly's Swanton Pacific Ranch, near Santa Cruz, CA. Three LiDAR datasets were compared

  20. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system will be approved if...

  1. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

  2. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

  3. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

  4. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system will be approved if...

  5. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

  6. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system will be approved if...

  7. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system will be approved if...

  8. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system will be approved if...

  9. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

  10. A GROUND-BASED 21 cm BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATION SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Dodelson, Scott; Marriner, John; Mcginnis, Dave; Stebbins, Albert; Stoughton, Chris; Vallinotto, Alberto, E-mail: sheejong@fnal.go [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

    2010-09-20

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) provide a robust standard ruler with which to measure the acceleration of the universe. The BAO feature has so far been detected in optical galaxy surveys. Intensity mapping of neutral hydrogen emission with a ground-based radio telescope provides another promising window for measuring BAO at redshifts of order unity for relatively low cost. While the cylindrical radio telescope (CRT) proposed for these measurements will have excellent redshift resolution, it will suffer from poor angular resolution (arcminutes at best). We investigate the effect of angular resolution on the standard ruler test with BAO, using the Dark Energy Task Force Figure of Merit (FoM) as a benchmark. We then extend the analysis to include variations in the parameters characterizing the telescope and the underlying physics. Finally, we optimize the survey parameters (holding total cost fixed) and present an example of a CRT BAO survey that is competitive with Stage III dark energy experiments. The tools developed here form the backbone of a publicly available code that can be used to obtain estimates of cost and FoM for any set of survey parameters.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Climate Response Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey serves the Nation by providing reliable hydrologic information used by others to manage the Nation's water resources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures more than 20,000 wells each year for a variety of objectives as part of Federal programs and in cooperation with State and local agencies. Water-level data are collected using consistent data-collection and quality-control methods. A small subset of these wells meets the criteria necessary to be included in a 'Climate Response Network' of wells designed to illustrate the response of the ground-water system to climate variations nationwide. The primary purpose of the Climate Response Network is to portray the effect of climate on ground-water levels in unconfined aquifers or near-surface confined aquifers that are minimally affected by pumping or other anthropogenic stresses. The Climate Response Network Web site (http://groundwaterwatch.usgs.gov/) is the official USGS Web site for illustrating current ground-water conditions in the United States and Puerto Rico. The Climate Response Network Web pages provide information on ground-water conditions at a variety of scales. A national map provides a broad overview of water-table conditions across the Nation. State maps provide a more local picture of ground-water conditions. Site pages provide the details about a specific well.

  12. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  13. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  14. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  15. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  16. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  17. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  18. Antenna Characteristics and Air-Ground Interface Deembedding Methods for Stepped-Frequency Ground

    E-print Network

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    Antenna Characteristics and Air-Ground Interface Deembedding Methods for Stepped-Frequency Ground, Building 321, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark bDepartment of Applied Electronics, Technical University eld-tests using a Stepped-Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (SF-GPR) and promising antenna and air

  19. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

  20. Grounded Theory in Practice: Is It Inherently a Mixed Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. B.; McGowan, M. W.; Turner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We address 2 key points of contention in this article. First, we engage the debate concerning whether particular methods are necessarily linked to particular research paradigms. Second, we briefly describe a mixed methods version of grounded theory (MM-GT). Grounded theory can be tailored to work well in any of the 3 major forms of mixed methods…

  1. The Neural Network Method of Corrosion Diagnosis for Grounding Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Zaien [School of Science, Shaanxi University of Sci. and Tech., Xi'an, 710021 (China); Duan Fujian [School of Science, Guilin University of Electronic Tech., Guilin, 541004 (China); Zhang Kecun [School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049 (China)

    2008-11-06

    Safety of persons, protection of equipment and continuity of power supply are the main objectives of the grounding system of a large electrical installation. For its accurate working status, it is essential to determine every branch resistance in the system. In this paper, we present a neural network method of corrosion diagnosis for the grounding grid based on the neural network theory. The feasibility of this method is discussed by means of its application to a simulant grounding grid.

  2. A probabilistic method for the design of power grounding systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Sverak; W. Wang; Y. Gervais; X.-D. Do; D. Mukhedkar

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an improved multi-variable, probabilistic method for the safety analysis of power grounding systems. The application of this method is demonstrated in four examples. The first three examples illustrate the practical evaluation of one new and two existing substation grounding grids, when the substation is connected to an overhead distribution system. The fourth example ascertains the relative impact

  3. 76 FR 38203 - Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...the well-being of migratory bird populations. These responsibilities...characteristics of migratory bird populations. The North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey...essential part of the migratory bird management program....

  4. Image registration methods: a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Zitova ´; Jan Flusser

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to present a review of recent as well as classic image registration methods. Image registration is the process of overlaying images (two or more) of the same scene taken at different times, from different viewpoints, and\\/or by different sensors. The registration geometrically align two images (the reference and sensed images). The reviewed approaches are classified according to

  5. A simplified method for calculating the substation grounding grid resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Y.L.; Salama, M.M.A. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Computer Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    A simple and accurate formula for calculating the grounding grid resistance is proposed in this paper. This method is based on a theoretical manipulation of the numerical moment method and of the current image. The formula is dependent on the substation grounding grid design, such as grid depth, grid size, number of meshes, grid-conductor diameter, etc. A comparison study is performed to check the accuracy of the proposed formula with respect to six different formulas and methods in the literature. An excellent agreement was found between the results of this formula and the results of a sophisticated computerized method.

  6. A survey of aftbody flow prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, L. E.; Mace, J.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of computational methods used in the calculation of nozzle aftbody flows is presented. One class of methods reviewed are those which patch together solutions for the inviscid, boundary layer, and plume flow regions. The second class of methods reviewed are those which computationally solve the Navier Stokes equations over nozzle aftbodies with jet exhaust flow. Computed results from the methods are compared with experiment. Advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed along with opportunities for further development of these methods.

  7. Grounded Theory Method in IS research: Glaser vs. Strauss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakobus Smit; Antony Bryant; Beckett Park; Leeds LS

    Grounded theory, as part of the developing interest in qualitative research, is becoming a popular research strategy in the IS field. At the same time however, the method seems to be changing in its essence as researchers adapt it, use it alongside other methods, or rely on only some of its principles in their quest to explain the world. The

  8. Investigating grounding grid integrity based on the current injection method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Ma; George G. Karady

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a test method that is capable of determining the integrity of the grounding grid and clearly indentifying weak points or discontinuities. The concept of the proposed method is to inject the square wave current with high frequency (~500Hz) and high current (~10A maximum) into the grid. The magnetic field produced by the

  9. GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR METHODS USED IN SURFACE-WATER DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. Haeni; Marc L. Buursink; John E. Costa; Nick B. Melcher; Ralph T. Cheng

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of about 7,000 streamflow-gaging stations that monitor open-channel water discharge at locations throughout the United States. The expense, technical difficulties, and concern for the safety of operational personnel under some field conditions have led to the search for alternate measurement methods. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been used by the USGS in hydrologic,

  10. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories. PMID:18194326

  11. A Survey of Methods and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida; And Others

    Designed to assess and describe the nature and frequency of teaching methods, activities, and materials used in secondary school English courses, this survey consists of 14 questions related to teaching objectives, activities, and materials, each followed by a list of possible responses. Teachers are asked to select a course, and to circle for…

  12. Fault detection methods: A literature survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dubravko Miljkovic

    2011-01-01

    Fault detection plays an important role in high- cost and safety-critical processes. Early detection of process faults can help avoid abnormal event progression. Fault detection can be accomplished through various means. This paper presents the literature survey of major methods and current state of research in the field with a selection of important practical applications. I. INTRODUCTION Increasing demands on

  13. Identification of School Bullies by Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Joanna C. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Sheras, Peter

    2006-01-01

    How can middle school counselors identify bullies? This study compared two methods of identifying bullies in a sample of 386 middle school students. A peer nomination survey identified many more bullies than did student self-report. Moreover, self-reported and peer nominated bullies differed in their types of bullying behaviors, level of general…

  14. Aiming for the next bright super earth — Synergies of Ground and Space based Transiting Planets Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Bakos, Gaspar; Hartman, Joel; HATNet Team

    2015-01-01

    With the great success of the Kepler space mission, our knowledge of Exoplanets has been dramatically extended. Nevertheless, ground based transit surveys pioneered the searching of transiting planets and developed many state-of-art techniques widely adopted by the transit community. The HATNet project is one of the most fruitful ground based transit surveys. Been operated for ~10 years, the survey yields ~50 HAT planets, constitute one fourth of the known population with accurate (<=10%) mass determinations.During the operation of Kepler Mission, HATNet team used our state-of-art pipeline and our long terms of observations in Kepler field to assist the analysis of Kepler data and the discovery of new candidates. The large sky coverage of HAT observations will provide continuous supports for the ongoing and future space based transit missions, such as K2 and TESS.On the other hand, we are able to learn about our noise characteristics and candidate selection limitations with the high precision photometric data from Kepler and our simultaneous observations.By exploiting synergies between ground based transit surveys and space transit missions, we'll be able to progress towards discover of bright super earths that are suitable for follow up spectroscopic observationsto investigate their atmosphere properties and chemical compositions. In this talk, I will first briefly review the contributions from the HATNet team in the Kepler mission. I will then present our latest effort in improving the yields and statistics of ground based transit surveys by simultaneousobservations of Kepler's field and employing machine learning techniques in our candidate selection processes. To finish up, I'll demonstrate the roles ground based transit surveys would play in the context of K2 and TESS.

  15. Ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic surveys at the Monroe Crossroads battlefield site, Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Richard; Strain, R.E.; Marlowe, J. I., II; Currin, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-penetrating radar survey was conducted at the Monroe Crossroads Battlefield site at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, to determine possible locations of subsurface archaeological features. An electromagnetic survey also was conducted at the site to verify and augment the ground-penetrating radar data. The surveys were conducted over a 67,200-square-foot grid with a grid point spacing of 20 feet. During the ground-penetrating radar survey, 87 subsurface anomalies were detected based on visual inspection of the field records. These anomalies were flagged in the field as they appeared on the ground-penetrating radar records and were located by a land survey. The electromagnetic survey produced two significant readings at ground-penetrating radar anomaly locations. The National Park Service excavated 44 of the 87 anomaly locations at the Civil War battlefield site. Four of these excavations produced significant archaeological features, including one at an abandoned well.

  16. Ground Penetrating Radar Survey Inside the S. Agata Cathedral of Catania (Eastern Sicily)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiano Imposa; Giuliana Mele

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a ground penetrating radar survey carried out in 2003 inside the S. Agata Cathedral of Catania (eastern Sicily). The aim was to reconstruct the subsurface conditions of the central nave floor to assess the load-bearing capacity of the vauable pavement in view of restoration interventions. Data was acquired with a multi-antenna array along a

  17. In-situ high-resolution gamma-spectrometric survey of burial ground-monitoring wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    In situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with an intrinsic germanium detector assembly of special design surveyed the burial ground monitoring wells to locate and identify gamma emitters that may have migrated from the burial trenches toward the water table. Gamma-ray spectra were acquired as a function of depth in each well and recorded on magnetic tape. These spectra were reduced

  18. 18th AIAA Aerospace Ground Testing Survey of Short Duration, Hypersonic and Hypervelocity Facilities

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    18th AIAA Aerospace Ground Testing Conference #12;94-2491 Survey of Short Duration, Hypersonic 76019-0018 Hypersonic and hypervelocity testing relies to a large extent on short duration facilities activity con- fined mostly to hypersonic and hypervelocity regimes. Early development of such facilities

  19. Comparison of two retrieval methods for ground reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, Carmen; Richter, Rudolf

    1992-08-01

    A comparison of two retrieval methods is presented to calculate ground reflectance from Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data. The first method is based on a modified two-stream approximation to simulate the radiative transfer above an inhomogeneous surface. The atmosphere is parametrized by the optical depth and the single scattering albedo. The theory of fractal geometry is employed to compute the structure measures of a scene, from which the ground variability is estimated. By a linear regression, the ground variability can be related to the atmospheric optical depth. The independent second method is based on model ATCOR (including LOWTRAN-7). Here, a priori knowledge is used (shape of spectral reflectance curve for vegetation, water, bare soil) to determine the unknown atmospheric parameters like optical depth and type of aerosol (single scattering albedo). The adjacency effect, which describes the influence of atmospheric crosstalk in modifying the radiances of adjacent fields of different reflectance, is taken into account by both procedures. Typically, deviations between both methods are up to 2% in reflectance for low to medium reflection (< 30%) targets and up to 4% for high reflectance (> 40%) targets of Landsat imagery. In view of the independent approaches, this level of agreement in retrieved ground reflectance is fairly good. The new method is particularly valuable if no a-priori knowledge is available and if the scene has a large dynamic range of spatial frequencies.

  20. A probabilistic method for the design of power grounding systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sverak, J.; Wang, W. (Gibbs and Hill, Inc., NY (US)); Gervais, Y.; Do, X.D.; Mukhedkar, D. (Ecole Polytechnic de Montreal (CA))

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents an improved multi-variable, probabilistic method for the safety analysis of power grounding systems. The application of this method is demonstrated in four examples. The first three examples illustrate the practical evaluation of one new and two existing substation grounding grids, when the substation is connected to an overhead distribution system. The fourth example ascertains the relative impact of a difference between the S curve of IEC Publication 479 and Dalziel's equation for the allowable body current used in ANSI/IEEE Std 80-1986 upon the validity of an exposure model based on the requirements of Std 80. In this example the statistical data on ground faults have been taken from actual system records. Further possible refinements of the exposure model are also discussed.

  1. Why do computer methods for grounding analysis produce anomalous results?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fermín Navarrina; Ignasi Colominas; Manuel Casteleiro

    2003-01-01

    Grounding systems are designed to guarantee personal security, protection of equipment, and continuity of power supply. Hence, engineers must compute the equivalent resistance of the system and the potential distribution on the earth surface when a fault condition occurs. While very crude approximations were available until the 1970s, several computer methods have been more recently proposed on the basis of

  2. A design method for hybrid ground-source heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanaugh, S.P. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Although ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) are recognized to be outstanding heating, cooling, and water-heating systems, a significant barrier to wider application of this technology is a high first cost, which makes short-term economics unattractive. One possible alternative that can lower first cost is the hybrid ground-source heat pump (HyGSHP) system. In many large buildings in the US, the required GSHP bore length for cooling is much greater than the required heating length. In these cases, it is possible to displace a large portion of the system cost by installing a ground loop large enough to meet the heating requirement in parallel with a fluid cooler or cooling tower to handle the cooling requirement. The project on which this paper reports was proposed to analyze the impact of fluid coolers or cooling towers upon GSHP loop length design, annual ground loop heat buildup, system demand, and annual energy use. From this analysis, a design method was to be developed that simultaneously sizes the ground loop and fluid cooler. The conclusions of the project have attempted to address the needs of the GSHP design community.

  3. Comparison of methods for calibrating AVIRIS data to ground reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg; Heidebrecht, Kathy; Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Green, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    We are comparing three basic methods of calibrating AVIRIS data to ground reflectance: (1) atmospheric radiative transfer models with the solar flux can be used to calibrate AVIRIS radiance data (Specific methods include the University of Colorado CSES ARP and ATREM algorithms); (2) Robert Green's modified MODTRAN and AVIRIS radiance model (This method is similar to 1 but differs in that the solar radiance is bypassed, so any errors in the solar flux are canceled, too); and (3) ground calibration using known sites in the AVIRIS scene. We are using 1992AVIRIS data over Cuprite, Nevada, and Blackhawk Island, Wisconsin, as our test scenes. Both these sites have extensive field measurements. The Cuprite site had a very clear atmosphere, thus path radiance was dominated by Rayleigh scattering with little or no flux beyond 1 micron. The Blackhawk site has more aerosols, with significant path radiance flux beyond 2 micron.

  4. Multibeam sonar detection of suspended mussel culture grounds in the open sea: Direct observation methods for management purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice Brehmer; Catherine Vercelli; François Gerlotto; Fabien Sanguinčde; Yves Pichot; Yvon Guennégan; Dominique Buestel

    2006-01-01

    The exploitation of offshore mussel farms is becoming important throughout the world, but monitoring this activity remains a difficult task. Here, we propose a specific method for this purpose. A total of 140 long-lines were monitored on a mussel culture ground in the French Mediterranean Sea during four experimental surveys deploying multibeam sonar devices mounted on poles (Reson Seabat 6012,

  5. Multivariate methods for ground-level ozone modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bilge Özbay; Gülsen Aydin Keskin; Senay Çetin Dogruparmak; Savas Ayberk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to apply multivariate statistical methods in predicting ozone (O3) concentrations at the ground level of the troposphere as the function of pollution and meteorological parameters. PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3, CH4, NMHC, temperature, rainfall, humidity, pressure, wind direction, wind speed and solar radiation were measured hourly for one year period in order to

  6. Design methods for ground-source heat pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Ball; R. D. Fischer; D. L. Hodgett

    1983-01-01

    Design and performance information on historical and current ground-coil heat-pump systems is assessed along with the adequacy of available design methods and to define Near-future research and development needs to promote the use of this technology are defined. This study concluded that despite an intense effort of experimental work, no suitable general design guidelines have been developed. Modern-day research and

  7. A method to search for strong galaxy-galaxy lenses in optical imaging surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Kubo; Ian P. Dell'Antonio

    2007-01-01

    We present a semi-automated method to search for strong galaxy-galaxy lenses\\u000ain optical imaging surveys. Our search technique constrains the shape of\\u000astrongly lensed galaxies (or arcs) in a multi-parameter space, which includes\\u000athe third order (octopole) moments of objects. This method is applied to the\\u000aDeep Lens Survey (DLS), a deep ground based weak lensing survey imaging to\\u000a$R\\\\sim26$.

  8. Resampling Methods for Sample Surveys Brett Presnell

    E-print Network

    Presnell, Brett

    Introduction Application of the bootstrap in sample survey settings presents practical and conceptual. Bootstrap, confidence interval, Edgeworth expansion, finite population, resampling, second­order correct, survey data. #12; Abstract Application of the bootstrap in sample survey settings presents considerable

  9. MODFLOW-2005 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--the ground-water flow process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents MODFLOW-2005, which is a new version of the finite-difference ground-water model commonly called MODFLOW. Ground-water flow is simulated using a block-centered finite-difference approach. Layers can be simulated as confined or unconfined. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, drains, and rivers, also can be simulated. The report includes detailed explanations of physical and mathematical concepts on which the model is based, an explanation of how those concepts are incorporated in the modular structure of the computer program, instructions for using the model, and details of the computer code. The modular structure consists of a MAIN Program and a series of highly independent subroutines. The subroutines are grouped into 'packages.' Each package deals with a specific feature of the hydrologic system that is to be simulated, such as flow from rivers or flow into drains, or with a specific method of solving the set of simultaneous equations resulting from the finite-difference method. Several solution methods are incorporated, including the Preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient method. The division of the program into packages permits the user to examine specific hydrologic features of the model independently. This also facilitates development of additional capabilities because new packages can be added to the program without modifying the existing packages. The input and output systems of the computer program also are designed to permit maximum flexibility. The program is designed to allow other capabilities, such as transport and optimization, to be incorporated, but this report is limited to describing the ground-water flow capability. The program is written in Fortran 90 and will run without modification on most computers that have a Fortran 90 compiler.

  10. A method for reducing ground reflection effects from acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noerager, J. A.; Rice, E. J.; Feiler, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    The method involved placing foam blocks on the ground between sound source and receiver in an approximation of the wedges in an anechoic chamber. The tests were performed out of doors as a function of the receiver height and source-receiver separation distance. The spacing between blocks and the extent of ground covered were varied to estimate the optimum placement and minimum amount of foam treatment needed. Base-line tests without foam were also performed. It was found that the foam treatment reduced the amplitude of the peaks and valleys in the sound pressure spectra substantially. The foam was least effective at low frequency, especially for the low receiver height and for large source-receiver distances. Results from the base-line tests were compared with theoretically predicted results. These base-line test results were in reasonable agreement with those from theory.

  11. Development of Grounded Electrical Source Airborne Transient EM (GREATEM) Survey System and Its Application to Investigating a Volcano Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, T.; Jomori, A.; Jomori, N.; Azuma, Y.; Fomenko, E. Y.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed an airborne EM system that uses a grounded electrical source and an airborne magnetic field receiver to increase the depth of investigation. Using a grounded source, we can apply a large source moment with a long transmitter-receiver distance, thus we expect to obtain a greater depth of investigation. However, the area of survey is limited with this type of method, but it has some advantages such as little effect of flight level etc. We believe that a repeated survey in active area such as volcano or fault area is effective for monitoring activity in the whole area. By using the airborne survey, we will be able to make repeated survey rapidly in volcano area where it is difficult to enter by a ground survey. The initial stage of the development was reported at Mogi et al. (1998) and the survey system was named as GREATEM (Grounded electrical source airborne transient EM). Time domain data acquisition has an advantage to the deep exploration because it avoids near source field effects that occur in frequency domain measurements. To realize the method, we should overcome mainly two problems: monitoring and filtering the motion noise of the receiver and canceling the natural magnetic field variation and cultural noise without stacking in the time domain data. We prepared high accuracy fiber optic gyros to monitor the pitch and roll of the magnetic sensor in the bird to monitor the motion and also manufactured an electromagnetic receiver that can detect three components of magnetic field and a tilt meter with MI sensor which can detect up to_ 100,000 nT with a sensitivity of 0.04 mV/nT. These receiver and tilt meter are installed on a gimbal in a bird. Data acquisition system is installed in the helicopter cabin with high precision GPS synchronized with the same type GPS set in the transmitter. In this system, we designed to analyze full wave data in time-domain for investigating deep to shallow underground resistivity structure. The measured data of three-component magnetic filed, tilting, time and positioning are digitized at 25 kHz for 10 channels. We have also developed a 3D modeling scheme to investigate magnetic field responses in the air for complicated subsurface structure and topography. We carried out GREATEM surveys at Aso Volcano, southwest Japan to test the survey system and clarify the subsurface structure of the volcano. We computed the transient response of the magnetic field in the air by removing motion noise and other EM noise using special digital filters. Finally we obtained resistivity structure, assuming horizontal layer structure. The depth of investigation of present survey was estimated about 800m deep.

  12. Web surveys, sample bias and the travel cost method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. Fleming; Averil Cook

    2007-01-01

    Environmental economists have long used surveys to gather information about people's preferences. This is particularly true in the field of non-market valuation, where techniques such as contingent valuation, choice modelling and the travel cost method invariably employ some form of survey instrument. A recent innovation in survey methodology has been the advent of web-based surveys. While popular in many other

  13. Status of aerial survey emergency preparedness and ground support equipment, calibration, and sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlstrom, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. history in aerial surveillance, the scope of response has broadened from routine surveys and accident response with aerial systems, to being prepared to respond to any radiological incident with aerial, ground mobile, and hand-held instrumentation. The aerial survey system presently consists of four MBB BO-105 helicopters outfitted with gamma pods and specialized navigation systems (MRS or URS) that allow the operator and pilot to fly well-defined survey lines. Minimum detectable activities (MDA) for various isotopes range from a few tenths of a mCi to 100 mCI for point sources and from 1 to 200 pCi/g for volume sources.

  14. Hydrographic survey methods for determining reservoir volume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan Furnans; Barney Austin

    2008-01-01

    Since the creation of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) hydrographic survey program in 1991, over 100 bathymetric surveys of Texas reservoirs have been conducted. From these surveys, reservoir volumes and surface areas for corresponding reservoir stages can be estimated, thus providing engineers, managers, and regulators with accurate knowledge of water availability. Volume differences derived from multiple surveys of individual

  15. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected ground moving target through the communication number of the handheld devices. The handheld devices receive and identify the activation short message, and send the current location information to the server. Therefore, the emergency tracking mode is triggered. The real time location of the filtered target can be shown on the organizer's screen, and the organizer can assign the rescue tasks to the rescuer teams and volunteers based on their real time location. The ground moving target emergency tracking prototype system is implemented using Oracle 11g, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  16. ''Decoupled method'' for studying large interconnected grounding systems using microcomputers - Part II - Utilization on Itaipu ground system and complementary aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Sobral; V. G. P. Fleury; J. R. Villalba; D. Mukhedkar

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the use of the ''Decoupled Method'' (See Part I) for studying and detailing important facilities of the ground system of the Itaipu Generating Complex (13000 MW), including 4 large nearby substations, interconnected by the ACSR ground-wires of several 500kV and 220kV transmission lines. Of permanent importance was the reduction of ground potential obtained by the utilization of

  17. The ground support computer and in-orbit survey data analysis program for the SEEP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, H.D.; Datlowe, D.W.; Mobilia, J.; Roselle, S.N.

    1985-02-01

    The ground support computer equipment (GSE) and production survey plot and analysis software are described for the Stimulated Emissions of Energetic Particles (SEEP) experiment on the S81-1 satellite. A general purpose satellite data acquisition circuit was developed based on a Z-80 portable microcomputer. By simply changing instrument control software and electrical connectors, automatic testing and control of the various SEEP instruments was accomplished. A new feature incorporated into the SEEP data analysis phase was the development of a correlative data base for all of the SEEP instruments. A CPU efficient survey plot program (with ephemeris) was developed to display the approximate 3100 hours of data, with a time resolution of 0.5 sec, from the ten instrument sensors. The details of the general purpose multigraph algorithms and plot formats are presented. For the first time new associations are being investigated of simultaneous particle, X-ray, optical and plasma density satellite measurements.

  18. Signature of hydrothermal alteration in ground-magnetic surveys at Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouligand, C.; Glen, J. M.; McPhee, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a very large hydrothermal system with over 10,000 thermal features. Although hydrothermal alteration in YNP has been extensively studied with field observations, remote-sensing imagery, and core drilling, the volume and geometry of hydrothermal systems at depth remain poorly constrained. Magnetic surveys can help to investigate buried hydrothermal alteration as demonstrated by the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of YNP (Finn and Morgan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 115, 207-231, 2002). Results of this survey show that magnetic lows extend over and beyond areas of hydrothermal activity. This suggests large volumes of buried demagnetized rocks due to hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic substratum. Although the interpretation of magnetic anomalies is non-unique, Finn and Morgan (2002) used these magnetic lows to estimate a minimum volume of buried altered rock assuming complete demagnetization of the substratum. This aeromagnetic survey was of relatively high resolution (flight line spacing < 500 m and flight elevation <350 m above ground), but it was insufficient for detailed mapping of individual thermal areas. In order to obtain a closer look at several areas, we performed ground-based magnetic surveys within YNP using a cesium-vapor magnetometer along 4-5 km long transects crossing four thermal areas (Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Lone Star Geyser Basin, and Smoke Jumper Hot-springs). We also performed a detailed survey over an area of about 800 m x 500 m around Lone Star Geyser. We also collected gravity data to help characterize the subsurface geologic structures and performed magnetic susceptibility, magnetic remanence, and density measurements on rock samples collected in the field and from drill cores collected in 1967-1968 to characterize physical properties of fresh and altered geologic units. The long magnetic transects show that magnetic anomalies are damped in altered areas suggesting a significant decrease in the magnetization of shallow volcanic units. The detailed magnetic map of the Lone Star Geyser displays a pronounced negative anomaly centered on the geyser mound and other hot-springs indicating demagnetization directly associated with the hydrothermal plumbing system. These surveys will be used to model the geometry of the demagnetized volcanic substratum associated with hydrothermal alteration.

  19. A SURVEY OF CURRENT METHODS IN MEDICAL IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    E-print Network

    Koppelman, David M.

    used for computer assisted or computer automated segmentation of anatomical medical images. MethodsA SURVEY OF CURRENT METHODS IN MEDICAL IMAGE SEGMENTATION Dzung L. Pham y, Chenyang Xu , Jerry L 19, 1998 Total number of pages: 27 #12;A Survey of Current Methods in Medical Image Segmentation

  20. Advanced Computer Methods for Grounding Analysis Ignasi Colominas1

    E-print Network

    Colominas, Ignasi

    system are to safeguard that persons working or walking in the surroundings of the grounded installation of grounding grids of large electrical substations in practical cases present some difficulties mainly due been implemented in a CAD tool for grounding systems comprising all stages of the analysis

  1. Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Afghanistan?s geologic setting suggests significant natural resource potential. Although important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country?s potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well- accepted and cost-effective method for remotely obtaining information of the geological setting of an area. A regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed due to the security situation and the large areas of Afghanistan that have not been covered using geophysical exploration methods. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan. Data collected during this survey will provide basic information for mineral and petroleum exploration studies that are important for the economic development of Afghanistan. Additionally, use of these data is broadly applicable in the assessment of water resources and natural hazards, the inventory and planning of civil infrastructure and agricultural resources, and the construction of detailed maps. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently working in cooperation with the U.S. Agency of International Development to conduct resource assessments of the country of Afghanistan for mineral, energy, coal, and water resources, and to assess geologic hazards. These geophysical and remote sensing data will be used directly in the resource and hazard assessments.

  2. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  3. Design methods for ground-source heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, D. A.; Fischer, R. D.; Hodgett, D.

    1983-06-01

    Design and performance information on historical and current ground-coil heat-pump systems is assessed along with the adequacy of available design methods and to define Near-future research and development needs to promote the use of this technology are defined. This study concluded that despite an intense effort of experimental work, no suitable general design guidelines have been developed. Modern-day research and development efforts have utilized plastic tubing and computerized analytical techniques. In Europe, there are several well-developed proprietary design and application methodologies for northern climates. However, no publicly available design guidelines exist at the present time. Major uncertainties exist regarding suitable design and installation practice for systems with substantial cooling operation, due to inability of models to deal with moisture migration and soil recession.

  4. Preprint of the paper "A Validation of the Boundary Element Method for Grounding Grid Design and

    E-print Network

    Colominas, Ignasi

    - cades for substation grounding analysis, such as the Average Potential Method (APM), have been recently important magnitude is the equivalent resistance of the grounding electrode-earth system Req = Z Z 0 d0 01Preprint of the paper "A Validation of the Boundary Element Method for Grounding Grid Design

  5. The ASM Ground Model Method as a Foundation of Requirements Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Egon Borger

    Building ground models is one of the three constituents of the engineering method for computer-based systems which is known as Abstract State Machine (ASM) method (16). In this note we character- ize ground models, whose epistemological role for a foundation of system design resembles the one Aristotle assigned to axioms to ground science in reality, avoiding infinite regress. We explain

  6. Detection of underground cavities by combining gravity, magnetic and ground penetrating radar surveys: a case study from the Zaragoza area, NE Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mochales; A. M. Casas; E. L. Pueyo; O. Pueyo; M. T. Román; A. Pocoví; M. A. Soriano; D. Ansón

    2008-01-01

    A geophysical survey routine is proposed to detect underground cavities and dolines; it is based on the sequential application\\u000a of magnetic, low-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) and microgravity techniques. A case study near Zaragoza (Ebro valley,\\u000a Spain) demonstrates the applicability of these methods. The strong contrast of magnetic and electromagnetic properties (and\\u000a to a lesser scale, of density) between the

  7. A Survey of Nonlinear Attitude Estimation Methods John L. Crassidis

    E-print Network

    Crassidis, John L.

    modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance char- acteristics. ExamplesA Survey of Nonlinear Attitude Estimation Methods John L. Crassidis University at Buffalo, State-4400 This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early

  8. A SURVEY OF BALANCING METHODS FOR MODEL S. Gugercin

    E-print Network

    Gugercin, Serkan

    A SURVEY OF BALANCING METHODS FOR MODEL REDUCTION S. Gugercin and A.C. Antoulas Department: Model reduction, balancing, large-scale systems Abstract Balancing is one of the most efficient and most commonly used methods for model reduction. In this note, we present a survey of several balancing related

  9. A method to search for strong galaxy-galaxy lenses in optical imaging surveys

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey M. Kubo; Ian P. Dell'Antonio

    2007-12-19

    We present a semi-automated method to search for strong galaxy-galaxy lenses in optical imaging surveys. Our search technique constrains the shape of strongly lensed galaxies (or arcs) in a multi-parameter space, which includes the third order (octopole) moments of objects. This method is applied to the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), a deep ground based weak lensing survey imaging to $R\\sim26$. The parameter space of arcs in the DLS is simulated using real galaxies extracted from deep HST fields in order to more accurately reproduce the properties of arcs. Arcs are detected in the DLS using a pixel thresholding method and candidate arcs are selected within this multi-parameter space. Examples of strong galaxy-galaxy lens candidates discovered in the DLS F2 field (4 square degrees) are presented.

  10. Energy savings opportunity survey, Dugway Proving Ground, FY86. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1987-09-01

    An Energy Savings Opportunity Survey (ESOS) has been completed for the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground facility located at Dugway, Utah. This work, conducted as part of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), included: a review of previous studies; an evaluation of selected projects and energy conservation opportunities (ECOs); a site survey of 53 selected buildings to identify additional ECOs; analysis of the energy and cost savings and ECOs project costs; and preparation of project documentation for funding and implementation. Over 150 different energy conservation opportunities (ECOs), shown on pages 2 through 5, were identified during this ESOS. Economic analysis indicates that only 106 of these ECOs had a savings to investment (SIR) ratio greater than one. The estimated savings from the 106 ECOs was nearly 45,000 MBTU or 15 percent of the FY84-85 overall energy (MBTU) usage. Cost savings for the 106 ECOs are estimated to approach $271,000 or 9 percent of the same period. Most all of the ECOs identified save fuel oil rather than electricity. Total savings from the fuel oil ECOs exceed $260,000 or over 19 percent of the FY84-85 fuel oil usage. Seven projects were selected by Dugway Proving Ground for funding and implementation. These projects, outlined on pages 6 - 7 with supporting data starting on page 8, are estimated to save 44,000 MBTUs and over $267,900 annually. The estimated cost for design and construction of these projects is approximately $1,197,000.

  11. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  12. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  13. In Situ PushPull Method to Determine Ground Water Denitrification in Riparian Zones

    E-print Network

    Gold, Art

    In Situ Push­Pull Method to Determine Ground Water Denitrification in Riparian Zones Kelly Addy, D from ground water time and effort and often cannot directly explore theto soil air. In conjunction., 2000). The extent of questions sur- rounding riparian ground water nitrate removal arguesTo quantify

  14. Statistical Methods in Surveying by Trilateration

    E-print Network

    Hereman, Willy A.M.

    -likelihood, Monte-Carlo simulation, Trilateration, Computerized surveying, Global Positioning System (GPS) 1 #12 the implementation of fully automated real-time positioning systems similar to the global positioning system (GPS, the Global Positioning System (GPS) (Leick, 1990 Parkinson and Spilker, 1996). However, TBCC determined

  15. Method for Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.

  16. Method for Ground-to-Satellite Laser Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.

  17. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Joseph Perry (Bethlehem, PA); Farese, David John (Riegelsville, PA); Xu, Jianguo (Wrightstown, PA)

    2002-06-11

    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  18. A DIRECT TRACKING METHOD FOR A GROUNDED CONDUCTOR INSIDE A PIPELINE FROM CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENTS

    E-print Network

    A DIRECT TRACKING METHOD FOR A GROUNDED CONDUCTOR INSIDE A PIPELINE FROM CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENTS://www.ima.umn.edu #12;A direct tracking method for a grounded conductor inside a pipeline from capacitance measurements University, Korea Abstract. We present a new non-iterative method for tracking conductive water in a pipeline

  19. Tropospheric ozone profiles from a ground-based ultraviolet spectrometer: a new retrieval method

    E-print Network

    Chance, Kelly

    Tropospheric ozone profiles from a ground-based ultraviolet spectrometer: a new retrieval method, to the best of our knowledge, a new method to retrieve tropospheric ozone O3 profiles from ground at 20 km altitude. This method can be used to measure diurnal variation of tropospheric O3 profiles

  20. ARE SCAT SURVEYS A RELIABLE METHOD FOR ASSESSING DISTRIBUTION AND

    E-print Network

    Davison, Angus

    235 Chapter 12 ARE SCAT SURVEYS A RELIABLE METHOD FOR ASSESSING DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION STATUS Strachan Abstract: Systematic searches for marten feces or `scats' have been used since 1980 for assessing the status of protected populations of pine martens (Martes martes) in Britain. Previous surveys using scats

  1. Guidelines for Coding and Entering Ground-Water Data into the Ground-Water Site Inventory Database Version 4.6, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    This report establishes and documents the procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center, to code and enter ground-water data into the Ground-Water Site Inventory database of the U.S. Geological Survey's Ground Water Site Inventory System. These guidelines are consistent with Version 4.6 of the system, but will be updated as each new version becomes available.

  2. Methods for the survey and genetic analysis of populations

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Matthew

    2003-09-02

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  3. A quality-assurance plan for district ground-water activities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, J.O.; Barber, N.L.; Burns, A.W.; Fogelman, R.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Lidwin, R.A.; Mack, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended upon to collect data of the highest quality. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing and reporting ground-water data that are quality assured and quality controlled.

  4. Detection of underground cavities by combining gravity, magnetic and ground penetrating radar surveys: a case study from the Zaragoza area, NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochales, T.; Casas, A. M.; Pueyo, E. L.; Pueyo, O.; Román, M. T.; Pocoví, A.; Soriano, M. A.; Ansón, D.

    2008-01-01

    A geophysical survey routine is proposed to detect underground cavities and dolines; it is based on the sequential application of magnetic, low-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) and microgravity techniques. A case study near Zaragoza (Ebro valley, Spain) demonstrates the applicability of these methods. The strong contrast of magnetic and electromagnetic properties (and to a lesser scale, of density) between the doline filling and the surrounding stratified Tertiary and Quaternary rocks allows the shape of filled cavities to be clearly outlined by these methods.

  5. Verifying a computational method for predicting extreme ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Barall, M.; Andrews, D.J.; Duan, B.; Ma, S.; Dunham, E.M.; Gabriel, A.-A.; Kaneko, Y.; Kase, Y.; Aagaard, B.T.; Oglesby, D.D.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Hanks, T.C.; Abrahamson, N.

    2011-01-01

    In situations where seismological data is rare or nonexistent, computer simulations may be used to predict ground motions caused by future earthquakes. This is particularly practical in the case of extreme ground motions, where engineers of special buildings may need to design for an event that has not been historically observed but which may occur in the far-distant future. Once the simulations have been performed, however, they still need to be tested. The SCEC-USGS dynamic rupture code verification exercise provides a testing mechanism for simulations that involve spontaneous earthquake rupture. We have performed this examination for the specific computer code that was used to predict maximum possible ground motion near Yucca Mountain. Our SCEC-USGS group exercises have demonstrated that the specific computer code that was used for the Yucca Mountain simulations produces similar results to those produced by other computer codes when tackling the same science problem. We also found that the 3D ground motion simulations produced smaller ground motions than the 2D simulations.

  6. Evaluation of estimation method of ground properties for the ground source heat pump system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suckho Hwang; Ryozo Ooka; Yujin Nam

    2010-01-01

    Technology directed at geothermal energy, one of our renewable energy sources, to heat and air-condition buildings has become very attractive in recent years following the significant developments in ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems. In general, although the energy efficiency of GSHP systems is far superior to conventional air-source heat pump (ASHP) systems, GSHP system is still expensive. Therefore, GSHP system

  7. Field tests for ground thermal properties -- Methods and impact on ground-source heat pump design

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanaugh, S.P.

    2000-07-01

    A critical need in the design procedure of closed-loop, ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) is an accurate knowledge of the thermal properties of soil/rock formations. These properties can be estimated in the field by installing and imposing a thermal load on a ground heat exchanger at the site. Recent developments have improved the capability of predicting thermal properties from the resulting temperature change. An additional benefit is that drilling conditions, determined during the installation of the test heat exchanger, will improve the capability of contractors to estimate project costs. This paper discusses several of the issues and procedures in the development of field tests for thermal property determination. It also addresses the impact of thermal property measurement error upon the resulting ground heat exchanger design, loop operating temperatures, equipment capacity, and system efficiency. A design program that has been evaluated (Thorton et al. 1997) was used to predict results for a 100-ton (351 kW) office building. A 10% variation in thermal conductivity and diffusivity resulted in a 4.5% to 5.8% error in design length, a 1% change in cooling capacity, a +2 F (1 C) variation in loop temperature, a 0.7% change in heating capacity, a 2% variation in cooling EER, and no change in heating COP.

  8. Speech analysis by parametric methods: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, C.

    Speech analysis parametric modeling and parameter extraction methods are summarized. Linear prediction principles and associated fast algorithms are reviewed. Global analysis methods on short time windows, with variable frequency resolution, and additive noise; time evolving methods where a time varying parametric model is adjusted to model the transitions between quasistationary periods; and time adaptive sequential methods using fast algorithms along with a synchronous detection of temporal events are examined.

  9. Approximate policy iteration: A survey and some new methods

    E-print Network

    Bertsekas, Dimitri P.

    We consider the classical policy iteration method of dynamic programming (DP), where approximations and simulation are used to deal with the curse of dimensionality. We survey a number of issues: convergence and rate of ...

