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Sample records for groundnut arachis hypogea

  1. Beneficial effects of fluorescent pseudomonads on seed germination, growth promotion, and suppression of charcoal rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.).

    PubMed

    Shweta, Bhatia; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Dubey, Ramesh Chand; Arora, Daljit Singh; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

    2008-09-01

    Rhizobacteria are used as inoculants to enhance crop yield and for biological control of fungal pathogens. Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the rhizosphere of groundnut showed suppression of the phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut, an economically important agroproduct. Two strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, designated as PS1 and PS2, were selected as a result of in vitro antifungal activity. After 5 days of incubation at 28+/-1 degrees , both PS1 and PS2 caused clear inhibition zones in dual cultures, restricting the growth of M. phaseolina by 71% and 74%, respectively. Both the strains were capable of producing siderophores, indole acetic acid, and hydrocyanic acid, and causing phosphate solubilization under normal growth conditions. These strains, when used as inoculants in groundnut, enhanced germination up to 15% and 30% with subsequent increase in grain yield by 66% and 77%, respectively. Conversely, when the pathogen alone was testeds 57% decrease in yield was recorded. Thus the studies revealed the potential of the two pseudomonads not only as biocontrol agents against M. phaseolina, but also as a good growth promoter for groundnut. PMID:18852515

  2. Effect of sewage water on seed germination and vigour index of different varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Girisha, S T; Raju, N S

    2008-11-01

    The study has been focused on the investigation on ground nut (Arachis hypogea) fields influenced by sewage water. Sewage water sampled in and around Mysore city and analyzed forphysicochemical parameters. Different concentrations such as 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 70 and 100% of sewage water on seed germination and vigour index of Arachis hypogea verities such as DH - 2 - 30, ICJS - 11, JL - 24, K - 134, TMV - 2 and VRI - 2 were studied. From the recorded observation it is concluded that the sewage water diluted to 25% concentration for irrigation of groundnut enhances germination percentage and vigour index in K- 134 variety which is more susceptible than other tested varieties. PMID:19297996

  3. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  4. Assessment of Adoption Gaps in Management of Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto research…

  5. Impact of Elevated CO2 on Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on Peanut, Arachis hypogea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Manimanjari, D; Vanaja, M; Rama Rao, CA; Srinivas, K; Rao, Vum; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    If the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO2 (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO2 levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO2 on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO2 compared with ambient CO2. Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO2. The present results indicate that elevated CO2 levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient). PMID:23437971

  6. GROUNDNUT STORAGE IN THE USA (LATE ENTRY DUE TO SY OVERSIGHT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States produces approximately 1.6 million t of in-shell groundnut (peanut, Arachis hypogea L.) annually with an estimated value of US$1.03 billion. This chapter discusses the storage and handling of peanuts when first purchased from the grower (farmer stock peanuts). Historical perspecti...

  7. Effect of peanut powder (Arachis hypogeae L., 1753) on zootechnic parameters and sex inversion in catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Dougnon T; Elie, Montchowui; Messanvi, Gbeassor

    2015-01-01

    Benin is currently experiencing an overexploitation of piscatorial resources; this requires the research of endogenous means to increase the biomass of fish produced thanks to fish farming activities. The present study intends to improve the zootechnic performances and inverse the sex in catfish Clarias gariepinus. Therefore, 240 larvae obtained from artificial reproduction were used for this study. Three different feed were tested. The control feed (TO) was without peanut powder; contrary, the two experimental feeds were containing the powder at the rates of 10% (T1) and 20% (T2). The best growth of 94.51±27.14 g was recorded with the treatment T2 and 71.32±25.58 g from treatment T1 and finally 54.83±22.19 g from the control group. The sex inversion rate varied from 50% in the control group to 66.13% in lot 1 then 80.13% in lot 2. However, survival rates were low and varied from 26.25% for T2, to 30% in TO then 42.5% in T1. This study permitted to get better results about the zootechnic parameters and the sex inversion in Clarias gariepinus at incorporation rates of 10% and 20% of peanut powder "Arachis hypogeae." PMID:26571988

  8. Screening of PGPR from saline desert of Kutch: growth promotion in Arachis hypogea by Bacillus licheniformis A2.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dweipayan; Dhandhukia, Pinakin; Patel, Pranav; Thakker, Janki N

    2014-01-20

    Rhizosphere of a halotolerant plant Suaeda fruticosa from saline desert of Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat (India) was explored for isolation of PGPR form the rare ecological niche having4.33% salinity. Total 85 isolates from the rhizosphere belonging to different species were isolated. Out of 85 isolates, 23 could solubilize phosphate and 11 isolates produced IAA. Seven isolates showed both the traits of phosphate solubilization and IAA production. All isolates which showed either of IAA production or phosphate solubilization or both were further screened for other PGP traits like production of ammonia, siderophore, chitinase, HCN and assessment of their antifungal activity. Out of all the screened isolates, Bacillus licheniformis strain A2 showed most prominent PGP traits in vitro and it was tested in vivo for growth promotion of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) under saline soil condition. In presence of soil supplemented with 50 mM NaCl, B. licheniformis treated plants showed increase in fresh biomass, total length and root length by 28%, 24% and 17% and in absence of NaCl it was 43%, 31% and 39% respectively. PMID:23896166

  9. Impact of Fungicides Chlorothalonil and Propiconazole on Microbial Activities in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Soils

    PubMed Central

    Ramudu, A. C.; Mohiddin, G. Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M.; Madakka, M.; Rangaswamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of agrochemicals (fungicides) into soil may have lasting effects on soil microbial activities and thus affect soil health. In order to determine the changes in microbial activity in a black clay and red sandy loam soils of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivated fields, a case study was conducted with propiconazole and chlorothalonil to evaluate its effects on soil enzymes (cellulase and invertase) throughout 40 days of incubation under laboratory conditions with different concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kg ha−1). Individual application of the two fungicides at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 kg ha−1 to the soil distinctly enhanced the activities of cellulase and invertase but at higher concentrations of 7.5 and 10 kg ha−1 was toxic or innocuous to both cellulase and invertase activities. In soil samples receiving 2.5–5.0 kg ha−1 of the fungicides, the accumulation of reducing sugar was pronounced more at 20 days, and the activity of the cellulase and invertase was drastically decreased with increasing period of incubation up to 30 and 40 days. PMID:23724306

  10. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers and their application for diversity assessment in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Cuc, Luu M; Mace, Emma S; Crouch, Jonathan H; Quang, Vu D; Long, Tran D; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most important oilseed crop in the world, grown mainly in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates. Due to its origin through a single and recent polyploidization event, followed by successive selection during breeding efforts, cultivated groundnut has a limited genetic background. In such species, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are very informative and useful for breeding applications. The low level of polymorphism in cultivated germplasm, however, warrants a need of larger number of polymorphic microsatellite markers for cultivated groundnut. Results A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from the genotype TMV2. Sequencing of 720 putative SSR-positive clones from a total of 3,072 provided 490 SSRs. 71.2% of these SSRs were perfect type, 13.1% were imperfect and 15.7% were compound. Among these SSRs, the GT/CA repeat motifs were the most common (37.6%) followed by GA/CT repeat motifs (25.9%). The primer pairs could be designed for a total of 170 SSRs and were optimized initially on two genotypes. 104 (61.2%) primer pairs yielded scorable amplicon and 46 (44.2%) primers showed polymorphism among 32 cultivated groundnut genotypes. The polymorphic SSR markers detected 2 to 5 alleles with an average of 2.44 per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value for these markers varied from 0.12 to 0.75 with an average of 0.46. Based on 112 alleles obtained by 46 markers, a phenogram was constructed to understand the relationships among the 32 genotypes. Majority of the genotypes representing subspecies hypogaea were grouped together in one cluster, while the genotypes belonging to subspecies fastigiata were grouped mainly under two clusters. Conclusion Newly developed set of 104 markers extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated groundnut. These markers showed a good level of PIC value in cultivated germplasm and therefore would be

  11. Trichoderma viride induces pathogenesis related defense response against rot pathogen infection in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Savaliya, Disha D; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2015-08-01

    The study examine induction of defense enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of pathogenesis related proteins in rot pathogen (Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem) challenged groundnut seedlings in response to Trichoderma viride JAU60. Seeds of five groundnut varieties differing in collar rot susceptibility were sown under non-infested, pathogen infested and pathogen+T. viride JAU60 seed treatment. Collar rot disease evident between 31.0% (J-11, GG-2) and 67.4% (GG-20) in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infested which was significantly reduced from 58.1% (J-11, GG-2) to 51.6% (GG-20) by Trichoderma treatment. The specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) and β-1,3 glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6) elevated 3.5 and 2.3-fold, respectively, at 3 days; phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) evident 1.6-fold higher at 6 days; and chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) sustained 2.3-2.8 folds up to 9 days in Trichoderma treated+pathogen infested seedlings of tolerant varieties (J-11, GG-2) compared with moderate and susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20). T. viride JAU60 induces defense enzymes in a different way for tolerant and susceptible varieties to combat the disease. This study indicates the synergism activation of defense enzymes under the pathogenic conditions or induced resistance by T. viride JAU60 in a different groundnut varieties susceptible to collar rot disease. PMID:26160540

  12. Mechanism of aflatoxin uptake in roots of intact groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2013-12-01

    Aflatoxins are one of the most potent toxic substances that occur naturally, which enter agricultural soils through the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in rhizhosphere and nonrhizhosphere soils. Though several reports regarding the uptake of aflatoxin by plants are available, the mechanism of aflatoxin uptake remains unknown. This study characterized the aflatoxin uptake mechanism by in vitro hydroponic experiments under variable conditions. The uptake reached saturation after 48 h of incubation for AFB1 and B2 and 60 h for AFG1 and G2. A linear increase in uptake with increasing aflatoxin concentrations was observed, and it fits both linear and nonlinear regression. AFB1 uptake was directly proportional to transpiration rate, and blocking aquaporin activity using mercuric chloride revealed its involvement in the uptake. None of the metabolic inhibitors used to block active transport had any effect on aflatoxin uptake except for sodium azide. From the present study, it could be concluded that aflatoxin uptake by groundnut roots followed mainly a passive way and is facilitated through aquaporins. The involvement of active component should be studied in detail. PMID:23660803

  13. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Shah-E-Alam, Md.; Hamid, Md. Abdul; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Malek, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    A study was performed using 6 × 6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca) indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants. PMID:24737982

  14. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Spanish and Virginia groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mahatma, M K; Thawait, L K; Bishi, S K; Khatediya, N; Rathnakumar, A L; Lalwani, H B; Misra, J B

    2016-05-01

    Kernels of sixty groundnut genotypes comprising thirty each of Spanish and Virginia groups were characterized and compared for the content of oil, protein, phenols and antioxidant activity along with their fatty acid and sugars profiles. The antioxidant activity for Virginia genotypes was ranged from 12.5 to 16.5 μM Trolox equivalent activity for Spanish genotypes ranged from 6.8-15.2 μM. Amongst Virginia types, the highest oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio of 2.38 was observed for NRCG 12312 while from Spanish group the highest O/L ratio of 1.24 was observed for NRCG 12731. The sucrose content for Virginia genotypes ranged from 38.5 to 69.0 mg/g while it was 27.9 to 53.3 mg/g for Spanish genotypes. Average myo-inositol content was higher for Spanish genotypes (0.8-2.1 mg/g) compared to Virginia (0.4-1.8 mg/g) while the reverse was true for stachayose content (Spanish: 3.5-7.9 mg/g; Virginia: 4.6-10.3 mg/g). Thus, Virginia genotypes could be preferred to Spanish genotypes for better oil stability and antioxidant activity. PMID:27407194

  15. A QTL study on late leaf spot and rust revealed one major QTL for molecular breeding for rust resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Khedikar, Y. P.; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sarvamangala, C.; Patgar, K. V.; Upadhyaya, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    Late leaf spot (LLS) and rust are two major foliar diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) that often occur together leading to 50–70% yield loss in the crop. A total of 268 recombinant inbred lines of a mapping population TAG 24 × GPBD 4 segregating for LLS and rust were used to undertake quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Phenotyping of the population was carried out under artificial disease epiphytotics. Positive correlations between different stages, high to very high heritability and independent nature of inheritance between both the diseases were observed. Parental genotypes were screened with 1,089 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, of which 67 (6.15%) were found polymorphic. Segregation data obtained for these markers facilitated development of partial linkage map (14 linkage groups) with 56 SSR loci. Composite interval mapping (CIM) undertaken on genotyping and phenotyping data yielded 11 QTLs for LLS (explaining 1.70–6.50% phenotypic variation) in three environments and 12 QTLs for rust (explaining 1.70–55.20% phenotypic variation). Interestingly a major QTL associated with rust (QTLrust01), contributing 6.90–55.20% variation, was identified by both CIM and single marker analysis (SMA). A candidate SSR marker (IPAHM 103) linked with this QTL was validated using a wide range of resistant/susceptible breeding lines as well as progeny lines of another mapping population (TG 26 × GPBD 4). Therefore, this marker should be useful for introgressing the major QTL for rust in desired lines/varieties of groundnut through marker-assisted backcrossing. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1366-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20526757

  16. Response of irrigated groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) to urea fertilization in the central rainlands of the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, N O; Yousif, Y H

    1979-01-01

    The response of 3 varieties of groundnuts, i.e.: Ashford (A), Barberton (B), and Corinte (C), to different doses of urea nitrogen under irrigation was studied for three years. As a result of extensive tissue analysis, the critical needs of Barberton and Corinte for nitrogen were found to be 1500 ppm NO3-N and 3.7% total-N. Variety Ashford, which outyielded both, did not respond to urea nitrogen. A linear correlation coefficient of r = 0.85 for pod and straw yields gave a pod to straw ratio of 0.72. Kernel protein and oil content were not affected by nitrogen. Larger nodule counts and their total-N indicated better yields. PMID:473957

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RESVERATROL AND COUMARIC ACID ON TWO MAJOR GROUNDNUT PESTS AND THEIR EGG PARASITOID BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Sambangi, Pratyusha; Rani, Pathipati Usha

    2016-04-01

    Groundnut, Arachis hypogea L., is one of the plant species that synthesizes phenolic compounds, resveratrol and coumaric acid. They are induced as a defense strategy in plant in response to feeding lepidopterans. The present study investigated the role of resveratrol and coumaric acid in producing antiherbivore effects as a direct defense against two major groundnut pests, Spodoptera litura F. and Amsacta albistriga W., and in indirect defense by attracting the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii under laboratory conditions. The phenolic compounds deterred the feeding of both pests and caused reduction in the larval weights in a dose-dependent manner in leaf disk bioassays. Antioxidant mechanisms of larvae fed with these phenols were measured by estimating the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), and catalase (CAT). Enzyme activities increased significantly in experimental larvae, more so in resveratrol-treated than in coumaric acid treated larvae. Feeding larvae with resveratrol and coumaric acid resulted in enhanced activities of detoxifying enzymes, carboxyl esterase (EST), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the midgut tissues of both species, indicating the toxic nature of these compounds. Trichogramma chilonis was more attracted toward coumaric acid treatments in Y-olfactometer tests than to resveratrol. This study contributes to the understanding of the roles of resveratrol and coumaric acid in direct as well as indirect defense, we infer a possible utilization of these compounds in alternate measures of groundnut pest control in future. PMID:26890503

  18. An international reference consensus genetic map with 897 marker loci based on 11 mapping populations for tetraploid groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few genetic maps based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) and backcross (BC) populations have been developed for tetraploid groundnut. The marker density, however, is not very satisfactory especially in the context of large genome size (2800 Mb/1C) and 20 linkage groups (LGs). Therefore, using ...

  19. Introgression of the SbASR-1 gene cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiate enhances salinity and drought endurance in transgenic groundnut (arachis hypogaea)and acts as a transcription factor [corrected].

