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1

Ground-penetrating Radar Survey (GPR)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist conducts a ground-penetrating radar survey to investigate and characterize the shallow subsurface. The survey was conducted as part of an applied research effort by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch of Geophysics in 2006....

2

PRELIMINARY GROUND AND AERIAL SURVEYS FOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground and aerial surveys for Orange-breasted Falcons (Falco deiroleucus) were conducted during March-June 1999 in Honduras, and March-May 2000 in E1 Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, all within the likely range of this species. Sixty-six cliffs were checked by ground surveys. No Orange-breasted Falcon was found in Central America. We examined 55 cliffs by fixed-wing aircraft during 24

RUSSELL THORSTROM; RICHARD WATSON; AARON BAKER; SERENA AYERS; DAWD L. ANDERSON

3

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

1991-06-18

4

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-06-18

5

Ground-penetrating radar methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

6

Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are cooperatively investigating the utility of unmanned vehicles for near-real-time autonomous surveys of geophysical data collection. Initially focused on unmanned ground vehicle collection of magnetic data, this cooperative effort has brought unmanned surveying, precision guidance, near-real-time communication, on-the-fly data processing, and near-real-time data interpretation into the realm of ground geophysical surveying, all of which offer advantages over current methods of manned collection of ground magnetic data. An unmanned ground vehicle mission has demonstrated that these vehicles can successfully complete missions to collect geophysical data, and add advantages in data collection, processing, and interpretation. We view the current experiment as an initial phase in further unmanned vehicle data-collection missions, including aerial surveying.

Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Ippolito, C.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, R.; Yeh, Y.

2014-01-01

7

Ground-cover measurements: assessing correlation among aerial and ground-based methods.  

PubMed

Wyoming's Green Mountain Common Allotment is public land providing livestock forage, wildlife habitat, and unfenced solitude, amid other ecological services. It is also the center of ongoing debate over USDI Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) adjudication of land uses. Monitoring resource use is a BLM responsibility, but conventional monitoring is inadequate for the vast areas encompassed in this and other public-land units. New monitoring methods are needed that will reduce monitoring costs. An understanding of data-set relationships among old and new methods is also needed. This study compared two conventional methods with two remote sensing methods using images captured from two meters and 100 meters above ground level from a camera stand (a ground, image-based method) and a light airplane (an aerial, image-based method). Image analysis used SamplePoint or VegMeasure software. Aerial methods allowed for increased sampling intensity at low cost relative to the time and travel required by ground methods. Costs to acquire the aerial imagery and measure ground cover on 162 aerial samples representing 9000 ha were less than $3000. The four highest correlations among data sets for bare ground--the ground-cover characteristic yielding the highest correlations (r)--ranged from 0.76 to 0.85 and included ground with ground, ground with aerial, and aerial with aerial data-set associations. We conclude that our aerial surveys are a cost-effective monitoring method, that ground with aerial data-set correlations can be equal to, or greater than those among ground-based data sets, and that bare ground should continue to be investigated and tested for use as a key indicator of rangeland health. PMID:18446407

Booth, D Terrance; Cox, Samuel E; Meikle, Tim; Zuuring, Hans R

2008-12-01

8

Ground-Cover Measurements: Assessing Correlation Among Aerial and Ground-Based Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wyoming’s Green Mountain Common Allotment is public land providing livestock forage, wildlife habitat, and unfenced solitude, amid other ecological services. It is also the center of ongoing debate over USDI Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) adjudication of land uses. Monitoring resource use is a BLM responsibility, but conventional monitoring is inadequate for the vast areas encompassed in this and other public-land units. New monitoring methods are needed that will reduce monitoring costs. An understanding of data-set relationships among old and new methods is also needed. This study compared two conventional methods with two remote sensing methods using images captured from two meters and 100 meters above ground level from a camera stand (a ground, image-based method) and a light airplane (an aerial, image-based method). Image analysis used SamplePoint or VegMeasure software. Aerial methods allowed for increased sampling intensity at low cost relative to the time and travel required by ground methods. Costs to acquire the aerial imagery and measure ground cover on 162 aerial samples representing 9000 ha were less than 3000. The four highest correlations among data sets for bare ground—the ground-cover characteristic yielding the highest correlations (r)—ranged from 0.76 to 0.85 and included ground with ground, ground with aerial, and aerial with aerial data-set associations. We conclude that our aerial surveys are a cost-effective monitoring method, that ground with aerial data-set correlations can be equal to, or greater than those among ground-based data sets, and that bare ground should continue to be investigated and tested for use as a key indicator of rangeland health.

Booth, D. Terrance; Cox, Samuel E.; Meikle, Tim; Zuuring, Hans R.

2008-12-01

9

6. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF BLUEPRINTS OF GROUNDS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF BLUEPRINTS OF GROUNDS October 20, 1887 Original in National Archives, Washington, D.C. - U. S. Marine Hospital & Gates, 800 Saint Anthony Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

10

Survey of Present and Future Ground-Based Imaging Systems  

E-print Network

Survey of Present and Future Ground-Based Imaging Systems Olivier Guyon (guyon@naoj.org) University) Atmosphere composition & structure Rotation period Habitability Orbit Asteroid belt Astrometry System (IR) ? impact frequency surface temperature, pressure & composition ? tidal forces Measurements

Guyon, Olivier

11

Ground surveying in Surprise Valley, California  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

U.S. Geological Survey researcher Noah Athens secures a magnetometer pack onto Stanford graduate student Melissa Pandika, who blogged the team’s first year’s research for USGS in Surprise Valley, Modoc County, Calif., in 2012. Traditionally, magnetometric surveying has been done on foot ...

12

July 1973 ground survey of active Central American volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Ground survey has shown that thermal anomalies of various sizes associated with volcanic activity at several Central American volcanoes should be detectable from Skylab. Anomalously hot areas of especially large size (greater than 500 m in diameter) are now found at Santiaguito and Pacaya volcanoes in Guatemala and San Cristobal in Nicaragua. Smaller anomalous areas are to be found at least seven other volcanoes. This report is completed after ground survey of eleven volcanoes and ground-based radiation thermometry mapping at these same points.

Stoiber, R. E. (principal investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

1973-01-01

13

Application of Ground Penetrating Radar for River Ice Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot project was conducted on the Lower Athabasca River, Alberta, to explore the feasibility of ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology for river ice survey work. The goal of the pilot project was to evaluate the potential for this technology to acquire spatial information on bed and bottom of ice location under the range of working conditions presented at the

D. Healy; C. Katopodis; P. Tarrant

14

Mapping forest canopy gaps using air-photo interpretation and ground surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Canopy gaps are important structural components of forested habitats for many wildlife species. Recent improvements in the spatial accuracy of geographic information system tools facilitate accurate mapping of small canopy features such as gaps. We compared canopy-gap maps generated using ground survey methods with those derived from air-photo interpretation. We found that maps created from high-resolution air photos were more accurate than those created from ground surveys. Errors of omission were 25.6% for the ground-survey method and 4.7% for the air-photo method. One variable of inter est in songbird research is the distance from nests to gap edges. Distances from real and simulated nests to gap edges were longer using the ground-survey maps versus the air-photo maps, indicating that gap omission could potentially bias the assessment of spatial relationships. If research or management goals require location and size of canopy gaps and specific information about vegetation structure, we recommend a 2-fold approach. First, canopy gaps can be located and the perimeters defined using 1:15,000-scale or larger aerial photographs and the methods we describe. Mapped gaps can then be field-surveyed to obtain detailed vegetation data.

Fox, T.J.; Knutson, M.G.; Hines, R.K.

2000-01-01

15

Plating methods, a survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

1972-01-01

16

Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

2012-01-01

17

A GROUND-BASED 21 cm BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATION SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) provide a robust standard ruler with which to measure the acceleration of the universe. The BAO feature has so far been detected in optical galaxy surveys. Intensity mapping of neutral hydrogen emission with a ground-based radio telescope provides another promising window for measuring BAO at redshifts of order unity for relatively low cost. While the cylindrical radio telescope (CRT) proposed for these measurements will have excellent redshift resolution, it will suffer from poor angular resolution (arcminutes at best). We investigate the effect of angular resolution on the standard ruler test with BAO, using the Dark Energy Task Force Figure of Merit (FoM) as a benchmark. We then extend the analysis to include variations in the parameters characterizing the telescope and the underlying physics. Finally, we optimize the survey parameters (holding total cost fixed) and present an example of a CRT BAO survey that is competitive with Stage III dark energy experiments. The tools developed here form the backbone of a publicly available code that can be used to obtain estimates of cost and FoM for any set of survey parameters.

Seo, Hee-Jong; Dodelson, Scott; Marriner, John; Mcginnis, Dave; Stebbins, Albert; Stoughton, Chris; Vallinotto, Alberto, E-mail: sheejong@fnal.go [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

2010-09-20

18

Method of calculation of the ground temperature for multiple ground heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors propose a method of calculation of the ground temperature for heat extraction or injection via multiple ground heat exchangers. First, a high-speed algorithm to calculate the ground temperature is described. Next, a variation of the ground temperature calculated by using this method is compared with the one obtained by applying spatial superposition principle of the

Takao Katsura; Katsunori Nagano; Sayaka Takeda

2008-01-01

19

30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

2014-07-01

20

30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system will be approved if...

2013-07-01

21

30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

2013-07-01

22

30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

2012-07-01

23

30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

2011-07-01

24

30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system will be approved if...

2011-07-01

25

30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system will be approved if...

2012-07-01

26

30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits in resistance grounded systems, where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system, will be...

2010-07-01

27

30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed conductors are a part of the system will be approved if...

2010-07-01

28

Helium and ground temperature surveys at Steamboat Springs, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As demonstrated in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, helium and shallow temperature surveys are quick, inexpensive geothermal exploration methods that can be used together with excellent results. Steamboat Springs, in northwestern Colorado, lies primarily upon terrace gravels and alluvium with the major structure being a north-trending normal fault passing through the western portion of the city. Work by Christopherson (1979) indicates that the Steamboat warm springs are not laterally connected at shallow depth with Routt Hot Springs, 6 km to the north, although both resource areas are fault controlled. A shallow temperature survey was conducted in the city to determine the usefulness of this method in a low temperature resource area. Several extraneous factors influencing shallow temperature measurements were dealt with by field technique or subsequent analysis. A helium survey was conducted to compare with temperature results. Sixty-two soil helium samples were taken, using an interval of .1 to .2 Km, twice the density of the 18 temperature probe stations. A mobile spectrometer allowed immediate analysis of helium samples. A direct correlation of temperature to helium value at each site is not valid due to the high solubility of this gas. The contoured data from each method does correlate well and indicates that two faults control the resource in Steamboat Springs. Although these surveys should always be used to supplement other data, their utility in this study was readily apparent.

McCarthy, K.P.; Been, J.; Reimer, G.M.; Bowles, C.G.; Murrey, D.G.; Ruscetta, C.A. (ed.)

1982-07-01

29

40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2011-07-01

30

40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

31

40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2012-07-01

32

40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.  

...2014-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2014-07-01

33

40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2010-07-01

34

A mixed observational survey method  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, geodesists have debated the proper role of electronic distances in modern geodetic surveys. The role must be defined on an individual basis as a function of the desired accuracy and ultimate purpose of the survey. This paper proposes a mixed mode of observations for the types of surveys currently being observed following conventional first-order triangulation techniques. The

Gary M. Young

1974-01-01

35

TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON  

SciTech Connect

Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground measurements to refine interpretations of AEM data; and (3) Improve the calibration and correlation of AEM information. The potential benefits of this project are as follows: (1) Develop a tool to map subsurface units at the Hanford Site in a rapid and cost effective manner; (2) Map groundwater pathways within the River Corridor; and (3) Aid development of the conceptual site model. If anomalies observed in the AEM data can be correlated with subsurface geology, then the rapid scanning and non-intrusive capabilities provided by the airborne surveys can be used at the Hanford Site to screen for areas that warrant further investigation.

PETERSEN SW

2010-12-02

36

A mixed observational survey method  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, geodesists have debated the proper role of electronic distances in modern geodetic surveys. The role must\\u000a be defined on an individual basis as a function of the desired accuracy and ultimate purpose of the survey. This paper proposes\\u000a a mixed mode of observations for the types of surveys currently being observed following conventional first-order triangulation\\u000a techniques. The

Gary M. Young

1974-01-01

37

Simulation of Ground Motion Using the Stochastic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

-- A simple and powerful method for simulating ground motions is to combine parametric or functional descriptions of the ground motion's amplitude spectrum with a random phase spectrum modified such that the motion is distributed over a duration related to the earthquake magnitude and to the distance from the source. This method of simulating ground motions often goes by the

DAVID M. BOORE

2003-01-01

38

Antenna Characteristics and Air-Ground Interface Deembedding Methods for Stepped-Frequency Ground  

E-print Network

Antenna Characteristics and Air-Ground Interface Deembedding Methods for Stepped-Frequency Ground, Building 321, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark bDepartment of Applied Electronics, Technical University eld-tests using a Stepped-Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (SF-GPR) and promising antenna and air

Mosegaard, Klaus

39

The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

2005-01-01

40

Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

2006-01-01

41

On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

42

Image registration methods: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to present a review of recent as well as classic image registration methods. Image registration is the process of overlaying images (two or more) of the same scene taken at different times, from different viewpoints, and\\/or by different sensors. The registration geometrically align two images (the reference and sensed images). The reviewed approaches are classified according to

Barbara Zitova ´; Jan Flusser

2003-01-01

43

Trachoma survey methods: a literature review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reliable population-based prevalence data are essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating trachoma control programmes and understanding the scale of the problem, yet they are not currently available for 22 out of 56 trachoma-endemic countries. Three survey methods have been advocated for trachoma: cluster random sampling (CRS); trachoma rapid assessment (TRA); and acceptance sampling trachoma rapid assessment (ASTRA). Our review highlights the benefits of CRS being simple, efficient, repeatable and giving population-based prevalence estimates of all signs of trachoma. There are limitations to TRA, which include: non-representative sampling; does not estimate prevalence; and lacks consistency and accuracy. ASTRA advocates small sample sizes but it is relatively complex, may result in imprecise prevalence estimates and does not estimate cicatricial signs of trachoma. We conclude that CRS should therefore remain the “gold” standard for trachoma surveys. However, among the CRS surveys reviewed, we also found several methodological deficiencies of sample-size calculations, standardization of trachoma graders, reporting of confidence intervals of prevalence estimates, variability of age groups for presentation of age-specific prevalence, and lack of estimation of district prevalence estimates. Properly conducted surveys will be crucial if the objective of global elimination of blinding trachoma is to be charted and realized. Harmonization of survey methods will enhance the conduct and comparability of trachoma surveys needed for reliable mapping of prevalence within endemic countries. Consistent with WHO recommendations, we advocate for continued use of CRS as the survey design of choice for trachoma control programmes and propose ways of improving future surveys based on this method. PMID:19274367

Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

2009-01-01

44

Comparison of helicopter and ground surveys of waterfowl broods in southern Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Managers often employ aerial survey information to manage waterfowl. Results of surveys by helicopter and from elevated platforms were compared to determine the accuracy of helicopters to detect waterfowl broods on beaver ponds in southern Ontario in 1996 and 1997. Fewer broods were detected from the helicopter than by observers in elevated platforms at wetland margins. When broods were detected by helicopter crews, >90% were correctly enumerated and >80% were correctly aged. A second helicopter survey, the day following the first survey, did not change the Visibility Correction Factor (VCF) substantially (1.79 vs. 1.53). Data from the 2 helicopter surveys combined (without ground counts) resulted in greater VCFs (2.17) than when a single helicopter survey and ground count was used (VCF = 1.79). In general, VCFs for most waterfowl broods were lower in forested or closed (emergent and scrub-shrub) wetland habitats than on open wetlands. When multiple broods were present on a wetland, sightability of the additional broods (second, third, etc.) was lower for the helicopter crew than ground crew. Surveys by helicopter are likely most useful to develop indices for waterfowl broods of diver species in large inaccessible areas. If accurate information is required on dabbler brood densities, age, and number of ducklings, quiet observation by crews in elevated platforms should be used.

Gabor, T.S.; Longcore, J.R.; Murkin, H.R.; Arnason, A.N.

2000-01-01

45

Survey on large scale system control methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem inherent to large scale systems such as power network, communication network and economic or ecological systems were studied. The increase in size and flexibility of future spacecraft has put those dynamical systems into the category of large scale systems, and tools specific to the class of large systems are being sought to design control systems that can guarantee more stability and better performance. Among several survey papers, reference was found to a thorough investigation on decentralized control methods. Especially helpful was the classification made of the different existing approaches to deal with large scale systems. A very similar classification is used, even though the papers surveyed are somehow different from the ones reviewed in other papers. Special attention is brought to the applicability of the existing methods to controlling large mechanical systems like large space structures. Some recent developments are added to this survey.

Mercadal, Mathieu

1987-01-01

46

A simplified method for calculating the substation grounding grid resistance  

SciTech Connect

A simple and accurate formula for calculating the grounding grid resistance is proposed in this paper. This method is based on a theoretical manipulation of the numerical moment method and of the current image. The formula is dependent on the substation grounding grid design, such as grid depth, grid size, number of meshes, grid-conductor diameter, etc. A comparison study is performed to check the accuracy of the proposed formula with respect to six different formulas and methods in the literature. An excellent agreement was found between the results of this formula and the results of a sophisticated computerized method.

Chow, Y.L.; Salama, M.M.A. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Computer Engineering)

1994-04-01

47

Identification of School Bullies by Survey Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can middle school counselors identify bullies? This study compared two methods of identifying bullies in a sample of 386 middle school students. A peer nomination survey identified many more bullies than did student self-report. Moreover, self-reported and peer nominated bullies differed in their types of bullying behaviors, level of general…

Cole, Joanna C. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Sheras, Peter

2006-01-01

48

A Survey of Methods and Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assess and describe the nature and frequency of teaching methods, activities, and materials used in secondary school English courses, this survey consists of 14 questions related to teaching objectives, activities, and materials, each followed by a list of possible responses. Teachers are asked to select a course, and to circle for…

Gillis, Candida; And Others

49

Study on Tunnel-ground Controlled Source Electromagnetic Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to carry out 3D exploration of deeper mineral ores and overcome the difficulty and improve the accuracy of ores exploration, we will develop artificial source tunnel(wells) - ground 3D detection technology of resistivity parameter, which technology can excite ore body in multiple directions and have the advantage of obtaining plenteous electrical information. According to current literature, achievements on Tunnel-ground Electromagnetic Method are mainly electromagnetic imaging technology of inter-well and well-ground polarization method. There are few referenced experiences about tunnel-ground controlled source electromagnetic method. So, in order to get to know about this technology, it is necessary to carry out the numerical simulation of electromagnetic field of controlled source tunnel-ground electromagnetic method. Results indicate: 1. when excited signal is transmitted from surficial source, Cagniard resistivity and phase calculated by electromagnetic components from underground receivers in the far field can reflect the abnormal body clearly. 2. when the artificial sources are located in the tunnel of well, the exploration data obtaining from receivers on the ground far field can be inversion similar to magnetetolluric data. 3. According to the observation in the tunnel or well above the abnormal body, it is easy to find the deeper objects.

Jing, J.; Jin, S.; Wei, W.; Deng, M.; Ye, G.

2010-12-01

50

Aiming for the next bright super earth — Synergies of Ground and Space based Transiting Planets Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the great success of the Kepler space mission, our knowledge of Exoplanets has been dramatically extended. Nevertheless, ground based transit surveys pioneered the searching of transiting planets and developed many state-of-art techniques widely adopted by the transit community. The HATNet project is one of the most fruitful ground based transit surveys. Been operated for ~10 years, the survey yields ~50 HAT planets, constitute one fourth of the known population with accurate (<=10%) mass determinations.During the operation of Kepler Mission, HATNet team used our state-of-art pipeline and our long terms of observations in Kepler field to assist the analysis of Kepler data and the discovery of new candidates. The large sky coverage of HAT observations will provide continuous supports for the ongoing and future space based transit missions, such as K2 and TESS.On the other hand, we are able to learn about our noise characteristics and candidate selection limitations with the high precision photometric data from Kepler and our simultaneous observations.By exploiting synergies between ground based transit surveys and space transit missions, we'll be able to progress towards discover of bright super earths that are suitable for follow up spectroscopic observationsto investigate their atmosphere properties and chemical compositions. In this talk, I will first briefly review the contributions from the HATNet team in the Kepler mission. I will then present our latest effort in improving the yields and statistics of ground based transit surveys by simultaneousobservations of Kepler's field and employing machine learning techniques in our candidate selection processes. To finish up, I'll demonstrate the roles ground based transit surveys would play in the context of K2 and TESS.

Huang, Xu; Bakos, Gaspar; Hartman, Joel; HATNet Team

2015-01-01

51

Delineation of a landfill leachate plume using shallow electromagnetic and ground-penetrating radar surveys  

SciTech Connect

Leachate plumes are often more electrically conductive than the surrounding host pore waters, and thus can be detected using shallow electromagnetic (EM) methods. The depth of penetration of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is controlled to a large extent by the electrical conductivity. Conductive leachate plumes will appear as ``blank`` areas in the radar profiles, because the radar energy is more severely attenuated in the region of the leachate plume. The authors present here the results of EM and GPR Surveys carried out in an area adjacent to a landfill site. Previous resistivity surveys indicated the presence of a leachate plume originating from an early stage of the landfill operation. The shallow EM and GPR surveys were carried out, in part, to confirm and refine the resistivity results, and to delineate the spatial extent of the plume. The surficial sediments are coastal sands, and the dune topography has an effect on the EM results, even though the variations in elevation are, in general, no more than 3 m. Besides the leachate plume, numerous conductivity highs and lows are present, which are at least coarsely correlated with topographic lows and highs. Following the empirical procedure outlined by Monier-Williams et al. (1990), the topographic effects have been removed, and the plume is better isolated and delineated. A possible second, weaker leachate plume has been identified, emanating from the current landfill operation. The second plume may follow a channel that was masked by the overlying dune sands. The leading edge of the primary leachate plume is moving to the south-southeast at a rate of 14 to 15 m/yr.

Nobes, D.C.; Armstrong, M.J. [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); Broadbent, M. [Broadbent (Michael), Christchurch (New Zealand)

1994-12-31

52

THE CHANGING NATURE OF SURVEYING INFRASTRUCTURE FROM MARKS IN THE GROUND TO VIRTUAL REFERENCE STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveying infrastructure has always relied on networks of marks in the ground. However, that approach is increasingly giving way to permanently running GPS base stations making data available for real time positioning or for Internet based post processing. The first part of this paper outlines the results of a pilot network established over South East Queensland to investigate the Virtual

Matthew B HIGGINS

53

SURVEY RESEARCH LABORATORY UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO Conference on Health Survey Research Methods  

E-print Network

Survey Research Methods April 8­11, 2011 CALL FOR PAPERS The Tenth Conference on Health Survey Research Methods (CHSRM) will continue the series that began in 1975 to discuss new, innovative survey research methods that improve the quality of health survey data. The CHSRM will bring together researchers

Illinois at Chicago, University of

54

Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.  

PubMed

A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories. PMID:18194326

Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

2008-01-01

55

A Constrained Path Monte Carlo Method for Fermion Ground States  

E-print Network

We describe and discuss a recently proposed quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to compute the ground-state properties of various systems of interacting fermions. In this method, the ground state is projected from an initial wave function by a branching random walk in an over-complete basis of Slater determinants. By constraining the determinants according to a trial wave function $|\\psi_T\\rangle$, we remove the exponential decay of signal-to-noise ratio characteristic of the sign problem. The method is variational and is exact if $|\\psi_T\\rangle$ is exact. We illustrate the method by describing in detail its implementation for the two-dimensional one-band Hubbard model. We show results for lattice sizes up to $16\\times 16$ and for various electron fillings and interaction strengths. Besides highly accurate estimates of the ground-state energy, we find that the method also yields reliable estimates of other ground-state observables, such as superconducting pairing correlation functions. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of the algorithm.

Shiwei Zhang; J. Carlson; J. E. Gubernatis

1996-07-09

56

Apparatus and method for plugging voids in a ground stratum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus and method of filling voids in a ground stratum in the vicinity of a well bore are enclosed. The apparatus is a selfcontained device and, for example, it can be placed in the well bore in the vicinity of the voids to be plugged by dropping the apparatus down a drill string. Once in place it will automatically respond

K. E. Baughman; E. N. Doyle

1980-01-01

57

Energy Engineering Analysis Program, energy survey of boiler and chiller plants, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes all work for the Energy Survey of Boiler and Chiller Plants, Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, authorized under Contract DACA05-92-C-0155 with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District, California. The purpose of this study is to develop projects and actions that will reduce facilities energy consumption and operating costs at Yuma Proving Ground. Implementation of these projects will contribute to achieving the goal of the Army Facilities Energy Plan of a reduction in energy consumption per square foot of building floor area of 20 percent by FY2000 from FY1983 baseline levels. The survey and evaluation effort was limited to chillers and direct expansion cooling units in Buildings 451, 506, 2105, 3482, 3490, and 3510 boilers in Building 506.

NONE

1994-10-01

58

Comparison of methods for calibrating AVIRIS data to ground reflectance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are comparing three basic methods of calibrating AVIRIS data to ground reflectance: (1) atmospheric radiative transfer models with the solar flux can be used to calibrate AVIRIS radiance data (Specific methods include the University of Colorado CSES ARP and ATREM algorithms); (2) Robert Green's modified MODTRAN and AVIRIS radiance model (This method is similar to 1 but differs in that the solar radiance is bypassed, so any errors in the solar flux are canceled, too); and (3) ground calibration using known sites in the AVIRIS scene. We are using 1992AVIRIS data over Cuprite, Nevada, and Blackhawk Island, Wisconsin, as our test scenes. Both these sites have extensive field measurements. The Cuprite site had a very clear atmosphere, thus path radiance was dominated by Rayleigh scattering with little or no flux beyond 1 micron. The Blackhawk site has more aerosols, with significant path radiance flux beyond 2 micron.

Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg; Heidebrecht, Kathy; Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Green, Robert O.

1993-01-01

59

Loki: a ground-layer adaptive optics high-resolution near-infrared survey camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design of a new high-resolution near-infrared survey camera that will take advantage of the wide corrected field afforded by the 6.5 m MMT's new multi-laser ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system. GLAO technology will correct for turbulence close to the telescope aperture where typically 1\\/2 to 2\\/3 of the total atmospheric turbulence lies and is expected to deliver

Christoph Baranec; Michael Lloyd-Hart; Michael Meyer

2007-01-01

60

TQWT and WDGA: innovative methods for ground roll attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of noise in seismic data has an undesirable effect on seismic interpretations. An important type of coherent noise is ground roll, in which time and frequency overlap with useful seismic signals. The tunable Q-factor wavelet transform is a new discrete wavelet transform method and is considered as a new tool for ground roll attenuation. The simple tunable Q-factor wavelet transform by using a single wavelet with explicit oscillatory behavior is utilized for each trace. The enhanced tunable Q-factor wavelet transform (for seismic signals), which benefits from several mother wavelets with distinct Q-factors (for each part of a signal), is presented here and it is shown that it can adjust reliably to the natural non-stationary behavior of a seismic signal in time and space. Random noise has an undesirable effect on Q-factor ranges, with extreme consequences. Wavelet domain ground roll analysis is used as a substitute approach to thresholding for ground roll attenuation. The simple tunable Q-factor wavelet transform and the enhanced tunable Q-factor wavelet transform are compared with each other and with the f-k method by using synthetic and real data samples.

Goudarzi, Alireza; Riahi, Mohammad Ali

2013-12-01

61

MODFLOW-2005 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--the ground-water flow process  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents MODFLOW-2005, which is a new version of the finite-difference ground-water model commonly called MODFLOW. Ground-water flow is simulated using a block-centered finite-difference approach. Layers can be simulated as confined or unconfined. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, drains, and rivers, also can be simulated. The report includes detailed explanations of physical and mathematical concepts on which the model is based, an explanation of how those concepts are incorporated in the modular structure of the computer program, instructions for using the model, and details of the computer code. The modular structure consists of a MAIN Program and a series of highly independent subroutines. The subroutines are grouped into 'packages.' Each package deals with a specific feature of the hydrologic system that is to be simulated, such as flow from rivers or flow into drains, or with a specific method of solving the set of simultaneous equations resulting from the finite-difference method. Several solution methods are incorporated, including the Preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient method. The division of the program into packages permits the user to examine specific hydrologic features of the model independently. This also facilitates development of additional capabilities because new packages can be added to the program without modifying the existing packages. The input and output systems of the computer program also are designed to permit maximum flexibility. The program is designed to allow other capabilities, such as transport and optimization, to be incorporated, but this report is limited to describing the ground-water flow capability. The program is written in Fortran 90 and will run without modification on most computers that have a Fortran 90 compiler.

Harbaugh, Arlen W.

2005-01-01

62

Development of Grounded Electrical Source Airborne Transient EM (GREATEM) Survey System and Its Application to Investigating a Volcano Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an airborne EM system that uses a grounded electrical source and an airborne magnetic field receiver to increase the depth of investigation. Using a grounded source, we can apply a large source moment with a long transmitter-receiver distance, thus we expect to obtain a greater depth of investigation. However, the area of survey is limited with this type of method, but it has some advantages such as little effect of flight level etc. We believe that a repeated survey in active area such as volcano or fault area is effective for monitoring activity in the whole area. By using the airborne survey, we will be able to make repeated survey rapidly in volcano area where it is difficult to enter by a ground survey. The initial stage of the development was reported at Mogi et al. (1998) and the survey system was named as GREATEM (Grounded electrical source airborne transient EM). Time domain data acquisition has an advantage to the deep exploration because it avoids near source field effects that occur in frequency domain measurements. To realize the method, we should overcome mainly two problems: monitoring and filtering the motion noise of the receiver and canceling the natural magnetic field variation and cultural noise without stacking in the time domain data. We prepared high accuracy fiber optic gyros to monitor the pitch and roll of the magnetic sensor in the bird to monitor the motion and also manufactured an electromagnetic receiver that can detect three components of magnetic field and a tilt meter with MI sensor which can detect up to_ 100,000 nT with a sensitivity of 0.04 mV/nT. These receiver and tilt meter are installed on a gimbal in a bird. Data acquisition system is installed in the helicopter cabin with high precision GPS synchronized with the same type GPS set in the transmitter. In this system, we designed to analyze full wave data in time-domain for investigating deep to shallow underground resistivity structure. The measured data of three-component magnetic filed, tilting, time and positioning are digitized at 25 kHz for 10 channels. We have also developed a 3D modeling scheme to investigate magnetic field responses in the air for complicated subsurface structure and topography. We carried out GREATEM surveys at Aso Volcano, southwest Japan to test the survey system and clarify the subsurface structure of the volcano. We computed the transient response of the magnetic field in the air by removing motion noise and other EM noise using special digital filters. Finally we obtained resistivity structure, assuming horizontal layer structure. The depth of investigation of present survey was estimated about 800m deep.

Mogi, T.; Jomori, A.; Jomori, N.; Azuma, Y.; Fomenko, E. Y.

2005-12-01

63

New method for lightning location using optical ground wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technology of lightning location is described, which is based on detecting the state of polarization (SOP) fluctuation of the laser light in the optic ground wire (OPGW). Compared with the conventional lightning location method, the new method is more accurate, more stable, and cheaper. Theories of Stokes parameters and Poincare sphere are introduced to analyze the SOP at the lightning strike point. It can be concluded that although the initial points of SOP on the Poincare sphere are random, the SOP fluctuation generated by lightning strike can still be accurately identified by detecting the velocity of polarization motion. A new algorithm to quantify the velocity is also introduced.

Qin, Zhaoyu; Cheng, Zhaogu; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhu, Jianqiang; Li, Feng

2006-12-01

64

Development of Grounded Electrical Source Airborne Transient EM (GREATEM) Survey System and Its Application to Investigating a Volcano Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an airborne EM system that uses a grounded electrical source and an airborne magnetic field receiver to increase the depth of investigation. Using a grounded source, we can apply a large source moment with a long transmitter-receiver distance, thus we expect to obtain a greater depth of investigation. However, the area of survey is limited with this

T. Mogi; A. Jomori; N. Jomori; Y. Azuma; E. Y. Fomenko

2005-01-01

65

Assessment of some important factors affecting the singing-ground survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A brief history of the procedures used to analyze singing-ground survey data is outlined. Some weaknesses associated with the analytical procedures are discussed, and preliminary results of efforts to improve the procedures are presented. The most significant finding to date is that counts made by new observers need not be omitted when calculating an index of the woodcock population. Also, the distribution of woodcock heard singing, with respect to time after sunset, affirms the appropriateness of recommended starting times for counting woodcock. Woodcock count data fit the negative binomial probability distribution.

Tautin, J.

1982-01-01

66

Signature of hydrothermal alteration in ground-magnetic surveys at Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a very large hydrothermal system with over 10,000 thermal features. Although hydrothermal alteration in YNP has been extensively studied with field observations, remote-sensing imagery, and core drilling, the volume and geometry of hydrothermal systems at depth remain poorly constrained. Magnetic surveys can help to investigate buried hydrothermal alteration as demonstrated by the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of YNP (Finn and Morgan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 115, 207-231, 2002). Results of this survey show that magnetic lows extend over and beyond areas of hydrothermal activity. This suggests large volumes of buried demagnetized rocks due to hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic substratum. Although the interpretation of magnetic anomalies is non-unique, Finn and Morgan (2002) used these magnetic lows to estimate a minimum volume of buried altered rock assuming complete demagnetization of the substratum. This aeromagnetic survey was of relatively high resolution (flight line spacing < 500 m and flight elevation <350 m above ground), but it was insufficient for detailed mapping of individual thermal areas. In order to obtain a closer look at several areas, we performed ground-based magnetic surveys within YNP using a cesium-vapor magnetometer along 4-5 km long transects crossing four thermal areas (Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Lone Star Geyser Basin, and Smoke Jumper Hot-springs). We also performed a detailed survey over an area of about 800 m x 500 m around Lone Star Geyser. We also collected gravity data to help characterize the subsurface geologic structures and performed magnetic susceptibility, magnetic remanence, and density measurements on rock samples collected in the field and from drill cores collected in 1967-1968 to characterize physical properties of fresh and altered geologic units. The long magnetic transects show that magnetic anomalies are damped in altered areas suggesting a significant decrease in the magnetization of shallow volcanic units. The detailed magnetic map of the Lone Star Geyser displays a pronounced negative anomaly centered on the geyser mound and other hot-springs indicating demagnetization directly associated with the hydrothermal plumbing system. These surveys will be used to model the geometry of the demagnetized volcanic substratum associated with hydrothermal alteration.

Bouligand, C.; Glen, J. M.; McPhee, D. K.

2011-12-01

67

The ground support computer and in-orbit survey data analysis program for the SEEP experiment  

SciTech Connect

The ground support computer equipment (GSE) and production survey plot and analysis software are described for the Stimulated Emissions of Energetic Particles (SEEP) experiment on the S81-1 satellite. A general purpose satellite data acquisition circuit was developed based on a Z-80 portable microcomputer. By simply changing instrument control software and electrical connectors, automatic testing and control of the various SEEP instruments was accomplished. A new feature incorporated into the SEEP data analysis phase was the development of a correlative data base for all of the SEEP instruments. A CPU efficient survey plot program (with ephemeris) was developed to display the approximate 3100 hours of data, with a time resolution of 0.5 sec, from the ten instrument sensors. The details of the general purpose multigraph algorithms and plot formats are presented. For the first time new associations are being investigated of simultaneous particle, X-ray, optical and plasma density satellite measurements.

Voss, H.D.; Datlowe, D.W.; Mobilia, J.; Roselle, S.N.

1985-02-01

68

Apparatus and method for plugging voids in a ground stratum  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method of filling voids in a ground stratum in the vicinity of a well bore are enclosed. The apparatus is a selfcontained device and, for example, it can be placed in the well bore in the vicinity of the voids to be plugged by dropping the apparatus down a drill string. Once in place it will automatically respond to the well pressure to provide the required plugging. To accomplish this the apparatus includes precursors of polymers such as precursors of polyurethanes, epoxy type polymers, polyesters or other polymers which are released from the apparatus and flow into the voids.

Baughman, K.E.; Doyle, E.N.

1980-03-04

69

Evaluation of analytical methods to interpret ground deformations due to soft ground tunneling  

E-print Network

An in depth study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of analytical solutions in describing ground movements induced by soft ground tunneling. The analytical solutions that were examined consider both isotropic ...

Zymnis, Despina M

2009-01-01

70

NATIONAL SURFACE WATER SURVEY, WESTERN LAKE SURVEY (PHASE 1 - SYNOPTIC CHEMISTRY) ANALYTICAL METHODS MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Analytical Methods Manual for the Western Lake Survey - Phase I is a supplement to the Analytical Methods Manual for the Eastern Lake Survey Phase I. The supplement provides a general description of the analytical methods that are used by the field laboratories and by the ana...

71

Multidisciplinary eHealth Survey Evaluation Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development process of an evaluation framework for describing and comparing web survey tools. We believe that this approach will help shape the design, development, deployment, and evaluation of population-based health interventions. A conceptual framework for describing and evaluating web survey systems will enable the…

Karras, Bryant T.; Tufano, James T.

2006-01-01

72

Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Afghanistan?s geologic setting suggests significant natural resource potential. Although important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country?s potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well- accepted and cost-effective method for remotely obtaining information of the geological setting of an area. A regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed due to the security situation and the large areas of Afghanistan that have not been covered using geophysical exploration methods. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan. Data collected during this survey will provide basic information for mineral and petroleum exploration studies that are important for the economic development of Afghanistan. Additionally, use of these data is broadly applicable in the assessment of water resources and natural hazards, the inventory and planning of civil infrastructure and agricultural resources, and the construction of detailed maps. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently working in cooperation with the U.S. Agency of International Development to conduct resource assessments of the country of Afghanistan for mineral, energy, coal, and water resources, and to assess geologic hazards. These geophysical and remote sensing data will be used directly in the resource and hazard assessments.

Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

2008-01-01

73

Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

Forrest, G.T.

1992-02-11

74

Preprint of the paper "A Validation of the Boundary Element Method for Grounding Grid Design and  

E-print Network

Preprint of the paper "A Validation of the Boundary Element Method for Grounding Grid Design://caminos.udc.es/gmni #12;A VALIDATION OF THE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR GROUNDING GRID DESIGN AND COMPUTATION I. Colominas- cades for substation grounding analysis, such as the Average Potential Method (APM), have been recently

Colominas, Ignasi

75

A comparison of vibration damping methods for ground based telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration is becoming a more important element in design of telescope structures as these structures become larger and more compliant and include higher bandwidth actuation systems. This paper describes vibration damping methods available for current and future implementation and compares their effectiveness for a model of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), a structure that is actually stiffer than most large telescopes. Although facility and mount design, structural stiffening and occasionally vibration isolation have been adequate in telescopes built to date, vibration damping offers a mass-efficient means of reducing vibration response, whether the vibration results from external wind disturbances, telescope slewing, or other internal disturbances from translating or rotating components. The paper presents several damping techniques including constrained layer viscoelastics, viscous and magnetorheological (MR) fluid devices, passive and active piezoelectric dampers, tuned mass dampers (vibration absorbers) and active resonant dampers. Basic architectures and practical implementation considerations are discussed and expected performance is assessed using a finite element model of the LSST. With a goal of reducing settling time during the telescope's surveys, and considering practicalities of integration with the telescope structure, two damping methods were identified as most appropriate: passive tuned mass dampers and active electromagnetic resonant dampers.

Anderson, Eric H.; Glaese, Roger M.; Neill, Douglas

2008-07-01

76

Application of ground-penetrating-radar methods in hydrogeologic studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A ground-penetrating-radar system was used to study selected stratified-drift deposits in Connecticut. Ground-penetrating radar is a surface-geophysical method that depends on the emission, transmission, reflection, and reception of an electromagnetic pulse and can produce continuous high-resolution profiles of the subsurface rapidly and efficiently. Traverse locations on land included a well field in the town of Mansfield, a sand and gravel pit and a farm overlying a potential aquifer in the town of Coventry, and Haddam Meadows State Park in the town of Haddam. Traverse locations on water included the Willimantic River in Coventry and Mansfield Hollow Lake in Mansfield. The penetration depth of the radar signal ranged from about 20 feet in fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments to about 70 feet in coarse sand and gravel. Some land records in coarse-grained sediments show a distinct, continuous reflection from the water table about 5 to 11 feet below land surface. Parallel reflectors on the records are interpreted as fine-grained sediments. Hummocky or chaotic reflectors are interpreted as cross-bedded or coarse-grained sediments. Other features observed on some of the radar records include the till and bedrock surface. Records collected on water had distinct water-bottom multiples (more than one reflection) and diffraction patterns from boulders. The interpretation of the radar records, which required little or no processing, was verified by using lithologic logs from test holes located along some of the land traverses and near the water traverses.