  10. The ASM Ground Model Method as a Foundation for Requirements Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Egon Börger

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a Building ground models is one of the three constituents of the engineering method for computer-based systems which is known\\u000a as Abstract State Machine (ASM) method [16]. In this note we characterize ground models, whose epistemological role for a foundation of system design resembles the one Aristotle assigned to axioms to ground science\\u000a in reality, avoiding infinite regress. We explain how ASM

  11. Underwater sediment-contact radiation survey method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.R.; St. Aubin, M.; Welch, S.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-11-01

    The authors are striving to produce a practical system for mapping lateral distributions in gamma activity on submerged sediments. This is in response to the need for quality control and interpretation of data obtainable by sediment sampling and analyses near nuclear utilities. A prototype gamma probe has been constructed and tested. The prototype is essentially a background survey meter packaged in a 53-cm-long {times} 5.4-cm-diam waterproof vehicle. This usage-shaped vehicle is connected to a cable for towing in contact with bottom sediments of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters. This vehicle, or sediment probe as it is called, was initially developed for measuring sediment electrical conductances, a parameter that can be used to locate underwater areas of groundwater and contaminant upwelling. During towing, the probe does not roll or twist around its longitudinal axis by more than 10 deg, so that sensors, which have been fixed within the vehicle, can be oriented to look up, down, or sideways. In over 450 lin-km of underwater survey, only a single sediment probe has been irretrievably snagged on sunken rocks or other debris. Work in the Ottawa River near the Chalk River Laboratories has shown good agreement among point measurements of river sediment with continuous measurements using the moving probe.

  12. Ecological studies of ectomycorrhizal fungi: an analysis of survey methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beáta B. Tóth; Zoltan Barta

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, by reviewing ecological studies of ectomycorrhizal fungi where both fruiting bodies and mycorrhizal root tips\\u000a were simultaneously surveyed, we investigate whether the diversity data obtained by the two methods leads to similar conclusions\\u000a about the underlying ecological processes of interest. Despite discrepancies in identifying species, we found that both survey\\u000a methods identified similar responses by ectomycorrhizal fungal

  13. Integration of ground-penetrating radar and microgravimetric methods to map shallow caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, Milan; Luetscher, Marc; Olivier, Raymond

    2001-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and microgravimetric surveys have been conducted in the southern Jura mountains of western Switzerland in order to map subsurface karstic features. The study site, La Grande Rolaz cave, is an extensive system in which many portions have been mapped. By using small station spacing and careful processing for the geophysical data, and by modeling these data with topographic information from within the cave, accurate interpretations have been achieved. The constraints on the interpreted geologic models are better when combining the geophysical methods than when using only one of the methods, despite the general limitations of two-dimensional (2D) profiling. For example, microgravimetry can complement GPR methods for accurately delineating a shallow cave section approximately 10×10 m 2 in size. Conversely, GPR methods can be complementary in determining cavity depths and in verifying the presence of off-line features and numerous areas of small cavities and fractures, which may be difficult to resolve in microgravimetric data.

  14. Advanced signal processing method for ground penetrating radar feature detection and enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Venkatachalam, Anbu Selvam; Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on new signal processing algorithms customized for an air coupled Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system targeting highway pavements and bridge deck inspections. The GPR hardware consists of a high-voltage pulse generator, a high speed 8 GSps real time data acquisition unit, and a customized field-programmable gate array (FPGA) control element. In comparison to most existing GPR system with low survey speeds, this system can survey at normal highway speed (60 mph) with a high horizontal resolution of up to 10 scans per centimeter. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of subsurface media, the GPR signal processing is important but challenging. In this GPR system, an adaptive GPR signal processing algorithm using Curvelet Transform, 2D high pass filtering and exponential scaling is proposed to alleviate noise and clutter while the subsurface features are preserved and enhanced. First, Curvelet Transform is used to remove the environmental and systematic noises while maintain the range resolution of the B-Scan image. Then, mathematical models for cylinder-shaped object and clutter are built. A two-dimension (2D) filter based on these models removes clutter and enhances the hyperbola feature in a B-Scan image. Finally, an exponential scaling method is applied to compensate the signal attenuation in subsurface materials and to improve the desired signal feature. For performance test and validation, rebar detection experiments and subsurface feature inspection in laboratory and field configurations are performed.

  15. Method of utilizing possible alternative energy sources in ground transportation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    This work discusses the magnitude of the problem of depleting world oil reserves and their impact on ground-transportation systems. One of several possible solutions is postulated and analyzed. The solution examined is one in which energy from various sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is converted to electricity and distributed throughout the roadway network for use by vehicles. The energy is

  16. A stochastic method for characterizing ground-water contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. McLaughlin; L. B. Reid; Shuguang Li; J. Hyman

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming widely recognized that field-scale ground-water contaminant plumes are irregular and difficult to predict. Factors which complicate the characterization of such plumes include geological variability, data limitations, and uncertainties about the source of contamination. This paper describes a new approach to site characterization which accounts for variability and uncertainty in a systematic way. The site characterization procedure extracts

  17. BOREHOLE SENSING METHODS FOR GROUND-WATER INVESTIGATIONS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geophysical methods are becoming a cost effective approach to providing answers to hydrogeologic questions associated with ground-water contamination. Geophysical methods applicable to hazardous waste site investigations can be broken into two categories: surface and subsurface m...

  18. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  19. Evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Data-Collection Program in Hawaii, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Stephen S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in the State of Hawaii consisted of 188 wells distributed among the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii. Water-level and water-quality (temperature, specific conductance, and chloride concentration) data were collected from observation wells, deep monitoring wells that penetrate the zone of transition between freshwater and saltwater, free-flowing wells, and pumped wells. The objective of the program was to collect sufficient spatial and temporal data to define seasonal and long-term changes in ground-water levels and chloride concentrations induced by natural and human-made stresses for different climatic and hydrogeologic settings. Wells needed to meet this objective can be divided into two types of networks: (1) a water-management network to determine the response of ground-water flow systems to human-induced stresses, such as pumpage, and (2) a baseline network to determine the response of ground-water flow systems to natural stresses for different climatic and hydrogeologic settings. Maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage and the distribution of proposed pumped wells are presented to identify areas in need of water-management networks. Wells in the 1992 U.S. Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program were classified as either water-management or baseline network wells. In addition, locations where additional water-management network wells are needed for water-level and water-quality data were identified.

  20. Methods for Bayesian power spectrum inference with galaxy surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin D. [CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-12-10

    We derive and implement a full Bayesian large scale structure inference method aiming at precision recovery of the cosmological power spectrum from galaxy redshift surveys. Our approach improves upon previous Bayesian methods by performing a joint inference of the three-dimensional density field, the cosmological power spectrum, luminosity dependent galaxy biases, and corresponding normalizations. We account for all joint and correlated uncertainties between all inferred quantities. Classes of galaxies with different biases are treated as separate subsamples. This method therefore also allows the combined analysis of more than one galaxy survey. In particular, it solves the problem of inferring the power spectrum from galaxy surveys with non-trivial survey geometries by exploring the joint posterior distribution with efficient implementations of multiple block Markov chain and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Our Markov sampler achieves high statistical efficiency in low signal-to-noise regimes by using a deterministic reversible jump algorithm. This approach reduces the correlation length of the sampler by several orders of magnitude, turning the otherwise numerically unfeasible problem of joint parameter exploration into a numerically manageable task. We test our method on an artificial mock galaxy survey, emulating characteristic features of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, such as its survey geometry and luminosity-dependent biases. These tests demonstrate the numerical feasibility of our large scale Bayesian inference frame work when the parameter space has millions of dimensions. This method reveals and correctly treats the anti-correlation between bias amplitudes and power spectrum, which are not taken into account in current approaches to power spectrum estimation, a 20% effect across large ranges in k space. In addition, this method results in constrained realizations of density fields obtained without assuming the power spectrum or bias parameters in advance.

  1. A survey of modern authorship attribution methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efstathios Stamatatos

    2009-01-01

    Authorship attribution supported by statistical or computational methods has a long history starting from 19th century and marked by the seminal study of Mosteller and Wallace (1964) on the authorship of the disputed Federalist Papers. During the last decade, this scientific field has been developed substantially taking advantage of research advances in areas such as machine learning, information retrieval, and

  2. Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) general interest publication presents a description of ground water in the U.S. This includes what ground water is, how it occurs, aquifers and wells, ground water quality and what affects it, and the state of U.S. ground water resources.

  3. Seasonal changes in groundwater storage estimated by absolute ground gravity and MRS surveys in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favreau, G.; Boucher, M.; Luck, B.; Pfeffer, J.; Genthon, P.; Hinderer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Important and fast groundwater storage changes occur in tropical monsoon regions in response to seasonal rainfall and subsequent surface water redistribution. In West Africa, one main goal of the GHYRAF experiment (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa, 2008-2010) is to compare absolute gravimetric measurements with dense hydrological surveys to better estimate and model water storage changes at various time scales. Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) is a non-invasive geophysical method having a signal directly related to groundwater quantity. In SW Niger, MRS surveys were performed concurrently with gravimetric (FG5) measurements for monitoring seasonal changes in groundwater storage. Water table levels were recorded on a 4-piezometers profile (~500 m) near a temporary pond (area ~2 ha) fed by sandy gullies. The volume of water drained from the pond to the phreatic aquifer was computed to be ~100,000 m3/yr. Large piezometric fluctuations (3-6 m) occurred in response to indirect recharge through the pond during the 2008 rainy season (July-Sept.), with stronger water table fluctuations recorded near the pond. Absolute gravimetric (FG5) measurements were performed at a distance of 150 m from the pond, in order to minimize the influence of 2D effects on gravimetric records. The increase in absolute gravity measured between two dates (July-Sept.) was 8.7 ą 2.6 ľGal; for the same period, the measured water table rise was +3.0 m. Considering these values, a first estimate of the groundwater storage increase is 0.2 m, corresponding to a porosity filled up by the water table rise of ~7%. Repeated MRS surveys were performed at the same location for different dates (three soundings in Sept., one in Dec.). The MRS water content was 13%, with little variation in space (ą3%) along the piezometric profile. In response to a 3 metres drop in the water table (Sept- Dec), there was no significant recorded change in the MRS water content and/or in the estimated MRS water table depth. MRS and absolute gravimetry are two independent methods that could be sensitive to changes in groundwater reserves. However, because MRS is integrative of the whole saturated thickness of the aquifer (here, a few tens of metres), it was shown to be comparatively less sensitive to groundwater storage fluctuations occurring at the water table. These methods provide complementary data on aquifer characteristics, MRS being useful for quantifying lateral changes in aquifer properties, whereas gravimetric measurements helped in characterizing groundwater recharge and porosity. Both methods bring pieces of information that could be used to better constrain transient groundwater modelling at site scale.

  4. Electromagnetic survey of the K1070A burial ground at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Emery, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The K1070A burial ground, located at the K-25 Site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, received chemical and radioactive wastes from the late 1940s until 1975. Analysis of water samples collected from nearby monitoring wells indicates that contamination is migrating offsite. In November 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) personnel collected high-resolution electrical terrain conductivity data at the K1070A burial ground. A Model EM31 terrain conductivity meter manufactured by Geonics Limited was used in conjunction with the ORNL-developed Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) to perform the survey. The purposeof the survey was to provide Environmental Restoration (ER) staff with a detailed map of the spatial variation of the apparent electrical conductivity of the shallow subsurface (upper 3 m) to assist them in siting future monitoring wells closer to the waste area without drilling into the buried waste.

  5. Ground penetrating radar surveys over an alluvial DNAPL site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, P.J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Doll, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phillips, B.E. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to map shallow sands and gravels which are DNAPL migration pathways at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. The sands and gravels occur as paleochannel deposits, at depths of 17-25 ft, embedded in Pleistocene lacustrine clays. More than 30 GPR profiles were completed over the Drop Test Area (DTA) to map the top and base of the paleochannel deposits, and to assess their lateral continuity. A bistatic radar system was used with antenna frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz. An average velocity of 0.25 ft/ns for silty and clayey materials above the paleochannel deposits was established from radar walkaway tests, profiles over culverts of known depth, and comparison of radar sections with borings. In the south portion of the DTA, strong reflections corresponded to the water table at approximately 9-10 ft, the top of the paleochannel deposits at approximately 18 ft, and to gravel horizons within these deposits. The base of these deposits was not visible on the radar sections. Depth estimates for the top of the paleochannel deposits (from 50 records) were accurate to within 2 ft across the southern portion of the DTA. Continuity of these sands and gravels could not be assessed due to interference from air-wave reflections and lateral changes in signal penetration depth. However, the sands and gravels appear to extend across the entire southern portion of the DTA, at depths as shallow as 17 ft. Ringing, air-wave reflections and diffractions from powerlines, vehicles, well casings, and metal equipment severly degraded GPR profiles in the northern portion of the DTA; depths computed from reflection times (where visible) were accurate to within 4 ft in this area. The paleochannel deposits are deeper to the north and northeast where DNAPL has apparently pooled (DNAPL was not directly imaged by the GPR, however). Existing hydrogeological models of the DTA will be revised.

  6. Health-based screening levels to evaluate U.S. Geological Survey ground water quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, P.L.; Norman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many contaminants analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, limiting the ability to evaluate the potential human-health relevance of water-quality findings. Health-based screening levels (HBSLs) were developed collaboratively to supplement existing drinking-water standards and guidelines as part of a six-year, multi-agency pilot study. The pilot study focused on ground water samples collected prior to treatment or blending in areas of New Jersey where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water. This article describes how HBSLs were developed and demonstrates the use of HBSLs as a tool for evaluating water-quality data in a human-health context. HBSLs were calculated using standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methodologies and toxicity information. New HBSLs were calculated for 12 of 32 contaminants without existing USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines, increasing the number of unregulated contaminants (those without maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)) with human-health benchmarks. Concentrations of 70 of the 78 detected contaminants with human-health benchmarks were less than MCLs or HBSLs, including all 12 contaminants with new HBSLs, suggesting that most contaminant concentrations were not of potential human-health concern. HBSLs were applied to a state-scale groundwater data set in this study, but HBSLs also may be applied to regional and national evaluations of water-quality data. HBSLs fulfill a critical need for federal, state, and local agencies, water utilities, and others who seek tools for evaluating the occurrence of contaminants without drinking-water standards or guidelines. ?? 2006 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERFORMANCE DURING EXCAVATION USING VARIOUS GROUND IMPROVEMENT METHODS AT LOT 259C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Kang Yang; Ming-Feng Song

    A comparative study of performance using various ground improvement methods was carried out at a number of typical sections during underground structure excavation at lot 259C of the Taipei Mass Rapid Transient System. Back analyses of the diaphragm wall deformations during excavation were performed for assessing the sensitivity of subsoil parameters and effects of ground improvement, as well as obtaining

  8. A Method for Measuring Radon and Thoron Exhalation from the Ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuko Megumi; Tetsuo Mamuro

    1972-01-01

    A method for determining directly the rate of radon and thoron exhalation from the ground was studied. Radon and thoron gases are directly adsorbed on a layer of granular activated charcoal distributed over the ground surface, and the charcoal is subjected to 7-ray spectrom- etry. The radon quantity is determined from the area of the photopeak due to 0.61-Mev 7

  9. Ground-based Estimation of the Aircraft Mass, Adaptive vs. Least Squares Method

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Ground-based Estimation of the Aircraft Mass, Adaptive vs. Least Squares Method R. Alligier, D, France Abstract--This paper focuses on the estimation of the aircraft mass in ground-based applications predictors because it is considered a competitive parameter by many airlines. There is hope that the aircraft

  10. Detection of Antipersonnel Mines by Using the Factorization Method on Multistatic Ground-Penetrating Radar Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Fischer; Alexander Herschlein; Marwan Younis; Werner Wiesbeck

    2007-01-01

    The factorization method (FM) has been applied to measurement data from a multistatic ground-penetrating radar operating in close proximity to the ground, which was used in a measurement campaign on the Joint Research Centre mine test lane in Ispra, Italy. This paper is targeted toward a future hand-held demining system. The according space limits restrict an independent positioning of transmit

  11. Evaluation of Abrupt Grounding as Quality Control Method for HVDC Extruded Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Mauseth; Erling Ildstad; Rolf Hegerberg; Marc Jeroense; Bjřrn Sanden; Jan Erik Larsen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results from laboratory experiments performed in order to evaluate different methods for quality control of polymeric insulated HVDC cables. In this work, we have investigated the effect of short term (24 h) DC stress followed by rapid grounding of the cable. This is comparable to a voltage step of -Usub0\\/sub at the point of grounding ,and depending

  12. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  13. Detailed analysis of the geomagnetic ground survey performed in middle-northern Croatia over the time interval 2003–2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugen Vujic; Giuliana Verbanac; Vladis Vujnovic; Antun Marki

    2009-01-01

    During the time interval 2003–2005 a ground survey of the total magnetic field intensity in the middle-northern part of Croatia\\u000a was performed, in order to get a detailed insight of the field distribution over the region. A special effort was done to\\u000a understand the uncertainty and errors in data reduction, namely different amplitudes of the diurnal variations and different\\u000a secular

  14. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste--ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H. C., Jr.,(Edited By); Franks, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology, selected the former American Creosote Works site near Pensacola, Florida as a national research demonstration area. Seventy-nine years (1902-81) of seepage from unlined discharge impoundments had released creosote, diesel fuel, and pentachlorophenol (since 1950) wastes into the ground-water system. A cluster of from 2 to 5 wells constructed at different depths at 9 sites yielded water which revealed contamination 600 feet downgradient and to a depth of 100 feet below land surface near the site. The best cross-sectional representation of the contaminant plume was obtained from samples collected and analyzed for oxidation-reduction sensitive inorganic chemical constituents. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence detected recently formed iron carbonate in soil samples from highly reducing ground-water zones. Approximately eighty specific organic contaminants were isolated from ground-water samples by gas-chromotography/mass spectrometry. Column studies indicate the dimethyl phenols are not sorbed or degraded by the sand-and-gravel aquifer materials. Five of nineteen individual phenolic and related compounds are biodegradable based on anaerobic digestor experiments with ACW site bacterial populations. The potential impacts in the nearby Pensacola Bay biotic community are being evaluated. (USGS)

  15. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD?=?6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method. Occupancy modeling may be useful for standardizing estimates across large landscapes, even if survey methods differ across regions, allowing for inferences about broad-scale population dynamics of wolves.

  16. Eigenmode Analysis of Galaxy Redshift Surveys I. Theory and Methods

    E-print Network

    Michael S. Vogeley; Alexander S. Szalay

    1996-01-30

    We describe a method for estimating the power spectrum of density fluctuations from galaxy redshift surveys that yields improvement in both accuracy and resolution over direct Fourier analysis. The key feature of this analysis is expansion of the observed density field in the unique set of statistically orthogonal spatial functions which obtains for a given survey's geometry and selection function and the known properties of galaxy clustering (the Karhunen-Loeve transform). Each of these eigenmodes of the observed density field optimally weights the data to yield the cleanest (highest signal/noise) possible measure of clustering power as a function of wavelength scale for any survey. Using Bayesian methods, we simultaneously estimate the mean density, power spectrum of density fluctuations, and redshift distortion parameters that best fit the observed data. This method is particularly important for analysis of surveys with small sky coverage, that are comprised of disjoint regions (e.g., an ensemble of pencil beams or slices), or that have large fluctuations in sampling density. We present algorithms for practical application of this technique to galaxy survey data.

  17. State-of-the-art survey of existing knowledge for the design of ground-source heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, D. A.; Fischer, R. D.; Talbert, S. G.; Hodgett, D.; Auer, F.

    1983-11-01

    The gathering of design and performance information on historical and current ground coil heat pump systems, to assess the adequacy of available design methods, and to define near future R and D needs to promote the use of this technology is reported. The project was separated into two parts: (1) a review of the North American technology conducted by Battelle-Columbus; and (2) a review of European technology conducted by Battelle-Frankfurt. Descriptions of basic ground coil design configurations, operating experience, design methodologies, and reviews of costs of existing installations are included. It is found that further design method development efforts are necessary to provide installers and manufacturers with pertinent design information in order to stimulate further implementation of ground coupled heat pumps in the United States. A research effort is needed to develop parametric data on the design and performance of a ground coil during cooling using heat and moisture models.

  18. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo [JAEA; Sugita, Takeshi [JAEA; Okada, Colin E. [NSTec; Reed, Michael S. [NSTec; Blumenthal, Daniel J. [NNSA

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  19. A Fast Reduction Method of Survey Data in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngung

    2001-04-01

    We present a fast reduction method of survey data obtained using a single-dish radio telescope. Along with a brief review of classical method, a new method of identification and elimination of negative and positive bad channels are introduced using cloud identification code and several IRAF(Image Reduction and Analysis Facility) tasks relating statistics. Removing of several ripple patterns using Fourier Transform is also discussed. It is found that BACKGROUND task within IRAF is very efficient for fitting and subtraction of baseline with varying functions. Cloud identification method along with the possibility of its application for analysis of cloud structure is described, and future data reduction method is discussed.

  20. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  1. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D.; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  2. Method of utilizing possible alternative energy sources in ground transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This work discusses the magnitude of the problem of depleting world oil reserves and their impact on ground-transportation systems. One of several possible solutions is postulated and analyzed. The solution examined is one in which energy from various sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is converted to electricity and distributed throughout the roadway network for use by vehicles. The energy is transferred to the vehicle via an on-board noncontacting, inductively coupled, pickup. The power-distribution system is fully compatible with existing vehicles and with pedestrians. A Hedonic Choice Model is developed to predict the market penetration of electric vehicles thru the year 2030. A life-cycle-cost optimization model and a system-simulation model are developed to analyze a system for the Denver metropolitan area. Results indicate that such a system is both economically and technically feasible. About 3600 lane miles of roadway would need to be electrified. This system would serve about 90% of all metro trips and would cost less than two billion dollars The system could provide mobility equivalent to that we presently experience through the foreseeable future.

  3. Ground penetrating radar survey of the ice-filled active crater of Mount Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Clark, D. H.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sherman Crater, the center of volcanic activity at Mount Baker, in northwest Washington, provides an excellent site to study glacier dynamics in an active crater because of its history of sudden, significant increases in geothermal activity, its confined geometry, the potential hazards it poses to downstream reservoirs, and the paucity of recent research related to these hazards. We present results from a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of the crater conducted in the summers of 2009 and 2010, including characterization of the subglacial crater morphology, estimates for the crater glacier’s volume, maximum depth, annual mass balance and surface velocity and for the crater’s geothermal flux density. We used a GSSI SIR-3000 GPR system and a low frequency (80 MHz) antenna in common-offset (reflection) collection mode to image subglacial conditions along several west-east and south-north transects within the crater. We processed the GPR data with GSSI’s RADAN 6.0 and paired the surface elevations of each transect to the ice-surface topography using GPS locations and spot altimeter readings. GPR profiles reveal several sets of distinct basal and englacial reflectors. Along west-east (longitudinal) transects, the crater’s bedrock topography largely follows the glacier’s surface (high to the west, descending to the east), but the ice thins dramatically along the margin nearest the crater rim’s eastern breach. The prominent basal reflectors in the GPR transects are consistent with an ice/hydrothermally altered rock interface, but short more well-defined segments suggest the presence of bedrock (towards the center of the crater) and water (near the eastern breach) at the base of the ice. GPR data combined with surface ice melting measurements yield a first-order estimate for the area-averaged accumulation rate of 4.8 +/- 0.1 m yr-1 and ablation rate of 2.4 +/- 0.3 m yr-1 water equivalent from surface melting. The resulting calculated geothermal flux for Sherman Crater of ~20 Wm-2 is consistent with published calculations for active calderas (Mt. Veniaminof) and volcanic lakes. We estimate the maximum ice thickness to be ~50 m, and the ice velocity to range from ~3 to 4 m/month during the summer months. Highest surface ice velocities are found on moderate slopes above the deepest part of the crater, where the ice is thickest (inferred from GPR profiles).

  4. Radiological decontamination, survey, and statistical release method for vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Goodwill; J. W. Lively; R. L. Morris

    1996-01-01

    Earth-moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method for assessing product quality from a continuous process was

  5. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trowsdale

    1982-01-01

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill

  6. Using the Case Survey Method To Analyze Policy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heald, Karen A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a case study survey method that allows an analyst to aggregate (by means of a closed-ended questionnaire) the case study experiences and to assess the quality of each case study in a reliable and replicable manner. (Author/IRT)

  7. A Survey of Fault Detection, Isolation, and Reconfiguration Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inseok Hwang; Sungwan Kim; Youdan Kim; Chze Eng Seah

    2010-01-01

    Fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) is an important and challenging problem in many engineering applications and continues to be an active area of research in the control community. This paper presents a survey of the various model-based FDIR methods developed in the last decade. In the paper, the FDIR problem is divided into the fault detection and isolation (FDI)

  8. Bootstrap Methods and Applications in Econometrics -a Brief Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bergstrom

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a brief survey of the bootstrap and its use in econometrics. As an introduction, the paper gives a description of the basics of the method, with a special emphasis on boostrap testing. A fairly large amount of space is devoted to discuss why bootstrap tests provide refinements compared to equivalent asymptotic tests. A series of recent different

  9. Bootstrap Methods and Applications in Econometrics - A Brief Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pĺl Bergström

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a brief survey of the bootstrap and its use in econometrics. As an introduction, the paper gives a description of the basics of the method, with a special emphasis on boostrap testing. A fairly large amount of space is devoted to discuss why bootstrap tests provide refinements compared to equivalent asymptotic tests. A series of recent different

  10. Ground penetrating radar methods used in surface-water discharge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeni, F. P.; Buursink, Marc L.; Costa, John E.; Melcher, Nick B.; Cheng, Ralph T.; Plant, William J.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of about 7,000 streamflow-gaging stations that monitor open-channel water discharge at locations throughout the United States. The expense, technical difficulties, and concern for the safety of operational personnel under some field conditions have led to the search for alternate measurement methods. Ground- penetrating radar (GPR) has been used by the USGS in hydrologic, geologic, environmental, and bridge-scour studies by floating antennas on water or mounting antennas in boats. GPR methods were developed to measure and monitor remotely the cross-sectional area of rivers by suspending a 100-megahertz (MHz) radar antenna from a cableway car or bridge at four unstable streams that drained the slopes of Mount St. Helens in Washington. Based on the success of these initial efforts, an experiment was conducted in 1999 to see if a combination of complementary radar methods could be used to calculate the discharge of a river without having any of the measuring equipment in the water. The cross-sectional area of the 183- meter (m) wide Skagit River in Washington State was measured using a GPR system with a single 100-MHz antenna suspended 0.5 to 3 m above the water surface from a cableway car. A van- mounted, side-looking pulsed-Doppler (10 gigahertz) radar system was used to collect water-surface velocity data across the same section of the river. The combined radar data sets were used to calculate the river discharge and the results compared closely to the discharge measurement made by using the standard in-water measurement techniques. The depth to the river bottom, which was determined from the GPR data by using a radar velocity of 0.04 meters per nanosecond in water, was about 3 m, which was within 0.25 m of the manually measured values.

  11. A survey of mathematical methods for indoor localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Seco; Antonio R. Jimenez; Carlos Prieto; Javier Roa; Katerina Koutsou

    2009-01-01

    This document provides a survey of the mathematical methods currently used for position estimation in indoor local positioning systems (LPS), particularly those based on radiofrequency signals. The techniques are grouped into four categories: geometry-based methods, minimization of the cost function, fingerprinting, and Bayesian techniques. Comments on the applicability, requirements, and immunity to nonline-of-sight (NLOS) propagation of the signals of each

  12. A numerical calculation method of substation grounding grids based on a new mathematical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huina Yang; Donghai Pan

    2008-01-01

    Based on a new mathematical model for electromagnetic fields calculation, a numerical calculation method in design of power substation grounding system is presented. The method is applicable in many cases regardless of frequency. And the method has been proved to be available by calculating cases.

  13. New method for the location of ground faults on transmission system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haifa Al Motairy; Redy Mardiana; Charles Q. Su

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new fault location method using high-frequency transient voltages generated by ground faults on transmission system. The method is based on the measurement from one end of the transmission line. The fault location is determined solely from the arrival time of initial waves of modal voltages at the measuring bus. The method does not need to exploit

  14. Effect of antioxidant application methods on the color, lipid oxidation, and volatiles of irradiated ground beef.

    PubMed

    Ismail, H A; Lee, E J; Ko, K Y; Paik, H D; Ahn, D U

    2009-01-01

    Four antioxidant treatments (none, 0.05% ascorbic acid, 0.01%alpha-tocopherol + 0.01% sesamol, and 0.05% ascorbic acid + 0.01%alpha-tocopherol + 0.01% sesamol) were applied to ground beef using either mixing or spraying method. The meat samples were placed on Styrofoam trays, irradiated at 0 or 2.5 kGy, and then stored for 7 d at 4 degrees C. Color, lipid oxidation, volatiles, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and carbon monoxide (CO) production were determined at 0, 3, and 7 d of storage. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of ground beef with control and ascorbic acid treatments after 3 d of storage. alpha-Tocopherol + sesamol and ascorbic acid +alpha-tocopherol + sesamol treatments were effective in slowing down lipid oxidation in ground beef during storage regardless of application methods, but mixing was better than the spraying method. Irradiation lowered L*-value and a*-value of ground beef. Storage had no effect on lightness but redness decreased with storage. Ascorbic acid was the most effective in maintaining redness of ground beef followed by ascorbic acid +alpha-tocopherol + sesamol. Irradiation and storage reduced the b*-value of ground beef. Irradiation lowered ORP of ground beef regardless of antioxidants application methods, but ORP was lower in beef with mixing than spraying method. Beef sprayed with antioxidants produced more hydrocarbons and alcohols than the mixing application, but ascorbic acid +alpha-tocopherol + sesamol treatment was effective in reducing the amount of volatiles produced by irradiation. Therefore, mixing was better than the spraying method in preventing lipid oxidation and maintaining color of irradiated ground beef. PMID:19200082

  15. Survey of methods for calculating sensitivity of general eigenproblems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of methods for sensitivity analysis of the algebraic eigenvalue problem for non-Hermitian matrices is presented. In addition, a modification of one method based on a better normalizing condition is proposed. Methods are classified as Direct or Adjoint and are evaluated for efficiency. Operation counts are presented in terms of matrix size, number of design variables and number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of interest. The effect of the sparsity of the matrix and its derivatives is also considered, and typical solution times are given. General guidelines are established for the selection of the most efficient method.

  16. GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    GWM is a Ground?Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three?dimensional ground?water model, MODFLOW?2000. GWM uses a response?matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed?binary linear ground?water management formulations. Each management formulation consists of a set of decision variables, an objective function, and a set of constraints. Three types of decision variables are supported by GWM: flow?rate decision variables, which are withdrawal or injection rates at well sites; external decision variables, which are sources or sinks of water that are external to the flow model and do not directly affect the state variables of the simulated ground?water system (heads, streamflows, and so forth); and binary variables, which have values of 0 or 1 and are used to define the status of flow?rate or external decision variables. Flow?rate decision variables can represent wells that extend over one or more model cells and be active during one or more model stress periods; external variables also can be active during one or more stress periods. A single objective function is supported by GWM, which can be specified to either minimize or maximize the weighted sum of the three types of decision variables. Four types of constraints can be specified in a GWM formulation: upper and lower bounds on the flow?rate and external decision variables; linear summations of the three types of decision variables; hydraulic?head based constraints, including drawdowns, head differences, and head gradients; and streamflow and streamflow?depletion constraints. The Response Matrix Solution (RMS) Package of GWM uses the Ground?Water Flow Process of MODFLOW to calculate the change in head at each constraint location that results from a perturbation of a flow?rate variable; these changes are used to calculate the response coefficients. For linear management formulations, the resulting matrix of response coefficients is then combined with other components of the linear management formulation to form a complete linear formulation; the formulation is then solved by use of the simplex algorithm, which is incorporated into the RMS Package. Nonlinear formulations arise for simulated conditions that include water?table (unconfined) aquifers or head?dependent boundary conditions (such as streams, drains, or evapotranspiration from the water table). Nonlinear formulations are solved by sequential linear programming; that is, repeated linearization of the nonlinear features of the management problem. In this approach, response coefficients are recalculated for each iteration of the solution process. Mixed?binary linear (or mildly nonlinear) formulations are solved by use of the branch and bound algorithm, which is also incorporated into the RMS Package. Three sample problems are provided to demonstrate the use of GWM for typical ground?water flow management problems. These sample problems provide examples of how GWM input files are constructed to specify the decision variables, objective function, constraints, and solution process for a GWM run. The GWM Process runs with the MODFLOW?2000 Global and Ground?Water Flow Processes, but in its current form GWM cannot be used with the Observation, Sensitivity, Parameter?Estimation, or Ground?Water Transport Processes. The GWM Process is written with a modular structure so that new objective functions, constraint types, and solution algorithms can be added.

  17. Tomographic surveys for mineral exploration using complex resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Complex resistive method is a kind of induced polarization (IP) method which all the measurement is made in frequency domain. It transmits the current with the specified frequency through current electrodes, and measure the amplitude and phase to the transmitted current at receiver electrodes. It is also called SIP (Spectral IP) method when multi-frequency measurements are involved. Our research group has been developing the methodology and interpretation technique for SIP survey for several years, and already developed 2/3D inversion algorithms and extended them to the simultaneous inversion of multi-frequency IP data. Recently we are developing mining evaluation technique by relating the inverted property of field IP data to the measured one in the laboratory through geo-statistical relationship. L1-norm inversion using IRLS (iterative reweighted least squares) method is introduced to overcome the problem of noise sensitive characteristics of complex resistivity data, especially in phase data and effectively applied to the field data. The L1-norm inversion improves the noise characteristics of complex resistivity survey. However complex resistivity method is used only for the surface survey because it require special electrode like porous pot and layout of cables to minimize the interference between transmitters and receivers. In this study, we applied complex resistivity method to the tomographic survey using boreholes and interpret data using L1-norm inversion technique to verify applicability without special electrode and layout of cables. Survey was done for the boreholes drilled in the tunnel for prospecting possible mineralized zone. Zeta system based on GDP multi-function receiver manufactured by Zonge was used in this survey and tomographic data measurement was made for two frequencies, 0.25 and 1 Hz. 30 electrodes respectively for two boreholes, a total of 60 electrodes were used in this survey and electrode spacing was 10 meter. Quality of measured data was not good, especially in in-line measurement due to the borehole effect. Inversion was tried after removing bad data. Conductive region was identified near the ore zone which was identified by core logging in the inverted resistivity section. It was also identified in the normal resistivity tomography done for the same boreholes. Comparing these two results, section from complex resistivity shows much smoother image than normal resistivity because complex resistivity data was edited more due to its lower data quality. Similar anomaly pattern was identified in the inverted phase section because the mineralized zone was supposed to have strong IP characteristics. Proper survey cable and electrodes were crucial to get reliable complex resistivity data. But it might be a hurdle to extend its applicability to the real survey and should be treated in a proper way someday. Through the test survey, we found its usefulness for mineral exploration again even for tomographic survey and some problems on the measurement. We will continue the related study to solve this problem.

  18. Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL] [ORNL; Govindaswamy, Priya [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL] [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Abramoff, M.D. [University of Iowa] [University of Iowa

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

  19. Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [ORNL; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya [ORNL

    2009-09-01

    In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

  20. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey -II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    E-print Network

    Altavilla, G; Pancino, E; Galleti, S; Ragaini, S; Bellazzini, M; Cocozza, G; Bragaglia, A; Carrasco, J M; Castro, A; Di Fabrizio, L; Federici, L; Figueras, F; Gebran, M; Jordi, C; Masana, E; Schuster, W; Valentini, G; Voss, H

    2015-01-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, it was awarded almost 450 observing nights, and accumulated almost 100,000 raw data frames, with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automated data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e.,$\\geq$1%) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5m in San Pedro Martir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct ...

  1. AgRISTARS: Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing. Enumerator's manual, 1981 ground data survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    General information and administrative instructions are provided for individuals gathering ground truth data to support research and development techniques for estimating crop acreage and production by remote sensing by satellite. Procedures are given for personal safety with regards to organophosphorus insecticides, for conducting interviews for periodic observations, for coding the crops identified and their growth stages, and for selecting sites for placing rain gages. Forms are included for those citizens agreeing to monitor the gages and record the rainfall. Segment selection is also considered.

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF ON-SITE ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TNT AND RDX IN GROUND WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Craig; George Ferguson; Anne W. Kusterbeck; L. Shriver-Lake; Thomas Jenkins

    2009-01-01

    A field demonstration was conducted to assess the performance of eight commercially-available and emerging colorimetric, immunoassay, and biosensor on-site analytical methods for explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in ground water and leachate at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon and U.S. Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington, Superfund sites. Ground water samples were analyzed by each of the on-site

  3. Ground verification method of high-accuracy on-board antenna-drive control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Tanaka; Yoichi Kawakami

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a ground-verification method for a high-accuracy on-board antenna-drive control system which compensates the antenna's pointing error. A ground-test system for this control system was investigated to predict the control performance in orbit. A laser beam was used instead of the RF beacon signal, and an RF converter which simulates the RF characteristics of the antenna system has

  4. Mixed-Methods Approaches to Contextually Grounded Research in Settings of Armed Conflict and Natural Disaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. Miller

    \\u000a This chapter examines the integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the development of culturally grounded\\u000a mental health, and psychosocial assessment tools for use with populations displaced by armed conflict or natural disaster.\\u000a After first arguing for the importance of grounding our assessment tools in local cultural contexts, the author then describes\\u000a the unique and complementary contributions that qualitative

  5. Problems Encountered With The Average Potential Method of Analyzing Substation Grounding Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Garrett; J. G. Pruitt

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes some problems which can be encountered when using the average potential method to analyze sub- station grounding systems. Several examples are shown which illustrate how some of the assumptions made in developing the average potential method affect the accuracy of the results. The sources of error in some of these assumptions are explored. The paper concludes that

  6. Phenomenography and grounded theory as research methods in computing education research field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Päivi Kinnunen; Beth Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and analysis phases and the type of resulting outcomes

  7. WAVEFRONT RECONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS ON GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    E-print Network

    Bardsley, John

    WAVEFRONT RECONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS ON GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES JOHNATHAN M the refractive blurring of images. Adaptive optics systems seek to remove phase error from incoming wavefronts methods, and comparisons are made. Keywords: adaptive optics, wavefront reconstruction, minimum variance

  8. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...A solid connection to the mine track; (b) A solid connection to the grounded power conductor of the system; (c) Silicon diode grounding; however, this method shall be employed only when such devices are installed in accordance with the...

  9. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...A solid connection to the mine track; (b) A solid connection to the grounded power conductor of the system; (c) Silicon diode grounding; however, this method shall be employed only when such devices are installed in accordance with the...

  10. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...solid connection to the mine track; (b) A solid connection to the grounded power conductor of the system; (c) Silicon diode grounding; however, this method shall be employed only when such devices are installed in accordance with the...

  11. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...solid connection to the mine track; (b) A solid connection to the grounded power conductor of the system; (c) Silicon diode grounding; however, this method shall be employed only when such devices are installed in accordance with the...

  12. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...solid connection to the mine track; (b) A solid connection to the grounded power conductor of the system; (c) Silicon diode grounding; however, this method shall be employed only when such devices are installed in accordance with the...

  13. Integration of real time kinematic satellite navigation with ground-penetrating radar surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture, environmental mapping, and construction benefit from subsurface imaging by revealing the spatial variability of underground features. Features surveyed of agricultural interest are bedrock depth, soil horizon thicknesses, and buried–object features such as drainage pipe. For t...

  14. Survey of modeling, planning, and ground verification of space robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-06-01

    Space robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in future space activities. Nevertheless, dynamics modeling and motion planning of a space robot are much more complex than those of a fixed-base robot, due to the dynamic coupling between the manipulator and its base. On the other hand, in order to assure the success of on-orbital missions, many experiments are required to verify the key algorithms on the ground before the space robot is launched. In this paper, the main research achievements on dynamics modeling, path planning, and ground verification are reviewed, and future studies are recommended. Firstly, we summarize the essential modeling concepts, and deduce the kinematics and dynamics equations of a space robot. Secondly, the main motion planning approaches are discussed. Then, different ground verification systems, including the air-bearing table, neutral buoyancy, airplane flying, free-falling motion, suspension system, and hybrid system, are introduced. Finally, the future research trends are forecasted.

  15. A ground penetrating radar survey to assist the sedimentologic and geomorphologic interpretation of washover fans in NW Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leopold, Matthias; Callow, Nik; May, Simon Matthias

    2015-04-01

    The NW Australian coast is prone to both tropical cyclones and tsunamis which can generate extreme wave events in this region. Along the W coast of the Exmouth Gulf, distinct lobate washover fans consist of shell debris and sand layers and exhibit delta-type sedimentation patterns. Using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and unmanned aerial vehicle survey (UAV) techniques helps in a first step to locate important geomorphic points of interest for later sedimentologic, pedologic and chronologic studies. UAV surveys developed a detailed 3D surface model (cm resolution) which helps to better understand the extent and the general pattern of the geomorphic forms. A subsequent GPR survey using a bi-static 250 MHz antenna with a Mala CU-II in a continuous mode generated multiple transects which could be further interpreted. Coarse sandy-gravelly washover fan-matrix sits on top of clayey pan sediments which provide an excellent sedimentologic contrast for GPR surveys. Multiple delta like structures representing single wave activities, erosion channels and their backfill structures as well as several palaeosols could be identified in the GPR images. This information is now used in a subsequent chrono-stratigraphic approach for a final geomorphic interpretation.