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  20. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  1. An International Reference Consensus Genetic Map with 897 Marker Loci Based on 11 Mapping Populations for Tetraploid Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Sujay, Venkataswamy; Qin, Hongde; Hong, Yanbin; Faye, Issa; Chen, Xiaoping; BhanuPrakash, Amindala; Shah, Trushar M.; Gowda, Makanahally V. C.; Nigam, Shyam N.; Liang, Xuanqiang; Hoisington, Dave A.; Guo, Baozhu; Bertioli, David J.; Rami, Jean-Francois; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2012-01-01

    Only a few genetic maps based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) and backcross (BC) populations have been developed for tetraploid groundnut. The marker density, however, is not very satisfactory especially in the context of large genome size (2800 Mb/1C) and 20 linkage groups (LGs). Therefore, using marker segregation data for 10 RILs and one BC population from the international groundnut community, with the help of common markers across different populations, a reference consensus genetic map has been developed. This map is comprised of 897 marker loci including 895 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 2 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) loci distributed on 20 LGs (a01–a10 and b01–b10) spanning a map distance of 3, 863.6 cM with an average map density of 4.4 cM. The highest numbers of markers (70) were integrated on a01 and the least number of markers (21) on b09. The marker density, however, was lowest (6.4 cM) on a08 and highest (2.5 cM) on a01. The reference consensus map has been divided into 20 cM long 203 BINs. These BINs carry 1 (a10_02, a10_08 and a10_09) to 20 (a10_04) loci with an average of 4 marker loci per BIN. Although the polymorphism information content (PIC) value was available for 526 markers in 190 BINs, 36 and 111 BINs have at least one marker with >0.70 and >0.50 PIC values, respectively. This information will be useful for selecting highly informative and uniformly distributed markers for developing new genetic maps, background selection and diversity analysis. Most importantly, this reference consensus map will serve as a reliable reference for aligning new genetic and physical maps, performing QTL analysis in a multi-populations design, evaluating the genetic background effect on QTL expression, and serving other genetic and molecular breeding activities in groundnut. PMID:22815973

  2. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  3. Groundnut improvement: use of genetic and genomic tools

    PubMed Central

    Janila, Pasupuleti; Nigam, S. N.; Pandey, Manish K.; Nagesh, P.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2013-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a self-pollinated legume is an important crop cultivated in 24 million ha world over for extraction of edible oil and food uses. The kernels are rich in oil (48–50%) and protein (25–28%), and are source of several vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, biologically active polyphenols, flavonoids, and isoflavones. Improved varieties of groundnut with high yield potential were developed and released for cultivation world over. The improved varieties belong to different maturity durations and possess resistance to diseases, tolerance to drought, enhanced oil content, and improved quality traits for food uses. Conventional breeding procedures along with the tools for phenotyping were largely used in groundnut improvement programs. Mutations were used to induce variability and wide hybridization was attempted to tap variability from wild species. Low genetic variability has been a bottleneck for groundnut improvement. The vast potential of wild species, reservoir of new alleles remains under-utilized. Development of linkage maps of groundnut during the last decade was followed by identification of markers and quantitative trait loci for the target traits. Consequently, the last decade has witnessed the deployment of molecular breeding approaches to complement the ongoing groundnut improvement programs in USA, China, India, and Japan. The other potential advantages of molecular breeding are the feasibility to target multiple traits for improvement and provide tools to tap new alleles from wild species. The first groundnut variety developed through marker-assisted back-crossing is a root-knot nematode-resistant variety, NemaTAM in USA. The uptake of molecular breeding approaches in groundnut improvement programs by NARS partners in India and many African countries is slow or needs to be initiated in part due to inadequate infrastructure, high genotyping costs, and human capacities. Availability of draft genome sequence for diploid (AA and

  4. Groundnut improvement: use of genetic and genomic tools.

    PubMed

    Janila, Pasupuleti; Nigam, S N; Pandey, Manish K; Nagesh, P; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2013-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a self-pollinated legume is an important crop cultivated in 24 million ha world over for extraction of edible oil and food uses. The kernels are rich in oil (48-50%) and protein (25-28%), and are source of several vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, biologically active polyphenols, flavonoids, and isoflavones. Improved varieties of groundnut with high yield potential were developed and released for cultivation world over. The improved varieties belong to different maturity durations and possess resistance to diseases, tolerance to drought, enhanced oil content, and improved quality traits for food uses. Conventional breeding procedures along with the tools for phenotyping were largely used in groundnut improvement programs. Mutations were used to induce variability and wide hybridization was attempted to tap variability from wild species. Low genetic variability has been a bottleneck for groundnut improvement. The vast potential of wild species, reservoir of new alleles remains under-utilized. Development of linkage maps of groundnut during the last decade was followed by identification of markers and quantitative trait loci for the target traits. Consequently, the last decade has witnessed the deployment of molecular breeding approaches to complement the ongoing groundnut improvement programs in USA, China, India, and Japan. The other potential advantages of molecular breeding are the feasibility to target multiple traits for improvement and provide tools to tap new alleles from wild species. The first groundnut variety developed through marker-assisted back-crossing is a root-knot nematode-resistant variety, NemaTAM in USA. The uptake of molecular breeding approaches in groundnut improvement programs by NARS partners in India and many African countries is slow or needs to be initiated in part due to inadequate infrastructure, high genotyping costs, and human capacities. Availability of draft genome sequence for diploid (AA and BB

  5. Quality characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation and storage on the characteristics of oil extracted from peanut seeds has been investigated in this study. Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation process with the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy. The changes in chemical and physical attributes were observed immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The data obtained from the experiments showed that irradiation process had no effect on the chemical and physical qualities such as, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, TBA value and color of oil extracted from peanut seeds. On the contrary, the peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time.

  6. Draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor (Arachis duranensis) provides insights into geocarpy, oil biosynthesis, and allergens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Hongjie; Pandey, Manish K; Yang, Qingli; Wang, Xiyin; Garg, Vanika; Li, Haifen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Hong, Yanbin; Upadhyaya, Hari; Guo, Hui; Khan, Aamir W; Zhu, Fanghe; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Lijuan; Pierce, Gary J; Zhou, Guiyuan; Krishnamohan, Katta A V S; Chen, Mingna; Zhong, Ni; Agarwal, Gaurav; Li, Shuanzhu; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sharma, Shivali; Chen, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Janila, Pasupuleti; Li, Shaoxiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Tong; Sun, Jie; Li, Xingyu; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Mian; Yu, Lina; Wen, Shijie; Singh, Sube; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jinming; Zhang, Chushu; Yu, Yue; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Paterson, Andrew H; Wang, Shuping; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-06-14

    Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a legume of South American origin, has high seed oil content (45-56%) and is a staple crop in semiarid tropical and subtropical regions, partially because of drought tolerance conferred by its geocarpic reproductive strategy. We present a draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor, Arachis duranensis, and 50,324 protein-coding gene models. Patterns of gene duplication suggest the peanut lineage has been affected by at least three polyploidizations since the origin of eudicots. Resequencing of synthetic Arachis tetraploids reveals extensive gene conversion in only three seed-to-seed generations since their formation by human hands, indicating that this process begins virtually immediately following polyploid formation. Expansion of some specific gene families suggests roles in the unusual subterranean fructification of Arachis For example, the S1Fa-like transcription factor family has 126 Arachis members, in contrast to no more than five members in other examined plant species, and is more highly expressed in roots and etiolated seedlings than green leaves. The A. duranensis genome provides a major source of candidate genes for fructification, oil biosynthesis, and allergens, expanding knowledge of understudied areas of plant biology and human health impacts of plants, informing peanut genetic improvement and aiding deeper sequencing of Arachis diversity. PMID:27247390

  7. Draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor (Arachis duranensis) provides insights into geocarpy, oil biosynthesis, and allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Hongjie; Pandey, Manish K.; Yang, Qingli; Wang, Xiyin; Garg, Vanika; Li, Haifen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Hong, Yanbin; Upadhyaya, Hari; Guo, Hui; Khan, Aamir W.; Zhu, Fanghe; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Lijuan; Pierce, Gary J.; Zhou, Guiyuan; Krishnamohan, Katta A. V. S.; Chen, Mingna; Zhong, Ni; Agarwal, Gaurav; Li, Shuanzhu; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sharma, Shivali; Chen, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Janila, Pasupuleti; Li, Shaoxiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Tong; Sun, Jie; Li, Xingyu; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Mian; Yu, Lina; Wen, Shijie; Singh, Sube; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jinming; Zhang, Chushu; Yu, Yue; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Wang, Shuping; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-01-01

    Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a legume of South American origin, has high seed oil content (45–56%) and is a staple crop in semiarid tropical and subtropical regions, partially because of drought tolerance conferred by its geocarpic reproductive strategy. We present a draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor, Arachis duranensis, and 50,324 protein-coding gene models. Patterns of gene duplication suggest the peanut lineage has been affected by at least three polyploidizations since the origin of eudicots. Resequencing of synthetic Arachis tetraploids reveals extensive gene conversion in only three seed-to-seed generations since their formation by human hands, indicating that this process begins virtually immediately following polyploid formation. Expansion of some specific gene families suggests roles in the unusual subterranean fructification of Arachis. For example, the S1Fa-like transcription factor family has 126 Arachis members, in contrast to no more than five members in other examined plant species, and is more highly expressed in roots and etiolated seedlings than green leaves. The A. duranensis genome provides a major source of candidate genes for fructification, oil biosynthesis, and allergens, expanding knowledge of understudied areas of plant biology and human health impacts of plants, informing peanut genetic improvement and aiding deeper sequencing of Arachis diversity. PMID:27247390

  8. Groundnut Ringspot Virus in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tospoviruses in vegetable crops are difficult to manage due to a shortage of basic information about the viruses and their vectors. This is especially true for the recently detected Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). This publication presents all current knowledge of GRSV in Florida....

  9. Genetic relationships among seven sections of genus Arachis studied by using SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis, originated in South America, is divided into nine taxonomical sections comprising of 80 species. Most of the Arachis species are diploids (2n = 2x = 20) and the tetraploid species (2n = 2x = 40) are found in sections Arachis, Extranervosae and Rhizomatosae. Diploid species have great potential to be used as resistance sources for agronomic traits like pests and diseases, drought related traits and different life cycle spans. Understanding of genetic relationships among wild species and between wild and cultivated species will be useful for enhanced utilization of wild species in improving cultivated germplasm. The present study was undertaken to evaluate genetic relationships among species (96 accessions) belonging to seven sections of Arachis by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Arachis hypogaea genomic library and gene sequences from related genera of Arachis. Results The average transferability rate of 101 SSR markers tested to section Arachis and six other sections was 81% and 59% respectively. Five markers (IPAHM 164, IPAHM 165, IPAHM 407a, IPAHM 409, and IPAHM 659) showed 100% transferability. Cluster analysis of allelic data from a subset of 32 SSR markers on 85 wild and 11 cultivated accessions grouped accessions according to their genome composition, sections and species to which they belong. A total of 109 species specific alleles were detected in different wild species, Arachis pusilla exhibited largest number of species specific alleles (15). Based on genetic distance analysis, the A-genome accession ICG 8200 (A. duranensis) and the B-genome accession ICG 8206 (A. ipaënsis) were found most closely related to A. hypogaea. Conclusion A set of cross species and cross section transferable SSR markers has been identified that will be useful for genetic studies of wild species of Arachis, including comparative genome mapping, germplasm analysis, population genetic structure and phylogenetic inferences

  10. A microclimate study on hypogea environments of ancient roman building.

    PubMed

    Scatigno, C; Gaudenzi, S; Sammartino, M P; Visco, G

    2016-10-01

    Roman hypogea, vernacular settlements or crypts, are underground places characterised by specific and unique challenges (RH<90% and almost constant temperature throughout the whole year) related to their relative isolation from the outdoor environment. These sites often require adequate monitoring tools providing complete environmental information in order to carry out appropriate strategies for scheduling routine maintenance and designing suitable layouts for their preservation. In this work we present the results of a carefully planned thermo-hygrometric monitoring campaign conducted in a peculiar Roman building (130CE), the "Casa di Diana" Mithraeum, sited in Ostia Antica (archaeological site, Rome-Italy), with the aim of characterising the indoor environment as the structure suffers of several conservation problems (biocolonisation, efflorescences, evaporating and condensing cycle for wall-building materials). The campaign involving multipoint continuous measurement was carefully planned to better describe this micro-clime. In addition to underground environmental data available in literature, we have also performed, as a checkpoint control, a thermo-hygrometric monitoring campaign in the "Terme di Mitra" Hypogeum, a few meters from the "Casa di Diana". The recorded data was analysed by multivariate statistical and chemometric analyses. The results brought to light the presence of different microclimates (three areas) within a single Mithraeum: a room (pre-Mithraeum) and an area (Mithraeum: 2-4m) present a thermo-hygrometric environmental behaviour in accordance with a semi-confined environment, another area (Mithraeum: 1-2m) behaves accordingly with underground environments (although it cannot be described as such), and the last area (Mithraeum: 0-1m) where was recording RH values close to saturation (96-99%), associated with non-ventilated areas where the rising damp is "held" and not dispersed, describing an own micro-clime, comparable to a "small greenhouse

  11. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  12. Genetic and functional diversities of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Choudhury, Susanta Roy; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2011-06-01

    Bioinoculants are environmentally friendly, energy efficient and economically viable resources in sustainable agriculture. Knowledge of the structure and activities of microbial population in the rhizosphere of a plant is essential to formulate an effective bioinoculant. In this study, the bacterial community present in the rhizosphere of an important oilseed legume, Arachis hypogaea (L.) was described with respect to adjoining bulk soil as a baseline control using a 16S rDNA based metagenomic approach. Significantly higher abundance of Gamma-proteobacteria, a prevalence of Bacillus and the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria group of Bacteroidetes and absence of the Rhizobiaceae family of Alpha-proteobacteria were the major features observed in the matured Arachis-rhizosphere. The functional characterization of the rhizosphere-competent bacteria was performed using culture-dependent determination of phenotypes. Most bacterial isolates from the groundnut-rhizosphere exhibited multiple biochemical activities associated with plant growth and disease control. Validation of the beneficial traits in candidate bioinoculants in pot-cultures and field trials is necessary before their targeted application in the groundnut production system. PMID:21380504

  13. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  14. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  15. Effects of zinc oxide nano-particles on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastjerdi, Ehsan Borzouyan; Sahid, Ismail Bin; Jusoh, Khairiah Binti

    2015-09-01

    Along with the rapid growth of nanoparticle consumption in various industries, concerns about the unknown effects caused by the presence of these materials in the natural environment and agricultural systems are being highlighted. Due to the growing trend of Nano Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle (ZnO-np) which is one of the most widely used nanoparticles being released into the environment, it has attracted the attention for more studies to be done on the effects of this nanoparticle on organisms. This study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxicity effect of ZnO-np on peanut seedlings in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS medium). The experimental treatments of this study include nine concentrations of ZnO-np (0, 10, 30, 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000, 2000 ppm) added to MS medium. Peanut seedlings were incubated for 3 weeks in optimum condition and after that, seedling characteristics such as length, wet and dry weight of root and shoot were measured and the water content of root and shoot were calculated. Results of this study showed that the root and shoot length of peanut seedlings were affected by ZnO-np exposure, in a way that root length in 50 ppm ZnO-np and higher concentrations was significantly lower than that of control treatment and the shortest shoot length was observed to be from 2000 ppm ZnO-np concentration treatment. Also, both the root and shoot wet weight decreased as the nanoparticle concentration increased. However, despite the decreasing root and shoot dry weight with increasing concentration, there was no significant difference. On the other hand, the root dry weight in 10 ppm ZnO-np was significantly higher than the peanut seedlings treated with more than 200 ppm ZnO-np.