Beres, Milan, Jr.; Haeni, F.P.

1991-01-01

77

A mobile four-electrode array and its application to the electrical survey of planetary grounds at shallow depths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a mobile array for mapping the electric properties of planetary surfaces, with a resolution of the order of a few meters in all dimensions. The principle of the measuring technique is first recapitulated; the prototype model of this novel instrument is then described. The array was operated at a frequency of 128 khz over a site with apparent resistivities to the range 20-100 ohm-m and the experimental results are found to be in excellent agreement with those derived from another independent technique. It is demonstrated, from measurements collected on a second site with resistivities of the order of several kiloohm meters, that this new technique also yields information about the dielectric constant of the ground. This method is not only applicable to geological surveys on earth but also appears particularly attractive for the exploration of the surface of other planets by means of landers, penetrators, or unmanned rovers.

Grard, R.; Tabbagh, A.

1991-03-01

78

COMPARISON OF DETECTION PROBABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH BURROWING OWL SURVEY METHODS  

E-print Network

COMPARISON OF DETECTION PROBABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH BURROWING OWL SURVEY METHODS COURTNEY J. CONWAY of Arizona, Tuc- son, AZ 85721, USA Abstract: Populations of western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia method is selected for long-term, continent-wide burrowing owl monitoring, potential survey protocols

Conway, Courtney J.

79

A SURVEY OF CURRENT METHODS IN MEDICAL IMAGE SEGMENTATION  

E-print Network

A SURVEY OF CURRENT METHODS IN MEDICAL IMAGE SEGMENTATION Dzung L. Pham y, Chenyang Xu , Jerry L 19, 1998 Total number of pages: 27 #12;A Survey of Current Methods in Medical Image Segmentation segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automat- ing or facilitating

Koppelman, David M.

80

A Comparison of the Fractional MODIS and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper with Ground-Based Snow Surveys in the Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow surveys were performed within 1- and 2-km2 grids during the accumulation and ablation periods in the Sierra Nevada of California in 2006, 2008, and 2009, and provide ground-truth for the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size/albedo (MODSCAG) model. In addition, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper using the TMSCAG model at a 30-m resolution was used to compare results with MODIS and the snow surveys. The availability of accurate, fractional snow covered area (fSCA) from MODIS at a 500-m resolution offers unprecedented detail on snow accumulation and melt across variable terrain. fSCA from MODIS provides the only daily basin-wide snow coverage estimation for the western United States, where snow is a dominant component of precipitation and runoff. However, MODSCAG produces the projected fractional snow cover, which does not include snow under the tree canopy. A proposed modification to the method is to divide the observed fractional snow by the canopy opening, i.e. 1.0 minus the forest fraction. A comparison of mean fSCA during the accumulation season across eight 300-m elevation bands, in the 1500-3900 m range, in the Tuolumne and Merced River basins showed that canopy with openings less than 50% obscure significant snow cover. In snow surveys performed within 1- and 2- km2 grids in forested terrain with canopy openings of 50% or less, surveys measured complete snow cover, but MODIS detected fSCA across the study area of 0.3-0.4, comparable to the vegetation gap fraction. During the onset of ablation in a forested area with canopy openings of 0.6- 0.9, snow surveys measured nearly complete snow cover, and MODIS detected a mean fSCA across a 1-km2 study area of 0.83 (range 0.4-0.9). During the ablation period, when snowcover becomes highly variable, a ground survey in an area with canopy openings of 0.4-0.6 provided a snowcover estimate of 0.5, versus 0.1 for fSCA from MODIS. When compared to the 30-m fractional fSCA from the TMSCAG model there were mixed results. When snow surveys measured complete snow cover, LANDSAT showed from 15-20% more to 9% less fSCA than MODIS. However, when snowcover was highly variable during the ablation period and ground truth showed snow cover of 0.5, LANDSAT detected a mean fSCA of 0.3 (range 0-0.9). Even though the TMSCAG model pushes the limits of the scale-dependent biases to smaller basins, and terrain with canopy openings less than 0.5, the LANDSAT analysis confirms that under-canopy snow cannot be captured directly by an optical sensor. Although forest cover introduces potential biases, using MODSCAG in basin-scale hydrologic modeling one can ignore these biases at larger scales and lighter forest cover; while in smaller forested basins, or within elevation bands, where vegetation obscures significant snow cover, adjustments are necessary for mass balance.

Rice, R.; Bales, R. C.; Kirchner, P. B.; Saksa, P. C.; Rittger, K. E.; Painter, T. H.; Dozier, J.

2010-12-01

81

Design Techniques of Stated Preference Method in Travel Behavior Research: A Research on Data Collection Method and Survey Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stated preference (SP) method is a crucial tool widely used in travel behavior research. The main theme addressed was two design techniques of SP surveys: data collection method and survey method. The definition and characteristics of three data collection methods were discussed. Then an evaluation and applicability analysis were achieved. The five major survey methods were elaborated and evaluated.The research

Zhang Yi; Yun Meiping; Yang Xiaoguang

2009-01-01

82

Radiological Surveys Performed in Support of the Demolition and Bulk Disposal Decommissioning Method  

SciTech Connect

Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company is decommissioning the Haddam Neck Plant using the 'Demolition and Bulk Disposal' method, or commonly referred to as 'Rip and Ship'. In general, completing the project using this method entails the removal of all irradiated fuel and highly contaminated systems and components, and the subsequent demolition of the above ground portions of most site structures. Since most structures are removed from site, cost and time savings are realized by virtually eliminating the need for remediation. However, this method of decommissioning creates more waste, both radiological and non-radiological, which must be segregated, packaged and disposed of properly. Prior to demolition, various types of radiological surveys must be performed and work controls put into place to minimize the spread of contamination to other areas of the site, and to prevent the inadvertent release of radioactive materials from the site. This paper will discuss the various types of radiological surveys performed, and controls implemented, in support of the demolition and bulk material disposal decommissioning method, with the emphasis on pre-demolition surveys. Details will be provided on the release criteria, survey design, survey implementation and data analysis on each of the various surveys, as well as a discussion on the controls implemented to prevent the various wastes from inadvertently being shipped to an inappropriate disposal facility. This paper will also strive to provide lessons learned for future projects that utilize the demolition and bulk disposal decommissioning method. (authors)

Yetter, R.F. [Babcock Services, Inc., 1840 Terminal Drive, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Newson, C.T. [Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, 362 Injun Hollow Road, East Hampton, CT 06424 (United States)

2006-07-01

83

Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recharge of aquifers within arid and semiarid environments is defined as the downward flux of water across the regional water table. The introduction of recharging water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed over the landscape, such as across broad interarroyo areas within an alluvial ground-water basin. The occurrence of recharge at discreet locations is referred to as focused recharge, whereas the occurrence of recharge over broad regions is referred to as diffuse recharge. The primary interest of this appendix is focused recharge, but regardless of the type of recharge, estimation of downward fluxes is essential to its quantification. Like chemical tracers, heat can come from natural sources or be intentionally introduced to infer transport properties and aquifer recharge. The admission and redistribution of heat from natural processes such as insolation, infiltration, and geothermal activity can be used to quantify subsurface flow regimes. Heat is well suited as a ground-water tracer because it provides a naturally present dynamic signal and is relatively harmless over a useful range of induced perturbations. Thermal methods have proven valuable for recharge investigations for several reasons. First, theoretical descriptions of coupled water-and-heat transport are available for the hydrologic processes most often encountered in practice. These include land-surface mechanisms such as radiant heating from the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspiration, in addition to the advective and conductive mechanisms that usually dominate at depth. Second, temperature is theoretically well defined and readily measured. Third, thermal methods for depths ranging from the land surface to depths of hundreds of meters are based on similar physical principles. Fourth, numerical codes for simulating heat and water transport have become increasingly reliable and widely available. Direct measurement of water flux in the subsurface is difficult, prompting investigators to pursue indirect methods. Geophysical approaches that exploit the coupled relation between heat and water transport provide an attractive class of methods that have become widely used in investigations of recharge. This appendix reviews the application of heat to the problem of recharge estimation. Its objective is to provide a fairly complete account of the theoretical underpinnings together with a comprehensive review of thermal methods in practice. Investigators began using subsurface temperatures to delineate recharge areas and infer directions of ground-water flow around the turn of the 20th century. During the 1960s, analytical and numerical solutions for simplified heat- and fluid-flow problems became available. These early solutions, though one-dimensional and otherwise restricted, provided a strong impetus for applying thermal methods to problems of liquid and vapor movement in systems ranging from soils to geothermal reservoirs. Today?s combination of fast processors, massive data-storage units, and efficient matrix techniques provide numerical solutions to complex, three-dimensional transport problems. These approaches allow researchers to take advantage of the considerable information content routinely achievable in high-accuracy temperature work.

Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

2007-01-01

84

Verifying a Computational Method for Predicting Extreme Ground Motion Harris, R.A.1  

E-print Network

Verifying a Computational Method for Predicting Extreme Ground Motion Harris, R.A.1 , M. Barall et al., Verifying a Computational Method for Predicting Extreme Ground Motion, SRL, accepted 2 it difficult to predict the ground motion very close to earthquake-generating faults, if the prediction

Ampuero, Jean Paul

85

In Situ PushPull Method to Determine Ground Water Denitrification in Riparian Zones  

E-print Network

In Situ Push­Pull Method to Determine Ground Water Denitrification in Riparian Zones Kelly Addy, D., 2000). The extent of questions sur- rounding riparian ground water nitrate removal arguesTo quantify ground water denitrification in discrete locations of for timely and affordable in situ methods

Gold, Art

86

NCES Handbook of Survey Methods: Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook presents current explanations of how each survey program of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) obtains and prepared the data it publishes. The handbook aims to provide users of NCES data with the most current information necessary to evaluate the suitability of the statistics for their needs, with a focus on the…

Thurgood, Lori; Walter, Elizabeth; Carter, George; Henn, Susan; Huang, Gary; Nooter, Daniel; Smith, Wray; Cash, R. William; Salvucci, Sameena; Seastrom, Marilyn; Phan, Tai; Cohen, Michael

87

Statistical Methods in Surveying by Trilateration  

E-print Network

-likelihood, Monte-Carlo simulation, Trilateration, Computerized surveying, Global Positioning System (GPS) 1 #12 the implementation of fully automated real-time positioning systems similar to the global positioning system (GPS, the Global Positioning System (GPS) (Leick, 1990 Parkinson and Spilker, 1996). However, TBCC determined

Hereman, Willy A.M.

88

30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. 75.701-3 Section 75...direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose of grounding...direct-current power system with one polarity grounded, the following methods of...

2012-07-01

89

Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods that are currently available or under development for recharge monitoring. The material is written primarily for hydrogeologists. Uses of geophysical methods for improving recharge monitoring are explored through brief discussions and case studies. The intent is to indicate how geophysical methods can be used effectively in studying recharge processes and quantifying recharge. As such, the material constructs a framework for matching the strengths of individual geophysical methods with the manners in which they can be applied for hydrologic analyses. The appendix is organized in three sections. First, the key hydrologic parameters necessary to determine the rate, timing, and patterns of recharge are identified. Second, the basic operating principals of the relevant geophysical methods are discussed. Methods are grouped by the physical property that they measure directly. Each measured property is related to one or more of the key hydrologic properties for recharge monitoring. Third, the emerging conceptual framework for applying geophysics to recharge monitoring is presented. Examples of the application of selected geophysical methods to recharge monitoring are presented in nine case studies. These studies illustrate hydrogeophysical applications under a wide range of conditions and measurement scales, which vary from tenths of a meter to hundreds of meters. The case studies include practice-proven as well as emerging applications of geophysical methods to recharge monitoring.

Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

2007-01-01

90

Robust Control Methods a Systematic Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses the problem how to recognize a level of robust controller design and is aimed show the difficulties of implementation for practical use. In the first part of paper we introduce the survey of robust controller design for SISO systems with generalization design procedure for structured and unstructured uncertainties. The second part of paper is devoted to MIMO systems. In the frequency domain robust controller design procedure we reduce to independent design of SISO subsystems and in time domain the LMI or BMI approaches with polytopic system description are favorable.

Veselý, Vojtech

2013-01-01

91

Underwater sediment-contact radiation survey method  

SciTech Connect

The authors are striving to produce a practical system for mapping lateral distributions in gamma activity on submerged sediments. This is in response to the need for quality control and interpretation of data obtainable by sediment sampling and analyses near nuclear utilities. A prototype gamma probe has been constructed and tested. The prototype is essentially a background survey meter packaged in a 53-cm-long {times} 5.4-cm-diam waterproof vehicle. This usage-shaped vehicle is connected to a cable for towing in contact with bottom sediments of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters. This vehicle, or sediment probe as it is called, was initially developed for measuring sediment electrical conductances, a parameter that can be used to locate underwater areas of groundwater and contaminant upwelling. During towing, the probe does not roll or twist around its longitudinal axis by more than 10 deg, so that sensors, which have been fixed within the vehicle, can be oriented to look up, down, or sideways. In over 450 lin-km of underwater survey, only a single sediment probe has been irretrievably snagged on sunken rocks or other debris. Work in the Ottawa River near the Chalk River Laboratories has shown good agreement among point measurements of river sediment with continuous measurements using the moving probe.

Lee, D.R.; St. Aubin, M.; Welch, S.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada))

1991-11-01

92

Guidelines for Coding and Entering Ground-Water Data into the Ground-Water Site Inventory Database Version 4.6, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report establishes and documents the procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center, to code and enter ground-water data into the Ground-Water Site Inventory database of the U.S. Geological Survey's Ground Water Site Inventory System. These guidelines are consistent with Version 4.6 of the system, but will be updated as each new version becomes available.

Lane, R.C.

2007-01-01

93

A quality-assurance plan for district ground-water activities of the U.S. Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended upon to collect data of the highest quality. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing and reporting ground-water data that are quality assured and quality controlled.

Brunett, J.O.; Barber, N.L.; Burns, A.W.; Fogelman, R.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Lidwin, R.A.; Mack, T.J.

1997-01-01

94

A SURVEY OF EIGENVECTOR METHODS FOR WEB INFORMATION RETRIEVAL  

E-print Network

A SURVEY OF EIGENVECTOR METHODS FOR WEB INFORMATION RETRIEVAL AMY N. LANGVILLE AND CARL D. MEYER Abstract. Web information retrieval is significantly more challenging than traditional well- controlled, small document collection information retrieval. One main difference between traditional information

Meyer, Carl

95

Comparison of Creel Survey Methods on Missouri River Reservoirs  

E-print Network

and Parks, Fort Pierre, South Dakota 57532, USA Abstract.--When creel survey methods such as noncontact the economic value of a fishery (e.g., Gordon et al. 1973; Palm and Malvestuto 1983). Consequently, creel

96

Improvement of the computer methods for grounding analysis in layered soils by using  

E-print Network

important parameter that it is necessary to know in order to design a safe grounding system. In practice of the substation site. Thus, when a fault condition occurs, the grounding grid transports and dissipates and design of grounding grids have been proposed: methods based on the professional experience, on semi

Colominas, Ignasi

97

Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator  

DOEpatents

A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

Cohen, Joseph Perry (Bethlehem, PA); Farese, David John (Riegelsville, PA); Xu, Jianguo (Wrightstown, PA)

2002-06-11

98

30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.  

...borehole casing having low resistance to earth; (b) A solid connection to metal waterlines having low resistance to earth; (c) A solid connection to a grounding...between such metallic enclosures and the...

2014-07-01

99

Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

Udevitz, M.S.; Shults, B.S.; Adams, L.G.; Kleckner, C.

2006-01-01

100

A survey of mixed finite element methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

Brezzi, F.

1987-01-01

101

MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process  

USGS Publications Warehouse

MODFLOW is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. Although MODFLOW was designed to be easily enhanced, the design was oriented toward additions to the ground-water flow equation. Frequently there is a need to solve additional equations; for example, transport equations and equations for estimating parameter values that produce the closest match between model-calculated heads and flows and measured values. This report documents a new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW-2000, which is designed to accommodate the solution of equations in addition to the ground-water flow equation. This report is a user's manual. It contains an overview of the old and added design concepts, documents one new package, and contains input instructions for using the model to solve the ground-water flow equation.

Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Banta, Edward R.; Hill, Mary C.; McDonald, Michael G.

2000-01-01

102

Advanced signal processing method for ground penetrating radar feature detection and enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on new signal processing algorithms customized for an air coupled Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system targeting highway pavements and bridge deck inspections. The GPR hardware consists of a high-voltage pulse generator, a high speed 8 GSps real time data acquisition unit, and a customized field-programmable gate array (FPGA) control element. In comparison to most existing GPR system with low survey speeds, this system can survey at normal highway speed (60 mph) with a high horizontal resolution of up to 10 scans per centimeter. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of subsurface media, the GPR signal processing is important but challenging. In this GPR system, an adaptive GPR signal processing algorithm using Curvelet Transform, 2D high pass filtering and exponential scaling is proposed to alleviate noise and clutter while the subsurface features are preserved and enhanced. First, Curvelet Transform is used to remove the environmental and systematic noises while maintain the range resolution of the B-Scan image. Then, mathematical models for cylinder-shaped object and clutter are built. A two-dimension (2D) filter based on these models removes clutter and enhances the hyperbola feature in a B-Scan image. Finally, an exponential scaling method is applied to compensate the signal attenuation in subsurface materials and to improve the desired signal feature. For performance test and validation, rebar detection experiments and subsurface feature inspection in laboratory and field configurations are performed.

Zhang, Yu; Venkatachalam, Anbu Selvam; Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian

2014-03-01

103

A survey of modern authorship attribution methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authorship attribution supported by statistical or computational methods has a long history starting from 19th century and marked by the seminal study of Mosteller and Wallace (1964) on the authorship of the disputed Federalist Papers. During the last decade, this scientific field has been developed substantially taking advantage of research advances in areas such as machine learning, information retrieval, and

Efstathios Stamatatos

2009-01-01

104

Method of utilizing possible alternative energy sources in ground transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the magnitude of the problem of depleting world oil reserves and their impact on ground-transportation systems. One of several possible solutions is postulated and analyzed. The solution examined is one in which energy from various sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is converted to electricity and distributed throughout the roadway network for use by vehicles. The energy is

1987-01-01

105

Grounded action research: a method for understanding IT in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how the theory development portion of action research can be made more rigorous. The process of theory formulation is an essential part of action research, yet this process is not well understood. A case study demonstrates how units of analysis and techniques from grounded theory can be integrated into the action research cycle in order to add

Richard Baskerville; Jan Pries-Heje

1999-01-01

106

Survey of assay methods of antivenins  

PubMed Central

In view of the multiplicity of methods used at present for the preparation and assay of antivenins and as a first step towards the international standardization of antivenins, it seemed advisable to make a comparative study of the methods used in the institutes specializing in the production of these sera. With this end in view, the author circulated to the serologists of institutes concerned a detailed questionnaire on the assay methods used for the determination of the neutralization potency of the various types of antivenins prepared under their direction. The information supplied by these institutes is reproduced, in condensed form, in this report and is analysed by the author. The author emphasizes that the great variety in the constitution of venoms necessitates: (1) the use of monovalent standard sera against homologous “test” venoms of high activity and stability; and (2) the establishment, on a regional basis, of standard antivenins corresponding to groups of snakes characterized by venoms of common or closely related antigenic constitution. PMID:13413648

Grasset, E.

1957-01-01

107

Simulated Annealing: A Monte Carlo Method for GPS Surveying  

E-print Network

annealing technique,which is a Monte Carlo method, to analyze and improve the e#ciency of the de­ signSimulated Annealing: A Monte Carlo Method for GPS Surveying Stefka Fidanova IPP -- BAS, Acad. G that uses a Monte Carlo global minimization technique for minimizing multi­variance functions [2

Fidanova, Stefka

108

A Survey of Silhouette-Based Gait Recognition Methods  

E-print Network

A Survey of Silhouette-Based Gait Recognition Methods Craig Martek, cmm6857@rit.edu Abstract Gait of some recent gait recognition methods based on the silhouette images acquired from a sequence to three dimensions. Motion-based approaches often operate on the silhouettes of a subject, which can

Zanibbi, Richard

109

Formulation and survey of ALE method in nonlinear solid mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the applicability and accuracy of existing formulation methods in general purpose finite element programs to the finite strain deformation problems. The basic shortcomings in using such programs in these applications are then pointed out and the need for a different type of formulation is discussed. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is proposed and a concise survey of

J. Wang; M. S. Gadala

1997-01-01

110

Survey of methods for soil moisture determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing and proposed methods for soil moisture determination are discussed. These include: (1) in situ investigations including gravimetric, nuclear, and electromagnetic techniques; (2) remote sensing approaches that use the reflected solar, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; and (3) soil physics models that track the behavior of water in the soil in response to meteorological inputs (precipitation) and demands (evapotranspiration). The capacities of these approaches to satisfy various user needs for soil moisture information vary from application to application, but a conceptual scheme for merging these approaches into integrated systems to provide soil moisture information is proposed that has the potential for meeting various application requirements.

Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Mckim, H. L.

1979-01-01

111

Application of the method of estimating slip plane through ground surface displacement of landslide; case studies in Japan and Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a landslide has occurred, it is important to carry out emergency measures immediately after clarifying scale and characteristics of the landslide. We consider that it is important to estimate the slip plane shape immediately and accurately. Therefore, we have developed the method of estimating slip plane through ground surface displacement of landslide. The purposes of this study are checking this method using actual measurement data of ground surface displacement, and examining what is necessary to estimate slip plane appropriately. In this presentation, we will show three landslides case-studies: two in Japan and another landslide in Romania. The landslide 1 occurred at a cut slope under cutting works, and surface displacement vector data were acquired by total station. The landslide 2 occurred at a natural slope, and surface displacement vector data were acquired by aerial photogrammetry. And the landslide 3 occurred at a road side slope, and surface displacement vector data were acquired by total station. Results suggest that surface displacement vector data should be acquired at the initial stage of the landslides. In addition, it should be better to set ground surface measurement points at head, central part and toe of the landslides, and more than three measurement points should be settled. Further, it should be better to revise the ratio of slope length to displacement vector length as 1:0.005. We also consider that this method can estimate the slip plane shape accurately, reflecting some data which are obtained from field survey like head scarp gradient, and using the ground boundary parameter. At the present moment, this method depends on personal judgement about the position of the ground boundary parameter or others for adequately estimating the slip surface shape. Thus, to improve this method, we need more case-studies to be considered in our study. Image of this method

Ishida, K.; Fujisawa, K.; Okuda, S.; Chiba, S.; Constantin, M.; Jurchescu, M. C.; Takechi, K.; Kodama, Y.; Fukui, K.; Ootsuka, M.; Itoh, K.; Ishizaka, S.

2009-12-01

112

Robust adaptive polarization analysis method for eliminating ground roll in 3C land seismics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the data quality of converted waves, and better identify and suppress the strong ground-roll interference in three-component (3C) seismic recordings on land, we present an adaptive polarization filtering method, which can effectively separate the groundroll interference by combining complex polarization and instantaneous polarization analysis. The ground roll noise is characterized by elliptical plane polarization, strong energy, low apparent velocity, and low frequency. After low-pass filtering of the 3C data input within a given time-window of the ground roll, the complex covariance matrix is decomposed using the sliding time window with overlapping data and length that depends on the dominant ground-roll frequency. The ground-roll model is established using the main eigenvectors, and the ground roll is detected and identified using the instantaneous polarization area attributes and average energy constraints of the ground-roll zone. Finally, the ground roll is subtracted. The threshold of the method is stable and easy to select, and offers good groundroll detection. The method is a robust polarization filtering method. Model calculations and actual data indicate that the method can effectively identify and attenuate ground roll while preserving the effective signals.

Chen, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiang-Yang; Qian, Zhong-Ping; Zhao, Gui-Ling

2013-06-01

113

BOREHOLE SENSING METHODS FOR GROUND-WATER INVESTIGATIONS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Geophysical methods are becoming a cost effective approach to providing answers to hydrogeologic questions associated with ground-water contamination. Geophysical methods applicable to hazardous waste site investigations can be broken into two categories: surface and subsurface m...

114

Comparison of applied Geophysical Methods for detecting high alpine ground ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of ground ice in the higher regions of the Alps is an important aim of alpine studies. Geophysical research in this field is important for alpine risk, infrastructure and climate change studies. Because of the complexity of detecting ground ice, the database of permafrost maps is currently not very well evaluated for wide areas of the Alps. The research for this project was conducted at Lazaun rockglacier (Schnalstal, Italy) and Rofenberg (Ötztal, Austria). This area was chosen because of good network of BTS (Base Temperature of Snowcover) measurements and terrain changes from ALS (Airbourne Laser Scanning) data which could possibly indicate permafrost degradation. Georadar, geoelectric and seismic methods were used to detect permafrost, with each geophysical method being applied on all profile lines. This parallel application enabled us to compare and cross-validate the results of the three techniques. After the analyses of the single datasets, a tomography including all results was created. At Rofenberg, three profiles were measured at a height of about 3200 meters. Two of them were parallel and one was crossing them both. Each profile had a length of about 100 m. The spacing of the electrodes was 2 meters for geoelectrical measurements using Schlumberger and Wenner geometries. The geophone spacing for seismic measurements was about 4 meters and a shot spacing of 4 meters was applied. For georadar measurements 50 MHz, 100 MHz and 200 MHz antennas were used and CMP measurements with the 200 MHz antenna were accomplished as well. A further profile line was investigated at the Lazaun rockglacier at an elevation of about 2800 meters. This profile was more difficult to measure because of rugged and impassable terrain. First analyses at Rofenberg show good results for two of the profiles. Permafrost is assumed at a depth between 2 meters and 8 meters and similar ground structures can be spotted for every method. At Lazaun, the interpretation is much more difficult due to a low signal to noise ratio. Data from two boreholes in direct neighborhood considerably facilitate the interpretation. The combined data show both the difficulties and the high potential of multi-method geophysical permafrost surveys in high-alpine terrain.

Ott, P.; Mössinger, M.; Sailer, R.; Sass, O.

2012-04-01

115

Ground penetrating radar surveys over an alluvial DNAPL site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to map shallow sands and gravels which are DNAPL migration pathways at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. The sands and gravels occur as paleochannel deposits, at depths of 17-25 ft, embedded in Pleistocene lacustrine clays. More than 30 GPR profiles were completed over the Drop Test Area (DTA) to map the top and base of the paleochannel deposits, and to assess their lateral continuity. A bistatic radar system was used with antenna frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz. An average velocity of 0.25 ft/ns for silty and clayey materials above the paleochannel deposits was established from radar walkaway tests, profiles over culverts of known depth, and comparison of radar sections with borings. In the south portion of the DTA, strong reflections corresponded to the water table at approximately 9-10 ft, the top of the paleochannel deposits at approximately 18 ft, and to gravel horizons within these deposits. The base of these deposits was not visible on the radar sections. Depth estimates for the top of the paleochannel deposits (from 50 records) were accurate to within 2 ft across the southern portion of the DTA. Continuity of these sands and gravels could not be assessed due to interference from air-wave reflections and lateral changes in signal penetration depth. However, the sands and gravels appear to extend across the entire southern portion of the DTA, at depths as shallow as 17 ft. Ringing, air-wave reflections and diffractions from powerlines, vehicles, well casings, and metal equipment severly degraded GPR profiles in the northern portion of the DTA; depths computed from reflection times (where visible) were accurate to within 4 ft in this area. The paleochannel deposits are deeper to the north and northeast where DNAPL has apparently pooled (DNAPL was not directly imaged by the GPR, however). Existing hydrogeological models of the DTA will be revised.

Carpenter, P.J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Doll, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phillips, B.E. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)

1994-09-01

116

Health-based screening levels to evaluate U.S. Geological Survey ground water quality data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Federal and state drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many contaminants analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, limiting the ability to evaluate the potential human-health relevance of water-quality findings. Health-based screening levels (HBSLs) were developed collaboratively to supplement existing drinking-water standards and guidelines as part of a six-year, multi-agency pilot study. The pilot study focused on ground water samples collected prior to treatment or blending in areas of New Jersey where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water. This article describes how HBSLs were developed and demonstrates the use of HBSLs as a tool for evaluating water-quality data in a human-health context. HBSLs were calculated using standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methodologies and toxicity information. New HBSLs were calculated for 12 of 32 contaminants without existing USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines, increasing the number of unregulated contaminants (those without maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)) with human-health benchmarks. Concentrations of 70 of the 78 detected contaminants with human-health benchmarks were less than MCLs or HBSLs, including all 12 contaminants with new HBSLs, suggesting that most contaminant concentrations were not of potential human-health concern. HBSLs were applied to a state-scale groundwater data set in this study, but HBSLs also may be applied to regional and national evaluations of water-quality data. HBSLs fulfill a critical need for federal, state, and local agencies, water utilities, and others who seek tools for evaluating the occurrence of contaminants without drinking-water standards or guidelines. ?? 2006 Society for Risk Analysis.

Toccalino, P.L.; Norman, J.E.

2006-01-01

117

Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD?=?6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method. Occupancy modeling may be useful for standardizing estimates across large landscapes, even if survey methods differ across regions, allowing for inferences about broad-scale population dynamics of wolves.

Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

2013-01-01

118

A Method For Conducting Airborne Infrared Roof Moisture Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne infrared roof moisture surveys can be conducted by using the following method. Maps of the area and plans showing the location of buildings to be surveyed are studied prior to the flights. Permission for the flights is secured and local authorities are notified of the work. An infrared imaging system is mounted on the helicopter and headsets are installed to ensure that all members of the team can communicate. Color airphotos are obtained of each roof early in the afternoon. The flight crew and the spotter are each provided with maps of the installation, with numbers and highlighting used to indicate each building to be surveyed. The spotter has a clear plastic overlay on his copy that he marks to indicate buildings completed. The daytime photographic flight serves to train the team for the more difficult thermographic survey that evening. The color film is submitted to an over-night print processor just after the flight.

Tobiasson, Wayne

1988-01-01

119

MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model -- GMG Linear Equation Solver Package Documentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geometric multigrid solver (GMG), based in the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm, has been developed for solving systems of equations resulting from applying the cell-centered finite difference algorithm to flow in porous media. This solver has been adapted to the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000. The documentation herein is a description of the solver and the adaptation to MODFLOW-2000.

Wilson, John D.; Naff, Richard L.

2004-01-01

120

The use of high resolution ground and airborne magnetic surveys to evaluate the geometry of hydrothermal alteration zones over volcanic provinces (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical methods can provide critical constraints on the distribution and volume of hydrothermal alteration, important parameters in understanding the evolution of geothermal systems. Because hydrothermal alteration modifies the magnetic properties of the volcanic substratum, magnetic surveys can be used to provide constraints on the distribution of hydrothermal alteration at depth. Using Yellowstone caldera as an example, we show that both ground and airborne magnetic surveys can be used to map and assess the volume of hydrothermal alteration. Ground magnetic surveys over unaltered volcanic terranes display high-amplitude, short-wavelength anomalies, in contrast to smooth, subdued magnetic anomalies over volcanic substrata demagnetized by hydrothermal alteration. We use this contrast to map areas of hydrothermal alteration in detail. Inverse methods applied to high-resolution airborne and ground magnetic data can be used to create three-dimensional models of the distribution of magnetization and thus illuminate the geometry of hydrothermal alteration. Because of the non-uniqueness of potential fields, the construction of inverse models requires simplifying assumptions on the distribution of magnetization, knowledge of induced and remanent magnetization of fresh and altered geological units, and detailed geological and geophysical data. Within the three hydrothermal sites that we investigated in Yellowstone National Park, subdued short-wavelength signal indicates pervasive demagnetization (alteration) of the shallow substratum that extends over larger areas than initially mapped by geology. These data also reveal that the largest degree of demagnetization (alteration) and maximum thicknesses of demagnetized (altered) substratum, reaching a few hundred meters, are associated with hydrothermal vents and with superficial hydrothermal alteration. Our three dimensional models of magnetization provide estimates of the volume of buried hydrothermal alteration ranging from 10 to 20 km3 buried within each of our 10 x 10 km2 study areas.

Bouligand, C.; Glen, J. M.

2013-12-01

121

An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) occur in shallow coastal habitats and can be highly visible on the sea surface. They generally rest in groups and their detection depends on factors that include sea conditions, viewing platform, observer technique and skill, distance, habitat and group size. While visible on the surface, they are difficult to see while diving and may dive in response to an approaching survey platform. We developed and tested an aerial survey method that uses intensive searches within portions of strip transects to adjust for availability and sightability biases. Correction factors are estimated independently for each survey and observer. In tests of our method using shore-based observers, we estimated detection probabilities of 0.52-0.72 in standard strip-transects and 0.96 in intensive searches. We used the survey method in Prince William Sound, Alaska to estimate a sea otter population size of 9,092 (SE = 1422). The new method represents an improvement over various aspects of previous methods, but additional development and testing will be required prior to its broad application.

Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

1999-01-01

122

Optimal Filtering Methods to Structural Damage Estimation under Ground Excitation  

PubMed Central

This paper considers the problem of shear building damage estimation subject to earthquake ground excitation using the Kalman filtering approach. The structural damage is assumed to take the form of reduced elemental stiffness. Two damage estimation algorithms are proposed: one is the multiple model approach via the optimal two-stage Kalman estimator (OTSKE), and the other is the robust two-stage Kalman filter (RTSKF), an unbiased minimum-variance filtering approach to determine the locations and extents of the damage stiffness. A numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure subject to base excitation is used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed results. PMID:24453869

Hsieh, Chien-Shu; Liaw, Der-Cherng; Lin, Tzu-Hsuan

2013-01-01

123

Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

SciTech Connect

In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

Torii, Tatsuo [JAEA; Sugita, Takeshi [JAEA; Okada, Colin E. [NSTec; Reed, Michael S. [NSTec; Blumenthal, Daniel J. [NNSA

2013-08-01

124

Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey  

E-print Network

Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey Changbao Wu,1 Mary E Thompson,1. INTRODUCTION The International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project was created in 2002; and it uses special techniques and measures in training, field work organisation and quality control. It also

Wu, Changbao

125

A survey of data mining methods for linkage disequilibrium mapping  

E-print Network

A survey of data mining methods for linkage disequilibrium mapping Pa¨ivi Onkamo1 * and Hannu Toivonen2 1 Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland 2 HIIT-BRU, Department of Computer Science, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland

Toivonen, Hannu

126

A survey on statistical methods for health care fraud detection  

E-print Network

Office) to Congress in 2004, annual health care expenditures were approaching two trillion dollars, which than $60 billion, of the US's annual health care expenditure was lost due to outright fraud. OtherA survey on statistical methods for health care fraud detection Jing Li & Kuei-Ying Huang

Li, Jing

127

BLS Handbook of Methods for Surveys and Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook outlines the scope of the Bureau of Labor Statistics programs and the methods it uses to collect, tabulate, evaluate, and publish a wide range of economic and statistical information from the studies and surveys that it conducts. These statistical programs are organized according to subject matter areas. The broad subject areas…

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

128

A SURVEY OF EIGENVECTOR METHODS FOR WEB INFORMATION RETRIEVAL #  

E-print Network

A SURVEY OF EIGENVECTOR METHODS FOR WEB INFORMATION RETRIEVAL # AMY N. LANGVILLE + AND CARL D. MEYER # Abstract. Web information retrieval is significantly more challenging than traditional well­ controlled, small document collection information retrieval. One main di#erence between traditional

Meyer, Carl

129

Methods for Allocating Urban Emergency Units: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

An urban emergency service system provides mobile units (vehicles) to respond to requests for service which can occur at any time and any place throughout a city. This paper describes the common characteristics and operational problems of these systems and surveys the various methods, both traditional and recently developed, which may be used for allocating their units. Aspects of allocation

Jan M. Chaiken; Richard C. Larson

1972-01-01

130

Evaluation of Abrupt Grounding as Quality Control Method for HVDC Extruded Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from laboratory experiments performed in order to evaluate different methods for quality control of polymeric insulated HVDC cables. In this work, we have investigated the effect of short term (24 h) DC stress followed by rapid grounding of the cable. This is comparable to a voltage step of -Usub0\\/sub at the point of grounding ,and depending

Frank Mauseth; Erling Ildstad; Rolf Hegerberg; Marc Jeroense; Bjørn Sanden; Jan Erik Larsen

2009-01-01

131

Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

Babchuk, Wayne A.

2011-01-01

132

An improved method of synthesizing ground backscatter ionograms for spherical ionospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of ground backscatter ionograms is a useful technique for studying the structure of the ionosphere. By synthesizing backscatter ionograms from a known ionosphere, knowledge can be obtained on how variations in the ionosphere affect the shape of a backscatter ionogram. A method allowing the rapid synthesis of ground backscatter ionograms is presented. The vertical ionospheric profile is represented by

C. Y. Ong; J. A. Bennett; P. L. Dyson

1998-01-01

133

Ground effects on V/STOL and STOL aircraft: A survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow fields encountered by jet- and fan-powered Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing (V/STOL) aircraft operating in ground effect are reviewed and their general effects on the aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The ground effects considered include: (1) the suckdown experienced by a single jet configuration in hover; (2) the fountain flow and additional suckdown experienced by multiple jet configurations in hover; (3) the ground vortex generated by jet and jet flap configurations in short takeoff and landing (STOL) operation and the associated aerodynamic and hot-gas-ingestion effects; and (4) the change in the downwash at the tail due to ground proximity. After over 30 years of research on V/STOL aircraft, the general flow phenomena are well-known and, in most areas, the effects of ground proximity can be established or can be determined experimentally. However, there are some anomalies in the current data base which are discussed.

Kuhn, R. E.; Eshleman, J.

1985-01-01

134

System and method for transferring telemetry data between a ground station and a control center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed herein are systems, computer-implemented methods, and tangible computer-readable media for coordinating communications between a ground station, a control center, and a spacecraft. The method receives a call to a simple, unified application programmer interface implementing communications protocols related to outer space, when instruction relates to receiving a command at the control center for the ground station generate an abstract message by agreeing upon a format for each type of abstract message with the ground station and using a set of message definitions to configure the command in the agreed upon format, encode the abstract message to generate an encoded message, and transfer the encoded message to the ground station, and perform similar actions when the instruction relates to receiving a second command as a second encoded message at the ground station from the control center and when the determined instruction type relates to transmitting information to the control center.

Ray, Timothy J. (Inventor); Ly, Vuong T. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

135

GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

GWM is a Ground?Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three?dimensional ground?water model, MODFLOW?2000. GWM uses a response?matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed?binary linear ground?water management formulations. Each management formulation consists of a set of decision variables, an objective function, and a set of constraints. Three types of decision variables are supported by GWM: flow?rate decision variables, which are withdrawal or injection rates at well sites; external decision variables, which are sources or sinks of water that are external to the flow model and do not directly affect the state variables of the simulated ground?water system (heads, streamflows, and so forth); and binary variables, which have values of 0 or 1 and are used to define the status of flow?rate or external decision variables. Flow?rate decision variables can represent wells that extend over one or more model cells and be active during one or more model stress periods; external variables also can be active during one or more stress periods. A single objective function is supported by GWM, which can be specified to either minimize or maximize the weighted sum of the three types of decision variables. Four types of constraints can be specified in a GWM formulation: upper and lower bounds on the flow?rate and external decision variables; linear summations of the three types of decision variables; hydraulic?head based constraints, including drawdowns, head differences, and head gradients; and streamflow and streamflow?depletion constraints. The Response Matrix Solution (RMS) Package of GWM uses the Ground?Water Flow Process of MODFLOW to calculate the change in head at each constraint location that results from a perturbation of a flow?rate variable; these changes are used to calculate the response coefficients. For linear management formulations, the resulting matrix of response coefficients is then combined with other components of the linear management formulation to form a complete linear formulation; the formulation is then solved by use of the simplex algorithm, which is incorporated into the RMS Package. Nonlinear formulations arise for simulated conditions that include water?table (unconfined) aquifers or head?dependent boundary conditions (such as streams, drains, or evapotranspiration from the water table). Nonlinear formulations are solved by sequential linear programming; that is, repeated linearization of the nonlinear features of the management problem. In this approach, response coefficients are recalculated for each iteration of the solution process. Mixed?binary linear (or mildly nonlinear) formulations are solved by use of the branch and bound algorithm, which is also incorporated into the RMS Package. Three sample problems are provided to demonstrate the use of GWM for typical ground?water flow management problems. These sample problems provide examples of how GWM input files are constructed to specify the decision variables, objective function, constraints, and solution process for a GWM run. The GWM Process runs with the MODFLOW?2000 Global and Ground?Water Flow Processes, but in its current form GWM cannot be used with the Observation, Sensitivity, Parameter?Estimation, or Ground?Water Transport Processes. The GWM Process is written with a modular structure so that new objective functions, constraint types, and solution algorithms can be added.

Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.

2005-01-01

136

A simple method for estimating transient heat transfer in slab-on-ground floors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of calculating transient heat transfer in concrete floor slabs is complicated due to ground coupling, which can require the numerical solution of two or three-dimensional transient conduction equations. This paper presents a simplified method for calculating transient slab-on-ground heat transfer that can be incorporated within hourly simulation programs. The method assumes that there are two primary one-dimensional paths

Zhipeng Zhong; James E. Braun

2007-01-01

137

Research on Atmospheric Disturbance Correction method of ground-based radar interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-frequency signal is often used as the communication signal of Ground-based radar, which is susceptible to atmospheric effects. An atmospheric disturbance correction of radar signal is required to obtain the monitoring accuracy of better than millimeter in precision deformation monitoring using ground-based radar interferometry. In this paper, we analyzed the experimental-data change of ground-based radar in the atmospheric disturbance statistically and proposed a correction method based on the discrete stable point in the global environment. The following experiment proved that this method can optimize the measurement results for the scene of small-scale.

Zhou, X.; Xu, Y. M.; Wang, P.; Xing, C.

2014-03-01

138

AgRISTARS: Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing. Enumerator's manual, 1981 ground data survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General information and administrative instructions are provided for individuals gathering ground truth data to support research and development techniques for estimating crop acreage and production by remote sensing by satellite. Procedures are given for personal safety with regards to organophosphorus insecticides, for conducting interviews for periodic observations, for coding the crops identified and their growth stages, and for selecting sites for placing rain gages. Forms are included for those citizens agreeing to monitor the gages and record the rainfall. Segment selection is also considered.

1981-01-01

139

USGS Ground-Water Techniques, Methods, and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS site offers a collection of documents and resources about groundwater data collection methods and groundwater modeling. The site includes several references for field methods and techniques, including well installation, sample collection, geophysical tools, and the collection of water use data. Groundwater modeling topics cover MODFLOW, HYMOD, SEAWAT, WTAQ, and MOC3D. There is also a link to an index of many groundwater modeling software programs.

USGS

140

A survey of ground operations tools developed to simulate the pointing of space telescopes and the design for WISE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

WISE, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, is scheduled for launch in June 2010. The mission operations system for WISE requires a software modeling tool to help plan, integrate and simulate all spacecraft pointing and verify that no attitude constraints are violated. In the course of developing the requirements for this tool, an investigation was conducted into the design of similar tools for other space-based telescopes. This paper summarizes the ground software and processes used to plan and validate pointing for a selection of space telescopes; with this information as background, the design for WISE is presented.

Fabinsky, Beth

2006-01-01

141

Diagnosis of breaks in substation's grounding grid by using the electromagnetic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the method of moment, a new method to analyze the grid fed by harmonic currents is presented. The method can be used for the condition that the grid is in at least ten-layer soil with a frequency of the injected currents up to 1 MHz. There can be more than one injected current, and the grounding conductor of

Bo Zhang; Zhibin Zhao; Xiang Cui; Lin Li

2002-01-01

142

Effect of antioxidant application methods on the color, lipid oxidation, and volatiles of irradiated ground beef.  

PubMed

Four antioxidant treatments (none, 0.05% ascorbic acid, 0.01%alpha-tocopherol + 0.01% sesamol, and 0.05% ascorbic acid + 0.01%alpha-tocopherol + 0.01% sesamol) were applied to ground beef using either mixing or spraying method. The meat samples were placed on Styrofoam trays, irradiated at 0 or 2.5 kGy, and then stored for 7 d at 4 degrees C. Color, lipid oxidation, volatiles, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and carbon monoxide (CO) production were determined at 0, 3, and 7 d of storage. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of ground beef with control and ascorbic acid treatments after 3 d of storage. alpha-Tocopherol + sesamol and ascorbic acid +alpha-tocopherol + sesamol treatments were effective in slowing down lipid oxidation in ground beef during storage regardless of application methods, but mixing was better than the spraying method. Irradiation lowered L*-value and a*-value of ground beef. Storage had no effect on lightness but redness decreased with storage. Ascorbic acid was the most effective in maintaining redness of ground beef followed by ascorbic acid +alpha-tocopherol + sesamol. Irradiation and storage reduced the b*-value of ground beef. Irradiation lowered ORP of ground beef regardless of antioxidants application methods, but ORP was lower in beef with mixing than spraying method. Beef sprayed with antioxidants produced more hydrocarbons and alcohols than the mixing application, but ascorbic acid +alpha-tocopherol + sesamol treatment was effective in reducing the amount of volatiles produced by irradiation. Therefore, mixing was better than the spraying method in preventing lipid oxidation and maintaining color of irradiated ground beef. PMID:19200082

Ismail, H A; Lee, E J; Ko, K Y; Paik, H D; Ahn, D U

2009-01-01

143

Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data  

SciTech Connect

In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [ORNL; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya [ORNL

2009-09-01

144

Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data  

SciTech Connect

In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL] [ORNL; Govindaswamy, Priya [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL] [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Abramoff, M.D. [University of Iowa] [University of Iowa

2008-01-01

145

Collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from ground turmeric.  

PubMed

An improved method has been developed for the extraction of light filth from ground turmeric. The method involves an isopropanol defatting followed by a direct flotation from 40% isopropanol with Tween 80-EDTA (1+1) and hot mineral oil. Collaborative results show that the method is rapid and yields better filth recoveries than the official first action method, 44.118. The method has been adopted as official first action to replace 44.118. PMID:1170163

Glaze, L E

1975-05-01

146

Three-dimensional resistivity modelling of grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) survey data from the Nojima Fault, Awaji Island, south-east Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey using the grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system was conducted over the Nojima Fault on Awaji Island, south-east Japan, to assess GREATEM survey applicability for studying coastal areas with complex topographic features. To obtain high-quality data with an optimised signal-to-noise ratio, a series of data processing techniques was used to acquire the final transient response curves from the field survey data. The 1D inversion results were feasible in that the horizontal resistivity contrast was not much higher than the true contrast, but they were not reasonable in that the horizontal resistivity values were greatly changed. To circumvent this problem, we performed numerical forward modelling using a finite-difference staggered-grid method (Fomenko and Mogi, 2002) adding a finite-length electrical dipole source routine to generate a three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure model from GREATEM survey data of the Nojima Fault area. The 3D model was based on an initial model consisting of two adjacent onshore and offshore layers of different conductivity such that, a highly conductive sea of depth (10-40 m) is placed on top of a uniform half-space, assuming the presence of topographic features on the inland side. We examined the fit of the magnetic transient responses between field data and 3D forward-model computed data, the latter were convolved with the measured system response of the corresponding dataset. The inverted 3D resistivity structures showed that the GREATEM system has the capability to map underground resistivity structures as deep as 500 m onshore and offshore. The GREATEM survey delineated how seawater intrudes on the landside of the fault and indicated that the fault is a barrier to seawater invasion.

Allah, Sabry Abd; Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Jymori, Akira; Yuuki, Youichi; Fomenko, Elena; Kiho, Kenzo; Kaieda, Hideshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Tsukuda, Kazuhiro

2014-08-01

147

Mixed-Methods Approaches to Contextually Grounded Research in Settings of Armed Conflict and Natural Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines the integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the development of culturally grounded\\u000a mental health, and psychosocial assessment tools for use with populations displaced by armed conflict or natural disaster.\\u000a After first arguing for the importance of grounding our assessment tools in local cultural contexts, the author then describes\\u000a the unique and complementary contributions that qualitative

Kenneth E. Miller

148

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF ON-SITE ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TNT AND RDX IN GROUND WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field demonstration was conducted to assess the performance of eight commercially-available and emerging colorimetric, immunoassay, and biosensor on-site analytical methods for explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in ground water and leachate at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon and U.S. Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington, Superfund sites. Ground water samples were analyzed by each of the on-site

Harry Craig; George Ferguson; Anne W. Kusterbeck; L. Shriver-Lake; Thomas Jenkins

2009-01-01

149

Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

2012-01-01

150

Three-dimensional finite difference method and hybrid modeling of earthquake ground motion  

E-print Network

Three-dimensional finite difference method and hybrid modeling of earthquake ground motion Ivo 3-D method (e.g., finite difference (FD), discrete wave number, ray, or analytical solution modeling 3-D finite differences, site effects, parameter studies 1. Introduction [2] Three-dimenisonal (3-D

Oprsal, Ivo

151

30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...A solid connection to the mine track; (b) A solid connection to the grounded power conductor of the system; (c) Silicon diode grounding; however, this method shall be employed only when such devices are installed in accordance with the...

2011-07-01

152

30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...  

...A solid connection to the mine track; (b) A solid connection to the grounded power conductor of the system; (c) Silicon diode grounding; however, this method shall be employed only when such devices are installed in accordance with the...

2014-07-01

153

30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...A solid connection to the mine track; (b) A solid connection to the grounded power conductor of the system; (c) Silicon diode grounding; however, this method shall be employed only when such devices are installed in accordance with the...

2013-07-01

154

30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...A solid connection to the mine track; (b) A solid connection to the grounded power conductor of the system; (c) Silicon diode grounding; however, this method shall be employed only when such devices are installed in accordance with the...

2010-07-01

155

Survey of ground state neutron Spectroscopic Factors from Li to Cr isotopes  

E-print Network

The ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 80 nuclei ranging in Z from 3 to 24 have been extracted by analyzing the past measurements of the angular distributions from (d,p) and (p,d) reactions. We demonstrate an approach that provides systematic and consistent values with minimum assumptions. For the 61 nuclei that have been described by large-basis shell-model calculations, most experimental spectroscopic factors are reproduced to within 20%.

M. B. Tsang; Jenny Lee; W. G. Lynch

2005-09-09

156

The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. I. Description of the Survey and Analysis Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines.With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

Oemler Jr., Augustus; Dressler, Alan; Gladders, Michael G.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bai, Lei; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta

2013-01-01

157

THE IMACS CLUSTER BUILDING SURVEY. I. DESCRIPTION OF THE SURVEY AND ANALYSIS METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines. With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Dressler, Alan; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Gladders, Michael G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Observational Cosmology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bai Lei [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Fritz, Jacopo [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Rieke, George [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 8572 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta, E-mail: oemler@obs.carnegiescience.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

2013-06-10

158

Application of ground-penetrating radar methods in determining hydrogeologic conditions in a karst area, west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is useful as a surface geophysical method for exploring geology and subsurface features in karst settings. Interpretation of GPR data was used to infer lithology and hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida. This study demonstrates how GPR methods can be used to investigate the hydrogeology of an area. GPR transmits radio- frequency electromagnetic waves into the ground and receives reflected energy waves from subsurface interfaces. Subsurface profiles showing sediment thickness, depth to water table and clay beds, karst development, buried objects, and lake-bottom structure were produced from GPR traverses obtained during December 1987 and March 1990 in Pinellas, Hillsborough, and Hardee Counties in west-central Florida. Performance of the GPR method is site specific, and data collected are principally affected by the sediment and pore fluids, conductances and dielectric constants. Effective exploration depths of the GPR surveys through predominately unsaturated and saturated sand and clay sediments at five study sites ranged from a few feet to greater than 50 feet below land surface. Exploration depths were limited when high conductivity clay was encountered, whereas greater exploration depths were possible in material composed of sand. Application of GPR is useful in profiling subsurface conditions, but proper interpretation depends upon the user's knowledge of the equipment and the local hydrogeological setting, as well as the ability to interpret the graphic profile.

Barr, G.L.

1993-01-01

159

Survey methods and results at: www.umass.edu/oapa/oapa/reports/senior_survey. Office of Academic Planning and Assessment, 11/19/2014 2014 UMass-Amherst Graduating Senior Survey  

E-print Network

Survey methods and results at: www.umass.edu/oapa/oapa/reports/senior_survey. Office of Academic Planning and Assessment, 11/19/2014 2014 UMass-Amherst Graduating Senior Survey Campus Summary Graduates (Calendar Year 2014): 5550 Survey Respondents: 4060 Response Rate: 73.2% Survey methods and results at: www.umass.edu/oapa/oapa/reports/senior_survey

Mountziaris, T. J.

160

Survey of NASA V and V Processes/Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to describe current NASA Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques and to explain how these techniques are applicable to 2nd Generation RLV Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) software. It also contains recommendations for special V&V requirements for IVHM. This report is divided into the following three sections: 1) Survey - Current NASA V&V Processes/Methods; 2) Applicability of NASA V&V to 2nd Generation RLV IVHM; and 3) Special 2nd Generation RLV IVHM V&V Requirements.

Pecheur, Charles; Nelson, Stacy

2002-01-01

161

Pan-European survey on the occurrence of selected polar organic persistent pollutants in ground water.  

PubMed

This study provides the first pan-European reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European ground water. In total, 164 individual ground-water samples from 23 European Countries were collected and analysed (among others) for 59 selected organic compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, pesticides (and their transformation products), perfluorinated acids (PFAs), benzotriazoles, hormones, alkylphenolics (endocrine disrupters), Caffeine, Diethyltoluamide (DEET), and Triclosan. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and maximum concentrations detected were DEET (84%; 454 ng/L), Caffeine (83%; 189 ng/L), PFOA (66%; 39 ng/L), Atrazine (56%; 253 ng/L), Desethylatrazine (55%; 487 ng/L), 1H-Benzotriazole (53%; 1032 ng/L), Methylbenzotriazole (52%; 516 ng/L), Desethylterbutylazine (49%; 266 ng/L), PFOS (48%, 135 ng/L), Simazine (43%; 127 ng/L), Carbamazepine (42%; 390 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE(1)C) (42%; 11 microg/L), Bisphenol A (40%; 2.3 microg/L), PFHxS (35%; 19 ng/L), Terbutylazine (34%; 716 ng/L), Bentazone (32%; 11 microg/L), Propazine (32%; 25 ng/L), PFHpA (30%; 21 ng/L), 2,4-Dinitrophenol (29%; 122 ng/L), Diuron (29%; 279 ng/L), and Sulfamethoxazole (24%; 38 ng/L). The chemicals which were detected most frequently above the European ground water quality standard for pesticides of 0.1 microg/L were Chloridazon-desphenyl (26 samples), NPE(1)C (20), Bisphenol A (12), Benzotriazole (8), N,N'-Dimethylsulfamid (DMS) (8), Desethylatrazine (6), Nonylphenol (6), Chloridazon-methyldesphenyl (6), Methylbenzotriazole (5), Carbamazepine (4), and Bentazone (4). However, only 1.7% of all single analytical measurements (in total 8000) were above this threshold value of 0.1 microg/L; 7.3% were > than 10 ng/L. PMID:20554303

Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Comero, Sara; Contini, Serafino; Schwesig, David; Werres, Friedrich; Balsaa, Peter; Gans, Oliver; Weiss, Stefan; Blaha, Ludek; Bolchi, Monica; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred

2010-07-01

162

Survey of hyperspectral image denoising methods based on tensor decompositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hyperspectral image (HSI) is always modeled as a three-dimensional tensor, with the first two dimensions indicating the spatial domain and the third dimension indicating the spectral domain. The classical matrix-based denoising methods require to rearrange the tensor into a matrix, then filter noise in the column space, and finally rebuild the tensor. To avoid the rearranging and rebuilding steps, the tensor-based denoising methods can be used to process the HSI directly by employing multilinear algebra. This paper presents a survey on three newly proposed HSI denoising methods and shows their performances in reducing noise. The first method is the Multiway Wiener Filter (MWF), which is an extension of the Wiener filter to data tensors, based on the TUCKER3 decomposition. The second one is the PARAFAC filter, which removes noise by truncating the lower rank K of the PARAFAC decomposition. And the third one is the combination of multidimensional wavelet packet transform (MWPT) and MWF (MWPT-MWF), which models each coefficient set as a tensor and then filters each tensor by applying MWF. MWPT-MWF has been proposed to preserve rare signals in the denoising process, which cannot be preserved well by using the MWF or PARAFAC filters. A real-world HYDICE HSI data is used in the experiments to assess these three tensor-based denoising methods, and the performances of each method are analyzed in two aspects: signal-to-noise ratio and improvement of subsequent target detection results.

Lin, Tao; Bourennane, Salah

2013-12-01

163

Occurrence of selected radionuclides in ground water used for drinking water in the United States; a reconnaissance survey, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the American Water Works Association, and the American Water Works Service Company, completed a targeted national reconnaissance survey of selected radionuclides in public ground-water supplies. Radionuclides analyzed included radium-224 (Ra-224), radium-226 (Ra-226), radium-228 (Ra-228), polonium-210 (Po-210) and lead-210 (Pb-210).This U.S. Geological Survey reconnaissance survey focused intentionally on areas with known or suspected elevated concentrations of radium in ground water to determine if Ra-224 was also present in the areas where other isotopes of radium had previously been detected and to determine the co-occurrence characteristics of the three radium isotopes (Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228) in those areas. Ninety-nine raw-water samples (before water treatment) were collected once over a 6-month period in 1998 and 1999 from wells (94 of which are used for public drinking water) in 27 States and 8 physiographic provinces. Twenty-one of the 99 samples exceeded the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) for combined radium (Ra-226 + Ra-228). Concentrations of Ra-224 were reported to exceed 1 pCi/L in 30 percent of the samples collected, with a maximum concentration of 73.6 pCi/L measured in water from a nontransient, noncommunity, public-supply well in Maryland. Radium-224 concentrations generally were higher than those of the other isotopes of radium. About 5 percent of the samples contained concentrations of Ra-224 greater than 10 pCi/L, whereas only 2 percent exceeded 10 pCi/L for either Ra-226 or Ra-228. Concentrations of Ra-226 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 33 percent of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 16.9 pCi/L measured in water from a public-supply well in Iowa. Concentrations of Ra-228 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 22 samples, with a maximum concentration of 72.3 pCi/L measured in water from a non-transient, noncommunity, public-supply well in Maryland.Radium-224, which is a decay product of Ra-228 in the Th-232 decay series, was significantly correlated with Ra-228 (Spearman?s rank correlation coefficient ?r? equals 0.82) and to a lesser degree with Ra-226 (r equals 0.69), which is an isotope in the U-238 decay series. The rank correlation coefficient between Ra-226 and Ra-228 was 0.63. The high correlation between Ra-224 and Ra-228 concentrations and the corresponding isotopic ratios of the two (about 1:1 in 90 percent of the samples) indicates that the two radionuclides occur in approximately equal concentrations in most ground water sampled. Thus, Ra-228 can be considered as a reasonable proxy indicator for the occurrence of Ra-224 in ground water.The maximum concentration of Po-210 was 4.85 pCi/L and exceeded 1 pCi/L in only two samples. The maximum concentration of Pb-210 was 4.14 pCi/L, and about 10 percent of the samples exceeded 1 pCi/L. Areas with known, or suspected, elevated concentrations of polonium and lead were not targeted in this survey.Three major implications are drawn for future radionuclide monitoring on the basis of this information: (1) grossalpha particle analyses of ground water should be done within about 48?72 hours after collection to determine the presence of the short-lived, alpha-particle emitting isotopes, such as Ra-224, which was detected in elevated concentrations in many of the samples collected for this survey; (2) the isotope ratios of Ra-224 to Ra-228 in ground water are variable on a national scale, but the two radioisotopes generally occur in ratios near 1:1, therefore, the more commonly measured Ra-228 can be used as an indicator of Ra-224 occurrence for some general purposes other than compliance; and (3) the isotopic ratios of Ra-226 to Ra-228 were less than 3:2 in many samples. These ratios corroborate results of previous studies that have shown the presence of Ra-228

Focazio, Michael J.; Szabo, Zoltan; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Mullin, Ann H.; Barringer, Thomas H.; dePaul, Vincent T.

2001-01-01

164

Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

2012-01-01

165

GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?  

EPA Science Inventory

After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

166

43 CFR Appendix I to Part 11 - Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During...Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During...part, the areas where exposure of ground water or surface water resources...

2012-10-01

167

43 CFR Appendix I to Part 11 - Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During...Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During...part, the areas where exposure of ground water or surface water resources...

2013-10-01

168

43 CFR Appendix I to Part 11 - Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During the...  

...Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During...Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During...part, the areas where exposure of ground water or surface water resources...

2014-10-01

169

Current methods for stallion semen cryopreservation: a survey.  

PubMed

Various factors affect the success of AI with frozen-thawed semen in horses. Stallion variability is thought to be one of the major factors, but semen processing and evaluation techniques, thawing protocols, packaging systems and timing of insemination are far from standardized among laboratories. Our objective was to survey current methods for stallion semen cryopreservation used commercially around the world. From the answers to the questions in the survey, we attempted to provide an overview of procedures that are standard as well as those that are used by only few laboratories and to review critically the efficacy of these procedures. Twenty-five questionnaires were sent to individuals or laboratories in 14 countries that were i.v. involved in freezing stallion semen for commercial purposes. Questionnaires were returned from 10/14 countries with 21/25 (84%) of the addresses responding. From the responses, it became evident that most of prefreezing, freezing and thawing and post-thawing processing procedures were far from standardized. The great variety of procedures makes it difficult to accept any of them as reliable. In order to increase the credibility of AI technology in the horse, laboratories need to standardize processing methods as well as the record-keeping systems. In addition, it is evident that no group of research mares is large enough to provide meaningful fertility data. It is therefore imperative to have multicentered collaborative studies to record and disseminate information about methods and the corresponding fertility rate. to gain valuable information and be able to compare different protocols. PMID:10732098

Samper, J C; Morris, C A

1998-04-01

170

What We Mean by Scope and Methods: A Survey of Undergraduate Scope and Methods Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-reflective political scientists have extensively reviewed the history of the discipline and argued over its future, but to date there has been little effort to systematically survey undergraduate scope and methods courses (for an exception see Thies and Hogan 2005). This lack of data leaves the discipline unable to assess how much we are…

Turner, Charles C.; Thies, Cameron G.

2009-01-01

171

Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of Oil Red O by solvatochromic shift methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption and fluorescence spectra of Oil Red O (abbreviated as ORO) are recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 250-900 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic shift methods have been used to determine the ground state (?g) and excited state (?e) dipole moments depending on dielectric constant and refractive index functions. It is observed that fluorescence spectra show positive solvatochromism whereas absorption spectra do not indicates sensitive behavior to solvent polarity. Excited state dipole moment is found as higher than those of ground state for all of the used methods and it is attributed to more polar excited state of ORO. Theoretical ?g has been determined by quantum chemical calculations using DFT and semi empirical methods. HOMO, LUMO, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and solvent accessible surface of ORO are calculated by using DFT-B3LYP method.

S?d?r, ?sa; Gülseven S?d?r, Yadigar

2015-01-01

172

Single-beam acoustic ground discrimination of shallow water habitats: 50 kHz or 200 kHz frequency survey?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system QTC View, Series V, was used in the Bay of Cadiz, Southwest Spain, for the identification and mapping of the bottom acoustic diversity. The acoustic data were obtained through two successive surveys, each conducted with one of the following echo sounder frequencies: 50kHz and 200kHz. The performance of each survey frequency for the identification

Rosa Freitas; Ana Maria Rodrigues; Edward Morris; Jose Lucas Perez-Llorens; Victor Quintino

2008-01-01

173

New Fast Precise Kinematic Surveying Method Using a Single Dual-Frequency GPS Receiver  

E-print Network

New Fast Precise Kinematic Surveying Method Using a Single Dual-Frequency GPS Receiver Zhizhao Liu1 to perform precise surveying using the single dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One, fast method that can conduct precise kinematic surveying using a single dual-frequency GPS receiver

Santerre, Rock

174

Schonlau M., Van Soest A, Kapteyn A, Are `Webographic' or attitudinal questions useful for adjusting estimates from Web surveys using propensity scoring? Survey Research Methods,  

E-print Network

for adjusting estimates from Web surveys using propensity scoring? Survey Research Methods, 2007, 1 (3), 155-163. Are `Webographic' or attitudinal questions useful for adjusting estimates from Web surveys using propensity scoring? Abstract Inference from Web surveys may be affected by non-random selection of Web survey participants. One

Schonlau, Matt

175

Risk Assessment Techniques and Survey Method for COTS Components  

E-print Network

The Rational Unified Process a software engineering process is gaining popularity nowadays. RUP delivers best software practices for component software Development life cycle It supports component based software development. Risk is involved in every component development phase .neglecting those risks sometimes hampers the software growth and leads to negative outcome. In Order to provide appropriate security and protection levels, identifying various risks is very vital. Therefore Risk identification plays a very crucial role in the component based software development This report addresses incorporation of component based software development cycle into RUP phases, assess several category of risk encountered in the component based software. It also entails a survey method to identify the risk factor and evaluating the overall severity of the component software development in terms of the risk. Formula for determining risk prevention cost and finding the risk probability is also been included. The overall go...

Gupta, Rashmi

2012-01-01

176

First orbit determination with numerical methods based on short arcs acquired in space debris surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveys for space debris aim at improving our knowledge of the space debris population. The survey results are fed either into space debris environment models or into orbital element catalogue of space debris objects, depending on whether the objects should be tracked later on. In both cases first orbit determination is a crucial step. The determined orbital elements together with estimated of the magnitude of the object allow first estimates of the object size. The orbital elements are also the central input to validate and improve the space debris environment models. Considering catalogue build-up and maintenance, the results from the first orbit determination set important constraints for the correlation of the new object with the catalogue, the re-acquisition and finally the identification of the object. In the case of space debris surveys first orbits must be determined from very short arcs of observations, which are due to the limits of the current sensor technology, in particular due to the limited field-of-view diameter of the telescopes used for optical surveys. The quality of the first orbits is in any case a function of the measurement accuracy. We present an approach for first orbit determination, which is derived from the boundary value method implemented in the CelMech program system (Beutler, 2005). The approach considers angular measurements, as derived from optical observation systems. The CelMech module ORBDET was generalized to perform a two-dimensional search by systematically varying the topocentric ranges at the boundary epochs of the observed arc. The search aims at identifying local minima of a least-square adjustment of all available observations using a truncated Taylor series to approximate the particular solution of the equation of motion for the debris considered. We apply this method to observations from ongoing space debris surveys of ESA using the 1-m telescope at the Optical Ground Station in Tenerife. Furthermore we apply this approach to a proposed space-based optical observation system. Last, but not least we consider the inclusion of range observations in our algorithm. Beutler G (2005) Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York

Flohrer, Tim; Beutler, Gerhard; Schildknecht, Thomas

177

A method for spatial estimation of peak ground acceleration in dense arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for the interpolation of peak ground acceleration (PGA) from discrete array stations is developed. Limited number of accelerometers or difficulty of monitoring at unreachable locations often has a negative impact on the generation of the maps of shaking after an earthquake. In locations with no recordings, PGA is inferred from interpolation of recorded PGA. The presented methodology estimates PGA at an arbitrary set of closely spaced points, in a way that is statistically compatible with known or prescribed PGA at other locations. The observed data recorded by strong motion stations of Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System are used for the development and validation of the new numerical method. The estimated and recorded PGAs are compared. Biased ground motion prediction equations are also considered at the comparisons. Ground motion prediction equations underestimated both observed and estimated PGAs. It has been found that the methodology is very effective for highly vulnerable mega-cities and urban areas.

Harmandar, Ebru; ?akt?, Eser; Erdik, Mustafa

2012-12-01

178

Retirement on grounds of ill health: cross sectional survey in six organisations in United Kingdom.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the process and outcome of retirement due to ill health in six large organisations. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of the rate of retirement due to ill health by age, sex, and length of service. Principal diagnoses by age and length of service were also compared. SETTING: Four public and two private large employers in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of retirement on the grounds of ill health by age, sex, and length of service of employees contributing to pension schemes. RESULTS: Rates of ill health retirement varied from 20 to 250 per 10,000 contributing members, and in two organisations the rate varied geographically within the same organisation. In the two organisations that provided data by sex, women retired at a greater rate than men under age 40 and over age 50. In four organisations the modal age or length of service coincided with enhancements in benefits. In the four that provided information on diagnoses, musculoskeletal and minor psychiatric illnesses were the most common reasons for retirement. CONCLUSION: The granting of ill health retirement benefits may not be determined by illness. There is a need for some employers and pension schemes to improve their processes for granting benefits. Doctors should be wary of conflicts of interest and work to guidelines when they advise pension schemes about the merits of an application for benefits. PMID:9099115

Poole, C. J.

1997-01-01

179

A double-observer method to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated double-observer methods for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our study in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat observers immediately following an observation by the rear-seat observer (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including observer, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included observer effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate observer-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-observers, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat observers, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat observers. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of observer-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated observer-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-observer, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat observer, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat observer. Estimated observer detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an observer, because observers did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-observer methods with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl surveys where birds are distributed at low density in remote areas that are inaccessible by ground crews. Double-observer methods, however, estimate only detection rate of animals that are potentially observable given the survey method applied. Auxiliary data and methods must be considered to estimate overall detection rate.

Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J.A.; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.

2008-01-01

180

Field demonstration of on-site analytical methods for TNT and RDX in ground water  

SciTech Connect

A field demonstration was conducted to assess the performance of eight commercially-available and emerging colorimetric, immunoassay, and biosensor on-site analytical methods for explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in ground water and leachate at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon and US Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington, Superfund sites. Ground water samples were analyzed by each of the on-site methods and results compared to laboratory analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with EPA SW-846 Method 8330. The commercial methods evaluated include the EnSys, Inc., TNT and RDX colorimetric test kits (EPA SW-846 Methods 8515 and 8510) with a solid phase extraction (SPE) step, the DTECH/EM Science TNT and RDX immunoassay test kits (EPA SW-846 Methods 4050 and 4051), and the Ohmicron TNT immunoassay test kit. The emerging methods tested include the antibody-based Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Continuous Flow Immunosensor (CFI) for TNT and RDX, and the Fiber Optic Biosensor (FOB) for TNT. Accuracy of the on-site methods were evaluated using linear regression analysis and relative percent difference (RPD) comparison criteria. Over the range of conditions tested, the colorimetric methods for TNT and RDX showed the highest accuracy of the emerging methods for TNT and RDX. The colorimetric method was selected for routine ground water monitoring at the Umatilla site, and further field testing on the NRL CFI and FOB biosensors will continue at both Superfund sites.

Craig, H. [Environmental Protection Agency Region 10, Portland, OR (United States); Ferguson, G.; Markos, A. [Black and Veatch Special Projects Corp., Tacoma, WA (United States); Kusterbeck, A.; Shriver-Lake, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering; Jenkins, T.; Thorne, P. [Army Corps of Engineers, Hanover, NH (United States). Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab.

1996-12-31

181

Efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates based on their characterizations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we propose efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) with/without the Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic field B(x). When B(x)?0, a numerical method is introduced to compute the ground states and it is also applied to study properties of ground states. Numerical results suggest that the densities of m{sub F}=±1 components in ground states are identical for any nonzero B(x). In particular, if B(x)?B?0 is a constant, the ground states satisfy the single-mode approximation. When B(x)?0, efficient and simpler numerical methods are presented to solve the ground states of spin-1 BECs based on their ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic characterizations. Numerical simulations show that our methods are more efficient than those in the literature. In addition, some conjectures are made from our numerical observations.

Bao, Weizhu, E-mail: mathbaowz@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mathematics and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119076 (Singapore)] [Department of Mathematics and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119076 (Singapore); Chern, I-Liang, E-mail: chern@math.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Mathematics and Center of Mathematical Modeling and Scientific Computing, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China) [Department of Applied Mathematics and Center of Mathematical Modeling and Scientific Computing, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Yanzhi, E-mail: zhangyanz@mst.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0020 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0020 (United States)

2013-11-15

182

Analytic Perturbation Method for Estimating Ground Flash Fraction from Satellite Lightning Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic perturbation method is introduced for estimating the lightning ground flash fraction in a set of N lightning flashes observed by a satellite lightning mapper. The value of N is large, typically in the thousands, and the observations consist of the maximum optical group area produced by each flash. The method is tested using simulated observations that are based on Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data. National Lightning Detection NetworkTM (NLDN) data is used to determine the flash-type (ground or cloud) of the satellite-observed flashes, and provides the ground flash fraction truth for the simulation runs. It is found that the mean ground flash fraction retrieval errors are below 0.04 across the full range 0-1 under certain simulation conditions. In general, it is demonstrated that the retrieval errors depend on many factors (i.e., the number, N, of satellite observations, the magnitude of random and systematic measurement errors, and the number of samples used to form certain climate distributions employed in the model).

Koshak, William; Solakiewicz, Richard

2013-01-01

183

Analytic Perturbation Method for Estimating Ground Flash Fraction from Satellite Lightning Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytic perturbation method is introduced for estimating the lightning ground flash fraction in a set of N lightning flashes observed by a satellite lightning mapper. The value of N is large, typically in the thousands, and the observations consist of the maximum optical group area produced by each flash. The method is tested using simulated observations that are based on Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) data is used to determine the flash-type (ground or cloud) of the satellite-observed flashes, and provides the ground flash fraction truth for the simulation runs. It is found that the mean ground flash fraction retrieval errors are below 0.04 across the full range 0-1 under certain simulation conditions. In general, it is demonstrated that the retrieval errors depend on many factors (i.e., the number, N, of satellite observations, the magnitude of random and systematic measurement errors, and the number of samples used to form certain climate distributions employed in the model).

Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R.

2013-12-01

184

Adaptive method for real-time gait phase detection based on ground contact forces.  

PubMed

A novel method is presented to detect real-time gait phases based on ground contact forces (GCFs) measured by force sensitive resistors (FSRs). The traditional threshold method (TM) sets a threshold to divide the GCFs into on-ground and off-ground statuses. However, TM is neither an adaptive nor real-time method. The threshold setting is based on body weight or the maximum and minimum GCFs in the gait cycles, resulting in different thresholds needed for different walking conditions. Additionally, the maximum and minimum GCFs are only obtainable after data processing. Therefore, this paper proposes a proportion method (PM) that calculates the sums and proportions of GCFs wherein the GCFs are obtained from FSRs. A gait analysis is then implemented by the proposed gait phase detection algorithm (GPDA). Finally, the PM reliability is determined by comparing the detection results between PM and TM. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed PM is highly reliable in all walking conditions. In addition, PM could be utilized to analyze gait phases in real time. Finally, PM exhibits strong adaptability to different walking conditions. PMID:25468687

Yu, Lie; Zheng, Jianbin; Wang, Yang; Song, Zhengge; Zhan, Enqi

2015-01-01

185

Comparing and analysis of ground resistance measurement method by application of IEEE Std81.2 and IEC60364  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the methods for measuring ground impedance are fall-of-potential method and potentiometer method which are based on IEEE std.81-2 and JEAC. The fall-of-potential method of equipments (D, C, M company, etc.) used usually In order to test, I made a large grounding mesh, rod, etc. and so we could define a new measurement method and test probe distance by comparing

Woon-Ki Han; Jin-soo Jeong; Seong-Su Shin; Joong-soo Choi; Jae-Cheol Kim

2010-01-01

186

Verification of a simplified analytical method for predictions of ship groundings over large contact surfaces by numerical simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a verification is presented of a simplified analytical method for the predictions from numerical simulations of structural performance during ship groundings over seabed obstacles with large contact surfaces and trapezoidal cross-section. This simplified analytical method was developed by Lin Hong and Jørgen Amdahl and calculates grounding characteristics, such as resistance and distortion energy, for double-bottomed ships in

Hu Zhiqiang; Amdahl Jørgen; Hong Lin

2011-01-01

187

Simulations of Ground Motion in the Los Angeles Basin Based upon the Spectral-Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the spectral-element method to simulate ground motion gener- ated by two recent and well-recorded small earthquakes in the Los Angeles basin. Simulations are performed using a new sedimentary basin model that is constrained by hundreds of petroleum-industry well logs and more than 20,000 km of seismic reflection profiles. The numerical simulations account for 3D variations of seismic- wave

Dimitri Komatitsch; Qinya Liu; Jeroen Tromp; Peter Suss; Christiane Stidham; John H. Shaw

2004-01-01

188

Generalizing Observational Study Results Applying Propensity Score Methods to Complex Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide a tutorial for using propensity score methods with complex survey data. Data Sources Simulated data and the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Study Design Using simulation, we compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naïve estimate (ignoring both survey weights and propensity scores), survey weighting, propensity score methods (nearest neighbor matching, weighting, and subclassification), and propensity score methods in combination with survey weighting. Methods are compared in terms of bias and 95% confidence interval coverage. In Example 2, we used these methods to estimate the effect on health care spending of having a generalist versus a specialist as a usual source of care. Principal Findings In general, combining a propensity score method and survey weighting is necessary to achieve unbiased treatment effect estimates that are generalizable to the original survey target population. Conclusions Propensity score methods are an essential tool for addressing confounding in observational studies. Ignoring survey weights may lead to results that are not generalizable to the survey target population. This paper clarifies the appropriate inferences for different propensity score methods and suggests guidelines for selecting an appropriate propensity score method based on a researcher’s goal. PMID:23855598

DuGoff, Eva H.; Schuler, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

189

A new fabrication method for precision antenna reflectors for space flight and ground test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communications satellites are using increasingly higher frequencies that require increasingly precise antenna reflectors for use in space. Traditional industry fabrication methods for space antenna reflectors employ successive modeling techniques using high- and low-temperature molds for reflector face sheets and then a final fit-up of the completed honeycomb sandwich panel antenna reflector to a master pattern. However, as new missions are planned at much higher frequencies, greater accuracies will be necessary than are achievable using these present methods. A new approach for the fabrication of ground-test solid-surface antenna reflectors is to build a rigid support structure with an easy-to-machine surface. This surface is subsequently machined to the desired reflector contour and coated with a radio-frequency-reflective surface. This method was used to fabricate a 2.7-m-diameter ground-test antenna reflector to an accuracy of better than 0.013 mm (0.0005 in.) rms. A similar reflector for use on spacecraft would be constructed in a similar manner but with space-qualified materials. The design, analysis, and fabrication of the 2.7-m-diameter precision antenna reflector for antenna ground tests and the extension of this technology to precision, space-based antenna reflectors are described.

Sharp, G. Richard; Wanhainen, Joyce S.; Ketelsen, Dean A.

1991-01-01

190

A new fabrication method for precision antenna reflectors for space flight and ground test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of higher frequencies on communications satellites has led to the requirement for increasingly precise antenna reflectors for use in space. Typical industry fabrication methods for space antenna reflectors employ successive molding techniques for reflector face sheets and a final fit-up to a master mold in order to achieve the required accuracies. However, new missions at much higher frequencies will require greater accuracies than may be achievable using these present methods. A new approach for the fabrication of ground-test antenna reflectors is to machine the reflective surface into a stainless steel and fiberglass composite structure. A 2.7-m diameter ground-test antenna reflector fabricated using this method has an accuracy of better than 0.013 mm (0.0005 in.) rms. A similar design concept for a solid surface reflector for use on spacecraft would involve fabrication in a similar manner but using space-qualified materials. This report describes the design, analysis, and fabrication of the 2.7-m-diameter precision antenna reflector for antenna ground test and the extension of this technology to precision space antenna reflectors.

Sharp, G. Richard; Wanhainen, Joyce S.; Ketelsen, Dean A.

1990-01-01

191

Computer program for simulation of variable recharge with the U. S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Variable-Recharge Package is a computerized method designed for use with the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional finitedifference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW-88) to simulate areal recharge to an aquifer. It is suitable for simulations of aquifers in which the relation between ground-water levels and land surface can affect the amount and distribution of recharge. The method is based on the premise that recharge to an aquifer cannot occur where the water level is at or above land surface. Consequently, recharge will vary spatially in simulations in which the Variable- Recharge Package is applied, if the water levels are sufficiently high. The input data required by the program for each model cell that can potentially receive recharge includes the average land-surface elevation and a quantity termed ?water available for recharge,? which is equal to precipitation minus evapotranspiration. The Variable-Recharge Package also can be used to simulate recharge to a valley-fill aquifer in which the valley fill and the adjoining uplands are explicitly simulated. Valley-fill aquifers, which are the most common type of aquifer in the glaciated northeastern United States, receive much of their recharge from upland sources as channeled and(or) unchanneled surface runoff and as lateral ground-water flow. Surface runoff in the uplands is generated in the model when the applied water available for recharge is rejected because simulated water levels are at or above land surface. The surface runoff can be distributed to other parts of the model by (1) applying the amount of the surface runoff that flows to upland streams (channeled runoff) to explicitly simulated streams that flow onto the valley floor, and(or) (2) applying the amount that flows downslope toward the valley- fill aquifer (unchanneled runoff) to specified model cells, typically those near the valley wall. An example model of an idealized valley- fill aquifer is presented to demonstrate application of the method and the type of information that can be derived from its use. Documentation of the Variable-Recharge Package is provided in the appendixes and includes listings of model code and of program variables. Comment statements in the program listings provide a narrative of the code. Input-data instructions and printed model output for the package are included.