  16. Ground verification method of high-accuracy on-board antenna-drive control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Yoichi

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes a ground-verification method for a high-accuracy on-board antenna-drive control system which compensates the antenna's pointing error. A ground-test system for this control system was investigated to predict the control performance in orbit. A laser beam was used instead of the RF beacon signal, and an RF converter which simulates the RF characteristics of the antenna system has been composed in order to realize the closed-loop test system. The ground-test system was constructed using a vacuum chamber to simulate the thermal vacuum environment. Gravity compensation was applied to the antenna-pointing mechanism and 1.6 x 10 exp -4 G environment was obtained by adjusting the suspension-point location. Control performance of the antenna-drive control system which is planned for the launch on ETS-VI spacecraft was evaluated by this ground-test system.

  17. In situ push-pull method to determine ground water denitrification in riparian zones.

    PubMed

    Addy, Kelly; Kellogg, D Q; Gold, Arthur J; Groffman, Peter M; Ferendo, Gina; Sawyer, Carl

    2002-01-01

    To quantify ground water denitrification in discrete locations of riparian aquifers, we modified and evaluated an in situ method based on conservative tracers and 15N-enriched nitrate. Ground water was "pushed" (i.e., injected) into a mini-piezometer and then "pulled" (i.e., extracted) from the same mini-piezometer after an incubation period. This push-pull method was applied in replicate mini-piezometers at two Rhode Island riparian sites, one fresh water and one brackish water. Conservative tracer pretests were conducted to determine incubation periods, ranging from 5 to 120 h, to optimize recovery of introduced plumes. For nitrate push-pull tests, we used two conservative tracers, sulfur hexafluoride and bromide, to provide insight into plume recovery. The two conservative tracers behaved similarly. The dosing solutions were amended with 15N-enriched nitrate that enabled us to quantify the mass of denitrification gases generated during the incubation period. The in situ push-pull method detected substantial denitrification rates at a site where we had previously observed high denitrification rates. At our brackish site, we found high rates of ground water denitrification in marsh locations and minimal denitrification in soils fringing the marsh. The push-pull method can provide useful insights into spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification in riparian zones. The method is robust and results are not seriously affected by dilution or degassing from ground water to soil air. In conjunction with measurements of ground water flow-paths, this method holds promise for evaluating the influence of site and management factors on the ground water nitrate removal capacity of riparian zones. PMID:12026069

  18. Conduct a state-of-the-art survey of existing knowledge for the design of ground-source heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, D.

    Historic and current methods for designing ground-coil heat pumps with emphasis on European and North American experiences are discussed. Approximately 27 individual design and performance evaluation method were studied with most of them employing computer techniques. Modeling categories include steady-state analytical and transient analytical lumped parameter finite difference and finite element in one, two, and three dimensions. A discussion of each is presented.

  19. Problems and methods involved in relating land use to ground-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Barringer, T.; Dunn, D.; Battaglin, W.; Vowinkel, E. (Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Efforts to relate shallow ground-water quality to the land use near a well lead to several statistical difficulties. These include potential uncertainty in land-use categorical data due to misclassification, data closure, distributional skewing, and spatial autocorrelation. Methods of addressing these problems are, respectively, the establishment of limits on minimum buffer radius, the estimation of contrasts, rank-based tests of association, and subsampling to prevent buffer overlap. Relations between the presence of purgeable organic compounds in ground water and land use are used to illustrate these problems and methods.

  20. On the performance of computational methods for the assessment of risk from ground-water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Hamed, M.M.; Bedient, P.B. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The effect of parameter uncertainty and overly conservative measures on risk assessment has been addressed in numerous researches. Most of the work conducted to date is based on the use of the classic Monte Carlo simulation method (MCS) as a probabilistic modeling tool. Although the MCS is robust and asymptotically convergent, it lacks computational efficiency when the simulated probability is small. Furthermore, the sensitivity information can only be obtained with additional computational effort. First- and second-order reliability methods (FORM and SORM) have been developed in the structural analysis field and have been recently applied to ground-water contaminant transport and remediation problems. In this work, the authors extend the application of the reliability methods to the probabilistic assessment of cancer risk due to ground-water contamination. Results of the reliability methods compared well with a published case study of PCE contamination of a ground-water supply in California. The target risk level is extended over a larger range, and the sensitivity of the probability of failure to the relevant random variables is analyzed. The application of the methods to another case study, cancer risk due to the ingestion of benzene contaminated water, further illustrates a systematic way of directly accounting for the intrinsic uncertainty of the transport and fate model parameters involved in the risk assessment procedure. The probability of exceeding the target risk level in this case was found to be most sensitive to the uncertainty in the parameters describing the ground-water transport process.

  1. Survey and Method for Determination of Trajectory Predictor Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rentas, Tamika L.; Green, Steven M.; Cate, Karen Tung

    2009-01-01

    A survey of air-traffic-management researchers, representing a broad range of automation applications, was conducted to document trajectory-predictor requirements for future decision-support systems. Results indicated that the researchers were unable to articulate a basic set of trajectory-prediction requirements for their automation concepts. Survey responses showed the need to establish a process to help developers determine the trajectory-predictor-performance requirements for their concepts. Two methods for determining trajectory-predictor requirements are introduced. A fast-time simulation method is discussed that captures the sensitivity of a concept to the performance of its trajectory-prediction capability. A characterization method is proposed to provide quicker, yet less precise results, based on analysis and simulation to characterize the trajectory-prediction errors associated with key modeling options for a specific concept. Concept developers can then identify the relative sizes of errors associated with key modeling options, and qualitatively determine which options lead to significant errors. The characterization method is demonstrated for a case study involving future airport surface traffic management automation. Of the top four sources of error, results indicated that the error associated with accelerations to and from turn speeds was unacceptable, the error associated with the turn path model was acceptable, and the error associated with taxi-speed estimation was of concern and needed a higher fidelity concept simulation to obtain a more precise result

  2. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, L.B.

    1998-08-18

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

  3. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Lowell B. (2181-13th Ave. SW., Largo, FL 34640)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined.

  4. Survey of ground state neutron Spectroscopic Factors from Li to Cr isotopes

    E-print Network

    M. B. Tsang; Jenny Lee; W. G. Lynch

    2005-09-09

    The ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 80 nuclei ranging in Z from 3 to 24 have been extracted by analyzing the past measurements of the angular distributions from (d,p) and (p,d) reactions. We demonstrate an approach that provides systematic and consistent values with minimum assumptions. For the 61 nuclei that have been described by large-basis shell-model calculations, most experimental spectroscopic factors are reproduced to within 20%.

  5. Advances in ground-based microwave interferometry for landslide survey: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Luzi; M. Pieraccini; D. Mecatti; L. Noferini; G. Macaluso; A. Galgaro; C. Atzeni

    2006-01-01

    In the past few years differential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (DInSAR) from ground?based installations has provided multi?temporal surface deformation maps of landslides. Experimental data have demonstrated its effectiveness for remote monitoring of terrain slopes and as an early?warning system to assess the risk of rapid landslides. Following a brief description of the principles of operation of SAR interferometry, the

  6. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste-ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, Harold C., Jr.,(Edited By); Franks, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    Ground- and surface-water contamination by pesticides used in the wood-preserving industry is widespread in the United States. Pine poles were treated with wood preservatives from 1902 to 1981 at a creosote works near Pensacola, Florida. Diesel fuel, creosote, and pentachlorophenol were discharged to two unlined impoundments that had a direct hydraulic connection to the sand-and-gravel aquifer. Evidence of wood-preserving waste contamination appears to be confined to the upper 30 meters of the aquifer. The waste plume extends downgradient approximately 300 meters south toward Pensacola Bay. In 1983, the creosote works site was selected by the U.S. Geological Survey's Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology as a national research demonstration area to apply the latest techniques for characterizing hazardous waste problems. The multidisciplinary research effort is aimed at studying processes that affect the occurrence, transport, transformations, and fate of the toxic contaminants associated with wood preservatives in the environment. Clusters of two to five wells were constructed at different depths at nine sites to define the depth of contamination. Research studies are investigating sorption, dispersion, dilution, chemical reactions, bacterially mediated transformations, quality assurance, plume hydrodynamics, and the ultimate fate of these complex organic wastes.

  7. Using Airborne and Ground Electromagnetic Surveys and DC Resistivity Surveys to Delineate a Plume of Conductive Water at an In-Channel Coalbed Methane Produced Water Impoundment Near the Powder River, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinski, B. A.; Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Sams, J.; Veloski, G.; Smith, B. D.

    2004-12-01

    Development of coal bed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana has significantly increased since 1997. Production of CBM involves withdrawing groundwater from the coal bed to lower the hydrostatic pressure thereby allowing methane to desorb from the coal. The water co-produced with CBM is managed by storing it in impoundments until it can infiltrate to the groundwater, be used for beneficial purposes, or be discharged to surface streams. Skewed Reservoir was constructed as a research site to evaluate disposal of CBM water through infiltration ponds constructed by damming ephemeral streams. Geochemical data collected from monitoring wells placed downgradient of the reservoir detected a plume of water with total dissolved solids concentrations an order of magnitude higher than the CBM water stored in the impoundment. Infiltrating CBM water is suspected to have dissolved salts that were present in the unconsolidated materials beneath the reservoir. A geophysical investigation of the Skewed Reservoir area was conducted in July of 2004 to map the horizontal and vertical extent of the plume and to possibly identify the source of solutes to the infiltrating water. The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory contracted Fugro Airborne Surveys to fly their RESOLVE frequency domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system with 50-m line spacing at the site. A ground investigation was completed at the same time as the airborne survey. Five 2-D dipole-dipole resistivity surveys and one 3-D pole-dipole survey were conducted using the AGI SuperSting R8/IP multi-channel resistivity imaging system. Additionally, ground conductivity measurements were recorded along each resistivity line using a Geophex GEM-2 multi-frequency ground conductivity meter. All geoelectrical measurements were inverted to obtain the subsurface conductivity distribution. Inversions were constrained using results of downhole borehole induction logs. Results were compared to geological and geochemical data collected from on-site monitoring wells. The geophysical methods accurately delineated the CBM water plume. Differences in the inversion results were observed and are discussed. The AEM data may also prove useful in identifying potential problem areas for locating future in-channel storage impoundments.

  8. A Comprehensive Survey of Neighborhood-based Recommendation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Christian; Karypis, George

    Among collaborative recommendation approaches, methods based on nearest-neighbors still enjoy a huge amount of popularity, due to their simplicity, their efficiency, and their ability to produce accurate and personalized recommendations. This chapter presents a comprehensive survey of neighborhood-based methods for the item recommendation problem. In particular, the main benefits of such methods, as well as their principal characteristics, are described. Furthermore, this document addresses the essential decisions that are required while implementing a neighborhood-based recommender system, and gives practical information on how to make such decisions. Finally, the problems of sparsity and limited coverage, often observed in large commercial recommender systems, are discussed, and a few solutions to overcome these problems are presented.

  9. The Method of Moments for Electromagnetic Transients in Grounding Systems on Distributed Memory Multiprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ala; E. Francomano; A. Tortorici

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present an electromagnetic model suitable to investigate transient performance of electric power substations grounding systems, working in a distributed programming environment. The numerical model, represented by a modified version of the electric field integral equation in frequency domain, is solved by means of the method of moments according to the direct and the iterative numerical

  10. On the anomalous asymptotic performance of the regular computer methods for grounding analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Colominas; F. Navarrina; M. Casteleiro

    Grounding systems are designed to guarantee personal security, protection of equip- ments and continuity of power supply. Hence, engineers must compute the equiv- alent resistance of the system and the potential distribution on the earth surface when a fault condition occurs (1, 2, 3). While very crude approximations were available until the 70's, several computer methods have been more recently

  11. Ground-based prediction of aircraft climb: point-mass model vs. regression methods

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ground-based prediction of aircraft climb: point-mass model vs. regression methods R. Alligier, M Toulouse, France INTRODUCTION Predicting aircraft trajectories with great accuracy is central to most to predict the successive aircraft positions in this interval. The point-mass model requires knowledge

  12. Earthquake early warning: Concepts, methods and physical grounds Claudio Satriano a,c,n

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Earthquake early warning: Concepts, methods and physical grounds Claudio Satriano a,c,n , Yih-Min Wu b , Aldo Zollo c , Hiroo Kanamori d a RISSC-Lab, AMRA scarl, Naples, Italy b Department Federico II, Naples, Italy d Seismological Laboratory California Institute of Technology, USA a r t i c l e

  13. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

  14. Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

  15. A Method for Emphasizing Reflection Waves from Buried Objects by Using Ground-penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Nakano, Kazushi

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a useful tool for performing subsurface imaging by using radar pulses. In previous paper, we proposed a method for denoising GPR signals by using 2D Gabor wavelet transforms. In this paper, we present a new method for emphasizing GPR reflected waves from buried objects. We can evaluate the results of the time-frequency analysis of the reflection waves on the basis of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and the Infinite Gaussian Mixture Model (IGMM) methods. Our proposed methods are effective as pre-processing method for detecting the positions of buried metal pipes.

  16. Survey of predators and sampling method comparison in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Musser, Fred R; Nyrop, Jan P; Shelton, Anthony M

    2004-02-01

    Natural predation is an important component of integrated pest management that is often overlooked because it is difficult to quantify and perceived to be unreliable. To begin incorporating natural predation into sweet corn, Zea mays L., pest management, a predator survey was conducted and then three sampling methods were compared for their ability to accurately monitor the most abundant predators. A predator survey on sweet corn foliage in New York between 1999 and 2001 identified 13 species. Orius insidiosus (Say), Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most numerous predators in all years. To determine the best method for sampling adult and immature stages of these predators, comparisons were made among nondestructive field counts, destructive counts, and yellow sticky cards. Field counts were correlated with destructive counts for all populations, but field counts of small insects were biased. Sticky cards underrepresented immature populations. Yellow sticky cards were more attractive to C. maculata adults than H. axyridis adults, especially before pollen shed, making coccinellid population estimates based on sticky cards unreliable. Field counts were the most precise method for monitoring adult and immature stages of the three major predators. Future research on predicting predation of pests in sweet corn should be based on field counts of predators because these counts are accurate, have no associated supply costs, and can be made quickly. PMID:14998137

  17. Survey of NASA V and V Processes/Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Nelson, Stacy

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe current NASA Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques and to explain how these techniques are applicable to 2nd Generation RLV Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) software. It also contains recommendations for special V&V requirements for IVHM. This report is divided into the following three sections: 1) Survey - Current NASA V&V Processes/Methods; 2) Applicability of NASA V&V to 2nd Generation RLV IVHM; and 3) Special 2nd Generation RLV IVHM V&V Requirements.

  18. The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. I. Description of the Survey and Analysis Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oemler Jr., Augustus; Dressler, Alan; Gladders, Michael G.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bai, Lei; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines.With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

  19. Quantifying Differences in Beach Volume Change Between 2-D and 3-D Survey Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Theuerkauf; A. B. Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    RTK-GPS surveys are the most widely used method of beach surveying for engineers and researchers, but new 3-D methods are gaining popularity because of their increased efficiency and accuracy in topographic and volumetric analysis. The utility of these new methods in comparison to traditional GPS surveys remains poorly understood. This study seeks to assess the differences in volume change calculations

  20. Investigating the Local and High Redshift Universe With Deep Survey Data and Ground-Based Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel Charles

    Large multiwavelength surveys are now driving the frontiers of astronomical research. I describe results from my work using data from two large astronomical surveys: the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), which has obtained deep photometric and spectroscopic data on two square degrees of the sky using many of the most powerful telescopes in the world, and the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) Survey, which uses the highly sensitive slitless spectroscopic capability of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect star-forming galaxies over most of the universe's history. First I describe my work on the evolution of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function, an important observational quantity constraining the growth of the supermassive black holes in the early universe. I show that the number density of faint quasars declines rapidly above z ˜ 3. This result is discussed in the context of cosmic reionization and the coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes. Next I present results of a multi-year campaign of near-infrared spectroscopy with FIRE, a world-class near-infrared spectrometer on the Magellan Baade 6.5 meter telescope in Chile, targeting emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 2 discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our results showed that the typical emission-line galaxy at this redshift has low-metallicity, low dust obscuration, high ionization parameter, and little evidence for significant active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the emission lines. We also find evidence that high redshift star-forming galaxies have enhanced nitrogen abundances. This result has interesting implications for the nature of the star formation in such galaxies -- in particular, it could mean that a large fraction of such galaxies harbor substantial populations of Wolf-Rayet stars, which are massive, evolved stars ejecting large amounts of enriched matter into the interstellar medium. Finally, I will discuss the discovery of three distant, ultracool brown dwarfs in the WISP survey. These objects, larger than massive planets but smaller than dwarf stars, are very difficult to detect, but their numbers and distribution in our galaxy have profound implications for our understanding of the formation of low-mass stars and planets. The brown dwarfs were found in the WFC3 grism spectroscopy, where they were identified through their strong atmospheric absorption features of water and methane. A systematic search for such objects in all WISP fields yielded three in total, allowing statistical inferences to be made regarding their distribution and number density in the Milky Way.

  1. Survey of hyperspectral image denoising methods based on tensor decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tao; Bourennane, Salah

    2013-12-01

    A hyperspectral image (HSI) is always modeled as a three-dimensional tensor, with the first two dimensions indicating the spatial domain and the third dimension indicating the spectral domain. The classical matrix-based denoising methods require to rearrange the tensor into a matrix, then filter noise in the column space, and finally rebuild the tensor. To avoid the rearranging and rebuilding steps, the tensor-based denoising methods can be used to process the HSI directly by employing multilinear algebra. This paper presents a survey on three newly proposed HSI denoising methods and shows their performances in reducing noise. The first method is the Multiway Wiener Filter (MWF), which is an extension of the Wiener filter to data tensors, based on the TUCKER3 decomposition. The second one is the PARAFAC filter, which removes noise by truncating the lower rank K of the PARAFAC decomposition. And the third one is the combination of multidimensional wavelet packet transform (MWPT) and MWF (MWPT-MWF), which models each coefficient set as a tensor and then filters each tensor by applying MWF. MWPT-MWF has been proposed to preserve rare signals in the denoising process, which cannot be preserved well by using the MWF or PARAFAC filters. A real-world HYDICE HSI data is used in the experiments to assess these three tensor-based denoising methods, and the performances of each method are analyzed in two aspects: signal-to-noise ratio and improvement of subsequent target detection results.

  2. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  3. A Denoising Method for Detecting Reflected Waves from Buried Objects by Ground-penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Nakano, Kazushi

    Ground-penetrating radar is a tool for imaging the subsurfaces with radar pulses. Since a variety of media including buried objects give different dielectric constants, the positions of the buried objects can be detected on the basis of variations in the reflected return signals. This paper presents a denoising method based on the 2D-Gabor wavelet transform method to solve the pending problems in extracting the signals reflected from buried objects. The validity of our method is demonstrated by comparing it with the f-k filtering method.

  4. Ground magnetometer survey in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trible, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    A reconnaissance magnetometer survey was conducted with both total- and vertical-field magnetometers. The large, sharp, narrow total magnetic anomalies observed over a zone of relict fumaroles in Broken Mountain Valley showed spectacular agreement with the surficial geology. Such a correlation is a strong indication that accumulations of magnetic minerals have been preserved along these fissure vents at shallow depths. Since large magnetic anomalies were measured near fumarolic markings along all of the traverses, it is proposed that the retention of sublimates along fumarolic vents is common throughout the Valley. The generally concentric contours of the vertical magnetic anomaly at the head of the Valley suggest that the dome of Novarupta is merely the surficial expression of a very massive conical-shaped intrusive centered just northeast of the dome. The magnetometer survey indicates that the pyroclastics in the Valley may be over 150 meters thick. Such an estimate is compatible with the volume of eruptive material needed to compensate for the subsidence surrounding Novarupta as well as a sizable amount of other regional subsidence.

  5. FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD AND ATP\\/EMTP FOR SELECTED EMC PROBLEM IN POWER SYSTEMS: MODELING OF GROUNDING SYSTEMS TRANSIENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu Phan Tu; Nguyen Nhat Nam; Huynh Quoc Viet

    This paper presents the applications of Finite Difference Method (FDM) and ATP\\/EMTP sofware to the EMC problem of power systems which is transient responses of grounding systems due to the effect of lightning stroke. The results of two methods for the different shapes of grounding systems such as the horizoltal grounding conductors, the square grid of 1x1, 2x2,…are computed and

  6. Effect of liquid municipal biosolid application method on tile and ground water quality.

    PubMed

    Lapen, D R; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Sabourin, L; Curnoe, W; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Rahman, S; Ball-Coelho, B; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; McLaughlin, N

    2008-01-01

    This study examined bacteria and nutrient quality in tile drainage and shallow ground water resulting from a fall land application of liquid municipal biosolids (LMB), at field application rates of 93,500 L ha(-1), to silt-clay loam agricultural field plots using two different land application approaches. The land application methods were a one-pass AerWay SSD approach (A), and surface spreading plus subsequent incorporation (SS). For both treatments, it took between 3 and 39 min for LMB to reach tile drains after land application. The A treatment significantly (p < 0.1) reduced application-induced LMB contamination of tile drains relative to the SS treatment, as shown by mass loads of total Kjeldahl N (TKN), NH(4)-N, Total P (TP), PO(4)-P, E. coli., and Clostridium perfringens. E. coli contamination resulting from application occurred to at least 2.0-m depth in ground water, but was more notable in ground water immediately beneath tile depth (1.2 m). Treatment ground water concentrations of selected nutrients and bacteria for the study period ( approximately 46 d) at 1.2-m depth were significantly higher in the treatment plots, relative to control plots. The TKN and TP ground water concentrations at 1.2-m depth were significantly (p < 0.1) higher for the SS treatment, relative to the A treatment, but there were no significant (p > 0.1) treatment differences for the bacteria. For the macroporous field conditions observed, pre-tillage by equipment such as the AerWay SSD, will reduce LMB-induced tile and shallow ground water contamination compared to surface spreading over non-tilled soil, followed by incorporation. PMID:18453415

  7. Evolution of Ground Deformation Zone on Normal Fault Using Distinct Element Method and Centrifuge Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jhen-Yi; Chang, Yu-Yi; Lee, Chung-Jung; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2015-04-01

    The depth and character of the overlying earth deposit contribute to fault rupture path. For cohesive soil, for instance, clay, tension cracks on the ground happen during faulting, limiting the propagation of fracture in soil mass. The cracks propagate downwards while the fracture induced by initial displacement of faulting propagates upwards. The connection of cracks and fracture will form a plane that is related to tri-shear zone. However the mechanism of the connection has not been discussed thoroughly. By obtaining the evolution of ground deformation zone we can understand mechanism of fault propagation and crack-fracture connection. A series of centrifuge tests and numerical modeling are conducted at this study with acceleration conditions of 40g, 50g, 80g and dip angle of 60° on normal faulting. The model is with total overburden thick, H, 0.2m, vertical displacement of moving wall, ?H. At the beginning, hanging wall and the left-boundary wall moves along the plane of fault. When ?H/H equals to 25%, both of the walls stop moving. We then can calculate the width of ground deformation in different depth of each model by a logic method. Models of this study consist of two different type overburden material to simulate sand and clay in situ. Different from finite element method, with application of distinct element method the mechanism of fault propagation in soil mass and the development of ground deformation zone can be observed directly in numerical analysis of faulting. The information of force and deformation in the numerical model are also easier to be obtained than centrifuge modeling. Therefore, we take the results of centrifuge modeling as the field outcrop then modify the micro-parameter of numerical analysis to make sure both of them have the same attitude. The results show that in centrifuge modeling narrower ground deformation zone appears in clayey overburden model as that of sandy overburden model is wider on footwall. Increasing the strength of clay will decreases the range of ground deformation. At higher acceleration condition the grounded formation zone become narrower; especially one that is near the fault plane. The results calculated from numerical model show agreement.

  8. Evaluation of methods for estimating ground-water withdrawals in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Claud H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Individual users report ground-water withdrawals annually to the Kansas State Board of Agriculture. It is estimated that these values are 10 to 15 percent higher than actual values because most users do not possess the means for accurately determining discharge rates. Methods of estimating ground-water use in western Kansas that appear to offer the desired accuracy include (1) extrapolation from a sample of metered withdrawals, (2) calculation from precipitation and irrigated acreages of various crop types, and (3) calculation from a sample of power-coefficients. All three methods are being tested and compared with actual measured values. Newly developed electronic running-time and discharge-totaling meters are being tested that may give accurate values of total pumping time and discharge at small cost. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Simulations of Ground Motion in the Los Angeles Basin Based upon the Spectral-Element Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitri Komatitsch; Qinya Liu; Jeroen Tromp; Peter Suss; Christiane Stidham; John H. Shaw

    2004-01-01

    We use the spectral-element method to simulate ground motion gener- ated by two recent and well-recorded small earthquakes in the Los Angeles basin. Simulations are performed using a new sedimentary basin model that is constrained by hundreds of petroleum-industry well logs and more than 20,000 km of seismic reflection profiles. The numerical simulations account for 3D variations of seismic- wave

  10. Fermi-hypernetted-chain methods and the ground state of fermion matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Zabolitzky

    1977-01-01

    The convergence properties of the Fermi-hypernetted-chain method as originated by Fantoni and Rosati are investigated. Numerical results are reported for liquid ÂłHe and two model fermion liquids. It turns out that for not too high densities and not too long-ranged correlation functions the convergence to an upper bound for the ground-state energy is excellent, but that for higher densities and\\/or

  11. A new fabrication method for precision antenna reflectors for space flight and ground test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, G. Richard; Wanhainen, Joyce S.; Ketelsen, Dean A.

    1991-01-01

    Communications satellites are using increasingly higher frequencies that require increasingly precise antenna reflectors for use in space. Traditional industry fabrication methods for space antenna reflectors employ successive modeling techniques using high- and low-temperature molds for reflector face sheets and then a final fit-up of the completed honeycomb sandwich panel antenna reflector to a master pattern. However, as new missions are planned at much higher frequencies, greater accuracies will be necessary than are achievable using these present methods. A new approach for the fabrication of ground-test solid-surface antenna reflectors is to build a rigid support structure with an easy-to-machine surface. This surface is subsequently machined to the desired reflector contour and coated with a radio-frequency-reflective surface. This method was used to fabricate a 2.7-m-diameter ground-test antenna reflector to an accuracy of better than 0.013 mm (0.0005 in.) rms. A similar reflector for use on spacecraft would be constructed in a similar manner but with space-qualified materials. The design, analysis, and fabrication of the 2.7-m-diameter precision antenna reflector for antenna ground tests and the extension of this technology to precision, space-based antenna reflectors are described.

  12. Comparison of analytical methods for the detection of central nervous system tissue in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Gyun; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2008-07-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is most likely transmitted by the consumption of central nervous system tissue of infected cows. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity or limits of detection of two central nervous system tissue detection assays (glial fibrillary acidic protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and neuron-specific enolase Western blotting assay) in by-products and ground beef. By-products including brain, spinal cord, and ileum were collected from the slaughterhouse and used for analyses with ELISA and Western blotting assays. Beef samples were prepared by mixing ground beef with different amounts of spinal cord tissue (0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.1%) and were analyzed using the two central nervous system tissue detection methods. Both analytical assays were applicable in detecting central nervous system tissue in ground beef. However, the ELISA method was considered superior because of its ease of use, high sensitivity, and rapidity as compared with the Western blot method. PMID:18680956

  13. Survey methods and results at: www.umass.edu/oapa/oapa/reports/senior_survey. Office of Academic Planning and Assessment, 11/19/2014 2014 UMass-Amherst Graduating Senior Survey

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    (Calendar Year 2014): 5550 Survey Respondents: 4060 Response Rate: 73.2% Survey methods and results at: www.umass.edu/oapa/oapa/reports/senior_survey Summary Graduates (Calendar Year 2014): 5550 Survey Respondents: 4060 Response Rate: 73.2% SATISFACTIONSurvey methods and results at: www.umass.edu/oapa/oapa/reports/senior_survey. Office of Academic

  14. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Composition of minced meat part B: A survey of commercial ground meat.

    PubMed

    Skrökki, A; Hormi, O

    1994-01-01

    A modified polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretic method was used to differentiate qualitatively various species of meat such as beef, pork, venison, reindeer, and mutton. The composition of commercial minced meat was examined; and illegal adulterations of minced beef with pork were detected. PMID:22059712

  16. A STUDY OF LIFT-OFF TEST METHOD OF GROUND ANCHORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yuu; Sakai, Toshinori

    Ground anchors (hereinafter anchors) are important to do the maintenance after construction. Residual tensile strength of anchors are generally confirmed by lift-off test that pulls an anchor using a hydraulic jack. However, the lift-off test has not been established a proper testing method. Therefore, it may not have been proper maintenance from measurement variability. In this paper, we conducted various lift-off test at cut slope of the expressway, and made proposals on proper lift-off test method.

  17. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING GROUND-WATER PUMPAGE FOR IRRIGATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage for irrigation was measured at 32 sites on the eastern Snake River Plain in southern Idaho during 1983. Pumpage at these sites also was estimated by three commonly used methods, and pumpage estimates were compared to measured values to determine the accuracy of each estimate. Statistical comparisons of estimated and metered pumpage using an F-test showed that only estimates made using the instantaneous discharge method were not significantly different ( alpha equals 0. 01) from metered values. Pumpage estimates made using the power consumption method reflect variability in pumping efficiency among sites. Pumpage estimates made using the crop-consumptive use method reflect variability in water-management practices. Pumpage estimates made using the instantaneous discharge method reflect variability in discharges at each site during the irrigation season.

  18. Comparison of the effects of filtration and preservation methods on analyses for strontium-90 in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, L.L.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    From 1952 to 1988, about 140 curies of strontium-90 were discharged in liquid waste to disposal ponds and wells at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory). Water from four wells was sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's quality-assurance program to evaluate the effects of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in ground water at the INEL. Water from each well was filtered through eithera 0.45- or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered water samples were collected at each well. One of the two sets of water samples was field acidified. Strontium-90 concentrations ranged from below the reporting level to 52 ?? 4 picocuries per liter. Descriptive statistics were used to determine reproducibility of the analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from each well. Comparisons were made with unfiltered, acidified samples at each well. Analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from well 88 were not in statistical agreement between the unfiltered, acidified sample and the filtered (0.45 micrometer), acidified sample. The strontium-90 concentration for water from well 88 was less than the reporting level. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94 percent or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collection do not significantly affect reproducibility of strontium-90 analyses in ground water at the INEL.

  19. Characteristics of bacteria isolated by the anaerobic roll-tube method from cheeses and ground beef.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, W M; Johnson, M G

    1976-01-01

    In this study the methods of Hungate were used to quantitate the anaerobic bacteria present in commercially available ground beef, cheddar cheese, and German hand cheese. Of 235 anaerobic roll-tube isolates from ground beef and German hand cheese, all were facultative anaerobes. Of 213 anaerobic roll-tube isolates from cheddar cheese, 91% were facultative anaerobes and 9% were obligate anaerobes. Using results of biochemical tests, 14 or the 17 obligately anaerobic isolates from cheddar cheese were Propionibacterium acnes, two were strains of Propionibacterium that could not be speciated, and one was tentatively identified as a strain of Streptococcus evolutus. Obligate anaerobes were estimated to be present in the cheddar cheese at a level of about 10(6)/g. The possible significance of these levels of P. acnes in nonsterile foods is discussed. PMID:793523

  20. Generalizing Observational Study Results: Applying Propensity Score Methods to Complex Surveys

    PubMed Central

    DuGoff, Eva H; Schuler, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo provide a tutorial for using propensity score methods with complex survey data. Data SourcesSimulated data and the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study DesignUsing simulation, we compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naďve estimate (ignoring both survey weights and propensity scores), survey weighting, propensity score methods (nearest neighbor matching, weighting, and subclassification), and propensity score methods in combination with survey weighting. Methods are compared in terms of bias and 95 percent confidence interval coverage. In Example 2, we used these methods to estimate the effect on health care spending of having a generalist versus a specialist as a usual source of care. Principal FindingsIn general, combining a propensity score method and survey weighting is necessary to achieve unbiased treatment effect estimates that are generalizable to the original survey target population. ConclusionsPropensity score methods are an essential tool for addressing confounding in observational studies. Ignoring survey weights may lead to results that are not generalizable to the survey target population. This paper clarifies the appropriate inferences for different propensity score methods and suggests guidelines for selecting an appropriate propensity score method based on a researcher’s goal. PMID:23855598

  1. A New Curb Detection Method for Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using 2D Sequential Laser Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Wang, Jinling; Liu, Daxue

    2013-01-01

    Curb detection is an important research topic in environment perception, which is an essential part of unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operations. In this paper, a new curb detection method using a 2D laser range finder in a semi-structured environment is presented. In the proposed method, firstly, a local Digital Elevation Map (DEM) is built using 2D sequential laser rangefinder data and vehicle state data in a dynamic environment and a probabilistic moving object deletion approach is proposed to cope with the effect of moving objects. Secondly, the curb candidate points are extracted based on the moving direction of the vehicle in the local DEM. Finally, the straight and curved curbs are detected by the Hough transform and the multi-model RANSAC algorithm, respectively. The proposed method can detect the curbs robustly in both static and typical dynamic environments. The proposed method has been verified in real vehicle experiments. PMID:23325170

  2. A Method for Numerical Simulation of Single Limb Ground Contact Events: Application to Heel-Toe Running

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. NEPTUNE; I. C. WRIGHT; A. J. VAN DEN BOGERT

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a method to simulate single-limb ground contact events, which may be applied to study musculoskeletal injuries associated with such movements. To achieve this objective, a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model was developed consisting of the equations of motion for the musculoskeletal system, and models for the muscle force generation and ground contact elements. An

  3. Improved method and case study of thermal response test for borehole heat exchangers of ground source heat pump system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huajun Wang; Chengying Qi; Hongpu Du; Jihao Gu

    2010-01-01

    Thermal response test (TRT) is crucial for the determination of the ground thermal conductivity and the evaluation of the thermal performance of borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) of ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. This paper presented a novel constant heating-temperature method (CHTM) for TRT. Further, a type of improved TRT equipment was developed and the mathematical model to deal with

  4. Topsoil thickness mapping at watershed scale by integration of field survey, geophysics and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, Alain Pascal; Lubczynski, Maciek

    2010-05-01

    The adequate parameterisation of near subsurface is a critical issue due to the large spatial variability of soil properties. Direct observations made by common invasive field sampling procedures through drilling and trench excavations can be complemented in an efficient way by non-invasive geophysical methods, improving spatial data coverage in cost and time efficient way. The geophysical methods measure a physical property of subsurface that is convertible into the parameter or variable of interest. Such conversion requires development of data integration method. In this study, we present a methodology of data integration to assess spatially the topsoil thickness at the watershed scale. To integrate the spatial variability of the soil characteristics, we used a combination of field survey, ground-geophysics, satellite and aerial imagery processing and statistical estimation techniques. The ground-geophysics was used to complement and extend the direct field observations of the topsoil thickness. The conversion of the geophysical data in topsoil thickness and the estimation of the topsoil thickness over the catchment were done through statistical methods that integrated auxiliary variables derived from the remote sensing imagery (soil and geomorphology classifications and terrain attributes). A simple and expedite soil classification based on multi-resolution segmentation of image objects and fuzzy logic was derived from a high-resolution multispectral QuickBird image combined with aerial photograph. Landform classes and terrain attributes were computed from the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite. We applied this methodology to the Pisőes catchment (~19 km2, Portugal) where the AB horizon, following the standard pedologic classification, is characterized by its high concentration in swelling clay. In the first step, we elaborated the sampling schema of the geophysical survey using a dataset compiled from previous studies of 48 observations of the topsoil thickness made through augering, profiling and drilling. We opted to measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) using a GeonicsTM ground conductivity meter EM-31 because: i) the AB horizon thickness was within the range of penetration depth of this instrument; ii) a significant contrast between the electrical conductivities of the AB and C horizons was expected and confirmed by measurements. We assumed that the spatial variation of ECa over the study area was mainly controlled by the high clay content and the thickness of the AB horizon. The influence of the soil moisture content was minimized by taking the ECa measurements at the end of the dry season. We executed 6 transects, perpendicular to the main streams, which constituted 424 survey locations separated by a median distance of 21 m. Complementary direct observations were also made by using percussion drilling and digging at 22 locations along the geophysical transects. The second step was to convert the ECa measurements into topsoil thickness using a linear regression (LR) model. The obtained dataset was used in the third and last step to estimate the topsoil thickness over the catchment selecting the appropriate geostatistical mixed linear model (MLM). In these two last steps, the remote sensing derived auxiliary variables were tested and integrated in the models to improve the relationship. To avoid collinearity effects in the models, the auxiliary predictors were selected using principal component analysis. The selection of the appropriate geostatistical MLM was done by testing the normality and the spatial correlation of the residuals (respectively Shapiro-Wilk and Moran tests). The error propagation in the models was considered and integrated in the results. Final assessment of the estimation was made by computing the root mean square error (RMSE) at 61 locations of the observed dataset.

  5. Methods for nonlinear analysis, simulation and animation of land-survey spacecraft guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somov, Sergey; Somova, Tatyana

    2014-12-01

    Obtained in the space photos a ground resolution depends on a spacecraft spatial angular motion during optoelectronic survey. The paper studies case of optimal equalization of an image longitudinal velocity in the focal plane of telescope and tackles the problem of defining initial azimuth of the scanning survey under the condition of minimizing quadratic functional of image cross velocity values on edges of the CCD linear array. Results of a simulated survey of random surface object are presented, and the change of initial azimuth value for various survey angles within the swath is examined. The paper presents also a brief description of developed software for designing the space telescope characteristics, simulation and animation of the land-survey spacecraft spatial motion and gives recommendations for its applications.

  6. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  7. A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.

    2004-01-01

    Swarms of intelligent autonomous spacecraft, involving complex behaviors and interactions, are being proposed for future space exploration missions. Such missions provide greater flexibility and offer the possibility of gathering more science data than traditional single spacecraft missions. The emergent properties of swarms make these missions powerful, but simultaneously far more difficult to design, and to assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. These missions are also considerably more complex than previous types of missions, and NASA, like other organizations, has little experience in developing or in verifying and validating these types of missions. A significant challenge when verifying and validating swarms of intelligent interacting agents is how to determine that the possible exponential interactions and emergent behaviors are producing the desired results. Assuring correct behavior and interactions of swarms will be critical to mission success. The Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm (ANTS) mission is an example of one of the swarm types of missions NASA is considering. The ANTS mission will use a swarm of picospacecraft that will fly from Earth orbit to the Asteroid Belt. Using an insect colony analogy, ANTS will be composed of specialized workers for asteroid exploration. Exploration would consist of cataloguing the mass, density, morphology, and chemical composition of the asteroids, including any anomalous concentrations of specific minerals. To perform this task, ANTS would carry miniaturized instruments, such as imagers, spectrometers, and detectors. Since ANTS and other similar missions are going to consist of autonomous spacecraft that may be out of contact with the earth for extended periods of time, and have low bandwidths due to weight constraints, it will be difficult to observe improper behavior and to correct any errors after launch. Providing V&V (verification and validation) for this type of mission is new to NASA, and represents the cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.

  8. A double-observer method for reducing bias in faecal pellet surveys of forest ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, K.J.; Manly, B.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Faecal surveys are used widely to study variations in abundance and distribution of forest-dwelling mammals when direct enumeration is not feasible. The utility of faecal indices of abundance is limited, however, by observational bias and variation in faecal disappearance rates that obscure their relationship to population size. We developed methods to reduce variability in faecal surveys and improve reliability of faecal indices. 2. We used double-observer transect sampling to estimate observational bias of faecal surveys of Roosevelt elk Cervus elaphus roosevelti and Columbian black-tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus columbianus in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We also modelled differences in counts of faecal groups obtained from paired cleared and uncleared transect segments as a means to adjust standing crop faecal counts for a standard accumulation interval and to reduce bias resulting from variable decay rates. 3. Estimated detection probabilities of faecal groups ranged from < 0.2-1.0 depending upon the observer, whether the faecal group was from elk or deer, faecal group size, distance of the faecal group from the sampling transect, ground vegetation cover, and the interaction between faecal group size and distance from the transect. 4. Models of plot-clearing effects indicated that standing crop counts of deer faecal groups required 34% reduction on flat terrain and 53% reduction on sloping terrain to represent faeces accumulated over a standard 100-day interval, whereas counts of elk faecal groups required 0% and 46% reductions on flat and sloping terrain, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Double-observer transect sampling provides a cost-effective means of reducing observational bias and variation in faecal decay rates that obscure the interpretation of faecal indices of large mammal abundance. Given the variation we observed in observational bias of faecal surveys and persistence of faeces, we emphasize the need for future researchers to account for these comparatively manageable sources of bias before comparing faecal indices spatially or temporally. Double-observer sampling methods are readily adaptable to study variations in faecal indices of large mammals at the scale of the large forest reserve, natural area, or other forested regions when direct estimation of populations is problematic. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  9. A Deep Percolation Model for Estimating Ground-Water Recharge: Documentation of Modules for the Modular Modeling System of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A daily water-budget model for estimating ground-water recharge, the Deep Percolation Model, was modularized for inclusion into the U.S. Geological Survey's Modular Modeling System. The model was modularized in order to facilitate estimation of ground-water recharge under a large range in climatic, landscape, and land-use and land-cover conditions. The model can be applied to areas as large as regions or as small as a field plot. An overview of the Modular Modeling System and the Deep Percolation Model is presented. Data requirements, parameters, and variables for the model are described. The modules that compose the Deep Percolation Model are documented.