  16. Isolation and characterization of symbiotic mutants of bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis) strain NC92: mutants with host-specific defects in nodulation and nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K J; Anjaiah, V; Nambiar, P T; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    Random transposon Tn5 mutagenesis of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis) strain NC92, a member of the cowpea cross-inoculation group, was carried out, and kanamycin-resistant transconjugants were tested for their symbiotic phenotype on three host plants: groundnut, siratro, and pigeonpea. Two nodulation (Nod- phenotype) mutants were isolated. One is unable to nodulate all three hosts and appears to contain an insertion in one of the common nodulation genes (nodABCD); the other is a host-specific nodulation mutant that fails to nodulate pigeonpea, elicits uninvaded nodules on siratro, and elicits normal, nitrogen-fixing nodules on groundnut. In addition, nine mutants defective in nitrogen fixation (Fix- phenotype) were isolated. Three fail to supply symbiotically fixed nitrogen to all three host plants. Surprisingly, nodules elicited by one of these mutants exhibit high levels of acetylene reduction activity, demonstrating the presence of the enzyme nitrogenase. Three more mutants have partially effective phenotypes (Fix +/-) in symbiosis with all three host plants. The remaining three mutants fail to supply fixed nitrogen to one of the host plants tested while remaining partially or fully effective on the other two hosts; two of these mutants are Fix- in pigeonpea and Fix +/- on groundnut and on siratro, whereas the other one is Fix- on groundnut but Fix+ on siratro and on pigeonpea. These latter mutants also retain significant nodule acetylene reduction activity, even in the ineffective symbioses. Such bacterial host-specific fixation (Hsf) mutants have not previously been reported. Images PMID:3032910

  17. In vitro propagation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by shoot tip culture.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Kaya, Ergun; Lambardi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), also known as groundnut, is the most important species of Arachis genus, originating from Brazil and Peru. Peanut seeds contain high seed oil, proteins, amino acids, and vitamin E, and are consumed worldwide as edible nut, peanut butter, or candy, and peanut oil extracted from the seeds. The meal remaining after oil extraction is also used for animal feed. However, its narrow germplasm base, together with susceptibility to diseases, pathogens, and weeds, decreases yield and seed quality and causes great economic losses annually. Hence, the optimization of efficient in vitro propagation procedures would be highly effective for peanut propagation, as it would raise yield and improve seed quality and flavor. Earlier reports on traditional micropropagation methods, based on axillary bud proliferation which guarantees the multiplication of true-to-type plants, are still limited. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol to improve multiple shoot formation from shoot-tip explants by using AgNO(3) in combination with plant growth regulators. PMID:23179691

  18. Successful crosses between fungal-resistant wild species of Arachis (section Arachis) and Arachis hypogaea

    PubMed Central

    Fávero, Alessandra Pereira; dos Santos, Rodrigo Furtado; Simpson, Charles E.; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro; Vello, Natal Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is the fifth most produced oil crop worldwide. Besides lack of water, fungal diseases are the most limiting factors for the crop. Several species of Arachis are resistant to certain pests and diseases. This study aimed to successfully cross the A-genome with B-K-A genome wild species previously selected for fungal disease resistance, but that are still untested. We also aimed to polyplodize the amphihaploid chromosomes; cross the synthetic amphidiploids and A. hypogaea to introgress disease resistance genes into the cultivated peanut; and analyze pollen viability and morphological descriptors for all progenies and their parents. We selected 12 A-genome accessions as male parents and three B-genome species, one K-genome species, and one A-genome species as female parents. Of the 26 distinct cross combinations, 13 different interspecific AB-genome and three AA-genome hybrids were obtained. These sterile hybrids were polyploidized and five combinations produced tetraploid flowers. Next, 16 combinations were crossed between A. hypogaea and the synthetic amphidiploids, resulting in 11 different hybrid combinations. Our results confirm that it is possible to introgress resistance genes from wild species into the peanut using artificial hybridization, and that more species than previously reported can be used, thus enhancing the genetic variability in peanut genetic improvement programs. PMID:26500440

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions from an ultisol of the humid tropics under maize-groundnut rotation.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M I; Rosenani, A B; Van Cleemput, O; Fauziah, C I; Shamshuddin, J

    2002-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N20) contributes to global climate change and agricultural soils seem to be the major source. Lack of information led to this study on the influence of different amounts and sources of nitrogen on N2O emission from a maize (Zea mays L.)-groundnut (Arachis hypogae L.) crop rotation in an Ultisol of the humid tropics. The treatments were: inorganic N + crop residues (NC), inorganic N only (RN), and half of inorganic N + crop residues + chicken manure (NCM). The corresponding amount of N applied was 322, 180, and 400 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. The N2O emissions depended on the amounts and types of N. A maximum peak (9,889 +/- 2,106 microg N2O-N m(-2) d(-1)) was detected at 2 wk before maize sowing amended with chicken manure, showing a persistent influence on N transformations and N2O release. The mineral N from either applied source became low by 2 to 4 wk, coinciding with the small N2O fluxes or its consumption to a few isolated instances. The N2O flux significantly correlated with the mineral N and water-filled pore spaces. The direct annual N2O emission was 3.94 +/- 0.23, 1.90 +/- 0.08, and 1.41 +/- 0.07 kg N2O-N ha(-1) from the NCM, NC, and RN treatments, respectively. The corresponding N2O-N loss of the applied N plus N fixed by groundnut was 0.83, 0.49, and 0.59%. Overestimations of direct annual N2O emission using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology suggest a location-specific emission factor for variable N sources to be considered. PMID:12175023

  20. Genomic Tools in Groundnut Breeding Program: Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Janila, P; Variath, Murali T; Pandey, Manish K; Desmae, Haile; Motagi, Babu N; Okori, Patrick; Manohar, Surendra S; Rathnakumar, A L; Radhakrishnan, T; Liao, Boshou; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut, a nutrient-rich food legume, is cultivated world over. It is valued for its good quality cooking oil, energy and protein rich food, and nutrient-rich fodder. Globally, groundnut improvement programs have developed varieties to meet the preferences of farmers, traders, processors, and consumers. Enhanced yield, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and quality parameters have been the target traits. Spurt in genetic information of groundnut was facilitated by development of molecular markers, genetic, and physical maps, generation of expressed sequence tags (EST), discovery of genes, and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for some important biotic and abiotic stresses and quality traits. The first groundnut variety developed using marker assisted breeding (MAB) was registered in 2003. Since then, USA, China, Japan, and India have begun to use genomic tools in routine groundnut improvement programs. Introgression lines that combine foliar fungal disease resistance and early maturity were developed using MAB. Establishment of marker-trait associations (MTA) paved way to integrate genomic tools in groundnut breeding for accelerated genetic gain. Genomic Selection (GS) tools are employed to improve drought tolerance and pod yield, governed by several minor effect QTLs. Draft genome sequence and low cost genotyping tools such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) are expected to accelerate use of genomic tools to enhance genetic gains for target traits in groundnut. PMID:27014312

  1. Genomic Tools in Groundnut Breeding Program: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Janila, P.; Variath, Murali T.; Pandey, Manish K.; Desmae, Haile; Motagi, Babu N.; Okori, Patrick; Manohar, Surendra S.; Rathnakumar, A. L.; Radhakrishnan, T.; Liao, Boshou; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut, a nutrient-rich food legume, is cultivated world over. It is valued for its good quality cooking oil, energy and protein rich food, and nutrient-rich fodder. Globally, groundnut improvement programs have developed varieties to meet the preferences of farmers, traders, processors, and consumers. Enhanced yield, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and quality parameters have been the target traits. Spurt in genetic information of groundnut was facilitated by development of molecular markers, genetic, and physical maps, generation of expressed sequence tags (EST), discovery of genes, and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for some important biotic and abiotic stresses and quality traits. The first groundnut variety developed using marker assisted breeding (MAB) was registered in 2003. Since then, USA, China, Japan, and India have begun to use genomic tools in routine groundnut improvement programs. Introgression lines that combine foliar fungal disease resistance and early maturity were developed using MAB. Establishment of marker-trait associations (MTA) paved way to integrate genomic tools in groundnut breeding for accelerated genetic gain. Genomic Selection (GS) tools are employed to improve drought tolerance and pod yield, governed by several minor effect QTLs. Draft genome sequence and low cost genotyping tools such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) are expected to accelerate use of genomic tools to enhance genetic gains for target traits in groundnut. PMID:27014312

  2. Advances in Arachis through genomics and biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 5th International Conference of the peanut research community met in Brasilia, Brazil from June 13 through 16, 2011 to discuss “Advances in Arachis through genomics and biotechnology”. Over 100 participated from many countries such as United States, Japan, China, India, Brazil, Argentina, with ...

  3. The genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David John; Cannon, Steven B; Froenicke, Lutz; Huang, Guodong; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Liu, Xin; Gao, Dongying; Clevenger, Josh; Dash, Sudhansu; Ren, Longhui; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Shirasawa, Kenta; Huang, Wei; Vidigal, Bruna; Abernathy, Brian; Chu, Ye; Niederhuth, Chad E; Umale, Pooja; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Kozik, Alexander; Kim, Kyung Do; Burow, Mark D; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Barkley, Noelle; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Isobe, Sachiko; Guo, Baozhu; Liao, Boshou; Stalker, H Thomas; Schmitz, Robert J; Scheffler, Brian E; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Xun, Xu; Jackson, Scott A; Michelmore, Richard; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of a total size of ∼2.7 Gb. This makes the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. As a foundation to understanding the genome of cultivated peanut, we report the genome sequences of its diploid ancestors (Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis). We show that these genomes are similar to cultivated peanut's A and B subgenomes and use them to identify candidate disease resistance genes, to guide tetraploid transcript assemblies and to detect genetic exchange between cultivated peanut's subgenomes. On the basis of remarkably high DNA identity of the A. ipaensis genome and the B subgenome of cultivated peanut and biogeographic evidence, we conclude that A. ipaensis may be a direct descendant of the same population that contributed the B subgenome to cultivated peanut. PMID:26901068

  4. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    PubMed

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles. PMID:26032540

  5. DREB1A promotes root development in deep soil layers and increases water extraction under water stress in groundnut.

    PubMed

    Vadez, V; Rao, J S; Bhatnagar-Mathur, P; Sharma, K K

    2013-01-01

    Water deficit is a major yield-limiting factor for many crops, and improving the root system has been proposed as a promising breeding strategy, although not in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The present work was carried out mainly to assess how root traits are influenced under water stress in groundnut, whether transgenics can alter root traits, and whether putative changes lead to water extraction differences. Several transgenic events, transformed with DREB1A driven by the rd29 promoter, along with wild-type JL24, were tested in a lysimeter system that mimics field conditions under both water stress (WS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. The WS treatment increased the maximum rooting depth, although the increase was limited to about 20% in JL24, compared to 50% in RD11. The root dry weight followed a similar trend. Consequently, the root dry weight and length density of transgenics was higher in layers below 100-cm depth (Exp. 1) and below 30 cm (Exp. 2). The root diameter was unchanged under WS treatment, except a slight increase in the 60-90-cm layer. The root diameter increased below 60 cm in both treatments. In the WW treatment, total water extraction of RD33 was higher than in JL24 and other transgenic events, and somewhat lower in RD11 than in JL24. In the WS treatment, water extraction of RD2, RD11 and RD33 was higher than in JL24. These water extraction differences were mostly apparent in the initial 21 days after treatment imposition and were well related to root length density in the 30-60-cm layer (R(2) = 0.68), but not to average root length density. In conclusion, water stress promotes rooting growth more strongly in transgenic events than in the wild type, especially in deep soil layers, and this leads to increased water extraction. This opens an avenue for tapping these characteristics toward the improvement of drought adaptation in deep soil conditions, and toward a better understanding of genes involved in rooting in groundnut. PMID:22672619

  6. Bradyrhizobium subterraneum sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium from root nodules of groundnuts.

    PubMed

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Chimwamurombe, Percy; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Seven strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region, Namibia, were previously characterized and identified as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To corroborate their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences with Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T being the most closely related type strain in the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium daqingense CCBAU 15774T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, most closely related to Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T. The species status was validated by results of DNA–DNA hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis of nifH genes placed the novel strains in a group with nifH of ‘Bradyrhizobium arachidis’ CCBAU 051107 that also nodulates peanuts. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain 58 2-1T induced effective nodules on V. subterranea, Vigna unguiculata and A. hypogaea, and some strains on Lablab purpureus. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium subterraneum sp. nov. is proposed, with 58 2-1T [ = DSM 100298T = LMG 28792T = NTCCM0016T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain 58 2-1T was 64.7 mol% (T m). PMID:26198108

  7. Identification of Groundnut ringspot virus in tomato in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato plants with symptoms of a tospovirus infection were observed in south Florida from November 2009 through February 2010. Serological testing confirmed the presence of a tospovirus and molecular tests including PCR and sequencing were used to confirm the presence of Groundnut ringspot virus (G...

  8. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    PubMed

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. PMID:26463703

  9. Cell death and renewal during prey capture and digestion in the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma hypogea (Porifera: Poecilosclerida).

    PubMed

    Martinand-Mari, Camille; Vacelet, Jean; Nickel, Michael; Wörheide, Gert; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen

    2012-11-15

    The sponge Asbestopluma hypogea is unusual among sponges due to its peculiar carnivorous feeding habit. During various stages of its nutrition cycle, the sponge is subjected to spectacular morphological modifications. Starved animals are characterized by many elongated filaments, which are crucial for the capture of prey. After capture, and during the digestion process, these filaments actively regress before being regenerated during a subsequent period of starvation. Here, we demonstrate that these morphological events rely on a highly dynamic cellular turnover, implying a coordinated sequence of programmed cell death (apoptosis and autophagy), cell proliferation and cell migration. A candidate niche for cell renewal by stem cell proliferation and differentiation was identified at the base of the sponge peduncle, characterized by higher levels of BrdU/EdU incorporation. Therefore, BrdU/EdU-positive cells of the peduncle base are candidate motile cells responsible for the regeneration of the prey-capturing main sponge body, i.e. the dynamic filaments. Altogether, our results demonstrate that dynamics of cell renewal in sponge appear to be regulated by cellular mechanisms as multiple and complex as those already identified in bilaterian metazoans. PMID:22899530

  10. Use of sunlight to partially detoxify groundnut (peanut) cake flour and casein contaminated with aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Shantha, T.; Murthy, V.S.

    1981-03-01

    Sunlight destroyed 83 and 50% of the toxin added to casein and groundnut cake flour, respectively. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that both casein and groundnut protein bind aflatoxin but the toxin bound to casein appeared more photo-labile than that bound to groundnut protein.

  11. Molecular analysis of Arachis interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G M; Tallury, S P; Stalker, H T; Kochert, G

    2006-05-01

    Incorporation of genetic resistance against several biotic stresses that plague cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea (2n = 4x = 40), is an ideal option to develop disease resistant and ecologically safe peanut varieties. The primary gene pool of peanut contains many diploid wild species (2n = 2x = 20) of Arachis, which have high levels of disease and insect resistances. However, transfer of resistant genes from these species into A. hypogaea is difficult due to ploidy level differences and genomic incompatibilities. This study was conducted to monitor alien germplasm transmission, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, from two diploid wild species, A. cardenasii and A. batizocoi, into A. hypogaea. Triploid interspecific hybrids were produced by crossing two A. hypogaea cultivars (NC 6 and Argentine) with the two species and by colchicine-treating vegetative meristems, fertility was restored at the hexaploid (C(o)) level in the four hybrids. Hexaploids were allowed to self-pollinate for four generations, each referred to as a cycle (C1, C2, C3, and C4). At each cycle, a backcross was made with the respective A. hypogaea cultivar as the maternal parent and only lineages tracing back to a single hexaploid hybrid were used for RAPD analysis. Analysis of mapped, species-specific RAPD markers in BC1F1 to BC1F3 hybrids indicated that alien germplasm retention decreased every generation of inbreeding, especially in Argentine and in A. batizocoi crosses. A similar trend was also observed for every cycle in BC1F2 and BC1F3 families, possibly, due to the loss of alien chromosomes following selfing of hexaploids. RAPD marker analysis of 40-chromosome interspecific hybrid derivatives from the four crosses supported previous reports that reciprocal recombination and/or translocations are the predominant mechanisms for exchange of chromosomal segments. No evidence was found for preferential transfer of alien chromosomal regions to specific linkage groups. The

  12. Mycotoxins and fungal metabolites in groundnut- and maize-based snacks from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kayode, O F; Sulyok, M; Fapohunda, S O; Ezekiel, C N; Krska, R; Oguntona, C R B

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study was aimed at investigating the spectrum of fungal metabolites in the processed food and snacks. Twenty types of snacks made separately from groundnut (n = 10), maize (n = 8) and a combination of groundnut and maize (n = 2) were analysed for naturally occurring mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric multi-mycotoxin method. A total of 18, 21 and 32 metabolites were detected and quantified in the groundnut-, groundnut/maize- and maize-based snacks, respectively. Aflatoxins contaminated 2, 3 and 5 of the groundnut/maize-, groundnut- and maize-based snacks at concentrations up to 14, 1041 and 74 µg kg(-1), respectively. Thus, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) recommended limit of 20 µg kg(-1) for aflatoxins was exceeded in 6 of the 20 snacks. Fumonisins contaminated all the maize- and groundnut/maize-based snacks with higher concentrations in the maize-based snacks (mean = 218.7 µg kg(-1)) compared with the groundnut/maize-based snacks (mean = 178.5 µg kg(-1)). Up to 26 different metabolites were found to co-occur in the same samples, thus posing an additional threat to the consumers due to possible additive and/or synergistic effects. PMID:24779941

  13. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles. PMID:24441368

  14. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  15. Expansion of Groundnut ringspot virus host and geographic ranges in solanaceous vegetables in peninsular Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides a timely account of Groundnut ringspot virus infection of additional hosts (pepper, tomatillo and eggplant) and in additional locations to growers, Extension personnel, crop consultants, and state and Federal regulatory and research scientists....

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of species of genus Arachis based on genic sequences.