Kontis, A.L.

2001-01-01

192

A direct substitution method for multicomponent solute transport in ground water  

SciTech Connect

A numerical method was developed using a direct substitution approach for simulating one-dimensional multicomponent solute transport in ground water. The method has the ability to treat equilibrium reactions of aqueous and surface complexation, and precipitation-dissolution. The concentrations of aqueous component species, adsorbed component species, and precipitated species are chosen as the principal dependent variables. The substitution takes place after the transport equation is discretized. The resulting system of equations is solved using the Newton-Raphson method and the Jacobian matrix is computed analytically. This method is computationally more efficient than sequential iteration methods due to its faster convergence rate. It is also computationally more efficient than other direct substitution methods which compute the Jacobian matrix numerically.

Shen, H.; Nikolaidis, N.P. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

1997-01-01

193

A Survey on Methods for Broadband Internet Access on Trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a survey of approaches for providing broadband Internet access to trains. We examine some of the barriers that hinder the use of broadband Internet on trains and then discuss some of the opportunities for broadband deployment to trains. This survey considers some of the basic concepts for providing broadband Internet access and then reviews associated network architectures. The

Daniel T. Fokum; Victor S. Frost

2010-01-01

194

A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Swarms of intelligent autonomous spacecraft, involving complex behaviors and interactions, are being proposed for future space exploration missions. Such missions provide greater flexibility and offer the possibility of gathering more science data than traditional single spacecraft missions. The emergent properties of swarms make these missions powerful, but simultaneously far more difficult to design, and to assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. These missions are also considerably more complex than previous types of missions, and NASA, like other organizations, has little experience in developing or in verifying and validating these types of missions. A significant challenge when verifying and validating swarms of intelligent interacting agents is how to determine that the possible exponential interactions and emergent behaviors are producing the desired results. Assuring correct behavior and interactions of swarms will be critical to mission success. The Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm (ANTS) mission is an example of one of the swarm types of missions NASA is considering. The ANTS mission will use a swarm of picospacecraft that will fly from Earth orbit to the Asteroid Belt. Using an insect colony analogy, ANTS will be composed of specialized workers for asteroid exploration. Exploration would consist of cataloguing the mass, density, morphology, and chemical composition of the asteroids, including any anomalous concentrations of specific minerals. To perform this task, ANTS would carry miniaturized instruments, such as imagers, spectrometers, and detectors. Since ANTS and other similar missions are going to consist of autonomous spacecraft that may be out of contact with the earth for extended periods of time, and have low bandwidths due to weight constraints, it will be difficult to observe improper behavior and to correct any errors after launch. Providing V&V (verification and validation) for this type of mission is new to NASA, and represents the cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.

Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.

2004-01-01

195

Methods for nonlinear analysis, simulation and animation of land-survey spacecraft guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtained in the space photos a ground resolution depends on a spacecraft spatial angular motion during optoelectronic survey. The paper studies case of optimal equalization of an image longitudinal velocity in the focal plane of telescope and tackles the problem of defining initial azimuth of the scanning survey under the condition of minimizing quadratic functional of image cross velocity values on edges of the CCD linear array. Results of a simulated survey of random surface object are presented, and the change of initial azimuth value for various survey angles within the swath is examined. The paper presents also a brief description of developed software for designing the space telescope characteristics, simulation and animation of the land-survey spacecraft spatial motion and gives recommendations for its applications.

Somov, Sergey; Somova, Tatyana

2014-12-01

196

Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

2007-01-01

197

A STUDY OF LIFT-OFF TEST METHOD OF GROUND ANCHORS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground anchors (hereinafter anchors) are important to do the maintenance after construction. Residual tensile strength of anchors are generally confirmed by lift-off test that pulls an anchor using a hydraulic jack. However, the lift-off test has not been established a proper testing method. Therefore, it may not have been proper maintenance from measurement variability. In this paper, we conducted various lift-off test at cut slope of the expressway, and made proposals on proper lift-off test method.

Fujiwara, Yuu; Sakai, Toshinori

198

Comparison of the effects of filtration and preservation methods on analyses for strontium-90 in ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1952 to 1988, about 140 curies of strontium-90 were discharged in liquid waste to disposal ponds and wells at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory). Water from four wells was sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's quality-assurance program to evaluate the effects of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in ground water at the INEL. Water from each well was filtered through eithera 0.45- or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered water samples were collected at each well. One of the two sets of water samples was field acidified. Strontium-90 concentrations ranged from below the reporting level to 52 ?? 4 picocuries per liter. Descriptive statistics were used to determine reproducibility of the analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from each well. Comparisons were made with unfiltered, acidified samples at each well. Analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from well 88 were not in statistical agreement between the unfiltered, acidified sample and the filtered (0.45 micrometer), acidified sample. The strontium-90 concentration for water from well 88 was less than the reporting level. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94 percent or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collection do not significantly affect reproducibility of strontium-90 analyses in ground water at the INEL.

Knobel, L.L.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

1992-01-01

199

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING GROUND-WATER PUMPAGE FOR IRRIGATION.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water pumpage for irrigation was measured at 32 sites on the eastern Snake River Plain in southern Idaho during 1983. Pumpage at these sites also was estimated by three commonly used methods, and pumpage estimates were compared to measured values to determine the accuracy of each estimate. Statistical comparisons of estimated and metered pumpage using an F-test showed that only estimates made using the instantaneous discharge method were not significantly different ( alpha equals 0. 01) from metered values. Pumpage estimates made using the power consumption method reflect variability in pumping efficiency among sites. Pumpage estimates made using the crop-consumptive use method reflect variability in water-management practices. Pumpage estimates made using the instantaneous discharge method reflect variability in discharges at each site during the irrigation season.

Frenzel, Steven A.

1985-01-01

200

A double-observer method for reducing bias in faecal pellet surveys of forest ungulates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Faecal surveys are used widely to study variations in abundance and distribution of forest-dwelling mammals when direct enumeration is not feasible. The utility of faecal indices of abundance is limited, however, by observational bias and variation in faecal disappearance rates that obscure their relationship to population size. We developed methods to reduce variability in faecal surveys and improve reliability of faecal indices. 2. We used double-observer transect sampling to estimate observational bias of faecal surveys of Roosevelt elk Cervus elaphus roosevelti and Columbian black-tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus columbianus in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We also modelled differences in counts of faecal groups obtained from paired cleared and uncleared transect segments as a means to adjust standing crop faecal counts for a standard accumulation interval and to reduce bias resulting from variable decay rates. 3. Estimated detection probabilities of faecal groups ranged from < 0.2-1.0 depending upon the observer, whether the faecal group was from elk or deer, faecal group size, distance of the faecal group from the sampling transect, ground vegetation cover, and the interaction between faecal group size and distance from the transect. 4. Models of plot-clearing effects indicated that standing crop counts of deer faecal groups required 34% reduction on flat terrain and 53% reduction on sloping terrain to represent faeces accumulated over a standard 100-day interval, whereas counts of elk faecal groups required 0% and 46% reductions on flat and sloping terrain, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Double-observer transect sampling provides a cost-effective means of reducing observational bias and variation in faecal decay rates that obscure the interpretation of faecal indices of large mammal abundance. Given the variation we observed in observational bias of faecal surveys and persistence of faeces, we emphasize the need for future researchers to account for these comparatively manageable sources of bias before comparing faecal indices spatially or temporally. Double-observer sampling methods are readily adaptable to study variations in faecal indices of large mammals at the scale of the large forest reserve, natural area, or other forested regions when direct estimation of populations is problematic. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Jenkins, K.J.; Manly, B.F.J.

2008-01-01

201

Methodical questions and accuracy problems of GPS observations by the example of the geodynamic proving ground in Bishkek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key questions concerning the modern methodical tasks and accuracy of GPS measurements of crustal motion spanning are discussed for a full cycle of the survey from the organization of the field operations to the interpretation of the final results. The presented data rely on the 20-year experience of the geophysicists of the Research Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Bishkek (RS RAS) in GPS monitoring at the Geodynamic Proving Ground in Bishkek (GPGB) and in a large part of Central Asia. The comparative characteristics of the constellations of visible GPS and GLONASS satellites are analyzed from the standpoint of their practical application for precise scientific observations of crustal motions. The studies of the contemporary movements of the Earth's crust by the methods of satellite geodesy generally comprise three stages: (1) organization of the measurement networks and acquisition of the data; (2) data processing; and (3) interpretation of the results. Each stage is associated with its own block of the tasks and problems, and neither is guaranteed against uncertainties and errors which may affect the results, conclusions, and reconstructions.

Kuzikov, S. I.

2014-11-01

202

A Deep Percolation Model for Estimating Ground-Water Recharge: Documentation of Modules for the Modular Modeling System of the U.S. Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A daily water-budget model for estimating ground-water recharge, the Deep Percolation Model, was modularized for inclusion into the U.S. Geological Survey's Modular Modeling System. The model was modularized in order to facilitate estimation of ground-water recharge under a large range in climatic, landscape, and land-use and land-cover conditions. The model can be applied to areas as large as regions or as small as a field plot. An overview of the Modular Modeling System and the Deep Percolation Model is presented. Data requirements, parameters, and variables for the model are described. The modules that compose the Deep Percolation Model are documented.

Vaccaro, J.J.

2007-01-01

203

Results of a Flight Simulation Software Methods Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ten-page questionnaire was mailed to members of the AIAA Flight Simulation Technical Committee in the spring of 1994. The survey inquired about various aspects of developing and maintaining flight simulation software, as well as a few questions dealing with characterization of each facility. As of this report, 19 completed surveys (out of 74 sent out) have been received. This paper summarizes those responses.

Jackson, E. Bruce

1995-01-01

204

Single-beam acoustic ground discrimination of shallow water habitats: 50 kHz or 200 kHz frequency survey?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system QTC View, Series V, was used in the Bay of Cadiz, Southwest Spain, for the identification and mapping of the bottom acoustic diversity. The acoustic data were obtained through two successive surveys, each conducted with one of the following echo sounder frequencies: 50 kHz and 200 kHz. The performance of each survey frequency for the identification of the sedimentary gradients was analyzed. The surveys were conducted during high tide given that the majority of the surveyed area is shallower than 5 m, although depth may occasionally reach 20 m in specific areas located in a navigation channel. The acoustic data obtained at the two different frequencies were, individually, submitted to manual clustering and a final solution consisting of three acoustic classes was reached for both datasets. However, only the geographical distribution of the acoustic classes obtained with 50 kHz echo sounder frequency was coincident with the spatial distribution of the superficial sediment groups (silty medium sand, very silty fine sand and mud), identified through multivariate analysis of the grain-size data of ground-truth sediment samples. The results obtained with the 200 kHz echo sounder frequency did not match the sedimentary gradients obtained for the area surveyed, not even the separation of muddy and sandy areas.

Freitas, Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Morris, Edward; Perez-Llorens, Jose Lucas; Quintino, Victor

2008-07-01

205

Use of the Finite Element Method for the Modeling of Multi-Layered Power/Ground Planes with Small Features  

E-print Network

Use of the Finite Element Method for the Modeling of Multi-Layered Power/Ground Planes with Small power/ground planes has been proposed. The formulation is developed by first applying the finite element or voids in the planes, which cause vertical coupling of energy. Several examples have been shown

Swaminathan, Madhavan

206

A Method for Numerical Simulation of Single Limb Ground Contact Events: Application to Heel-Toe Running  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to develop a method to simulate single-limb ground contact events, which may be applied to study musculoskeletal injuries associated with such movements. To achieve this objective, a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model was developed consisting of the equations of motion for the musculoskeletal system, and models for the muscle force generation and ground contact elements. An

R. R. NEPTUNE; I. C. WRIGHT; A. J. VAN DEN BOGERT

2000-01-01

207

77 FR 24684 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013-2015 American Community Survey Methods...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013-2015 American Community Survey Methods Panel...survey issues and needs. During the 2013-2015 period, the Methods Panel may include...A 2013 Questionnaire Design Test, a 2015 ACS Content Test, and a series of...

2012-04-25

208

The ZInEP Epidemiology Survey: background, design and methods.  

PubMed

This article introduces the design, sampling, field procedures and instruments used in the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey. This survey is one of six ZInEP projects (Zürcher Impulsprogramm zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Psychiatrie, i.e. the "Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services"). It parallels the longitudinal Zurich Study with a sample comparable in age and gender, and with similar methodology, including identical instruments. Thus, it is aimed at assessing the change of prevalence rates of common mental disorders and the use of professional help and psychiatric sevices. Moreover, the current survey widens the spectrum of topics by including sociopsychiatric questionnaires on stigma, stress related biological measures such as load and cortisol levels, electroencephalographic (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) examinations with various paradigms, and sociophysiological tests. The structure of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey entails four subprojects: a short telephone screening using the SCL-27 (n of nearly 10,000), a comprehensive face-to-face interview based on the SPIKE (Structured Psychopathological Interview and Rating of the Social Consequences for Epidemiology: the main instrument of the Zurich Study) with a stratified sample (n?=?1500), tests in the Center for Neurophysiology and Sociophysiology (n?=?227), and a prospective study with up to three follow-up interviews and further measures (n?=?157). In sum, the four subprojects of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey deliver a large interdisciplinary database. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24942564

Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Warnke, Inge; Hengartner, Michael P; Landolt, Karin; Hagenmuller, Florence; Meier, Magali; Tse, Lee-Ting; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Passardi, Marco; Knöpfli, Daniel; Schönfelder, Herdis; Eisele, Jochen; Rüsch, Nicolas; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

2014-12-01

209

LRES 510 Biodiversity Survey and Monitoring Methods Class Syllabus CRN: 24447  

E-print Network

LRES 510 Biodiversity Survey and Monitoring Methods Class Syllabus CRN concerning biodiversity at multiple scales in time and space. This course about biodiversity. We will concentrate on applying and evaluating these methods

Maxwell, Bruce D.

210

A six-beam method to measure turbulence statistics using ground-based wind lidars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A so-called six-beam method is proposed to measure atmospheric turbulence using a ground-based wind lidar. This method requires measurement of the radial velocity variances at five equally spaced azimuth angles on the base of a scanning cone and one measurement at the center of the scanning circle, i.e.using a vertical beam at the same height. The scanning configuration is optimized to minimize the sum of the random errors in the measurement of the second-order moments of the components (u,v, w) of the wind field. We present this method as an alternative to the so-called velocity azimuth display (VAD) method that is routinely used in commercial wind lidars, and which usually results in significant averaging effects of measured turbulence. In the VAD method, the high frequency radial velocity measurements are used instead of their variances. The measurements are performed using a pulsed lidar (WindScanner), and the derived turbulence statistics (using both methods) such as the u and v variances are compared with those obtained from a reference cup anemometer and a wind vane at 89 m height under different atmospheric stabilities. The measurements show that in comparison to the reference cup anemometer, depending on the atmospheric stability and the wind field component, the six-beam method measures between 85-101% of the reference turbulence, whereas the VAD method measures between 66-87% of the reference turbulence.

Sathe, A.; Mann, J.; Vasiljevic, N.; Lea, G.

2014-10-01

211

Sightability adjustment methods for aerial surveys of wildlife populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aerial surveys are routinely conducted to estimate the abundance of wildlife species and the rate of population change. However, sightability of animal groups is acknowledged as a significant source of bias in these estimates. Recent research has focused on the development of sightability models to predict the probability of sighting groups under various conditions. Given such models, we show how sightability can be incorporated into the estimator of population size as a probability of response using standard results from sample surveys. We develop formulas for the cases where the sighting probability must be estimated. An example, using data from a helicopter survey of moose in Alberta (Jacobson, Alberta Oil Sands Research Project Report, 1976), is given to illustrate the technique.

Steinhorst, R.K.; Samuel, M.D.

1989-01-01

212

Ground-penetrating radar survey at the pyramid complex of Senwosret III at Dahshur, Egypt, 2008: search for the lost boat of a Pharaoh  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey at Dahshur, Egypt, employed 3-D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in an attempt to locate pharaonic boat burials at the pyramid complex of King Senwosret III. In AD 1894, the original excavator reported finding five or six boats; however, only four “Dahshur boats” are known in museum collections today. The suspected site of the lost boat burial(s) lay beneath the

Pearce Paul Creasman; Douglas Sassen; Samuel Koepnick; Noreen Doyle

2010-01-01

213

An individual and dynamic Body Segment Inertial Parameter validation method using ground reaction forces.  

PubMed

Over the last decades a variety of research has been conducted with the goal to improve the Body Segment Inertial Parameters (BSIP) estimations but to our knowledge a real validation has never been completely successful, because no ground truth is available. The aim of this paper is to propose a validation method for a BSIP identification method (IM) and to confirm the results by comparing them with recalculated contact forces using inverse dynamics to those obtained by a force plate. Furthermore, the results are compared with the recently proposed estimation method by Dumas et al. (2007). Additionally, the results are cross validated with a high velocity overarm throwing movement. Throughout conditions higher correlations, smaller metrics and smaller RMSE can be found for the proposed BSIP estimation (IM) which shows its advantage compared to recently proposed methods as of Dumas et al. (2007). The purpose of the paper is to validate an already proposed method and to show that this method can be of significant advantage compared to conventional methods. PMID:24704168

Hansen, Clint; Venture, Gentiane; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe; Isableu, Brice

2014-05-01

214

A Socratic Method for Surveying Students' Readiness to Study Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students' understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects…

Stansfield, William D.

2013-01-01

215

An Heuristic Method for GPS Surveying Stefka Fidanova  

E-print Network

, to analyze and improve the efficiency of the design of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying networks of computational effort. The Global Positioning System is a satellite-based radio-navigation system that permits. The most widely known space systems are: the American Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian GLObal

Fidanova, Stefka

216

Air Force ground-water contamination cleanup: an evaluation of the pump-and-treat method. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is an attempt to determine the effectiveness of the Air Force's use of pump-and-treat technology to remediate groundwater contamination. The study is divided into four major sections: (1) literature survey of ground-water contamination problems and remediation technology; (2) identification of bases where pump-and-treat technology has been employed; (3) collection of quantitative data from bases for analysis; (4) analysis of data and recommendations. Data were obtained from three Air Force installations, McClellan AFB, Wright-Patterson AFB, and Wurtsmith AFB. During remediation, contaminants in most cases show a significant decrease in concentration though levels are still well above regulatory agency requirements. Furthermore, it was found that the inconsistent timing of data sampling and the lack of standardized data storage procedures prevents reliable determination of remediation effectiveness. Conclusions of this study are that a standardized data collection system be created, under direct supervision of an air staff office, and that a centralized procedure be identified for evaluating the effectiveness of pump-and-treat programs. While the current remediation programs using pump-and-treat initially show large reductions in contaminant concentrations, continued application of this method produces only slight incremental improvements. It appears that decades may be required to meet existing regulatory limits.

Ammons, R.P.

1988-09-01

217

A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

1996-01-01

218

Comparison of methods for the recovery of virus inoculated into ground beef.  

PubMed

Various methods for the recovery of virus inoculated into ground beef were investigated in an attempt to develop a sensitive system that could be used to detect viral contaminants in market foods. A 100-g sample, inoculated with poliovirus 1, was suspended in 150 to 900 ml of Eagle minimum essential medium, pH 8.5, and mixed in either plastic bags or plastic cups on a mechanical shaker. The particulate materials were removed by means of cheese cloth, glass wool, woven fiber glass, or low-speed centrifugation. Large volumes of fluid were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Microbiological contamination was controlled by high antibiotic concentrations or by filtration. Quantitative plaque-forming-unit recovery of the virus was determined by utilizing an agar overlay technique on Vero cell cultures. The data indicated that from 20 to 50% of the seeded virus could be recovered from a 100-g sample of ground beef. The glass wool and woven fiber glass methods were the most effective, with recovery of approximately 50% of the inoculated virus. PMID:4356467

Tierney, J T; Sullivan, R; Larkin, E P; Peeler, J T

1973-10-01

219

Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

2011-05-01

220

A wavelet-based baseline drift correction method for grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system on an airship enjoys high depth of prospecting and spatial resolution, as well as outstanding detection efficiency and easy flight control. However, the movement and swing of the front-fixed receiving coil can cause severe baseline drift, leading to inferior resistivity image formation. Consequently, the reduction of baseline drift of GREATEM is of vital importance to inversion explanation. To correct the baseline drift, a traditional interpolation method estimates the baseline `envelope' using the linear interpolation between the calculated start and end points of all cycles, and obtains the corrected signal by subtracting the envelope from the original signal. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of the removal is found to be low. Considering the characteristics of the baseline drift in GREATEM data, this study proposes a wavelet-based method based on multi-resolution analysis. The optimal wavelet basis and decomposition levels are determined through the iterative comparison of trial and error. This application uses the sym8 wavelet with 10 decomposition levels, and obtains the approximation at level-10 as the baseline drift, then gets the corrected signal by removing the estimated baseline drift from the original signal. To examine the performance of our proposed method, we establish a dipping sheet model and calculate the theoretical response. Through simulations, we compare the signal-to-noise ratio, signal distortion, and processing speed of the wavelet-based method and those of the interpolation method. Simulation results show that the wavelet-based method outperforms the interpolation method. We also use field data to evaluate the methods, compare the depth section images of apparent resistivity using the original signal, the interpolation-corrected signal and the wavelet-corrected signal, respectively. The results confirm that our proposed wavelet-based method is an effective, practical method to remove the baseline drift of GREATEM signals and its performance is significantly superior to the interpolation method.

Wang, Yuan 1Ji, Yanju 2Li, Suyi 13Lin, Jun 12Zhou, Fengdao 1Yang, Guihong

2013-09-01

221

[Low vacuum as a ground simulation method for studies of gas convection heat transfer inside manned spacecraft].  

PubMed

Owing to reduced gravity on the orbit, the convection model of the environment inside the manned spacecraft becomes complicated, and it is difficult to simulate under 1G condition for related studies on the ground. The author described a method using low vacuum to simulate the effect of reduced gravity on gas convection heat transfer for ground studies of environmental control and lifesupport system of manned spacecraft. It is demonstrated that when suitable experimental vessel and appropriate method are used, it is possible that convection heat transfer of the environment inside the manned spacecraft flying on the orbit may be simulated successfully on the ground. PMID:11543378

Wang, K; Xing, S

1998-12-01

222

Survey on the estimation of mutual information methods as a measure of dependency versus correlation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this survey, we present and compare different approaches to estimate Mutual Information (MI) from data to analyse general dependencies between variables of interest in a system. We demonstrate the performance difference of MI versus correlation analysis, which is only optimal in case of linear dependencies. First, we use a piece-wise constant Bayesian methodology using a general Dirichlet prior. In this estimation method, we use a two-stage approach where we approximate the probability distribution first and then calculate the marginal and joint entropies. Here, we demonstrate the performance of this Bayesian approach versus the others for computing the dependency between different variables. We also compare these with linear correlation analysis. Finally, we apply MI and correlation analysis to the identification of the bias in the determination of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) by the satellite based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the ground based AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). Here, we observe that the AOD measurements by these two instruments might be different for the same location. The reason of this bias is explored by quantifying the dependencies between the bias and 15 other variables including cloud cover, surface reflectivity and others.

Gencaga, D.; Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.

2014-12-01

223

Relative efficiency of four parameter-estimation methods in steady-state and transient ground-water flow models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parameters in numerical ground-water flow models have been successfully estimated using nonlinear-optimization methods such as the modified Gauss-Newton (GN) method and conjugate-direction methods. This paper investigates the relative efficiency of GN and three conjugate-direction parameter-estimation methods on two-dimensional, steady-state and transient ground-water flow test cases. The steady-state test cases are included to compare the performance of the algorithm with published examples. The three conjugate-direction methods are the Fletcher-Reeves (FR) and quasi-Newton (QN) regression methods, and combination Fletcher-Reeves quasi-Newton (FR-QN). All three are combined with Newton's method of calculating step size. The numerical ground-water flow model is described by McDonald and Harbaugh.

Hill, M.C.

1990-01-01

224

Efficient Continuous-time Quantum Monte Carlo Method for the Ground State of Correlated Fermions  

E-print Network

We present the ground state extension of the efficient quantum Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice fermions of arXiv:1411.0683. Based on continuous-time expansion of imaginary-time projection operator, the algorithm is free of systematic error and scales \\emph{linearly} with projection time and interaction strength. Compared to the conventional quantum Monte Carlo methods for lattice fermions, this approach has greater flexibility and is easier to combine with powerful machinery such as histogram reweighting and extended ensemble simulation techniques. We discuss the implementation of the continuous-time projection in detail using the spinless $t-V$ model as an example and compare the numerical results with exact diagonalization, density-matrix-renormalization-group and infinite projected entangled-pair states calculations. Finally we use the method to study the fermionic quantum critical point of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice and confirm previous results concerning its critical exponents.

Lei Wang; Mauro Iazzi; Philippe Corboz; Matthias Troyer

2015-01-05

225

Efficient Continuous-time Quantum Monte Carlo Method for the Ground State of Correlated Fermions  

E-print Network

We present the ground state extension of the efficient quantum Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice fermions of arXiv:1411.0683. Based on continuous-time expansion of imaginary-time projection operator, the algorithm is free of systematic error and scales \\emph{linearly} with projection time and interaction strength. Compared to the conventional quantum Monte Carlo methods for lattice fermions, this approach has greater flexibility and is easier to combine with powerful machinery such as histogram reweighting and extended ensemble simulation techniques. We discuss the implementation of the continuous-time projection in detail using the spinless $t-V$ model as an example and compare the numerical results with exact diagonalization, density-matrix-renormalization-group and infinite projected entangled-pair states calculations. Finally we use the method to study the fermionic quantum critical point of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice and confirm previous results concerning its critical exponents.

Wang, Lei; Corboz, Philippe; Troyer, Matthias

2015-01-01

226

Air Force ground-water contamination cleanup: an evaluation of the pump-and-treat method. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is an attempt to determine the effectiveness of the Air Force's use of pump-and-treat technology to remediate groundwater contamination. The study is divided into four major sections: (1) literature survey of ground-water contamination problems and remediation technology; (2) identification of bases where pump-and-treat technology has been employed; (3) collection of quantitative data from bases for analysis; (4) analysis

Ammons

1988-01-01

227

Methods Used to Assess the Susceptibility to Contamination of Transient, Non-Community Public Ground-Water Supplies in Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Safe Water Drinking Act of 1974 as amended in 1996 gave each State the responsibility of developing a Source-Water Assessment Plan (SWAP) that is designed to protect public-water supplies from contamination. Each SWAP must include three elements: (1) a delineation of the source-water protection area, (2) an inventory of potential sources of contaminants within the area, and (3) a determination of the susceptibility of the public-water supply to contamination from the inventoried sources. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) was responsible for preparing a SWAP for all public-water supplies in Indiana, including about 2,400 small public ground-water supplies that are designated transient, non-community (TNC) supplies. In cooperation with IDEM, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled information on conditions near the TNC supplies and helped IDEM complete source-water assessments for each TNC supply. The delineation of a source-water protection area (called the assessment area) for each TNC ground-water supply was defined by IDEM as a circular area enclosed by a 300-foot radius centered at the TNC supply well. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were defined by IDEM as any of the 90 contaminants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking-water standards. Two of these, nitrate as nitrogen and total coliform bacteria, are Indiana State-regulated contaminants for TNC water supplies. IDEM representatives identified potential point and nonpoint sources of COCs within the assessment area, and computer database retrievals were used to identify potential point sources of COCs in the area outside the assessment area. Two types of methods-subjective and subjective hybrid-were used in the SWAP to determine susceptibility to contamination. Subjective methods involve decisions based upon professional judgment, prior experience, and (or) the application of a fundamental understanding of processes without the collection and analysis of data for a specific condition. Subjective hybrid methods combine subjective methods with quantitative hydrologic analyses. The subjective methods included an inventory of potential sources and associated contaminants, and a qualitative description of the inherent susceptibility of the area around the TNC supply. The description relies on a classification of the hydrogeologic and geomorphic characteristics of the general area around the TNC supply in terms of its surficial geology, regional aquifer system, the occurrence of fine- and coarse-grained geologic materials above the screen of the TNC well, and the potential for infiltration of contaminants. The subjective hybrid method combined the results of a logistic regression analysis with a subjective analysis of susceptibility and a subjective set of definitions that classify the thickness of fine-grained geologic materials above the screen of a TNC well in terms of impedance to vertical flow. The logistic regression determined the probability of elevated concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen (greater than or equal to 3 milligrams per liter) in ground water associated with specific thicknesses of fine-grained geologic materials above the screen of a TNC well. In this report, fine-grained geologic materials are referred to as a geologic barrier that generally impedes vertical flow through an aquifer. A geologic barrier was defined to be thin for fine-grained materials between 0 and 45 feet thick, moderate for materials between 45 and 75 feet thick, and thick if the fine-grained materials were greater than 75 feet thick. A flow chart was used to determine the susceptibility rating for each TNC supply. The flow chart indicated a susceptibility rating using (1) concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen and total coliform bacteria reported from routine compliance monitoring of the TNC supply, (2) the presence or absence of potential sources of regulated contaminants (nitrate as nitrogen and coliform bac

Arihood, Leslie D.; Cohen, David A.

2006-01-01

228

The effect of survey method on survey participation: Analysis of data from the Health Survey for England 2006 and the Boost Survey for London  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a need for local level health data for local government and health bodies, for health surveillance and planning and monitoring of policies and interventions. The Health Survey for England (HSE) is a nationally-representative survey of the English population living in private households, but sub-national analyses can be performed only at a regional level because of sample size.

Jennifer S Mindell; Sarah Tipping; Kevin Pickering; Steven Hope; Marilyn A Roth; Bob Erens

2010-01-01

229

First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.  

PubMed Central

From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

2002-01-01

230

The plate candidates and tiling method for LAMOST pilot survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A LAMOST survey observation plate should have a bright star in the center for Shack-Hartmann wave front estimation. Given the plate position, there should be at least one proper guide star on each guide CCD after a small angle focal plate rotation. The detailed requirements vary according to different observation condition. As a consequence, the plate center cannot be placed arbitrarily. Using the HIPMAIN star catalog as the initial candidates and the USNO-B1.0 catalog for neighbor star reference, several lists of acceptable survey plate centers are generated for different observation conditions. The sky area coverage is tested with each plate list. Tiling algorithms using these finite plate centers are optimized for the purpose of evenly sampling and catalog completeness. The tiling is much easier for dark nights than bright nights as there are more optional plate centers. The result is applied in the LAMOST pilot survey for verification and feedback is used to update the lists retentively.

Yuan, Hailong; Zhang, Haotong; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao

2012-09-01

231

Gap interpolation by inpainting methods: Application to ground and space-based asteroseismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In asteroseismology, the observed time series often suffers from incomplete time coverage due to gaps. The presence of periodic gaps may generate spurious peaks in the power spectrum that limit the analysis of the data. Various methods have been developed to deal with gaps in time series data. However, it is still important to improve these methods to be able to extract all the possible information contained in the data. In this paper, we propose a new approach to handling the problem, the so-called inpainting method. This technique, based on a prior condition of sparsity, enables the gaps in the data to be judiciously fill-in thereby preserving the asteroseismic signal as far as possible. The impact of the observational window function is reduced and the interpretation of the power spectrum simplified. This method is applied on both ground- and space-based data. It appears that the inpainting technique improves the detection and estimation of the oscillation modes. Additionally, it can be used to study very long time series of many stars because it is very fast to compute. For a time series of 50 days of CoRoT-like data, it allows a speed-up factor of 1000, if compared to methods with the same accuracy.

Pires, Sandrine; Mathur, Savita; García, Rafael A.; Ballot, Jérôme; Stello, Dennis; Sato, Kumiko

2015-02-01

232

Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida; preliminary results, US Geological Survey Toxic Waste-Ground Water Contamination Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in central Florida. The most important hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, consisting of fractured limestone and dolomite limestone. Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impacts of these land uses on ground-water quality by comparison with a fourth land use representing the absence of human activity in another area of recharge are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticides, which include the organic compounds simazine, ametryne, chlordane, DDE , bromacil, aldicarb, EDB, trifluralin, and diazinon, and the trace elements zinc and copper; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, napthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

Rutledge, A.T.

1987-01-01

233

Survey Research in Athletic Training: The Scientific Method of Development and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide a scientific method for the develop- ment, validation, and correct use of a survey tool. Background: Many athletic trainers are becoming involved in research to benefit either their own situations or the larger profession of athletic training. One of the most common meth- ods used to gain this necessary information is a survey, with either a questionnaire

Paula Sammarone Turocy

234

Teaching and Assessment Methods in Undergraduate Economics: A Fourth National Quinquennial Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 investigated teaching and assessment methods in different undergraduate courses. In this article, the authors offer basic results from the 2010 survey. "Chalk and talk" remains the dominant teaching style, but there were drops in mean (although not median) values for those pedagogies and some growth in the use…

Watts, Michael; Schaur, Georg

2011-01-01

235

SURVEY METHODS FOR ASSESSING LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY S. M. Nusser and E. E. Klaas  

E-print Network

SURVEY METHODS FOR ASSESSING LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY S. M. Nusser and E. E. Klaas September2002 1 in survey sampling provide effective approaches for contacting land owners and gaining their cooperation and organizations to generate digital land cover maps for states, regions, and the US as a whole. For example

236

A Validation of Extraction Methods for Noninvasive Sampling of Glucocorticoids in Free-Living Ground Squirrels  

PubMed Central

Fecal hormone assays provide a powerful tool for noninvasive monitoring of endocrine status in wild animals. In this study we validated a protocol for extracting and measuring glucocorticoids in free-living and captive Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). We first compared two commonly used extraction protocols to determine which performed better with commercially available antibodies. We next verified the preferred extraction method by correlating circulating and fecal glucocorticoid measures from a group of individuals over time. For this comparison, we used both a cortisol and a corticosterone antibody to determine which had greater affinity to the fecal metabolites. Cortisol was the primary circulating glucocorticoid, but both hormones were present in well above detectable concentrations in the blood, which does not occur in other sciurids. In addition, the cortisol antibody showed greater binding with the fecal extracts than did the corticosterone antibody. Finally, we used adrenocorticotropic hormone and dexamethasone challenges to demonstrate that changes in adrenal functioning are reflected in changing fecal corticoid levels. These results suggest that our extraction protocol provides a fast, reliable assay of stress hormones in free-living ground squirrels without the confounding influence of short-term rises in glucocorticoid concentrations caused by handling and restraint stress and that it can facilitate ecological and evolutionary studies of stress in wild species. PMID:16228945

Mateo, Jill M.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.

2008-01-01

237

Evaluation of ground motion scaling methods for analysis of structural systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground motion selection and scaling comprises undoubtedly the most important component of any seismic risk assessment study that involves time-history analysis. Ironically, this is also the single parameter with the least guidance provided in current building codes, resulting in the use of mostly subjective choices in design. The relevant research to date has been primarily on single-degree-of-freedom systems, with only a few studies using multi-degree-of-freedom systems. Furthermore, the previous research is based solely on numerical simulations with no experimental data available for the validation of the results. By contrast, the research effort described in this paper focuses on an experimental evaluation of selected ground motion scaling methods based on small-scale shake-table experiments of re-configurable linearelastic and nonlinear multi-story building frame structure models. Ultimately, the experimental results will lead to the development of guidelines and procedures to achieve reliable demand estimates from nonlinear response history analysis in seismic design. In this paper, an overview of this research effort is discussed and preliminary results based on linear-elastic dynamic response are presented. ?? ASCE 2011.

O'Donnell, A. P.; Beltsar, O.A.; Kurama, Y.C.; Kalkan, E.; Taflanidis, A.A.

2011-01-01

238

Thermodynamic ground state of MgB{sub 6} predicted from first principles structure search methods  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline structures of magnesium hexaboride, MgB{sub 6}, were investigated using unbiased structure searching methods combined with first principles density functional calculations. An orthorhombic Cmcm structure was predicted as the thermodynamic ground state of MgB{sub 6}. The energy of the Cmcm structure is significantly lower than the theoretical MgB{sub 6} models previously considered based on a primitive cubic arrangement of boron octahedra. The Cmcm structure is stable against the decomposition to elemental magnesium and boron solids at atmospheric pressure and high pressures up to 18.3 GPa. A unique feature of the predicted Cmcm structure is that the boron atoms are clustered into two forms: localized B{sub 6} octahedra and extended B{sub ?} ribbons. Within the boron ribbons, the electrons are delocalized and this leads to a metallic ground state with vanished electric dipoles. The present prediction is in contrast to the previous proposal that the crystalline MgB{sub 6} maintains a semiconducting state with permanent dipole moments. MgB{sub 6} is estimated to have much weaker electron-phonon coupling compared with that of MgB{sub 2}, and therefore it is not expected to be able to sustain superconductivity at high temperatures.

Wang, Hui [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China) [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); LeBlanc, K. A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Gao, Bo [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yao, Yansun, E-mail: yansun.yao@usask.ca [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada) [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0X4 (Canada)

2014-01-28

239

Sensitivity of Spaceborne and Ground Radar Comparison Results to Data Analysis Methods and Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the availability of active weather radar observations from space from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TR.MM) satellite, numerous studies have been performed comparing PR reflectivity and derived rain rates to similar observations from ground-based weather radars (GR). These studies have used a variety of algorithms to compute matching PR and GR volumes for comparison. Most studies have used a fixed 3-dimensional Cartesian grid centered on the ground radar, onto which the PR and GR data are interpolated using a proprietary approach and/or commonly available GR analysis software (e.g., SPRINT, REORDER). Other studies have focused on the intersection of the PR and GR viewing geometries either explicitly or using a hybrid of the fixed grid and PR/GR common fields of view. For the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, a prototype DPR/GR comparison algorithm based on similar TRMM PR data has been developed that defines the common volumes in terms of the geometric intersection of PR and GR rays, where smoothing of the PR and GR data are minimized and no interpolation is performed. The PR and GR volume-averaged reflectivity values of each sample volume are accompanied by descriptive metadata, for attributes including the variability and maximum of the reflectivity within the sample volume, and the fraction of range gates in the sample average having reflectivity values above an adjustable detection threshold (typically taken to be 18 dBZ for the PR). Sample volumes are further characterized by rain type (Stratiform or Convective), proximity to the melting layer, underlying surface (land/water/mixed), and the time difference between the PR and GR observations. The mean reflectivity differences between the PR and GR can differ between data sets produced by the different analysis methods; and for the GPM prototype, by the type of constraints and categorization applied to the data. In this paper, we will show results comparing the 3-D gridded analysis "black box" approach to the GPM prototype volume-matching approach, using matching TRMM PR and WSR-88D ground radar data. The affects of applying data constraints and data categorizations on the volume-matched data to the results will be shown, and explanations of the differences in terms of data and analysis algorithm characteristics will be presented. Implications of the differences to the determination of PR/DPR calibration differences and use of ground radar data to evaluate the PR and DPR attenuation correction algorithms will be discussed.

Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

2011-01-01

240

40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2011-07-01

241

40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

242

40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2012-07-01

243

40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2014-07-01

244

40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2010-07-01

245

A survey on evaluation methods for image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies different methods proposed so far for segmentation evaluation. Most methods can be classified into three groups: the analytical, the empirical goodness and the empirical discrepancy groups. Each group has its own characteristics. After a brief description of each method in every group, some comparative discussions about different method groups are first carried out. An experimental comparison for

Y. J. Zhang

1996-01-01

246

Integrating case study and survey research methods: an example in information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case for combining research methods generally, and more specifically that for combining qualitative and quantitative methods, is strong. Yet, research designs that extensively integrate both fieldwork (e.g. case studies) and survey research are rare. Moreover, some journals tend tacitly to specialize by methodology thereby encouraging purity of method. The multi-method model of research while not new, has not been

Guy G. Gable

1994-01-01

247

Methods to reduce radiation from split ground planes in RF and mixed signal packaging structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Split ground planes are sometimes used in RF and mixed signal packages in order to isolate the RF and analog circuits from the digital circuits. Undesired radiation in a packaging environment may occur when a signal trace is routed over a slot in the ground plane. This paper examines and investigates ways to eliminate signal coupling into split ground plane

Tamir E. Moran; Kathleen L. Virga; G. Aguirre; J. L. Prince

2002-01-01

248

Finding a Fox: An Evaluation of Survey Methods to Estimate Abundance of a Small Desert Carnivore  

PubMed Central

The status of many carnivore species is a growing concern for wildlife agencies, conservation organizations, and the general public. Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) were classified as abundant and distributed in the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, but is now considered rare throughout its range. Survey methods have been evaluated for kit foxes, but often in populations where abundance is high and there is little consensus on which technique is best to monitor abundance. We conducted a 2-year study to evaluate four survey methods (scat deposition surveys, scent station surveys, spotlight survey, and trapping) for detecting kit foxes and measuring fox abundance. We determined the probability of detection for each method, and examined the correlation between the relative abundance as estimated by each survey method and the known minimum kit fox abundance as determined by radio-collared animals. All surveys were conducted on 15 5-km transects during the 3 biological seasons of the kit fox. Scat deposition surveys had both the highest detection probabilities (p?=?0.88) and were most closely related to minimum known fox abundance (r2?=?0.50, P?=?0.001). The next best method for kit fox detection was the scent station survey (p?=?0.73), which had the second highest correlation to fox abundance (r2?=?0.46, P<0.001). For detecting kit foxes in a low density population we suggest using scat deposition transects during the breeding season. Scat deposition surveys have low costs, resilience to weather, low labor requirements, and pose no risk to the study animals. The breeding season was ideal for monitoring kit fox population size, as detections consisted of the resident population and had the highest detection probabilities. Using appropriate monitoring techniques will be critical for future conservation actions for this rare desert carnivore. PMID:25148102

Dempsey, Steven J.; Gese, Eric M.; Kluever, Bryan M.