  10. Substation Grounding Grid Analysis with the Variation of Soil layer depth Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Puttarach; N. Chakpitak; T. Kasirawat; C. Pongsriwat

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a substation grounding grid analyzed with the variation of soil layer depth. The grounding grid system of a practical 22 kV substation, in which the ground grid is made from copper, is calculated by virtue of the CDEGS software. The study, supported by Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA), Thailand, is based the on grounding system of Royal Flora

  11. A wavelet-based baseline drift correction method for grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan 1Ji, Yanju 2Li, Suyi 13Lin, Jun 12Zhou, Fengdao 1Yang, Guihong

    2013-09-01

    A grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system on an airship enjoys high depth of prospecting and spatial resolution, as well as outstanding detection efficiency and easy flight control. However, the movement and swing of the front-fixed receiving coil can cause severe baseline drift, leading to inferior resistivity image formation. Consequently, the reduction of baseline drift of GREATEM is of vital importance to inversion explanation. To correct the baseline drift, a traditional interpolation method estimates the baseline `envelope' using the linear interpolation between the calculated start and end points of all cycles, and obtains the corrected signal by subtracting the envelope from the original signal. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of the removal is found to be low. Considering the characteristics of the baseline drift in GREATEM data, this study proposes a wavelet-based method based on multi-resolution analysis. The optimal wavelet basis and decomposition levels are determined through the iterative comparison of trial and error. This application uses the sym8 wavelet with 10 decomposition levels, and obtains the approximation at level-10 as the baseline drift, then gets the corrected signal by removing the estimated baseline drift from the original signal. To examine the performance of our proposed method, we establish a dipping sheet model and calculate the theoretical response. Through simulations, we compare the signal-to-noise ratio, signal distortion, and processing speed of the wavelet-based method and those of the interpolation method. Simulation results show that the wavelet-based method outperforms the interpolation method. We also use field data to evaluate the methods, compare the depth section images of apparent resistivity using the original signal, the interpolation-corrected signal and the wavelet-corrected signal, respectively. The results confirm that our proposed wavelet-based method is an effective, practical method to remove the baseline drift of GREATEM signals and its performance is significantly superior to the interpolation method.

  12. Analysis of subglacial hydrodynamics and ice dynamics through combined terrestrial laser scanning and ground penetrating radar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbud, Chrystelle; Rüttimann, Sébastien; Micheletti, Natan; Irving, James; Lane, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    This study shows how high resolution surveys of subglacial channel morphology combined with high resolution terrestrial laser scanner survey of an Alpine glacier help to understand subglacial hydrological forcing of ice dynamics. The study area is the Haut Glacier d'Arolla in Switzerland, an Alpine valley glacier for which subglacial drainage system has been well studied. A new generation of terrestrial laser scanners was used to investigate glacier surface ablation and other elements of glacial hydrodynamics at exceptionally high spatial and temporal resolution. The LiDAR RIEGL VZ-6000 scanner, with a laser 3B specifically designed for measurements of snow and ice cover surfaces, was tested at seasonal and daily scales. The data revealed spatial variations in the patterns of surface melt, controlled by both aspect and differential debris cover at the seasonal scale, and controlled by ogive-related differences in ice surface debris content at the daily scale. More tentatively, intra-daily scale measurements pointed to possible hydraulic jacking of the glacier associated with short-term water pressure rises at the downstream part of the glacier. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) field campaign was conducted a year later in the location where possible hydraulic jacking had been detected previously. The aims of this campaign were (i) to assess GPR usage for subglacial channel detection; (ii) identify more precisely the channel morphology; and (iii) investigate further the hydraulic jacking hypothesis. 100 MHz antennas were used to map a 240 x 34 m area near the glacier snout where the ice thickness did not exceed 50 m. The corresponding data, after processing, allowed reconstruction of the bed topography and the morphology of subglacial channels in 3D, showing two of the latter in this area. One channel was followed for approximately 20 m upglacier and corresponding morphology estimates were performed. These data allowed for 3D reconstructions of both the bed topography and channel morphology. The channels had much higher aspect ratios than is traditionally assumed in the analysis of subglacial hydrological channels in Alpine systems, such that water is more laterally distributed at the bed than is commonly thought. This could help to explain why hydraulic jacking might occur even in systems with highly channelized subglacial drainage.

  13. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2015-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo type accelerometers for two horizontal and one vertical component combined with 24 bit AD converter. In the presentation current achievements and activities of research group, preliminary results of microtremor array measurement surveys and recorded data by the newly installed stations will be introduced.

  14. Results of a Flight Simulation Software Methods Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    A ten-page questionnaire was mailed to members of the AIAA Flight Simulation Technical Committee in the spring of 1994. The survey inquired about various aspects of developing and maintaining flight simulation software, as well as a few questions dealing with characterization of each facility. As of this report, 19 completed surveys (out of 74 sent out) have been received. This paper summarizes those responses.

  15. Statistical methods in a high school transcript survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Lu

    2009-01-01

    In complex surveys that involve stratification and clustering structures, given the budget, time and resource restrictions, the surveys are usually designed to produce specific accuracy of direct estimation at high levels of aggregation. Sample sizes for small geographical areas or subpopulations are typically small such that direct estimates in these areas are very unreliable.\\u000aParticularly in designs where a single

  16. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  17. Comparison of annual accumulation rates derived from in situ and ground penetrating radar methods across Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, D.; Gusmeroli, A.; Oneel, S.; Sass, L. C.; Arendt, A. A.; Wolken, G. J.; Kienholz, C.; McNeil, C.

    2013-12-01

    Constraining annual snowfall accumulation in mountain glacier environments is essential for determining the annual mass balance of individual glaciers and predicting seasonal meltwater runoff to river and marine ecosystems. However, large spatial and elevation gradients, coupled with sparse point measurements preclude accurate quantification of this variable using traditional methods. Here, we report on an extensive field campaign conducted in March-May 2013 on key benchmark glaciers in Alaska, including Taku Glacier near Juneau, Scott Glacier near Cordova, both Eklutna and Wolverine Glacier near Anchorage and Gulkana Glacier in the interior Alaska Range. Over 50 km of 500 MHz common-offset ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were collected on each glacier, with an emphasis on capturing spatial variability in the accumulation zone. Frequent in situ observations were collected for comparison with the GPR, including probe depths, snow pits and shallow firn cores (~8 m). We report on spatial and elevation gradients across this suite of glaciers and across numerous climatic zones and discuss differences between GPR and in situ derived annual accumulation estimates. This comparison is an essential first step in order to effectively evaluate regional atmospheric re-analysis products.

  18. Electromagnetic survey of the K1070A burial ground at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Emery, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The K1070A burial ground, located at the K-25 Site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, received chemical and radioactive wastes from the late 1940s until 1975. Analysis of water samples collected from nearby monitoring wells indicates that contamination is migrating offsite. In November 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) personnel collected high-resolution electrical terrain conductivity data at the K1070A burial ground. A Model EM31 terrain conductivity meter manufactured by Geonics Limited was used in conjunction with the ORNL-developed Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) to perform the survey. The purposeof the survey was to provide Environmental Restoration (ER) staff with a detailed map of the spatial variation of the apparent electrical conductivity of the shallow subsurface (upper 3 m) to assist them in siting future monitoring wells closer to the waste area without drilling into the buried waste.

  19. Simulation of cylindrical flow to a well using the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    1993-01-01

    Cylindrical (axisymmetric) flow to a well is an important specialized topic of ground-water hydraulics and has been applied by many investigators to determine aquifer properties and determine heads and flows in the vicinity of the well. A recent modification to the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Three-Dimensional Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model provides the opportunity to simulate axisymmetric flow to a well. The theory involves the conceptualization of a system of concentric shells that are capable of reproducing the large variations in gradient in the vicinity of the well by decreasing their area in the direction of the well. The computer program presented serves as a preprocessor to the U.S. Geological Survey model by creating the input data file needed to implement the axisymmetric conceptualization. Data input requirements to this preprocessor are described, and a comparison with a known analytical solution indicates that the model functions appropriately.

  20. A greedy-based multiquadric method for LiDAR-derived ground data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuanfa; Yan, Changqing; Cao, Xuewei; Guo, Jinyun; Dai, Honglei

    2015-04-01

    A new greedy-based multiquadric method (MQ-G) has been developed to perform LiDAR-derived ground data reduction by selecting a certain amount of significant terrain points from the raw dataset to keep the accuracy of the constructed DEMs as high as possible, while maximally retaining terrain features. In the process of MQ-G, the significant terrain points were selected with an iterative process. First, the points with the maximum and minimum elevations were selected as the initial significant points. Next, a smoothing MQ was employed to perform an interpolation with the selected critical points. Then, the importance of all candidate points was assessed by interpolation error (i.e. the absolute difference between the interpolated and actual elevations). Lastly, the most significant point in the current iteration was selected and used for point selection in the next iteration. The process was repeated until the number of selected points reached a pre-set level or no point was found to have the interpolation error exceeding a user-specified accuracy tolerance. In order to avoid the huge computing cost, a new technique was presented to quickly solve the systems of MQ equations in the global interpolation process, and then the global MQ was replaced with the local one when a certain amount of critical points were selected. Four study sites with different morphologies (i.e. flat, undulating, hilly and mountainous terrains) were respectively employed to comparatively analyze the performances of MQ-G and the classical data selection methods including maximum z-tolerance (Max-Z) and the random method for reducing LiDAR-derived ground datasets. Results show that irrespective of the number of selected critical points and terrain characteristics, MQ-G is always more accurate than the other methods for DEM construction. Moreover, MQ-G has a better ability of preserving terrain feature lines, especially for the undulating and hilly terrains.

  1. Survey of Technetium Analytical Production Methods Supporting Hanford Nuclear Materials Processing

    SciTech Connect

    TROYER, G.L.

    1999-11-03

    This document provides a historical survey of analytical methods used for measuring {sup 99}Tc in nuclear fuel reprocessing materials and wastes at Hanford. Method challenges including special sludge matrices tested are discussed. Special problems and recommendations are presented.

  2. LRES 510 Biodiversity Survey and Monitoring Methods Class Syllabus CRN: 24447

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    LRES 510 Biodiversity Survey and Monitoring Methods Class Syllabus CRN concerning biodiversity at multiple scales in time and space. This course about biodiversity. We will concentrate on applying and evaluating these methods

  3. Survey of Technetium Analytical Production Methods Supporting Hanford Nuclear Materials Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a historical survey of analytical methods used for measuring ⁚⁚Tc in nuclear fuel reprocessing materials and wastes at Hanford. Method challenges including special sludge matrices tested are discussed. Special problems and recommendations are presented.

  4. Typical geologic disaster surveying in Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake zone using high resolution ground LiDAR and UAV remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongbo; Su, Yuanyuan; Jiao, Qisong; Zhang, Jingfa; Lixia, Gong; Luo, Yi

    2014-11-01

    There are nearly all kinds of typical earthquake types in Wenchuan earthquake relics. For the protection and efficient use of seismic data of relics, ground Lidar and UAV are used collected data about the ruined buildings, seismic scarps and other typical seismic information in Wenchuan, Beichuan, Bailu Middle School , Dujiangyan and Xiaoyudong earthquake relics. These data are processed and a high-precision surveying flow of typical earthquake relics is preliminarily formed.

  5. Methods Used to Assess the Susceptibility to Contamination of Transient, Non-Community Public Ground-Water Supplies in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, Leslie D.; Cohen, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Safe Water Drinking Act of 1974 as amended in 1996 gave each State the responsibility of developing a Source-Water Assessment Plan (SWAP) that is designed to protect public-water supplies from contamination. Each SWAP must include three elements: (1) a delineation of the source-water protection area, (2) an inventory of potential sources of contaminants within the area, and (3) a determination of the susceptibility of the public-water supply to contamination from the inventoried sources. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) was responsible for preparing a SWAP for all public-water supplies in Indiana, including about 2,400 small public ground-water supplies that are designated transient, non-community (TNC) supplies. In cooperation with IDEM, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled information on conditions near the TNC supplies and helped IDEM complete source-water assessments for each TNC supply. The delineation of a source-water protection area (called the assessment area) for each TNC ground-water supply was defined by IDEM as a circular area enclosed by a 300-foot radius centered at the TNC supply well. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were defined by IDEM as any of the 90 contaminants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking-water standards. Two of these, nitrate as nitrogen and total coliform bacteria, are Indiana State-regulated contaminants for TNC water supplies. IDEM representatives identified potential point and nonpoint sources of COCs within the assessment area, and computer database retrievals were used to identify potential point sources of COCs in the area outside the assessment area. Two types of methods-subjective and subjective hybrid-were used in the SWAP to determine susceptibility to contamination. Subjective methods involve decisions based upon professional judgment, prior experience, and (or) the application of a fundamental understanding of processes without the collection and analysis of data for a specific condition. Subjective hybrid methods combine subjective methods with quantitative hydrologic analyses. The subjective methods included an inventory of potential sources and associated contaminants, and a qualitative description of the inherent susceptibility of the area around the TNC supply. The description relies on a classification of the hydrogeologic and geomorphic characteristics of the general area around the TNC supply in terms of its surficial geology, regional aquifer system, the occurrence of fine- and coarse-grained geologic materials above the screen of the TNC well, and the potential for infiltration of contaminants. The subjective hybrid method combined the results of a logistic regression analysis with a subjective analysis of susceptibility and a subjective set of definitions that classify the thickness of fine-grained geologic materials above the screen of a TNC well in terms of impedance to vertical flow. The logistic regression determined the probability of elevated concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen (greater than or equal to 3 milligrams per liter) in ground water associated with specific thicknesses of fine-grained geologic materials above the screen of a TNC well. In this report, fine-grained geologic materials are referred to as a geologic barrier that generally impedes vertical flow through an aquifer. A geologic barrier was defined to be thin for fine-grained materials between 0 and 45 feet thick, moderate for materials between 45 and 75 feet thick, and thick if the fine-grained materials were greater than 75 feet thick. A flow chart was used to determine the susceptibility rating for each TNC supply. The flow chart indicated a susceptibility rating using (1) concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen and total coliform bacteria reported from routine compliance monitoring of the TNC supply, (2) the presence or absence of potential sources of regulated contaminants (nitrate as nitrogen and coliform bac

  6. Comparing Coral Reef Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on Coral Reef Survey Management and Assessment Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on coral reef survey management and assessment methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "Coral Reef Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of Coral Reef Survey and Management…

  7. Thermodynamic ground state of MgB{sub 6} predicted from first principles structure search methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China) [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); LeBlanc, K. A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Gao, Bo [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yao, Yansun, E-mail: yansun.yao@usask.ca [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada) [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0X4 (Canada)

    2014-01-28

    Crystalline structures of magnesium hexaboride, MgB{sub 6}, were investigated using unbiased structure searching methods combined with first principles density functional calculations. An orthorhombic Cmcm structure was predicted as the thermodynamic ground state of MgB{sub 6}. The energy of the Cmcm structure is significantly lower than the theoretical MgB{sub 6} models previously considered based on a primitive cubic arrangement of boron octahedra. The Cmcm structure is stable against the decomposition to elemental magnesium and boron solids at atmospheric pressure and high pressures up to 18.3 GPa. A unique feature of the predicted Cmcm structure is that the boron atoms are clustered into two forms: localized B{sub 6} octahedra and extended B{sub ?} ribbons. Within the boron ribbons, the electrons are delocalized and this leads to a metallic ground state with vanished electric dipoles. The present prediction is in contrast to the previous proposal that the crystalline MgB{sub 6} maintains a semiconducting state with permanent dipole moments. MgB{sub 6} is estimated to have much weaker electron-phonon coupling compared with that of MgB{sub 2}, and therefore it is not expected to be able to sustain superconductivity at high temperatures.

  8. A Validation of Extraction Methods for Noninvasive Sampling of Glucocorticoids in Free-Living Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Jill M.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.

    2008-01-01

    Fecal hormone assays provide a powerful tool for noninvasive monitoring of endocrine status in wild animals. In this study we validated a protocol for extracting and measuring glucocorticoids in free-living and captive Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). We first compared two commonly used extraction protocols to determine which performed better with commercially available antibodies. We next verified the preferred extraction method by correlating circulating and fecal glucocorticoid measures from a group of individuals over time. For this comparison, we used both a cortisol and a corticosterone antibody to determine which had greater affinity to the fecal metabolites. Cortisol was the primary circulating glucocorticoid, but both hormones were present in well above detectable concentrations in the blood, which does not occur in other sciurids. In addition, the cortisol antibody showed greater binding with the fecal extracts than did the corticosterone antibody. Finally, we used adrenocorticotropic hormone and dexamethasone challenges to demonstrate that changes in adrenal functioning are reflected in changing fecal corticoid levels. These results suggest that our extraction protocol provides a fast, reliable assay of stress hormones in free-living ground squirrels without the confounding influence of short-term rises in glucocorticoid concentrations caused by handling and restraint stress and that it can facilitate ecological and evolutionary studies of stress in wild species. PMID:16228945

  9. U.S. Geological Survey laboratory method for methyl tert-Butyl ether and other fuel oxygenates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.; Rose, Donna L.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was found in shallow ground-water samples in a study of 8 urban and 20 agricultural areas throughout the United States in 1993 and 1994 (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 1). The compound is added to gasoline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels in the air. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), near Denver, uses state-of-the-art technology to analyze samples for MTBE as part of the USGS water-quality studies. In addition, the NWQL offers custom analyses to determine two other fuel oxygenates--ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The NWQL was not able to obtain a reference standard for tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), another possible fuel oxygenate (Shelley and Fouhy, 1994, p. 63). The shallow ground-water samples were collected as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These samples were collected from 211 urban wells or springs and 562 agricultural wells sampled by the USGS in 1993 and 1994. The wells were keyed to specific land-use areas to assess the effects of different uses on ground-water quality (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 2). Ground-water samples were preserved on site to pH less than or equal to 2 with a solution of 1:1 hydrochloric acid. All samples were analyzed at the NWQL within 2 weeks after collection. The purpose of this fact sheet is to explain briefly the analytical method implemented by the USGS for determining MTBE and other fuel oxygenates. The scope is necessarily limited to an overview of the analytical method (instrumentation, sample preparation, calibration and quantitation, identification, and preservation of samples) and method performance (reagent blanks, accuracy, and precision).

  10. Methods for Using Ground-Water Model Predictions to Guide Hydrogeologic Data Collection, with Applications to the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System

    SciTech Connect

    Claire R. Tiedeman; M.C. Hill; F.A. D'Agnese; C.C. Faunt

    2001-07-31

    Calibrated models of ground-water systems can provide substantial information for guiding data collection. This work considers using such models to guide hydrogeologic data collection for improving model predictions, by identifying model parameters that are most important to the predictions. Identification of these important parameters can help guide collection of field data about parameter values and associated flow-system features that can lead to improved predictions. Methods for identifying parameters important to predictions include prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), which account for uncertainty on individual parameters as well as prediction sensitivity to parameters, and a new ''value of improved information'' (VOII) method, which includes the effects of parameter correlation in addition to individual parameter uncertainty and prediction sensitivity. The PSS and VOII methods are demonstrated using a model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The predictions of interest are advective-transport paths originating at sites of past underground nuclear testing. Results show that for two paths evaluated, the most important parameters include a subset of five or six of the 23 defined model parameters. Some of the parameters identified as most important are associated with flow-system attributes that do not lie in the immediate vicinity of the paths. Results also indicate that the PSS and VOII methods can identify different important parameters. Because the methods emphasize somewhat different criteria for parameter importance, it is suggested that parameters identified by both methods be carefully considered in subsequent data collection efforts aimed at improving model predictions.

  11. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  12. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  13. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  14. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  15. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  16. A method for mapping corn using the US Geological Survey 1992 National Land Cover Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Nuckols, J.R.; Ward, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to elevated nitrate levels in community drinking water supplies has been associated with an elevated risk of several cancers including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, colon cancer, and bladder cancer. To estimate human exposure to nitrate, specific crop type information is needed as fertilizer application rates vary widely by crop type. Corn requires the highest application of nitrogen fertilizer of crops grown in the Midwest US. We developed a method to refine the US Geological Survey National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) (including map and original Landsat images) to distinguish corn from other crops. Overall average agreement between the resulting corn and other row crops class and ground reference data was 0.79 kappa coefficient with individual Landsat images ranging from 0.46 to 0.93 kappa. The highest accuracies occurred in Regions where corn was the single dominant crop (greater than 80.0%) and the crop vegetation conditions at the time of image acquisition were optimum for separation of corn from all other crops. Factors that resulted in lower accuracies included the accuracy of the NLCD map, accuracy of corn areal estimates, crop mixture, crop condition at the time of Landsat overpass, and Landsat scene anomalies. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced Computer Methods for Grounding Ignasi Colominas, Jose Paris, Xesus Nogueira, Fermin Navarrina and Manuel Casteleiro

    E-print Network

    Colominas, Ignasi

    dissipation is a well-known phenomenon, the computing of grounding grids of large elec- trical substations´a grounding system: grid plan. that is the isotropic and homogeneous one ("uniform soil model") where conductivity and thickness [1]. TABLE I BARBER ´A GROUNDING SYSTEM: CHARACTERISTICS, NUMERICAL MODEL & RESULTS

  18. An Heuristic Method for GPS Surveying Stefka Fidanova

    E-print Network

    Fidanova, Stefka

    , to analyze and improve the efficiency of the design of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying networks of computational effort. The Global Positioning System is a satellite-based radio-navigation system that permits. The most widely known space systems are: the American Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian GLObal

  19. FOREST SURVEY METHODS USED IN THE USDA FOREST SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing need for forest resource inventory data to contribute to various objectives of different agencies and organizations. Monitoring forest health is one area of interest for which existing forest survey data may be useful. There are many different samplin...

  20. A Socratic Method for Surveying Students' Readiness to Study Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students' understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects…

  1. Novel time delay estimation methods with applications to ultrawideband ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renbiao; Li, Jian

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, we first present a Weighted Fourier transform and RELAXation based method, which is both computationally and statistically efficient, for the well-known time delay estimation problem. Later WRELAX is extended to multiple look cases where the receiver noise is assumed to be zero- mean colored Gaussian noise with unknown covariance matrices. Numerical examples show that both WRELAX and its extensions can approach the corresponding Cramer-Rao bound, the minimum attainable variances for any unbiased estimators, for a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios. The new algorithm can be applied to detecting and classifying roadway subsurface anomalies by using an ultra wideband ground penetrating radar. Experimental examples are also provided to demonstrate the performance of the new algorithm.

  2. Proposed expansion of the City of Albuquerque/U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level monitoring network for the middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico, extending from Cochiti Lake on the north to San Acacia on the south, covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground-water withdrawals in the basin are concentrated in and around the city of Albuquerque. Because of rapid increases in population and associated ground-water pumpage, a network of wells was established cooperatively by the City of and the U.S. Geological Survey between April 1982 and September 1983 to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin. Expansion of this network has been identified as an essential element in plans to study the relation between surface water and ground water in the basin. An inventory of existing wells in the Albuquerque metropolitan area has brought together information on about 400 wells that either are being monitored for water levels or would be good candidates for monitoring. About 115 wells or well sites are proposed as additions to the current 128-well ground-water-level monitoring network for the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Despite the extensive network that would be created by the addition of the proposed existing wells, however, certain parts of the Albuquerque metropolitan area would remain without adequate coverage areally and/or with depth in the Santa Fe Group aquifer until the installation of the proposed new monitoring wells.

  3. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida; preliminary results, US Geological Survey Toxic Waste-Ground Water Contamination Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in central Florida. The most important hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, consisting of fractured limestone and dolomite limestone. Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impacts of these land uses on ground-water quality by comparison with a fourth land use representing the absence of human activity in another area of recharge are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticides, which include the organic compounds simazine, ametryne, chlordane, DDE , bromacil, aldicarb, EDB, trifluralin, and diazinon, and the trace elements zinc and copper; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, napthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

  4. GLACIER MONITORING SYSTEM IN COLOMBIA - complementing glaciological measurements with laser-scanning and ground-penetrating radar surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Jorge; Micheletti, Natan; Rabatel, Antoine; Mölg, Nico; Zemp, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Colombia (South America) has six small glaciers (total glacierized area of 45 Km2); their geographical location, close to zero latitude, makes them very sensitive to climate changes. An extensive monitoring program is being performed since 2006 on two glaciers, with international cooperation supports. This presentation summarizes the results of glacier changes in Colombia and includes the latest results obtained within the CATCOS Project - Phase 1 (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems) signed between Colombia and Switzerland, and within the Joint Mixte Laboratory GREAT-ICE (IRD - France), with the application of LiDAR technology and GPR-based ice thickness measurements at Conejeras Glacier. Conejeras Glacier (Lat. N. 4° 48' 56"; Long. W. 75° 22' 22"; Alt. Max. 4915m.; Alt. Min. 4730m. Area 0.2 Km2) is located on the north-western side of Santa Isabel Volcano. This glacier belongs to global glacier monitoring network of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS-ID: 2721). The surface mass balance is calculated monthly using the direct glaciological method. Between April 2006 and May 2014, Conejeras Glacier showed a cumulative loss of -21 m w.e. The CATCOS Project allowed to improve the glacier monitoring system in Colombia with two main actions: (1) a terrestrial laser scanner survey (RIEGL VZ-6000 terrestrial laser scanner, property of Universities of Lausanne and Fribourg); and (2) ice thickness measurements (Blue System Integration Ltd. Ice Penetrating Radar of property of IRD). The terrestrial laser-scanning survey allowed to realize an accurate digital terrain model of the glacier surface with 13 million points and a decimetric resolution. Ice thickness measurements showed an average glacier thickness of 22 meters and a maximum of 52 meters.

  5. Advanced high-performance liquid chromatography method for highly polar nitroaromatic compounds in ground water samples from ammunition waste sites.

    PubMed

    Preiss, A; Bauer, A; Berstermann, H-M; Gerling, S; Haas, R; Joos, A; Lehmann, A; Schmalz, L; Steinbach, K

    2009-06-19

    An advanced HPLC-photodiode array detection method for the determination of 12 selected highly polar nitroaromatic compounds in ground water samples of ammunition waste sites has been developed and validated. After solid-phase extraction the limits of detection were in the range 0.1-0.5 microg/l. To prove the applicability of the method to other polar nitroaromatic compounds the retention time of another 32 polar compounds under the specified chromatographic conditions were determined and their UV spectra recorded. To review the method, interlaboratory comparisons were performed with a spiked and a real ground water sample. PMID:19446826

  6. AIS-2 radiometry and a comparison of methods for the recovery of ground reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Vane, Gregg; Bruegge, Carol J.; Alley, Ronald E.; Curtiss, Brian J.

    1987-01-01

    A field experiment and its results involving Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 data are described. The radiometry and spectral calibration of the instrument are critically examined in light of laboratory and field measurements. Three methods of compensating for the atmosphere in the search for ground reflectance are compared. It was found that laboratory determined responsitivities are 30 to 50 percent less than expected for conditions of the flight for both short and long wavelength observations. The combined system atmosphere surface signal to noise ratio, as indexed by the mean response divided by the standard deviation for selected areas, lies between 40 and 110, depending upon how scene averages are taken, and is 30 percent less for flight conditions than for laboratory. Atmospheric and surface variations may contribute to this difference. It is not possible to isolate instrument performance from the present data. As for methods of data reduction, the so-called scene average or log-residual method fails to recover any feature present in the surface reflectance, probably because of the extreme homogeneity of the scene.

  7. A method to automate the radiological survey process

    SciTech Connect

    Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the USRAD system, a hardware/software ranging and data transmission system, that provides real-time position data and combines it with other portable instrument measurements. Live display of position data and onsite data reduction, presentation, and formatting for reports and automatic transfer into databases are among the unusual attributes of USRADS. Approximately 25% of any survey-to-survey report process is dedicated to data recording and formatting, which is eliminated by USRADS. Cost savings are realized by the elimination of manual transcription of instrument readout in the field and clerical formatting of data in the office. Increased data reliability is realized by ensuring complete survey coverage of an area in the field, by elimination of mathematical errors in conversion of instrument readout to unit concentration, and by elimination of errors associated with transcribing data from the field into report format. The USRAD system can be adapted to measure other types of pollutants or physical/chemical/geological/biological conditions in which portable instrumentation exists. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Concordance and discordance of sequence survey methods for molecular epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Nur A.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Robison, Richard A.; Johnson, W. Evan; Crandall, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The post-genomic era is characterized by the direct acquisition and analysis of genomic data with many applications, including the enhancement of the understanding of microbial epidemiology and pathology. However, there are a number of molecular approaches to survey pathogen diversity, and the impact of these different approaches on parameter estimation and inference are not entirely clear. We sequenced whole genomes of bacterial pathogens, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. (60 new genomes), and combined them with 55 genomes from GenBank to address how different molecular survey approaches (whole genomes, SNPs, and MLST) impact downstream inferences on molecular evolutionary parameters, evolutionary relationships, and trait character associations. We selected isolates for sequencing to represent temporal, geographic origin, and host range variability. We found that substitution rate estimates vary widely among approaches, and that SNP and genomic datasets yielded different but strongly supported phylogenies. MLST yielded poorly supported phylogenies, especially in our low diversity dataset, i.e., Y. pestis. Trait associations showed that B. pseudomallei and Y. pestis phylogenies are significantly associated with geography, irrespective of the molecular survey approach used, while Brucella spp. phylogeny appears to be strongly associated with geography and host origin. We contrast inferences made among monomorphic (clonal) and non-monomorphic bacteria, and between intra- and inter-specific datasets. We also discuss our results in light of underlying assumptions of different approaches. PMID:25737810

  9. Concordance and discordance of sequence survey methods for molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Hasan, Nur A; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, W Evan; Crandall, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    The post-genomic era is characterized by the direct acquisition and analysis of genomic data with many applications, including the enhancement of the understanding of microbial epidemiology and pathology. However, there are a number of molecular approaches to survey pathogen diversity, and the impact of these different approaches on parameter estimation and inference are not entirely clear. We sequenced whole genomes of bacterial pathogens, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. (60 new genomes), and combined them with 55 genomes from GenBank to address how different molecular survey approaches (whole genomes, SNPs, and MLST) impact downstream inferences on molecular evolutionary parameters, evolutionary relationships, and trait character associations. We selected isolates for sequencing to represent temporal, geographic origin, and host range variability. We found that substitution rate estimates vary widely among approaches, and that SNP and genomic datasets yielded different but strongly supported phylogenies. MLST yielded poorly supported phylogenies, especially in our low diversity dataset, i.e., Y. pestis. Trait associations showed that B. pseudomallei and Y. pestis phylogenies are significantly associated with geography, irrespective of the molecular survey approach used, while Brucella spp. phylogeny appears to be strongly associated with geography and host origin. We contrast inferences made among monomorphic (clonal) and non-monomorphic bacteria, and between intra- and inter-specific datasets. We also discuss our results in light of underlying assumptions of different approaches. PMID:25737810

  10. Signal extraction from 4D transient electromagnetic surveys using the equivalent source method

    E-print Network

    Signal extraction from 4D transient electromagnetic surveys using the equivalent source method Kristopher MacLennan1 and Yaoguo Li1 ABSTRACT Emerging applications of transient electromagnetic (TEM for an improved signal to noise ratio in 4D survey data. INTRODUCTION Transient, or time-domain, electromagnetics

  11. Teaching and Assessment Methods in Undergraduate Economics: A Fourth National Quinquennial Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Schaur, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Surveys in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 investigated teaching and assessment methods in different undergraduate courses. In this article, the authors offer basic results from the 2010 survey. "Chalk and talk" remains the dominant teaching style, but there were drops in mean (although not median) values for those pedagogies and some growth in the use…

  12. A SUMMARY OF THE INTERLABORATORY SOURCE PERFORMANCE SURVEYS FOR EPA REFERENCE METHODS 6 AND 7 - 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the 1977 results of a source methods survey program conducted by the Quality Assurance Branch of the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. As part of these surveys, test solutions prepared as internal quality...

  13. Application of a method for the automatic detection and Ground-Based Velocity Track Display (GBVTD) analysis of a tornado crossing the Hong Kong International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, P. W.; Wurman, J.; Shun, C. M.; Robinson, P.; Kosiba, K.

    2012-03-01

    A weak tornado with a maximum Doppler velocity shear of about 40 m s - 1 moved across the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) during the evening of 20 May 2002. The tornado caused damage equivalent to F0 on the Fujita Scale, based on a damage survey. The Doppler velocity data from the Hong Kong Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) are studied using the Ground-Based Velocity Track Display (GBVTD) method of single Doppler analysis. The GBVTD analysis is able to clearly depict the development and decay of the tornado though it appears to underestimate its magnitude. In the pre-tornadic state, the wind field is characterized by inflow toward the center near the ground and upward motion near the center. When the tornado attains its maximum strength, an eye-like structure with a downdraft appears to form in the center. Several minutes later the tornado begins to decay and outflow dominates at low levels. Assuming cyclostrophic balance, the pressure drop 200 m from the center of the tornado at its maximum strength is calculated to be about 6 hPa. To estimate the maximum ground-relative wind speed of the tornado, the TDWR's Doppler velocities are adjusted for the ratio of the sample-volume size of the radar and the radius of the tornado, resulting in a peak wind speed of 28 m s - 1 , consistent with the readings from a nearby ground-based anemometers and the F0 damage observed. An automatic tornado detection algorithm based on Doppler velocity difference (delta-V) and temporal and spatial continuity is applied to this event. The locations and the core flow radii of the tornado as determined by the automatic method and by subjective analysis agree closely.

  14. A survey of numerical methods for stochastic differential equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Kloeden; E. Platen

    1989-01-01

    The development of numerical methods for stochastic differential equations has intensified over the past decade. The earliest methods were usually heuristic adaptations of deterministic methods, but were found to have limited accuracy regardless of the order of the original scheme. A stochastic counterpart of the Taylor formula now provides a framework for the systematic investigation of numerical methods for stochastic

  15. A hybrid method of simulating broadband ground motion : A case study of the 2006 Pingtung earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Y.; Ma, K.; Cheng, C.; Shao, K.; Lin, P.

    2011-12-01

    For the demand of engineering, the time-history of ground motions which consider the reliability and earthquake physical characters have been provided for earthquake resistant design of important building structures. However, the high frequency portion ( > 1 Hz) of near-fault ground motions was restricted by the insufficient resolution of velocity structure. Considering the relative small events which contain path and site effect in waveforms as Green's functions (i.e. empirical Green's function (EGF) method) can resolve the problem of lack of precise velocity structure to replace the path effect evaluation. Alternatively, a stochastic Green's function (SGF) method can be employed when the EGF is unavailable. Further, the low frequency ( < 1 Hz) can be obtained numerically by the Frequency-Wavenumber (FK) method. Thus, broadband frequency strong ground motion can be calculation by a hybrid method that combining a deterministic FK method for the low frequency simulation and the EGF or SGF method for high frequency simulation. The slip models had been investigated from Taiwan dense strong motion and global teleseismic data. Characterizing the slip models derived from the waveform inversion can directly extract the source parameters needed for the ground motion prediction in the EGF method or the SGF method. The nuclear power plant in southern tip of Taiwan was experienced a strong shaking by the 26 December 2006 Pingtung, Taiwan offshore earthquake. The closest strong motion station of the Central Weather Bureau, KAU082, recorded the peak acceleration value (PGA) of 0.24 g. We considered the adjacent stations to be the case study for possibility evaluation of predicting ground motion utilizing the EGF method or SGF method. The possible damage impact toward nuclear power plant for specific sites can be estimated and verified according to the simulation results

  16. Finding a fox: an evaluation of survey methods to estimate abundance of a small desert carnivore.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Steven J; Gese, Eric M; Kluever, Bryan M

    2014-01-01

    The status of many carnivore species is a growing concern for wildlife agencies, conservation organizations, and the general public. Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) were classified as abundant and distributed in the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, but is now considered rare throughout its range. Survey methods have been evaluated for kit foxes, but often in populations where abundance is high and there is little consensus on which technique is best to monitor abundance. We conducted a 2-year study to evaluate four survey methods (scat deposition surveys, scent station surveys, spotlight survey, and trapping) for detecting kit foxes and measuring fox abundance. We determined the probability of detection for each method, and examined the correlation between the relative abundance as estimated by each survey method and the known minimum kit fox abundance as determined by radio-collared animals. All surveys were conducted on 15 5-km transects during the 3 biological seasons of the kit fox. Scat deposition surveys had both the highest detection probabilities (p?=?0.88) and were most closely related to minimum known fox abundance (r2?=?0.50, P?=?0.001). The next best method for kit fox detection was the scent station survey (p?=?0.73), which had the second highest correlation to fox abundance (r2?=?0.46, P<0.001). For detecting kit foxes in a low density population we suggest using scat deposition transects during the breeding season. Scat deposition surveys have low costs, resilience to weather, low labor requirements, and pose no risk to the study animals. The breeding season was ideal for monitoring kit fox population size, as detections consisted of the resident population and had the highest detection probabilities. Using appropriate monitoring techniques will be critical for future conservation actions for this rare desert carnivore. PMID:25148102

  17. Finding a Fox: An Evaluation of Survey Methods to Estimate Abundance of a Small Desert Carnivore

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Steven J.; Gese, Eric M.; Kluever, Bryan M.

    2014-01-01

    The status of many carnivore species is a growing concern for wildlife agencies, conservation organizations, and the general public. Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) were classified as abundant and distributed in the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, but is now considered rare throughout its range. Survey methods have been evaluated for kit foxes, but often in populations where abundance is high and there is little consensus on which technique is best to monitor abundance. We conducted a 2-year study to evaluate four survey methods (scat deposition surveys, scent station surveys, spotlight survey, and trapping) for detecting kit foxes and measuring fox abundance. We determined the probability of detection for each method, and examined the correlation between the relative abundance as estimated by each survey method and the known minimum kit fox abundance as determined by radio-collared animals. All surveys were conducted on 15 5-km transects during the 3 biological seasons of the kit fox. Scat deposition surveys had both the highest detection probabilities (p?=?0.88) and were most closely related to minimum known fox abundance (r2?=?0.50, P?=?0.001). The next best method for kit fox detection was the scent station survey (p?=?0.73), which had the second highest correlation to fox abundance (r2?=?0.46, P<0.001). For detecting kit foxes in a low density population we suggest using scat deposition transects during the breeding season. Scat deposition surveys have low costs, resilience to weather, low labor requirements, and pose no risk to the study animals. The breeding season was ideal for monitoring kit fox population size, as detections consisted of the resident population and had the highest detection probabilities. Using appropriate monitoring techniques will be critical for future conservation actions for this rare desert carnivore. PMID:25148102

  18. Gamma/hadron segregation for a ground based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope using machine learning methods: Random Forest leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mradul; Nayak, Jitadeepa; Krishna Koul, Maharaj; Bose, Smarajit; Mitra, Abhas

    2014-11-01

    A detailed case study of ?-hadron segregation for a ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope is presented. We have evaluated and compared various supervised machine learning methods such as the Random Forest method, Artificial Neural Network, Linear Discriminant method, Naive Bayes Classifiers, Support Vector Machines as well as the conventional dynamic supercut method by simulating triggering events with the Monte Carlo method and applied the results to a Cherenkov telescope. It is demonstrated that the Random Forest method is the most sensitive machine learning method for ?-hadron segregation.

  19. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were estimated, including volume of clay matrix, volume of matrix other than clay, density of matrix other than clay, density of matrix, intrinsic permeability, specific yield, and specific storage. Geophysical logs were used to (1) determine lithology, (2) correlate lithologic and permeable zones, (3) calibrate seismic reprocessing, (4) calibrate transient-electromagnetic surveys, and (5) calibrate uphole-survey interpretations. Logs were used at the drill site to (1) determine permeability zones, (2) determine dissolved-solids content, which is a function of water resistivity, and (3) design wells accordingly. Data and properties derived from logs were used to determine transmissivity and specific yield of aquifer materials.

  20. A blind deconvolution method for ground based telescopes and Fizeau interferometers

    E-print Network

    Prato, M; Bonettini, S; Rebegoldi, S; Bertero, M; Boccacci, P

    2015-01-01

    In the case of ground-based telescopes equipped with adaptive optics systems, the point spread function (PSF) is only poorly known or completely unknown. Moreover, an accurate modeling of the PSF is in general not available. Therefore in several imaging situations the so-called blind deconvolution methods, aiming at estimating both the scientific target and the PSF from the detected image, can be useful. A blind deconvolution problem is severely ill-posed and, in order to reduce the extremely large number of possible solutions, it is necessary to introduce sensible constraints on both the scientific target and the PSF. In a previous paper we proposed a sound mathematical approach based on a suitable inexact alternating minimization strategy for minimizing the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence, assuring global convergence. In the framework of this method we showed that an important constraint on the PSF is the upper bound which can be derived from the knowledge of its Strehl ratio. The efficacy of the ap...