    PubMed

    He, Guohao; Barkley, Noelle A; Zhao, Yongli; Yuan, Mei; Prakash, C S

    2014-06-01

    The genus Arachis (Fabaceae), which originated in South America, consists of 80 species. Based on morphological traits and cross-compatibility among the species, the genus is divided into nine taxonomic sections. Arachis is the largest section including the economically valuable cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea). Seven genic sequences were utilized to better understand the phylogenetic relationships between species of genus Arachis. Our study displayed four clades of species of Arachis. Arachis triseminata was genetically isolated from all other species of Arachis studied, and it formed the basal clade with A. retusa and A. dardani from the most ancient sections Extranervosae and Heteranthae, respectively. Species of section Arachis formed a separated single clade from all other species, within which species having B and D genome clustered in one subgroup and three species characterized with an A genome grouped together in another subgroup. A divergent clade including species from five sections was sister to the clade of section Arachis. Between the sister clades and the basal clade there was a clade containing species from the more advanced sections. Phylogenetic relationships of all the species of Arachis using multiple genic sequences were similar to the phylogenies produced with single-copy genes. PMID:25211395

  17. Utility of EST-derived SSR in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Arachis wild species

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xuanqiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Hong, Yanbin; Liu, Haiyan; Zhou, Guiyuan; Li, Shaoxiong; Guo, Baozhu

    2009-01-01

    Background Lack of sufficient molecular markers hinders current genetic research in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in peanut genetic research. With the development of peanut EST projects, a vast amount of available EST sequence data has been generated. These data offered an opportunity to identify SSR in ESTs by data mining. Results In this study, we investigated 24,238 ESTs for the identification and development of SSR markers. In total, 881 SSRs were identified from 780 SSR-containing unique ESTs. On an average, one SSR was found per 7.3 kb of EST sequence with tri-nucleotide motifs (63.9%) being the most abundant followed by di- (32.7%), tetra- (1.7%), hexa- (1.0%) and penta-nucleotide (0.7%) repeat types. The top six motifs included AG/TC (27.7%), AAG/TTC (17.4%), AAT/TTA (11.9%), ACC/TGG (7.72%), ACT/TGA (7.26%) and AT/TA (6.3%). Based on the 780 SSR-containing ESTs, a total of 290 primer pairs were successfully designed and used for validation of the amplification and assessment of the polymorphism among 22 genotypes of cultivated peanuts and 16 accessions of wild species. The results showed that 251 primer pairs yielded amplification products, of which 26 and 221 primer pairs exhibited polymorphism among the cultivated and wild species examined, respectively. Two to four alleles were found in cultivated peanuts, while 3–8 alleles presented in wild species. The apparent broad polymorphism was further confirmed by cloning and sequencing of amplified alleles. Sequence analysis of selected amplified alleles revealed that allelic diversity could be attributed mainly to differences in repeat type and length in the microsatellite regions. In addition, a few single base mutations were observed in the microsatellite flanking regions. Conclusion This study gives an insight into the frequency, type and distribution of peanut EST-SSRs and demonstrates successful development of EST-SSR markers in

  18. Quality of products containing defatted groundnut cake flour.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Chitra; Rajyalakshmi, Peram

    2011-02-01

    Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller (LOE) were analyzed for quality parameters. Defatted groundnut cake flour (DGCF) was incorporated at 15-100% levels in laddoo, chutney powder, fryums (deep fried crisp and crunchy item), biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality. DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0.55 ± 0.03 g/ml, water absorption capacity 135.6 ± 1.97 ml %, oil absorption capacity 100.3 ± 1.16 ml % and foam capacity 33 ± 1%. Protein, fat and ash contents were 51.6 ± 0.06, 4.5 ± 0.05 and 4.2 ± 0.11%, respectively. Tannins and aflatoxin B1 were not detected. The increase of protein due to incorporation of DGCF into the products ranged from 5.5 to 21.9%. Shelf-life studies indicated the maximum storability for 90 days for all the products except laddoo, which could be stored for 30 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C). All the products were acceptable and the order of preference for the products as indicated by adults (fryums, chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo) and children (biscuits, laddoo, extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder) varied. PMID:23572713

  19. Intensifying groundnut production in the Sudan savanna zone of Nigeria: including groundnut in the irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, A A

    2011-11-15

    Inadequate and erratic rainfall pattern and extreme temperature variations induced by climate change being experienced in Sudan savanna areas have compromised the cropping systems of these areas. A change in the cropping patterns is required to maintain and improve upon crop output levels. The pod yield ha(-1) and other growth and yield components of three varieties of groundnut grown under irrigated conditions were measured in a field experiment conducted at the Irrigation Research Station of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria, from 2003 to 2006 dry seasons. Treatments consisted of three plant populations (50,000, 100,000 and 200,000 plants ha(-1)), three varieties (Samnut 23, Samnut 21 and Samnut 11) and three basin sizes (3 x 3, 3 x 4 and 3 x 5 m) arranged in a split plot design with population and variety as main plot and basin size as sub plot. Treatments were randomly assigned and replicated three times. Plant populations significantly affected plant height and canopy spread but had no effect on number of branches plant. Plants grew significantly taller at 200,000 plants ha(-1) while plant canopy spread was significantly widest at 50,000 plants ha(-1). Samnut 23 grew significantly taller than Samnut 21 and 11 although they exhibited wider canopies. Pod yield ha(-1) and 100 seed weight were significantly highest at 200,000 plants ha(-1). Samnut 23 produced the significantly highest pod yield ha(-1) and number of pods plant(-1). Samnut 11 produced significantly highest 100 seed weight. Samnut 23 planted at 200,000 plants ha(-1) in 3 x 4 m basins is most promising for irrigated groundnut cultivation in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria. PMID:22514881

  20. First Report of Peanut Mottle Virus in Forage Peanut (Arachis glabrata) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant material of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata) of an unknown accession, obtained from the Arachis species collection nursery planted and maintained at the Coastal Plain Research Station, Tifton, GA was recently brought into the greenhouse where ring spots were identified on immature leaves. Ti...

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of species of genus Arachis based on geneic sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Arachis (Fabaceae), which originated in South America, consists of 80 species. Based on morphological traits and cross-compatibility among the species, the genus is divided into nine taxonomic sections, one of which, Arachis is the largest section including 30 wild species and the economic...

  2. Characterization and Transferable Utility of Microsatellite Markers in the Wild and Cultivated Arachis Species

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Wu, Bei; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Weigang; Zheng, Yanli; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Lei, Yong; Liao, Boshou; Jiang, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) is one of the most widely distributed molecular markers that have been widely utilized to assess genetic diversity and genetic mapping for important traits in plants. However, the understanding of microsatellite characteristics in Arachis species and the currently available amount of high-quality SSR markers remain limited. In this study, we identified 16,435 genome survey sequences SSRs (GSS-SSRs) and 40,199 expressed sequence tag SSRs (EST-SSRs) in Arachis hypogaea and its wild relative species using the publicly available sequence data. The GSS-SSRs had a density of 159.9–239.8 SSRs/Mb for wild Arachis and 1,015.8 SSR/Mb for cultivated Arachis, whereas the EST-SSRs had the density of 173.5–384.4 SSR/Mb and 250.9 SSRs/Mb for wild and cultivated Arachis, respectively. The trinucleotide SSRs were predominant across Arachis species, except that the dinucleotide accounted for most in A. hypogaea GSSs. From Arachis GSS-SSR and EST-SSR sequences, we developed 2,589 novel SSR markers that showed a high polymorphism in six diverse A. hypogaea accessions. A genetic linkage map that contained 540 novel SSR loci and 105 anchor SSR loci was constructed by case of a recombinant inbred lines F6 population. A subset of 82 randomly selected SSR markers were used to screen 39 wild and 22 cultivated Arachis accessions, which revealed a high transferability of the novel SSRs across Arachis species. Our results provided informative clues to investigate microsatellite patterns across A. hypogaea and its wild relative species and potentially facilitate the germplasm evaluation and gene mapping in Arachis species. PMID:27243460

  3. Transport via xylem and accumulation of aflatoxin in seeds of groundnut plant.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection. PMID:25112578

  4. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

  5. Selection of groundnut variety for making a good quality peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Dhamsaniya, Navnitkumar K; Patel, Naginbhai C; Dabhi, Mukesh N

    2012-02-01

    Flavor and compositional quality are the ultimate criterion of the desirability of any food product. The nutritive value of any peanut product is closely associated with the fatty acid composition of its oil content, which influences its quality. Peanut butter was prepared using seven groundnut varieties commonly grown in major groundnut producing states of India. The flavor and compositional quality were determined using the standard procedures. The color code to the butter preparation was assigned by visually comparing the color of the butter with those given in the handbook of standard colors. On the basis of a combined evaluation, it could be recommended that the groundnut variety Somnath is the best-suited variety for producing peanut butter amongst the selected varieties. PMID:23572834

  6. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut. PMID:10725154

  7. Groundnut ringspot virus and tomato spotted wilt virus – Tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing number of solanaceous crop and weed species infected with groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) has been identified in Florida. Continuing geographic spread of GRSV into additional vegetable production areas of Florida has also been documented. Much has been learned about GRSV in Florida altho...

  8. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  9. First report of Groundnut ringspot virus infecting tomato in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Typical tospovirus symptoms were observed on tomato plants in Homestead, FL from November 2009 through February 2010. The presence of Groundnut ringspot virus was confirmed from serological and molecular tests incuding ELISA and PCR. This is the first report of GRSV within the U.S....

  10. Modelling Bambara Groundnut Yield in Southern Africa: Towards a Climate-Resilient Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karunaratne, A. S.; Walker, S.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Current agriculture depends on a few major species grown as monocultures that are supported by global research underpinning current productivity. However, many hundreds of alternative crops have the potential to meet real world challenges by sustaining humanity, diversifying agricultural systems for food and nutritional security, and especially responding to climate change through their resilience to certain climate conditions. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilised African legume, is an exemplar crop for climate resilience. Predicted yield performances of Bambara groundnut by AquaCrop (a crop-water productivity model) were evaluated for baseline (1980-2009) and mid-century climates (2040-2069) under 20 downscaled Global Climate Models (CMIP5-RCP8.5), as well as for climate sensitivities (AgMIPC3MP) across 3 locations in Southern Africa (Botswana, South Africa, Namibia). Different land - races of Bambara groundnut originating from various semi-arid African locations showed diverse yield performances with diverse sensitivities to climate. S19 originating from hot-dry conditions in Namibia has greater future yield potential compared to the Swaziland landrace Uniswa Red-UN across study sites. South Africa has the lowest yield under the current climate, indicating positive future yield trends. Namibia reported the highest baseline yield at optimum current temperatures, indicating less yield potential in future climates. Bambara groundnut shows positive yield potential at temperatures of up to 31degC, with further warming pushing yields down. Thus, many regions in Southern Africa can utilize Bambara groundnut successfully in the coming decades. This modelling exercise supports decisions on genotypic suitability for present and future climates at specific locations.

  11. Engineered single-chain variable fragment antibody for immunodiagnosis of groundnut bud necrosis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Yogita; Vijayanandraj, S; Jain, R K; Mandal, Bikash

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have been done on engineered antibodies for diagnosis of tospovirus infections. The present study was undertaken to develop a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) for specific diagnosis of infection by groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV), the most prevalent serogroup IV tospovirus in India. Heavy chain (372 nucleotide [nt]) and light chain (363 nt) variable region clones obtained from a hybridoma were used to make an scFv construct that expressed a ~29-kDa protein in E. coli. The scFv specifically detected GBNV in field samples of cowpea, groundnut, mung bean, and tomato, and it did not recognize watermelon bud necrosis virus, a close relative of GBNV belonging to tospovirus serogroup IV. This study for the first time demonstrated the application of a functional scFv against a serogroup-IV tospovirus. PMID:25698103

  12. First evidence on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide in groundnut using solution culture technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, Manchala; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Nagamadhuri, Kandula Venkata; Balakrishna Reddy, Kota; Giridhara Krishna, Thimmavajjula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale materials, whose size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (n-CaO) could transport through phloem tissue of groundnut unlike the corresponding bulk materials. n-CaO particles are prepared using sol-gel method. The size of the as prepared n-CaO measured (69.9 nm) using transmission electron microscopic technique (TEM). Results of the hydroponics experiment using solution culture technique revealed that foliar application of n-CaO at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 ppm) on groundnut plants confirmed the entry of calcium into leaves and stems through phloem compared to bulk source of calcium sprayed (CaO and CaNO3). After spraying of n-CaO, calcium content in roots, shoots and leaves significantly increased. Based on visual scoring of calcium deficiency correction and calcium content in plant parts, we may establish the fact that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (size 69.9 nm) could move through phloem tissue in groundnut. This is the first report on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide particles in plants and this result points to the use of nanoscale calcium oxide particles as calcium source to the plants through foliar application, agricultural crops in particular, as bulk calcium application through foliar nutrition is restricted due to its non-mobility in phloem.

  13. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries. PMID:24620916

  14. Construction of a genetic linkage map and QTL analysis in bambara groundnut.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nariman Salih; Redjeki, Endah Sri; Ho, Wai Kuan; Aliyu, Siise; Mayes, Katie; Massawe, Festo; Kilian, Andrzej; Mayes, Sean

    2016-07-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous underutilized legume that has the potential to improve food security in semi-arid Africa. So far, there are a lack of reports of controlled breeding populations that could be used for variety development and genetic studies. We report here the construction of the first genetic linkage map of bambara groundnut using a F3 population derived from a "narrow" cross between two domesticated landraces (Tiga Nicuru and DipC) with marked divergence in phenotypic traits. The map consists of 238 DArT array and SSR based markers in 21 linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 608.3 cM. In addition, phenotypic traits were evaluated for a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis over two generations. A total of 36 significant QTLs were detected for 19 traits. The phenotypic effect explained by a single QTL ranged from 11.6% to 49.9%. Two stable QTLs were mapped for internode length and growth habit. The identified QTLs could be useful for marker-assisted selection in bambara groundnut breeding programmes. PMID:27253730

  15. Tetrasomic Recombination Is Surprisingly Frequent in Allotetraploid Arachis

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya; Shirasawa, Kenta; Abernathy, Brian; Moretzsohn, Marcio; Chavarro, Carolina; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Jackson, Scott; Bertioli, David

    2015-01-01

    Arachis hypogaea L. (cultivated peanut) is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) with an AABB genome type. Based on cytogenetic studies it has been assumed that peanut and wild-derived induced AABB allotetraploids have classic allotetraploid genetic behavior with diploid-like disomic recombination only between homologous chromosomes, at the exclusion of recombination between homeologous chromosomes. Using this assumption, numerous linkage map and quantitative trait loci studies have been carried out. Here, with a systematic analysis of genotyping and gene expression data, we show that this assumption is not entirely valid. In fact, autotetraploid-like tetrasomic recombination is surprisingly frequent in recombinant inbred lines generated from a cross of cultivated peanut and an induced allotetraploid derived from peanut’s most probable ancestral species. We suggest that a better, more predictive genetic model for peanut is that of a “segmental allotetraploid” with partly disomic, partly tetrasomic genetic behavior. This intermediate genetic behavior has probably had a previously overseen, but significant, impact on the genome and genetics of cultivated peanut. PMID:25701284

  16. Evaluating the skill of seasonal weather forecasts in predicting aflatoxin contamination of groundnut in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brak, B.; Challinor, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by some strains of a number of species within Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate a range of crops grown at latitudes between 40N° and 40S° of the equator. Digestion of food products derived from aflatoxin-contaminated crops may result in acute and chronic health problems in human beings. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa in particular have seen large percentages of the human population exposed to aflatoxin. A recent study showed that over 98% of subjects in West Africa tested positive for aflatoxin biomarkers. According to other research, every year 250,000 people die from hepato-cellular carcinoma related causes due to aflatoxin ingestion in parts of West Africa. Strict aflatoxin levels set by importing countries in accordance with the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) also impair the value of agricultural trade. Over the last thirty years this has led to a reduction of African exports of groundnut by 19% despite the consumption of groundnut derived food products going up by 209%. The occurrence of aflatoxin on crops is strongly influenced by weather. Empirical studies in the US have shown that pre-harvest, aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts is induced by conditions of drought stress in combination with soil temperatures between 25°C and 31°C. Post-harvest, aflatoxin production of stored, Aspergillus-contaminated groundnuts is exacerbated in conditions where relative humidity is above 83%. The GLAM crop model was extended to include a soil temperature subroutine and subroutines containing pre- and post-harvest aflatoxin algorithms. The algorithms used to estimate aflatoxin contamination indices are based on findings from multiple empirical studies and the pre-harvest aflatoxin model has been validated for Australian conditions. Hence, there was sufficient scope to use GLAM with these algorithms to answer the foremost research question: Is the

  17. Chromium(III) sorption enhancement through NTA - modification of biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.S.; Lee, C.K.; Lee, P.L.

    1997-03-01

    The use of low-cost biological materials for the removal and recovery of heavy metals from solution has been investigated extensively in recent times. To enhance their sorption capacities various chemical modifications on the sorbents were attempted. Freer et al. showed that bark from the Pinus radiata (D. Don) had a greater sorption capacity for metals after treatment with both inorganic acid and formaldehyde. Apple wastes treated with phosphorus oxychloride improved the efficiency of removing metal ions. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-modified groundnut, Arachis hypogea, was reported to improve the sorption of cadmium and lead ions. Modifications with the aid of dyes also enhanced metal sorption. Moss and coconut husk (CH) are readily obtainable in Malaysia. Their sorption potential for metals has been reported. This paper reports on the metal sorption enhancement of these two biosorbents after chemical modification with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)-a storage pest of groundnut.