2014-01-01

249

Finding a fox: an evaluation of survey methods to estimate abundance of a small desert carnivore.  

PubMed

The status of many carnivore species is a growing concern for wildlife agencies, conservation organizations, and the general public. Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) were classified as abundant and distributed in the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, but is now considered rare throughout its range. Survey methods have been evaluated for kit foxes, but often in populations where abundance is high and there is little consensus on which technique is best to monitor abundance. We conducted a 2-year study to evaluate four survey methods (scat deposition surveys, scent station surveys, spotlight survey, and trapping) for detecting kit foxes and measuring fox abundance. We determined the probability of detection for each method, and examined the correlation between the relative abundance as estimated by each survey method and the known minimum kit fox abundance as determined by radio-collared animals. All surveys were conducted on 15 5-km transects during the 3 biological seasons of the kit fox. Scat deposition surveys had both the highest detection probabilities (p?=?0.88) and were most closely related to minimum known fox abundance (r2?=?0.50, P?=?0.001). The next best method for kit fox detection was the scent station survey (p?=?0.73), which had the second highest correlation to fox abundance (r2?=?0.46, P<0.001). For detecting kit foxes in a low density population we suggest using scat deposition transects during the breeding season. Scat deposition surveys have low costs, resilience to weather, low labor requirements, and pose no risk to the study animals. The breeding season was ideal for monitoring kit fox population size, as detections consisted of the resident population and had the highest detection probabilities. Using appropriate monitoring techniques will be critical for future conservation actions for this rare desert carnivore. PMID:25148102

Dempsey, Steven J; Gese, Eric M; Kluever, Bryan M

2014-01-01

250

Ground-penetrating radar methods used in surface-water discharge measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, an experiment was conducted to see if a combination of complementary radar methods could be used to calculate the discharge of a river without having any of the measuring equipment in the water. The cross-sectional area of the 183-meter wide Skagit River in Washington State was measured using a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system with a single 100-MHz antenna. A van-mounted, side-looking pulsed-Doppler radar system was used to collect water-surface velocity data across the same section of the river. The combined radar data sets were used to calculate the river discharge and the results compared closely to the discharge measurement made by using the standard in-water measurement techniques.

Haeni, F.P.; Buursink, Marc L.; Costa, John E.; Melcher, Nick B.; Cheng, Ralph T.; Plant, William J.

2000-01-01

251

The Swift UVOT Stars Survey. I. Methods and Test Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the motivations and background of a large survey of nearby stellar populations using the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. UVOT, with its wide field, near-UV sensitivity, and 2.?3 spatial resolution, is uniquely suited to studying nearby stellar populations and providing insight into the near-UV properties of hot stars and the contribution of those stars to the integrated light of more distant stellar populations. We review the state of UV stellar photometry, outline the survey, and address problems specific to wide- and crowded-field UVOT photometry. We present color–magnitude diagrams of the nearby open clusters M67, NGC 188, and NGC 2539, and the globular cluster M79. We demonstrate that UVOT can easily discern the young- and intermediate-age main sequences, blue stragglers, and hot white dwarfs, producing results consistent with previous studies. We also find that it characterizes the blue horizontal branch of M79 and easily identifies a known post-asymptotic giant branch star.

Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Linevsky, Jacquelyn S.; Bond, Howard E.; Holland, Stephen T.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Berrier, Joshua L.; Breeveld, Alice A.; Brown, Peter J.; Gronwall, Caryl A.

2014-12-01

252

A survey of motif discovery methods in an integrated framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There has been a growing interest in computational discovery of regulatory elements, and a multitude of motif discovery methods have been proposed. Computational motif discovery has been used with some success in simple organisms like yeast. However, as we move to higher organisms with more complex genomes, more sensitive methods are needed. Several recent methods try to integrate additional

Geir Kjetil Sandve; Finn Drabløs

2006-01-01

253

Measurement, characterization, and prediction of strong ground motion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A number of predictive relationships derived from regression analysis of strong-motion data are available for horizontal peak acceleration, velocity, and response spectral values. Theoretical prediction of ground motion calls for stochastic source models because source heterogeneities control the amplitude of ground motion at most, if not all, frequencies of engineering interest. Theoretical methods have been developed for estimation of ground-motion parameters and simulation of ground-motion time series. These methods are particularly helpful for regions such, as eastern North America where strong-motion data are sparse. The authors survey the field, first reviewing developments in ground-motion measurement and data processing. The authors then consider the choice of parameters for characterizing strong ground motion and describe the wave-types involved in strong ground motion and the factors affecting ground-motion amplitudes. They conclude by describing methods for predicting ground motion.

Joyner, William; Boore, David M.

1988-01-01

254

A survey of design methods for failure detection in dynamic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of methods for the detection of abrupt changes (such as failures) in stochastic dynamical systems were surveyed. The class of linear systems were emphasized, but the basic concepts, if not the detailed analyses, carry over to other classes of systems. The methods surveyed range from the design of specific failure-sensitive filters, to the use of statistical tests on filter innovations, to the development of jump process formulations. Tradeoffs in complexity versus performance are discussed.

Willsky, A. S.

1975-01-01

255

Comparison of visual survey and seining methods for estimating abundance of an endangered, benthic stream fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared visual survey and seining methods for estimating abundance of endangered Okaloosa darters, Etheostoma okaloosae, in 12 replicate stream reaches during August 2001. For each 20-m stream reach, two divers systematically located and marked the position of darters and then a second crew of three to five people came through with a small-mesh seine and exhaustively sampled the same area. Visual surveys required little extra time to complete. Visual counts (24.2 ?? 12.0; mean ?? one SD) considerably exceeded seine captures (7.4 ?? 4.8), and counts from the two methods were uncorrelated. Visual surveys, but not seines, detected the presence of Okaloosa darters at one site with low population densities. In 2003, we performed a depletion removal study in 10 replicate stream reaches to assess the accuracy of the visual survey method. Visual surveys detected 59% of Okaloosa darters present, and visual counts and removal estimates were positively correlated. Taken together, our comparisons indicate that visual surveys more accurately and precisely estimate abundance of Okaloosa darters than seining and more reliably detect presence at low population densities. We recommend evaluation of visual survey methods when designing programs to monitor abundance of benthic fishes in clear streams, especially for threatened and endangered species that may be sensitive to handling and habitat disturbance. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Jordan, F.; Jelks, H.L.; Bortone, S.A.; Dorazio, R.M.

2008-01-01

256

Method to minimize the gravity sag of a facing ground ?1m flat mirror  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for minimizing the optical distortion from gravity sag on a suspended and autocollimated flat mirror facing ground has been proposed in the paper. Referring to this method, a mechanism consisting of 18 pulleys and weight sets unloads the gravity of the ?1m flat mirror the alignment and testing benchmark of the 1m aperture optical system of the Space Solar Telescope (SST). Three positioning points support the mirror, allow the mirror to be held or suspended above an object to be viewed steadily and reliably. 18 pulling points on the back of the mirror unload the mirror's weight. The bonded joints of these 18 points are analyzed and tested to be reliable, and can bear the affection of variation of temperature and inner stress. The manufacturing and assembling precision of the support is analyzed and controlled, the unload forces of these 18 points are assigned. With this method, the surface error of the flat tested by Ritchey-Common arrangement is satisfactory for the alignment of SST of less than 1/50? (RMS, ?=633nm).

Guo, Yongwei; Gu, Xuedong; Yang, Shimo

2006-02-01

257

Application of a method for the automatic detection and Ground-Based Velocity Track Display (GBVTD) analysis of a tornado crossing the Hong Kong International Airport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A weak tornado with a maximum Doppler velocity shear of about 40 m s - 1 moved across the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) during the evening of 20 May 2002. The tornado caused damage equivalent to F0 on the Fujita Scale, based on a damage survey. The Doppler velocity data from the Hong Kong Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) are studied using the Ground-Based Velocity Track Display (GBVTD) method of single Doppler analysis. The GBVTD analysis is able to clearly depict the development and decay of the tornado though it appears to underestimate its magnitude. In the pre-tornadic state, the wind field is characterized by inflow toward the center near the ground and upward motion near the center. When the tornado attains its maximum strength, an eye-like structure with a downdraft appears to form in the center. Several minutes later the tornado begins to decay and outflow dominates at low levels. Assuming cyclostrophic balance, the pressure drop 200 m from the center of the tornado at its maximum strength is calculated to be about 6 hPa. To estimate the maximum ground-relative wind speed of the tornado, the TDWR's Doppler velocities are adjusted for the ratio of the sample-volume size of the radar and the radius of the tornado, resulting in a peak wind speed of 28 m s - 1 , consistent with the readings from a nearby ground-based anemometers and the F0 damage observed. An automatic tornado detection algorithm based on Doppler velocity difference (delta-V) and temporal and spatial continuity is applied to this event. The locations and the core flow radii of the tornado as determined by the automatic method and by subjective analysis agree closely.

Chan, P. W.; Wurman, J.; Shun, C. M.; Robinson, P.; Kosiba, K.

2012-03-01

258

A survey of the effects of a fourth year Introduction to Research Methods course  

E-print Network

A survey of the effects of a fourth year Introduction to Research Methods course Vashti Galpin an introductory research methods Honours course to increase our students' exposure to research and to help them with the Honours research reports prior to the introduction of the research methods course have been alleviated. 1

Galpin, Vashti

259

A Comparison between Survey and Verbal Choice Methods of Identifying Potential Reinforcers among Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods of assessing preference for stimuli (i.e., potential reinforcers) were compared for adult administrative assistant employees. During Phase 1, a survey method and a verbal choice method of assessing preference for 6 stimuli were administered. During Phase 2, a coupon system was used to determine which categories of stimuli actually…

Wilder, David A; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron

2006-01-01

260

A Survey on Digital Camera Image Forensic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two main interests in Digital Camera Image Forensics, namely source identification and forgery detection. In this paper, we first briefly provide an introduction to the major processing stages inside a digital camera and then review several methods for source digital camera identification and forgery detection. Existing methods for source identification explore the various processing stages inside a digital

Tran Van Lanh; Kai-sen Chong; Sabu Emmanuel; Mohan S. Kankanhalli

2007-01-01

261

Assessing subsurface strata using geophysical and geotechnical methods for designing structures near ground cracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a combined approach using both geophysical and geotechnical approaches to study and evaluate the subsurface strata near ground for sites suffering from faults and cracks. It demonstrates how both techniques can be utilized to gather useful information for design geotechnical engineers. The safe distance for construction close to a ground crack is mainly dependant on the subsurface stratification and the engineering properties of underlying soils or rocks. Other factors include the area geology and concepts of safety margins. This study is carried out for a site in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. This type of faults and cracks can normally occur due to a geological or physical event or due to the nature and properties of the subsurface material. The geotechnical works included advancing rotary boreholes to depths of 25m to 31m with sampling and testing. The geophysical method used included performing 2D electrical resistivity profiles. The results of geophysical and geotechnical works showed good and close agreement. The use of 2D electrical resistivity was found useful to establish the layer thicknesses of shale and highly plastic clay. This cannot be determined without deep and expensive direct boring investigation. The results showed that a thick layer of expansive soil, which is considered a high-risk soil type containing large percentage of highly plastic clay materials, underlies the site. The volume changes due to humidity variations can result in either swelling or shrinking. These changes can have significant impact on engineering structures such as light buildings and roads. The logic of placing structures in close vicinity of the cracks is based on lateral stresses exerted on the crack face. The layer thickness is a detrimental factor to establish a safe design distance. Stress distribution analysis procedure is explained.

AlFouzan, F.; Dafalla, M.; Mutaz, E.

2012-04-01

262

Surveys  

Cancer.gov

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) The world's largest, on-going telephone health survey system, tracking health conditions and risk behaviors in the United States yearly since 1984. Currently, data are collected monthly in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam.

263

Ground Gravity, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Surveys on a Crater on Basalt of Bajada del Diablo Astrobleme-Strewn Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of further investigate the circular structures from Bajada del Diablo, we carried out geophysics surveys and we conclude that the geophysical features could be satisfactorily explained assuming an extra-terrestrial projectile impact.

Acevedo, R. D.; Prezzi, C.; Orgeira, M. J.; Rocca, M.; Martínez, O.; Ponce, J. F.; Corbella, H.; Rabassa, J.; González-Guillot, M.; Subías, I.

2014-09-01

264

Determining concentrations of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and dibromopropene in ground water using quantitative methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for determining levels of 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 2,3-dibromopropene from ground-water samples using liquid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were extracted from the water using three aliquots of dichloromethane. The aliquots were combined and reduced in volume by rotary evaporation followed by evaporation using a nitrogen stream. The extracts were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the full-scan mode. Estimated method detection limits were 30 nanograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol and 10 nanograms per liter for 2,3-dibromopropene. Recoveries were determined by spiking three matrices at two concentration levels (0.540 and 5.40 micrograms per liter for 2-bromoallyl alcohol; and 0.534 and 5.34micro-grams per liter for dibromopropene). For seven replicates of each matrix at the high concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.9 to 64.9 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 87.5 to 99.3 percent for dibromopropene. At the low concentration level, the mean percent recoveries ranged from 43.8 to 95.2 percent for 2-bromoallyl alcohol, and from 71.3 to 84.9 percent for dibromopropene.

Panshin, Sandra Y.

1997-01-01

265

Laser optoacoustic method for quantitative nondestructive evaluation of the subsurface damage depth in ground silicon wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a report on the novel laser optoacoustic method for nondestructive evaluation of the depth of the subsurface damage in ground single-crystal silicon wafers. It is based on different mechanisms of laser excitation of ultrasound by absorption of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses at the fundamental wavelength: the concentration-deformation mechanism in the undamaged single-crystal silicon and the thermoelastic one in the subsurface damaged layer. Due to the uniform heating of the whole damaged layer during the laser pulse action the amplitude of the compression phase of the laser-induced ultrasonic signal is proportional to the damaged depth. The rarefaction phase of this signal arises by absorption of the remaining laser energy in the single-crystal silicon beneath the damaged layer. The empirical relation between the depth of the subsurface damage and the ratio of the amplitudes of compression and rarefaction phases of the laser-induced ultrasonic signal can be fitted by a linear function within the depth variation and the corresponding spread of the signal amplitudes. The proposed method attracts some interest for in situ control of the solid surface condition that is important in different tasks of linear and nonlinear optics.

Podymova, N. B.; Karabutov, A. A.; Cherepetskaya, E. B.

2014-08-01

266

Density-based partitioning methods for ground-state molecular calculations.  

PubMed

With the growing complexity of systems that can be treated with modern electronic-structure methods, it is critical to develop accurate and efficient strategies to partition the systems into smaller, more tractable fragments. We review some of the various recent formalisms that have been proposed to achieve this goal using fragment (ground-state) electron densities as the main variables, with an emphasis on partition density-functional theory (PDFT), which the authors have been developing. To expose the subtle but important differences between alternative approaches and to highlight the challenges involved with density partitioning, we focus on the simplest possible systems where the various methods can be transparently compared. We provide benchmark PDFT calculations on homonuclear diatomic molecules and analyze the associated partition potentials. We derive a new exact condition determining the strength of the singularities of the partition potentials at the nuclei, establish the connection between charge-transfer and electronegativity equalization between fragments, test different ways of dealing with fractional fragment charges and spins, and finally outline a general strategy for overcoming delocalization and static-correlation errors in density-functional calculations. PMID:24999621

Nafziger, Jonathan; Wasserman, Adam

2014-09-11

267

Perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the lower ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the ionosphere and atmosphere parameters. The method uses one of the numerous physical phenomena observed in the ionosphere illuminated by high-power radio waves. It is a generation of the artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) in the ionospheric plasma. The APIs were found while studying the effects of ionospheric high-power HF modification. It was established that the APIs are formed by a standing wave that occurs due to interference between the upwardly radiated radio wave and its reflection off the ionosphere. The API studies are based upon observation of the Bragg backscatter of the pulsed probe radio wave from the artificial periodic structure. Bragg backscatter occurs if the spatial period of the irregularities is equal to half a wavelength of the probe signal. The API techniques makes it possible to obtain the following information: the profiles of electron density from the lower D-region up to the maximum of the F-layer; the irregular structure of the ionosphere including split of the regular E-layer, the sporadic layers; the vertical velocities in the D- and E-regions of the ionosphere; the turbulent velocities, turbulent diffusion coefficients and the turbopause altitude; the neutral temperatures and densities at the E-region altitudes; the parameters of the internal gravity waves and their spectral characteristics; the relative concentration of negative oxygen ions in the D-region. Some new results obtained by the API technique are discussed .

Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Grigoriev, G. I.; Tolmacheva, A. V.

268

Analytical study of STOL Aircraft in ground effect. Part 1: Nonplanar, nonlinear wing/jet lifting surface method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonlinear, nonplanar three dimensional jet flap analysis, applicable to the ground effect problem, is presented. Lifting surface methodology is developed for a wing with arbitrary planform operating in an inviscid and incompressible fluid. The classical, infintely thin jet flap model is employed to simulate power induced effects. An iterative solution procedure is applied within the analysis to successively approximate the jet shape until a converged solution is obtained which closely satisfies jet and wing boundary conditions. Solution characteristics of the method are discussed and example results are presented for unpowered, basic powered and complex powered configurations. Comparisons between predictions of the present method and experimental measurements indicate that the improvement of the jet with the ground plane is important in the analyses of powered lift systems operating in ground proximity. Further development of the method is suggested in the areas of improved solution convergence, more realistic modeling of jet impingement and calculation efficiency enhancements.

Shollenberger, C. A.; Smyth, D. N.

1978-01-01

269

Evaluation of In-Service Education: A Survey of Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following methods of evaluation of inservice programs are very briefly discussed: a) behavioral objectives; b) diagnosis; c) learner outcomes; d) effects on teachers; e) classroom observation, and f) questionnaires following inservice activity. (HMD)

Wehmeyer, Lillian M.

1974-01-01

270

A Survey of Methods of Teaching Mathematics. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several methods of teaching college-level mathematics sequences are examined for their advantages, disadvantages, and costs. Materials considered include textbooks, film sequences, videotaped lectures, and individualized teaching machines. (SD)

Kovach, L. D.

271

Survey of methods for secure connection to the internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a study of a security method of protecting inside network computers against outside miscreants and unwelcome visitors and a control method when these computers are connected with the Internet. In the present Internet, a method to encipher all data cannot be used, so that it is necessary to utilize PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail) capable of the encipherment and conversion of secret information. For preventing miscreant access by eavesdropping password, one-time password is effective. The most cost-effective method is a firewall system. This system lies between the outside and inside network. By limiting computers that directly communicate with the Internet, control is centralized and inside network security is protected. If the security of firewall systems is strictly controlled under correct setting, security within the network can be secured even in open networks such as the Internet.

Matsui, Shouichi

1994-04-01

272

Gamma/hadron segregation for a ground based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope using machine learning methods: Random Forest leads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed case study of ?-hadron segregation for a ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope is presented. We have evaluated and compared various supervised machine learning methods such as the Random Forest method, Artificial Neural Network, Linear Discriminant method, Naive Bayes Classifiers, Support Vector Machines as well as the conventional dynamic supercut method by simulating triggering events with the Monte Carlo method and applied the results to a Cherenkov telescope. It is demonstrated that the Random Forest method is the most sensitive machine learning method for ?-hadron segregation.

Sharma, Mradul; Nayak, Jitadeepa; Krishna Koul, Maharaj; Bose, Smarajit; Mitra, Abhas

2014-11-01

273

MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model : user guide to the LMT6 package, the linkage with MT3DMS for multi-species mass transport modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

MODFLOW-2000, the newest version of MODFLOW, is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium using a finite-difference method. MT3DMS, the successor to MT3D, is a computer program for modeling multi-species solute transport in three-dimensional ground-water systems using multiple solution techniques, including the finite-difference method, the method of characteristics (MOC), and the total-variation-diminishing (TVD) method. This report documents a new version of the Link-MT3DMS Package, which enables MODFLOW-2000 to produce the information needed by MT3DMS, and also discusses new visualization software for MT3DMS. Unlike the Link-MT3D Packages that coordinated previous versions of MODFLOW and MT3D, the new Link-MT3DMS Package requires an input file that, among other things, provides enhanced support for additional MODFLOW sink/source packages and allows list-directed (free) format for the flow model produced flow-transport link file. The report contains four parts: (a) documentation of the Link-MT3DMS Package Version 6 for MODFLOW-2000; (b) discussion of several issues related to simulation setup and input data preparation for running MT3DMS with MODFLOW-2000; (c) description of two test example problems, with comparison to results obtained using another MODFLOW-based transport program; and (d) overview of post-simulation visualization and animation using the U.S. Geological Survey?s Model Viewer.

Zheng, Chunmiao; Hill, Mary Catherine; Hsieh, Paul A.

2001-01-01

274

Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is a possible geophysical method to get detailed information about the structure of the soil. Mining activities and the burning coal are leaving voids which collapse or still exist as dangerous areas. With GPR it is possible to detect voids and clefts. Crevices are potential paths for oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. The knowledge of these structures would help to extinguish the fire. The heat of the burning coal changes the permittivity and the conductivity of the rock. This affects the radar signal and makes it possible to separate burning zones from intact zones. Monitoring of the burning zones helps to find optimal solutions for fire extinguishing strategies. Several field campaigns were made in China. One campaign was in the province Xinjiang with a 50 MHz system from Mala on a steep dipping coal seam. Other campaigns were in the Inner Mongolia with 40 MHz to 200 MHz antennae from GSSI on shallow dipping coal seams. The experiences from these measurements will be shown. The surveys were collected in rough terrain. The data from the unshielded antennae contained a lot of effects coming through the air. The limits of detecting crevices with GPR will be demonstrated. Some parts of the measurements over burning coal were influenced by strong anomalies of the magnetization. Modeling of the radar signal helps at the interpretation. Parts of the interpretation from the surveys can be validated by the outcrop of the investigated structures. A spatial visualization of the results is the basis for discussions.

Gundelach, Volker

2010-05-01

275

COMPARISON OF GEOSTATISTICAL METHODS FOR ESTIMATING VIRUS INACTIVATION RATES IN GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Enteric viruses are responsible for a large number of ground-waterborne disease outbreaks every year. Septic tanks are the most frequently cited causes of ground-water contamination in disease outbreaks. Controlling the placement of septic tanks such that all viruses would be non...

276

Clutter reduction and detection of landmine objects in ground penetrating radar data using likelihood method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to reduce clutter signal due to the reflection from the ground surface in ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. The proposed technique has been applied to a GPR, which has been used to detect subsurface anti-personnel (AP) landmines. A very simple model is used to model the GPR clutter and the target signal. This

Galal Nadim

2008-01-01

277

Research of Stability Problems on Ankara-Konya High Speed Railway Line (Turkey) using Ground Penetrating Radar and Petrographical Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study is to research the stability problems according to rock properties and their discontinuities such as fractures, faults and karstic cavities on the new high-speed railway line between the capital city Ankara and the largest city Konya in Turkey. The Ankara-Konya high speed railway including a tunnel managed from The Turkish State Railways (TCDD). Geological surveys, polarizing microscope and confocal Raman spectrometry studies were used to determine rock properties. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) method was used to determine faults, fractures and karstic cavities. The railway line has been mainly constructed on inner Tauride Ocean suture of the Central Anatolia. The basement unit of the railway line mainly has been composed of ophiolitic complex of the inner Tauride Ocean. The main lithology of this ophiolitic complex has been formed by radiolarite, pelagic sediments, dolarite, gabbro, serpentinized peridotite and limestone blocks. The Jurassic alloctonous limestone which has been thrust on the ophiolitic complex. Neogene cover young units with minor amount of Alluvium deposits have been formed by the upper litholgy in the region. The serpentinite and altered radiolarite formation are formed by lubricous ground for the railway line in the region. A RAMAC CUII GPR system was used with a bi-static 100 MHz center band shielded antenna to acquire profile data. Totaly 35 km was surveyed on different parts of the railway line by considering the results of the geologic research and petrograpical studies. When we started to study, rail construction of some parts of the line had already been completed. Therefore, during studies, we gathered the data on the backfilled way on the three parallel profiles spaced 1m apart or on the service way next to the railway line. There was a tunnel on the line. We also gathered two parallel profiles data on the tunnel and four profiles data next to the tunnel to evaluate the stability according to the discontinuities. The petrographical studies and GPR results indicated that the areas with Jurassic alloctonous limestones thrusted on the ophiolitic rocks had deep and large fractures and cavities. The resulted radargrams indicated the thrust fault locations under the rail line. This limestone did not have a root and did not have big thickness. Therefore, the limestone could be move on the ophiolitic serpentinite unit. There were approximately horizontal and thin fracture segments under some parts of the tunnel nearly 8m in depth. There was an important collapsed zone filled up before. At the same time, there were thin and short fractures in the Jurassic limestone under the tunnel which was seen clearly on the radargrams. However, it was appeared that the hazard could not me removed completely because of the horizontal fracture. The areas with lacustrine limestones included disordered small fractures. Finally some areas had terra rossa because of the results of a large karstification. These areas could cause soil liquefaction during rainy season. The stability of these areas has to be controlled with ordered small periods.

Kadioglu, S.; Kadioglu, Y. K.

2012-04-01

278

Differential Weighting: A Survey of Methods and Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on a priori and empirical weighting of test items and test-item options is reviewed. While multiple regression is the best known technique for deriving fixed empirical weights for component variables (such as tests and test items), other methods allow one to derive weights which equalize the effective weights of the component…

Stanley, Julian C.; Wang, Marilyn D.

279

A Survey of Methods in the Human Potential Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training methods which affect the mind, body consciousness, values, and purpose of life, according to this article, include biofeedback, extrasensory perception, Yoga, transcendental meditation, and Zen. The article describes some elements common to these systems, lists a number of the systems with their costs, and gives some considerations in…

Margolis, Fredric

1977-01-01

280

The application of the transient electromagnetic method in hydrogeophysical surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient electromagnetic (TEM) method has been used extensively for hydrogeophysical exploration in Denmark for the past decade. Innovative instrumentation combined with multi-dimensional modelling and interpretational insights based on experience gained through numerous case studies have proven to be a successful strategy. In the case study reported here, the combination revealed an unknown and unexpected buried valley complex. Drill hole

Jens E. Danielsen; Esben Auken; Flemming Jørgensen; Verner Søndergaard; Kurt I. Sørensen

2003-01-01

281

Computational methods for Traditional Chinese Medicine: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been actively researched through various approaches, including computational techniques. A review on basic elements of TCM is provided to illuminate various challenges and progresses in its study using computational methods. Information on various TCM formulations, in particular resources on databases of TCM formulations and their integration to Western medicine, are analyzed in several facets, such

Suryani Lukman; Yulan He; Siu-Cheung Hui

2007-01-01

282

Critique of a Method for Surveying Employers. AIR Professional File.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, brought together six diverse public institutions in Tennessee to study the implications of the quality improvement methods of Edwards Deming and others for their own assessment programs. Later, five of these institutions--a technical institute, a community college, a comprehensive university, a…

Banta, Trudy

1993-01-01

283

survey of trust-region derivative free optimization methods  

E-print Network

DFO algorithms are the direct search or pattern search methods which are based on the .... as poised by choosing the points which ARE to leave or to enter Y so that this bound is reduced .... be very expensive in terms of function evaluations.

2007-06-14

284

Helicopter-borne and ground-towed radar surveys of the Fourcade Glacier on King George Island, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine subglacial topography and internal features of the Fourcade Glacier on King George Island in Antarctica, helicopter-borne and ground-towed ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data were recorded along four profiles in November 2006. Signature deconvolution, f-k migration velocity analysis, and finite-difference depth migration applied to the mixed-phase, single-channel, ground-towed data, were effective in increasing vertical resolution, obtaining the velocity function, and yielding clear depth images, respectively. For the helicopter-borne GPR, migration velocities were obtained as root-mean-squared velocities in a two-layer model of air and ice. The radar sections show rugged subglacial topography, englacial sliding surfaces, and localised scattering noise. The maximum depth to the basement is over 79m in the subglacial valley adjacent to the south-eastern slope of the divide ridge between Fourcade and Moczydlowski Glaciers. In the ground-towed profile, we interpret a complicated conduit above possible basal water and other isolated cavities, which are a few metres wide. Near the terminus, the GPR profiles image sliding surfaces, fractures, and faults that will contribute to the tidewater calving mechanism forming icebergs in Potter Cove.

Kim, K. Y.; Lee, J.; Hong, M. H.; Hong, J. K.; Shon, H.

2010-02-01

285

A survey of numerical methods for shock physics applications  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocodes or more accurately, shock physics analysis packages, have been widely used in the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and elsewhere around the world for over 30 years. Initial applications included weapons effects studies where the pressure levels were high enough to disregard the material strength, hence the term hydrocode. Over the last 30 years, Sandia has worked extensively to develop and apply advanced hydrocodes to armor/anti-armor interactions, warhead design, high explosive initiation, and nuclear weapon safety issues. The needs of the DOE have changed over the last 30 years, especially over the last decade. A much stronger emphasis is currently placed on the details of material deformation and high explosive initiation phenomena. The hydrocodes of 30 years ago have now evolved into sophisticated analysis tools that can replace testing in some situations and complement it in all situations. A brief history of the development of hydrocodes in the US will be given. The author also discusses and compares the four principal methods in use today for the solution of the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for shock physics applications. The techniques discussed are the Eulerian methods currently employed by the Sandia multi-dimensional shock physics analysis package known as CTH; the element based Lagrangian method currently used by codes like DYNA; the element free Lagrangian method (also known as smooth particle hydrodynamics) used by codes like the Los Alamos code SPHINX; and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian methods used by codes like the Lawrence Livermore code CALE or the Sandia code ALEGRA.

Hertel, E.S. Jr.

1997-10-01

286

Compression and Classification Methods for Galaxy Spectra in Large Redshift Surveys  

E-print Network

Methods for compression and classification of galaxy spectra, which are useful for large galaxy redshift surveys (such as the SDSS, 2dF, 6dF and VIRMOS), are reviewed. In particular, we describe and contrast three methods: (i) Principal Component Analysis, (ii) Information Bottleneck, and (iii) Fisher Matrix. We show applications to 2dF galaxy spectra and to mock semi-analytic spectra, and we discuss how these methods can be used to study physical processes of galaxy formation, clustering and galaxy biasing in the new large redshift surveys.

Ofer Lahav

2000-12-19

287

Quantitative assessment of outlier detection methods with MISR-stereo height measurements of ground topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As more and more EO data is processed automatically, particularly using image understanding techniques such as stereo matching, it becomes vitally important to be able to reduce the rate at which outliers (frequently known as "blunders") are able to be propagated through to final data products used for scientific investigations of global change. Since its launch in 1999, the Multiangle Imaging Spectro Radiometer (MISR) onboard the NASA EOS satellite Terra platform has proven to have a critical role in the study of Earth's atmosphere and land surfaces. Several of the operational products associated with MISR are focused on an analysis of cloud properties. Among them, stereo-matched MISR off-nadir images can be used to extract Cloud Top Heights and simultaneous wind-fields. We show here how we can assess these products and detect anomalous values (or outliers/blunders) through entirely using automatic methods, initially developed for solid earth, digital elevation models (DEMs). We assess the potential of 2 techniques proposed by Felicisimo (ISPRS J. of Photogram. and RS, 49(4) : 29-33, 1994) and Lopez (Trans. in GIS, 4(1) : 43-64, 2000) to detect outliers for 2 different areas of rugged topography using a military DEM, DTED0, as "ground truth".

Denis, M. A.; Muller, J. P.; Lopez, C.

2003-04-01

288

Evaluation of Two Survey Methods for Detection of Helminth Infections in \\\\White? tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, from central Pennsyl- vania were examined for helminth parasites by regular autopsy pro- cedures supplemented by a direct centrifugal flotation technique. The two methods were compared and evaluated for suitability in diagnosis and survey work. The reliability and repeatability of the flotation method were studied. Prevalence of most nematodes encountered was increased as a direct result

W. M. SAMUEL; R. L. BEAUDOIN

1966-01-01

289

A survey method for estimating potential levels of mangrove forest primary production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of net photosynthesis in mangrove communities by direct methods is technically and logistically difficult. Recording litter fall alone neglects other important components of production. A method has been developed which lends itself to ready application for obtaining survey estimates of photosynthetic yield. The procedure involves measurement of light attenuation through forest canopies attributable to photosynthetic utilization and standardized against

J. S. Bunt; K. G. Boto; G. Boto

1979-01-01

290

Informetric Theories and Methods for Exploring the Internet: An Analytical Survey of Recent Research Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a selective review of research based on the Internet, using bibliometric and informetric methods and tools. Highlights include data collection methods on the Internet, including surveys, logging, and search engines; and informetric analysis, including citation analysis and content analysis. (Contains 78 references.) (Author/LRW)

Bar-Ilan, Judit; Peritz, Bluma C.

2002-01-01

291

"Same, Same but Different" A Survey on Duplicate Detection Methods for  

E-print Network

"Same, Same but Different" A Survey on Duplicate Detection Methods for Situation Awareness Norbert Abstract. Systems supporting situation awareness typically deal with a vast stream of information about examines existing duplicate detection methods ap- pearing to be suitable in the area of situation awareness

Hochreiter, Sepp

292

A Prediction Method for Job Runtimes on Shared Processors: Survey, Statistical Analysis and New  

E-print Network

on the development of a new method to predict the running times of jobs on shared processors. To this end, we performA Prediction Method for Job Runtimes on Shared Processors: Survey, Statistical Analysis and New,mei,koole}@few.vu.nl Abstract Grid computing is an emerging technology by which huge numbers of processors over the world create

van der Mei, Rob

293

Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) method for measurements of soil moisture in cropped fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of soil moisture at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. This study evaluates the applicability of the Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for integral quantification of seasonal soil moisture in the root zone at the scale of a field or small watershed, making use of the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator relative to other landscape materials. GANS measurements were performed at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations and seasonal conditions. Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a lowland Bornim farmland (Brandenburg) cropped with sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. At both sites depth profiles of soil moisture were measured at several locations in parallel by frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) for comparison and calibration. Initially, calibration parameters derived from a previous study with corn cover were tested under sunflower and winter rye periods at the same farmland. GANS soil moisture based on these parameters showed a large discrepancy compared to classical soil moisture measurements. Therefore, two new calibration approaches and four different ways of integration the soil moisture profile to an integral value for GANS were evaluated in this study. This included different sets of calibration parameters based on different growing periods of sunflower. New calibration parameters showed a good agreement with FDR network during sunflower period (RMSE = 0.023 m3 m-3), but they underestimated soil moisture in the winter rye period. The GANS approach resulted to be highly affected by temporal changes of biomass and crop types which suggest the need of neutron corrections for long-term observations with crop rotation. Finally, Bornim sunflower parameters were transferred to Schaefertal catchment for further evaluation. This study proves GANS potential to close the measurement gap between point scale and remote sensing scale; however, its calibration needs to be adapted for vegetation in cropped fields.

Andres Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.

2013-04-01

294

Innovative RDWT: a new DWT-based method with applications for seismic ground roll attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of noise in seismic data is inevitable. In land seismic data acquisition, ground roll noise masks reflection events so that observation of reflection events is not usually easy to interpret. It is the exploration seismologist's task to attenuate ground roll to improve the data quality and to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Investigations have suggested that the wavelet transform is an efficient tool for such a purpose. In this study, a new type of discrete wavelet transform, known as the rational-dilation wavelet transform (RDWT), is used to attenuate ground roll. Compared with the common DWTs, the RDWT offers a wide range of redundancies and Q-factors (wavelet centre frequency/bandwidth), to help the user choose an appropriate Q-factor, and hence provides more satisfactory results in ground roll attenuation while better preserving the signal. In this transform, the Q-factor is determined by selecting a number of parameters. True parameter selection results in better performance of ground roll attenuation. Depending on the nature of the ground roll, the parameters may vary in each shot-gather. Due to the over-completeness of the transformation, aliasing is less problematic compared to other DWTs. This paper discusses and indicates the advantages and capability of RDWT, by applying it to synthetic and real shot-gathered data with the purpose of ground roll attenuation, and compares the results with the application of f-k and band-pass filters.

Irani Mehr, Mohammad; Riahi, Mohammad Ali; Goudarzi, Alireza

2013-08-01

295

INTEGRATING PHOTOIDENTIFICATION AND AERIAL SURVEYS TO ESTIMATE G(0) FOR HUMPBACK WHALES (Megaptera novaeangliae) IN THE BRAZILIAN BREEDING GROUND  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ordinary distance sampling the detection probability on the trackline, g(0), is assumed to be 1. However, when dealing with aerial surveys of aquatic mammals, this assumptions is unrealistic as animals on the trackline but not close to the surface remain undetected. Therefore, in order to obtain abundance estimates with distance sampling, a reliable estimate of g(0) is needed. Various

Paul G. Kinas

296

The Jamaica asthma and allergies national prevalence survey: rationale and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma is a significant public health problem in the Caribbean. Prevalence surveys using standardized measures of asthma provide valid prevalence estimates to facilitate regional and international comparisons and monitoring of trends. This paper describes methods used in the Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey, challenges associated with this survey and strategies used to overcome these challenges. Methods/Design An island wide, cross-sectional, community-based survey of asthma, asthma symptoms and allergies was done among adults and children using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey Questionnaire for adults and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 2, 163 adults aged 18 years and older and 2, 017 children aged 2-17 years for the survey. The Kish selection table was used to select one adult and one child per household. Data analysis accounted for sampling design and prevalence estimates were weighted to produce national estimates. Discussion The Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey is the first population- based survey in the Caribbean to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergies both in adults and children using standardized methods. With response rates exceeding 80% in both groups, this approach facilitated cost-effective gathering of high quality asthma prevalence data that will facilitate international and regional comparison and monitoring of asthma prevalence trends. Another unique feature of this study was the partnership with the Ministry of Health in Jamaica, which ensured the collection of data relevant for decision-making to facilitate the uptake of research evidence. The findings of this study will provide important data on the burden of asthma and allergies in Jamaica and contribute to evidence-informed planning of comprehensive asthma management and education programs. PMID:20361871

2010-01-01

297

EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 2. ANALYTICAL METHODS AND RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods of analyses were validated for quantitating fenthion residues in samples from two salt marsh sites subjected to ground ultra-low volume sprays. Concentrations of these residues were followed from the water's surface, through the water column and onto the sediment. For all...

298

A method to suppress dielectric breakdowns in liquid argon ionization detectors for cathode to ground distances of several millimeters  

E-print Network

We present a method to reach electric field intensity as high as 400 kV/cm in liquid argon for cathode-ground distances of several millimeters. This can be achieved by suppressing field emission from the cathode, overcoming limitations that we reported earlier.