  1. Determining concentrations of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and dibromopropene in ground water using quantitative methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panshin, Sandra Y.

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining levels of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 2,3-dibromopropene from ground-water samples using liquid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were extracted from the water using three aliquots of dichloromethane. The aliquots were combined and reduced in volume by rotary evaporation followed by evaporation using a nitrogen stream. The extracts were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the full-scan mode. Estimated method detection limits were 30 nanograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 10 nanograms per liter for 2,3-dibromopropene. Recoveries were determined by spiking three matrices at two concentration levels (0.540 and 5.40 micrograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol; and 0.534 and 5.34micro-grams per liter for dibromopropene). For seven replicates of each matrix at the high concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.9 to 64.9 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 87.5 to 99.3 percent for dibromopropene. At the low concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.8 to 95.2 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 71.3 to 84.9 percent for dibromopropene.

  2. Efficient continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method for the ground state of correlated fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Iazzi, Mauro; Corboz, Philippe; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    We present the ground state extension of the efficient continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice fermions of M. Iazzi and M. Troyer, Phys. Rev. B 91, 241118 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.241118. Based on continuous-time expansion of an imaginary-time projection operator, the algorithm is free of systematic error and scales linearly with projection time and interaction strength. Compared to the conventional quantum Monte Carlo methods for lattice fermions, this approach has greater flexibility and is easier to combine with powerful machinery such as histogram reweighting and extended ensemble simulation techniques. We discuss the implementation of the continuous-time projection in detail using the spinless t -V model as an example and compare the numerical results with exact diagonalization, density matrix renormalization group, and infinite projected entangled-pair states calculations. Finally we use the method to study the fermionic quantum critical point of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice and confirm previous results concerning its critical exponents.

  3. Understanding the Capabilities of New Technologies and Methods to Survey West Coast Groundfishes

    E-print Network

    methods, whether optical, acoustical, or some combination of both, are needed of three tools/technologies (i.e., a Seabed autonomous underwater vehicle [AUV]; a manned submersible [SUB]; and the collaborative optically assisted acoustical survey

  4. Feature extraction methods for character recognition-A survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Řivind Due Trier; Anil K. Jain; Torfinn Taxt

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of feature extraction methods for off-line recognition of segmented (isolated) characters. Selection of a feature extraction method is probably the single most important factor in achieving high recognition performance in character recognition systems. Different feature extraction methods are designed for different representations of the characters, such as solid binary characters, character contours, skeletons (thinned characters)

  5. The swift UVOT stars survey. I. Methods and test clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Linevsky, Jacquelyn S.; Bond, Howard E.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Berrier, Joshua L.; Gronwall, Caryl A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holland, Stephen T. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Breeveld, Alice A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Brown, Peter J., E-mail: siegel@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: blp14@psu.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: sholland@stsci.edu, E-mail: aab@mssl.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: grbpeter@yahoo.com [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We describe the motivations and background of a large survey of nearby stellar populations using the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. UVOT, with its wide field, near-UV sensitivity, and 2.?3 spatial resolution, is uniquely suited to studying nearby stellar populations and providing insight into the near-UV properties of hot stars and the contribution of those stars to the integrated light of more distant stellar populations. We review the state of UV stellar photometry, outline the survey, and address problems specific to wide- and crowded-field UVOT photometry. We present color–magnitude diagrams of the nearby open clusters M67, NGC 188, and NGC 2539, and the globular cluster M79. We demonstrate that UVOT can easily discern the young- and intermediate-age main sequences, blue stragglers, and hot white dwarfs, producing results consistent with previous studies. We also find that it characterizes the blue horizontal branch of M79 and easily identifies a known post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  6. A survey of design methods for failure detection in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    A number of methods for the detection of abrupt changes (such as failures) in stochastic dynamical systems were surveyed. The class of linear systems were emphasized, but the basic concepts, if not the detailed analyses, carry over to other classes of systems. The methods surveyed range from the design of specific failure-sensitive filters, to the use of statistical tests on filter innovations, to the development of jump process formulations. Tradeoffs in complexity versus performance are discussed.

  7. Elevation Change of Drangajokull, Iceland, from Cloud-Cleared ICESat Repeat Profiles and GPS Ground-Survey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Sigurdsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard, Jr.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    Located on the Vestfirdir Northwest Fjords), DrangaJokull is the northernmost ice map in Iceland. Currently, the ice cap exceeds 900 m in elevation and covered an area of approx.l46 sq km in August 2004. It was about 204 sq km in area during 1913-1914 and so has lost mass during the 20th century. Drangajokull's size and accessibility for GPS surveys as well as the availability of repeat satellite altimetry profiles since late 2003 make it a good subject for change-detection analysis. The ice cap was surveyed by four GPS-equipped snowmobiles on 19-20 April 2005 and has been profiled in two places by Ice, Cloud. and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) 'repeat tracks,' fifteen times from late to early 2009. In addition, traditional mass-balance measurements have been taken seasonally at a number of locations across the ice cap and they show positive net mass balances in 2004/2005 through 2006/2007. Mean elevation differences between the temporally-closest ICESat profiles and the GPS-derived digital-elevation model (DEM)(ICESat - DEM) are about 1.1 m but have standard deviations of 3 to 4 m. Differencing all ICESat repeats from the DEM shows that the overall elevation difference trend since 2003 is negative with losses of as much as 1.5 m/a from same season to same season (and similar elevation) data subsets. However, the mass balance assessments by traditional stake re-measurement methods suggest that the elevation changes where ICESat tracks 0046 and 0307 cross Drangajokull are not representative of the whole ice cap. Specifically, the area has experienced positive mass balance years during the time frame when ICESat data indicates substantial losses. This analysis suggests that ICESat-derived elevations may be used for multi-year change detection relative to other data but suggests that large uncertainties remain. These uncertainties may be due to geolocation uncertainty on steep slopes and continuing cloud cover that limits temporal and spatial coverage across the area.

  8. Novel method for analyzing the transient behavior of grounding systems based on the finite-difference time-domain method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Tanabe

    2001-01-01

    When lightning strikes bulk transmission lines or electric substations, large currents flow through towers or in substations and equipment structures before dissipating in the ground through the grounding systems. The electromagnetic fields generated by such lightning surges cause large currents and voltages, which may result in damage to equipment and serious accidents, such as failure of electrical transmission, and furthermore

  9. ''Decoupled method'' for studying large interconnected grounding systems using microcomputers - Part I - Fundamentals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Sobral; V. G. P. Fleury; J. R. Villalba; D. Mukhedkar

    1988-01-01

    Interconnected ground systems with hundreds of even thousands of circuit elements are relatively frequent in the electrical industry. If used the common matricial representation of the complete ground circuit, the quality of the solution decreases with the size of the circuit, due to the propagation of the relative error of each circuit element. For very large circuits, all digits of

  10. COMPARISON OF GEOSTATISTICAL METHODS FOR ESTIMATING VIRUS INACTIVATION RATES IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric viruses are responsible for a large number of ground-waterborne disease outbreaks every year. Septic tanks are the most frequently cited causes of ground-water contamination in disease outbreaks. Controlling the placement of septic tanks such that all viruses would be non...

  11. A Comparison between Survey and Verbal Choice Methods of Identifying Potential Reinforcers among Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron

    2006-01-01

    Two methods of assessing preference for stimuli (i.e., potential reinforcers) were compared for adult administrative assistant employees. During Phase 1, a survey method and a verbal choice method of assessing preference for 6 stimuli were administered. During Phase 2, a coupon system was used to determine which categories of stimuli actually…

  12. A survey of data mining methods for linkage disequilibrium mapping

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Data mining methods are gaining more interest as potential tools in mapping and identification of complex disease loci. The methods are well suited to large numbers of genetic marker loci produced by high-throughput laboratory analyses, but also might be useful for clarifying the phenotype definitions prior to more traditional mapping analyses. Here, the current data mining-based methods for linkage disequilibrium mapping and phenotype analyses are reviewed. PMID:16595078

  13. Numerical methods for computing the ground state of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates in a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Fong Yin; Bao, Weizhu

    2008-12-01

    We propose efficient and accurate numerical methods for computing the ground-state solution of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates subjected to a uniform magnetic field. The key idea in designing the numerical method is based on the normalized gradient flow with the introduction of a third normalization condition, together with two physical constraints on the conservation of total mass and conservation of total magnetization. Different treatments of the Zeeman energy terms are found to yield different numerical accuracies and stabilities. Numerical comparison between different numerical schemes is made, and the best scheme is identified. The numerical scheme is then applied to compute the condensate ground state in a harmonic plus optical lattice potential, and the effect of the periodic potential, in particular to the relative population of each hyperfine component, is investigated through comparison to the condensate ground state in a pure harmonic trap.

  14. DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHOD FOR TIME DEPENDENT PROBLEMS: SURVEY AND RECENT

    E-print Network

    Shu, Chi-Wang

    time dependent partial differential equations. We also present a few recent developments on the design, time dependent partial differential equations, superconvergence, positivity-preserving, -functions. AMS equations of compressible gas dynamics. The DG method of Cockburn et al. belongs to the class of method-of-lines

  15. A method for sensor processing, sensor integration, and navigation in mobile autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggins, Robert N.; Mutter, Bruce V.; Baker, Scott; Farmer, Jesse; Huntley, Joy; Kessler, Joe; Lewis, Lenny

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for solving three challenges of autonomous navigation: sensor signal processing, sensor integration, and path-finding. The algorithm organizes these challenges into three steps. The first step involves converting the raw data from each sensor to a form suitable for real-time processing. Emphasis in the first step is on image processing. In the second step, the processed data from all sensors is integrated into a single map. Using this map as input, during the third step the algorithm calculates a goal and finds a suitable path from robot to the goal. The method presented in this paper completes these steps in this order and the steps repeat indefinitely. The robotic platform designed for testing the algorithm is a six-wheel mid-wheel drive system using differential steering. The robot, called Anassa II, has an electric wheelchair base and a custom-built top and it is designed to participate in the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). The sensors consist of a laser scanner, a video camera, a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) receiver, a digital compass, and two wheel encoders. Since many intelligent vehicles have similar sensors, the approach presented here is general enough for many types of autonomous mobile robots.

  16. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model : user guide to the LMT6 package, the linkage with MT3DMS for multi-species mass transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Chunmiao; Hill, Mary Catherine; Hsieh, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    MODFLOW-2000, the newest version of MODFLOW, is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium using a finite-difference method. MT3DMS, the successor to MT3D, is a computer program for modeling multi-species solute transport in three-dimensional ground-water systems using multiple solution techniques, including the finite-difference method, the method of characteristics (MOC), and the total-variation-diminishing (TVD) method. This report documents a new version of the Link-MT3DMS Package, which enables MODFLOW-2000 to produce the information needed by MT3DMS, and also discusses new visualization software for MT3DMS. Unlike the Link-MT3D Packages that coordinated previous versions of MODFLOW and MT3D, the new Link-MT3DMS Package requires an input file that, among other things, provides enhanced support for additional MODFLOW sink/source packages and allows list-directed (free) format for the flow model produced flow-transport link file. The report contains four parts: (a) documentation of the Link-MT3DMS Package Version 6 for MODFLOW-2000; (b) discussion of several issues related to simulation setup and input data preparation for running MT3DMS with MODFLOW-2000; (c) description of two test example problems, with comparison to results obtained using another MODFLOW-based transport program; and (d) overview of post-simulation visualization and animation using the U.S. Geological Survey?s Model Viewer.

  17. Ground Gravity, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Surveys on a Crater on Basalt of Bajada del Diablo Astrobleme-Strewn Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Prezzi, C.; Orgeira, M. J.; Rocca, M.; Martínez, O.; Ponce, J. F.; Corbella, H.; Rabassa, J.; González-Guillot, M.; Subías, I.

    2014-09-01

    With the aim of further investigate the circular structures from Bajada del Diablo, we carried out geophysics surveys and we conclude that the geophysical features could be satisfactorily explained assuming an extra-terrestrial projectile impact.

  18. Radiative Transfer and Error Analysis Methods for the MSL REMS Ground Temperature Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Alejandro; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; McEwan, Ian; Richardson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) offers the opportunity to explore the near surface atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over an extended region of the Martian surface. The atmospheric boundary layer plays an important role in the general circulation and the local atmospheric dynamics of Mars. In both cases, the ABL controls the coupling of the atmosphere and the surface [Zurek, et al., 1992]. This coupling is exhibited in the energy exchange between the near surface regolith and the near surface atmosphere and is driven by the solar insolation. Ground temperature sensors (GTS) on REMS provide the data needed to study both the thermal inertia properties of the regolith and rocks beneath the MSL rover and to study the conditions for convection in the near surface atmospheric boundary layer. The GTS includes three thermopile detectors, with infrared bands of 8-14 ľm, 15 ľm, and 16-20 ľm [Gómez-Elvira et al., 2009]. The three sensors are clustered in a single location on the MSL mast and have a common field of view on the surface of Mars allowing the three sensors to be used in combination. The 15 ľm sounds the atmosphere between the sensors and the surface. With a calibrated weighting function, this sensor will measure the temperature of the atmosphere just above the surface. The 8-14 ľm and 16-20 ľm sensors both measure the surface temperature, but by working on both sides of the 15 ľm CO2 band, the variation in emissivity of the surface minerals across the thermal wavelengths can be factored into the surface temperature calculations. Using the Full Transfer By Optimized LINe-by-line (FUTBOLIN) code [Martin-Torres and Mlynczak, 2005] we have developed an energy balance and radiative transfer retrieval method for the REMS GTS. With the Mars Weather Research and Forcasting (MarsWRF) model, we run large eddy simulations (LES) to model ground temperatures and near surface air temperatures. Using these LES temperatures, we can test the GTS retrieval process, including an assessment of the sources of errors in the retrieval process. By using the LES temperatures as synthetic data, we assess the perfomance of the REMS GTS as well as determine, through the error analysis, the calibration data critical path in the spectral retrieval process. Reference: Martin-Torres, F. J. and M. G. Mlynczak, Application of FUTBOLIN (FUll Transfer By Ordinary Line-by-Line) to the analysis of the solar system and extrasolar planetary atmospheres, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 37, p.1566, 2005

  19. Sexing of beef - a survey of possible methods.

    PubMed

    Zeleny, R; Schimmel, H

    2002-01-01

    The beef trade, amounting to several billion Euro per year, is of great importance in the European Union. Several measures have been introduced to support beef producers, such as intervention buying. However, these payments are only effected for male beef, which represents a temptation for fraud. Consequently, reliable methods for sexing of beef are required. This report summarises existing methods in EU countries as well as possible alternatives deduced from the literature. Individual methods are discussed for their advantages and disadvantages as well as their general applicability. PMID:22063107

  20. A ground control points sampling design method based on smallest singular value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; An, Wei; Deng, Xing Pu; Guo, Jing; Li, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The Ground Control Points (GCPs) are widely used in geometric correction for remote sensing imagery, and the distribution of them is a key factor which affects the accuracy and quality of image correction. In this paper, we propose a new sampling design method, called Smallest Singular Value-based Sampling (SSVS), to obtain the optimal distribution of the GCPs. When the geometric correction of remote sensing imagery is performed with a 2D or 3D polynomial function model, the estimation of geometric correction model parameters can be interpreted as an estimation of regression coefficients with a Multiple Linear Regression(MLR) model, whose design matrix depends on the coordinates of GCPs. From the perspective of regression model, the design matrix of MLR should be optimized to obtain the most accurate regression coefficients. In this paper, it has been proved that the Smallest Singular Value(SSV) of design matrix is inversely proportional to the upper bound of estimation errors. By choosing the optimal distribution of GCPs, the SSV of design matrix can be maximized and the upper bound of estimation errors can be minimized. Therefore, the SSV of design matrix is used as a criterion, and the objective of SSVS is to find the sample pattern that has the biggest SSV. In this paper, the simulation annealing is employed to search the optimal pattern. Two experiments were carried out to test SSVS. The results indicate that the SSVS is an effective GCPs sampling design method and can be applied to evaluate upper bound of estimation error.

  1. Evaluation of In-Service Education: A Survey of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Lillian M.

    1974-01-01

    The following methods of evaluation of inservice programs are very briefly discussed: a) behavioral objectives; b) diagnosis; c) learner outcomes; d) effects on teachers; e) classroom observation, and f) questionnaires following inservice activity. (HMD)

  2. Survey of methods for secure connection to the internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Shouichi

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a study of a security method of protecting inside network computers against outside miscreants and unwelcome visitors and a control method when these computers are connected with the Internet. In the present Internet, a method to encipher all data cannot be used, so that it is necessary to utilize PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail) capable of the encipherment and conversion of secret information. For preventing miscreant access by eavesdropping password, one-time password is effective. The most cost-effective method is a firewall system. This system lies between the outside and inside network. By limiting computers that directly communicate with the Internet, control is centralized and inside network security is protected. If the security of firewall systems is strictly controlled under correct setting, security within the network can be secured even in open networks such as the Internet.

  3. Quality assessment of restored soils: combination of classical soil science methods with ground penetrating radar and near infrared aerial photography?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Friedli; S. Tobias; M. Fritsch

    1998-01-01

    In Switzerland agricultural land is usually restored after gravel exploitation. In order to minimize soil damage, the quality of restored soils should be checked by the authorities. To assess the physical soil properties, a combination of classical soil science methods with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and near infrared (IR) aerial photography was tested in 1994–1995. GPR profiles were recorded in the

  4. Method and basis set dependence of anharmonic ground state nuclear wave functions and zero-point energies: Application to SSSH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Kolmann; Meredith J. T. Jordan

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest remaining errors in thermochemical calculations is the determination of the zero-point energy (ZPE). The fully coupled, anharmonic ZPE and ground state nuclear wave function of the SSSH radical are calculated using quantum diffusion Monte Carlo on interpolated potential energy surfaces (PESs) constructed using a variety of method and basis set combinations. The ZPE of SSSH, which

  5. Comparative Study between IEEE Std. 80-2000 and Finite Elements Method application for Grounding Systems Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Coa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a brief compilation of typical and particular cases of grounding systems calculation using procedures proposed by IEEE std 80-200, simulated by means of a software developed under the mathematical tool Matlab, based on the finite elements method. This study consists, basically, of tables and graphics that shows a series of interesting results and offer a reliable and

  6. Computer Program for Thin Wire Antenna over a Perfectly Conducting Ground Plane. [using Galerkins method and sinusoidal bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is presented for a thin-wire antenna over a perfect ground plane. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain, and the exterior medium is free space. The antenna may have finite conductivity and lumped loads. The output data includes the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, and gain. The program uses sinusoidal bases and Galerkin's method.

  7. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional division of Chinese materia medica resources, interview of key information holders and standardization of information.' In particular, using "snowball method" can effectively identify traditional knowledge holder in the targeted regions and ensuring traditional knowledge holders receiving prior informed concerned before sharing the information with researcher to make sure the rights of traditional knowledge holders are protected. Employing right survey methods is not only the key to obtain traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources, but also the pathway to fulfill the objectives of access and benefit sharing stipulated in Convention on Biological Resources. It will promote the legal protection of TCM traditional knowledge and conservation of TCM intangible, cultural heritage. PMID:25898568

  8. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  9. Comparison of Two Ground-based Mass Estimation Methods on Real Data

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    that the aircraft mass might become widely available someday, but in the meantime it is possible to estimate trajectories with great accuracy has become a key issue for most ground-based applications in Air Traffic to predict the succes

  10. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

  11. A survey of the broadband shock associated noise prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chan M.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Khavaran, Abbas

    1992-01-01

    Several different prediction methods to estimate the broadband shock associated noise of a supersonic jet are introduced and compared with experimental data at various test conditions. The nozzle geometries considered for comparison include a convergent and a convergent-divergent nozzle, both axisymmetric. Capabilities and limitations of prediction methods in incorporating the two nozzle geometries, flight effect, and temperature effect are discussed. Predicted noise field shows the best agreement for a convergent nozzle geometry under static conditions. Predicted results for nozzles in flight show larger discrepancies from data and more dependable flight data are required for further comparison. Qualitative effects of jet temperature, as observed in experiment, are reproduced in predicted results.

  12. A comparison between protein crystals grown with vapor diffusion methods in microgravity and protein crystals using a gel liquid-liquid diffusion ground-based method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y.; He, Xiao-Min; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Crystals of human serum albumin have been successfully grown in a variety of gels using crystallization conditions otherwise equivalent to those utilized in the popular hanging-drop vapor-equilibrium method. Preliminary comparisons of gel grown crystals with crystals grown by the vapor diffusion method via both ground-based and microgravity methods indicate that crystals superior in size and quality may be grown by limiting solutal convection. Preliminary X-ray diffraction statistics are presented.

  13. A Survey of Methods in the Human Potential Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Fredric

    1977-01-01

    Training methods which affect the mind, body consciousness, values, and purpose of life, according to this article, include biofeedback, extrasensory perception, Yoga, transcendental meditation, and Zen. The article describes some elements common to these systems, lists a number of the systems with their costs, and gives some considerations in…

  14. NCES Handbook of Survey Methods. NCES 2011-609

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Shelley, Ed.; Wang, Xiaolei, Ed.; Henning, Alexandra, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Since its inception, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has been committed to the practice of documenting its statistical methods for its customers and of seeking to avoid misinterpretation of its published data. The reason for this policy is to assure customers that proper statistical standards and techniques have been observed,…

  15. A survey of numerical methods for shock physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Hydrocodes or more accurately, shock physics analysis packages, have been widely used in the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and elsewhere around the world for over 30 years. Initial applications included weapons effects studies where the pressure levels were high enough to disregard the material strength, hence the term hydrocode. Over the last 30 years, Sandia has worked extensively to develop and apply advanced hydrocodes to armor/anti-armor interactions, warhead design, high explosive initiation, and nuclear weapon safety issues. The needs of the DOE have changed over the last 30 years, especially over the last decade. A much stronger emphasis is currently placed on the details of material deformation and high explosive initiation phenomena. The hydrocodes of 30 years ago have now evolved into sophisticated analysis tools that can replace testing in some situations and complement it in all situations. A brief history of the development of hydrocodes in the US will be given. The author also discusses and compares the four principal methods in use today for the solution of the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for shock physics applications. The techniques discussed are the Eulerian methods currently employed by the Sandia multi-dimensional shock physics analysis package known as CTH; the element based Lagrangian method currently used by codes like DYNA; the element free Lagrangian method (also known as smooth particle hydrodynamics) used by codes like the Los Alamos code SPHINX; and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian methods used by codes like the Lawrence Livermore code CALE or the Sandia code ALEGRA.

  16. Tensors-structured numerical methods in scientific computing: Survey on recent advances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris N. Khoromskij

    In the present paper, we give a survey of the recent results and outline future prospects of the tensor-structured numerical methods in applications to multidimensional problems in scientific computing. The guiding principle of the tensor methods is an approximation of multivariate functions and operators relying on a certain separation of variables. Along with the traditional canonical and Tucker models, we

  17. "Same, Same but Different" A Survey on Duplicate Detection Methods for

    E-print Network

    Hochreiter, Sepp

    "Same, Same but Different" A Survey on Duplicate Detection Methods for Situation Awareness Norbert Abstract. Systems supporting situation awareness typically deal with a vast stream of information about examines existing duplicate detection methods ap- pearing to be suitable in the area of situation awareness

  18. Convex Nondifferentiable Optimization: a Survey Focussed on the Analytic Center Cutting Plane Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-L. Goffin; JEAN-PHILIPPE VIAL

    1999-01-01

    We present a survey of nondifferentiable optimization problems and methods with special focus on the analytic center cutting plane method. We propose a self-contained convergence analysis, that uses the formalism of the theory of self-concordant fucntions, but for the main results, we give direct proofs based on the properties of the logarithmic function. We also provide an in depth analysis

  19. MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model - documentation of shared node local grid refinement (LGR) and the boundary flow and head (BFH) package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the addition of shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) to MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model. LGR provides the capability to simulate ground-water flow using one block-shaped higher-resolution local grid (a child model) within a coarser-grid parent model. LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling two separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundary. LGR can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined ground-water systems. Traditional one-way coupled telescopic mesh refinement (TMR) methods can have large, often undetected, inconsistencies in heads and fluxes across the interface between two model grids. The iteratively coupled shared-node method of LGR provides a more rigorous coupling in which the solution accuracy is controlled by convergence criteria defined by the user. In realistic problems, this can result in substantially more accurate solutions and require an increase in computer processing time. The rigorous coupling enables sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty analysis that reflects conditions in both model grids. This report describes the method used by LGR, evaluates LGR accuracy and performance for two- and three-dimensional test cases, provides input instructions, and lists selected input and output files for an example problem. It also presents the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package, which allows the child and parent models to be simulated independently using the boundary conditions obtained through the iterative process of LGR.

  20. Indigo snake capture methods: effectiveness of two survey techniques for Drymarchon couperi in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Cooper, R.J.; Stevenson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a federally threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain, has presented challenges for surveyors, with few reliable methods developed for its detection or monitoring. Surveys for D. couperi at potential underground shelters conducted in late fall through early spring have been relatively successful when conducted by experienced surveyors, especially in the northern portions of the range. However, trapping efforts for D. couperi conducted throughout the range have met with limited success. To further evaluate detection methods, we conducted trapping and surveying from December 2002 to April 2004 in areas known to support D. couperi in southeastern Georgia. We captured 18 D. couperi through surveys of potential underground shelters from December 2002 to March 2003 (14 person-hours per capture) and six individuals through trapping (141 trap days or 27 in-field person-hours per capture). Trapping was most successful during early fall, a period when surveys are often less effective compared to those conducted in late fall through early spring. We recommend a combination of surveys from mid-fall through March in conjunction with trapping, especially from late-summer through fall in the northern portions of the snake?s range. We also recommend further experimentation with alternative trap designs and survey methods for D. couperi.

  1. Density and location of simulated signs of injury affect efficacy of ground surveys for Asian longhorned beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for the detection and delimitation of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) currently rely upon visual examination of trees to discover the presence of signs of attack such as oviposition pits and exit holes. Understanding the factors ...

  2. Methods and Sources of Data Used to Develop Selected Water-Quality Indicators for Streams and Ground Water for EPA's 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Wilson, John T.; Moran, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was one of numerous governmental agencies, private organizations, and the academic community that provided data and interpretations for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report. This report documents the sources of data and methods used to develop selected water?quality indicators for the 2007 edition of the report compiled by USEPA. Stream and ground?water?quality data collected nationally in a consistent manner as part of the USGS?s National Water?Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) were provided for several water?quality indicators, including Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; Pesticides in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; and Nitrate and Pesticides in Shallow Ground Water in Agricultural Watersheds. In addition, the USGS provided nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite) and phosphorus riverine load estimates calculated from water?quality and streamflow data collected as part of its National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and its Federal?State Cooperative Program for the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Discharge from Large Rivers indicator.

  3. Ochratoxin A in Chinese dried jujube: method development and survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Ou, Xiaoqun; Zhou, Ziying; Ma, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in dried jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Miller) using alkaline methanolic extraction, immunoaffinity column clean-up (IAC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 ?g kg(-1) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.03 ?g kg(-1). The average recoveries were 82%, 98% and 115% at 5, 0.5 and 0.1 ?g kg(-1) spiked levels with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.9%, 5.2% and 9.2% accordingly. The method showed good linearity for both solvent standard calibration and matrix-matched standard calibration with correlation coefficients of 0.9998 and 0.9997 respectively. The intra-day precision RSD was 3.3% and the inter-day precision RSD was 4.0%. In addition, there was almost no matrix interference in LC-MS/MS detection after the IAC clean-up process. The proposed analytical set-up was successfully used to test 20 samples that were collected from local markets and stores. The results showed that all the samples were positive and the amount of OTA ranged from < 0.01 to 0.18 ?g kg(-1), with a mean level of 0.14 ?g kg(-1). In spite of the high positive rate, samples with this level would not cause significant health effects after consumption. PMID:25345826

  4. A Survey of Combinatorial Methods for Phylogenetic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Daniel H.; Scornavacca, Celine

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a set of species is usually described by a rooted phylogenetic tree. Although it is generally undisputed that bifurcating speciation events and descent with modifications are major forces of evolution, there is a growing belief that reticulate events also have a role to play. Phylogenetic networks provide an alternative to phylogenetic trees and may be more suitable for data sets where evolution involves significant amounts of reticulate events, such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, or recombination. In this article, we give an introduction to the topic of phylogenetic networks, very briefly describing the fundamental concepts and summarizing some of the most important combinatorial methods that are available for their computation. PMID:21081312

  5. Goals and preparation method for ground operations for the manned space flight Altair.

    PubMed

    Stevenin, H; Suchet, L; Pasdeloup, T

    1995-01-01

    The mission's success fully depends on the Payload Operations conducted during the space flight. The Ground Team has to be trained to assist the Space Crew, to replan the cosmonaut's activities when contingencies occur onboard and to change or cancel Payload activities when required. In order to act efficiently during the mission, the Ground Team must be prepared in advance of the flight and able to operate special tools for tracking the mission's progress. anticipating problems and taking decisions in realtime. This document sets out the approach for conducting such a preparation for Ground Operation. It will be focused on the Altair mission performed in July 1993 onboard the Russian Mir space station. PMID:11540986

  6. A NEW METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE GROWTH RATE FROM GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi [Physics Department and the Asher Space Science Institute-Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Branchini, Enzo [Department of Physics, Universita Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146, Rome (Italy); Davis, Marc, E-mail: adi@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it, E-mail: mdavis@berkeley.edu [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Given a redshift survey of galaxies with measurements of apparent magnitudes, we present a novel method for measuring the growth rate f({Omega}) of cosmological linear perturbations. We use the galaxy distribution within the survey to solve for the peculiar velocity field which depends in linear perturbation theory on {beta} = f({Omega})/b, where b is the bias factor of the galaxy distribution. The recovered line-of-sight peculiar velocities are subtracted from the redshifts to derive the distances, which thus allows an estimate of the absolute magnitude of each galaxy. A constraint on {beta} is then found by minimizing the spread of the estimated magnitudes from their distribution function. We apply the method to the all sky K = 11.25 2MASS Redshift Survey and derive {beta} = 0.35 {+-} 0.1 at z {approx} 0, remarkably consistent with our previous estimate from the velocity-velocity comparison. The method could easily be applied to subvolumes extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to derive the growth rate at z {approx} 0.1. Further, it should also be applicable to ongoing and future spectroscopic redshift surveys to trace the evolution of f({Omega}) to z {approx} 1. Constraints obtained from this method are entirely independent from those obtained from the two-dimensional distortion of {xi}(s) and provide an important check on f({Omega}), as alternative gravity models predict observable differences.

  7. Parabolic Wave Equation Method Applied to the Tropospheric Ducting Propagation Problem: A Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Sirkova; M. Mikhalev

    2006-01-01

    A survey is made of one of the most widely used approximation methods in the wave propagation studies—the parabolic wave equation method—applied for the specific case of microwave propagation assessment under tropospheric ducting conditions. A brief review of the methods for tropospheric refractivity profiling, the average refractivity modeling, and the applicability of the often-assumed lateral homogeneity of the refractivity is

  8. Evaluation of consumer-style cooking methods for reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Suk; Lee, Sun-Young; Hillers, Virginia N; McCurdy, Sandra M; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef cooked to an internal temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) under conditions simulating consumer-style cooking methods. To compare a double-sided grill (DSG) with a single-sided grill (SSG), two different cooking methods were used for the SSG: for the one-turnover (OT-SSG) method, a patty was turned once when the internal temperature reached 40 degrees C, and for the multiturnover (MT-SSG) method, a patty was turned every 30 s. Patties (100 g, n = 9) inoculated with a five-strain mixture of E. coli O157: H7 at a concentration of 10(7) CFU/g were cooked until all three temperature readings (for two sides and the center) for a patty were 71.1 degrees C. The surviving E. coli O157:H7 cells were enumerated on sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) agar and on phenol red agar base with 1% sorbitol (SPRAB). The order of the cooking methods with regard to the cooking time required for the patty to reach 71.1 degrees C was as follows: DSG (2.7 min) < MT-SSG (6.6 min) < OT-SSG (10.9 min). The more rapid, higher-temperature cooking method was more effective (P < 0.01) in destroying E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. E. coli O157:H7 reduction levels were clearly differentiated among treatments as follows: OT-SSG (4.7 log10 CFU/g) < MT-SSG (5.6 log10 CFU/g) < DSG (6.9 log10 CFU/g). Significantly larger numbers of E. coil O157:H7 were observed on SPRAB than on SMAC agar. To confirm the safety of ground beef cooked to 71.1 degrees C, additional patties (100 g, n = 9) inoculated with lower concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 (10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g) were tested. The ground beef cooked by the OT-SSG method resulted in two (22%) of nine samples testing positive after enrichment, whereas no E. coli O157:H7 was found for samples cooked by the MT-SSG and DSG methods. Our findings suggest that consumers should be advised to either cook ground beef patties in a grill that cooks the top and the bottom of the patty at the same time or turn patties frequently (every 30 s) when cooking on a grill that cooks on only one side. PMID:12801005

  9. Intelligence-based automatic detection and classification of ground collapses using object-based image analysis method: a case study in Paitan of Pearl River delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Dou; Xiao-zhan Zheng; Jun-ping Qian; Rui-hua Liu; Qi-tao Wu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new method is proposed by applying case-based reasoning technique for detecting the ground collapses. The study demonstrates that the high resolution remote sensing images are suitable for monitoring the ground collapses in the study area with karst relief. With the help of object-based image analysis method, the generic algorithm (GA) for optimizing the spatial, shape, spectral,

  10. A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, John V.; Seeley, Stacy K.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    An iodometric assay that allows the ground-level ozone concentration to be determined with an inexpensive sampling apparatus and a homemade photometer is described. This laboratory experiment applies a variety of different fundamental concepts including oxidation-reduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis and also provides…

  11. Development of optical ground verification method for mum to sub-mm reflectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Stockman; C. Thizy; P. Lemaire; M. Georges; E. Mazy; A. Mazzoli; Y. Houbrechts; P. Rochus; S. Roose; D. Doyle; G. Ulbrich

    2004-01-01

    Large reflectors and antennas for the IR to mm wavelength range are being planned for many Earth observation and astronomical space missions and for commercial communication satellites as well. Scientific observatories require large telescopes with precisely shaped reflectors for collecting the electro-magnetic radiation from faint sources. The challenging tasks of on-ground testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the

  12. Advanced grounding methods in the presence of carbon fibre reinforced plastic structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Leininger; F. Thurecht; E. Pfeiffer; A. Ruddle

    2012-01-01

    Lightweight satellite structures are usually of sandwich type where the core is formed of a honeycomb-like structure made of aluminium foil. The outer facesheets are made of aluminium and serve as a ground reference plane. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP), however, is a composite material having an electrical conductivity that is about 2000 times lower than the conductivity of aluminium.

  13. Generator Coordinate Method Calculations for Ground and First Excited Collective States in $^{4}$He, $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca Nuclei

    E-print Network

    M. V. Ivanov; A. N. Antonov; M. K. Gaidarov

    2000-01-31

    The main characteristics of the ground and, in particular, the first excited monopole state in the $^{4}$He, $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca nuclei are studied within the generator coordinate method using Skyrme-type effective forces and three construction potentials, namely the harmonic-oscillator, the square-well and Woods-Saxon potentials. Calculations of density distributions, radii, nucleon momentum distributions, natural orbitals, occupation numbers and depletions of the Fermi sea, as well as of pair density and momentum distributions are carried out. A comparison of these quantities for both ground and first excited monopole states with the available empirical data and with the results of other theoretical methods are given and discussed in detail.

  14. A Field Test of Electromigration as a Method for Remediating Sulfate from Shallow Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, C.G.; Runnells, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Electromigration offers a potential tool for remediating ground water contaminated with highly soluble components, such as Na+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO4-. A field experiment was designed to test the efficacy of electromigration for preconcentrating dissolved SO42- in ground water associated with a fossil-fuel power plant. Two shallow wells, 25 feet apart (one 25 feet deep, the other 47 feet deep), were constructed in the upper portion of an unconfined alluvial aquifer. The wells were constructed with a double-wall design, with an outer casing of 4-inch PVC and an inner tube of 2-inch PVC; both were fully slotted (0.01 inch). Electrodes were constructed by wrapping the inner tubing with a 100-foot length of rare-earth metal oxide/copper wire. An electrical potential of 10.65 volts DC was applied, and tests were run for periods of 12, 44, and 216 hours. Results showed large changes in the pH from the initial pH of ground water of about 7.5 to values of approximately 2 and 12 at the anode and cathode, respectively. Despite the fact that the test conditions were far from ideal, dissolved SO42- was significantly concentrated at the anode. Over a period of approximately nine days, the concentration of SO42- at the anode reached what appeared to be a steady-state value of 2200 mg/L, compared to the initial value in ground water of approximately 1150 mg/L. The results of this field test should encourage further investigation of electromigration as a tool in the remediation of contaminated ground water.

  15. Use of the finite element method for the modeling of multi-layered power\\/ground planes with small features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna Bharathy; Jae Young Choi; Madhavan Swaminathan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel formulation for the modeling of multi-layer package power\\/ground planes has been proposed. The formulation is developed by first applying the finite element method (FEM) for a single plane-pair geometry, from which a SPICE-compatible equivalent circuit is extracted. Next, the admittance matrices obtained for individual plane-pairs are coupled together, to extend the technique, and to enable

  16. Ion-chromatographic screening method for monitoring arsenate and other anionic pollutants in ground waters of Northern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Polesello; S Valsecchi; S Cavalli; C Reschiotto

    2001-01-01

    A novel, rapid ion-chromatographic method for screening anionic pollutants in ground water, based on both conductivity and postcolumn spectrophotometric detection, has been developed. A relatively rapid separation of more than ten inorganic and polarizable anions was achieved by coupling an high capacity, hydroxide selective anion-exchange columns (Dionex IonPac AS16) supplied with an electrolytic eluent generator operating in gradient mode. The

  17. GROUND TRUTH LOCATIONS USING SYNERGY BETWEEN REMOTE SENSING AND SEISMIC METHODS - APPLICATION TO EARTHQUAKES IN IRAN AND INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandan K. Saikia; Gene A. Ichinose; Donald V. Helmberger; Mark Simons

    This study aims to establish ground truth locations of moderate to large magnitude earthquakes (4.5?Mw?7) occurring in Iran, and in and around the Indian subcontinent using both seismic and interferometric synthetic aperture radar methods. To this end, we analyzed seismic waveforms and InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) data for one large (Mw?6) and two moderate (5.3?Mw ? 5.7) earthquakes in

  18. Preliminary report on geophysics ground follow-up of the 1977 airborne survey in the Wadi Bidah District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, V.J.; Wynn, J.C.; Worl, R.G.; Smith, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Reconnaissance geologic and geochemical sampling was made during the 1978 field season at most of the 50 or so electromagnetic anomalies detected in the 1977 airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey of the Wadi Bidah district. These Phase 1 studies also included reconnaissance geophysical traverses of nine of the AEM conductors. In addition the AEM anomalies were classified on the basis of this reconnaissance work into a list of priority targets for use in economic studies, and six AEM anomalies were selected for further studies. During Phase 2 conducted in the 1979 field season, ground geophysical work consisting of electromagnetic (EM), self-potential (SP), and selected magnetic surveys were carried out in the six targets selected in the Phase 1 studies. These target areas in aggregate cover about 30 km 2, and are approximately half of the Wadi Bidah Class 1 and Class 2 priority targets found during the 1977 airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey of parts of the Arabian Shield. The results indicate possible extension of known reserves at the Rabathan area (AEM anomaly B-29), with possible potential for mineralization in the area extending 15-20 km north (anomaly B-13), where the geologic and geophysical environment is similar. An important observation is that mineralization in the B-29 (Rabathan) zone is coincident with narrow SP anomalies superimposed on the larger, broader, and more formational-type SP anomalies encountered in both areas B-29 and B-13. AEM anomaly B-25-26 areahas geophysical characteristics that show in the groundwork and that make it an attractive drill target. EM and SP anomalies are associated, in part, with magnetic anomalies and with exposures of significant limonitic gossan. Wadi al Khadra prospect, not included in the 1977 AEM survey, and the AEM anomaly B-25-26 area were also high-mineralization-potential products of the Phase 2 studies. Target area B-35 remains an unknown quantity, and AEM anomaly B-24 is almost certainly due to a carbonaceous schist. Geochemical results, along with detailed geologic mapping and the geophysical data, indicate several potential mineralized targets. Further detailed geophysics (EM and SP) will assist in understanding the geophysical data thus far collected. Further ground follow-up studies are recommended.