    PubMed

    Harish, G; Nataraja, M V; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P P; Jadon, K S; Savaliya, S D; Padavi, R D; Koradia, V G; Gedia, M V

    2014-11-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs laid was recorded 2.3 in neem oil 10% (v/w) which was lowest and significantly superior over untreated control and was at par with castor oil 10% (v/w) which recorded 2.5 eggs per 100 g of groundnut pods. There was no adult emergence in the groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration. Groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) and neem oil at 5% (v/w) concentrations recorded no damage to pods and kernels and also zero per cent weight loss. These oils effectively influenced groundnut bruchid establishment and reduce damage besides reduction in aflatoxin contamination. PMID:26396354

  19. Identification of Gene Modules Associated with Low Temperatures Response in Bambara Groundnut by Network-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mayes, Katie; Moreton, Joanna; Blythe, Martin; Wright, Victoria; May, Sean Tobias; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean; Twycross, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an African legume and is a promising underutilized crop with good seed nutritional values. Low temperature stress in a number of African countries at night, such as Botswana, can effect the growth and development of bambara groundnut, leading to losses in potential crop yield. Therefore, in this study we developed a computational pipeline to identify and analyze the genes and gene modules associated with low temperature stress responses in bambara groundnut using the cross-species microarray technique (as bambara groundnut has no microarray chip) coupled with network-based analysis. Analyses of the bambara groundnut transcriptome using cross-species gene expression data resulted in the identification of 375 and 659 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01) under the sub-optimal (23°C) and very sub-optimal (18°C) temperatures, respectively, of which 110 genes are commonly shared between the two stress conditions. The construction of a Highest Reciprocal Rank-based gene co-expression network, followed by its partition using a Heuristic Cluster Chiseling Algorithm resulted in 6 and 7 gene modules in sub-optimal and very sub-optimal temperature stresses being identified, respectively. Modules of sub-optimal temperature stress are principally enriched with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic processes, while most of the modules of very sub-optimal temperature stress are significantly enriched with responses to stimuli and various metabolic processes. Several transcription factors (from MYB, NAC, WRKY, WHIRLY & GATA classes) that may regulate the downstream genes involved in response to stimulus in order for the plant to withstand very sub-optimal temperature stress were highlighted. The identified gene modules could be useful in breeding for low-temperature stress tolerant bambara groundnut varieties. PMID:26859686

  20. Identification of Gene Modules Associated with Low Temperatures Response in Bambara Groundnut by Network-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mayes, Katie; Moreton, Joanna; Blythe, Martin; Wright, Victoria; May, Sean Tobias; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean; Twycross, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an African legume and is a promising underutilized crop with good seed nutritional values. Low temperature stress in a number of African countries at night, such as Botswana, can effect the growth and development of bambara groundnut, leading to losses in potential crop yield. Therefore, in this study we developed a computational pipeline to identify and analyze the genes and gene modules associated with low temperature stress responses in bambara groundnut using the cross-species microarray technique (as bambara groundnut has no microarray chip) coupled with network-based analysis. Analyses of the bambara groundnut transcriptome using cross-species gene expression data resulted in the identification of 375 and 659 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01) under the sub-optimal (23°C) and very sub-optimal (18°C) temperatures, respectively, of which 110 genes are commonly shared between the two stress conditions. The construction of a Highest Reciprocal Rank-based gene co-expression network, followed by its partition using a Heuristic Cluster Chiseling Algorithm resulted in 6 and 7 gene modules in sub-optimal and very sub-optimal temperature stresses being identified, respectively. Modules of sub-optimal temperature stress are principally enriched with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic processes, while most of the modules of very sub-optimal temperature stress are significantly enriched with responses to stimuli and various metabolic processes. Several transcription factors (from MYB, NAC, WRKY, WHIRLY & GATA classes) that may regulate the downstream genes involved in response to stimulus in order for the plant to withstand very sub-optimal temperature stress were highlighted. The identified gene modules could be useful in breeding for low-temperature stress tolerant bambara groundnut varieties. PMID:26859686

  1. Biological activity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) phytoalexins and selected natural and synthetic stilbenoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.), when infected by a microbial pathogen, is capable of producing stilbene-derived compounds that are considered antifungal phytoalexins. In addition, the potential health benefits of other stilbenoids from peanuts, including resveratrol and pterostilbene have be...

  2. Development of trinucleotide (GGC)n SSR markers in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an agronomical and economical important oilseed crop. It is native to South America, but it is grown extensively in the semi-arid tropics of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Because its genetic base is narrow, a pressed effort has been made to develop SSR m...

  3. Weed Control Systems for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Grown as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has not been utilized as a true oilseed crop, especially for the production of fuel. However, peanut makes a superior feedstock for biodiesel, especially in on-farm or small cooperative business plans, where producers can dictate the cost of making their own fuel. Fiel...

  4. Marker-assisted breeding for wild species-derived traits in arachis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent evolutionary origin of tetraploid peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., imposed a genetic bottleneck on the species and limited variation for pest and disease resistance genes within the cultivated gene pool. However, considerable diversity for these resistance traits and at the molecular level ha...

  5. QTL analysis of disease resistance to leaf spots and TSWV in peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early leaf spot (ELS), caused by Cercospora arachidicola, late leaf spot (LLS), caused by Cercosporidium personatum, and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) result in great losses in yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to these dise...

  6. Use of EST-SSR loci flanking regions for phylogenetic analysis of genus Arachis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All wild peanut collections in the genus Arachis were assigned to nine taxonomy sections on the bases of cross-compatibility and morphologic character clustering. These nine sections consist of 80 species from the most ancient to the most advanced, providing a diverse genetic resource for phylogenet...

  7. The use of the diploid Arachis genomes to aid introgression of wild segments into peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases are important reducers of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) yield. Wild species generally harbor greater levels of resistance and even apparent immunity. Genomic regions confering resistance to foliar diseases and root knot nematodes have been identified in populations involving the wild progenitor...

  8. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  9. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  10. Genotyping and fatty acid composition analysis in segregating peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (C18:1), a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid is an important seed quality trait in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) because it provides improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, a beneficial effect on human health, and increased shelf life for stored food products. Consequently, an...

  11. Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, R.; Ramteke, D.S. Wate, S.R.

    2007-07-01

    In the present technologically fast changing situation related to waste management practices, it is desirable that disposal of plant waste should be done in a scientific manner by keeping in view economic and pollution considerations. This is only possible when the plant waste has the potential to be used as raw material for some useful product. In the present study, groundnut shell, an agricultural waste, was used for the preparation of an adsorbent by chemical activation using ZnCl{sub 2} under optimized conditions and its comparative characterisation was conducted with commercially available powdered activated carbon (CPAC) for its physical, chemical and adsorption properties. The groundnut shell based powdered activated carbon (GSPAC) has a higher surface area, iodine and methylene blue number compared to CPAC. Both of the carbons were used for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution and the effect of various operating variables, viz. adsorbent dose (0.1-1 g l{sup -1}), contact time (5-120 min) and adsorbate concentrations (100-200 mg l{sup -1}) on the removal of dye, has been studied. The experimental results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 g l{sup -1} and initial concentration of 100 mg l{sup -1}, GSPAC showed 94.5% removal of the dye in 30 min equilibrium time, while CPAC removed 96% of the dye in 15 min. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the linearized forms of Freundlich, Langmuir and BET equations to determine maximum adsorptive capacities. The equilibrium data fit well to the Freundlich isotherm, although the BET isotherm also showed higher correlation for both of the carbons. The results of comparative adsorption capacity of both carbons indicate that groundnut shell can be used as a low-cost alternative to commercial powdered activated carbon in aqueous solution for dye removal.

  12. Characterization and transferability of microsatellite markers of the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, Marcos A; Hoshino, Andrea A; Barbosa, Andrea VG; Palmieri, Dario A; Lopes, Catalina R

    2007-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis includes Arachis hypogaea (cultivated peanut) and wild species that are used in peanut breeding or as forage. Molecular markers have been employed in several studies of this genus, but microsatellite markers have only been used in few investigations. Microsatellites are very informative and are useful to assess genetic variability, analyze mating systems and in genetic mapping. The objectives of this study were to develop A. hypogaea microsatellite loci and to evaluate the transferability of these markers to other Arachis species. Results Thirteen loci were isolated and characterized using 16 accessions of A. hypogaea. The level of variation found in A. hypogaea using microsatellites was higher than with other markers. Cross-transferability of the markers was also high. Sequencing of the fragments amplified using the primer pair Ah11 from 17 wild Arachis species showed that almost all wild species had similar repeated sequence to the one observed in A. hypogaea. Sequence data suggested that there is no correlation between taxonomic relationship of a wild species to A. hypogaea and the number of repeats found in its microsatellite loci. Conclusion These results show that microsatellite primer pairs from A. hypogaea have multiple uses. A higher level of variation among A. hypogaea accessions can be detected using microsatellite markers in comparison to other markers, such as RFLP, RAPD and AFLP. The microsatellite primers of A. hypogaea showed a very high rate of transferability to other species of the genus. These primer pairs provide important tools to evaluate the genetic variability and to assess the mating system in Arachis species. PMID:17326826

  13. Beyond landraces: developing improved germplasm resources for underutilized species - a case for Bambara groundnut.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Siise; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2014-10-01

    The potential for underutilized crops (also known as minor, neglected or orphan crops) to improve food and nutrition security has been gaining prominence within the research community in recent years. This is due to their significance for diversified agricultural systems which is a necessary component of future agriculture to address food and nutritional security concerns posed by changing climate and a growing world population. Developing workable value chain systems for underutilized crop species, coupled with comparative trait studies with major crops, potentially allows us to identify suitable agricultural modalities for such species. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.), an underutilized leguminous species, is of interest for its reported high levels of drought tolerance in particular, which contributes to environmental resilience in semi-arid environments. Here, we present a synopsis of suitable strategies for the genetic improvement of Bambara groundnut as a guide to other underutilized crop species. Underutilized crops have often been adapted over thousands of years in particular regions by farmers and largely still exist as landraces with little or no genetic knowledge of key phenotypic traits. Breeding in these species is fundamentally different to breeding in major crops, where significant pedigree structures and history allow highly directed improvement. In this regard, deploying new integrated germplasm development approaches for variety development and genetic analysis, such as multi-parent advance generation inter-crosses (MAGIC), within breeding programmes of underutilized species will be important to be able to fully utilize such crops. PMID:25603880

  14. Effects of Replacing Groundnut Cake with Blood Vegetable Waste Meal in the Diets of Weaner Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Adeniji, Adedayo Abiodun

    2012-01-01

    A total of seventy-two weaner rabbits of eight weeks of age were used to assess the effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with blood vegetable waste meal (BVWM) in the diets of rabbits. The BVWM was fed to replace dietary GNC at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, with GNC being 15% in the control diet. The four experimental diets were fed ad libitum for a period of eight weeks. BVWM was analyzed to contain a crude protein value of 62.35%. There were comparable feed intake values by rabbits on all the diets although the rabbits in the higher replacement levels of BVWM tended to have consumed more of the feed. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in body weight gain by rabbits as the BVWM level increased in the diet. Similarly, the feed to gain ratio improved and nitrogen digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with higher levels of BVWM in the diet. This study shows that rabbits can tolerate the 45% BVWM replacement of groundnut cake effectively. PMID:23738121

  15. Thermal Oxidation Induces Lipid Peroxidation and Changes in the Physicochemical Properties and β-Carotene Content of Arachis Oil

    PubMed Central

    Falade, Ayodeji Osmund

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effect of thermal oxidation on the physicochemical properties, malondialdehyde, and β-carotene content of arachis oil. Pure arachis oil was heated for 20 mins with a corresponding temperature of 220°C. Thereafter, changes in the physicochemical properties (acid, iodine, and peroxide values) of the oil samples were determined. Subsequently, the level of lipid peroxidation was determined using change in malondialdehyde content. Then, the total carotenoid and β-carotene contents were evaluated using spectrophotometric method and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The results of the study revealed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the acid and peroxide values and malondialdehyde concentration of the heated oil when compared with the fresh arachis oil. In contrast, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) was observed in the iodine value, total carotenoid, 13-cis-, 15-cis-, trans-, and 9-cis-β-carotene, and total β-carotene content of the heated oil. Hence, thermal oxidation induced lipid peroxidation and caused changes in the physicochemical properties and carotenoid contents of arachis oil, thereby reducing its nutritive value and health benefit. Therefore, cooking and frying with arachis oil for a long period might not be appropriate as this might lead to a loss of significant amount of the insignificant β-carotene in arachis oil. PMID:26904665

  16. A novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting vegetables in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was recently identified using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida, which extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome s...

  17. Solanaceous vegetables in Florida infected with a novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently identified Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida. This extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome se...

  18. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis) using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections. PMID:21637613

  19. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Darío A; Bechara, Marcelo D; Curi, Rogério A; Monteiro, Jomar P; Valente, Sérgio E S; Gimenes, Marcos A; Lopes, Catalina R

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections. PMID:21637613

  20. Preferential segregation of two allelic mutations for small leaf character in groundnut.

    PubMed

    Patil, S H; Mouli, C

    1984-02-01

    Two radiation induced small leaf mutants were isolated in a Spanish Improved variety of groundnut. Both had more than a 50% reduced leaflet size which was associated with an increased number of imparipinnate leaves in one mutant and light yellow flower colour in the other. Genetic studies demonstrated that both mutants were allelic and controlled by recessive factors. Phenotypic and genotypic segregation ratios indicated a lower frequency of mutants. This was attributed to preferential segregation in favour of normal leaf size. Marker genes controlling krinkle leaf, virescent and chlorina characters showed independent assortment in crosses with the small leaf mutants. Absence of assortment of associated mutant characters viz., small leaf and light yellow flower colour, generally indicated pleiotropic effects. However, monohybrid segregation for flower colour in the cross between the two small leaf mutants showed that the two characters were independently induced and hence attributed to close linkage and not pleiotropy. PMID:24258654

  1. Integrated consensus map of cultivated peanut and wild relatives reveals structures of the A and B genomes of Arachis and divergence of the legume genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complex, tetraploid genome structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) has obstructed advances in genetics and genomics in the species. The aim of this study is to understand the genome structure of Arachis by developing a high-density integrated consensus map. Three recombinant inbred line populatio...

  2. An analysis of synteny of Arachis with Lotus and Medicago sheds new light on the structure, stability and evolution of legume genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most agriculturally important legumes fall within the phaseoloids (containing beans) and galegoids (containing peas and clovers). A notable exception is peanut (Arachis hypogaea) which comes from a basally diverged tropical lineage. To improve our understanding of the Arachis genome, single-copy g...

  3. Effects of malting on the milling performance and acceptability of bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea Thouars) seeds and products.