M. Auger; A. Ereditato; D. Goeldi; S. Janos; I. Kreslo; M. Luethi; C. Rudolf von Rohr; T. Strauss; T. Tolba; M. S. Weber

2014-06-16

299

Using grounded theory method for theory building in operations management research : A study on inter-firm relationship governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Qualitative theory building approaches, such as grounded theory method (GTM), are still not very widespread and rigorously applied in operations management (OM) research. Yet it is agreed that more systematic observation of current industrial phenomena is necessary to help managers deal with their problems. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example to help guide other

Mario Binder; John S. Edwards

2010-01-01

300

A Survey of Combinatorial Methods for Phylogenetic Networks  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary history of a set of species is usually described by a rooted phylogenetic tree. Although it is generally undisputed that bifurcating speciation events and descent with modifications are major forces of evolution, there is a growing belief that reticulate events also have a role to play. Phylogenetic networks provide an alternative to phylogenetic trees and may be more suitable for data sets where evolution involves significant amounts of reticulate events, such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, or recombination. In this article, we give an introduction to the topic of phylogenetic networks, very briefly describing the fundamental concepts and summarizing some of the most important combinatorial methods that are available for their computation. PMID:21081312

Huson, Daniel H.; Scornavacca, Celine

2011-01-01

301

MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model - documentation of shared node local grid refinement (LGR) and the boundary flow and head (BFH) package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the addition of shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) to MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model. LGR provides the capability to simulate ground-water flow using one block-shaped higher-resolution local grid (a child model) within a coarser-grid parent model. LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling two separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundary. LGR can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined ground-water systems. Traditional one-way coupled telescopic mesh refinement (TMR) methods can have large, often undetected, inconsistencies in heads and fluxes across the interface between two model grids. The iteratively coupled shared-node method of LGR provides a more rigorous coupling in which the solution accuracy is controlled by convergence criteria defined by the user. In realistic problems, this can result in substantially more accurate solutions and require an increase in computer processing time. The rigorous coupling enables sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty analysis that reflects conditions in both model grids. This report describes the method used by LGR, evaluates LGR accuracy and performance for two- and three-dimensional test cases, provides input instructions, and lists selected input and output files for an example problem. It also presents the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package, which allows the child and parent models to be simulated independently using the boundary conditions obtained through the iterative process of LGR.

Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

2006-01-01

302

Methods and Strategies: The Common Ground -- A rationale for integrating science and reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on the common ground between subjects through integration helps teachers address learning goals in both subjects without compromising either. This article addresses ways to integrate science with language arts objectives.

Royce, Christine A.; Wiley, David A.

2005-02-01

303

A HELICOPTER-BASED SURVEY METHOD FOR MONITORING THE NESTING COMPONENT OF SNOW GOOSE COLONIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strip transect method to monitor numbers of nesting snow geese (Chen caerulescens) employs a helicopter to fly three observers at a low level (100 feet above ground level (AGL)) along fixed transects over the colony. Observers count all snow goose nests within the transect belt which is 100 m wide. The aircraft's Global Positioning System (GPS) is used

R. KENYON ROSS; KENNETH F. ABRAHAM; DONALD FILLMAN; BRIAN T. COLLINS; RICHARD H. KERBES

304

Evaluation of an optical microbiological method for rapidly estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork.  

PubMed

The BioSys optical methods for estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork were evaluated. Ground pork samples were analyzed immediately, after temperature abuse at 25 degrees C for various periods of time, or after temperature abuse and dilution by mixing with pork that was prepared by grinding whole muscles that had the outer portion excised using a sterile scalpel. Each ground pork sample was tested using standard methods such as aerobic plate counts (APC), violet red bile (VRB) agar plate counts (coliforms), and three-tube most probable numbers (MPN--E. coli). Each sample was tested using the BioSys for total viable counts (TVC) by placing 2 ml of ground pork homogenate (25 g into 225 ml of sterile 1% buffered peptone water) into 8 ml of nutrient medium containing brom-cresol purple in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. Coliforms were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of coliform medium (CM) in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. E. coli were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of double-strength CM with 2% dextrose in a test vial and monitoring at 42 degrees C. The correlation coefficients for the regression lines comparing APC to BioSys TVC detection times (DT), VRB to BioSys coliform DT, and MPN to BioSys E. coli DT were -0.95, -0.94, and -0.93, and the line equations were logl0 CFU/ml = 8.94 - 0.40(DT), log10 CFU/ml = 8.77 - 0.43(DT), and log10 CFU/ml = 8.96 - 0.81(DT), respectively. These methods may allow pork producers to monitor equipment surfaces and products in less than 16 h and obtain microbiological results prior to shipment. PMID:11347998

Russell, S M

2001-05-01

305

New land-based method for surveying sandy shores and extracting DEMs: the INSHORE system.  

PubMed

The INSHORE system (INtegrated System for High Operational REsolution in shore monitoring) is a land-base survey system designed and developed for the specific task of monitoring the evolution in time of sandy shores. This system was developed with two main objectives: (1) to produce highly accurate 3D coordinates of surface points (in the order of 0.02 to 0.03 m); and (2) to be extremely efficient in surveying a beach stretch of several kilometres. Previous tests have demonstrated that INSHORE systems fulfil such objectives. Now, the usefulness of the INSHORE system as a survey tool for the production of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of sandy shores is demonstrated. For this purpose, the comparison of DEMs obtained with the INSHORE system and with other relevant survey techniques is presented. This comparison focuses on the final DEM accuracy and also on the survey efficiency and its impact on the costs associated with regular monitoring programmes. The field survey method of the INSHORE system, based on profile networks, has a productivity of about 30 to 40 ha/h, depending on the beach surface characteristics. The final DEM precision, after interpolation of the global positioning system profile network, is approximately 0.08 to 0.12 m (RMS), depending on the profile network's density. Thus, this is a useful method for 3D representation of sandy shore surfaces and can permit, after interpolation, reliable calculations of volume and other physical parameters. PMID:21301958

Baptista, Paulo; Cunha, Telmo R; Matias, Ana; Gama, Cristina; Bernardes, Cristina; Ferreira, Oscar

2011-11-01

306

Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.

1999-01-01

307

Different Views on Inquiry: A Survey of Science and Mathematics Methods Instructors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The national science standards encourage the use of inquiry-based instruction to teach difficult scientific concepts. As part of a larger study to investigate teachers' views on the nature of inquiry-based instruction, a survey was administered to Science and Mathematics methods course instructors to determine their views on inquiry, as well as to explore the success and difficulties associated with teaching this difficult concept. In addition, we wished to obtain their views on the "5 E's" method, an inquiry method specifically designed to promote conceptual change that is often taught as "the" method to utilize. Initial survey data suggests there are many different views among Science and Mathematics methods course instructors about the nature of inquiry. This paper discusses the difficulties encountered with the "5 E's" and teaching inquiry-based methods to teachers.

Withee, Thomas; Lindell, Rebecca

2006-02-01

308

Ground deformation associated with post-mining activity at the French-German border revealed by novel InSAR time series method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel methodology for integration of multiple InSAR data sets for computation of two dimensional time series of ground deformation. The proposed approach allows combination of SAR data acquired with different acquisition parameters, temporal and spatial sampling and resolution, wavelength and polarization. Produced time series have combined coverage, improved temporal resolution and lower noise level. We apply this methodology for mapping coal mining related ground subsidence and uplift in the Greater Region of Luxembourg along the French-German border. For this we processed 167 Synthetic Aperture Radar ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images acquired between 1995 and 2009 from one ascending (track 29) and one descending (track 337) tracks and created over five hundred interferograms that were used for time series analysis. Derived vertical and east-west linear deformation rates show with remarkable precision a region of localized ground deformation located above and caused by mining and post-mining activities. Time series of ground deformation display temporal variability: reversal from subsidence to uplift and acceleration of subsidence in the vertical component, and horizontal motion toward the center of the subsidence on the east-west component. InSAR results are validated by leveling measurements collected by the French Geological Survey (BRGM) during 2006-2008. We determined that deformation rate changes are mainly caused by water level variations in the mines. Due to higher temporal and spatial resolution the proposed space-borne method detected a larger number of subsidence and uplift areas in comparison to leveling measurements restricted to annual monitoring of benchmark points along roads. We also identified one deformation region that is not precisely located above the mining sites. Comparison of InSAR measurements with the water levels measured in the mining pits suggest that part of the water that filled the galleries after termination of the dewatering systems may come from this region. Providing that enough SAR data is available, this method opens new opportunities for detecting and locating man-made and natural ground deformation signals with high temporal resolution and precision.

Samsonov, Sergey; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Smets, Benoît

2013-08-01

309

SVD filtering applied to ground-roll attenuation Milton J. Porsani+  

E-print Network

of coherent noise in land seismic surveys. Ground roll is also dispersive and normally overwhelms the desired. SVD filtering applied to ground-roll attenuation Milton J. Porsani+ Michel^angelo G. Silva+ Paulo present a singular value decomposition (SVD) filtering method for atten- uation of the ground roll. Before

Ursin, Bjørn

310

Compilation of field methods used in geochemical prospecting by the U.S. Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The field methods described in this report are those currently used in geochemical prospecting by the U. S. Geological Survey. Some have been published, others are being processed for publication, while others are still being investigated. The purpose in compiling these methods is to make them readily available in convenient form. The methods have not been thoroughly tested and none is wholly satisfactory. Research is being continued.

Lakin, Hubert William; Ward, Frederick Norville; Almond, Hy

1952-01-01

311

A comparison between protein crystals grown with vapor diffusion methods in microgravity and protein crystals using a gel liquid-liquid diffusion ground-based method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystals of human serum albumin have been successfully grown in a variety of gels using crystallization conditions otherwise equivalent to those utilized in the popular hanging-drop vapor-equilibrium method. Preliminary comparisons of gel grown crystals with crystals grown by the vapor diffusion method via both ground-based and microgravity methods indicate that crystals superior in size and quality may be grown by limiting solutal convection. Preliminary X-ray diffraction statistics are presented.

Miller, Teresa Y.; He, Xiao-Min; Carter, Daniel C.

1992-01-01

312

Method for validating cloud mask obtained from satellite measurements using ground-based sky camera.  

PubMed

Error propagation in Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, and land surface parameters of the satellite products caused by misclassification of the cloud mask is a critical issue for improving the accuracy of satellite products. Thus, characterizing the accuracy of the cloud mask is important for investigating the influence of the cloud mask on satellite products. In this study, we proposed a method for validating multiwavelength satellite data derived cloud masks using ground-based sky camera (GSC) data. First, a cloud cover algorithm for GSC data has been developed using sky index and bright index. Then, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data derived cloud masks by two cloud-screening algorithms (i.e., MOD35 and CLAUDIA) were validated using the GSC cloud mask. The results indicate that MOD35 is likely to classify ambiguous pixels as "cloudy," whereas CLAUDIA is likely to classify them as "clear." Furthermore, the influence of error propagations caused by misclassification of the MOD35 and CLAUDIA cloud masks on MODIS derived reflectance, brightness temperature, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in clear and cloudy pixels was investigated using sky camera data. It shows that the influence of the error propagation by the MOD35 cloud mask on the MODIS derived monthly mean reflectance, brightness temperature, and NDVI for clear pixels is significantly smaller than for the CLAUDIA cloud mask; the influence of the error propagation by the CLAUDIA cloud mask on MODIS derived monthly mean cloud products for cloudy pixels is significantly smaller than that by the MOD35 cloud mask. PMID:25402920

Letu, Husi; Nagao, Takashi M; Nakajima, Takashi Y; Matsumae, Yoshiaki

2014-11-01

313

Ground penetrating radar survey finalized to the recovery of the “S. Agata alla Badia” church in Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous archaeological sites dating to the greek-roman period have been found in the underground of the city of Catania (eastern\\u000a Sicily, Italy). Their presence is a testimony of the several settlements that have followed in this area over time. In this\\u000a work we have conducted electromagnetic surveys, consisting of ten georadar profiles, inside the church of “S. Agata alla Badia”,

S. Imposa; F. Barone; S. Gresta; A. Leone

2009-01-01

314

Methods and Sources of Data Used to Develop Selected Water-Quality Indicators for Streams and Ground Water for EPA's 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was one of numerous governmental agencies, private organizations, and the academic community that provided data and interpretations for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report. This report documents the sources of data and methods used to develop selected water?quality indicators for the 2007 edition of the report compiled by USEPA. Stream and ground?water?quality data collected nationally in a consistent manner as part of the USGS?s National Water?Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) were provided for several water?quality indicators, including Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; Pesticides in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; and Nitrate and Pesticides in Shallow Ground Water in Agricultural Watersheds. In addition, the USGS provided nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite) and phosphorus riverine load estimates calculated from water?quality and streamflow data collected as part of its National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and its Federal?State Cooperative Program for the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Discharge from Large Rivers indicator.

Baker, Nancy T.; Wilson, John T.; Moran, Michael J.

2008-01-01

315

Numerical Green's function method: Application to quantifying ground motion variations of M7 earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of “numerical Green’s functions” (NGF or Green’s function database) is developed. The basic idea is: a large seismic fault is divided into subfaults of appropriate size, for which synthetic Green’s functions at the surface (NGF) are calculated and stored. Consequently, ground motions from arbitrary kinematic sources can be simulated, rapidly, for the whole fault or parts of it by superposition. The target fault is a simplified, vertical model of the Newport-Inglewood fault in the Los Angeles basin. This approach and its functionality are illustrated by investigating the variations of ground motions (e.g. peak ground velocity and synthetic seismograms) due to the source complexity. The source complexities are considered with two respects: hypocenter location and slip history. The results show a complex behavior, with dependence of absolute peak ground velocity and their variation on source process directionality, hypocenter location, local structure, and static slip asperity location. We concluded that combining effect due to 3-D structure and finite-source is necessary to quantify ground motion characteristics and their variations. Our results will facilitate the earthquake hazard assessment projects.

Wang, Haijiang; Igel, Heiner; Gallovic, Frantisek

2010-06-01

316

Methods of Gas Phase Capture of Iodine from Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas: A Literature Survey  

SciTech Connect

A literature survey was conducted to collect information and summarize the methods available to capture iodine from fuel reprocessing off-gases. Techniques were categorized as either wet scrubbing or solid adsorbent methods, and each method was generally described as it might be used under reprocessing conditions. Decontamination factors are quoted only to give a rough indication of the effectiveness of the method. No attempt is made to identify a preferred capture method at this time, although activities are proposed that would provide a consistent baseline that would aid in evaluating technologies.

Daryl Haefner

2007-02-01

317

Advanced Grounding Methods in the Presence of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightweight satellite structures are usually of sandwich type where the core is formed of a honeycomb-like structure made of aluminium foil. The outer facesheets are made of aluminium and serve as a ground reference plane. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP), however, is a composite material having an electrical conductivity that is about 2000 times lower than the conductivity of aluminium. Since such a material is not suitable to carry electrical current of high value a network of metal sheets (grounding rails) connects all equipment mounted on the satellite structure. This paper describes an evaluation whether the classical grounding rail system can be replaced by a network of round wires while the high-frequency portion of the current is flowing along the CFRP sheet.

Leininger, M.; Thurecht, F.; Pfeiffer, E.; Ruddle, A.

2012-05-01

318

Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the application of nonlinear-regression methods to a numerical model of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico. In the Albuquerque Basin, ground water is the primary source for most water uses. Ground-water withdrawal has steadily increased since the 1940's, resulting in large declines in water levels in the Albuquerque area. A ground-water flow model was developed in 1994 and revised and updated in 1995 for the purpose of managing basin ground- water resources. In the work presented here, nonlinear-regression methods were applied to a modified version of the previous flow model. Goals of this work were to use regression methods to calibrate the model with each of six different configurations of the basin subsurface and to assess and compare optimal parameter estimates, model fit, and model error among the resulting calibrations. The Albuquerque Basin is one in a series of north trending structural basins within the Rio Grande Rift, a region of Cenozoic crustal extension. Mountains, uplifts, and fault zones bound the basin, and rock units within the basin include pre-Santa Fe Group deposits, Tertiary Santa Fe Group basin fill, and post-Santa Fe Group volcanics and sediments. The Santa Fe Group is greater than 14,000 feet (ft) thick in the central part of the basin. During deposition of the Santa Fe Group, crustal extension resulted in development of north trending normal faults with vertical displacements of as much as 30,000 ft. Ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin occurs primarily in the Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group deposits. Water flows between the ground-water system and surface-water bodies in the inner valley of the basin, where the Rio Grande, a network of interconnected canals and drains, and Cochiti Reservoir are located. Recharge to the ground-water flow system occurs as infiltration of precipitation along mountain fronts and infiltration of stream water along tributaries to the Rio Grande; subsurface flow from adjacent regions; irrigation and septic field seepage; and leakage through the Rio Grande, canal, and Cochiti Reservoir beds. Ground water is discharged from the basin by withdrawal; evapotranspiration; subsurface flow; and flow to the Rio Grande, canals, and drains. The transient, three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow to which nonlinear-regression methods were applied simulates flow in the Albuquerque Basin from 1900 to March 1995. Six different basin subsurface configurations are considered in the model. These configurations are designed to test the effects of (1) varying the simulated basin thickness, (2) including a hypothesized hydrogeologic unit with large hydraulic conductivity in the western part of the basin (the west basin high-K zone), and (3) substantially lowering the simulated hydraulic conductivity of a fault in the western part of the basin (the low-K fault zone). The model with each of the subsurface configurations was calibrated using a nonlinear least- squares regression technique. The calibration data set includes 802 hydraulic-head measurements that provide broad spatial and temporal coverage of basin conditions, and one measurement of net flow from the Rio Grande and drains to the ground-water system in the Albuquerque area. Data are weighted on the basis of estimates of the standard deviations of measurement errors. The 10 to 12 parameters to which the calibration data as a whole are generally most sensitive were estimated by nonlinear regression, whereas the remaining model parameter values were specified. Results of model calibration indicate that the optimal parameter estimates as a whole are most reasonable in calibrations of the model with with configurations 3 (which contains 1,600-ft-thick basin deposits and the west basin high-K zone), 4 (which contains 5,000-ft-thick basin de

Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

1998-01-01

319

A Preliminary Survey of Benthos from the Nephrops norvegicusMud Grounds in the North-western Irish Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary survey of benthic infauna from an extensive basin of soft mud in the Irish Sea was carried out in 1992. A total of 110 taxa were recorded of which polychaete worms (Phylum Annelida) constituted 77·8% of all taxa recorded. Hierarchical classification and detrended correspondence analysis divided the area studied into five regions which could be correlated to the differences in superficial sediments and depth across the basin. Although much of the fauna was ubiquitous, a change in trophic structure was observed, with tubiculous polychaetes becoming progressively less common in deeper softer sediment areas where surface and non-selective deposit-feeding taxa predominated.

Hensley, R. T.

1996-04-01

320

A data input program (MFI2K) for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

MFI2K is a data-input (entry) program for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water model, MODFLOW-2000. MFI2K runs on personal computers. MFI2K supports the solute transport and parameter-estimation capabilities that are incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. Data for MODPATH, a particle-tracking program for use with MODFLOW-2000, also can be entered using MFI2K. MFI2K is designed to be easy to use; data are entered interactively through a series of display screens. MFI2K also can be used in conjunction with other data-input programs so that the different parts of a model dataset can be entered using the most suitable program. MFI2K interfaces to an external program for entering or editing two-dimensional arrays and lists of stress data. This report provides instructions for using MFI2K.

Harbaugh, Arlen W.

2002-01-01

321

A Survey of Singular Value Decomposition Methods and Performance Comparison of Some Available Serial Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This contractor report describes a performance comparison of available alternative complete Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) methods and implementations which are suitable for incorporation into point spread function deconvolution algorithms. The report also presents a survey of alternative algorithms, including partial SVD's special case SVD's, and others developed for concurrent processing systems.

Plassman, Gerald E.

2005-01-01

322

EVALUATION OF A MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR FOREST VEGETATION IN A LARGE-SCALE ECOLOGICAL SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

We evaluate a field method for determining species richness and canopy cover of vascular plants for the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM), an ecological survey of U.S. forests. Measurements are taken within 12 1-m2 quadrats on 1/15 ha plots in FHM. Species richness and cover...

323

Extracting abundance indices from longline surveys: method to account for hook competition  

E-print Network

Extracting abundance indices from longline surveys: method to account for hook competition and unbaited hooks. Marie-Pierre Etienne, Shannon Obradovich, Lynne Yamanaka, Murdoch McAllister June 14, 2010 is catch per unit effort (CPUE), here defined as the number of fish of the targeted species caught per hook

Boyer, Edmond

324

A Survey of 3D Face Recognition Methods Alize Scheenstra1  

E-print Network

A Survey of 3D Face Recognition Methods Alize Scheenstra1 , Arnout Ruifrok2 , and Remco C. Veltkamp researches in face recognition have been dealing with the challenge of the great variability in head pose is to describe the recent 3D face recognition algorithms. The last few years more and more 2D face recognition

Veltkamp, Remco

325

Component of Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 12-001-X Business Survey Methods Division  

E-print Network

Article Component of Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 12-001-X Business Survey Methods Division about this product or the wide range of services and data available from Statistics Canada, visit our.00 for a one-year subscription. The following additional shipping charges apply for delivery outside Canada

Sinha, Samiran

326

Image Segmentation Evaluation: A Survey of Unsupervised Methods Hui Zhang a  

E-print Network

Image Segmentation Evaluation: A Survey of Unsupervised Methods Hui Zhang a , Jason E. Fritts b Image segmentation is an important processing step in many image, video and computer vision applications. Extensive research has been done in creating many different approaches and algorithms for image segmentation

Fritts, Jason

327

Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

Zhukov, B. S.

1979-01-01

328

Ground penetrating radar survey finalized to the recovery of the ``S. Agata alla Badia'' church in Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous archaeological sites dating to the greek-roman period have been found in the underground of the city of Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy). Their presence is a testimony of the several settlements that have followed in this area over time. In this work we have conducted electromagnetic surveys, consisting of ten georadar profiles, inside the church of “S. Agata alla Badia”, damaged during the earthquake occurred in eastern Sicily on 13 December 1990. The aim was to investigate the area where the church is located to obtain information useful for its structural recovery. Mechanical drillings were also carried out to reconstruct the local stratigraphy, which could be complicated by the presence of underground cavities and artefacts, as evidenced by recent excavations beneath the Catania Cathedral, in the nearby Piazza Duomo. From the interpretation of the GPR data, the presence of ancient masonry structures underlying the recent foundations was highlighted. In addition, the GPR survey allowed us to identify and locate reflective horizons in the subsurface, probably due to the presence of materials with different state of aggregation and/or to buried structures.

Imposa, S.; Barone, F.; Gresta, S.; Leone, A.

2009-08-01

329

Detection of contaminant plumes in ground water of Long Island, New York, by electromagnetic terrain-conductivity surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electromagnetic terrain conductivity surveys were conducted at four landfills in Suffolk county and at an artificial recharge site in Nassau County to assess the feasibility of this technique for detecting contaminant plumes. The technique was successful at three of the landfills; results compared closely with those indicated by specific conductance of water from observation wells on the sites. Data from the three sites for which the technique was successful--the Horseblock Road landfill , the Manorville scavenger waste disposal facility, and the Riverhead landfill--revealed pronounced terrain conductivity anomalies that reflect known contaminant plumes. Plumes at the other two sites--Blydenburgh landfill and the East Meadow artificial recharge site--could not be detected because cultural interferences were too great and, at the Blydenburgh site, depth to water was too great. The interferences included pipelines, utility cables, and traffic. Given favorable conditions, such as high plume conductivity, lack of cultural interferences, and a depth of less than 100 ft to the plume, electromagnetic surveying can provide a rapid means of locating contaminant plumes. (Author 's abstract)

Mack, T.J.; Maus, P.E.

1986-01-01

330

Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

1981-11-01

331

Inclusion of trial functions in the Langevin equation path integral ground state method: Application to parahydrogen clusters and their isotopologues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and studied the implementation of trial wavefunctions in the newly proposed Langevin equation Path Integral Ground State (LePIGS) method [S. Constable, M. Schmidt, C. Ing, T. Zeng, and P.-N. Roy, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7461 (2013)]. The LePIGS method is based on the Path Integral Ground State (PIGS) formalism combined with Path Integral Molecular Dynamics sampling using a Langevin equation based sampling of the canonical distribution. This LePIGS method originally incorporated a trivial trial wavefunction, ?T, equal to unity. The present paper assesses the effectiveness of three different trial wavefunctions on three isotopes of hydrogen for cluster sizes N = 4, 8, and 13. The trial wavefunctions of interest are the unity trial wavefunction used in the original LePIGS work, a Jastrow trial wavefunction that includes correlations due to hard-core repulsions, and a normal mode trial wavefunction that includes information on the equilibrium geometry. Based on this analysis, we opt for the Jastrow wavefunction to calculate energetic and structural properties for parahydrogen, orthodeuterium, and paratritium clusters of size N = 4 - 19, 33. Energetic and structural properties are obtained and compared to earlier work based on Monte Carlo PIGS simulations to study the accuracy of the proposed approach. The new results for paratritium clusters will serve as benchmark for future studies. This paper provides a detailed, yet general method for optimizing the necessary parameters required for the study of the ground state of a large variety of systems.

Schmidt, Matthew; Constable, Steve; Ing, Christopher; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

2014-06-01

332

Methods for gully characterization in agricultural croplands using ground-based light detection and ranging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gullies constitute an important source of sediment from agricultural fields. In order to properly understand gully formation and evolution over time, as well as, sediment yield, detailed topographic representations of agricultural fields are required. New technologies such as ground-based Light Dete...

333

Application of the harmonic balance method to ground moling machines operating in periodic regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system for ground moling has been patented by the University of Aberdeen and licensed world-wide. This new system is based on vibro-impact dynamics and offers significant advantages over existing systems in terms of penetrative capability and reduced soil disturbance. This paper describes current research into the mathematical modelling of the system. Periodic response is required to achieve the

Ko-Choong Woo; Albert A. Rodger; Richard D. Neilson; Marian Wiercigroch

2000-01-01

334

A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An iodometric assay that allows the ground-level ozone concentration to be determined with an inexpensive sampling apparatus and a homemade photometer is described. This laboratory experiment applies a variety of different fundamental concepts including oxidation-reduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis and also provides…

Seeley, John V.; Seeley, Stacy K.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.

2005-01-01

335

Nanofiltration as a treatment method for the removal of pesticides from ground waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major problem in the drinking water production is the presence of pesticides in raw water, not only in surface waters, but also in ground waters. Concentrations of several ?g\\/l have been found. Traditionally, pesticides are removed using granular or powdered activated carbon, which is an expensive process. The cost is enhanced by competition of pesticides and natural organic matter

B. Van der Bruggen; J. Schaep; W. Maes; D. Wilms; C. Vandecasteele

1998-01-01

336

Modifications of the U.S. Geological Survey modular, finite-difference, ground-water flow model to read and write geographic information system files  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents modifications to the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model, commonly called MODFLOW, so that it can read and write files used by a geographic information system (GIS). The modified model program is called MODFLOWARC. Simulation programs such as MODFLOW generally require large amounts of input data and produce large amounts of output data. Viewing data graphically, generating head contours, and creating or editing model data arrays such as hydraulic conductivity are examples of tasks that currently are performed either by the use of independent software packages or by tedious manual editing, manipulating, and transferring data. Programs such as GIS programs are commonly used to facilitate preparation of the model input data and analyze model output data; however, auxiliary programs are frequently required to translate data between programs. Data translations are required when different programs use different data formats. Thus, the user might use GIS techniques to create model input data, run a translation program to convert input data into a format compatible with the ground-water flow model, run the model, run a translation program to convert the model output into the correct format for GIS, and use GIS to display and analyze this output. MODFLOWARC, avoids the two translation steps and transfers data directly to and from the ground-water-flow model. This report documents the design and use of MODFLOWARC and includes instructions for data input/output of the Basic, Block-centered flow, River, Recharge, Well, Drain, Evapotranspiration, General-head boundary, and Streamflow-routing packages. The modification to MODFLOW and the Streamflow-Routing package was minimized. Flow charts and computer-program code describe the modifications to the original computer codes for each of these packages. Appendix A contains a discussion on the operation of MODFLOWARC using a sample problem.

Orzol, Leonard L.; McGrath, Timothy S.

1992-01-01

337

Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems: A survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

Miura, H.

1984-01-01

338

A Field Test of Electromigration as a Method for Remediating Sulfate from Shallow Ground Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electromigration offers a potential tool for remediating ground water contaminated with highly soluble components, such as Na+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO4-. A field experiment was designed to test the efficacy of electromigration for preconcentrating dissolved SO42- in ground water associated with a fossil-fuel power plant. Two shallow wells, 25 feet apart (one 25 feet deep, the other 47 feet deep), were constructed in the upper portion of an unconfined alluvial aquifer. The wells were constructed with a double-wall design, with an outer casing of 4-inch PVC and an inner tube of 2-inch PVC; both were fully slotted (0.01 inch). Electrodes were constructed by wrapping the inner tubing with a 100-foot length of rare-earth metal oxide/copper wire. An electrical potential of 10.65 volts DC was applied, and tests were run for periods of 12, 44, and 216 hours. Results showed large changes in the pH from the initial pH of ground water of about 7.5 to values of approximately 2 and 12 at the anode and cathode, respectively. Despite the fact that the test conditions were far from ideal, dissolved SO42- was significantly concentrated at the anode. Over a period of approximately nine days, the concentration of SO42- at the anode reached what appeared to be a steady-state value of 2200 mg/L, compared to the initial value in ground water of approximately 1150 mg/L. The results of this field test should encourage further investigation of electromigration as a tool in the remediation of contaminated ground water.

Patterson, C.G.; Runnells, D.D.

1996-01-01

339

Obtaining correct orbital ground states in f -electron systems using a nonspherical self-interaction-corrected LDA+U method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of lanthanide and actinide compounds is often characterized by orbital ordering of localized f electrons. Density-functional theory studies of such systems using the currently available local-density approximation (LDA)+U method are plagued by significant orbital-dependent self-interaction, leading to erroneous orbital ground states. An alternative scheme that modifies the exchange, not Hartree, energy is proposed as a remedy. We show that our LDA+U approach reproduces the expected degeneracy of f1 and certain f2 states in free ions and the correct ground states in solid PrO2 . We expect our method to be useful in studying electronic excitations and entropies in f and heavy- d elements.

Zhou, Fei; Ozoli?š, V.

2009-09-01

340

[Acquisition and storage methods for image data collected in Chinese medicine resources survey].  

PubMed

The acquisition and storage of the image data are important in the Chinese medicine resources survey, and it is important data and evidence for the process and the results. The image data of the Chinese medicinal materials' habitat, original plant or animal, processing in habitat, commodity form, the relative contents and workshop scenarios in the investigation are important for the compiling of the Color Atlas of National Chinese Medicine Resources, mapping the digital scattergram of the Chinese medicine resources, establishing the digital Chinese medicine plant herbarium and acquiring the documentary of the Chinese medicine resource survey. The content, procedures and methods of the video data collecting have been related and analyzed in this article to provide reference for the Chinese medicine resources survey. PMID:25011278

Li, Li; Wei, Sheng-Li; Wang, Wen-Quan; Guo, Zheng-Zheng; Li, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Qin

2014-04-01

341

Detecting population declines over large areas with presence-absence, time-to-encounter, and count survey methods.  

PubMed

Ecologists often discount presence-absence surveys as a poor way to gain insight into population dynamics, in part because these surveys are not amenable to many standard statistical tests. Still, presence-absence surveys are sometimes the only feasible alternative for monitoring large areas when funds are limited, especially for sparse or difficult-to-detect species. I undertook a detailed simulation study to compare the power of presence-absence, count, and time-to-encounter surveys to detect regional declines in a population. I used a modeling approach that simulates both population numbers and the monitoring process, accounting for observation and other measurement errors. In gauging the efficacy of presence-absence surveys versus other approaches, I varied the number of survey sites, the spatial variation in encounter rate, the mean encounter rate, and the type of population loss. My results showed that presence-absence data can be as or more powerful than count data in many cases. Quantitative guidelines for choosing between presence-absence surveys and count surveys depend on the biological and logistical constraints governing a conservation monitoring situation. Generally, presence-absence surveys work best when there is little variability in abundance among the survey sites, the organism is rare, and the species is difficult to detect so that the time spent getting to each survey site is less than or equal to the time spent surveying each site. Count surveys work best otherwise. I present a case study with count data on the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) from the North American Breeding Bird Survey to illustrate how the method might be used with field-survey data. The case study demonstrates that a count survey would be the most cost-effective design but would entail reduction in the number of sites. If this site reduction is not desirable, a presence-absence survey would be the most cost-effective survey. PMID:16909580

Pollock, Jacob E

2006-06-01

342

Ground and flight test methods for determining limit cycle and structural resonance characteristics of aircraft stability augmentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance criteria and test techniques are applied to stability augmentation systems (SAS) during ground testing to predict objectionable limit cycles and preclude structural resonance during flight. Factors that give rise to these problems, means of suppressing their effects, trade-offs to be considered, and ground test methods that have been developed are discussed. SAS performance predicted on the basis of these tests is compared with flight data obtained from three lifting body vehicles and the X-15 research airplane. Limit cycle and structural resonance test criteria, based upon ground and flight experience and data, were successfully applied to these vehicles. The criteria used were: The limit cycle amplitude (SAS gain multiplied by peak-to-peak angular rate) shall not exceed 0.5 deg for the highest product of control power and SAS gain that will be used in flight; the maximum in-flight SAS gain should never exceed 50 percent of the value at which a structural resonance can be sustained during ground test.

Painter, W. D.; Sitterle, G. J.

1972-01-01

343

Characterization of a CIMS Method for PAN Measurements During NEAQS/ICARTT 2004 and two Ground Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Thermal Decomposition Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) method for the measurement of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrates has been developed and refined over the past several years. Laboratory studies have determined the chemical ionization method sensitivity to a variety of PAN compounds and defined the influence played by water on the kinetics of the chemical ionization and its dependence on PAN analog structure. This work presents further characterization of the instrument during the 2004 NEAQS-ICARTT field project, as well as during two ground studies. For ICARTT the instrument was optimized for operation onboard the NOAA P-3B aircraft, where water concentrations and altitude strongly influenced instrument performance. During the winter ground study the CIMS capability to measuring the sum of N2O5 + NO3 was characterized through a comparison with the NOAA CARDS instrument. Whereas, during the summer ground study the instrument was characterized against several other instruments for PAN analysis during the PAN intercomparison experiment. This poster will highlight the field operation of the PAN-CIMS and characterize the strengths and shortcomings of the method.

Aaron, S.; Flocke, F. M.; Roberts, J. M.; Huey, G.; Tanner, D.; Brown, S.; Osthoff, H.; Ryerson, T.; Neuman, A.

2005-12-01

344

A method for continuous monitoring of the Ground Reaction Force during daily activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling have identified peak cyclic force levels (or cyclic tissue strain energy density), number of daily loading cycles, and load (strain) rate as possible contributors to bone modeling and remodeling stimulus. To test our theoretical model and further investigate the influence of mechanical forces on bone density, we have focused on the calcaneus as a model site loaded by calcaneal surface tractions which are predominantly determined by the magnitude of the external ground reaction force (GRF).

Whalen, Robert; Quintana, Jason; Emery, Jeff

1993-01-01

345

Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

1994-01-01

346

Mapping Ground Water in Three Dimensions - An Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Surveys of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Cochise County, Southeastern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the results of two airborne geophysical surveys conducted in the upper San Pedro Valley of southeastern Arizona in 1997 and 1999. The combined surveys cover about 1,000 square kilometers and extend from the Huachuca Mountains on the west to the Mule Mountains and Tombstone Hills on the east and from north of the Babocomari River to near the Mexican border on the south. The surveys included the acquisition of high-resolution magnetic data, which were used to map depth to the crystalline basement rocks underlying the sediments filling the basin. The magnetic inversion results show a complex basement morphology, with sediment thickness in the center of the valley ranging from ~237 meters beneath the city of Sierra Vista to ~1,500 meters beneath Huachuca City and the Palominas area near the Mexican border. The surveys also included acquisition of 60-channel time-domain electromagnetic (EM) data. Extensive quality analyses of these data, including inversion to conductivity vs. depth (conductivity-depth-transform or CDT) profiles and comparisons with electrical well logs, show that the electrical conductor mapped represents the subsurface water-bearing sediments throughout most of the basin. In a few places (notably the mouth of Huachuca Canyon), the reported water table lies above where the electrical conductor places it. These exceptions appear to be due to a combination of outdated water-table information, significant horizontal displacement between the wells and the CDT profiles, and a subtle calibration issue with the CDT algorithm apparent only in areas of highly resistive (very dry) overburden. These occasional disparities appear in less than 5 percent of the surveyed area. Observations show, however, that wells drilled in the thick unsaturated zone along the Huachuca Mountain front eventually intersect water, at which point the water rapidly rises high into the unsaturated zone within the wellbore. This rising of water in a wellbore implies some sort of confinement below the thick unsaturated zone, a confinement that is not identified in the available literature. Occasional disparities notwithstanding, maps of the electrical conductor derived from the airborne EM system provide a synoptic view of the presence of water underlying the upper San Pedro Valley, including its three-dimensional distribution. The EM data even show faults previously only inferred from geologic mapping. The magnetic and electromagnetic data together appear to show the thickness of the sediments, the water in the saturated sediments down to a maximum of about 400 meters depth, and even places where the main ground-water body is not in direct contact with the San Pedro River. However, the geophysical data cannot reveal anything directly about hydraulic conductivity or ground-water flow. Estimating these characteristics requires new hydraulic modeling based in part on this report. One concern to reviewers of this report is the effect that clays may have on the electrical conductor mapped with the airborne geophysical system. Although the water in the basin is unusually conductive, averaging 338 microsiemens per centimeter, reasoning cited below suggests that the contribution of clays to the overall conductivity would be relatively small. Basic principles of sedimentary geology suggest that silts and clays should dominate the center of the basin, while sands and gravels would tend to dominate the margins. Although clay content may increase the amplitude of the observed electrical conductors somewhat, it will not affect the depths to the conductor derived from depth inversions. Further, fine-grained sediments generally have higher porosity and tend to lie toward a basin center, a fact in general agreement with the observed geophysical data.

Wynn, Jeff

2006-01-01

347

Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: a case study of Irish Sea beaches.  

PubMed

In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq (137)Cs within large areas (10-20 km(2)h(-1)), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1-2 km(2) h(-1) can detect buried (137)Cs sources of 0.5MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq (137)Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at <15m ground clearance and <2 ms(-1) ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed. PMID:22947616

Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W

2012-10-15

348

Single-Event Effects Ground Testing and On-Orbit Rate Prediction Methods: The Past, Present and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past 27 years, or so, increased concern over single event effects in spacecraft systems has resulted in research, development and engineering activities centered around a better understanding of the space radiation environment, single event effects predictive methods, ground test protocols, and test facility developments. This research has led to fairly well developed methods for assessing the impact of the space radiation environment on systems that contain SEE sensitive devices and the development of mitigation strategies either at the system or device level.

Reed, Robert A.; Kinnison, Jim; Pickel, Jim; Buchner, Stephen; Marshall, Paul W.; Kniffin, Scott; LaBel, Kenneth A.

2003-01-01

349

A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

Vaccaro, J.J.; Maloy, K.J.

2006-01-01

350

Methods for implementing a medicine outlet survey: lessons from the anti-malarial market  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years an increasing number of public investments and policy changes have been made to improve the availability, affordability and quality of medicines available to consumers in developing countries, including anti-malarials. It is important to monitor the extent to which these interventions are successful in achieving their aims using quantitative data on the supply side of the market. There are a number of challenges related to studying supply, including outlet sampling, gaining provider cooperation and collecting accurate data on medicines. This paper provides guidance on key steps to address these issues when conducting a medicine outlet survey in a developing country context. While the basic principles of good survey design and implementation are important for all surveys, there are a set of specific issues that should be considered when conducting a medicine outlet survey. Methods This paper draws on the authors’ experience of designing and implementing outlet surveys, including the lessons learnt from ACTwatch outlet surveys on anti-malarial retail supply, and other key studies in the field. Key lessons and points of debate are distilled around the following areas: selecting a sample of outlets; techniques for collecting and analysing data on medicine availability, price and sales volumes; and methods for ensuring high quality data in general. Results and conclusions The authors first consider the inclusion criteria for outlets, contrasting comprehensive versus more focused approaches. Methods for developing a reliable sampling frame of outlets are then presented, including use of existing lists, key informants and an outlet census. Specific issues in the collection of data on medicine prices and sales volumes are discussed; and approaches for generating comparable price and sales volume data across products using the adult equivalent treatment dose (AETD) are explored. The paper concludes with advice on practical considerations, including questionnaire design, field worker training, and data collection. Survey materials developed by ACTwatch for investigating anti-malarial markets in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia provide a helpful resource for future studies in this area. PMID:23383972

2013-01-01

351

Recovery Method Development of Sodium Chloride-Susceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Ground Pork Samples.  