  19. A comparison of three survey methods to obtain data for community mental health program planning.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, A L; King, G D

    1978-08-01

    A perennial problem for mental health planners is assessing community needs and existing services. The three most common methods used to obtain this data are the telephone survey, the mail-out questionnaire, and the face-to-face interview. However, there are advantages and disadvantages associated with each approach in terms of sampling, response rates, and economic costs. The present study utilized all three methods to survey the same community population in order to determine the comparability of obtained data and relative efficacy of the methods. A standard 21-item questionnaire was developed to obtain demographic and epidemiological data. This included nine Likert-type items to obtain opionions on a typical question such as "To what extent would you have confidence in recommending the Mental Health Center to members of your immediate family?" In the first method, survey teams made door-to-door interviews to complete 449 questionnaires on a random sample. In the second method, 1,000 questionnaires were mailed to a random sample with returns requested. In the third method, 224 people were randomly selected from the telephone directory and asked to respond to the questionnaire over the phone. Precautions were taken in all methods to ensure confidentiality of responses. All respondents were classified according to a two-factor index based on occupation and education. The data were analyed to determine whether comparable data were obtained through divergent methods. Results are discussed and implications are given for community mental health planners. PMID:696701

  20. Methods of Gas Phase Capture of Iodine from Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas: A Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Daryl Haefner

    2007-02-01

    A literature survey was conducted to collect information and summarize the methods available to capture iodine from fuel reprocessing off-gases. Techniques were categorized as either wet scrubbing or solid adsorbent methods, and each method was generally described as it might be used under reprocessing conditions. Decontamination factors are quoted only to give a rough indication of the effectiveness of the method. No attempt is made to identify a preferred capture method at this time, although activities are proposed that would provide a consistent baseline that would aid in evaluating technologies.

  1. Experimental Methods to Evaluate Science Utility Relative to the Decadal Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widergren, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The driving factor for competed missions is the science that it plans on performing once it has reached its target body. These science goals are derived from the science recommended by the most current Decadal Survey. This work focuses on science goals in previous Venus mission proposals with respect to the 2013 Decadal Survey. By looking at how the goals compare to the survey and how much confidence NASA has in the mission's ability to accomplish these goals, a method was created to assess the science return utility of each mission. This method can be used as a tool for future Venus mission formulation and serves as a starting point for future development of create science utility assessment tools.

  2. Establishing Survey Validity and Reliability for American Indians Through “Think Aloud” and Test–Retest Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hauge, Cindy Horst; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Jensen, Jamie L.; Burgess, Katherine M.; Puumala, Susan E.; Wilton, Georgiana; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods approach to determine the validity and reliability of measurements used within an alcohol-exposed pregnancy prevention program for American Indian women. To develop validity, content experts provided input into the survey measures, and a “think aloud” methodology was conducted with 23 American Indian women. After revising the measurements based on this input, a test–retest was conducted with 79 American Indian women who were randomized to complete either the original measurements or the new, modified measurements. The test–retest revealed that some of the questions performed better for the modified version, whereas others appeared to be more reliable for the original version. The mixed-methods approach was a useful methodology for gathering feedback on survey measurements from American Indian participants and in indicating specific survey questions that needed to be modified for this population. PMID:25888693

  3. Establishing survey validity and reliability for american indians through "think aloud" and test-retest methods.

    PubMed

    Hauge, Cindy Horst; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Jensen, Jamie L; Burgess, Katherine M; Puumala, Susan E; Wilton, Georgiana; Hanson, Jessica D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods approach to determine the validity and reliability of measurements used within an alcohol-exposed pregnancy prevention program for American Indian women. To develop validity, content experts provided input into the survey measures, and a "think aloud" methodology was conducted with 23 American Indian women. After revising the measurements based on this input, a test-retest was conducted with 79 American Indian women who were randomized to complete either the original measurements or the new, modified measurements. The test-retest revealed that some of the questions performed better for the modified version, whereas others appeared to be more reliable for the original version. The mixed-methods approach was a useful methodology for gathering feedback on survey measurements from American Indian participants and in indicating specific survey questions that needed to be modified for this population. PMID:25888693

  4. A data input program (MFI2K) for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2002-01-01

    MFI2K is a data-input (entry) program for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water model, MODFLOW-2000. MFI2K runs on personal computers. MFI2K supports the solute transport and parameter-estimation capabilities that are incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. Data for MODPATH, a particle-tracking program for use with MODFLOW-2000, also can be entered using MFI2K. MFI2K is designed to be easy to use; data are entered interactively through a series of display screens. MFI2K also can be used in conjunction with other data-input programs so that the different parts of a model dataset can be entered using the most suitable program. MFI2K interfaces to an external program for entering or editing two-dimensional arrays and lists of stress data. This report provides instructions for using MFI2K.

  5. A Preliminary Survey of Benthos from the Nephrops norvegicusMud Grounds in the North-western Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    A preliminary survey of benthic infauna from an extensive basin of soft mud in the Irish Sea was carried out in 1992. A total of 110 taxa were recorded of which polychaete worms (Phylum Annelida) constituted 77ˇ8% of all taxa recorded. Hierarchical classification and detrended correspondence analysis divided the area studied into five regions which could be correlated to the differences in superficial sediments and depth across the basin. Although much of the fauna was ubiquitous, a change in trophic structure was observed, with tubiculous polychaetes becoming progressively less common in deeper softer sediment areas where surface and non-selective deposit-feeding taxa predominated.

  6. An internet-based survey method for college student drinking research.

    PubMed

    Kypri, Kypros; Gallagher, Stephen J; Cashell-Smith, Martine L

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and assess the utility of an Internet-based survey method for characterizing the alcohol consumption of college students. After extensive pilot research, a random sample of 1910 students aged 16-29 years was invited to complete a questionnaire, consisting of a series of web-pages linked to a relational database on a secure web-site. A branch structure allowed for tailoring of survey items by age and gender. The students received up to nine contacts, including a pre-notice letter with a token gift and an e-mail invitation (Phase 1), a reminder letter and e-mail message (Phase 2), and then telephone reminders and replacement access codes (Phase 3). Non-computer-users were offered a pen-and-paper alternative, making this a mixed-mode survey. The overall response to the survey was 82% (n = 1564). The median completion time was 16.7 min. Participants' comments showed high levels of satisfaction with the survey. Comparison of web (n = 1501) versus pen-and-paper completions (n = 63) revealed no modality effects. Technical problems addressed during the course of implementation included web-browser-operating system incompatibilities, and periodic network errors, although these resulted in little lost participation. Internet-based surveys are feasible for college student research and with carefully managed recruitment, can yield a high response. PMID:15380288

  7. Detection of contaminant plumes in ground water of Long Island, New York, by electromagnetic terrain-conductivity surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, T.J.; Maus, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic terrain conductivity surveys were conducted at four landfills in Suffolk county and at an artificial recharge site in Nassau County to assess the feasibility of this technique for detecting contaminant plumes. The technique was successful at three of the landfills; results compared closely with those indicated by specific conductance of water from observation wells on the sites. Data from the three sites for which the technique was successful--the Horseblock Road landfill , the Manorville scavenger waste disposal facility, and the Riverhead landfill--revealed pronounced terrain conductivity anomalies that reflect known contaminant plumes. Plumes at the other two sites--Blydenburgh landfill and the East Meadow artificial recharge site--could not be detected because cultural interferences were too great and, at the Blydenburgh site, depth to water was too great. The interferences included pipelines, utility cables, and traffic. Given favorable conditions, such as high plume conductivity, lack of cultural interferences, and a depth of less than 100 ft to the plume, electromagnetic surveying can provide a rapid means of locating contaminant plumes. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  9. Formal Methods for Telecommunication System Requirements: A Survey of Standardized Languages

    E-print Network

    Ardis, Mark

    to check our specifications for errors with automated tools. The telecommunications industry has attempted1 Formal Methods for Telecommunication System Requirements: A Survey of Standardized Languages Mark telecommunications systems are so complicated that informal languages are no longer sufficient for expressing

  10. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 18, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 1999 1049 Survey: Interpolation Methods

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 18, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 1999 1049 Survey: Interpolation Methods in Medical Image Processing Thomas M. Lehmann,* Member, IEEE, Claudia G¨onner, and Klaus Spitzer Abstract-- Image interpolation techniques often are required in medical imaging for image generation (e

  11. Communication: A Survey of Today's Methods Courses and Implications for Tomorrow's Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, James D.; Kyes, Elizabeth A.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of methods courses at colleges and universities in Wisconsin associated with the training of prospective secondary teachers in communication. A questionnaire was administered to the 15 colleges and universities which offer a major and/or minor in what is called "speech" as certified by the Wisconsin Department of…

  12. An Analysis of Methods Used To Reduce Nonresponse Bias in Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Victoria A.

    The effectiveness of five methods used to estimate the population parameters of a variable of interest from a random sample in the presence of non-response to mail surveys was tested in conditions that vary the return rate and the relationship of the variable of interest to the likelihood of response. Data from 125,092 adult Alabama residents in…

  13. Methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood associations with health using complex survey data.

    PubMed

    Brumback, Babette A; Cai, Zhuangyu; Dailey, Amy B

    2014-05-15

    Reasons for health disparities may include neighborhood-level factors, such as availability of health services, social norms, and environmental determinants, as well as individual-level factors. Investigating health inequalities using nationally or locally representative data often requires an approach that can accommodate a complex sampling design, in which individuals have unequal probabilities of selection into the study. The goal of the present article is to review and compare methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood influences with complex survey data. We considered 3 types of methods, each generalized for use with complex survey data: ordinary regression, conditional likelihood regression, and generalized linear mixed-model regression. The relative strengths and weaknesses of each method differ from one study to another; we provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each method theoretically, in terms of the nature of the estimable associations and the plausibility of the assumptions required for validity, and also practically, via a simulation study and 2 epidemiologic data analyses. The first analysis addresses determinants of repeat mammography screening use using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. The second analysis addresses disparities in preventive oral health care using data from the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. PMID:24723000

  14. EVALUATION OF A MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR FOREST VEGETATION IN A LARGE-SCALE ECOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluate a field method for determining species richness and canopy cover of vascular plants for the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM), an ecological survey of U.S. forests. Measurements are taken within 12 1-m2 quadrats on 1/15 ha plots in FHM. Species richness and cover...

  15. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  16. Survey of Fishing Gear and Methods in the Lower Taylor Creek Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kwen

    2009-01-01

    A survey of fishing gear and methods in the Lower Taylor Creek Area of Bayelsa State was carried out in 2008. Data were obtained from a sample of ninety (90) artisanal fishers drawn from three (3) randomly selected communities along the Lower Taylor Creek: Polaku, Koroama and Ogboloma. A two stage random sampling technique was employed in selecting the fishers.

  17. "How many zombies do you know?" Using indirect survey methods to measure alien attacks and outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    "How many zombies do you know?" Using indirect survey methods to measure alien attacks applicable to zombies or, for that matter, ghosts, aliens, angels, and other hard-to-reach entities; for example, what if your wife2 is actually a zombie or an alien and you are not aware of the fact. This 2

  18. A Survey of Spatial Data Mining Methods Databases and Statistics Point of Views

    E-print Network

    Zeitouni, Karine

    A Survey of Spatial Data Mining Methods Databases and Statistics Point of Views Karine Zeitouni PRi in common. KEYWORDS : Spatial Data Mining, Spatial Databases, Rules Induction, Spatial Statistics, Spatial analysis in geography is essentially based on traditional statistics and multidimensional data analysis

  19. Survey of spatial data needs and land use forecasting methods in the electric utility industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A representative sample of the electric utility industry in the United States was surveyed to determine industry need for spatial data (specifically LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data) and the methods used by the industry to forecast land use changes and future energy demand. Information was acquired through interviews, written questionnaires, and reports (both published and internal).

  20. Random Qualitative Validation: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the process and value of Random Qualitative Validation (RQV) in the development and interpretation of survey data. RQV is a method of gathering clarifying qualitative data that improves the validity of the quantitative analysis. This paper is concerned with validity in relation to the participants'…

  1. A Survey of Control Allocation Methods for Ships and Underwater Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    A Survey of Control Allocation Methods for Ships and Underwater Vehicles Thor I. Fossen Department a ship or underwater vehicle [11]: = J() (1) M + C() + D() + g()= (2) that are controlled by designing and u Rr are actuator commands. For ships, some thruster can be rotated an angle about the z

  2. A SURVEY OF METHODS FOR COLOUR IMAGE INDEXING AND RETRIEVAL IN IMAGE DATABASES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimondo SCHETTINI; Gianluigi CIOCCA; Silvia ZUFFI

    2001-01-01

    Color is a feature of the great majority of content-based image retrieval systems. However the robustness, effectiveness, and efficiency of its use in image indexing are still open issues. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the methods for color image indexing and retrieval described in the literature. In particular, image preprocessing, the features used to represent color information, and

  3. Ground-based measurements of total ozone content by the infrared method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya. A. Virolainen; Yu. M. Timofeev; D. V. Ionov; A. V. Poberovskii; A. M. Shalamyanskii

    2011-01-01

    To interpret the ground-based measurements of the spectra of direct solar infrared radiation with the help of a Brucker Fourier-spectrometer,\\u000a a technique for determining the total ozone content (TOC) was developed and implemented. The TOC was determined using six\\u000a spectral intervals of an ozone-absorption band of 9.6 ?m and the shortwave panel of a carbon-dioxide-absorption band of 15\\u000a ?m, where

  4. Ground-based measurements of total ozone content by the infrared method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya. A. Virolainen; Yu. M. Timofeev; D. V. Ionov; A. V. Poberovskii; A. M. Shalamyanskii

    2011-01-01

    To interpret the ground-based measurements of the spectra of direct solar infrared radiation with the help of a Brucker Fourier-spectrometer, a technique for determining the total ozone content (TOC) was developed and implemented. The TOC was determined using six spectral intervals of an ozone-absorption band of 9.6 mum and the shortwave panel of a carbon-dioxide-absorption band of 15 mum, where

  5. Tracking micro reentering USV with TDRS and ground stations using adaptive IMM method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Qiang Hou; Heng-Nian Li; Fu-Ming Huang; Pu Huang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a tracking system with multi-sensors is presented, in which a sub-orbit USV (unmanned space vehicle) of wave-rider shape is tracked by a TDRS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite) and ground stations. Because of high lift-drag ratio and maneuverability, the vehicle, once is used in reentering purpose, a complicated trajectory will be produced and cause big challenges for

  6. Introduction to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) of ground-water quality trends and comparison to other national programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Michael R.; Lapham, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of temporal trends in national ground-water quality networks are rarely published in scientific journals. This is partly due to the fact that long-term data from these types of networks are uncommon and because many national monitoring networks are not driven by hypotheses that can be easily incorporated into scientific research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) since 1991 has to date (2006) concentrated on occurrence of contaminants because sufficient data for trend analysis is only just becoming available. This paper introduces the first set of trend assessments from NAWQA and provides an assessment of the success of the program. On a national scale, nitrate concentrations in ground water have generally increased from 1988 to 2004, but trends in pesticide concentrations are less apparent. Regionally, the studies showed high nitrate concentrations and frequent pesticide detections are linked to agricultural use of fertilizers and pesticides. Most of these areas showed increases in nitrate concentration within the last decade, and these increases are associated with oxic-geochemical conditions and well-drained soils. The current NAWQA plan for collecting data to define trends needs to be constantly reevaluated to determine if the approach fulfills the expected outcome. To assist this evaluation, a comparison of NAWQA to other national ground-water quality programs was undertaken. The design and spatial extent of each national program depend on many factors, including current and long-term budgets, purpose of the program, size of the country, and diversity of aquifer types. Comparison of NAWQA to nine other national programs shows a great diversity in program designs, but indicates that different approaches can achieve similar and equally important goals. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. Modifications of the U.S. Geological Survey modular, finite-difference, ground-water flow model to read and write geographic information system files

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orzol, Leonard L.; McGrath, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents modifications to the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model, commonly called MODFLOW, so that it can read and write files used by a geographic information system (GIS). The modified model program is called MODFLOWARC. Simulation programs such as MODFLOW generally require large amounts of input data and produce large amounts of output data. Viewing data graphically, generating head contours, and creating or editing model data arrays such as hydraulic conductivity are examples of tasks that currently are performed either by the use of independent software packages or by tedious manual editing, manipulating, and transferring data. Programs such as GIS programs are commonly used to facilitate preparation of the model input data and analyze model output data; however, auxiliary programs are frequently required to translate data between programs. Data translations are required when different programs use different data formats. Thus, the user might use GIS techniques to create model input data, run a translation program to convert input data into a format compatible with the ground-water flow model, run the model, run a translation program to convert the model output into the correct format for GIS, and use GIS to display and analyze this output. MODFLOWARC, avoids the two translation steps and transfers data directly to and from the ground-water-flow model. This report documents the design and use of MODFLOWARC and includes instructions for data input/output of the Basic, Block-centered flow, River, Recharge, Well, Drain, Evapotranspiration, General-head boundary, and Streamflow-routing packages. The modification to MODFLOW and the Streamflow-Routing package was minimized. Flow charts and computer-program code describe the modifications to the original computer codes for each of these packages. Appendix A contains a discussion on the operation of MODFLOWARC using a sample problem.

  8. A Method for Calculating the Probability of Successfully Completing a Rocket Propulsion Ground Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenge of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Over the last decade NASA s propulsion test facilities have performed hundreds of tests, collected thousands of seconds of test data, and exceeded the capabilities of numerous test facility and test article components. A logistic regression mathematical modeling technique has been developed to predict the probability of successfully completing a rocket propulsion test. A logistic regression model is a mathematical modeling approach that can be used to describe the relationship of several independent predictor variables X(sub 1), X(sub 2),.., X(sub k) to a binary or dichotomous dependent variable Y, where Y can only be one of two possible outcomes, in this case Success or Failure of accomplishing a full duration test. The use of logistic regression modeling is not new; however, modeling propulsion ground test facilities using logistic regression is both a new and unique application of the statistical technique. Results from this type of model provide project managers with insight and confidence into the effectiveness of rocket propulsion ground testing.

  9. 3D Monitoring under the Keciova Mosque (Casbah-Algier, Algeria) with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf; Deniz, Kiymet; Akin Akyol, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Keciova (Ketchaoua) Mosque, in Casbah-Algiers, the capital of Algeria, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Keciova Mosque was originally built in 1612 by the Ottoman Empire. A RAMAC CU II GPR system and a 250 MHz shielded antenna have been employed inside of the Mosque including the Cathedral and inside of the burial chambers under the Cathedral Site on parallel profiles spaced approximately 0.30 m apart to measure data. After applying standard two-dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) imaging techniques, transparent 3D imaging techniques have been used to photograph the foundational infrastructures, buried remains and safety problems of the Mosque. The results showed that we obtained 3D GPR visualization until 12.0 m in depth. Firstly we imaged the base floor including corridors. Then we monitored buried remains under the first ground level between 5.0-7.0 m in depths. Finally we indicated 3D GPR photographs a spectacular protected buried old mosque structures under the second ground level between 9.0-12.0 m in depths. This project has been supported by Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA). This study is a contribution to the EU funded COST action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground penetrating Radar".

  10. Single-Event Effects Ground Testing and On-Orbit Rate Prediction Methods: The Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Kinnison, Jim; Pickel, Jim; Buchner, Stephen; Marshall, Paul W.; Kniffin, Scott; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 27 years, or so, increased concern over single event effects in spacecraft systems has resulted in research, development and engineering activities centered around a better understanding of the space radiation environment, single event effects predictive methods, ground test protocols, and test facility developments. This research has led to fairly well developed methods for assessing the impact of the space radiation environment on systems that contain SEE sensitive devices and the development of mitigation strategies either at the system or device level.

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: A survey on sampling and probe methods for inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthast, Roland

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the review is to provide a state-of-the-art survey on sampling and probe methods for the solution of inverse problems. Further, a configuration approach to some of the problems will be presented. We study the concepts and analytical results for several recent sampling and probe methods. We will give an introduction to the basic idea behind each method using a simple model problem and then provide some general formulation in terms of particular configurations to study the range of the arguments which are used to set up the method. This provides a novel way to present the algorithms and the analytic arguments for their investigation in a variety of different settings. In detail we investigate the probe method (Ikehata), linear sampling method (Colton-Kirsch) and the factorization method (Kirsch), singular sources method (Potthast), no response test (Luke-Potthast), range test (Kusiak, Potthast and Sylvester) and the enclosure method (Ikehata) for the solution of inverse acoustic and electromagnetic scattering problems. The main ideas, approaches and convergence results of the methods are presented. For each method, we provide a historical survey about applications to different situations.

  12. High-Order Coupled Cluster Method (CCM) Calculations for Quantum Magnets with Valence-Bond Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnell, D. J. J.; Richter, J.; Zinke, R.; Bishop, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this article, we prove that exact representations of dimer and plaquette valence-bond ket ground states for quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets may be formed via the usual coupled cluster method (CCM) from independent-spin product (e.g. Néel) model states. We show that we are able to provide good results for both the ground-state energy and the sublattice magnetization for dimer and plaquette valence-bond phases within the CCM. As a first example, we investigate the spin-half J 1- J 2 model for the linear chain, and we show that we are able to reproduce exactly the dimerized ground (ket) state at J 2/ J 1=0.5. The dimerized phase is stable over a range of values for J 2/ J 1 around 0.5, and results for the ground-state energies are in good agreement with the results of exact diagonalizations of finite-length chains in this regime. We present evidence of symmetry breaking by considering the ket- and bra-state correlation coefficients as a function of J 2/ J 1. A radical change is also observed in the behavior of the CCM sublattice magnetization as we enter the dimerized phase. We then consider the Shastry-Sutherland model and demonstrate that the CCM can span the correct ground states in both the Néel and the dimerized phases. Once again, very good results for the ground-state energies are obtained. We find CCM critical points of the bra-state equations that are in agreement with the known phase transition point for this model. The results for the sublattice magnetization remain near to the "true" value of zero over much of the dimerized regime, although they diverge exactly at the critical point. Finally, we consider a spin-half system with nearest-neighbor bonds for an underlying lattice corresponding to the magnetic material CaV4O9 (CAVO). We show that we are able to provide excellent results for the ground-state energy in each of the plaquette-ordered, Néel-ordered, and dimerized regimes of this model. The exact plaquette and dimer ground states are reproduced by the CCM ket state in their relevant limits. Furthermore, we estimate the range over which the Néel order is stable, and we find the CCM result is in reasonable agreement with the results obtained by other methods. Our new approach has the dual advantages that it is simple to implement and that existing CCM codes for independent-spin product model states may be used from the outset. Furthermore, it also greatly extends the range of applicability to which the CCM may be applied. We believe that the CCM now provides an excellent choice of method for the study of systems with valence-bond quantum ground states.

  13. A survey of the methods used by farmers to castrate calves in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Stafford; D. J. Mellor; C. M. McMeekan

    2000-01-01

    Aims. To identify the methods used to castrate calves and the age at which castration is carried out on farms in New Zealand.Methods. A survey was carried out by questionnaire sent to the 14,000 recipients of “Meat Matters” produced by Meat New Zealand. The questionnaires on return were analysed on a national and regional basis.Results. Of the 3,788 respondents, 74%

  14. GBFEL-TIE (Ground-Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) sample survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, T.J.; Doleman, W.H.

    1988-09-30

    Three locations on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, are under consideration as alternatives for the proposed Ground-Based Free-Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE). The study conducted jointly by Prewitt and Associates, Inc., and the Office of Contract Archeology, was designed to provide input into the GBFEL-TIE Draft Environmental Impact Statement concerning the potential impact of the proposed project on cultural resources in each of the alternatives. The input consists of a series of predictions based on data gathered from two sources: (1) a cultural resource sample survey (15%) of two alternatives conducted as part of this study, and (2) from a previous survey of the third alternative. A predictive model was devleoped and applied using these data that estimated the potential impact of the GBFEL-TIE facility on the cultural resources within each alternative. The predictions indicate that the NASA alternatives, by far, the least favorable location for the facility followed by the Orogrande and Stallion Alternatives.

  15. A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Maloy, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

  16. Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: a case study of Irish Sea beaches.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W

    2012-10-15

    In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq (137)Cs within large areas (10-20 km(2)h(-1)), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1-2 km(2) h(-1) can detect buried (137)Cs sources of 0.5MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq (137)Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at <15m ground clearance and <2 ms(-1) ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed. PMID:22947616

  17. A field trial of a survey method for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Mark; Feleke, Teshome; Sadler, Kate; Collins, Steve

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a survey method for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes in humanitarian emergencies. METHODS: The trial survey used a stratified design with strata that were defined using the centric systematic area sample method. Thirty 100 km2 quadrats were sampled. The communities located closest to the centre of each quadrat were sampled using a case-finding approach. FINDINGS: The method proved simple and rapid to implement and allowed overall and per-quadrat coverage to be estimated. Overall coverage was 20.0% (95% confidence intervals, 13.8-26.3%). Per-quadrat coverage ranged from zero (in nine quadrats) to 50% (in one quadrat). Coverage was highest in the quadrats closest to therapeutic feeding centres and in quadrats containing major roads leading to the towns in which therapeutic feeding centres were located. CONCLUSION: The method should be used, in preference to WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)-derived survey methods, for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes. Its use should also be considered when evaluating the coverage of other selective entry programmes or when coverage is likely to be spatially inhomogeneous. PMID:15682245

  18. Conduct a state-of-the-art survey of existing knowledge for the design of ground-source heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, D. A.

    1982-03-01

    Horizontal serpentine coils have been and are at present the most common coil configuration. Best design data exist for horizontal coils in heating only applications with moist soil. Applications in dry soil or where significant summer cooling is required are not as well understood at this time. A seasonal performance factor of about 3.0 can be expected for a properly designed and installed residential ground-coupled heat-pump system. Long-term durability of buried steel and cooper tubing has been demonstrated. Life expectancy of thin-walled polyethylene tubing in the heating-only application is expected to be equally as good: however, present experience is limited to less than five years. In the cooling application with heat-rejection temperatures exceeding 100 F, some cracking has been experienced upon subsequent cool-down for heating operation due to localized stresses induced by conformity of the tubing to bedding material (stones) when hot. Receding of the soil from the pipe after a period of several years was experienced in the late 1940's. An understanding of this phenomenon may be crucial to the long-term operating success of these systems.

  19. Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

  20. A Method for Calculating the Probability of Successfully Completing a Rocket Propulsion Ground Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Bradley P.

    2004-01-01

    Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenges of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Due to budgetary and schedule constraints, NASA and industry customers are pushing to test more components, for less money, in a shorter period of time. As these new rocket engine component test programs are undertaken, the lack of technology maturity in the test articles, combined with pushing the test facilities capabilities to their limits, tends to lead to an increase in facility breakdowns and unsuccessful tests. Over the last five years Stennis Space Center's propulsion test facilities have performed hundreds of tests, collected thousands of seconds of test data, and broken numerous test facility and test article parts. While various initiatives have been implemented to provide better propulsion test techniques and improve the quality, reliability, and maintainability of goods and parts used in the propulsion test facilities, unexpected failures during testing still occur quite regularly due to the harsh environment in which the propulsion test facilities operate. Previous attempts at modeling the lifecycle of a propulsion component test project have met with little success. Each of the attempts suffered form incomplete or inconsistent data on which to base the models. By focusing on the actual test phase of the tests project rather than the formulation, design or construction phases of the test project, the quality and quantity of available data increases dramatically. A logistic regression model has been developed form the data collected over the last five years, allowing the probability of successfully completing a rocket propulsion component test to be calculated. A logistic regression model is a mathematical modeling approach that can be used to describe the relationship of several independent predictor variables X(sub 1), X(sub 2),..,X(sub k) to a binary or dichotomous dependent variable Y, where Y can only be one of two possible outcomes, in this case Success or Failure. Logistic regression has primarily been used in the fields of epidemiology and biomedical research, but lends itself to many other applications. As indicated the use of logistic regression is not new, however, modeling propulsion ground test facilities using logistic regression is both a new and unique application of the statistical technique. Results from the models provide project managers with insight and confidence into the affectivity of rocket engine component ground test projects. The initial success in modeling rocket propulsion ground test projects clears the way for more complex models to be developed in this area.

  1. Relationships between autofocus methods for SAR and self-survey techniques for SONAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.; Eichel, Paul H.

    1991-12-01

    Autofocus methods in SAR and self-survey techniques in SONAR have a common mathematical basis in that they both involve estimation and correction of phase errors introduced by sensor position uncertainties. Time delay estimation and correlation methods have been shown to be effective in solving the self-survey problem for towed SONAR arrays. Since it can be shown that platform motion errors introduce similar time-delay estimation problems in SAR imaging, the question arises as to whether such techniques could be effectively employed for autofocus of SAR imagery. With a simple mathematical model for motion errors in SAR, we show why such correlation/time-delay techniques are not nearly as effective as established SAR autofocus algorithms such as phase gradient autofocus or sub- aperture based methods. This analysis forms an important bridge between signal processing methodologies for SAR and SONAR.

  2. Detecting population declines over large areas with presence-absence, time-to-encounter, and count survey methods.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Jacob E

    2006-06-01

    Ecologists often discount presence-absence surveys as a poor way to gain insight into population dynamics, in part because these surveys are not amenable to many standard statistical tests. Still, presence-absence surveys are sometimes the only feasible alternative for monitoring large areas when funds are limited, especially for sparse or difficult-to-detect species. I undertook a detailed simulation study to compare the power of presence-absence, count, and time-to-encounter surveys to detect regional declines in a population. I used a modeling approach that simulates both population numbers and the monitoring process, accounting for observation and other measurement errors. In gauging the efficacy of presence-absence surveys versus other approaches, I varied the number of survey sites, the spatial variation in encounter rate, the mean encounter rate, and the type of population loss. My results showed that presence-absence data can be as or more powerful than count data in many cases. Quantitative guidelines for choosing between presence-absence surveys and count surveys depend on the biological and logistical constraints governing a conservation monitoring situation. Generally, presence-absence surveys work best when there is little variability in abundance among the survey sites, the organism is rare, and the species is difficult to detect so that the time spent getting to each survey site is less than or equal to the time spent surveying each site. Count surveys work best otherwise. I present a case study with count data on the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) from the North American Breeding Bird Survey to illustrate how the method might be used with field-survey data. The case study demonstrates that a count survey would be the most cost-effective design but would entail reduction in the number of sites. If this site reduction is not desirable, a presence-absence survey would be the most cost-effective survey. PMID:16909580

  3. Determination of chlorophyll photosynthetic potential in vegetation using ground-based and satellite methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botvich, Irina; Alexander, Sidko; Pisman, Tamara; Shevyrnogov, Anatoly

    An integrated study of the vegetation in the south of Krasnoyarsk Territory was carried out on the basis of ground-based and satellite remote measurements. The research objects were agricultural crops (wheat, oats) during the vegetation period. The satellite calculations were based on the data having high (Landsat 7 ETM+) and medium spatial resolution (Terra-Modis). Both kinds of data were used to calculate the chlorophyll photosynthetic potential (CPSP) as the area of the triangle made up by the reflection values in the green, red and near infrared spectrum regions. The connection was determined between the ground-based and satellite measurements of CPSP. Having analyzed the remote field and satellite measurements of the brightness spectral ratios of agricultural crops during vegetation, we showed the possibility of estimation of structural changes in the near infrared spectrum region. A lack or excess of water in plants causes structural changes in their phytoelements, which affects their reflectance. We showed the possibility of assessing morpho-physiological changes and species composition of crops. We determined the correlation between the spectral reflectance in various crops with chlorophyll content in plants and biomass changes.

  4. Is the simple auger coring method reliable for below-ground standing biomass estimation in Eucalyptus forest plantations?

    PubMed Central

    Levillain, Joseph; Thongo M'Bou, Armel; Deleporte, Philippe; Saint-André, Laurent; Jourdan, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite their importance for plant production, estimations of below-ground biomass and its distribution in the soil are still difficult and time consuming, and no single reliable methodology is available for different root types. To identify the best method for root biomass estimations, four different methods, with labour requirements, were tested at the same location. Methods The four methods, applied in a 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantation in Congo, were based on different soil sampling volumes: auger (8 cm in diameter), monolith (25 × 25 cm quadrate), half Voronoi trench (1ˇ5 m3) and a full Voronoi trench (3 m3), chosen as the reference method. Key Results With the reference method (0–1m deep), fine-root biomass (FRB, diameter <2 mm) was estimated at 1ˇ8 t ha?1, medium-root biomass (MRB diameter 2–10 mm) at 2ˇ0 t ha?1, coarse-root biomass (CRB, diameter >10 mm) at 5ˇ6 t ha?1 and stump biomass at 6ˇ8 t ha?1. Total below-ground biomass was estimated at 16ˇ2 t ha?1 (root : shoot ratio equal to 0ˇ23) for this 800 tree ha?1 eucalypt plantation density. The density of FRB was very high (0ˇ56 t ha?1) in the top soil horizon (0–3 cm layer) and decreased greatly (0ˇ3 t ha?1) with depth (50–100 cm). Without labour requirement considerations, no significant differences were found between the four methods for FRB and MRB; however, CRB was better estimated by the half and full Voronoi trenches. When labour requirements were considered, the most effective method was auger coring for FRB, whereas the half and full Voronoi trenches were the most appropriate methods for MRB and CRB, respectively. Conclusions As CRB combined with stumps amounted to 78 % of total below-ground biomass, a full Voronoi trench is strongly recommended when estimating total standing root biomass. Conversely, for FRB estimation, auger coring is recommended with a design pattern accounting for the spatial variability of fine-root distribution. PMID:21572093

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - PCGN: A Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Solver with Improved Nonlinear Control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, Richard L.; Banta, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The preconditioned conjugate gradient with improved nonlinear control (PCGN) package provides addi-tional means by which the solution of nonlinear ground-water flow problems can be controlled as compared to existing solver packages for MODFLOW. Picard iteration is used to solve nonlinear ground-water flow equations by iteratively solving a linear approximation of the nonlinear equations. The linear solution is provided by means of the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm where preconditioning is provided by the modi-fied incomplete Cholesky algorithm. The incomplete Cholesky scheme incorporates two levels of fill, 0 and 1, in which the pivots can be modified so that the row sums of the preconditioning matrix and the original matrix are approximately equal. A relaxation factor is used to implement the modified pivots, which determines the degree of modification allowed. The effects of fill level and degree of pivot modification are briefly explored by means of a synthetic, heterogeneous finite-difference matrix; results are reported in the final section of this report. The preconditioned conjugate gradient method is coupled with Picard iteration so as to efficiently solve the nonlinear equations associated with many ground-water flow problems. The description of this coupling of the linear solver with Picard iteration is a primary concern of this document.

  6. Health Risks from Exposures to Asbestos, Metals, and Various Chemicals due to Collapse of the World Trade Center: An Environmental Residential Survey with a Commentary Related to Ground Zero Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Ilgren

    2001-01-01

    Environmental monitoring was immediately instituted at Ground Zero (GZ) after the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC). However, nearby residences were not assessed. To address this, a GZ elected official task force requested an independent residential survey to be done. Its findings, whilst based upon relatively few samples, are still probably the first and most detailed produced to date.

  7. A Survey of Symplectic and Collocation Integration Methods for Orbit Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Brandon A.; Anderson, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    Demands on numerical integration algorithms for astrodynamics applications continue to increase. Common methods, like explicit Runge-Kutta, meet the orbit propagation needs of most scenarios, but more specialized scenarios require new techniques to meet both computational efficiency and accuracy needs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the application of symplectic and collocation methods to astrodynamics. Both of these methods benefit from relatively recent theoretical developments, which improve their applicability to artificial satellite orbit propagation. This paper also details their implementation, with several tests demonstrating their advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Separation of The Geomagnetic Disturbance Field On The Ground Into External and Internal Parts Using The Elementary Current System Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, A.; Amm, O.; Viljanen, A.; Bear Working Group

    Traditionally the separation of the ground geomagnetic field variations into external and internal parts is carried out by applying methods familiar from the potential the- ory. However, these methods require a separate field interpolation and extrapolation, can be computationally slow, require a minimum wavelength to be specified to which the spatial resolution is limited globally. A novel method that utilizes elementary cur- rent systems can overcome these shortcomings. The basis of the method is the fact that inside a domain free of current flow, the magnetic field can be continued to any selected plane in terms of equivalent currents. Two layers of equivalent currents, each composed of superposition of spherical elementary systems, are placed to reproduce the ground magnetic field effect: One above the surface of the Earth representing the magnetic field of ionospheric origin, and one below it representing the magnetic field caused by induced currents in the Earth. The method can be applied for single time steps and the solution of the associated underdetermined linear system is found to be fast and reliable when using singular value decomposition. The applicability of the method is evaluated using synthetic magnetic data computed from different ionospheric current models and associated image currents placed below the surface of the Earth. Following these tests, the method is applied to the measure- ments of Baltic Electromagnetic Array Research (BEAR) (June - July 1998). External and internal components of the geomagnetic variations were computed for the entire measurement period. Also the adequacy of the sparser IMAGE magnetometer network for the 2D field separation was tested.

  9. Comparison of survey and photogrammetry methods to position gravity data, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Wu, S.S.C.; Spielman, J.B.

    1985-12-31

    Locations of gravity stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were determined by a survey using an electronic distance-measuring device and by a photogram-metric method. The data from both methods were compared to determine if horizontal and vertical coordinates developed from photogrammetry are sufficently accurate to position gravity data at the site. The results show that elevations from the photogrammetric data have a mean difference of 0.57 +- 0.70 m when compared with those of the surveyed data. Comparison of the horizontal control shows that the two methods agreed to within 0.01 minute. At a latitude of 45{sup 0}, an error of 0.01 minute (18 m) corresponds to a gravity anomaly error of 0.015 mGal. Bouguer gravity anomalies are most sensitive to errors in elevation, thus elevation is the determining factor for use of photogrammetric or survey methods to position gravity data. Because gravity station positions are difficult to locate on aerial photographs, photogrammetric positions are not always exactly at the gravity station; therefore, large disagreements may appear when comparing electronic and photogrammetric measurements. A mean photogrammetric elevation error of 0.57 m corresponds to a gravity anomaly error of 0.11 mGal. Errors of 0.11 mGal are too large for high-precision or detailed gravity measurements but acceptable for regional work. 1 ref. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. The geomorphology and ground penetrating radar survey results of the Múlajökull and Ţjórsárjökull surge-type glaciers, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karušs, J?nis; Lamsters, Kristaps; B?rzi?š, D?vids

    2015-04-01

    Múlajökull and Ţjórsárjökull are surge-type outlet glaciers of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland (Björnsson et al., 2003). The forefield of Múlajökull comprises the active drumlin field of more than 110 drumlins (Johnson et al., 2010; Jónsson et al., 2014) and therefore is an excellent area for studies of glacial geomorphology, subglacial topography and ice structures. This work describes preliminary results obtained during the expedition to Múlajökull and Ţjórsárjökull glaciers in August, 2014. In the research ground penetrating radar (GPR) Zond 12-e was used. GPR measurements were performed on both outlet glaciers using 38 MHz and 75 MHz antenna systems. During data acquisition 2000 ns time window was used, while length of profiles was determined using GPS device Garmin GPS-76. In total approximately 3 km of GPR profiles were recorded. GPR signals propagation speed in glacier ice was determined using reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In obtained radarogramms it was possible to trace reflections from the glacier bed till depth of approximately 144 m as well as numerous prominent reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In one of the obtained radarogramms possible subglacial channel below Múlajökull glacier was identified. Also feature of subglacial topography that resembles drumlin was identified. The area of abundant infiltrated water was distinguished close to the ice margin in the radarogramm obtained on Ţjórsárjökull suggesting successive supraglacial meltwater infiltration towards glacier margin. During the field work numerous radial crevasses, supraglacial channels and moulins were observed in the marginal zone of Múlajökull. The forefield of Múlajökull mainly consist of subglacial landforms (drumlins, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges), end moraines and sandur plains. Flutes and crevasse-?ll ridges were found superimposed on drumlins in places. Till macrofabric was measured close to the surface of two drumlins and at one section on the slope of drumlin. The fabrics possess strong orientations parallel to the axis of drumlins, as well as glacial striations on the boulders exposed at the drumlin surface. These striations indicate glacier sliding over its bed during the termination of the last surge. References Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., Sigur?sson, O., Flowers, G.E. 2003. Surges of glaciers in Iceland. Annals of Glaciology, 36, 82-90. Johnson, M.D., Schomacker, A., Benediktsson, Í.Ö., Geiger, A.J., Ferguson, A. 2010. Active drumlin field revealed at the margin of Múlajökull, Iceland: a surge-type glacier. Geology, 38, 943-946. Jónsson, S.A., Schomacker, A., Benediktsson, I.Ó., Ingólfsson, Ó., Johnson, M.D. 2014. The drumlin field and the geomorphology of the Múlajökull surge-type glacier, central Iceland. Geomorphology, 207, 213-220.

  11. Grounding electrode and method of reducing the electrical resistance of soils

    DOEpatents

    Koehmstedt, Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A first solution of an electrolyte is injected underground into a volume of soil having negative surface charges on its particles. A cationic surfactant suspended in this solution neutralizes these surface charges of the soil particles within the volume. Following the first solution, a cationic asphalt emulsion suspended in a second solution is injected into the volume. The asphalt emulsion diffuses through the volume and electrostatically bonds with additional soil surrounding the volume such that an electrically conductive water repellant shell enclosing the volume is formed. This shell prevents the leaching of electrolyte from the volume into the additional soil. The second solution also contains a dissolved deliquescent salt which draws water into the volume prior to the formation of the shell. When electrically connected to an electrical installation such as a power line tower, the volume constitutes a grounding electrode for the tower.