    PubMed

    Uvere, P O; Uwaegbute, A C; Adedeji, E M

    1999-01-01

    Germinated bambara groundnut was dried by three methods--oven-drying at 50 degrees C, in a solar drier at 38-42 degrees C, and sun drying at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. The samples were milled into flour, and made into 'okpa', a steamed gel. Flour yield increased only in oven-dried malts. The quality of the 'okpa' based on appearance and taste decreased with malting time; solar drying resulted in the poorest product because of its dark color. PMID:10646629

  4. Uncommon occurrence ratios of aflatoxin B1, B 2, G 1, and G 2 in maize and groundnuts from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Matumba, Limbikani; Sulyok, Michael; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Van Poucke, Christof; De Saeger, Sarah; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    We report an unusual aflatoxin profile in maize and groundnuts from Malawi, with aflatoxin G1 found routinely at equal or even higher levels than aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ratio in a contaminated sample is generally greater than 50% of total aflatoxin (sum of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2). In Malawi, the aflatoxin occurrence ratios were determined by examining LC-MS/MS and HPLC fluorescence detection (FLD) data of 156 naturally contaminated raw maize and 80 groundnut samples collected in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that natural aflatoxin occurrence ratio differed. In 47% of the samples, the concentration of AFG1 was higher than that of AFB1. The mean concentration percentages of AFB1/AFB2/AFG1/AFG2 in reference to total aflatoxins were found to be 47:5:43:5%, respectively. The AFG1 and AFB1 50/50 trend was observed in maize and groundnuts and was consistent for samples collected in both years. If the AFB1 measurement was used to check compliance of total aflatoxin regulatory limit set at 10, 20, 100, and 200 μg/kg with an assumption that AFB1≥50% of the total aflatoxin content, 8, 13, 24, and 26% false negative rates would have occurred respectively. It is therefore important for legislation to consider total aflatoxins rather than AFB1 alone. PMID:25194830

  5. Phylogenetic relationships in genus Arachis based on ITS and 5.8S rDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis comprises 80 species and it is subdivided into nine taxonomic sections (Arachis, Caulorrhizae, Erectoides, Extranervosae, Heteranthae, Procumbentes, Rhizomatosae, Trierectoides, and Triseminatae). This genus is naturally confined to South America and most of its species are native to Brazil. In order to provide a better understanding of the evolution of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeny of 45 species using the variation observed on nucleotide sequences in internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8 S of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Results Intraspecific variation was detected, but in general it was not enough to place accessions of the same species in different clades. Our data support the view that Arachis is a monophyletic group and suggested Heteranthae as the most primitive section of genus Arachis. The results confirmed the circumscriptions of some sections (Caulorrhizae, Extranervosae), but raised questions about others. Sections Erectoides, Trierectoides and Procumbentes were not well defined, while sections Arachis and Rhizomatosae seem to include species that could be moved to different sections. The division of section Arachis into A and B genome species was also observed in the phylogenetic tree and these two groups of species may not have a monophyletic origin. The 2n = 2x = 18 species of section Arachis (A. praecox, A. palustris and A. decora) were all placed in the same clade, indicating they are closely related to each other, and their genomes are more related to B genome than to the A genome. Data also allowed insights on the origin of tetraploid A. glabrata, suggesting rhizome appeared twice within the genus and raising questions about the placement of that species in section Rhizomatosae. Conclusion The main clades established in this study in general agreed with many other studies that have used other types of evidences and sets of species, being some of them included in our study and some not. Thus

  6. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  7. Groundnut Bud Necrosis Virus Encoded NSm Associates with Membranes via Its C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pratibha; Indi, Shantinath S.; Savithri, Handanahal S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundnut Bud Necrosis Virus (GBNV) is a tripartite ambisense RNA plant virus that belongs to serogroup IV of Tospovirus genus. Non-Structural protein-m (NSm), which functions as movement protein in tospoviruses, is encoded by the M RNA. In this communication, we demonstrate that despite the absence of any putative transmembrane domain, GBNV NSm associates with membranes when expressed in E. coli as well as in N. benthamiana. Incubation of refolded NSm with liposomes ranging in size from 200–250 nm resulted in changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of NSm. A similar behaviour was observed in the presence of anionic and zwitterionic detergents. Furthermore, the morphology of the liposomes was found to be modified in the presence of NSm. Deletion of coiled coil domain resulted in the inability of in planta expressed NSm to interact with membranes. Further, when the C-terminal coiled coil domain alone was expressed, it was found to be associated with membrane. These results demonstrate that NSm associates with membranes via the C-terminal coiled coil domain and such an association may be important for movement of viral RNA from cell to cell. PMID:24919116

  8. Identification and characterization of expressed resistance gene analogs (RGSs) from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food legume grown worldwide for providing edible oil and protein. However, due to scarcity of genetic diversity, peanut is very vulnerable to a variety of pathogens, such as rust (Puccinia arachidis Speg.), early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidic...

  9. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations, and at different soil sulfur levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi), showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across th...

  10. Cultivar specific changes in peanut (Arachis hypogae L.) yield, biomass, and allergenicity in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intraspecific variation in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], could, potentially, be used as a means to begin selection for improved quantitative or qualitative characteristics for a given crop. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a leguminous crop of global importance;...

  11. Comparisons of de novo transcriptome assemblers in diploid and polyploid species using peanut (Arachis spp.) RNA-seq data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base and limited genetic information on Arachis species have hindered the process of marker-assisted selection of peanut cultivars. However, recent developments in sequencing technologies have expanded opportunities to exploit genetic resources, and at lower cost. To use the genet...

  12. Acclimation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to water stress through exposure to differing periods of early season drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is able to withstand periods of water scarcity either in the early or late periods of the growing season, but suffers significant stress and yield loss during drought periods in mid-season, or the period coinciding with peak flower production and pod maturation. In fact...

  13. Employing microsatellite and SNP markers to track functional mutations and evaluate genetic diversity in the USDA Arachis germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein and other phytochemicals such as folic acid, tocopherol, and antioxidants; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit mai...

  14. Identification and characterization of a multigene family encoding germin-like proteins in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) play diversified roles in plant development and defense response. Here, we identified 36 ESTs encoding GLPs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). After assembly, these ESTs were integrated into eight unigenes, named AhGLP1 to AhGLP8, of which, three (AhGLP1-3) were comprised...

  15. The United States Arachis germplasm collection: a valuable genetic resource for mining useful traits to improve peanut quality and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit maintains the second largest peanut germplasm collection in the world consisting of both cultivated and wild germplasm with a total of 9,924 Arachis accessions. A cultivated core (831 accessions) and mini core (112 accessions) collections were esta...

  16. Development of a real-time PCR genotyping assay to identify high oleic acid peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid, a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil is an important seed quality trait because it provides increased shelf life, improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, and has a beneficial effect on human health. Hence, a concentrated effort has be...

  17. Identification of Fungus Resistant Wild Accessions and Interspecific Hybrids of the Genus Arachis

    PubMed Central

    Michelotto, Marcos Doniseti; Barioni, Waldomiro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de Godoy, Ignácio José; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Fávero, Alessandra Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., is a protein-rich species consumed worldwide. A key improvement to peanut culture involves the development of cultivars that resist fungal diseases such as rust, leaf spot and scab. Over three years, we evaluated fungal resistance under field conditions of 43 wild accessions and three interspecific hybrids of the genus Arachis, as well as six A. hypogaea genotypes. In the first year, we evaluated resistance to early and late leaf spot, rust and scab. In the second and third years, we evaluated the 18 wild species with the best resistance scores and control cultivar IAC Caiapó for resistance to leaf spot and rust. All wild accessions displayed greater resistance than A. hypogaea but differed in their degree of resistance, even within the same species. We found accessions with as good as or better resistance than A. cardenasii, including: A. stenosperma (V15076 and Sv 3712), A. kuhlmannii (V 6413), A. kempff-mercadoi (V 13250), A. hoehnei (KG 30006), and A. helodes (V 6325). Amphidiploids and hybrids of A. hypogaea behaved similarly to wild species. An additional four accessions deserve further evaluation: A. magna (V 13751 and KG 30097) and A. gregoryi (V 14767 and V 14957). Although they did not display as strong resistance as the accessions cited above, they belong to the B genome type that is crucial to resistance gene introgression and pyramidization in A. hypogaea. PMID:26090811

  18. Size-selective fractionation and visual mapping of allergen protein chemistry in Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Hebling, Christine M; Ross, Mark M; Callahan, John H; McFarland, Melinda A

    2012-11-01

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in addition to milk, eggs, fish, crustaceans, wheat, tree nuts, and soybean are commonly referred to as the "big eight" foods that contribute to the majority of food allergies worldwide. Despite the severity of allergic reactions and growing prevalence in children and adults, there is no cure for peanut allergy, leaving avoidance as the primary mode of treatment. To improve analytical methods for peanut allergen detection, researchers must overcome obstacles involved in handling complex food matrices while attempting to decipher the chemistry that underlies allergen protein interactions. To address such challenges, we conducted a global proteome characterization of raw peanuts using a sophisticated GELFrEE-PAGE-LC-MS/MS platform consisting of gel-based protein fractionation followed by mass spectrometric identification. The in-solution mass-selective protein fractionation: (1) enhances the number of unique peptide identifications, (2) provides a visual map of protein isoforms, and (3) aids in the identification of disulfide-linked protein complexes. GELFrEE-PAGE-LC-MS/MS not only overcomes many of the challenges involved in the study of plant proteomics, but enriches the understanding of peanut protein chemistry, which is typically unattainable in a traditional bottom-up proteomic analysis. A global understanding of protein chemistry in Arachis hypogaea ultimately will aid the development of improved methods for allergen detection in food. PMID:23020697

  19. A linkage map for the B-genome of Arachis (Fabaceae) and its synteny to the A-genome

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Barbosa, Andrea VG; Alves-Freitas, Dione MT; Teixeira, Cristiane; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Lopes, Catalina R; Cavallari, Marcelo M; Valls, José FM; Bertioli, David J; Gimenes, Marcos A

    2009-01-01

    Background Arachis hypogaea (peanut) is an important crop worldwide, being mostly used for edible oil production, direct consumption and animal feed. Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid species with two different genome components, A and B. Genetic linkage maps can greatly assist molecular breeding and genomic studies. However, the development of linkage maps for A. hypogaea is difficult because it has very low levels of polymorphism. This can be overcome by the utilization of wild species of Arachis, which present the A- and B-genomes in the diploid state, and show high levels of genetic variability. Results In this work, we constructed a B-genome linkage map, which will complement the previously published map for the A-genome of Arachis, and produced an entire framework for the tetraploid genome. This map is based on an F2 population of 93 individuals obtained from the cross between the diploid A. ipaënsis (K30076) and the closely related A. magna (K30097), the former species being the most probable B genome donor to cultivated peanut. In spite of being classified as different species, the parents showed high crossability and relatively low polymorphism (22.3%), compared to other interspecific crosses. The map has 10 linkage groups, with 149 loci spanning a total map distance of 1,294 cM. The microsatellite markers utilized, developed for other Arachis species, showed high transferability (81.7%). Segregation distortion was 21.5%. This B-genome map was compared to the A-genome map using 51 common markers, revealing a high degree of synteny between both genomes. Conclusion The development of genetic maps for Arachis diploid wild species with A- and B-genomes effectively provides a genetic map for the tetraploid cultivated peanut in two separate diploid components and is a significant advance towards the construction of a transferable reference map for Arachis. Additionally, we were able to identify affinities of some Arachis linkage groups with Medicago

  20. Comparative reaction of popular high yielding spanish and virginia bunch groundnut varieties to Tobacco streak virus.

    PubMed

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2013-09-01

    Reaction of five spanish (JL 24, TMV 2, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9 and Anantha) and a virginia (Kadiri 7 Bold) groundnut cultivars was studied against Tobacco streak virus (TSV) by sap inoculation using different age group of plants [7-84 days after sowing (DAS)]. Among different cultivars, incubation period varied from 4 to 28 days and high incubation period recorded in Kadiri 7 Bold. The percent infection decreased with increase in the age of the plants in all the cultivars as it ranged up to 100 % in both pre-flowering (7-21 DAS) and flowering stage (28-63 DAS) plants followed by 50-100 % in maturity stage plants (70-84 DAS) except Kadiri 7 Bold. Similarly, 100 % wilting was observed in pre flowering stage plants against no wilting in maturity stage plants. However, cultivars differed in per cent wilting of flowering stage plants by recording maximum wilting (100 %) in JL24, Kadiri 6 and minimum (25.0 %) in Kadiri 7 Bold. Both localized (necrotic spots, veinal necrosis) and systemic (petiole necrosis, necrotic spots on young leaves, top growing bud and stem necrosis, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, peg necrosis, pod necrosis, wilting of plant) symptoms induced by TSV were similar among all cultivars without any new symptoms. Prolonged stage of axillary shoot proliferation was observed for the first time in all the cultivars. In maturity stage plants of Kadiri 7 Bold, Kadiri 9 and Anantha, systemic symptoms restricted to leaf and petiole necrosis only. Virus titer varied significantly with the age of plants and inoculum harvest at days post inoculation and least virus titer recorded by Kadiri 7 Bold at all stages of infection. Among different cultivars, Kadiri 7 Bold was least susceptible/tolerant to TSV by registering higher incubation period with less per cent infection, wilt and titer. PMID:24426278

  1. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced. PMID:26256094

  2. A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid species whose ancestral genomes are most likely derived from the A-genome species, A. duranensis, and the B-genome species, A. ipaensis. The very recent (several millennia) evolutionary origin of A. hypogaea has imposed a bottleneck for allelic and phenotypic diversity within the cultigen. However, wild diploid relatives are a rich source of alleles that could be used for crop improvement and their simpler genomes can be more easily analyzed while providing insight into the structure of the allotetraploid peanut genome. The objective of this research was to establish a high-density genetic map of the diploid species A. duranensis based on de novo generated EST databases. Arachis duranensis was chosen for mapping because it is the A-genome progenitor of cultivated peanut and also in order to circumvent the confounding effects of gene duplication associated with allopolyploidy in A. hypogaea. Results More than one million expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences generated from normalized cDNA libraries of A. duranensis were assembled into 81,116 unique transcripts. Mining this dataset, 1236 EST-SNP markers were developed between two A. duranensis accessions, PI 475887 and Grif 15036. An additional 300 SNP markers also were developed from genomic sequences representing conserved legume orthologs. Of the 1536 SNP markers, 1054 were placed on a genetic map. In addition, 598 EST-SSR markers identified in A. hypogaea assemblies were included in the map along with 37 disease resistance gene candidate (RGC) and 35 other previously published markers. In total, 1724 markers spanning 1081.3 cM over 10 linkage groups were mapped. Gene sequences that provided mapped markers were annotated using similarity searches in three different databases, and gene ontology descriptions were determined using the Medicago Gene Atlas and TAIR databases. Synteny analysis between A. duranensis, Medicago and Glycine revealed

  3. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of water soluble polysaccharide from Arachis hypogaea seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Ma, Yuhan; Yan, Dazhuang

    2014-10-01

    The water soluble crude polysaccharide (AHP) was obtained from the aqueous extracts of the Arachis hypogaea seeds through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against the bacteria of AHP were investigated. AHP at 2 mg/mL was found to inhibit the formation of superoxide anion (55.33 %) and hydroxyl radicals (30.85 %), to scavenge the DPPH radical (57.43 %) and to chelate iron ion (27.83 %) in in vitro systems. AHP also exhibited the antibacterial activities. AHP at 12.5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to AHP than the Gram-negative bacteria. Polysaccharide with antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the "Chang Sheng Guo" further increased the nutritive values of peanuts as well as the natural health product potential. PMID:25328235

  4. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and soybeans (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ogundele, Opeolu M; Ogunshe, Adenike O; Fayemi, Olanrewaju E; Ocloo, Fidelis C K

    2015-09-01

    Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut and soybean milks were studied. Milks were prepared from bambara and soybean and then fermented using Lactobacillus delbruieckii subspp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subspp. thermophilus to produce yoghurt. The yoghurts were stored at 7 °C and 27 °C for 9 days and their quality monitored. Results showed that pH of soy and bambara yoghurts decreased during the storage period for both storage temperatures. This decrease in pH was accompanied by simultaneous increase in titratable acidity. Total solids and apparent viscosities of soy and bambara yoghurts increased at 7 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage period. Bambara yoghurt received higher sensory acceptability than soy yoghurt. Predominant microorganisms in the stored yoghurts were lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count in the yoghurts stored at 7 °C decreased but increased at 27 °C during the storage period. Similar trends were followed by total aerobic bacteria, yeast and moulds counts. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Coliform and E. coli were absent in all the yogurt samples. Yoghurts of acceptable quality and safety were produced from bambara groundnut and soybeans. PMID:26345001

  5. Induced resistance in groundnut by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid through alteration of trichome density and oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Hussain, Barkat; Sharma, Hari C.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are important phytohormones involved in plant resistance against insect herbivory and pathogen infection. Application of JA and SA induces several defensive traits in plants. Here we investigated the effect of JA and SA on trichome density in five groundnut genotypes [ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, ICG 1697 (resistant) and JL 24 (susceptible)]. The effect of JA- and SA-induced resistance on the oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera on different groundnut genotypes was also studied. Pre-treatment with JA increased numbers of trichomes in the insect-resistant genotypes, ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, and ICG 1697. The induction was greater at 10 days after treatment. Jasmonic acid- and SA-treated plants showed a substantial effect on the oviposition behaviour of H. armigera. Jasmonic acid application and herbivory reduced the number of eggs laid by H. armigera in all the groundnut genotypes tested. However, a greater reduction was recorded on plants pre-treated with JA. More egg laying was recorded in JL 24 in all the treatments as compared to the insect-resistant genotypes. These results suggested that pre-treatment with JA increased trichome density in groundnut plants, which conferred antixenosis for oviposition by H. armigera.

  6. A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, José F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the

  7. Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut.