PubMed

The growth of certain methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates could be inhibited by NaCl higher than 2.5%. The objective of this study was to develop an enrichment method to recover NaCl-susceptible MRSA isolates from meat samples. The growth of 12 MRSA and 10 non-MRSA strains was measured in Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth supplemented with 2.5%, 4%, 6.5%, and 7.5% NaCl. Selective agents, including aztreonam, polymyxin B, NaCl, nalidixic acid, and NaN3, were determined for their inhibitory effect to MRSA and non-MRSA strains in MH broth. Based on these data, a two-step enrichment method was developed to recover both NaCl-susceptible and -resistant MRSA isolates in meat products. Comparing to the enrichment method that only used MH broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, five additional NaCl-susceptible MRSA isolates were recovered from 92 retail ground pork samples by this newly developed two-step enrichment method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that considers NaCl-susceptible MRSA recovery from ground pork samples. The application of this new enrichment method might expand the diversity of MRSA isolates recovered from various samples. PMID:25153854

Pang, Lu; Luo, Yanping; Gu, Yihai; Xu, Xiao; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Fenglan; Cui, Shenghui

2014-08-25

352

Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN); Scudiere, Matthew B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01

353

Comparison of calculation methods for drop size distribution with a ground based dual-wavelength, dual-polarization radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

To know the drop size distribution (DSD) of rainfall is important for understanding rainfall mechanisms and estimation of rainfall amount. Also it is desired to use remote sensing instruments in order to survey large area (volume) in a short time. Radar is the best method if it has the ability to observe several parameters such as dual-wavelength and\\/or dual-polarization capability.

Nobuhiro Takahashi; Robert Meneghini

1999-01-01

354

New Statistical Methods for Analysis of Large Surveys: Distributions and Correlations  

E-print Network

The aim of this paper is to describe new statistical methods for determination of the correlations among and distributions of physical parameters from a multivariate data with general and arbitrary truncations and selection biases. These methods, developed in collaboration with B. Efron of Department of Statistics at Stanford, can be used for analysis of combined data from many surveys with different and varied observational selection criteria. For clarity we will use the luminosity function of AGNs and its evolution to demonstrate the methods. We will first describe the general features of data truncation and present a brief review of past methods of analysis. Then we will describe the new methods and results from simulations testing their accuracy. Finally we will present the results from application of the methods to a sample of quasars.

Vahe' Petrosian

2001-12-19

355

Study on the Technology and Method of Land Cover Classification for Geographic National Conditions Surveying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land Cover is the basis of geographic national conditions monitoring, extracting land cover information timely and accurately has become one of important tasks in the geographic national conditions surveying project. For the current situation of complex land cover type and large amount of data, there has emerged various new classification techniques and methods. However, the big difficult of classification?the large amount of data, the heavy workload of post-editing and other factors have seriously hampered the progress of the project. In this paper, it chooses high-resolution remote sensing image as original data, comprehensivly elaborates present research situation of oriented land cover classification. By the systematical analysis and summary of the basic and key problems of the land cover classification technology, relying on the geographic national information classification and standard system, discusses the available methods preliminarily to improve the accuracy of land cover classification which based on geographic national conditions surveying.

Jia, Y.; Li, H. T.; Gu, H. Y.; Han, Y. S.

2013-07-01

356

The 2005 Chios ancient shipwreck survey: New methods for underwater archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005 a Greek and American interdisciplinary team investigated two shipwrecks off the coast of Chios dating to the 4th-century b.c. and the 2nd\\/1st century. The project pioneered archaeological methods of precision acoustic, digital image, and chemical survey using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and in-situ sensors, increasing the speed of data acquisition while decreasing costs. The AUV recorded data

Brendan P. Foley; Katerina DellaPorta; Dimitris Sakellariou; Brian S. Bingham; Richard Camilli; Ryan M. Eustice; Dionysis Evagelistis; Vicki L. Ferrini; Kostas Katsaros; Dimitris Kourkoumelis; Aggelos Mallios; Paraskevi Micha; David A. Mindell; Christopher Roman; Hanumant Singh; David S. Switzer; Theotokis Theodoulou

2009-01-01

357

Methods and representativeness of a European survey in children and adolescents: the KIDSCREEN study  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of the present study was to compare three different sampling and questionnaire administration methods used in the international KIDSCREEN study in terms of participation, response rates, and external validity. Methods Children and adolescents aged 8–18 years were surveyed in 13 European countries using either telephone sampling and mail administration, random sampling of school listings followed by classroom or mail administration, or multistage random sampling of communities and households with self-administration of the survey materials at home. Cooperation, completion, and response rates were compared across countries and survey methods. Data on non-respondents was collected in 8 countries. The population fraction (PF, respondents in each sex-age, or educational level category, divided by the population in the same category from Eurostat census data) and population fraction ratio (PFR, ratio of PF) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze differences by country between the KIDSCREEN samples and a reference Eurostat population. Results Response rates by country ranged from 18.9% to 91.2%. Response rates were highest in the school-based surveys (69.0%–91.2%). Sample proportions by age and gender were similar to the reference Eurostat population in most countries, although boys and adolescents were slightly underrepresented (PFR <1). Parents in lower educational categories were less likely to participate (PFR <1 in 5 countries). Parents in higher educational categories were overrepresented when the school and household sampling strategies were used (PFR = 1.78–2.97). Conclusion School-based sampling achieved the highest overall response rates but also produced slightly more biased samples than the other methods. The results suggest that the samples were sufficiently representative to provide reference population values for the KIDSCREEN instrument. PMID:17655756

Berra, Silvina; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Erhart, Michael; Tebé, Cristian; Bisegger, Corinna; Duer, Wolfgang; von Rueden, Ursula; Herdman, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Rajmil, Luis

2007-01-01

358

Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper lidar surveys for coastal studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of airborne laser altimetry for surveys of coastal topography, and describes the methods used in the acquisition and processing of NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) surveys that cover much of the conterminous US coastline. This form of remote sensing, also known as "topographic lidar", has undergone extremely rapid development during the last two decades, and has the potential to contribute within a wide range of coastal scientific investigations. Various airborne laser surveying (ALS) applications that are relevant to coastal studies are being pursued by researchers in a range of Earth science disciplines. Examples include the mapping of "bald earth" land surfaces below even moderately dense vegetation in studies of geologic framework and hydrology, and determination of the vegetation canopy structure, a key variable in mapping wildlife habitats. ALS has also proven to be an excellent method for the regional mapping of geomorphic change along barrier island beaches and other sandy coasts due to storms or long-term sedimentary processes. Coastal scientists are adopting ALS as a basic method in the study of an array of additional coastal topics. ALS can provide useful information in the analysis of shoreline change, the prediction and assessment of landslides along seacliffs and headlands, examination of subsidence causing coastal land loss, and in predicting storm surge and tsunami inundation.

Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

2002-01-01

359

Determination of chlorophyll photosynthetic potential in vegetation using ground-based and satellite methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated study of the vegetation in the south of Krasnoyarsk Territory was carried out on the basis of ground-based and satellite remote measurements. The research objects were agricultural crops (wheat, oats) during the vegetation period. The satellite calculations were based on the data having high (Landsat 7 ETM+) and medium spatial resolution (Terra-Modis). Both kinds of data were used to calculate the chlorophyll photosynthetic potential (CPSP) as the area of the triangle made up by the reflection values in the green, red and near infrared spectrum regions. The connection was determined between the ground-based and satellite measurements of CPSP. Having analyzed the remote field and satellite measurements of the brightness spectral ratios of agricultural crops during vegetation, we showed the possibility of estimation of structural changes in the near infrared spectrum region. A lack or excess of water in plants causes structural changes in their phytoelements, which affects their reflectance. We showed the possibility of assessing morpho-physiological changes and species composition of crops. We determined the correlation between the spectral reflectance in various crops with chlorophyll content in plants and biomass changes.

Botvich, Irina; Alexander, Sidko; Pisman, Tamara; Shevyrnogov, Anatoly

360

The Model Experiments and Finite Element Analysis on Deformation and Failure by Excavation of Grounds in Foregoing-roof Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the trenchless box culvert construction method to construct box culverts in small covering soil layers while keeping roads or tracks open. When we use this construction method, it is necessary to clarify deformation and shear failure by excavation of grounds. In order to investigate the soil behavior, model experiments and elasto-plactic finite element analysis were performed. In the model experiments, it was shown that the shear failure was developed from the end of the roof to the toe of the boundary surface. In the finite element analysis, a shear band effect was introduced. Comparing the observed shear bands in model experiments with computed maximum shear strain contours, it was found that the observed direction of the shear band could be simulated reasonably by the finite element analysis. We may say that the finite element method used in this study is useful tool for this construction method.

Sotokoba, Yasumasa; Okajima, Kenji; Iida, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Tadatsugu

361

Novel survey method finds dramatic decline of wild cotton-top tamarin population  

PubMed Central

The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a critically endangered primate, endemic to the tropical forests of Colombia. Population monitoring is essential to evaluate the success of conservation efforts, yet standard survey methods are ineffective because animals flee silently before they are seen. We developed a novel technique that combines the use of playbacks of territorial vocalizations with traditional transect surveys. We used remote sensing to identify potential habitat within the species' historic range, and visited the 27% that we could survey safely. Of this, only 99 km2 was extant forest, containing an estimated 2,045 animals (95% confidence interval 1,587–2,634). Assuming comparable densities in non-surveyed areas, approximately 7,394 wild cotton-top tamarins remain in Colombia. With 20–30,000 animals exported to the United States in the late 1960s, this must represent a precipitous decline. Habitat destruction and capture for the illegal pet trade are ongoing. Urgent conservation measures are required to prevent extinction in the wild. PMID:20975684

Savage, Anne; Thomas, Len; Leighty, Katherine A.; Soto, Luis H.; Medina, Felix S.

2010-01-01

362

Is the simple auger coring method reliable for below-ground standing biomass estimation in Eucalyptus forest plantations?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Despite their importance for plant production, estimations of below-ground biomass and its distribution in the soil are still difficult and time consuming, and no single reliable methodology is available for different root types. To identify the best method for root biomass estimations, four different methods, with labour requirements, were tested at the same location. Methods The four methods, applied in a 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantation in Congo, were based on different soil sampling volumes: auger (8 cm in diameter), monolith (25 × 25 cm quadrate), half Voronoi trench (1·5 m3) and a full Voronoi trench (3 m3), chosen as the reference method. Key Results With the reference method (0–1m deep), fine-root biomass (FRB, diameter <2 mm) was estimated at 1·8 t ha?1, medium-root biomass (MRB diameter 2–10 mm) at 2·0 t ha?1, coarse-root biomass (CRB, diameter >10 mm) at 5·6 t ha?1 and stump biomass at 6·8 t ha?1. Total below-ground biomass was estimated at 16·2 t ha?1 (root : shoot ratio equal to 0·23) for this 800 tree ha?1 eucalypt plantation density. The density of FRB was very high (0·56 t ha?1) in the top soil horizon (0–3 cm layer) and decreased greatly (0·3 t ha?1) with depth (50–100 cm). Without labour requirement considerations, no significant differences were found between the four methods for FRB and MRB; however, CRB was better estimated by the half and full Voronoi trenches. When labour requirements were considered, the most effective method was auger coring for FRB, whereas the half and full Voronoi trenches were the most appropriate methods for MRB and CRB, respectively. Conclusions As CRB combined with stumps amounted to 78 % of total below-ground biomass, a full Voronoi trench is strongly recommended when estimating total standing root biomass. Conversely, for FRB estimation, auger coring is recommended with a design pattern accounting for the spatial variability of fine-root distribution. PMID:21572093

Levillain, Joseph; Thongo M'Bou, Armel; Deleporte, Philippe; Saint-André, Laurent; Jourdan, Christophe

2011-01-01

363

A method of increasing the sensitivity of protection from single-phase short-circuits to ground in the 6 - 10 kV network  

SciTech Connect

A method of increasing the sensitivity of protection from single-phase short-circuits to ground by acting on the signal with brief dummy grounding of the neutral is described. After determining the damage, the neutral is again grounded through a high resistance and an arc-quenching reactor. An increase in the protection sensitivity is thereby obtained, the damage detection time is shortened, and the probability of the single-phase short-circuit to ground converting into double and multipoint earth faults is reduced.

Manilov, A. M.; Mel'nik, D. A. [PC 'MC 'Metropoliya' (Ukraine)

2012-07-15

364

Indications and organisational methods for autologous blood transfusion procedures in Italy: results of a national survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pre-operative donation of autologous blood is a practice that is now being abandoned. Alternative methods of transfusing autologous blood, other than predeposited blood, do however play a role in limiting the need for transfusion of allogeneic blood. This survey of autologous blood transfusion practices, promoted by the Italian Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology more than 2 years after the publication of national recommendations on the subject, was intended to acquire information on the indications for predeposit in Italy and on some organisational aspects of the alternative techniques of autotransfusion. Materials and methods A structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions on the indications and organisational methods of autologous blood transfusion was made available on a web platform from 15 January to 15 March, 2013. The 232 Transfusion Services in Italy were invited by e-mail to complete the online survey. Results Of the 232 transfusion structures contacted, 160 (69%) responded to the survey, with the response rate decreasing from the North towards the South and the Islands. The use of predeposit has decreased considerably in Italy and about 50% of the units collected are discarded because of lack of use. Alternative techniques (acute isovolaemic haemodilution and peri-operative blood salvage) are used at different frequencies across the country. Discussion The data collected in this survey can be considered representative of national practice; they show that the already very limited indications for predeposit autologous blood transfusion must be adhered to even more scrupulously, also to avoid the notable waste of resources due to unused units. Users of alternative autotransfusion techniques must be involved in order to gain a full picture of the degree of use of such techniques; multidisciplinary agreement on the indications for their use is essential in order for these indications to have an effective role in “patient blood management” programmes. PMID:25350961

Catalano, Liviana; Campolongo, Alessandra; Caponera, Maurizio; Berzuini, Alessandra; Bontadini, Andrea; Furlò, Giuseppe; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.

2014-01-01

365

Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integration of high-resolution non-destructive techniques is presented for the inspection and evaluation of ancient architectonic structures. Infrared thermography (IRT) represents a valuable tool for nondestructive evaluation of architectonic structures and artworks because it is capable of giving indications about most of the degradation sources of artworks and buildings of both historical interest and civil use. In particular, it is possible to detect cracks, disbondings, alteration of material consistency, etc. Indeed, by choosing the most adequate thermographic technique, it is possible to monitor the conservation state of artworks in time and to detect the presence of many types of defects (e.g., voids, cracks, disbondings, etc.) in different types of materials (e.g., concrete, masonry structures, bronze, etc.). The main advantages of infrared thermography when dealing with precious artworks may be summarized with three words: non-contact, non-invasive, and two-dimensionality. It is possible to inspect either a large surface such as the facade of a palace, or a very small surface of only few square millimetres. Conversely, the inspection depth is quite small; generally, of the order of centimetres. However, as demonstrated in previous work, IRT well matches with electric-and electromagnetic-type geophysical methods to characterize the overlapping zone from low-to-high depth in masonry structures. In particular, the use of high-frequency electromagnetic techniques, such as the ground penetrating radar (GPR), permits to reach investigation depths of some ten of centimetres by choosing appropriate frequencies of the transmitted electromagnetic signal. In the last decade a large utilisation of the GPR methodology to non-destructive analysis of engineering and architectural materials and structures has been experienced. This includes diverse features, such as definition of layer thickness, characterisation of different constructive materials, identification of voids and/or degraded zones, water content mapping, location of reinforcing bars and metal elements in concrete structures. The attention of this work is focused on the integration of both techniques for inspection of architectonic structures. First, an integration of techniques is performed in laboratory by considering an ad hoc specimen with insertion of anomalies. Then, the techniques are used for the inspection in situ of some important Italian archaeological sites, such as Pompei (Naples) and Nora (Cagliari). In the first site, the exploration is devoted to the analysis of wall decoration of the architectonical complex of Villa Imperiale with the aim to support the hypothesis that attributes the Villa to Imperial property as well as to evaluate the state of conservation of frescoes and underneath structure. As main findings, the applied techniques allows for detection of hidden previous decorative layers and for discrimination of different types of paint used as well as for identification of areas damaged by ingression in-depth of moisture and/or by disaggregation of the constituent materials. In the archaeological area of Nora, instead, the prospecting is devised to the evaluation of the state of degradation of two significant buildings of the ancient site: the temple and the theatre. Due to the very high horizontal and vertical resolution of the performed surveys, detailed physical anomaly maps of the investigated structures are obtained. Large portions of the masonry walls appear interested by decomposition of the mortar binding the stone blocks, which sometimes propagates along the whole stone wall. The information coming from a joint interpretation of IRT and GPR data allows detailed 3D images of the two investigated buildings, which are useful for future restoration planning.

di Maio, Rosa; Meola, Carosena; Fedi, Maurizio; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

2010-05-01

366

Grounding electrode and method of reducing the electrical resistance of soils  

DOEpatents

A first solution of an electrolyte is injected underground into a volume of soil having negative surface charges on its particles. A cationic surfactant suspended in this solution neutralizes these surface charges of the soil particles within the volume. Following the first solution, a cationic asphalt emulsion suspended in a second solution is injected into the volume. The asphalt emulsion diffuses through the volume and electrostatically bonds with additional soil surrounding the volume such that an electrically conductive water repellant shell enclosing the volume is formed. This shell prevents the leaching of electrolyte from the volume into the additional soil. The second solution also contains a dissolved deliquescent salt which draws water into the volume prior to the formation of the shell. When electrically connected to an electrical installation such as a power line tower, the volume constitutes a grounding electrode for the tower.

Koehmstedt, Paul L. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

367

A ground electromagnetic survey used to map sulfides and acid sulfate ground waters at the abandoned Cabin Branch Mine, Prince William Forest Park, northern Virginia gold-pyrite belt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Prince William Forest Park is situated at the northeastern end of the Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt northwest of the town of Dumfries, VA. The U. S. Marine Corps Reservation at Quantico borders the park on the west and south, and occupies part of the same watershed. Two abandoned mines are found within the park: the Cabin Branch pyrite mine, a historic source of acid mine drainage, and the Greenwood gold mine, a source of mercury contamination. Both are within the watershed of Quantico Creek (Fig.1). The Cabin Branch mine (also known as the Dumfries mine) lies about 2.4 km northwest of the town of Dumfries. It exploited a 300 meter-long, lens-shaped body of massive sulfide ore hosted by metamorphosed volcanic rocks; during its history over 200,000 tons of ore were extracted and processed locally. The site became part of the National Capitol Region of the National Park Service in 1940 and is currently managed by the National Park Service. In 1995 the National Park Service, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy reclaimed the Cabin Branch site. The Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt, also known as the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, is host to numerous abandoned metal mines (Pavlides and others, 1982), including the Cabin Branch deposit. The belt itself extends from its northern terminus near Cabin Branch, about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. It is underlain by metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (non-carbonate) sedimentary rocks, originally deposited approximately 460 million years ago during the Ordovician Period (Horton and others, 1998). Three kinds of deposits are found in the belt: volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, and gold placer deposits. The massive sulfide deposits such as Cabin Branch were historically mined for their sulfur, copper, zinc, and lead contents, but also yielded byproduct gold and silver. The environmental impact of massive sulfide deposits can be substantial. These deposits are characterized by high concentrations of heavy-metal sulfide minerals, hosted by silicate rocks. Thus, weathering of these deposits and their mine wastes has the potential to generate heavy-metal laden sulfuric acid that can have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In addition, lead associated with solid mine wastes has the potential for human health impacts through ingestion. The heavy metals that are encountered in these deposits and are most likely to cause environmental impacts include copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. In addition, the weathering of pyrite releases large amounts of iron, and the acid generated attacks the country rocks and causes the release of large amounts of aluminum, which also can severely impact aquatic ecosystems. A reclamation attempt was made at the site in 1995, including construction of storm-water diversion trenches around the abandoned mine area, grading tailings away from the stream bank, addition of pulverized limestone and topsoil, and revegetation. The post-reclamation chemistry of shallow groundwaters (<3 meters deep) shows a neutral pH on the southwestern bank of the stream but pH of 4.1 to 4.5 on the northeastern bank. The dominant ions are Fe2+ and SO42- (Seal, Haffner, Meier, and Pollio, 1999) A ground electromagnetic survey was conducted over the site in 1999 as part of a wider study ( Seal, Haffner, and Meier, 1998a,b, 1999). It was hoped that a 3-D map of the soil conductivity derived from the survey could provide insight into the distribution of the mobilized sulfides present under the ground. This study was conducted in cooperation with the National Park Service

Wynn, Jeffrey C.

2000-01-01

368

A generalized finite-difference formulation for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's Modular Ground-Water Flow Model assumes that model nodes are in the center of cells and that transmissivity is constant within a cell. Based on these assumptions, the model calculates coefficients, called conductance, that are multiplied by head difference to determine flow between cells. Although these are common assumptions in finite-difference models, other assumptions are possible. A new option to the model program reads conductance as input data rather than calculating it. This optional lows the user to calculate conductance outside of the model. The user thus has the flexibility to define conductance using any desired assumptions. For a water-table condition, horizontal conductance must change as water level varies. To handle this situation, the new option reads conductance divided by thickness (CDT) as input data. The model calculates saturated thickness and multiplies it by CDT to obtain conductance. Thus, the user is still free from the assumptions of centered nodes and constant transmissivity in cells. The model option is written in FORTRAN77 and is fully compatible with the existing model. This report documents the new model option; it includes a description of the concepts, detailed input instructions, and a listing of the code.

Harbaugh, Arlen W.

1992-01-01

369

A novel method using Gabor-based multiple feature and ensemble SVMs for ground-based cloud classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud recognition is the base of weather forecast and the recognition of cloud types is challenging because the texture of the clouds is extremely variable under different atmospheric conditions. In this paper, we propose a novel method for ground-based cloud classification. Firstly, the interest operator feature (IO) and the sorted spectral histogram (SSH) feature are generated from Gabor-filtered images and then they are selected by using the principal component analysis (PCA), which can reduce the feature's dimension. Secondly the new training set is selected using the supervised clustering technology. Finally we send the two features to the multi-class SVM classifier, and a voting algorithm is used to determine the category of each cloud. In practice, we find no single feature is best suited for recognizing all these classes. The result shows that this method has higher classfication accuracy and lower space complexity than the other methods.

Liu, Ruitao; Yang, Weidong

2011-11-01

370

Collaborative study of the glass wool filtration method for the recovery of virus inoculated into ground beef.  

PubMed

A method for estimating viral population levels in ground beef was studied collaboratively in 7 laboratories. The collaborators recovered virus from 6 inoculated samples. Three samples were replicates of the high virus concentration 050 plaque-forming units (pfu)/g) and 3 replicates represented the low concentration (10 pfu/g). Six of the 7 collaborators recovered acceptable levels of virus from the samples. The per cent of variation was 30.6 for the high concentration and 18.5 for the low concentration. Collaborators did not differ from one another significantly in the results obtained for the 10 pfu/g samples, but results from one collaborator were significantly low for the recovery of virus from the 50 pfu/g samples. The results indicate that the glass wool filtration method is adequate for the detection of a number of viruses that may be found in foods. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:1173581

Larkin, E P; Tierney, J T; Sullivan, R; Peeler, J T

1975-05-01

371

Chloride mass-balance method for estimating ground water recharge in arid areas: Examples from western Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chloride mass-balance method, which integrates time and aerial distribution of ground water recharge, was applied to small alluvial aquifers in the wadi systems of the Asir and Hijaz mountains in western Saudi Arabia. This application is an extension of the method shown to be suitable for estimating recharge in regional aquifers in semi-arid areas. Because the method integrates recharge in time and space it appears to be, with certain assumptions, particularly well suited for and areas with large temporal and spatial variation in recharge. In general, recharge was found to be between 3 to 4% of precipitation - a range consistent with recharge rates found in other arid and semi-arid areas of the earth.

Bazuhair, A.S.; Wood, W.W.

1996-01-01

372

Modifying Distance Methods to Improve Estimates of Historical Tree Density from General Land Office Survey Records 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

University, Normal, IL 61790-4120). Modifying distance methods to improve estimates of historical tree density from General Land Office survey records. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133: 449-459. 2006.—Distance sampling methods are widely applied to witness tree data from General Land Office (GLO) survey records to determine historic vegetation. Most researchers apply modifications of the point-centered quarter or random pairs distance methods

Roger C. Anderson; Suzanne L. Jones; Richard Swigart

2006-01-01

373

Compilation of ground-water level measurements, obtained by the United States Geological Survey in Puerto Rico, 1958-1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital compilation of the groundwater levels in Puerto Rico was prepared as part of the Caribbean Islands Regional Aquifers System Analysis program. Of special interest are the groundwater levels measurements obtained on a routine basis at wells located in the different aquifer regions or aquifer zones. Data from 181 observation wells were entered in the computer data base. The data base includes the following: name, latitude and longitude coordinates, owner, diameter, depth, station identification, local number, aquifer area or region, period of record, construction date, earliest groundwater level reported, and groundwater level fluctuations for various time periods between 1958 and 1985. Data showing conditions under which groundwater level measurements may have been affected by (1) pumping of the well, (2) by a nearby pumping well (3) a specific method by which the groundwater level was determined, (4) whether the well was recently pumped, and (5) when recorded, the lowest water level are also indicated. The summarized information is available in printed format on a yearly basis as part of the Water Resources Data Publication series. (USGS)

Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo

1991-01-01

374

Ground Anthrax Bacillus Refined Isolation (GABRI) method for analyzing environmental samples with low levels of Bacillus anthracis contamination  

PubMed Central

Background In this work are reported the results of a qualitative analytical method capable of detecting Bacillus anthracis spores when they are present in very low concentration in the soil. The Ground Anthrax Bacillus Refined Isolation (GABRI) method, assessed in our laboratory, was compared with the classic method. The comparison involved artificially anthrax-contaminated soil samples (500 spores/7.5 grams soil) and naturally contaminated soil samples collected in Bangladesh during a field investigation. Results The results indicated that, in contrast to the classic method, the GABRI method was able to detect B.anthracis in all contaminated samples. The GABRI method produces a more sensitive measure of anthrax spore presence significantly different from the standard method. In particular, the latter is more sensitive to the presence of normal soil contaminants. Conclusion The main feature of the GABRI method is its ability to strongly reduce the presence of the environmental contaminants, which being much more numerous than B. anthracis tend to inhibit their germination and growth making it extremely difficult to visualize any colonies. The reduction of the microbial environment also allows one to be able to culture and test a larger quantity of potentially contaminated soil and to isolate B. anthracis when the spores are present in very low concentrations in the soil. PMID:23865983

2013-01-01

375

Virtual and super - virtual refraction method: Application to synthetic data and 2012 of Karangsambung survey data  

SciTech Connect

Seismic refraction survey is one of geophysical method useful for imaging earth interior, definitely for imaging near surface. One of the common problems in seismic refraction survey is weak amplitude due to attenuations at far offset. This phenomenon will make it difficult to pick first refraction arrival, hence make it challenging to produce the near surface image. Seismic interferometry is a new technique to manipulate seismic trace for obtaining Green's function from a pair of receiver. One of its uses is for improving first refraction arrival quality at far offset. This research shows that we could estimate physical properties such as seismic velocity and thickness from virtual refraction processing. Also, virtual refraction could enhance the far offset signal amplitude since there is stacking procedure involved in it. Our results show super - virtual refraction processing produces seismic image which has higher signal-to-noise ratio than its raw seismic image. In the end, the numbers of reliable first arrival picks are also increased.

Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)] [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Adisatrio, Philipus Ronnie [Geophysical Engineering Department, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)] [Geophysical Engineering Department, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2013-09-09

376

Statistical Methods for Detecting Stellar Occultations by Kuiper Belt Objects: the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey  

E-print Network

The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) will detect objects in the Kuiper Belt, by measuring the rate of occultations of stars by these objects, using an array of three to four 50cm wide-field robotic telescopes. Thousands of stars will be monitored, resulting in hundreds of millions of photometric measurements per night. To optimize the success of TAOS, we have investigated various methods of gathering and processing the data and developed statistical methods for detecting occultations. In this paper we discuss these methods. The resulting estimated detection efficiencies will be used to guide the choice of various operational parameters determining the mode of actual observation when the telescopes come on line and begin routine observations. In particular we show how real-time detection algorithms may be constructed, taking advantage of having multiple telescopes. We also discuss a retrospective method for estimating the rate at which occultations occur.

Chyng-Lan Liang; John A. Rice; Imke de Pater; Charles Alcock; Tim Axelrod; Andrew Wang

2002-09-24

377

Survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs for estimating supersonic missile aerodynamic characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs used for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations. Emphasis is placed on those methods which are suitable for preliminary design of conventional and advanced concepts. An analysis of the technical approaches of the various methods is made in order to assess their suitability to estimate longitudinal and/or lateral-directional characteristics for different classes of missile configurations. Some comparisons between the predicted characteristics and experimental data are presented. These comparisons are made for a large variation in flow conditions and model attitude parameters. The paper also presents known experimental research programs developed for the specific purpose of validating analytical methods and extending the capability of data-base programs.

Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Hernandez, G.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.

1982-01-01

378

THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD  

SciTech Connect

We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular cloud clumps is generally applicable to other dust-continuum Galactic plane surveys.

Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L., E-mail: timothy.ellsworthbowers@colorado.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-06-10

379

43 CFR Appendix I to Part 11 - Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Methods for Estimating the Areas of Ground Water and Surface Water Exposure During the Preassessment...2): 6.9+3.5=10.4 acres. Surface Water The area of surface water resources potentially exposed...

2011-10-01

380

An Improved Method of Estimating Slip Surface Through Ground Surface Displacement (of Landslide)  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a landslide has occurred, it is important to estimate its characteristics and size at an initial stage of the disaster and to speedily take countermeasures for minimizing the damage. The existing method, however, has problems about safety and speed, as it requires entering the landslide mass. Now, as a faster method of grasping the size of the landslide, we,

K. Takechi; A. Takeishi; K. Fujisawa; K. Ishida; T. Kuda; S. Okuda; S. Chiba; H. Kodama; T. Yamashita; K. Fukui; H. Ikei; N. Yokoyama; K. Itoh; S. Ishizaka

2008-01-01

381

Geostatistical, sensitivity, and uncertainty methods for ground-water flow and radionuclide transport modeling: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The overall theme of the DOE/AECL '87 conference was the application of statistical methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to nuclear waste disposal flow and transport modeling. The conference was organized into six technical sessions dealing with different topics in that theme: the role of statistical methods in the nuclear waste repository performance assessment plans of several waste disposal programs, sensitivity and uncertainty methods for large computer codes, stochastic hydrology, statistical methods for modeling flow and transport in fractured media, geostatistical methods, and the use of subjective information to supplement hard data in performance assessment studies. Thirty-one presentations were made in the six sessions. Several presentations were invited from well-known authorities in the various technical fields. These invited presentations were supplemented by the contributed presentations of researchers from seven different countries. At the combustion of the technical sessions, an open discussion session was held to address areas of concern to all conference attendees.

Buxton, B.E. (ed.)

1989-01-01

382

Application of classification-tree methods to identify nitrate sources in ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to determine if nitrate sources in ground water (fertilizer on crops, fertilizer on golf courses, irrigation spray from hog (Sus scrofa) wastes, and leachate from poultry litter and septic systems) could be classified with 80% or greater success. Two statistical classification-tree models were devised from 48 water samples containing nitrate from five source categories. Model I was constructed by evaluating 32 variables and selecting four primary predictor variables (??15N, nitrate to ammonia ratio, sodium to potassium ratio, and zinc) to identify nitrate sources. A ??15N value of nitrate plus potassium 18.2 indicated inorganic or soil organic N. A nitrate to ammonia ratio 575 indicated nitrate from golf courses. A sodium to potassium ratio 3.2 indicated spray or poultry wastes. A value for zinc 2.8 indicated poultry wastes. Model 2 was devised by using all variables except ??15N. This model also included four variables (sodium plus potassium, nitrate to ammonia ratio, calcium to magnesium ratio, and sodium to potassium ratio) to distinguish categories. Both models were able to distinguish all five source categories with better than 80% overall success and with 71 to 100% success in individual categories using the learning samples. Seventeen water samples that were not used in model development were tested using Model 2 for three categories, and all were correctly classified. Classification-tree models show great potential in identifying sources of contamination and variables important in the source-identification process.

Spruill, T.B.; Showers, W.J.; Howe, S.S.

2002-01-01

383

Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: analytic energy gradients for ground and excited states.  

PubMed

A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest. PMID:24784259

Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin

2014-04-28

384

Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: Analytic energy gradients for ground and excited states  

SciTech Connect

A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest.

Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin, E-mail: martin.schuetz@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)] [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

2014-04-28

385

Survey of in-situ and remote sensing methods for soil moisture determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General methods for determining the moisture content in the surface layers of the soil based on in situ or point measurements, soil water models and remote sensing observations are surveyed. In situ methods described include gravimetric techniques, nuclear techniques based on neutron scattering or gamma-ray attenuation, electromagnetic techniques, tensiometric techniques and hygrometric techniques. Soil water models based on column mass balance treat soil moisture contents as a result of meteorological inputs (precipitation, runoff, subsurface flow) and demands (evaporation, transpiration, percolation). The remote sensing approaches are based on measurements of the diurnal range of surface temperature and the crop canopy temperature in the thermal infrared, measurements of the radar backscattering coefficient in the microwave region, and measurements of microwave emission or brightness temperature. Advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are pointed out, and it is concluded that a successful monitoring system must incorporate all of the approaches considered.

Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Mckim, H. L.

1981-01-01

386

Prediction of broadband ground-motion time histories: Hybrid low/high-frequency method with correlated random source parameters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a new method for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion based on a hybrid low-frequency/high-frequency approach with correlated source parameters. Using a finite-difference method we calculate low-frequency synthetics (< ???1 Hz) in a 3D velocity structure. We also compute broadband synthetics in a 1D velocity model using a frequency-wavenumber method. The low frequencies from the 3D calculation are combined with the high frequencies from the 1D calculation by using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The source description, common to both the 1D and 3D synthetics, is based on correlated random distributions for the slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time on the fault. This source description allows for the specification of source parameters independent of any a priori inversion results. In our broadband modeling we include correlation between slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time, as suggested by dynamic fault modeling. The method of using correlated random source parameters is flexible and can be easily modified to adjust to our changing understanding of earthquake ruptures. A realistic attenuation model is common to both the 3D and 1D calculations that form the low- and high-frequency components of the broadband synthetics. The value of Q is a function of the local shear-wave velocity. To produce more accurate high-frequency amplitudes and durations, the 1D synthetics are corrected with a randomized, frequency-dependent radiation pattern. The 1D synthetics are further corrected for local site and nonlinear soil effects by using a 1D nonlinear propagation code and generic velocity structure appropriate for the site's National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The entire procedure is validated by comparison with the 1994 Northridge, California, strong ground motion data set. The bias and error found here for response spectral acceleration are similar to the best results that have been published by others for the Northridge rupture.

Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.J.; Hartzell, S.H.

2006-01-01

387

Modal survey of the space shuttle solid rocket motor using multiple input methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to accurately characterize propellant in a finite element model is a concern of engineers tasked with studying the dynamic response of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM). THe uncertainties arising from propellant characterization through specimem testing led to the decision to perform a model survey and model correlation of a single segment of the Shuttle SRM. Multiple input methods were used to excite and define case/propellant modes of both an inert segment and, later, a live propellant segment. These tests were successful at defining highly damped, flexible modes, several pairs of which occured with frequency spacing of less than two percent.

Brillhart, Ralph; Hunt, David L.; Jensen, Brent M.; Mason, Donald R.

1987-01-01

388

Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks  

SciTech Connect

This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers

2005-05-13

389

Assessing the capability of numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion: the Euroseistest verification and validation project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades, an important effort has been dedicated to develop accurate and computationally efficient numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion in heterogeneous 3D media. The progress in methods and increasing capability of computers have made it technically feasible to calculate realistic seismograms for frequencies of interest in seismic design applications. In order to foster the use of numerical simulation in practical prediction, it is important to (1) evaluate the accuracy of current numerical methods when applied to realistic 3D applications where no reference solution exists (verification) and (2) quantify the agreement between recorded and numerically simulated earthquake ground motion (validation). Here we report the results of the Euroseistest verification and validation project - an ongoing international collaborative work organized jointly by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, the Cashima research project (supported by the French nuclear agency, CEA, and the Laue-Langevin institute, ILL, Grenoble), and the Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France. The project involves more than 10 international teams from Europe, Japan and USA. The teams employ the Finite Difference Method (FDM), the Finite Element Method (FEM), the Global Pseudospectral Method (GPSM), the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The project makes use of a new detailed 3D model of the Mygdonian basin (about 5 km wide, 15 km long, sediments reach about 400 m depth, surface S-wave velocity is 200 m/s). The prime target is to simulate 8 local earthquakes with magnitude from 3 to 5. In the verification, numerical predictions for frequencies up to 4 Hz for a series of models with increasing structural and rheological complexity are analyzed and compared using quantitative time-frequency goodness-of-fit criteria. Predictions obtained by one FDM team and the SEM team are close and different from other predictions (consistent with the ESG2006 exercise which targeted the Grenoble Valley). Diffractions off the basin edges and induced surface-wave propagation mainly contribute to differences between predictions. The differences are particularly large in the elastic models but remain important also in models with attenuation. In the validation, predictions are compared with the recordings by a local array of 19 surface and borehole accelerometers. The level of agreement is found event-dependent. For the largest-magnitude event the agreement is surprisingly good even at high frequencies.

Chaljub, E. O.; Bard, P.; Tsuno, S.; Kristek, J.; Moczo, P.; Franek, P.; Hollender, F.; Manakou, M.; Raptakis, D.; Pitilakis, K.

2009-12-01

390

Analytical methods of the U.S. Geological Survey's New York District Water-Analysis Laboratory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The New York District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Troy, N.Y., operates a water-analysis laboratory for USGS watershed-research projects in the Northeast that require analyses of precipitation and of dilute surface water and soil water for major ions; it also provides analyses of certain chemical constituents in soils and soil gas samples. This report presents the methods for chemical analyses of water samples, soil-water samples, and soil-gas samples collected in wateshed-research projects. The introduction describes the general materials and technicques for eachmethod and explains the USGS quality-assurance program and data-management procedures; it also explains the use of cross reference to the three most commonly used methods manuals for analysis of dilute waters. The body of the report describes the analytical procedures for (1) solution analysis, (2) soil analysis, and (3) soil-gas analysis. The methods are presented in alphabetical order by constituent. The method for each constituent is preceded by (1) reference codes for pertinent sections of the three manuals mentioned above, (2) a list of the method's applications, and (3) a summary of the procedure. The methods section for each constitutent contains the following categories: instrumentation and equipment, sample preservation and storage, reagents and standards, analytical procedures, quality control, maintenance, interferences, safety considerations, and references. Sufficient information is presented for each method to allow the resulting data to be appropriately used in environmental samples.

Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lincoln, Tricia A.; Horan-Ross, Debra A.; Olson, Mark L.; Waldron, Laura A.

1995-01-01

391

Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 13871400, August 2005, doi: 10.1785/0120040211 A Two-Stage Method for Ground-Motion Simulation Using Stochastic  

E-print Network

, doi: 10.1785/0120040211 A Two-Stage Method for Ground-Motion Simulation Using Stochastic Summation Abstract We present a two-stage method to simulate the ground motions pro- duced by an earthquake by using effects and is not appropriate to simulate ground motions for near-source sites. We test this method

Vallée, Martin

392

Efficient Hybrid Grid Synthesis Method Based on Genetic Algorithm for Power/Ground Network Optimization with Dynamic Signal Consideration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an efficient design algorithm for power/ground (P/G) network synthesis with dynamic signal consideration, which is mainly caused by Ldi/dt noise and Cdv/dt decoupling capacitance (DECAP) current in the distribution network. To deal with the nonlinear global optimization under synthesis constraints directly, the genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced. The proposed GA-based synthesis method can avoid the linear transformation loss and the restraint condition complexity in current SLP, SQP, ICG, and random-walk methods. In the proposed Hybrid Grid Synthesis algorithm, the dynamic signal is simulated in the gene disturbance process, and Trapezoidal Modified Euler (TME) method is introduced to realize the precise dynamic time step process. We also use a hybrid-SLP method to reduce the genetic execute time and increase the network synthesis efficiency. Experimental results on given power distribution network show the reduction on layout area and execution time compared with current P/G network synthesis methods.

Yang, Yun; Kimura, Shinji

393

Combination forecasting method for ground surface deformation based on wavelet analysis and BP neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some displacement and deformation for the mine shaft over past many years' working may occur, which will cause heavy harm to both shaft itself and workers in well. Curtain grouting is one of efficient methods to protect the shaft and the earth's surface around the shaft from the harm. The deformation caused by grouting around mine shaft is monitored with

Jialong Sun; Jinyun Guo

2009-01-01

394

Assessment of Two Methods of Sequencing Ground Trainer Practice for Undergraduate Pilot Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was an operational evaluation of two methods of instruction sequencing for the T-38 phase of Undergraduate Pilot Training. Scheduling of concentrated trainer phases prior to aircraft flight improved student performance for early aircraft rides as compared with an intermixed trainer and aircraft schedule. Although grade differences washed…

Reid, Gary B.; And Others

395

Enumeration of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef, Cattle Carcass, Hide and Fecal Samples Using Direct Plating Methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aim: To develop and validate high throughput methods for the direct enumeration of viable and culturable Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef, carcass, hide and fecal (GCHF) samples from cattle. Methods and Results: The hydrophobic grid membrane filtration (HGMF) method and the sp...