  12. Method and basis set dependence of anharmonic ground state nuclear wave functions and zero-point energies: application to SSSH.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Stephen J; Jordan, Meredith J T

    2010-02-01

    One of the largest remaining errors in thermochemical calculations is the determination of the zero-point energy (ZPE). The fully coupled, anharmonic ZPE and ground state nuclear wave function of the SSSH radical are calculated using quantum diffusion Monte Carlo on interpolated potential energy surfaces (PESs) constructed using a variety of method and basis set combinations. The ZPE of SSSH, which is approximately 29 kJ mol(-1) at the CCSD(T)/6-31G* level of theory, has a 4 kJ mol(-1) dependence on the treatment of electron correlation. The anharmonic ZPEs are consistently 0.3 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy than the harmonic ZPEs calculated at the Hartree-Fock and MP2 levels of theory, and 0.7 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy at the CCSD(T)/6-31G* level of theory. Ideally, for sub-kJ mol(-1) thermochemical accuracy, ZPEs should be calculated using correlated methods with as big a basis set as practicable. The ground state nuclear wave function of SSSH also has significant method and basis set dependence. The analysis of the nuclear wave function indicates that SSSH is localized to a single symmetry equivalent global minimum, despite having sufficient ZPE to be delocalized over both minima. As part of this work, modifications to the interpolated PES construction scheme of Collins and co-workers are presented. PMID:20136303

  13. Ion-chromatographic screening method for monitoring arsenate and other anionic pollutants in ground waters of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Polesello, S; Valsecchi, S; Cavalli, S; Reschiotto, C

    2001-06-22

    A novel, rapid ion-chromatographic method for screening anionic pollutants in ground water, based on both conductivity and postcolumn spectrophotometric detection, has been developed. A relatively rapid separation of more than ten inorganic and polarizable anions was achieved by coupling an high capacity, hydroxide selective anion-exchange columns (Dionex IonPac AS16) supplied with an electrolytic eluent generator operating in gradient mode. The good control of the selectivity allowed the determination of polarizable anions including arsenate, thiocyanate, thiosulfate and perchlorate without interference from major components present at levels greater than 100 mg l(-1). This method was applied to the determination of arsenate in ground water samples collected in industrial and agricultural zones of Lombardia (Northern Italy). No traces of arsenate were detected in any sample, but added arsenate cannot be revealed by chromatographic analyses. This fact can be attributed to different causes, from reduction to the more reduced arsenic form to precipitation or dissolution in organic or inorganic based colloids. Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide seems to be useful for a partial recovery of added arsenate, but a stronger oxidation method, compatible with chromatographic separation, must be studied. PMID:11453004

  14. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously. PMID:25970254

  15. Chloride mass-balance method for estimating ground water recharge in arid areas: Examples from western Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bazuhair, A.S.; Wood, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The chloride mass-balance method, which integrates time and aerial distribution of ground water recharge, was applied to small alluvial aquifers in the wadi systems of the Asir and Hijaz mountains in western Saudi Arabia. This application is an extension of the method shown to be suitable for estimating recharge in regional aquifers in semi-arid areas. Because the method integrates recharge in time and space it appears to be, with certain assumptions, particularly well suited for and areas with large temporal and spatial variation in recharge. In general, recharge was found to be between 3 to 4% of precipitation - a range consistent with recharge rates found in other arid and semi-arid areas of the earth.

  16. New Statistical Methods for Analysis of Large Surveys: Distributions and Correlations

    E-print Network

    Vahe' Petrosian

    2001-12-19

    The aim of this paper is to describe new statistical methods for determination of the correlations among and distributions of physical parameters from a multivariate data with general and arbitrary truncations and selection biases. These methods, developed in collaboration with B. Efron of Department of Statistics at Stanford, can be used for analysis of combined data from many surveys with different and varied observational selection criteria. For clarity we will use the luminosity function of AGNs and its evolution to demonstrate the methods. We will first describe the general features of data truncation and present a brief review of past methods of analysis. Then we will describe the new methods and results from simulations testing their accuracy. Finally we will present the results from application of the methods to a sample of quasars.

  17. Ground Anthrax Bacillus Refined Isolation (GABRI) method for analyzing environmental samples with low levels of Bacillus anthracis contamination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this work are reported the results of a qualitative analytical method capable of detecting Bacillus anthracis spores when they are present in very low concentration in the soil. The Ground Anthrax Bacillus Refined Isolation (GABRI) method, assessed in our laboratory, was compared with the classic method. The comparison involved artificially anthrax-contaminated soil samples (500 spores/7.5 grams soil) and naturally contaminated soil samples collected in Bangladesh during a field investigation. Results The results indicated that, in contrast to the classic method, the GABRI method was able to detect B.anthracis in all contaminated samples. The GABRI method produces a more sensitive measure of anthrax spore presence significantly different from the standard method. In particular, the latter is more sensitive to the presence of normal soil contaminants. Conclusion The main feature of the GABRI method is its ability to strongly reduce the presence of the environmental contaminants, which being much more numerous than B. anthracis tend to inhibit their germination and growth making it extremely difficult to visualize any colonies. The reduction of the microbial environment also allows one to be able to culture and test a larger quantity of potentially contaminated soil and to isolate B. anthracis when the spores are present in very low concentrations in the soil. PMID:23865983

  18. Methods for implementing a medicine outlet survey: lessons from the anti-malarial market

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years an increasing number of public investments and policy changes have been made to improve the availability, affordability and quality of medicines available to consumers in developing countries, including anti-malarials. It is important to monitor the extent to which these interventions are successful in achieving their aims using quantitative data on the supply side of the market. There are a number of challenges related to studying supply, including outlet sampling, gaining provider cooperation and collecting accurate data on medicines. This paper provides guidance on key steps to address these issues when conducting a medicine outlet survey in a developing country context. While the basic principles of good survey design and implementation are important for all surveys, there are a set of specific issues that should be considered when conducting a medicine outlet survey. Methods This paper draws on the authors’ experience of designing and implementing outlet surveys, including the lessons learnt from ACTwatch outlet surveys on anti-malarial retail supply, and other key studies in the field. Key lessons and points of debate are distilled around the following areas: selecting a sample of outlets; techniques for collecting and analysing data on medicine availability, price and sales volumes; and methods for ensuring high quality data in general. Results and conclusions The authors first consider the inclusion criteria for outlets, contrasting comprehensive versus more focused approaches. Methods for developing a reliable sampling frame of outlets are then presented, including use of existing lists, key informants and an outlet census. Specific issues in the collection of data on medicine prices and sales volumes are discussed; and approaches for generating comparable price and sales volume data across products using the adult equivalent treatment dose (AETD) are explored. The paper concludes with advice on practical considerations, including questionnaire design, field worker training, and data collection. Survey materials developed by ACTwatch for investigating anti-malarial markets in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia provide a helpful resource for future studies in this area. PMID:23383972

  19. An Internet-based survey method for college student drinking research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kypros Kypri; Stephen J. Gallagher; Martine L. Cashell-Smith

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and assess the utility of an Internet-based survey method for characterizing the alcohol consumption of college students. After extensive pilot research, a random sample of 1910 students aged 16–29 years was invited to complete a questionnaire, consisting of a series of web-pages linked to a relational database on a secure web-site. A

  20. Precision grid survey apparatus and method for the mapping of hidden ferromagnetic structures

    DOEpatents

    von Wimmerspeg, Udo

    2004-11-16

    The present invention is for a precision grid surveyor having a stationary unit and a roving unit. The stationary unit has a light source unit that emits a light beam and a rotator to project the light beam toward detectors on a roving unit. The roving unit moves over an area to be surveyed. Further the invention is for a method of mapping details of hidden underground iron pipelines, and more particularly the location of bell joints.

  1. A new reference method for the validation of the nutrient profiling schemes using dietary surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc Volatier; Anja Biltoft-Jensen; Stefaan De Henauw; Michael J. Gibney; Inge Huybrechts; Sinéad N. McCarthy; Jennifer L. O’Neill; Caroline Quinio; Aida Turrini; Inge Tetens

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient profiles of foods are increasingly used as the scientific basis of nutritional labeling, health claims, or nutritional\\u000a education. Nutrient profiling schemes are based on sets of rules, scores, or thresholds applied to the nutritional composition\\u000a of foods. However, there is a lack of scientific validation of nutritional profiling schemes. To develop a reference method\\u000a using existing dietary surveys, to

  2. Comparing the Cloud Vertical Structure Derived from Several Methods Based on Radiosonde Profiles and Ground-based Remote Sensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Suros, M.; Calbo, J.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    The cloud vertical distribution and especially the cloud base height, which is linked to cloud type, is an important characteristic in order to describe the impact of clouds in a changing climate. In this work several methods to estimate the cloud vertical structure (CVS) based on atmospheric sounding profiles are compared, considering number and position of cloud layers, with a ground based system which is taken as a reference: the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL). All methods establish some conditions on the relative humidity, and differ on the use of other variables, the thresholds applied, or the vertical resolution of the profile. In this study these methods are applied to 125 radiosonde profiles acquired at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during all seasons of year 2009 and endorsed by GOES images, to confirm that the cloudiness conditions are homogeneous enough across their trajectory. The overall agreement for the methods ranges between 44-88%; four methods produce total agreements around 85%. Further tests and improvements are applied on one of these methods. In addition, we attempt to make this method suitable for low resolution vertical profiles, which could be useful in atmospheric modeling. The total agreement, even when using low resolution profiles, can be improved up to 91% if the thresholds for a moist layer to become a cloud layer are modified to minimize false negatives with the current data set, thus improving overall agreement.

  3. Assessing internet survey data collection methods with ethnic nurse shift workers.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Barbara Betz; Farr, Lynne A

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of ethnic minorities are expected to enter the United States workforce based on projected demographic changes. This includes American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) nurses. Sociocultural influences on sleep disturbances, sleepiness, and other aspects related to shift-work tolerance are of unrecognized importance. More minority nurses are needed to provide culturally congruent care; however, AI/AN nurses represent less than 1% of nurses located throughout the American workforce. This article aims to verify the feasibility of Internet data collection (Web-based survey) methods and instrument stability as the first part of a two-phase study comparing individual differences and shift-work-related sleep disturbances between AI/AN and White non-Hispanic (WNH) nurses. In the first phase, an Internet survey was used to reach a cross-section of AI/AN and WNH nurses. The on-line survey was composed of accepted shift-work-related instruments. Items estimating sleep disturbances, sociocultural choices, time awareness, polychronicity, morningness/ eveningness, ethnic identity, and demographic questions were asked. The survey was linked to a series of Web pages describing the study purpose, inclusion and exclusion criteria, consent form, Web survey, and the second phase of the study in which subjects were invited to participate in actigraphy measurements. The survey was pilot-tested for error codes, item confusion, length, and completion time. Forced-answer questions were added asking ethnicity, age group, license type, state where licensed, and legal name on nursing license before accessing the survey. Data were saved periodically, cued by the word "continue." The database was located on a secure server and password protected. Nurses were recruited using published articles and printed advertisements, hospital e-mail systems, national nursing organization Web sites (minoritynurse.com; NANAINA.org), nursing Web site discussion groups, snow-balling, and word of mouth. The site was accessed 656 times with the Internet survey being completed by 138 WNH and 56 AI/AN nurses meeting the inclusion criteria. Except for the polychronicity measure (PAI3), instruments measuring time awareness, chronotype, and situational sleepiness achieved acceptable reliability coefficients with Internet data collection. Using pull-down menus would improve questions asking specific times. Internet data collection with different ethnic groups is possible; however, accessing the target population may be difficult. Despite extensive recruitment efforts, few AI/AN nurses participated. Computer literacy and failing to relate to the study's purpose may have limited the interest of the AI/AN nurses. It is possible to recruit nurse shift workers and collect individual difference and sleep disturbance data through the Internet; however, the researcher must remain vigilant throughout the process. PMID:15646245

  4. SEEPAGE FAILURE ANALYSES OF SANDY GROUND USING A LIQUEFACTION ANALYSIS METHOD BASED ON FINITE DEFORMATION THEORY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kodak; R. Morimoto

    Most of seepage failure problems can be classified as liquefaction problem, because effective stresses of sand deposits near\\/at failure state statically come close to zero. It is, therefore, difficult to predict the seepage failure using conventional deformation analysis methods for saturated soil. In the present paper, a newly developed liquefaction analysis method, which is based on the finite deformation theory,

  5. Navigation method using multi-sensor for UGV(Unmanned Ground Vehicle)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bok-Joong Yoon; Jung-Hun Na; Jung-Ha Kim

    2007-01-01

    A navigation method is very important on UGV. Therefore, in this research, we propose the algorithm of navigation method using Multi-GPS, Compass and IMU and it prove through vehicle test. GPS have a lot of error elements and it is impossible to receive data in an area of poor reception via a satellite. In order to make up for the

  6. Application of classification-tree methods to identify nitrate sources in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.; Showers, W.J.; Howe, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if nitrate sources in ground water (fertilizer on crops, fertilizer on golf courses, irrigation spray from hog (Sus scrofa) wastes, and leachate from poultry litter and septic systems) could be classified with 80% or greater success. Two statistical classification-tree models were devised from 48 water samples containing nitrate from five source categories. Model I was constructed by evaluating 32 variables and selecting four primary predictor variables (??15N, nitrate to ammonia ratio, sodium to potassium ratio, and zinc) to identify nitrate sources. A ??15N value of nitrate plus potassium 18.2 indicated inorganic or soil organic N. A nitrate to ammonia ratio 575 indicated nitrate from golf courses. A sodium to potassium ratio 3.2 indicated spray or poultry wastes. A value for zinc 2.8 indicated poultry wastes. Model 2 was devised by using all variables except ??15N. This model also included four variables (sodium plus potassium, nitrate to ammonia ratio, calcium to magnesium ratio, and sodium to potassium ratio) to distinguish categories. Both models were able to distinguish all five source categories with better than 80% overall success and with 71 to 100% success in individual categories using the learning samples. Seventeen water samples that were not used in model development were tested using Model 2 for three categories, and all were correctly classified. Classification-tree models show great potential in identifying sources of contamination and variables important in the source-identification process.

  7. A method for simulating transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings in central Florida by using a simple water-balance/transfer-function model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple method is needed that provides estimates of transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings that can be incorporated into other hydrologic models. Deep water-table settings are areas where the water table is below the reach of plant roots and virtually all water that is not lost to surface runoff, evaporation at land surface, or evapotranspiration in the root zone eventually becomes ground-water recharge. Areas in central Florida with a deep water table generally are high recharge areas; consequently, simulation of recharge in these areas is of particular interest to water-resource managers. Yet the complexities of meteorological variations and unsaturated flow processes make it difficult to estimate short-term recharge rates, thereby confounding calibration and predictive use of transient hydrologic models. A simple water-balance/transfer-function (WBTF) model was developed for simulating transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings. The WBTF model represents a one-dimensional column from the top of the vegetative canopy to the water table and consists of two components: (1) a water-balance module that simulates the water storage capacity of the vegetative canopy and root zone; and (2) a transfer-function module that simulates the traveltime of water as it percolates from the bottom of the root zone to the water table. Data requirements include two time series for the period of interest?precipitation (or precipitation minus surface runoff, if surface runoff is not negligible) and evapotranspiration?and values for five parameters that represent water storage capacity or soil-drainage characteristics. A limiting assumption of the WBTF model is that the percolation of water below the root zone is a linear process. That is, percolating water is assumed to have the same traveltime characteristics, experiencing the same delay and attenuation, as it moves through the unsaturated zone. This assumption is more accurate if the moisture content, and consequently the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, below the root zone does not vary substantially with time. Results of the WBTF model were compared to those of the U.S. Geological Survey variably saturated flow model, VS2DT, and to field-based estimates of recharge to demonstrate the applicability of the WBTF model for a range of conditions relevant to deep water-table settings in central Florida. The WBTF model reproduced independently obtained estimates of recharge reasonably well for different soil types and water-table depths.

  8. Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: analytic energy gradients for ground and excited states.

    PubMed

    Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest. PMID:24784259

  9. Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: Analytic energy gradients for ground and excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin, E-mail: martin.schuetz@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)] [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-04-28

    A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest.

  10. Ground-followup studies of the 1977 airborne electromagnetic survey in the Assifar and Mulhal areas, Wadi Bidah district, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, Vincent J.; Sadek, Hamdy

    1983-01-01

    Parts of four airborne electromagnetic (AEM) anomalies were selected for study in order to determine the cause of high conductivity of Precambrian rocks underlying extensive areas in the southern Wadi Bidah district, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the Assifar area, which contains an ancient mine or prospect having the same name, geophysical data suggest that a mineralized body may lie beneath and immediately south of the ancient workings. Many other conductive zones detected during the course of the geophysical survey are thought to be related to metavolcanic rocks containing carbonaceous materials. Detailed geologic mapping, and possibly diamond core drilling, will be necessary to fully evaluate the area. In the Mulhal No. 2 area, located about 2 km south of the Mulhal ancient mine, geophysical studies suggest that mineralized rocks extend about 500 m along strike beneath outcrops of gossanous material. A brief review of the AEM ground-followup studies in the Wadi Bidah district suggests that most, if not all, of the AEM conductors are carbonaceous rocks. Secondary causes of conductivity are intense faulting and shearing.

  11. Comparison of ground-based measurements of natural radiation to airborne radiation survey data on transects from coastal California to the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, P. W.; Hernández, L.; Messina, P.; Dearaujo, J.; Li, A.; Hicks, A.; White, L.

    2008-12-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements were collected with a hand-held Geiger counter at nearly 400 locations on two general transects across the southwestern United States. The data are used to provide ground-truth comparison to published airborne radiation surveys of the region. The first transect was collected by high school students in the SF-ROCKS program at San Francisco State University in the summer of 2008 starting in San Francisco. Data were collected across the Sierra Nevada Range on I-80, and across Highway 50 in Nevada, and I-70 in Utah. Data were collected in and around Great Basin, Arches, Capitol Reef, Bryce, and Zion National Parks, and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. A second transect extends from San José, California to Flagstaff, Arizona and includes the Mojave National Reserve, Death Valley region, and locations throughout the Navajo Reservation region in northern Arizona and western New Mexico. Radiation data (with GPS reference) were collected from all the major sedimentary rock formations and igneous rocks of the Colorado Plateau and from many igneous and metamorphic rocks throughout the Great Basin and southern California deserts. Anomalously high localized levels were noted in selected sedimentary units associated with uranium exploration targets in the Colorado Plateau region, and in caverns and rock fissures where radon gas (and accumulation of derivative fission products) are the inferred sources.

  12. Resampling Method for Applying Density-Dependent Habitat Selection Theory to Wildlife Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large geographic extents. PMID:26042998

  13. Resampling method for applying density-dependent habitat selection theory to wildlife surveys.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large geographic extents. PMID:26042998

  14. A new method to obtain ground control points based on SRTM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; An, Wei; Deng, Xin-pu; Zhang, Xi

    2013-09-01

    The GCPs are widely used in remote sense image registration and geometric correction. Normally, the DRG and DOM are the major data source from which GCPs are extracted. But the high accuracy products of DRG and DOM are usually costly to obtain. Some of the production are free, yet without any guarantee. In order to balance the cost and the accuracy, the paper proposes a method of extracting the GCPs from SRTM data. The method consist of artificial assistance, binarization, data resample and reshape. With artificial assistance to find out which part of SRTM data could be used as GCPs, such as the islands or sharp coast line. By utilizing binarization algorithm , the shape information of the region is obtained while other information is excluded. Then the binary data is resampled to a suitable resolution required by specific application. At last, the data would be reshaped according to satellite imaging type to obtain the GCPs which could be used. There are three advantages of the method proposed in the paper. Firstly, the method is easy for implementation. Unlike the DRG data or DOM data that charges a lot, the SRTM data is totally free to access without any constricts. Secondly, the SRTM has a high accuracy about 90m that is promised by its producer, so the GCPs got from it can also obtain a high quality. Finally, given the SRTM data covers nearly all the land surface of earth between latitude -60° and latitude +60°, the GCPs which are produced by the method can cover most important regions of the world. The method which obtain GCPs from SRTM data can be used in meteorological satellite image or some situation alike, which have a relative low requirement about the accuracy. Through plenty of simulation test, the method is proved convenient and effective.

  15. Enumeration of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef, Cattle Carcass, Hide and Fecal Samples Using Direct Plating Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: To develop and validate high throughput methods for the direct enumeration of viable and culturable Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef, carcass, hide and fecal (GCHF) samples from cattle. Methods and Results: The hydrophobic grid membrane filtration (HGMF) method and the sp...

  16. Survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs for estimating supersonic missile aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Hernandez, G.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs used for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations. Emphasis is placed on those methods which are suitable for preliminary design of conventional and advanced concepts. An analysis of the technical approaches of the various methods is made in order to assess their suitability to estimate longitudinal and/or lateral-directional characteristics for different classes of missile configurations. Some comparisons between the predicted characteristics and experimental data are presented. These comparisons are made for a large variation in flow conditions and model attitude parameters. The paper also presents known experimental research programs developed for the specific purpose of validating analytical methods and extending the capability of data-base programs.

  17. Statistical Methods for Detecting Stellar Occultations by Kuiper Belt Objects: the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey

    E-print Network

    Chyng-Lan Liang; John A. Rice; Imke de Pater; Charles Alcock; Tim Axelrod; Andrew Wang

    2002-09-24

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) will detect objects in the Kuiper Belt, by measuring the rate of occultations of stars by these objects, using an array of three to four 50cm wide-field robotic telescopes. Thousands of stars will be monitored, resulting in hundreds of millions of photometric measurements per night. To optimize the success of TAOS, we have investigated various methods of gathering and processing the data and developed statistical methods for detecting occultations. In this paper we discuss these methods. The resulting estimated detection efficiencies will be used to guide the choice of various operational parameters determining the mode of actual observation when the telescopes come on line and begin routine observations. In particular we show how real-time detection algorithms may be constructed, taking advantage of having multiple telescopes. We also discuss a retrospective method for estimating the rate at which occultations occur.

  18. Efficient Hybrid Grid Synthesis Method Based on Genetic Algorithm for Power/Ground Network Optimization with Dynamic Signal Consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Kimura, Shinji

    This paper proposes an efficient design algorithm for power/ground (P/G) network synthesis with dynamic signal consideration, which is mainly caused by Ldi/dt noise and Cdv/dt decoupling capacitance (DECAP) current in the distribution network. To deal with the nonlinear global optimization under synthesis constraints directly, the genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced. The proposed GA-based synthesis method can avoid the linear transformation loss and the restraint condition complexity in current SLP, SQP, ICG, and random-walk methods. In the proposed Hybrid Grid Synthesis algorithm, the dynamic signal is simulated in the gene disturbance process, and Trapezoidal Modified Euler (TME) method is introduced to realize the precise dynamic time step process. We also use a hybrid-SLP method to reduce the genetic execute time and increase the network synthesis efficiency. Experimental results on given power distribution network show the reduction on layout area and execution time compared with current P/G network synthesis methods.

  19. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers

    2005-05-13

    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  20. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kalter; E. Thrush; J. Santarpia; Z. Chaudhry; J. Gilberry; D. M. Brown; A. Brown; C. C. Carter

    2011-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open

  1. Assessment of Two Methods of Sequencing Ground Trainer Practice for Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gary B.; And Others

    The study was an operational evaluation of two methods of instruction sequencing for the T-38 phase of Undergraduate Pilot Training. Scheduling of concentrated trainer phases prior to aircraft flight improved student performance for early aircraft rides as compared with an intermixed trainer and aircraft schedule. Although grade differences washed…

  2. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  3. On the performance of computational methods for the assessment of risk from ground-water contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maged M. Hamed; Philip B. Bedient

    1997-01-01

    The effect of parameter uncertainty and overly conservative measures on risk assessment has been addressed in numerous researches. Most of the work conducted to date is based on the use of the classic Monte Carlo simulation method (MCS) as a probabilistic modeling tool. Although the MCS is robust and asymptotically convergent, it lacks computational efficiency when the simulated probability is

  4. Effects of cooking methods and chemical tenderizers on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yohan; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Mukherjee, Avik; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated chemical tenderizers and cooking methods to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties (model system for non-intact beef). Ground beef was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and mixed with (i) nothing (control), (ii) calcium chloride (CC) and flavoring agents (FA), (iii) CC, FA, and acetic acid (AA), (iv) sodium chloride (SC), sodium tripolyphosphate (ST), and potassium lactate (PL), and (v) the combination of SC, ST, PL, and AA. Patties were stored in aerobic or vacuum bags at -20, 4, and 12°C. Samples were grilled, broiled, or pan-fried to 60 or 65°C. Total bacterial and E. coli O157:H7 populations remained unchanged during storage. Broiling was more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 than grilling and pan-frying, and acidified tenderizers reduced E. coli O157:H7 more than non-acidified tenderizers in broiling. Higher reductions were observed at 65°C than 60°C in broiled and grilled samples. These results indicate that acidified tenderizers and broiling may be useful in non-intact beef safety. PMID:23747624

  5. A rapid direct solvent extraction method for the extraction of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone from irradiated ground beef patties using acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, Faraj; Kumar, Amit; Smith, J Scott

    2010-08-01

    The amount of irradiated beef in the U.S. market is growing, and a reliable, rapid method is needed to detect irradiated beef and quantify the irradiation dose. The official analytical method (BS EN 1785 2003) that has been adopted by the European Union is time consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid method for the analysis of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in irradiated beef. A 5 g sample of commercially irradiated ground beef patty (90/10) was extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus or with acetonitrile via direct solvent extraction. The Soxhlet hexane extract was evaporated to dryness, and the sample was dissolved in a mixture of ethyl acetate and acetonitrile (1:1). The defatted extract was purified with a 1 g silica cartridge. Another 5 g aliquot of the same patty was mixed with 50 mL acetonitrile and either blended for 1 min with a hand blender or crushed for 10 min with a glass rod. The extraction procedure was repeated 3 times, and the acetonitrile was collected and evaporated to dryness. Eluants from both methods were concentrated under nitrogen and injected into a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 2-DCB concentration in the commercial samples was 0.031 +/- 0.0026 ppm (n = 5) for the Soxhlet method and 0.031 +/- 0.0025 ppm (n = 10) for direct solvent extraction. Recovery of 2-DCB from spiked beef samples in the direct solvent extraction method was 93.2 +/- 9.0% (n = 7). This study showed that the direct solvent extraction method is simple and as efficient and reproducible as the Soxhlet method. PMID:20722960

  6. A Modified Analytical Method for Simulating Cyclic Operation of Vertical U-Tube Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps 

    E-print Network

    Dobson, M. K.; O'Neal, D. L.; Aldred, W.

    1994-01-01

    A modified analytical model is presented which discretizes the ground-coupled heat exchanger of a ground-coupled heat pump and utilized a separate cylindrical source solution for each element. First law expressions are utilized for each element...

  7. USGS Ground Water Information Pages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The pages at this site are designed to provide useful information about groundwater resources and activities of the United States Geological Survey. Included are links to groundwater data, a publications section which gives access to Water Resources Publications, On-Line Fact Sheets, Ground Water Atlas, and Selected USGS Ground Water Publications, and a resource for field techniques and ground water models.

  8. System and Method for Suppression of Unwanted Noise in Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q. (Inventor); Clem, Michelle M. (Inventor); Fagan, Amy F. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for the suppression of unwanted noise from a jet discharging into a duct are disclosed herein. The unwanted noise may be in the form of excited duct modes or howl due to super resonance. A damper member is used to reduce acoustic velocity perturbations at the velocity anti-node, associated with the half-wave resonance of the duct, weakening the resonance condition and reducing the amplitudes of the spectral peaks.

  9. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  10. Method of characteristics for calculating ionospheric electrodynamics from multisatellite and ground-based radar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Amm

    2002-01-01

    Multisatellite missions like the recently launched Cluster II spacecraft provide for the first time the possibility to instantaneously obtain spatially distributed measurements of field-aligned currents (FAC). We present the “FAC-based method of characteristics” that combines such measurements mapped to the ionosphere with two-dimensional data of the ionospheric electric field, as it can be obtained from coherent scatter radars, to calculate

  11. Method of characteristics for calculating ionospheric electrodynamics from multisatellite and ground-based radar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Amm

    2002-01-01

    Multisatellite missions like the recently launched Cluster II spacecraft provide for the first time the possibility to instantaneously obtain spatially distributed measurements of field-aligned currents (FAC). We present the ``FAC-based method of characteristics'' that combines such measurements mapped to the ionosphere with two-dimensional data of the ionospheric electric field, as it can be obtained from coherent scatter radars, to calculate

  12. Electromagnetic scattering analysis of a three-dimensional-cavity-backed aperture in an infinite ground plane using a combined finite element method/method of moments approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1995-01-01

    A combined finite element method/method of moments (FEM/MoM) approach is used to analyze the electromagnetic scattering properties of a three-dimensional-cavity-backed aperture in an infinite ground plane. The FEM is used to formulate the fields inside the cavity, and the MoM (with subdomain bases) in both spectral and spatial domains is used to formulate the fields above the ground plane. Fields in the aperture and the cavity are solved using a system of equations resulting from the combination of the FEM and the MoM. By virtue of the FEM, this combined approach is applicable to all arbitrarily shaped cavities with inhomogeneous material fillings, and because of the subdomain bases used in the MoM, the apertures can be of any arbitrary shape. This approach leads to a partly sparse and partly full symmetric matrix, which is efficiently solved using a biconjugate gradient algorithm. Numerical results are presented to validate the analysis.

  13. Installation restoration research program: Assessment of geophysical methods for subsurface geologic mapping, cluster 13, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.K.; Sharp, M.K.; Sjostrom, K.J.; Simms, J.E.; Llopis, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at a portion of Cluster 13, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Seismic refraction cross sections map the topsoil layer and the water table (saturated zone). The water table elevations from the seismic surveys correlate closely with water table elevations in nearby monitoring wells. Electrical resistivity cross sections reveal a very complicated distribution of sandy and clayey facies in the upper 10 - 15 m of the subsurface. A continuous surficial (topsoil) layer correlates with the surficial layer of the seismic section and nearby boring logs. The complexity and details of the electrical resistivity cross section correlate well with boring and geophysical logs from nearby wells. The transient electromagnetic surveys map the Pleistocene-Cretaceous boundary, the saprolite, and the top of the Precambrian crystalline rocks. Conducting the transient electromagnetic surveys on a grid pattern allows the construction of a three-dimensional representation of subsurface geology (as represented by variations of electrical resistivity). Thickness and depth of the saprolitic layer and depth to top of the Precambrian rocks are consistent with generalized geologic cross sections for the Edgewood Area and depths projected from reported depths at the Aberdeen Proving Ground NW boundary using regional dips.

  14. Survey of in-situ and remote sensing methods for soil moisture determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Mckim, H. L.

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining the moisture content in the surface layers of the soil based on in situ or point measurements, soil water models and remote sensing observations are surveyed. In situ methods described include gravimetric techniques, nuclear techniques based on neutron scattering or gamma-ray attenuation, electromagnetic techniques, tensiometric techniques and hygrometric techniques. Soil water models based on column mass balance treat soil moisture contents as a result of meteorological inputs (precipitation, runoff, subsurface flow) and demands (evaporation, transpiration, percolation). The remote sensing approaches are based on measurements of the diurnal range of surface temperature and the crop canopy temperature in the thermal infrared, measurements of the radar backscattering coefficient in the microwave region, and measurements of microwave emission or brightness temperature. Advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are pointed out, and it is concluded that a successful monitoring system must incorporate all of the approaches considered.

  15. High resolution imaging of vadose zone transport using surface and crosswell ground penetrating radar methods

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Kowalsky, Mike B.; Peterson, John E.

    2002-11-05

    To effectively clean up many contaminated sites there is a need for information on heterogeneities at scales ranging from one centimeter to tens of meters, as these features can alter contaminant transport significantly. At the Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site heterogeneities of interest can range from localized phenomena such as silt or gravel lenses, fractures, clastic dikes, to large-scale lithologic discontinuities. In the vadose zone it is critical to understand the parameters controlling flow. These features have been suspected of leading to funneling and fingering, additional physical mechanisms that could alter and possibly accelerate the transport of contaminants to underlying groundwater. For example, it has been observed from the studies to date that over relatively short distances there are heterogeneities in the physical structure of the porous medium and structural differences between repacked soil cores and the field site from which the materials initially came (Raymond and Shdo, 1966). Analysis of cores taken from the vadose zone (i.e., soil surface to water table) has been useful in identifying localized zones of contamination. Unfortunately, these analyses are sparse (limited to a few boreholes) and extremely expensive. The high levels of radioactivity at many of the contaminated sites increase drilling and sample costs and analysis time. Cost of drilling and core analysis for the SX tank farm has exceeded $1M per borehole (50 meter deep) for sampling. The inability to track highly mobile species through the vadose zone highlights an important need: the need for methods to describe the complete vadose zone plume and to determine processes controlling accelerated contamination of groundwater at Hanford. A combination of surface and crosswell (i.e. borehole) geophysical measurements is one means to provide this information. The main questions addressed with the radar methods in this study are: (1) What parts of the vadose zone-groundwater system control flow geometry? (2) What physical properties or mechanisms control flow and transport in unconsolidated soils of the vadose zone? (3) What is the optimum suite of field tests to provide information for predicting flow and transport behavior? (4) How can the information obtained during site characterization be used for building confidence in predictive numerical models? Fully developed, application of geophysics should enable location of contaminant distributions. Questions addressed in this study were the sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy of the geophysical methods in order to derive the spatial and temporal distribution of properties controlling transport and contaminant distribution between and away from boreholes and the surface. Implicit in this activity is that geophysical methods will be used to extrapolate and extend measurements made at the point scale to the volumetric scale. Overall there are two broad hypotheses being addressed in the geophysical work: (1) Geophysical methods can identify physical and chemical heterogeneity controlling contaminant transport at a meaningful scale. (2) Geophysical methods have the sensitivity to directly or indirectly detect the location of introduced fluids and/or contaminants at relevant concentrations (i.e. the subsurface has been altered from its natural state enough to create anomalies that can be detected in terms of a combination of mechanical, electrical, and thermal effects).

  16. Methods for rapidly processing angular masks of next-generation galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, M. E. C.; Tegmark, Max; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Hill, J. Colin

    2008-07-01

    As galaxy surveys become larger and more complex, keeping track of the completeness, magnitude limit and other survey parameters as a function of direction on the sky becomes an increasingly challenging computational task. For example, typical angular masks of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey contain about N = 300000 distinct spherical polygons. Managing masks with such large numbers of polygons becomes intractably slow, particularly for tasks that run in time with a naive algorithm, such as finding which polygons overlap each other. Here we present a `divide-and-conquer' solution to this challenge: we first split the angular mask into pre-defined regions called `pixels', such that each polygon is in only one pixel, and then perform further computations, such as checking for overlap, on the polygons within each pixel separately. This reduces tasks to , and also reduces the important task of determining in which polygon(s) a point on the sky lies from to , resulting in significant computational speedup. Additionally, we present a method to efficiently convert any angular mask to and from the popular HEALPIX format. This method can be generically applied to convert to and from any desired spherical pixelization. We have implemented these techniques in a new version of the MANGLE software package, which is freely available at http://space.mit.edu/home/tegmark/mangle/, along with complete documentation and example applications. These new methods should prove quite useful to the astronomical community, and since MANGLE is a generic tool for managing angular masks on a sphere, it has the potential to benefit terrestrial mapmaking applications as well.

  17. A generic risk-based surveying method for invading plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Parnell, S; Gottwald, T R; Riley, T; van den Bosch, F

    2014-06-01

    Invasive plant pathogens are increasing with international trade and travel, with damaging environmental and economic consequences. Recent examples include tree diseases such as sudden oak death in the Western United States and ash dieback in Europe. To control an invading pathogen it is crucial that newly infected sites are quickly detected so that measures can be implemented to control the epidemic. However, since sampling resources are often limited, not all locations can be inspected and locations must be prioritized for surveying. Existing approaches to achieve this are often species specific and rely on detailed data collection and parameterization, which is difficult, especially when new arrivals are unanticipated. Consequently regulatory sampling responses are often ad hoc and developed without due consideration of epidemiology, leading to the suboptimal deployment of expensive sampling resources. We introduce a flexible risk-based sampling method that is pathogen generic and enables available information to be utilized to develop epidemiologically informed sampling programs for virtually any biologically relevant plant pathogen. By targeting risk we aim to inform sampling schemes that identify high-impact locations that can be subsequently treated in order to reduce inoculum in the landscape. This "damage limitation" is often the initial management objective following the first discovery of a new invader. Risk at each location is determined by the product of the basic reproductive number (R0), as a measure of local epidemic size, and the probability of infection. We illustrate how the risk estimates can be used to prioritize a survey by weighting a random sample so that the highest-risk locations have the highest probability of selection. We demonstrate and test the method using a high-quality spatially and temporally resolved data set on Huanglongbing disease (HLB) in Florida, USA. We show that even when available epidemiological information is relatively minimal, the method has strong predictive value and can result in highly effective targeted surveying plans. PMID:24988776

  18. GROUND-WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATION FOR THE VALLEY-FILL AQUIFER IN SPANISH VALLEY, GRAND AND SAN JUAN COUNTIES, UTAH --A BASIS FOR PRESERVING HIGH QUALITY GROUND-WATER RESOURCES, UTAH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed study will consist of an evaluation of current ground-water quality using the Utah Water Quality Board's ground-water-quality classification system based mostly on total-dissolved-solids concentrations as follows: class 1A (Pristine), less than 500 mg/L; class 2 (dr...

  19. Topographical surveys: Classical method versus 3D laser scanning. Case study - An application in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigora?, I.-R.; Cov?snianu, A.; Ple?u, G.; Benedict, B.

    2009-04-01

    The paper describes an experiment which took place in Iasi town, Romania, consisted in two different topographical survey techniques applied for one and the same objective placed in a block within the city (western part) - a thermal power station. The purpose was to compare those methods and to determine which one is proper to be used in this domain in terms of fastness, optimization and speed of data processing. First technique applied for our survey was the classical one, with a total station. Using the CAD technique, we obtained a final product (a dwg file) and a list of coordinates (a text file). The second method, which we focused our attention more, was the measurement with a very precise 3D laser scanstation, also very suitable in archeology. The data obtained were processed with special software. Result was a 3D model of the thermal power plant composed of measurable cloud point data. Finally, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each method, we came to the conclusion that the 3D laser scanning which we used matches well the application, in this case civil engineering, but the future of accepting and implementing this technique is in the hands of Romanian authorities.

  20. Regression Method for Estimating Long-Term Mean Annual Ground-Water Recharge Rates from Base Flow in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Thompson, Ronald E.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for making estimates of long-term, mean annual ground-water recharge from streamflow data at 80 streamflow-gaging stations in Pennsylvania. The method relates mean annual base-flow yield derived from the streamflow data (as a proxy for recharge) to the climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and physiographic characteristics of the basins (basin characteristics) by use of a regression equation. Base-flow yield is the base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area of the basin, expressed in inches of water basinwide. Mean annual base-flow yield was computed for the period of available streamflow record at continuous streamflow-gaging stations by use of the computer program PART, which separates base flow from direct runoff on the streamflow hydrograph. Base flow provides a reasonable estimate of recharge for basins where streamflow is mostly unaffected by upstream regulation, diversion, or mining. Twenty-eight basin characteristics were included in the exploratory regression analysis as possible predictors of base-flow yield. Basin characteristics found to be statistically significant predictors of mean annual base-flow yield during 1971-2000 at the 95-percent confidence level were (1) mean annual precipitation, (2) average maximum daily temperature, (3) percentage of sand in the soil, (4) percentage of carbonate bedrock in the basin, and (5) stream channel slope. The equation for predicting recharge was developed using ordinary least-squares regression. The standard error of prediction for the equation on log-transformed data was 9.7 percent, and the coefficient of determination was 0.80. The equation can be used to predict long-term, mean annual recharge rates for ungaged basins, providing that the explanatory basin characteristics can be determined and that the underlying assumption is accepted that base-flow yield derived from PART is a reasonable estimate of ground-water recharge rates. For example, application of the equation for 370 hydrologic units in Pennsylvania predicted a range of ground-water recharge from about 6.0 to 22 inches per year. A map of the predicted recharge illustrates the general magnitude and variability of recharge throughout Pennsylvania.

  1. Survey of the status of finite element methods for partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temam, Roger

    1986-01-01

    The finite element methods (FEM) have proved to be a powerful technique for the solution of boundary value problems associated with partial differential equations of either elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic type. They also have a good potential for utilization on parallel computers particularly in relation to the concept of domain decomposition. This report is intended as an introduction to the FEM for the nonspecialist. It contains a survey which is totally nonexhaustive, and it also contains as an illustration, a report on some new results concerning two specific applications, namely a free boundary fluid-structure interaction problem and the Euler equations for inviscid flows.