    PubMed

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Roberts, Philip A; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Borba, Tereza C O; Valdisser, Paula A; Vianello, Rosana P; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Guimarães, Patricia M; Bertioli, David J

    2016-02-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp.) are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR) markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs. PMID:26656152

  8. Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Roberts, Philip A.; Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Borba, Tereza C. O.; Valdisser, Paula A.; Vianello, Rosana P.; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Guimarães, Patricia M.; Bertioli, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp.) are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR) markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs. PMID:26656152

  9. Segregation of nod-containing and nod-deficient bradyrhizobia as endosymbionts of Arachis hypogaea and as endophytes of Oryza sativa in intercropped fields of Bengal Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Guha, Sohini; Sarkar, Monolina; Ganguly, Pritha; Uddin, Md Raihan; Mandal, Sukhendu; DasGupta, Maitrayee

    2016-09-01

    Bradyrhizobial invasion in dalbergoid legumes like Arachis hypogaea and endophytic bacterial invasions in non-legumes like Oryza sativa occur through epidermal cracks. Here, we show that there is no overlap between the bradyrhizobial consortia that endosymbiotically and endophytically colonise these plants. To minimise contrast due to phylogeographic isolation, strains were collected from Arachis/Oryza intercropped fields and a total of 17 bradyrhizobia from Arachis (WBAH) and 13 from Oryza (WBOS) were investigated. 16SrRNA and concatenated dnaK-glnII-recA phylogeny clustered the nodABC-positive WBAH and nodABC-deficient WBOS strains in two distinct clades. The in-field segregation is reproducible under controlled conditions which limits the factors that influence their competitive exclusion. While WBAH renodulated Arachis successfully, WBOS nodulated in an inefficient manner. Thus, Arachis, like other Aeschynomene legumes support nod-independent symbiosis that was ineffectual in natural fields. In Oryza, WBOS recolonised endophytically and promoted its growth. WBAH however caused severe chlorosis that was completely overcome when coinfected with WBOS. This explains the exclusive recovery of WBOS in Oryza in natural fields and suggests Nod-factors to have a role in counterselection of WBAH. Finally, canonical soxY1 and thiosulphate oxidation could only be detected in WBOS indicating loss of metabolic traits in WBAH with adaptation of symbiotic lifestyle. PMID:27102878

  10. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Methods Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. Key Results The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S–26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Conclusions Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms

  11. Cloning and characterization of SPL-family genes in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Li, M; Zhao, S Z; Zhao, C Z; Zhang, Y; Xia, H; Lopez-Baltazar, J; Wan, S B; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL) proteins play crucial roles in plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stressors. The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a globally important oil crop. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of 15 SPLs in the peanut by transcriptome sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and analyzed their genomic DNA sequences. cDNA lengths varied significantly, from 369 to 3102 bp. The SBP domain of the peanut SPL proteins was highly conserved compared to SPLs in other plant species. Based on their sequence similarity to SPLs from other plant species, the peanut SPLs could be grouped into five subgroups. In each subgroup, lengths of individual genes, conserved motif numbers, and distribution patterns were similar. Seven of the SPLs were predicted to be targets of miR156. The SPLs were ubiquitously expressed in the roots, leaves, flowers, gynophores, and seeds, with different expression levels and accumulation patterns. Significant differences in the expression of most of the SPLs were observed between juvenile and adult leaves, suggesting that they are involved in developmental regulation. Dynamic changes occurred in transcript levels at stage 1 (aerial grown green gynophores), stage 2 (gynophores buried in soil for about three days), and stage 3 (gynophores buried in soil for about nine days with enlarged pods). Possible roles that these genes play in peanut pod initiation are discussed. PMID:26909986

  12. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer. PMID:27375665

  13. Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)--a review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2015-02-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops. PMID:25626474

  14. Isolation and characterization of an osmotic stress and ABA induced histone deacetylase in Arachis hygogaea

    PubMed Central

    Su, Liang-Chen; Deng, Bin; Liu, Shuai; Li, Li-Mei; Hu, Bo; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation, which together with histone methylation regulates gene activity in response to stress, is an important epigenetic modification. There is an increasing research focus on histone acetylation in crops, but there is no information to date in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). We showed that osmotic stress and ABA affect the acetylation of histone H3 loci in peanut seedlings by immunoblotting experiments. Using RNA-seq data for peanut, we found a RPD3/HDA1-like superfamily histone deacetylase (HDAC), termed AhHDA1, whose gene is up-regulated by PEG-induced water limitation and ABA signaling. We isolated and characterized AhHDA1 from A. hypogaea, showing that AhHDA1 is very similar to an Arabidopsis HDAC (AtHDA6) and, in recombinant form, possesses HDAC activity. To understand whether and how osmotic stress and ABA mediate the peanut stress response by epigenetics, the expression of AhHDA1 and stress-responsive genes following treatment with PEG, ABA, and the specific HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) were analyzed. AhHDA1 transcript levels were enhanced by all three treatments, as was expression of peanut transcription factor genes, indicating that AhHDA1 might be involved in the epigenetic regulation of stress resistance genes that comprise the responses to osmotic stress and ABA. PMID:26217363

  15. Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Synthetic Stilbenoids

    PubMed Central

    SOBOLEV, VICTOR S.; KHAN, SHABANA I.; TABANCA, NURHAYAT; WEDGE, DAVID E.; MANLY, SUSAN P.; CUTLER, STEPHEN J.; COY, MONIQUE R.; BECNEL, JAMES J.; NEFF, SCOTT A.; GLOER, JAMES B.

    2011-01-01

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.), when infected by a microbial pathogen, is capable of producing stilbene-derived compounds that are considered antifungal phytoalexins. In addition, the potential health benefits of other stilbenoids from peanuts, including resveratrol and pterostilbene, have been acknowledged by several investigators. Despite considerable progress in peanut research, relatively little is known about the biological activity of the stilbenoid phytoalexins. This study investigated the activities of some of these compounds in a broad spectrum of biological assays. Since peanut stilbenoids appear to play roles in plant defense mechanisms, they were evaluated for their effects on economically important plant pathogenic fungi of the genera Colletotrichum, Botrytis, Fusarium, and Phomopsis. We further investigated these peanut phytoalexins, together with some related natural and synthetic stilbenoids (a total of 24 compounds) in a panel of bioassays to determine their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities in mammalian cells. Several of these compounds were also evaluated as mammalian opioid receptor competitive antagonists. Assays for adult mosquito and larvae toxicity were also performed. The results of these studies reveal that peanut stilbenoids, as well as related natural and synthetic stilbene derivatives, display a diverse range of biological activities. PMID:21314127

  16. Growth rates and auxin effects in graviresponding gynophores of the peanut, Arachis hypogaea (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Moctezuma, E; Feldman, L J

    1998-10-01

    The gynophore of the peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) is a specialized organ that carries and buries the fertilized ovules into the soil in order for seed and fruit development to occur underground. The rates of growth of vertically and horizontally oriented gynophores were measured using a time-lapse video imaging system. We found that the region of maximum extension growth due to elongation (termed the Central Elongation Zone) is located on average at 2-5 mm from the tip. In the first 0-4 h after horizontal reorientation (gravistimulation), new zones of growth emerge on the upper surface, while the elongation zone of the lower side decreases in size and magnitude. Four to six hours after reorientation the zones of maximum growth are almost equal in size and location on the upper and lower sides. The growth rate and the gravitropic response decreased dramatically, upon the excision of the ovule region (terminal 1.5 mm), but a gravitropic growth response could be restored by applying the auxin indole-3-acetic acid exogenously to the excised tip. The addition of napthylphthalamic acid (an auxin transport inhibitor) at the ovule region allowed some growth to occur, but the gynophores do not respond normally to gravity, upon horizontal reorientation. We discuss the role of auxin in the gravitropic response of the gynophore. PMID:11541946

  17. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer. PMID:27375665

  18. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance. PMID:23413007

  19. Cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips and apical meristems of the forage legume Arachis pintoi.

    PubMed

    Rey, Hebe Y; Faloci, Mirta; Medina, Ricardo; Dolce, Natalia; Mroginski, Luis; Engelmann, Florent

    2009-01-01

    A cryopreservation protocol using the encapsulation-dehydration procedure was established for shoot tips (2-3 mm in length) and meristems (0.3-0.5 mm) sampled from in vitro plantlets of diploid and triploid cytotypes of Arachis pintoi. The optimal protocol was the following: after dissection, explants were precultured for 24 h on establishment medium (EM), encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and pretreated in liquid EM medium with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 M) and desiccated to 22-23 percent moisture content (fresh weight basis). Explants were frozen using slow cooling (1 C per min from 25C to -30C followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen), thawed rapidly and post-cultured in liquid EM medium enriched with daily decreasing sucrose concentrations (0.75, 0.50, 0.1 M). Explants were then transferred to solid EM medium in order to achieve shoot regeneration, then on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.05 microM naphthalene acetic acid to induce rooting of shoots. With this procedure, 53 percent and 56 percent of cryopreserved shoot tips of the diploid and triploid cytotypes, respectively, survived and formed plants. However, only 16 percent of cryopreserved meristems of both cytotypes regenerated plants. Using ten isozyme systems and seven RAPD profiles, no modification induced by cryopreservation could be detected in plantlets regenerated from cryopreserved material. PMID:19946657

  20. ESTs from a wild Arachis species for gene discovery and marker development

    PubMed Central

    Proite, Karina; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Bertioli, David J; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; da Silva, Felipe R; Martins, Natalia F; Guimarães, Patrícia M

    2007-01-01

    Background Due to its origin, peanut has a very narrow genetic background. Wild relatives can be a source of genetic variability for cultivated peanut. In this study, the transcriptome of the wild species Arachis stenosperma accession V10309 was analyzed. Results ESTs were produced from four cDNA libraries of RNAs extracted from leaves and roots of A. stenosperma. Randomly selected cDNA clones were sequenced to generate 8,785 ESTs, of which 6,264 (71.3%) had high quality, with 3,500 clusters: 963 contigs and 2537 singlets. Only 55.9% matched homologous sequences of known genes. ESTs were classified into 23 different categories according to putative protein functions. Numerous sequences related to disease resistance, drought tolerance and human health were identified. Two hundred and six microsatellites were found and markers have been developed for 188 of these. The microsatellite profile was analyzed and compared to other transcribed and genomic sequence data. Conclusion This is, to date, the first report on the analysis of transcriptome of a wild relative of peanut. The ESTs produced in this study are a valuable resource for gene discovery, the characterization of new wild alleles, and for marker development. The ESTs were released in the [GenBank:EH041934 to EH048197]. PMID:17302987

  1. Exciting journey of 10 years from genomes to fields and markets: Some success stories of genomics-assisted breeding in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Legume crops such as chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, mostly grown in marginal environments, are the major source of nutrition and protein to the human population in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. These crops, however, have a low productivity, mainly due to their exposure to several biotic and abiotic stresses in the marginal environments. Until 2005, these crops had limited genomics resources and molecular breeding was very challenging. During the last decade (2005-2015), ICRISAT led demand-driven innovations in genome science and translated the massive genome information in breeding. For instance, large-scale genomic resources including draft genome assemblies, comprehensive genetic and physical maps, thousands of SSR markers, millions of SNPs, several high-throughput as well as low cost marker genotyping platforms have been developed in these crops. After mapping several breeding related traits, several success stories of translational genomics have become available in these legumes. These include development of superior lines with enhanced drought tolerance in chickpea, enhanced and pyramided resistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight in chickpea, enhanced resistance to leaf rust in groundnut, improved oil quality in groundnut and utilization of markers for assessing purity of hybrids/parental lines in pigeonpea. Some of these stories together with future prospects have been discussed. PMID:26566828

  2. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  3. Cadmium re-distribution from pod and root zones and accumulation by peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Song, Ningning; Zhao, Qiaoqiao; van der Zee, S E A T M

    2016-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes may differ greatly with regard to cadmium (Cd) accumulation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To determine the key factors that may contribute to Cd re-distribution and accumulation in peanut genotypes with different Cd accumulating patterns, a split-pot soil experiment was conducted with three common Chinese peanut cultivars (Fenghua-6, Huayu-20, and Huayu-23). The growth medium was separated into pod and root zones with varied Cd concentrations in each zone to determine the re-distribution of Cd after it is taken up via different routes. The peanut cultivars were divided into two groups based on Cd translocation efficiency as follows: (1) high internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivar (Fenghua-6) and (2) low internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivars (Huayu-20 and Huayu-23). Compared with Fenghua-6, low Cd translocation cultivars Huayu-20 and Huayu-23 showed higher biomass production, especially in stems and leaves, leading to dilution of metal concentrations. Results also showed that Cd concentration in roots increased significantly with increasing Cd concentrations in soils when Cd was applied in the root zone. However, there were no significant differences in the root Cd concentrations between different pod zone Cd treatments and the control, suggesting that root uptake, rather than pod uptake, is responsible for Cd accumulation in the roots of peanuts. Significant differences of Cd distribution were observed between pod and root zone Cd exposure treatments. The three peanut cultivars revealed higher kernel over total Cd fractions for pod than for root zone Cd exposure if only extra applied Cd was considered. This suggests that uptake through peg and pod shell might, at least partially, be responsible for the variation in Cd re-distribution and accumulation among peanut cultivars. Cd uptake by plants via two routes (i.e., via roots and via pegs and pods, respectively) and internal Cd translocation

  4. Response of progeny bred from Bolivian and North American cultivars in integrated management systems for leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercospora arachidicola, and late leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercosporidium personatum, are major yield-reducing diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southeastern U.S. Effective control of both leaf spots can be reached with integrated disease man...

  5. Use of microsatellite markers for the assessment of bambara groundnut breeding system and varietal purity before genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wai Kuan; Muchugi, Alice; Muthemba, Samuel; Kariba, Robert; Mavenkeni, Busiso Olga; Hendre, Prasad; Song, Bo; Van Deynze, Allen; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2016-06-01

    Maximizing the research output from a limited investment is often the major challenge for minor and underutilized crops. However, such crops may be tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses and are adapted to local, marginal, and low-input environments. Their development through breeding will provide an important resource for future agricultural system resilience and diversification in the context of changing climates and the need to achieve food security. The African Orphan Crops Consortium recognizes the values of genomic resources in facilitating the improvement of such crops. Prior to beginning genome sequencing there is a need for an assessment of line varietal purity and to estimate any residual heterozygosity. Here we present an example from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilized drought tolerant African legume. Two released varieties from Zimbabwe, identified as potential genotypes for whole genome sequencing (WGS), were genotyped with 20 species-specific SSR markers. The results indicate that the cultivars are actually a mix of related inbred genotypes, and the analysis allowed a strategy of single plant selection to be used to generate non-heterogeneous DNA for WGS. The markers also confirmed very low levels of heterozygosity within individual plants. The application of a pre-screen using co-dominant microsatellite markers is expected to substantially improve the genome assembly, compared to a cultivar bulking approach that could have been adopted. PMID:27244454

  6. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Vegetables in Florida and the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Webster, Craig G; Frantz, Galen; Reitz, Stuart R; Funderburk, Joseph E; Mellinger, H Charles; McAvoy, Eugene; Turechek, William W; Marshall, Spencer H; Tantiwanich, Yaowapa; McGrath, Margaret T; Daughtrey, Margery L; Adkins, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) are two emerging tospoviruses in Florida. In a survey of the southeastern United States, GRSV and TCSV were frequently detected in solanaceous crops and weeds with tospovirus-like symptoms in south Florida, and occurred sympatrically with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato and pepper in south Florida. TSWV was the only tospovirus detected in other survey locations, with the exceptions of GRSV from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in South Carolina and New York, both of which are first reports. Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were the only non-solanaceous GRSV and/or TCSV hosts identified in experimental host range studies. Little genetic diversity was observed in GRSV and TCSV sequences, likely due to the recent introductions of both viruses. All GRSV isolates characterized were reassortants with the TCSV M RNA. In laboratory transmission studies, Frankliniella schultzei was a more efficient vector of GRSV than F. occidentalis. TCSV was acquired more efficiently than GRSV by F. occidentalis but upon acquisition, transmission frequencies were similar. Further spread of GRSV and TCSV in the United States is possible and detection of mixed infections highlights the opportunity for additional reassortment of tospovirus genomic RNAs. PMID:25317844

  7. Effect of feeding varying levels of groundnut haulms on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ribadiya, N. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, S. S.; Garg, D. D.; Gadariya, M. R.; Karangiya, V. K.; Gajera, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate groundnut haulms (GNH) as alternate feed source by its incorporation and assessment in terms of feed intake and growth performance in the diets of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates (n=60). Experimental Birds in group T1 were fed with conventional feed while birds in T2, T3, T4 were fed containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of GNH replacing maize and soyabean on iso-nitrogenous basis. Results: Feed intake increases significantly (p>0.05) with increasing level of GNH in the diets of experimental birds. Highest feed intake was recorded in T4 (6% GNH), followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). Birds fed GNH gained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight than birds fed the control diet. Birds in T4 [6% GNH] gained highest body weight, followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained non-significant for all treatment groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of GNH can successfully replace costly ingredients like maize and soybean meal in the diets of broiler birds up to the level of 6 percent of concentrate mixture without any harmful effects on feed intake, growth and FCR. PMID:27047062