396

GROUND-WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATION FOR THE VALLEY-FILL AQUIFER IN SPANISH VALLEY, GRAND AND SAN JUAN COUNTIES, UTAH --A BASIS FOR PRESERVING HIGH QUALITY GROUND-WATER RESOURCES, UTAH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The proposed study will consist of an evaluation of current ground-water quality using the Utah Water Quality Board's ground-water-quality classification system based mostly on total-dissolved-solids concentrations as follows: class 1A (Pristine), less than 500 mg/L; class 2 (dr...

397

Microbial monitoring and methods of sample collection: a GITMO survey (Gruppo Trapianto di Midollo Osseo)  

PubMed Central

The collection of microbiological samples represents an important aspect of care both for doctors as well as nurses. It is important to recognise and identify some key points, to avoid performing ‘unnecessary’ or ‘incorrect’ sampling, which may give useless or even misleading results, these are: the moment at which the sample is collected, the collection method and timing (if indicated). The comparison between the various nursing members of the Italian National bone marrow transplant group (GITMO), showed diversity of practice across all fields. A formal survey was therefore conducted within GITMO centres looking at the methods of microbiological sample collection. These results were compared with the literature, and in addition to the lack of homogeneity of practice within the centres, a lack of compliance with the recommendations was also observed. To evaluate the effectiveness of this survey in highlighting awareness of this issue and the presence of relevant guidelines, the questionnaire was repeated (with the same centres responding), which demonstrated no major changes in care practices. Conclusion: The survey has allowed us to highlight many critical issues regarding common procedures which are not commonly discussed. Considerable differences were noted between different transplant centres, which may be attributable to the lack of Italian guidelines that can be used as a starting point for clinical practice. The plenary discussion allowed for an exchange of findings with the medical staff, who are usually responsible for requesting microbiological samples. The ideal solution would be a unique field-based training programme, associated with the dissemination of a common procedural document for ensuring evidence-based practice. PMID:24834116

Gori, Erica; Callea, Emanuela; Alberani, Francesca; Orlando, Laura

2014-01-01

398

USGS Ground Water Information Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The pages at this site are designed to provide useful information about groundwater resources and activities of the United States Geological Survey. Included are links to groundwater data, a publications section which gives access to Water Resources Publications, On-Line Fact Sheets, Ground Water Atlas, and Selected USGS Ground Water Publications, and a resource for field techniques and ground water models.

399

A new method to estimate ionospheric electric fields and currents using data from a local ground magnetometer network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we present a new method to estimate ionospheric electric fields and currents using ground magnetic recordings and measured or modeled ionospheric electric conductivity as the input data. This problem has been studied extensively in the past, and the standard analysis technique for such a set of input parameters is known as the KRM method (Kamide et al., 1981). The new method presented in this study makes use of the same input data as the traditional KRM method, but differs significantly from it in the mathematical approach that is used. In the KRM method one tries to find such a potential electric field, that the resulting current system has the same curl as the ionospheric equivalent currents. In the new method we take a different approach, so that we determine such a curl-free current system that, together with the equivalent currents, it is consistent with a potential electric field. This approach results in a slightly different equation, that makes better use of the information contained in the equivalent currents. In this paper we concentrate on regional studies, where the (unknown) boundary conditions at the borders of the analysis area play a significant role in the KRM solution. In order to overcome this complication, we formulate a novel numerical algorithm to be used with our new calculation method. This algorithm is based on the Cartesian elementary current systems (CECS). With CECS the boundary conditions are implemented in a natural way, making regional studies less prone to errors. We compare the traditional KRM method and our new CECS-based formulation using several realistic models of typical meso-scale phenomena in the auroral ionosphere, including a uniform electrojet, the ?-bands and the westward traveling surge. It is found that the error in the CECS results is typically about 20%-40%, whereas the errors in the KRM results are significantly larger.

Vanhamäki, H.; Amm, O.

2007-06-01

400

Moment method analysis of infinite stripline-fed tapered slot antenna arrays with a ground plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-wave method of moments solution for infinite arrays of stripline-fed tapered slot antennas is described. The formulation of the problem is sufficiently general to permit performance evaluation of most of the geometries that have been proposed for stripline-fed antennas as well as of several other types of array antennas. Computed results for some well-known antenna arrays are presented to

Daniel H. Schaubert; Jon Anders Aas; Michael E. Cooley; N. E. Buris

1994-01-01

401

A survey of the scientific data and training methods utilized by collegiate strength and conditioning coaches.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which scientific research influences college strength and conditioning coaching practices and to determine the training methods utilized. A total of 321 surveys were mailed to Division I strength and conditioning coaches, and the response rate was 42.7% (137 of 321 surveys). Results indicate that all subjects held a baccalaureate degree, the majority in a human performance-related field, and that 75% were Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) certified. The respondents' most widely utilized professional resources were the Strength and Conditioning Journal (94%) and other collegiate coaches and programs (93%). Forty-seven percent of respondents indicated that other collegiate coaches and their programs were the most important sources of knowledge outside of formal education. The majority indicated that they used a periodization protocol (93%) utilizing multiple sets (97%), plyometrics (90%), explosive movements (88%), and Olympic lifts (85%). Respondents tend to rely on sources of information that may not be defined as scientific, as evidenced by the low priority given to peer-reviewed literature. Respondents also tend to employ the methods they utilized as athletes. Reliance on these sources may not take advantage of advances made through scientific research in exercise physiology, biomechanics, and more specifically the area of strength and conditioning. PMID:12741880

Durell, David L; Pujol, Thomas J; Barnes, Jeremy T

2003-05-01

402

A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Survey of KIilbourne Hole, Southern New Mexico: Implication for Paleohydrology and Near Surface Geophysical Exploration of Mars and the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Features such as the Home Plate plateau on Mars, a suspected remnant of a phreatomagmatic eruption, can reveal important information about paleohydrologic conditions. The types and sizes of pyroclastic rocks produced by a phreatomagmatic eruption are indicative of the behavior of the explosion and the characteristics of the groundwater reservoir. Analysis of the pyroclast size distribution can be used to determine magma volatile content. We conduct an analysis of pyroclast size distribution using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to make a quantitative estimate of the presence of past groundwater at Kilbourne Hole, a well-known phreatomagmatic crater located in southern Dona Ana County, New Mexico. As basaltic magma intruded the groundwater reservoir in the mid-Pleistocene, the water vaporized and caused a phreatomagmatic explosion that excavated the 2-km wide and 200-m deep depression. The pyroclastic units produced during a phreatomagmatic explosion are proportional to the size and the duration of the explosion and the size of the groundwater reservoir such that the wetter the eruption, the stronger the explosion. In a violent volcanic eruption, magma changes from a liquid into solid fragments and the explosion releases kinetic energy (Ek) by ejecting liquid water, vapor water (with mass Mw) and solid fragments (with mass Mf) at an ejection velocity (Ve). In order to determine Mw, we must know Ve. The relationship between Ve and the distance from center of the eruption (R) is such that Ve exponentially decreases with time (t) and R. A numerical model relating pyroclast size and Ve for material ejected in Hawaiian and Plinian eruptions shows that clast size also exponentially decreases with decreasing Ve. Based on these relationships, we use GPR to map the ejected clast size distribution as a function of distance from the edge of Kilbourne Hole in an effort to determine Ve and Mw. GPR surveys were performed in January 2012 and January 2013 using a Noggins 250 MHz radar system. We designed the surveys to detect volcanic bombs in the shallow subsurface and to map radial variations in their sizes. Six GPR lines were extended radially in each cardinal direction from the rim of Kilbourne Hole, and, as a control, fifteen short GPR lines were performed along an accessible cliff where visible volcanic bombs and blocks are exposed. We are able to visualize 58 bombs and blocks along one of the six GPR lines within the maximum penetration depth of 2.4-3.2 m. From the resulting GPR profiles, we measured the width and the length of the bombs. The largest dimension of each bomb was plotted against distance from crater rim, and the obtained exponential relationship between bomb size and distance will be applied to a numerical model of ejecta dispersal from transient volcanic explosions to solve for Ve and Mw. This case study at Kilbourne Hole serves as a planetary analog for similar surveys that could be done on Mars and on the Moon.

Rhodes, N.; Hurtado, J. M.

2013-05-01

403

High resolution imaging of vadose zone transport using surface and crosswell ground penetrating radar methods  

SciTech Connect

To effectively clean up many contaminated sites there is a need for information on heterogeneities at scales ranging from one centimeter to tens of meters, as these features can alter contaminant transport significantly. At the Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site heterogeneities of interest can range from localized phenomena such as silt or gravel lenses, fractures, clastic dikes, to large-scale lithologic discontinuities. In the vadose zone it is critical to understand the parameters controlling flow. These features have been suspected of leading to funneling and fingering, additional physical mechanisms that could alter and possibly accelerate the transport of contaminants to underlying groundwater. For example, it has been observed from the studies to date that over relatively short distances there are heterogeneities in the physical structure of the porous medium and structural differences between repacked soil cores and the field site from which the materials initially came (Raymond and Shdo, 1966). Analysis of cores taken from the vadose zone (i.e., soil surface to water table) has been useful in identifying localized zones of contamination. Unfortunately, these analyses are sparse (limited to a few boreholes) and extremely expensive. The high levels of radioactivity at many of the contaminated sites increase drilling and sample costs and analysis time. Cost of drilling and core analysis for the SX tank farm has exceeded $1M per borehole (50 meter deep) for sampling. The inability to track highly mobile species through the vadose zone highlights an important need: the need for methods to describe the complete vadose zone plume and to determine processes controlling accelerated contamination of groundwater at Hanford. A combination of surface and crosswell (i.e. borehole) geophysical measurements is one means to provide this information. The main questions addressed with the radar methods in this study are: (1) What parts of the vadose zone-groundwater system control flow geometry? (2) What physical properties or mechanisms control flow and transport in unconsolidated soils of the vadose zone? (3) What is the optimum suite of field tests to provide information for predicting flow and transport behavior? (4) How can the information obtained during site characterization be used for building confidence in predictive numerical models? Fully developed, application of geophysics should enable location of contaminant distributions. Questions addressed in this study were the sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy of the geophysical methods in order to derive the spatial and temporal distribution of properties controlling transport and contaminant distribution between and away from boreholes and the surface. Implicit in this activity is that geophysical methods will be used to extrapolate and extend measurements made at the point scale to the volumetric scale. Overall there are two broad hypotheses being addressed in the geophysical work: (1) Geophysical methods can identify physical and chemical heterogeneity controlling contaminant transport at a meaningful scale. (2) Geophysical methods have the sensitivity to directly or indirectly detect the location of introduced fluids and/or contaminants at relevant concentrations (i.e. the subsurface has been altered from its natural state enough to create anomalies that can be detected in terms of a combination of mechanical, electrical, and thermal effects).

Williams, Kenneth H.; Kowalsky, Mike B.; Peterson, John E.

2002-11-05

404

Electromagnetic scattering analysis of a three-dimensional-cavity-backed aperture in an infinite ground plane using a combined finite element method/method of moments approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined finite element method/method of moments (FEM/MoM) approach is used to analyze the electromagnetic scattering properties of a three-dimensional-cavity-backed aperture in an infinite ground plane. The FEM is used to formulate the fields inside the cavity, and the MoM (with subdomain bases) in both spectral and spatial domains is used to formulate the fields above the ground plane. Fields in the aperture and the cavity are solved using a system of equations resulting from the combination of the FEM and the MoM. By virtue of the FEM, this combined approach is applicable to all arbitrarily shaped cavities with inhomogeneous material fillings, and because of the subdomain bases used in the MoM, the apertures can be of any arbitrary shape. This approach leads to a partly sparse and partly full symmetric matrix, which is efficiently solved using a biconjugate gradient algorithm. Numerical results are presented to validate the analysis.

Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

1995-01-01

405

Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water  

E-print Network

Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water Techniques.S. Geological Survey, retired. #12;Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water Edited by Donald O. Rosenberry and James W. LaBaugh Techniques and Methods 4­D2 U.S. Department

406

Ground-Motion Simulations of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake Using Empirical Green's Function Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms8.0 occurred in the Wenhuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. There were about 90,000 persons killed. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and “quake lakes” which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, we simulate the near-field strong ground motions of this great event based on the empirical Green’s function method (EGF). Referring to the published inversion source models, at first, we assume that there are three asperities on the rupture area and choose three different small events as the EGFs. Then, we identify the parameters of the source model using a genetic algorithm (GA). We calculate the synthetic waveforms based on the obtained source model and compare with the observed records. Our result shows that for most of the synthetic waveforms agree very well with the observed ones. The result proves the validity and the stability of the method. Finally, we forward the near-field strong ground motions near the source region and try to explain the damage distribution caused by the great earthquake.

Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, X.

2010-12-01

407

Interest of LQAS method in a survey of HTLV-I infection in Benin (West Africa).  

PubMed

HTLV-I is heterogeneously distributed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Traditional survey methods as cluster sampling could provide information for a country or region of interest. However, they cannot identify small areas with higher prevalences of infection to help in the health policy planning. Identification of such areas could be done by a Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method, which is currently used in industry to identify a poor performance in assembly lines. The LQAS method was used in Atacora (Northern Benin) between March and May 1998 to identify areas with a HTLV-I seroprevalence higher than 4%. Sixty-five subjects were randomly selected in each of 36 communes (lots) of this department. Lots were classified as unacceptable when the sample contained at least one positive subject. The LQAS method identified 25 (69.4 %) communes with a prevalence higher than 4%. Using stratified sampling theory, the overall HTLV-I seroprevalence was 4.5% (95% CI: 3.6-5.4%). These data show the interest of LQAS method application under field conditions to detect clusters of infection. PMID:11809358

Houinato, Dismand; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Charriere, Bénédicte; Massit, Bruno; Avodé, Gilbert; Denis, François; Dumas, Michel; Boutros-Toni, Fernand; Salamon, Roger

2002-02-01

408

New U.S. Geological Survey Method for the Assessment of Reserve Growth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reserve growth is defined as the estimated increases in quantities of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids that have the potential to be added to remaining reserves in discovered accumulations through extension, revision, improved recovery efficiency, and additions of new pools or reservoirs. A new U.S. Geological Survey method was developed to assess the reserve-growth potential of technically recoverable crude oil and natural gas to be added to reserves under proven technology currently in practice within the trend or play, or which reasonably can be extrapolated from geologically similar trends or plays. This method currently is in use to assess potential additions to reserves in discovered fields of the United States. The new approach involves (1) individual analysis of selected large accumulations that contribute most to reserve growth, and (2) conventional statistical modeling of reserve growth in remaining accumulations. This report will focus on the individual accumulation analysis. In the past, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated reserve growth by statistical methods using historical recoverable-quantity data. Those statistical methods were based on growth rates averaged by the number of years since accumulation discovery. Accumulations in mature petroleum provinces with volumetrically significant reserve growth, however, bias statistical models of the data; therefore, accumulations with significant reserve growth are best analyzed separately from those with less significant reserve growth. Large (greater than 500 million barrels) and older (with respect to year of discovery) oil accumulations increase in size at greater rates late in their development history in contrast to more recently discovered accumulations that achieve most growth early in their development history. Such differences greatly affect the statistical methods commonly used to forecast reserve growth. The individual accumulation-analysis method involves estimating the in-place petroleum quantity and its uncertainty, as well as the estimated (forecasted) recoverability and its respective uncertainty. These variables are assigned probabilistic distributions and are combined statistically to provide probabilistic estimates of ultimate recoverable quantities. Cumulative production and remaining reserves are then subtracted from the estimated ultimate recoverable quantities to provide potential reserve growth. In practice, results of the two methods are aggregated to various scales, the highest of which includes an entire country or the world total. The aggregated results are reported along with the statistically appropriate uncertainties.

Klett, Timothy R.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Freeman, Philip A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Le, Phuong A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Verma, Mahendra K.

2011-01-01

409

Borehole geophysical methods for analyzing specific capacity of multiaquifer wells : ground-water hydraulics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conventional well-logging techniques, combined with measurements of flow velocity in the borehole, can provide information on the discharge-drawdown characteriBtic8 of the several aquifers penetrated by a well. The information is most conveniently presented in a graph showing aquifer discharges as functions of the water level in the well at a particular time. To determine the discharge-drawdown characteristics, a well is pumped at a steady rate for a certain length of time. While the well is being pumped, measurements are made of drawdown and of the discharge rates of the individual aquifers within the well. Discharge rates and drawdowns ,are usually recorded as functions of time, and their values for any given time during the test are obtained by interpolation. The procedure is repeated for several different rates of total well discharge. The well may be allowed to recover after each step, or discharge may be changed from one rate to another, and changes in discharge and drawdown may be measured by extrapolation. The flow measurements within the well may be made by use of a subsurface flowmeter or by one of several techniques involving the injection of electrolytic or radioactive tracers. The method was tested on a well in Mercer County, Pa., and provided much useful information on aquifer yields, 'thieving,' and hydrostatic heads of the individual zones.

Bennett, Gordon D.; Patten, Eugene P., Jr.

1960-01-01

410

Have “new” methods in medical education reached German-speaking Central Europe: a survey  

PubMed Central

Background Simulation-based-training (SBT) in the education of health professionals is discussed as an effective alternative for knowledge and skills enhancement as well as for the establishment of a secure learning environment, for learners and patients. In the Anglo-American region, SBT and simulation and training centers (STC) are numbered as standard for medical training. In German-speaking Central Europe, priority is still given to the establishment of SBT and STC. The purpose of this study was (i) to survey the status quo relating to the existence and facilities of simulation and training centers at medical universities in German-speaking Central Europe and (ii) the evaluation of training methods, especially in the area of emergency medicine skills. Methods All public and private medical universities or medical faculties in Germany (36), Austria (4) and German-speaking Switzerland (3) were interviewed. In the survey, information regarding the existence and facilities of STCs and information with regards to the use of SBT in the area of emergency medicine was requested. The questions were partly posed in a closed-ended-, in an open-ended- and in a multiple choice format (with the possibility of selecting more than one answer). Results Of a total of 43 contacted medical universities/medical faculties, 40 ultimately participated in the survey. As decisive for the establishment of a STC the potential to improve the clinical-practical training and the demand by students were listed. Obligatory training in a STC during the first and sixth academic year was confirmed only by 12 institutions, before the first invasive procedure on patients by 17 institutions. 13 institutions confirmed the use of the STC for the further training of physicians and care-staff. Training for the acute care and emergency medicine skills in the field of pediatrics, for the most part, occurs decentralized. Conclusions New methods in medical training have reached German-speaking Central Europe, but the simulation and training centers vary in size, equipment or regarding their integration into the obligatory curriculum as much as the number and variety of the offering to be trained voluntarily or on an obligatory basis. PMID:25129398

2014-01-01

411

A New Method for the Detection of Galaxy Clusters in X-Ray Surveys  

SciTech Connect

For many years the power of counting clusters of galaxies as a function of their mass has been recognized as a powerful cosmological probe; however, we are only now beginning to acquire data from dedicated surveys with sufcient sky coverage and sensitivity to measure the cluster population out to distances where the dark energy came to dominate the Universe’s evolution. One such survey uses the XMM X-ray telescope to scan a large area of sky, detecting the X-ray photons from the hot plasma that lies in the deep potential wells of massive clusters of galaxies. These clusters appear as extended (not point-like) objects, each providing just a few hundred photons in a typical observation. The detection of extended sources in such a low signal-to-noise situation is an important problem in astrophysics: we attempt to solve it by using as much prior information as possible, translating our experience with wellmeasured clusters to define a “template” cluster that can be varied and matched to the features seen in the XMM images. In this work we adapt an existing Monte Carlo analysis code for this problem. Two detection templates were dened and their suitability explored using simulated data; the method was then applied to a publically avalable XMM observation of a “blank” field. Presented are the encouraging results of this series of experiments, suggesting that this approach continue to be developed for future cluster-identication endeavours.

Piacentine, J.M.; Marshall, P.J.; Peterson, J.R.; Andersson, K.E.

2005-01-01

412

Pattern of shallow ground water flow at Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, using geoelectrical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geothermal fields, open faults and fractures often act as high permeability pathways bringing hydrothermal fluids to the surface from deep reservoirs. The Mount Princeton area, in south-central Colorado, is an area that has an active geothermal system related to faulting and is therefore a suitable natural laboratory to test geophysical methods. The Sawatch range-front normal fault bordering the half-graben of the Upper Arkansas valley is characterized by a right-lateral offset at Mount Princeton Hot springs. This offset is associated with the Chalk Cliffs of hydrothermally altered quartz monzonite. Because fault identification in this area is complicated by quaternary deposits (including glacial and fluvial deposits), we use DC electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential mapping to identify preferential fluid flow pathways. The geophysical data (over 5600 resistivity and 2700 self-potential measurements) provide evidence of the existence of a dextral strike slip fault zone (Fault B) responsible for the offset of the Sawatch fault. A segment of this dextral strike slip fault (termed U1) is acting as the dominant vertical flow path bringing thermal waters to a shallow unconfined aquifer. Upwelling of the thermal waters is also observed at two zones (U2 and U3) of an open fracture called Fault A. This fault is located at the tip of the Sawatch fault and is likely associated with an extensional strain regime in this area. Self-potential measurements are used to estimate the flux of upwelling thermal water. The upflow estimate (4 ± 1 × 10 3 m 3/day for the open segment of the Fault B and 2 ± 1 × 10 3 m 3/day for Fault A) from the geophysical data is remarkably consistent with the downstream Mt. Princeton hot water production (4.3-4.9) × 10 3 m 3/day at approximately 60-86 °C). A temperature map indicates that a third upwelling zone termed U4 may exist at the southern tip of the Sawatch fault.

Richards, K.; Revil, A.; Jardani, A.; Henderson, F.; Batzle, M.; Haas, A.

2010-12-01

413

Asteroseismology: Data Analysis Methods and Interpretation for Space and Ground-based Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation has been submitted to the Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the PhD degree in Astronomy. The scientific results presented herein follow from the research activity performed under the supervision of Dr. Mário João Monteiro at the Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto and Dr. Hans Kjeldsen at the Institut for Fysik og Astronomi, Aarhus Universitet. The dissertation is composed of three chapters and a list of appendices. Chapter 1 serves as an unpretentious and rather general introduction to the field of asteroseismology of solar-like stars. It starts with a historical account of the field of asteroseismology followed by a general review of the basic physics and properties of stellar pulsations. Emphasis is then naturally placed on the stochastic excitation of stellar oscillations and on the potential of asteroseismic inference. The chapter closes with a discussion about observational techniques and the observational status of the field. Chapter 2 is devoted to the subject of data analysis in asteroseismology. This is an extensive subject, therefore, a compilation is presented of the relevant data analysis methods and techniques employed contemporarily in asteroseismology of solar-like stars. Special attention has been drawn to the subject of statistical inference both from the competing Bayesian and frequentist perspectives. The chapter ends with a description of the implementation of a pipeline for mode parameter analysis of Kepler data. In the course of these two first chapters, reference is made to a series of articles led by the author (or otherwise having greatly benefited from his contribution) that can be found in Appendices A to E. Chapter 3 then goes on to present a series of additional published results.

Campante, T. L.

2012-06-01

414

Methods for Adjusting U.S. Geological Survey Rural Regression Peak Discharges in an Urban Setting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted of 78 U.S. Geological Survey gaged streams that have been subjected to varying degrees of urbanization over the last three decades. Flood-frequency analysis coupled with nonlinear regression techniques were used to generate a set of equations for converting peak discharge estimates determined from rural regression equations to a set of peak discharge estimates that represent known urbanization. Specifically, urban regression equations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year return periods were calibrated as a function of the corresponding rural peak discharge and the percentage of impervious area in a watershed. The results of this study indicate that two sets of equations, one set based on imperviousness and one set based on population density, performed well. Both sets of equations are dependent on rural peak discharges, a measure of development (average percentage of imperviousness or average population density), and a measure of homogeneity of development within a watershed. Average imperviousness was readily determined by using geographic information system methods and commonly available land-cover data. Similarly, average population density was easily determined from census data. Thus, a key advantage to the equations developed in this study is that they do not require field measurements of watershed characteristics as did the U.S. Geological Survey urban equations developed in an earlier investigation. During this study, the U.S. Geological Survey PeakFQ program was used as an integral tool in the calibration of all equations. The scarcity of historical land-use data, however, made exclusive use of flow records necessary for the 30-year period from 1970 to 2000. Such relatively short-duration streamflow time series required a nonstandard treatment of the historical data function of the PeakFQ program in comparison to published guidelines. Thus, the approach used during this investigation does not fully comply with the guidelines set forth in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 17B, and modifications may be needed before it can be applied in practice.

Moglen, Glenn E.; Shivers, Dorianne E.

2006-01-01

415

Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS site contains very useful descriptions about many aspects of ground water. The major topics include Ground Water, How Ground Water Occurs, Quality of Ground Water, Appraising the Nation's Ground-Water Resources, and a Glossary. This is a non-technical site, designed for use by the general public. Several charts and diagrams are also included in this site.

2002-02-15

416

Aerial radiometric and magnetic reconnaissance survey of south-central Colorado Trinidad Quadrangle. Volume 1. Instrumentation and methods  

SciTech Connect

Instrumentation and methods described were used for a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Trinidad, Colorado, NTMS, 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. The survey was carried out by Texas Instruments Incorporated under Bendix Field Engineering Corporation Subcontract No. 79-263-L. Objective of the work was to define areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful.

Not Available

1980-01-01

417

Ground penetrating radar and terrestrial laser scanner surveys on deposits of dilute pyroclastic density current deposits: insights for dune bedform genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dune bedforms formed by dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDC) are often described or interpreted as antidunes and chute and pools. However, the interpretation remains essentially speculative and is not well understood. This is largely due to the seeming impossibility of in-situ measurements and experimental scaling, as well as the lack of recent, 3D exposures. Indeed, most dune bedform cross-stratifications from the dilute PDC record outcrop in 2D sections. The 2006 eruption of Tungurahua has produced well-developed bedforms that are well-exposed on the surface of the deposits with easy access. We performed a survey of these deposits combining ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiling with terrestrial laser scanning of the surface. The GPR survey was carried in dense arrays (from 10 to 25 cm spacing between profiles) over ca. 10 m long bedforms. GPR profiles were corrected for topography from photogrammetry data. An in-house software, RadLab (written in matlab), was used for common processing of individual profiles and 2D & 3D topographic migration. Each topography-corrected profile was then loaded into a seismic interpretation software, OpenDtect, for 3D visualization and interpretation. Most bedforms show high lateral stability that is independent of the cross-stratification pattern (that varies between stoss-aggrading bedsets, stoss-erosive bedsets and stoss-depositional lensoidal layers). Anecdotic bedforms have their profiles that evolve laterally (i.e. in a direction perpendicular to the flow direction). Cannibalization of two dune bedforms into a single one on one end of the profile can evolve into growth of a single bedform at the other lateral end. Also, lateral variation in the migration direction occurs, i.e. a single bedform can show upstream aggradation at one lateral end of the bedform, but show downstream migration at the other end. Some bedforms have great variations in their internal structure. Several episodes of growth and erosion can be identified and reflect the dual control of the basal boundary for the location of a bedform, but the fluids dynamics control on the sedimentation pattern. The TLS data could not be geo-referenced and different clouds could not be combined. However, individual clouds or group of clouds permit a numerical analysis of the bedforms. Local average-extrema point the location of crests and troughs. The curvature of the surface elevation (eigenvalue of the curvature matrix) emphasizes the organization of the bedforms. Though noisy, the 2D Fourier transform permit to see a slight trend in the spectrum of a field of bedforms. As a whole, the dataset from the Tungurahua eruption allows us to rule out the interpretation as antidune that has been made for similar deposits. The outer shape of the bedforms and their internal structures are, in particular, not coherent with antidunes, and the downstream-size evolution as well as the outer shapes are not in agreement with interpretation of flow reversal for the formation of stoss-aggrading dune bedforms.

Rémi Dujardin, Jean; Amin Douillet, Guilhem; Abolghasem, Amir; Cordonnier, Benoit; Kueppers, Ulrich; Bano, Maksim; Dingwell, Donald B.

2014-05-01

418

A method to automate radiological surveys: The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System  

SciTech Connect

The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) was developed to allow radiation exposure rate data and positional information to be simultaneously collected, stored, and analyzed in a manner more efficient than conventional survey techniques. USRADS is field portable using ultrasonics to locate a field surveyor on a site and radiofrequency to transmit data. Surveyor position (e.g., measurement location within 10 cm) and an integrated instrument measurement are recorded and stored once each second in a microcomputer. Operational experience indicates that the system results in collection of greater quantity and higher quality of radiological data with less effort in data transcription and analysis and only slightly more field effort compared to conventional manual methods.

Berven, B.A.; Little, C.A.; Blair, M.S. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

1991-03-01

419

A method to automate radiological surveys: the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System.  

PubMed

The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) was developed to allow radiation exposure rate data and positional information to be simultaneously collected, stored, and analyzed in a manner more efficient than conventional survey techniques. USRADS is field portable using ultrasonics to locate a field surveyor on a site and radiofrequency to transmit data. Surveyor position (e.g., measurement location within 10 cm) and an integrated instrument measurement are recorded and stored once each second in a microcomputer. Operational experience indicates that the system results in collection of greater quantity and higher quality of radiological data with less effort in data transcription and analysis and only slightly more field effort compared to conventional manual methods. PMID:1995509

Berven, B A; Little, C A; Blair, M S

1991-03-01

420

MODFLOW-2000 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--documentation of the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Observations of the advective component of contaminant transport in steady-state flow fields can provide important information for the calibration of ground-water flow models. This report documents the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package, version 2, which allows advective-transport observations to be used in the three-dimensional ground-water flow parameter-estimation model MODFLOW-2000. The ADV2 Package is compatible with some of the features in the Layer-Property Flow and Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages, but is not compatible with the Block-Centered Flow or Generalized Finite-Difference Packages. The particle-tracking routine used in the ADV2 Package duplicates the semi-analytical method of MODPATH, as shown in a sample problem. Particles can be tracked in a forward or backward direction, and effects such as retardation can be simulated through manipulation of the effective-porosity value used to calculate velocity. Particles can be discharged at cells that are considered to be weak sinks, in which the sink applied does not capture all the water flowing into the cell, using one of two criteria: (1) if there is any outflow to a boundary condition such as a well or surface-water feature, or (2) if the outflow exceeds a user specified fraction of the cell budget. Although effective porosity could be included as a parameter in the regression, this capability is not included in this package. The weighted sum-of-squares objective function, which is minimized in the Parameter-Estimation Process, was augmented to include the square of the weighted x-, y-, and z-components of the differences between the simulated and observed advective-front locations at defined times, thereby including the direction of travel as well as the overall travel distance in the calibration process. The sensitivities of the particle movement to the parameters needed to minimize the objective function are calculated for any particle location using the exact sensitivity-equation approach; the equations are derived by taking the partial derivatives of the semi-analytical particle-tracking equation with respect to the parameters. The ADV2 Package is verified by showing that parameter estimation using advective-transport observations produces the true parameter values in a small but complicated test case when exact observations are used. To demonstrate how the ADV2 Package can be used in practice, a field application is presented. In this application, the ADV2 Package is used first in the Sensitivity-Analysis mode of MODFLOW-2000 to calculate measures of the importance of advective-transport observations relative to head-dependent flow observations when either or both are used in conjunction with hydraulic-head observations in a simulation of the sewage-discharge plume at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The ADV2 Package is then used in the Parameter-Estimation mode of MODFLOW-2000 to determine best-fit parameter values. It is concluded that, for this problem, advective-transport observations improved the calibration of the model and the estimation of ground-water flow parameters, and the use of formal parameter-estimation methods and related techniques produced significant insight into the physical system.

Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary Catherine

2001-01-01

421

Non-invasive characterization of biogenic gas dynamics in peatlands using the ground penetrating radar (GPR) method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a non-invasive technology for investigating carbon cycling in northern peatlands are presented here. The GPR method has been proved as an effective approach for investigating biogenic gas dynamics over a wide range of spatial scales. Unlike other commonly applied techniques used in peatland science, GPR can be employed entirely non-invasively from the surface, and therefore can provide information on the vertical distribution of biogenic gases within the peat structure without disruption to the in situ gas regime. Several applications of the GPR method in peatlands research are presented here and include: (1) imaging of laterally continuous woody layers that may act as confining layers for free phase gas (FPG) accumulation as proposed by others; (2) surface and cross-hole measurements to estimate one-dimensional vertical profiles of variable FPG content and confirm accumulation of FPG below confining layers; (3) non-invasive time-lapse monitoring of FPG production and emissions from a peat column and use of reflection amplitudes to show that, in addition to travel times, amplitude analysis can also yield insights into changes in FPG production and emissions (e.g. via ebullition) from peat soils. We conclude with some further recommendations for future applications of GPR in northern peatlands.

Comas, X.; Slater, L. D.; Reeve, A. S.; Glaser, P. H.; Nolan, J. T.; Parsekian, A.

2009-12-01

422

Intelligence-based automatic detection and classification of ground collapses using object-based image analysis method: a case study in Paitan of Pearl River delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new method is proposed by applying case-based reasoning technique for detecting the ground collapses. The study demonstrates that the high resolution remote sensing images are suitable for monitoring the ground collapses in the study area with karst relief. With the help of object-based image analysis method, the generic algorithm (GA) for optimizing the spatial, shape, spectral, hierarchy and textural features was used in the multi-scale image segmentation with the good fitness value, and then the case library was built for detecting the collapse. The case library is reusable for place-independent detection. The proposed method has been tested in the Pearl River Delta in south China. The result of ground-collapse detection is well.

Dou, Jie; Zheng, Xiao-zhan; Qian, Jun-ping; Liu, Rui-hua; Wu, Qi-tao

2009-10-01

423

A survey of computational methods for protein complex prediction from protein interaction networks.  

PubMed

Complexes of physically interacting proteins are one of the fundamental functional units responsible for driving key biological mechanisms within the cell. Their identification is therefore necessary to understand not only complex formation but also the higher level organization of the cell. With the advent of "high-throughput" techniques in molecular biology, significant amount of physical interaction data has been cataloged from organisms such as yeast, which has in turn fueled computational approaches to systematically mine complexes from the network of physical interactions among proteins (PPI network). In this survey, we review, classify and evaluate some of the key computational methods developed till date for the identification of protein complexes from PPI networks. We present two insightful taxonomies that reflect how these methods have evolved over the years toward improving automated complex prediction. We also discuss some open challenges facing accurate reconstruction of complexes, the crucial ones being the presence of high proportion of errors and noise in current high-throughput datasets and some key aspects overlooked by current complex detection methods. We hope this review will not only help to condense the history of computational complex detection for easy reference but also provide valuable insights to drive further research in this area. PMID:23600810

Srihari, Sriganesh; Leong, Hon Wai

2013-04-01

424

30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...receiving power from a direct-current power system with one polarity grounded will be approved: (1) A solid connection to the...direct-current power system other than a system with one polarity grounded, will be approved by an authorized...

2011-07-01

425

30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...  

...receiving power from a direct-current power system with one polarity grounded will be approved: (1) A solid connection to the...direct-current power system other than a system with one polarity grounded, will be approved by an authorized...

2014-07-01

426

30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...receiving power from a direct-current power system with one polarity grounded will be approved: (1) A solid connection to the...direct-current power system other than a system with one polarity grounded, will be approved by an authorized...

2012-07-01

427

30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...receiving power from a direct-current power system with one polarity grounded will be approved: (1) A solid connection to the...direct-current power system other than a system with one polarity grounded, will be approved by an authorized...

2010-07-01

428

30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...receiving power from a direct-current power system with one polarity grounded will be approved: (1) A solid connection to the...direct-current power system other than a system with one polarity grounded, will be approved by an authorized...

2013-07-01

429

Evaluation of field sampling and preservation methods for strontium-90 in ground water at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water from four wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer was sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's quality assurance program to evaluate the effect of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in groundwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Water from each well was filtered through either a 0.45-micrometer membrane or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered samples was preserved in the field with reagent-grade hydrochloric acid and the other set of samples was not acidified. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94% or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that within-laboratory reproducibility for strontium-90 in groundwater at the INEL is not significantly affected by changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collections. (USGS)

Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

1989-01-01

430

The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Voronoi-Delaunay Method Catalog of Galaxy Groups  

SciTech Connect

We use the first 25% of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey spectroscopic data to identify groups and clusters of galaxies in redshift space. The data set contains 8370 galaxies with confirmed redshifts in the range 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, over one square degree on the sky. Groups are identified using an algorithm (the Voronoi-Delaunay Method) that has been shown to accurately reproduce the statistics of groups in simulated DEEP2-like samples. We optimize this algorithm for the DEEP2 survey by applying it to realistic mock galaxy catalogs and assessing the results using a stringent set of criteria for measuring group-finding success, which we develop and describe in detail here. We find in particular that the group-finder can successfully identify {approx}78% of real groups and that {approx}79% of the galaxies that are true members of groups can be identified as such. Conversely, we estimate that {approx}55% of the groups we find can be definitively identified with real groups and that {approx}46% of the galaxies we place into groups are interloper field galaxies. Most importantly, we find that it is possible to measure the distribution of groups in redshift and velocity dispersion, n({sigma}, z), to an accuracy limited by cosmic variance, for dispersions greater than 350 km s{sup -1}. We anticipate that such measurements will allow strong constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy in the future. Finally, we present the first DEEP2 group catalog, which assigns 32% of the galaxies to 899 distinct groups with two or more members, 153 of which have velocity dispersions above 350 km s{sup -1}. We provide locations, redshifts and properties for this high-dispersion subsample. This catalog represents the largest sample to date of spectroscopically detected groups at z {approx} 1.

Gerke, Brian F.; /UC, Berkeley; Newman, Jeffrey A.; /LBNL, NSD; Davis, Marc; /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Marinoni, Christian; /Brera Observ.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Conroy, Charlie; Cooper, Michael C.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Faber, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; /Lick Observ.; Kaiser, Nick; /Hawaii U.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; /Lick Observ.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; /Maryland U.

2012-02-14

431

Studying Displacement After a Disaster Using Large Scale Survey Methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami.  

PubMed

Understanding of human vulnerability to environmental change has advanced in recent years, but measuring vulnerability and interpreting mobility across many sites differentially affected by change remains a significant challenge. Drawing on longitudinal data collected on the same respondents who were living in coastal areas of Indonesia before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and were re-interviewed after the tsunami, this paper illustrates how the combination of population-based survey methods, satellite imagery and multivariate statistical analyses has the potential to provide new insights into vulnerability, mobility and impacts of major disasters on population well-being. The data are used to map and analyze vulnerability to post-tsunami displacement across the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra and to compare patterns of migration after the tsunami between damaged areas and areas not directly affected by the tsunami. The comparison reveals that migration after a disaster is less selective overall than migration in other contexts. Gender and age, for example, are strong predictors of moving from undamaged areas but are not related to displacement in areas experiencing damage. In our analyses traditional predictors of vulnerability do not always operate in expected directions. Low levels of socioeconomic status and education were not predictive of moving after the tsunami, although for those who did move, they were predictive of displacement to a camp rather than a private home. This survey-based approach, though not without difficulties, is broadly applicable to many topics in human-environment research, and potentially opens the door to rigorous testing of new hypotheses in this literature. PMID:24839300

Gray, Clark; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Thomas; Sumantri, Cecep; Thomas, Duncan

2014-01-01

432

Studying Displacement After a Disaster Using Large Scale Survey Methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami  

PubMed Central

Understanding of human vulnerability to environmental change has advanced in recent years, but measuring vulnerability and interpreting mobility across many sites differentially affected by change remains a significant challenge. Drawing on longitudinal data collected on the same respondents who were living in coastal areas of Indonesia before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and were re-interviewed after the tsunami, this paper illustrates how the combination of population-based survey methods, satellite imagery and multivariate statistical analyses has the potential to provide new insights into vulnerability, mobility and impacts of major disasters on population well-being. The data are used to map and analyze vulnerability to post-tsunami displacement across the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra and to compare patterns of migration after the tsunami between damaged areas and areas not directly affected by the tsunami. The comparison reveals that migration after a disaster is less selective overall than migration in other contexts. Gender and age, for example, are strong predictors of moving from undamaged areas but are not related to displacement in areas experiencing damage. In our analyses traditional predictors of vulnerability do not always operate in expected directions. Low levels of socioeconomic status