  2. Modal survey of the space shuttle solid rocket motor using multiple input methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillhart, Ralph; Hunt, David L.; Jensen, Brent M.; Mason, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to accurately characterize propellant in a finite element model is a concern of engineers tasked with studying the dynamic response of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM). THe uncertainties arising from propellant characterization through specimem testing led to the decision to perform a model survey and model correlation of a single segment of the Shuttle SRM. Multiple input methods were used to excite and define case/propellant modes of both an inert segment and, later, a live propellant segment. These tests were successful at defining highly damped, flexible modes, several pairs of which occured with frequency spacing of less than two percent.

  3. A survey of methods concerning the effects of impurities on the thermophysical properties of pure components 

    E-print Network

    Phillips, Tony Lee

    1980-01-01

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1$8O Major Subject: Chemical Engineering A SURVEF QF PIE EQDS CCTJCERETZJJG H ~ 'FFECTS QF I'JPJJP THERJJQPHvSTCAl PRQPERT DES QF PURE CQI'JPQ/JER A hesis by Tony Lee Phillips Approved as to style and conten.... by: Chairman of ommittee , i&em er ber da (Head o Department December 1980 ABSTRACT A Survey of Methods Concerning the Effects of Impurities on the Ther mophysical Properties of Pure Components (December 1980) Tony Lee Phillips, B...

  4. Analytical methods of the U.S. Geological Survey's New York District Water-Analysis Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lincoln, Tricia A.; Horan-Ross, Debra A.; Olson, Mark L.; Waldron, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The New York District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Troy, N.Y., operates a water-analysis laboratory for USGS watershed-research projects in the Northeast that require analyses of precipitation and of dilute surface water and soil water for major ions; it also provides analyses of certain chemical constituents in soils and soil gas samples. This report presents the methods for chemical analyses of water samples, soil-water samples, and soil-gas samples collected in wateshed-research projects. The introduction describes the general materials and technicques for eachmethod and explains the USGS quality-assurance program and data-management procedures; it also explains the use of cross reference to the three most commonly used methods manuals for analysis of dilute waters. The body of the report describes the analytical procedures for (1) solution analysis, (2) soil analysis, and (3) soil-gas analysis. The methods are presented in alphabetical order by constituent. The method for each constituent is preceded by (1) reference codes for pertinent sections of the three manuals mentioned above, (2) a list of the method's applications, and (3) a summary of the procedure. The methods section for each constitutent contains the following categories: instrumentation and equipment, sample preservation and storage, reagents and standards, analytical procedures, quality control, maintenance, interferences, safety considerations, and references. Sufficient information is presented for each method to allow the resulting data to be appropriately used in environmental samples.

  5. An adaptive sampling method based on optimized sampling design for fishery-independent surveys with comparisons with conventional designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong LiuYong; Yong Chen; Jiahua Cheng; Jianjian Lu

    The adaptive cluster sampling method is widely applied in terrestrial systems; however, it is not suitable for fisheries surveys\\u000a because of the high cost of unlimited sampling in practice. An adaptive approach is often used in fisheries surveys to allocate\\u000a sampling effort, usually following a stratified random design. Development of an adaptive sampling method based on optimized\\u000a sampling design (this

  6. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A. W.; Smith, A. T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program.

  7. Automated volumetric segmentation method for computerized-diagnosis of pure nodular ground-glass opacity in high-resolution CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Wooram; Park, Sang Joon; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2010-03-01

    While accurate diagnosis of pure nodular ground glass opacity (PNGGO) is important in order to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies, computer-aided diagnosis of PNGGO is less studied than other types of pulmonary nodules (e.g., solid-type nodule). Difficulty in segmentation of GGO nodules is one of technical bottleneck in the development of CAD of GGO nodules. In this study, we propose an automated volumetric segmentation method for PNGGO using a modeling of ROI histogram with a Gaussian mixture. Our proposed method segments lungs and applies noise-filtering in the pre-processing step. And then, histogram of selected ROI is modeled as a mixture of two Gaussians representing lung parenchyma and GGO tissues. The GGO nodule is then segmented by region-growing technique that employs the histogram model as a probability density function of each pixel belonging to GGO nodule, followed by the elimination of vessel-like structure around the nodules using morphological image operations. Our results using a database of 26 cases indicate that the automated segmentation method have a promising potential.

  8. Analysis of Noise Isolation Methods on Split Power/Ground Plane of Multi-layered Package and PCB for Low Jitter Mixed Mode System

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yong Jung

    Analysis of Noise Isolation Methods on Split Power/Ground Plane of Multi-layered Package and PCBScience, Korea Advanced Institute of Scienceand Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong,Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea://tera.kaist.ac.kr ABSTRACT - Various noise isolation methods for low jitter on powerlground plane are thoroughly analyzed

  9. Positive deviance control-case life history: a method to develop grounded hypotheses about successful long-term avoidance of infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel R Friedman; Pedro Mateu-Gelabert; Milagros Sandoval; Holly Hagan; Don Jarlais

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates for long-term injection drug users in some localities surpass 60% for HIV and 80% for HCV. We describe methods for developing grounded hypotheses about how some injectors avoid infection with either virus. METHODS: Subjects: 25 drug injectors who have injected drugs 8 – 15 years in New York City. 17 remain without antibody to either HIV or

  10. Borehole geophysical methods for analyzing specific capacity of multiaquifer wells : ground-water hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Gordon D.; Patten, Eugene P., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    Conventional well-logging techniques, combined with measurements of flow velocity in the borehole, can provide information on the discharge-drawdown characteriBtic8 of the several aquifers penetrated by a well. The information is most conveniently presented in a graph showing aquifer discharges as functions of the water level in the well at a particular time. To determine the discharge-drawdown characteristics, a well is pumped at a steady rate for a certain length of time. While the well is being pumped, measurements are made of drawdown and of the discharge rates of the individual aquifers within the well. Discharge rates and drawdowns ,are usually recorded as functions of time, and their values for any given time during the test are obtained by interpolation. The procedure is repeated for several different rates of total well discharge. The well may be allowed to recover after each step, or discharge may be changed from one rate to another, and changes in discharge and drawdown may be measured by extrapolation. The flow measurements within the well may be made by use of a subsurface flowmeter or by one of several techniques involving the injection of electrolytic or radioactive tracers. The method was tested on a well in Mercer County, Pa., and provided much useful information on aquifer yields, 'thieving,' and hydrostatic heads of the individual zones.

  11. Microbial monitoring and methods of sample collection: a GITMO survey (Gruppo Trapianto di Midollo Osseo)

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Erica; Callea, Emanuela; Alberani, Francesca; Orlando, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The collection of microbiological samples represents an important aspect of care both for doctors as well as nurses. It is important to recognise and identify some key points, to avoid performing ‘unnecessary’ or ‘incorrect’ sampling, which may give useless or even misleading results, these are: the moment at which the sample is collected, the collection method and timing (if indicated). The comparison between the various nursing members of the Italian National bone marrow transplant group (GITMO), showed diversity of practice across all fields. A formal survey was therefore conducted within GITMO centres looking at the methods of microbiological sample collection. These results were compared with the literature, and in addition to the lack of homogeneity of practice within the centres, a lack of compliance with the recommendations was also observed. To evaluate the effectiveness of this survey in highlighting awareness of this issue and the presence of relevant guidelines, the questionnaire was repeated (with the same centres responding), which demonstrated no major changes in care practices. Conclusion: The survey has allowed us to highlight many critical issues regarding common procedures which are not commonly discussed. Considerable differences were noted between different transplant centres, which may be attributable to the lack of Italian guidelines that can be used as a starting point for clinical practice. The plenary discussion allowed for an exchange of findings with the medical staff, who are usually responsible for requesting microbiological samples. The ideal solution would be a unique field-based training programme, associated with the dissemination of a common procedural document for ensuring evidence-based practice. PMID:24834116

  12. A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Survey of KIilbourne Hole, Southern New Mexico: Implication for Paleohydrology and Near Surface Geophysical Exploration of Mars and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, N.; Hurtado, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Features such as the Home Plate plateau on Mars, a suspected remnant of a phreatomagmatic eruption, can reveal important information about paleohydrologic conditions. The types and sizes of pyroclastic rocks produced by a phreatomagmatic eruption are indicative of the behavior of the explosion and the characteristics of the groundwater reservoir. Analysis of the pyroclast size distribution can be used to determine magma volatile content. We conduct an analysis of pyroclast size distribution using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to make a quantitative estimate of the presence of past groundwater at Kilbourne Hole, a well-known phreatomagmatic crater located in southern Dona Ana County, New Mexico. As basaltic magma intruded the groundwater reservoir in the mid-Pleistocene, the water vaporized and caused a phreatomagmatic explosion that excavated the 2-km wide and 200-m deep depression. The pyroclastic units produced during a phreatomagmatic explosion are proportional to the size and the duration of the explosion and the size of the groundwater reservoir such that the wetter the eruption, the stronger the explosion. In a violent volcanic eruption, magma changes from a liquid into solid fragments and the explosion releases kinetic energy (Ek) by ejecting liquid water, vapor water (with mass Mw) and solid fragments (with mass Mf) at an ejection velocity (Ve). In order to determine Mw, we must know Ve. The relationship between Ve and the distance from center of the eruption (R) is such that Ve exponentially decreases with time (t) and R. A numerical model relating pyroclast size and Ve for material ejected in Hawaiian and Plinian eruptions shows that clast size also exponentially decreases with decreasing Ve. Based on these relationships, we use GPR to map the ejected clast size distribution as a function of distance from the edge of Kilbourne Hole in an effort to determine Ve and Mw. GPR surveys were performed in January 2012 and January 2013 using a Noggins 250 MHz radar system. We designed the surveys to detect volcanic bombs in the shallow subsurface and to map radial variations in their sizes. Six GPR lines were extended radially in each cardinal direction from the rim of Kilbourne Hole, and, as a control, fifteen short GPR lines were performed along an accessible cliff where visible volcanic bombs and blocks are exposed. We are able to visualize 58 bombs and blocks along one of the six GPR lines within the maximum penetration depth of 2.4-3.2 m. From the resulting GPR profiles, we measured the width and the length of the bombs. The largest dimension of each bomb was plotted against distance from crater rim, and the obtained exponential relationship between bomb size and distance will be applied to a numerical model of ejecta dispersal from transient volcanic explosions to solve for Ve and Mw. This case study at Kilbourne Hole serves as a planetary analog for similar surveys that could be done on Mars and on the Moon.

  13. A survey of the scientific data and training methods utilized by collegiate strength and conditioning coaches.

    PubMed

    Durell, David L; Pujol, Thomas J; Barnes, Jeremy T

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which scientific research influences college strength and conditioning coaching practices and to determine the training methods utilized. A total of 321 surveys were mailed to Division I strength and conditioning coaches, and the response rate was 42.7% (137 of 321 surveys). Results indicate that all subjects held a baccalaureate degree, the majority in a human performance-related field, and that 75% were Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) certified. The respondents' most widely utilized professional resources were the Strength and Conditioning Journal (94%) and other collegiate coaches and programs (93%). Forty-seven percent of respondents indicated that other collegiate coaches and their programs were the most important sources of knowledge outside of formal education. The majority indicated that they used a periodization protocol (93%) utilizing multiple sets (97%), plyometrics (90%), explosive movements (88%), and Olympic lifts (85%). Respondents tend to rely on sources of information that may not be defined as scientific, as evidenced by the low priority given to peer-reviewed literature. Respondents also tend to employ the methods they utilized as athletes. Reliance on these sources may not take advantage of advances made through scientific research in exercise physiology, biomechanics, and more specifically the area of strength and conditioning. PMID:12741880

  14. An enhanced sine dwell method as applied to the Galileo core structure modal survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kenneth S.; Trubert, Marc

    1990-01-01

    An incremental modal survey performed in 1988 on the core structure of the Galileo spacecraft with its adapters with the purpose of assessing the dynamics of the new portions of the structure is considered. Emphasis is placed on the enhancements of the sine dwell method employed in the test. For each mode, response data is acquired at 32 frequencies in a narrow band enclosing the resonance, utilizing the SWIFT technique. It is pointed out that due to the simplicity of the data processing involved, the diagnostic and modal-parameter data is available within several minutes after data acquisition; however, compared with straight curve-fitting approaches, the method requires more time for data acquisition.

  15. A Survey of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes—Part II: Control Methods

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Xiao, Yang; Hu, Fei

    2008-01-01

    We survey blood glucose control schemes for insulin-dependent diabetes therapies and systems. These schemes largely rely on mathematical models of the insulin-glucose relations, and these models are typically derived in an empirical or fundamental way. In an empirical way, the experimental insulin inputs and resulting blood-glucose outputs are used to generate a mathematical model, which includes a couple of equations approximating a very complex system. On the other hand, the insulin-glucose relation is also explained from the well-known facts of other biological mechanisms. Since these mechanisms are more or less related with each other, a mathematical model of the insulin-glucose system can be derived from these surrounding relations. This kind of method of the mathematical model derivation is called a fundamental method. Along with several mathematical models, researchers develop autonomous systems whether they involve medical devices or not to compensate metabolic disorders and these autonomous systems employ their own control methods. Basically, in insulin-dependent diabetes therapies, control methods are classified into three categories: open-loop, closed-loop, and partially closed-loop controls. The main difference among these methods is how much the systems are open to the outside people. PMID:18566688

  16. Ecological approach to resource survey and planning for environmentally significant Areas: The ABC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastedo, Jamie D.; Nelson, J. Gordon; Theberge, John B.

    1984-03-01

    A resource survey and planning method for parks, reserves, and other environmentally significant areas (ESAs) is presented in the context of a holistic balanced approach to land use and environmental management. This method provides a framework for the acquisition, analysis, presentation, and application of diverse ecological data pertinent to land use planning and resource management within ESAs. Through the independent analysis and subsequent integration of abiotic, biotic, and cultural or ABC information, land areas within an ESA are identified in terms of their relative environmental significance and environmental constraints. The former term encompasses wildlife, historic, and other resource values, while the latter term reflects biophysical hazards and sensitivities, and land use conflicts. The method thus calls for a matching of an ESA's distinctive attributes with appropriate land use and institutional arrancements through an analysis of available acts, regulations, agencies, and other conservation and land use management mechanisms. The method culminates with a management proposal showing proposed park or reserve allocations, buffer areas, or other land use controls aimed at preserving an ESA's special ecological qualities, while providing for resource development. The authors suggest that all resource management decisions affecting ESA's should be governed by a philosophical stance that recognizes a spectrum of broad land use types, ranging from preservation to extractive use and rehabilitation.

  17. MODFLOW-2000 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--documentation of the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the advective component of contaminant transport in steady-state flow fields can provide important information for the calibration of ground-water flow models. This report documents the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package, version 2, which allows advective-transport observations to be used in the three-dimensional ground-water flow parameter-estimation model MODFLOW-2000. The ADV2 Package is compatible with some of the features in the Layer-Property Flow and Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages, but is not compatible with the Block-Centered Flow or Generalized Finite-Difference Packages. The particle-tracking routine used in the ADV2 Package duplicates the semi-analytical method of MODPATH, as shown in a sample problem. Particles can be tracked in a forward or backward direction, and effects such as retardation can be simulated through manipulation of the effective-porosity value used to calculate velocity. Particles can be discharged at cells that are considered to be weak sinks, in which the sink applied does not capture all the water flowing into the cell, using one of two criteria: (1) if there is any outflow to a boundary condition such as a well or surface-water feature, or (2) if the outflow exceeds a user specified fraction of the cell budget. Although effective porosity could be included as a parameter in the regression, this capability is not included in this package. The weighted sum-of-squares objective function, which is minimized in the Parameter-Estimation Process, was augmented to include the square of the weighted x-, y-, and z-components of the differences between the simulated and observed advective-front locations at defined times, thereby including the direction of travel as well as the overall travel distance in the calibration process. The sensitivities of the particle movement to the parameters needed to minimize the objective function are calculated for any particle location using the exact sensitivity-equation approach; the equations are derived by taking the partial derivatives of the semi-analytical particle-tracking equation with respect to the parameters. The ADV2 Package is verified by showing that parameter estimation using advective-transport observations produces the true parameter values in a small but complicated test case when exact observations are used. To demonstrate how the ADV2 Package can be used in practice, a field application is presented. In this application, the ADV2 Package is used first in the Sensitivity-Analysis mode of MODFLOW-2000 to calculate measures of the importance of advective-transport observations relative to head-dependent flow observations when either or both are used in conjunction with hydraulic-head observations in a simulation of the sewage-discharge plume at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The ADV2 Package is then used in the Parameter-Estimation mode of MODFLOW-2000 to determine best-fit parameter values. It is concluded that, for this problem, advective-transport observations improved the calibration of the model and the estimation of ground-water flow parameters, and the use of formal parameter-estimation methods and related techniques produced significant insight into the physical system.

  18. Methods for Adjusting U.S. Geological Survey Rural Regression Peak Discharges in an Urban Setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moglen, Glenn E.; Shivers, Dorianne E.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted of 78 U.S. Geological Survey gaged streams that have been subjected to varying degrees of urbanization over the last three decades. Flood-frequency analysis coupled with nonlinear regression techniques were used to generate a set of equations for converting peak discharge estimates determined from rural regression equations to a set of peak discharge estimates that represent known urbanization. Specifically, urban regression equations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year return periods were calibrated as a function of the corresponding rural peak discharge and the percentage of impervious area in a watershed. The results of this study indicate that two sets of equations, one set based on imperviousness and one set based on population density, performed well. Both sets of equations are dependent on rural peak discharges, a measure of development (average percentage of imperviousness or average population density), and a measure of homogeneity of development within a watershed. Average imperviousness was readily determined by using geographic information system methods and commonly available land-cover data. Similarly, average population density was easily determined from census data. Thus, a key advantage to the equations developed in this study is that they do not require field measurements of watershed characteristics as did the U.S. Geological Survey urban equations developed in an earlier investigation. During this study, the U.S. Geological Survey PeakFQ program was used as an integral tool in the calibration of all equations. The scarcity of historical land-use data, however, made exclusive use of flow records necessary for the 30-year period from 1970 to 2000. Such relatively short-duration streamflow time series required a nonstandard treatment of the historical data function of the PeakFQ program in comparison to published guidelines. Thus, the approach used during this investigation does not fully comply with the guidelines set forth in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 17B, and modifications may be needed before it can be applied in practice.

  19. Evaluation of field sampling and preservation methods for strontium-90 in ground water at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Water from four wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer was sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's quality assurance program to evaluate the effect of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in groundwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Water from each well was filtered through either a 0.45-micrometer membrane or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered samples was preserved in the field with reagent-grade hydrochloric acid and the other set of samples was not acidified. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94% or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that within-laboratory reproducibility for strontium-90 in groundwater at the INEL is not significantly affected by changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collections. (USGS)

  20. Examination of the Equivalence of Self-Report Survey-Based Paper-and-Pencil and Internet Data Collection Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K.; Russell, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as…

  1. The Global Oscillation Network Group site survey. 1: Data collection and analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Frank; Fischer, George; Grier, Jennifer; Leibacher, John W.; Jones, Harrison B.; Jones, Patricia P.; Kupke, Renate; Stebbins, Robin T.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Project is planning to place a set of instruments around the world to observe solar oscillations as continuously as possible for at least three years. The Project has now chosen the sites that will comprise the network. This paper describes the methods of data collection and analysis that were used to make this decision. Solar irradiance data were collected with a one-minute cadence at fifteen sites around the world and analyzed to produce statistics of cloud cover, atmospheric extinction, and transparency power spectra at the individual sites. Nearly 200 reasonable six-site networks were assembled from the individual stations, and a set of statistical measures of the performance of the networks was analyzed using a principal component analysis. An accompanying paper presents the results of the survey.

  2. A productivity map of cognitive pretest methods for improving survey questions.

    PubMed

    Castillo Díaz, Miguel; Padilla García, José Luis; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Andrés Valle, Ana

    2010-08-01

    Interest in cognitive pretest methods for evaluating survey questionnaires has been increasing for the last three decades. However, analysing the features of the scientific output in the field can be difficult due to its prevalence in public and private institutes whose main mission is not scientific research. The aim of this research is to characterize the current state of scientific output in the field by means of two bibliometric studies for the period from 1980 to 2007. Study 1 analysed documents obtained from the more commonly used bibliographic databases. Study 2 supplemented the body of documents from Study 1 with documents from non-indexed journals, conference papers, etc. Results show a constant growth in the number of publications. The wide dispersion of publication sources, together with the highlighted role of the public and private institutions as centres of production, can also be identified as relevant characteristics of the scientific output in this field. PMID:20667278

  3. Crystallographic Analysis of Ground and Space Thermostable T1 Lipase Crystal Obtained via Counter Diffusion Method Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Aris, Sayangku Nor Ariati; Thean Chor, Adam Leow; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Raja Abd. Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional structure of thermostable lipase is much sought after nowadays as it is important for industrial application mainly found in the food, detergent, and pharmaceutical sectors. Crystallization utilizing the counter diffusion method in space was performed with the aim to obtain high resolution diffracting crystals with better internal order to improve the accuracy of the structure. Thermostable T1 lipase enzyme has been crystallized in laboratory on earth and also under microgravity condition aboard Progress spacecraft to the ISS in collaboration with JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency). This study is conducted with the aims of improving crystal packing and structure resolution. The diffraction data set for ground grown crystal was collected to 1.3?Ĺ resolution and belonged to monoclinic C2 space group with unit cell parameters a = 117.40?Ĺ, b = 80.95?Ĺ, and c = 99.81?Ĺ, whereas the diffraction data set for space grown crystal was collected to 1.1?Ĺ resolution and belonged to monoclinic C2 space group with unit cell parameters a = 117.31?Ĺ, b = 80.85?Ĺ, and c = 99.81?Ĺ. The major difference between the two crystal growth systems is the lack of convection and sedimentation in microgravity environment resulted in the growth of much higher quality crystals of T1 lipase. PMID:24516857

  4. Efficacy of pitfall trapping, Winkler and Berlese extraction methods for measuring ground-dwelling arthropods in moist-deciduous forests in the Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Sabu, Thomas K; Shiju, Raj T

    2010-01-01

    The present study provides data to decide on the most appropriate method for sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods measured in a moist-deciduous forest in the Western Ghats in South India. The abundance of ground-dwelling arthropods was compared among large numbers of samples obtained using pitfall trapping, Berlese and Winkler extraction methods. Highest abundance and frequency of most of the represented taxa indicated pitfall trapping as the ideal method for sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods. However, with possible bias towards surface-active taxa, pitfall-trapping data is inappropriate for quantitative studies, and Berlese extraction is the better alternative. Berlese extraction is the better method for quantitative measurements than the other two methods, whereas pitfall trapping would be appropriate for qualitative measurements. A comparison of the Berlese and Winkler extraction data shows that in a quantitative multigroup approach, Winkler extraction was inferior to Berlese extraction because the total number of arthropods caught was the lowest; and many of the taxa that were caught from an identical sample via Berlese extraction method were not caught. Significantly a greater frequency and higher abundance of arthropods belonging to Orthoptera, Blattaria, and Diptera occurred in pitfall-trapped samples and Psocoptera and Acariformes in Berlese-extracted samples than that were obtained in the other two methods, indicating that both methods are useful, one complementing the other, eliminating a chance for possible under-representation of taxa in quantitative studies. PMID:20673122

  5. Efficacy of Pitfall Trapping, Winkler and Berlese Extraction Methods for Measuring Ground-Dwelling Arthropods in Moist-Deciduous Forests in the Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Shiju, Raj T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study provides data to decide on the most appropriate method for sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods measured in a moist-deciduous forest in the Western Ghats in South India. The abundance of ground-dwelling arthropods was compared among large numbers of samples obtained using pitfall trapping, Berlese and Winkler extraction methods. Highest abundance and frequency of most of the represented taxa indicated pitfall trapping as the ideal method for sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods. However, with possible bias towards surface-active taxa, pitfall-trapping data is inappropriate for quantitative studies, and Berlese extraction is the better alternative. Berlese extraction is the better method for quantitative measurements than the other two methods, whereas pitfall trapping would be appropriate for qualitative measurements. A comparison of the Berlese and Winkler extraction data shows that in a quantitative multigroup approach, Winkler extraction was inferior to Berlese extraction because the total number of arthropods caught was the lowest; and many of the taxa that were caught from an identical sample via Berlese extraction method were not caught. Significantly a greater frequency and higher abundance of arthropods belonging to Orthoptera, Blattaria, and Diptera occurred in pitfall-trapped samples and Psocoptera and Acariformes in Berlese-extracted samples than that were obtained in the other two methods, indicating that both methods are useful, one complementing the other, eliminating a chance for possible under-representation of taxa in quantitative studies. PMID:20673122

  6. Methods for rapidly processing angular masks of next-generation galaxy surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. C. Swanson; Max Tegmark; Andrew J. S. Hamilton; J. Colin Hill

    2008-01-01

    As galaxy surveys become larger and more complex, keeping track of the completeness, magnitude limit and other survey parameters as a function of direction on the sky becomes an increasingly challenging computational task. For example, typical angular masks of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey contain about N = 300000 distinct spherical polygons. Managing masks with such large numbers of polygons

  7. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of the total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated colorimetric finish that includes dialysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1992-01-01

    A method to determine total phosphorus (TP) in the same digests prepared for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) determinations is desribed. The batch, high-temperature (block digester), HG(II)-catalyzed digestion step is similar to U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2552-85/I-4552-85 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 365.4 except that sample and reagent volumes are halved. Prepared digests are desolvated at 220 degrees Celsius and digested at 370 degrees Celsius in separate block digesters set at these temperatures, rather than in a single, temperature-programmed block digester. This approach is used in the method escribed here, which permits 40 calibrants, reference waters, and smaples to be digested and resolvated in about an hour. Orthophosphate ions originally present in samples, along with those released during the digestion step, are determined colorimetrically at a rate of 90 tests per hour by an automated version of the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue procedure. About 100 microliters of digest are required per determination. The upper concentration limit is 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a method detection limt of 0.01 mg/L. Repeatability for a sample containing approximately 1.6 mg/L of TP in a high suspended-solids matrix is 0.7 percent. Between-day precision for the same sample is 5.0 percent. A dialyzer in the air-segmented continuous flow analyzer provides on-line digest cleanup, eliminated particulates that otherwise would interfere in the colorimetric finish. An single-channel analyzer can process the resolvated digests from two pairs of block digesters each hour. Paired t-test analysis of TP concentrations for approximately 1,600 samples determined by the new method (U.S. Geologial Survey methods I-2610-91 and I-4610-91) and the old method (U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2600-85 and I-4600-85) revealed positive bias in the former of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L for surface-water samples in agreement with previous studies. Concentrations of total phosphorus detemrined for ground-water samples by both methods were statistically equivalent.

  8. Impact of Data Editing Methods on Estimates of Smoking Prevalence, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Rolle, Italia; Shin, Mikyong; Lee, Kyung Ah

    2013-01-01

    Accuracy of self-reported data may be improved by data editing, a mechanism to produce accurate information by excluding inconsistent data based on a set number of predetermined decision rules. We compared data editing methods in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with other editing approaches and evaluated the effects of these on smoking prevalence estimates. We evaluated 5 approaches for handling inconsistent responses to questions regarding cigarette use: GYTS, do-nothing, gatekeeper, global, and preponderance. Compared with GYTS data edits, the do-nothing and gatekeeper approaches produced similar estimates, whereas the global approach resulted in lower estimates and the preponderance approach, higher estimates. Implications for researchers using GYTS include recognition of the survey’s data editing methods and documentation in their study methods to ensure cross-study comparability. PMID:23517581

  9. Multi-method Geophysical Surveys for the Study of Holocene Landslide Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutlac, O.; Maillol, J.

    2005-05-01

    This paper integrates the results of a geophysical investigation of two Holocene landslides in the Cypress Hills, Alberta, Canada. Seismic refraction, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) were used to retrieve information about the type and morphometry of the landslide surfaces and boundaries. The earlier event occurred about 9,400 years ago and produced the East Slump Block (ESB); the West Slump Block (WSB) dates from mid- to late Holocene. The debris surfaces were encountered in boreholes at 6.5 m on the ESB and at 1.5 m on the WSB. The geological and geomorphological settings suggest a simplified 3-layer model: soil and post-landslide deposits of varying thickness, landslide mass, and bedrock or channel fill depending on elevation. Previous research suggests that the landslides evolved in a conglomerates formation. GPR profiling was used to characterize the first few meters of the subsurface, as the depth of penetration was limited due to highly attenuating lithologies. Stratigraphic elements were inferred from changes in the propagation velocity of the ground wave, the presence of diffraction events and weak, discontinuous reflectors from depths greater than 10 m. The envelopes of strong diffractions at a depth of 6-8 meters can be interpreted as the top of the landslide. Seismic refraction complements the GPR measurements, as it can generally provide data from greater depth. Sites at the toe of the landslides produced an interface at depths less than 8 meters for the ESB and less than 2 m for the WSB. For sites located nearer to the scarp, the characteristic element is an interface at average depth of 15 m. ERI is in principle the most appropriate method for clay-rich deposits. A number of 2D sections were obtained parallel to main seismic and GPR profiles. Electrical images provide information about the structure of the upper 30 meters of the subsurface and generally reinforce the results from other methods. GPR, seismic refraction and ERI were found suitable to analyze the shallow internal structure of the landslide mass. These geophysical techniques could therefore become standard tools for the characterization of ancient landslide deposits.

  10. Shallow subsurface temperature surveys in the basin and range province—II. Ground temperatures in the upsal hogback geothermal area, West-Central Nevada, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. OLMSTED; S. E. INGEBRITSEN

    1986-01-01

    Numerous temperature surveys at a depth of 1 m were made in 1973-1985 in the Upsal Hogback and Soda Lakes geothermal areas in west-central Nevada. Whereas the surveys effectively delineated temperature at depth and heat flow within the relatively intense Soda Lakes thermal anomaly, they were not effective at the diffuse Upsal Hogback anomaly, where several perturbing factors that affect

  11. 30 CFR 75.703-3 - Approved methods of grounding offtrack mobile, portable and stationary direct-current machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...medium; or, (d) The use of silicon diodes; however, the installation of such devices...requirements: (1) Installation of silicon diodes shall be restricted to electric equipment...polarity grounded; (2) Where such diodes are used on circuits having a...

  12. 30 CFR 75.703-3 - Approved methods of grounding offtrack mobile, portable and stationary direct-current machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...medium; or, (d) The use of silicon diodes; however, the installation of such devices...requirements: (1) Installation of silicon diodes shall be restricted to electric equipment...polarity grounded; (2) Where such diodes are used on circuits having a...

  13. 30 CFR 75.703-3 - Approved methods of grounding offtrack mobile, portable and stationary direct-current machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...medium; or, (d) The use of silicon diodes; however, the installation of such devices...requirements: (1) Installation of silicon diodes shall be restricted to electric equipment...polarity grounded; (2) Where such diodes are used on circuits having a...

  14. 30 CFR 75.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame, casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electrical equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to a...

  15. 30 CFR 75.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame, casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electrical equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to a...

  16. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame; casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electric equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to metal...

  17. 30 CFR 75.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame, casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electrical equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to a...

  18. 30 CFR 75.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame, casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electrical equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to a...

  19. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame; casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electric equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to metal...

  20. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame; casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electric equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to metal...

  1. 30 CFR 75.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame, casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electrical equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to a...

  2. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame; casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electric equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to metal...

  3. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (a) A solid connection between the metallic frame; casing, or other metal enclosure and the grounded metallic sheath, armor, or conduit enclosing the power conductor feeding the electric equipment enclosed; (b) A solid connection to metal...

  4. 30 CFR 75.703-3 - Approved methods of grounding offtrack mobile, portable and stationary direct-current machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...portable and stationary direct-current machines. 75.703-3 Section 75.703-3...portable and stationary direct-current machines. In grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of their component...

  5. 30 CFR 75.703-3 - Approved methods of grounding offtrack mobile, portable and stationary direct-current machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...portable and stationary direct-current machines. 75.703-3 Section 75.703-3...portable and stationary direct-current machines. In grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of their component...

  6. Analyzing the Solar Proton Event of 22 October 1989, Using the Method of Spectrographic Global Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Dvornikov; V. E. Sdobnov

    1998-01-01

    Using ground-level observations of cosmic-ray (CR) intensities from a worldwide network of stations during the ground-level enhancement (GLE) of 22–23 October 1989, variations of the particle distribution function in all phases of the event were investigated.

  7. A survey of nonlinear prefiltering methods for efficient and accurate surface shading.

    PubMed

    Bruneton, Eric; Neyret, Fabrice

    2012-02-01

    Rendering a complex surface accurately and without aliasing requires the evaluation of an integral for each pixel, namely, a weighted average of the outgoing radiance over the pixel footprint on the surface. The outgoing radiance is itself given by a local illumination equation as a function of the incident radiance and of the surface properties. Computing all this numerically during rendering can be extremely costly. For efficiency, especially for real-time rendering, it is necessary to use precomputations. When the fine scale surface geometry, reflectance, and illumination properties are specified with maps on a coarse mesh (such as color maps, normal maps, horizon maps, or shadow maps), a frequently used simple idea is to prefilter each map linearly and separately. The averaged outgoing radiance, i.e., the average of the values given by the local illumination equation is then estimated by applying this equation to the averaged surface parameters. But this is really not accurate because this equation is nonlinear, due to self-occlusions, self-shadowing, nonlinear reflectance functions, etc. Some methods use more complex prefiltering algorithms to cope with these nonlinear effects. This paper is a survey of these methods. We start with a general presentation of the problem of prefiltering complex surfaces. We then present and classify the existing methods according to the approximations they make to tackle this difficult problem. Finally, an analysis of these methods allows us to highlight some generic tools to prefilter maps used in nonlinear functions, and to identify open issues to address the general problem. PMID:21519101

  8. Ground-water Aquifers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This description of a ground-water aquifer has a graphic representation to accompany it. It is part of the U.S. Geologic Survey's Water Science for Schools website. Links to other parts of the site, such as definitions and types of wells, are included.

  9. A method of suppressing fault currents and improving the ground level electric field in a novel six-phase power transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Onogi, Y.; Chiba, A.; Isaka, K.; Okumoto, Y.

    1983-04-01

    In this paper, it is shown that the maximum electric field under the six-phase line with a modified phase arrangement becomes as low as that under the three-phase double-circuit (conventional) line. Then, a method is proposed for limiting line-to-ground fault currents and short-circuit currents without causing the fall in unfaulted phase voltages in the sixphase system with its neutrals solidly grounded. The fault analysis and the experimental result demonstrate that for a single line-to-ground fault at the sending end, the fault current in the proposed system is half that in the conventional system. As for the three-phase short-circuit fault at the sending end, the fault current in the proposed system is about 60 % of that in the conventional system. It is concluded that the proposed six-phase system is superior in the system transient stability to the conventional system.

  10. Methods for Rapidly Processing Angular Masks of Next-Generation Galaxy Surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly E. C. Swanson; Max Tegmark; Andrew J. S. Hamilton; J. Colin Hill

    2007-01-01

    As galaxy surveys become larger and more complex, keeping track of the\\u000acompleteness, magnitude limit, and other survey parameters as a function of\\u000adirection on the sky becomes an increasingly challenging computational task.\\u000aFor example, typical angular masks of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey contain\\u000aabout N=300,000 distinct spherical polygons. Managing masks with such large\\u000anumbers of polygons becomes intractably

  11. Modern Methods of Estimating Biodiversity from Presence-Absence Robert M. Dorazio1, U.S. Geological Survey and University of Florida, Department of Statistics,

    E-print Network

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    in the replicated surveys is crucial because it allows species occurrences to be estimated without bias by using1 Modern Methods of Estimating Biodiversity from Presence-Absence Surveys Robert M. Dorazio1, U.S. Geological Survey and University of Florida, Department of Statistics, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Nicholas J

  12. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  13. Cross-Cultural Issues of Intra- and Inter-Organisational Cooperation in Space Operations: A Survey Study with Ground Personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich

    Today's space operations often involve close co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organizational backgrounds. The aim of the study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. Methods: A web-based survey was answered by 905 employees at the European Astronaut Centre and at the European Space Technology Centre. An adapted version of the Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire by Helmreich and Merrit was used. Personnel were also asked about interpersonal and operational issues that interfered with efficient co-working within ESA and in relation to other space agencies. Results: Collaboration within ESA: A descriptive analysis was conducted of the rank orders of challenges perceived by members of different nationalities (the Netherlands (N=68), German (N=138), Italian (N=135), French (N=124), British (N=84) and Scandinavian (27).Rank orders show a surprisingly uniformity across nationalities. Most respondents perceived differences in the preferred leadership style as the main challenge for co-working in multi-national groups followed by differences in dealing with conflicts and misunderstandings. In contrast communication problems due different languages and differences in non-verbal behaviour, as well as differences in gender stereotypes were among the lowest rated issues. However, Scandinavian respondents showed a different pattern from other nationalities. Collaboration between agencies: The most significant issues reported to interfere with the efficiency of inter-agency collaboration varied. Most difficulties were reported in relation to clarity of communication, insufficient sharing of task related information, understanding the process of decision making in partner organization, and authoritarian leadership style in the partner organization Conclusion: Cultural differences in leadership and decision making processes are salient challenges in cooperation both within ESA and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. The importance given to these factors is consistent with results from the broader area of work and organizational psychology. Potential implications for safety operations are discussed

  14. National surface-water survey: eastern lake survey (Phase 1 - synoptic chemistry). Analytical methods manual. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Drouse; D. C. Hillman; L. W. Creelman; S. J. Simon

    1986-01-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program evaluates the current water chemistry of lakes and streams, determines the status of fisheries and other biotic resources, and selects regionally representative surface waters for a long-term monitoring program. This manual provides details of the analytical methods and internal quality control used to process and analyze samples.

  15. A Little More than Chalk and Talk: Results from a Third National Survey of Teaching Methods in Undergraduate Economics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Becker, William E.

    2008-01-01

    In 1995, 2000, and 2005, the authors surveyed U.S. academic economists to investigate how economics is taught in four different types of undergraduate courses at postsecondary institutions. They especially looked for any changes in teaching methods that occurred over this decade, when there were several prominent calls for economists and…

  16. UNEP/DEWA/RS.02-2 A Survey of Methods for Groundwater Recharge in Arid and

    E-print Network

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    , University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland Philip Brunner, IHW, ETHZ, Zurich, Switzerland Wen-Hsing Chiang, S., Chiang W.-H., Rueedi J., and Zoellmann K. (2002) A Survey of Methods for Groundwater Recharge in Arid/Thomas Dressler, 1999. Supporting photos, from top: Lauren Goodsmith/The Image Works CGM0736, 1991; Loic Giorgi

  17. Highly variable use of diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted infections-results of a nationwide survey, Germany 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Gilsdorf; Alexandra Hofmann; Osamah Hamouda; Viviane Bremer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual transmitted infections (STIs) have increased in Germany and other countries in Europe since the mid-nineties. To obtain a better picture of diagnostic methods used in STI testing institutions in Germany, we performed a nationwide survey amongst STI specialists in order to evaluate the quality of STI reports and provide recommendations to harmonize and possibly improve STI diagnostics in

  18. A SUMMARY OF THE INTERLABORATORY SOURCE PERFORMANCE SURVEYS FOR EPA REFERENCE METHODS 5, 6, AND 7 - 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    A national survey of methods in stationary source tests was conducted in 1978 by the Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In this program, quality assurance sam...

  19. Statistical methods of automatic spectral classification and their application to the Hamburg/ESO Survey

    E-print Network

    Norbert Christlieb; Lutz Wisotzki; Gerd Grasshoff

    2002-06-05

    We employ classical statistical methods of multivariate classification for the exploitation of the stellar content of the Hamburg/ESO objective prism survey (HES). In a simulation study we investigate the precision of a three-dimensional classification (Teff, log g, [Fe/H]) achievable in the HES for stars in the effective temperature range 520010 (typically corresponding to B_J<16.5). The accuracies in log g and [Fe/H] are better than 0.68dex in the same S/N range. These precisions allow for a very efficient selection of metal-poor stars in the HES. We present a minimum cost rule for compilation of complete samples of objects of a given class, and a rejection rule for identification of corrupted or peculiar spectra. The algorithms we present are being used for the identification of other interesting objects in the HES data base as well, and they are applicable to other existing and future large data sets, such as those to be compiled by the DIVA and GAIA missions.

  20. Statistical methods for efficient design of community surveys of response to noise: Random coefficients regression models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomberlin, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Research studies of residents' responses to noise consist of interviews with samples of individuals who are drawn from a number of different compact study areas. The statistical techniques developed provide a basis for those sample design decisions. These techniques are suitable for a wide range of sample survey applications. A sample may consist of a random sample of residents selected from a sample of compact study areas, or in a more complex design, of a sample of residents selected from a sample of larger areas (e.g., cities). The techniques may be applied to estimates of the effects on annoyance of noise level, numbers of noise events, the time-of-day of the events, ambient noise levels, or other factors. Methods are provided for determining, in advance, how accurately these effects can be estimated for different sample sizes and study designs. Using a simple cost function, they also provide for optimum allocation of the sample across the stages of the design for estimating these effects. These techniques are developed via a regression model in which the regression coefficients are assumed to be random, with components of variance associated with the various stages of a multi-stage sample design.