  8. Successive Use of Non-Host Plant Proteinase Inhibitors Required for Effective Inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Gut Proteinases and Larval Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Harsulkar, Abhay M.; Giri, Ashok P.; Patankar, Aparna G.; Gupta, Vidya S.; Sainani, Mohini N.; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K.; Deshpande, Vasanti V.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the efficacy of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from three host plants (chickpea [Cicer arietinum], pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan], and cotton [Gossypium arboreum]) and three non-host (groundnut [Arachis hypogea], winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) in retarding the growth of Helicoverpa armigera larvae, a devastating pest of important crop plants. Enzyme assays and electrophoretic analysis of interaction of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGPs) with PIs revealed that non-host PIs inhibited HGP activity efficiently whereas host PIs were ineffective. In the electrophoretic assay, trypsin inhibitor activity bands were detected in all of the host and non-host plants, but HGP inhibitor activity bands were present only in non-host plants (except cotton in the host plant group). H. armigera larvae reared on a diet containing non-host PIs showed growth retardation, a reduction in total and trypsin-like proteinase activity, and the production of inhibitor-insensitive proteinases. Electrophoretic analysis of PI-induced HGP showed differential regulation of proteinase isoforms. Interestingly, HGP activity induced in response to dietary potato PI-II was inhibited by winged bean PIs. The optimized combination of potato PI-II and winged bean PIs identified in the present study and their proposed successive use has potential in developing H. armigera-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:10517841

  9. Molecular marker development from transcript sequences and germplasm evaluation for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Peng, Ze; Gallo, Maria; Tillman, Barry L; Rowland, Diane; Wang, Jianping

    2016-02-01

    Molecular markers are important tools for genotyping in genetic studies and molecular breeding. The SSR and SNP are two commonly used marker systems developed from genomic or transcript sequences. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assemble and annotate the publicly available ESTs in Arachis and the in-house short reads, (2) develop and validate SSR and SNP markers, and (3) investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the peanut breeding lines and the U.S. peanut mini core collection using developed SSR markers. An NCBI EST dataset with 252,951 sequences and an in-house 454 RNAseq dataset with 288,701 sequences were assembled separately after trimming. Transcript sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggested that peanut is closer to cowpea and scarlet bean than to soybean, common bean and Medicago. From these two datasets, 6455 novel SSRs and 11,902 SNPs were identified. Of the discovered SSRs, 380 representing various SSR types were selected for PCR validation. The amplification rate was 89.2 %. Twenty-two (6.5 %) SSRs were polymorphic between at least one pair of four genotypes. Sanger sequencing of PCR products targeting 110 SNPs revealed 13 true SNPs between tetraploid genotypes and 193 homoeologous SNPs within genotypes. Eight out of the 22 polymorphic SSR markers were selected to evaluate the genetic diversity of Florida peanut breeding lines and the U.S. peanut mini core collection. This marker set demonstrated high discrimination power by displaying an average polymorphism information content value of 0.783, a combined probability of identity of 10(-11), and a combined power of exclusion of 0.99991. The structure analysis revealed four sub-populations among the peanut accessions and lines evaluated. The results of this study enriched the peanut genomic resources, provided over 6000 novel SSR markers and the credentials for true peanut SNP marker development, and demonstrated the power of newly developed SSR markers in

  10. Data in support of proteome analysis of gynophores and early swelling pods of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Han; Jiang, Nana; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Ye; Li, Changsheng; Li, Aiqin; Zhao, Chuanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Different from most of other plants, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a typical geocarpic species which flowering and forming pegs (gynophores) above the ground. Pegs penetrate into soil for embryo and pod development. To investigate the molecular mechanism of geocarpy feature of peanut, the proteome profiles of aerial grown gynophores (S1), subterranean unswollen gynophores (S2), and gynophores that had just started to swell into pods (S3) were analyzed by combining 1 DE with nano LC–MS/MS approaches. The proteomic data provided valuable information for understanding pod development of peanut. The data described here can be found in the PRIDE Archive using the reference number PXD002579-81. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article in BMC Plant Biology (Zhao et al., 2015 [1]). PMID:26793750

  11. Cloning of Acyl-ACP Thioesterase FatA from Arachis hypogaea L. and Its Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gao; Peng, Zhen-ying; Shan, Lei; Xuan, Ning; Tang, Gui-ying; Zhang, Yan; Li, Lan; He, Qing-fang; Bi, Yu-ping

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a full-length cDNA of the acyl-ACP thioesterase, AhFatA, was cloned from developing seeds of Arachis hypogaea L. by 3′-RACE. Sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame encodes a peptide of 372 amino acids and has 50–70% identity with FatA from other plants. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that AhFatA was expressed in all tissues of A. hypogaea L., but most strongly in the immature seeds harvested at 60 days after pegging. Heterologous expression of AhFatA in Escherichia coli affected bacterial growth and changed the fatty acid profiles of the membrane lipid, resulting in directed accumulation towards palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. These results indicate that AhFatA is at least partially responsible for determining the high palmitoleic acid and oleic acid composition of E. coli. PMID:23093853

  12. Characterization of a Pathogen Induced Thaumatin-Like Protein Gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a Wild Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kumar, Dilip; Shukla, Pawan; Kirti, P. B.

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) study using the conidial spray of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. In the present study, the corresponding full length cDNA was cloned using RACE-PCR and has been designated as AdTLP. It carried an open reading frame of 726 bp potentially capable of encoding a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with 16 conserved cysteine residues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript level of AdTLP increased upon treatment with the late leaf spot pathogen of peanut, P. personata and various hormone treatments indicating its involvement in both, biotic and abiotic stresses. The antifungal activity of the purified recombinant protein was checked against different fungal pathogens, which showed enhanced anti-fungal activity compared to many other reported TLP proteins. The recombinant AdTLP-GFP fusion protein was found to be predominantly localized to extracellular spaces. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AdTLP showed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The seedling assays showed enhanced tolerance of AdTLP transgenic plants against salt and oxidative stress. The transcript analysis of various defense related genes highlighted constitutively higher level expression of PR1a, PI-I and PI-II genes in transgenic plants. These results suggest that the AdTLP is a good candidate gene for enhancing stress resistance in crop plants. PMID:24367621

  13. Characterization of a pathogen induced thaumatin-like protein gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a wild peanut.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kumar, Dilip; Shukla, Pawan; Kirti, P B

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) study using the conidial spray of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. In the present study, the corresponding full length cDNA was cloned using RACE-PCR and has been designated as AdTLP. It carried an open reading frame of 726 bp potentially capable of encoding a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with 16 conserved cysteine residues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript level of AdTLP increased upon treatment with the late leaf spot pathogen of peanut, P. personata and various hormone treatments indicating its involvement in both, biotic and abiotic stresses. The antifungal activity of the purified recombinant protein was checked against different fungal pathogens, which showed enhanced anti-fungal activity compared to many other reported TLP proteins. The recombinant AdTLP-GFP fusion protein was found to be predominantly localized to extracellular spaces. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AdTLP showed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The seedling assays showed enhanced tolerance of AdTLP transgenic plants against salt and oxidative stress. The transcript analysis of various defense related genes highlighted constitutively higher level expression of PR1a, PI-I and PI-II genes in transgenic plants. These results suggest that the AdTLP is a good candidate gene for enhancing stress resistance in crop plants. PMID:24367621

  14. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Resistant Host Responses in Arachis diogoi Challenged with Late Leaf Spot Pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dilip; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2015-01-01

    Late leaf spot is a serious disease of peanut caused by the imperfect fungus, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Wild diploid species, Arachis diogoi. is reported to be highly resistant to this disease and asymptomatic. The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular responses of the wild peanut challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen using cDNA-AFLP and 2D proteomic study. A total of 233 reliable, differentially expressed genes were identified in Arachis diogoi. About one third of the TDFs exhibit no significant similarity with the known sequences in the data bases. Expressed sequence tag data showed that the characterized genes are involved in conferring resistance in the wild peanut to the pathogen challenge. Several genes for proteins involved in cell wall strengthening, hypersensitive cell death and resistance related proteins have been identified. Genes identified for other proteins appear to function in metabolism, signal transduction and defence. Nineteen TDFs based on the homology analysis of genes associated with defence, signal transduction and metabolism were further validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in resistant wild species in comparison with a susceptible peanut genotype in time course experiments. The proteins corresponding to six TDFs were differentially expressed at protein level also. Differentially expressed TDFs and proteins in wild peanut indicate its defence mechanism upon pathogen challenge and provide initial breakthrough of genes possibly involved in recognition events and early signalling responses to combat the pathogen through subsequent development of resistivity. This is the first attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of the response of the resistant genotype to the late leaf spot pathogen, and its defence mechanism. PMID:25646800

  15. A SSR-based composite genetic linkage map for the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The construction of genetic linkage maps for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has and continues to be an important research goal to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection in breeding. Even though a few maps have been developed, they were constructed using diploid or interspecific tetraploid populations. The most recently published intra-specific map was constructed from the cross of cultivated peanuts, in which only 135 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were sparsely populated in 22 linkage groups. The more detailed linkage map with sufficient markers is necessary to be feasible for QTL identification and marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Results Three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations were constructed from three crosses with one common female parental line Yueyou 13, a high yielding Spanish market type. The four parents were screened with 1044 primer pairs designed to amplify SSRs and 901 primer pairs produced clear PCR products. Of the 901 primer pairs, 146, 124 and 64 primer pairs (markers) were polymorphic in these populations, respectively, and used in genotyping these RIL populations. Individual linkage maps were constructed from each of the three populations and a composite map based on 93 common loci were created using JoinMap. The composite linkage maps consist of 22 composite linkage groups (LG) with 175 SSR markers (including 47 SSRs on the published AA genome maps), representing the 20 chromosomes of A. hypogaea. The total composite map length is 885.4 cM, with an average marker density of 5.8 cM. Segregation distortion in the 3 populations was 23.0%, 13.5% and 7.8% of the markers, respectively. These

  16. Efficient in vitro direct shoot organogenesis and regeneration of fertile plants from embryo explants of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.).

    PubMed

    Lacroix, B; Assoumou, Y; Sangwan, R S

    2003-08-01

    An efficient protocol has been developed for direct shoot organogenesis from embryo axes derived from mature seeds of two different landraces of Bambara groundnut. Multiple shoots were initiated on several media containing different concentrations and combinations of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ). Efficient regeneration occurred when the embryo axes were first plated for 6 days on a medium containing high concentrations of BAP (1 mg/l) and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 1 mg/l) and then cut transversely and transferred onto a medium containing 1.5 mg/l BAP. Shoot regeneration frequency was 100% and from five to eight shoots per explant were obtained. The importance of using embryo explants and cytokinins in the culture media, with respect to controlling the development of a highly organogenic system, was demonstrated. Histological studies revealed that proliferating buds originated directly from the superficial layers of the explants without an intermediate callus phase. The regenerated shoots were rooted on a medium containing 1 mg/l NAA and then transferred to the greenhouse. Flow cytometric analyses and chloroplast counts of guard cells suggested that the regenerants were diploid. All were morphologically normal and fertile. The short duration, high efficiency and low frequency of somaclonal variation of this system make it well suited for wider biotechnological applications of Bambara groundnut-a neglected and under-utilized crop. PMID:12910367

  17. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    N’Dri Yao, Denis; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d’Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d’Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  18. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  19. Identification of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) chromosomes using a fluorescence in situ hybridization system reveals multiple hybridization events during tetraploid peanut formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Laining; Yang, Xiaoyu; Tian, Li; Chen, Lei; Yu, Weichang

    2016-09-01

    The cultivated peanut Arachis hypogaea (AABB) is thought to have originated from the hybridization of Arachis duranensis (AA) and Arachis ipaënsis (BB) followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. In this study, we cloned and analyzed chromosome markers from cultivated peanut and its wild relatives. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping cocktail was developed with which to study the karyotypes and chromosome evolution of peanut and its wild relatives. Karyotypes were constructed in cultivated peanut and its two putative progenitors using our FISH-based karyotyping system. Comparative karyotyping analysis revealed that chromosome organization was highly conserved in cultivated peanut and its two putative progenitors, especially in the B genome chromosomes. However, variations existed between A. duranensis and the A genome chromosomes in cultivated peanut, especially for the distribution of the interstitial telomere repeats (ITRs). A search of additional A. duranensis varieties from different geographic regions revealed both numeric and positional variations of ITRs, which were similar to the variations in tetraploid peanut varieties. The results provide evidence for the origin of cultivated peanut from the two diploid ancestors, and also suggest that multiple hybridization events of A. ipaënsis with different varieties of A. duranensis may have occurred during the origination of peanut. PMID:27176118

  20. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  1. Evaluation of agronomic and economic benefits of using RTK-GPS-based auto-steer guidance systems for peanut digging operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) digger efficiency by accurate placement over the target rows could minimize damaged pods and yield losses. Producers have traditionally relied solely on tractor operator skills to harvest peanuts. However, as peanut production has shifted to new growing reg...

  2. Improved growth and nutrient status of an oat cover crop in sod-based versus conventional peanut-cotton rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) leaching from agricultural soils is a major concern in the southeastern USA. A winter cover crop following the summer crop rotation is essential for controlling N leaching and soil run-off, thereby improving sustainable development. Rotation of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and cotton (Go...

  3. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sclerotinia minor from peanut research plots in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia minor is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a disease that significantly reduces peanut (Arachis hypogea) productivity. This study analyzed the diversity and population structure of 164 S. minor isolates from Oklahoma. Isolates were obtained from infected stems of peanut plants fr...

  4. Shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) for small irregular-shaped fields in the southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted using S3DI on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) rotations to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system. Drip tubing was installed in alternate row middles, strip tillage was used ...

  5. Analysis of the coding-complete genomic sequence of groundnut ringspot virus suggests a common ancestor with tomato chlorotic spot virus.

    PubMed

    de Breuil, Soledad; Cañizares, Joaquín; Blanca, José Miguel; Bejerman, Nicolás; Trucco, Verónica; Giolitti, Fabián; Ziarsolo, Peio; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) share biological and serological properties, so their identification is carried out by molecular methods. Their genomes consist of three segmented RNAs: L, M and S. The finding of a reassortant between these two viruses may complicate correct virus identification and requires the characterization of the complete genome. Therefore, we present for the first time the complete sequences of all the genes encoded by a GRSV isolate. The high level of sequence similarity between GRSV and TCSV (over 90 % identity) observed in the genes and proteins encoded in the M RNA support previous results indicating that these viruses probably have a common ancestor. PMID:27260536

  6. Isolation and identification of allelochemicals produced by B. sonorensis for suppression of charcoal rot of Arachis hypogaea L.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Urja; Saraf, Meenu

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus sonorensis MBCU2 isolated from vermicompost-amended soil from Gujarat, India showed most antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual culture screening. The culture supernatant of MBCU2 completely suppressed the mycelia growth of pathogen, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of allelochemicals in the culture filtrate. Results of scanning electron microscopy revealed that MBCU2 caused morphological alteration in mycelia of M. phaseolina as evident by hyphal lysis and perforation. Lipopeptides (iturin A and surfactin) produced by MBCU2 were detected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as well as liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Pot trial studies conducted by seed bacterization with MBCU2 resulted in statistically significant increase in Arachis hypogaea L. vegetative growth parameters such as root length (91%), shoot length (252%), fresh weight (71%), dry weight (57%), number of pod (128%), and number of seed (290%) in M. phaseolina infested soil over control as well as decreased M. phaseolina disease severity. We suggest that allelochemicals production can be linked to the mechanism of protection of A. hypogaea L. from M. phaseolina by B. sonorensis MBCU2. PMID:25346523

  7. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations and at different soil sulfur levels.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Manju; Chu, Ye; Maleki, Soheila J; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-02-18

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi) showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across three generations (T3, T4, and T5) under field conditions. Different soil sulfur levels (0.012, 0.3, and 3.0 mM) differentially impacted sulfur-rich (Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6) versus sulfur-poor (Ara h 1) proteins in non-transgenic versus transgenic peanut. The sulfur level had no effect on Ara h 1, whereas low sulfur led to a significant reduction of Ara h 3 in transgenic and non-transgenic seeds and Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in non-transgenic but not in transgenic peanuts because these proteins already were reduced by gene silencing. These results demonstrate stability of transgene expression and the potential utility of RNAi in allergen manipulation. PMID:25616282

  8. Effects of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Rotations with Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on Nematode Populations and Soil Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Mahaffee, W. F.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.; BOWEN, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus sp.) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. Switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. Peanut with no nematicide applied and following 2 years of switchgrass had the same nematode populations as continuous peanut plus nematicide. Neither previous crop nor nematicide significantly reduced the incidence of pods infected with Aspergillus. However, pod invasion by A. flavus was highest in plots previously planted with peanut and not treated with nematicide. Peanut with nematicide applied at planting following 2 years of switchgrass had significantly less incidence of southern blight than either continuous peanut without nematicide application or peanut without nematicide following 2 years of cotton. Peanut yield did not differ among rotations in either sample year. Effects of crop rotation on the microbial community structure associated with peanut were examined using indices for diversity, richness, and similarity derived from culture-based analyses. Continuous peanut supported a distinctly different rhizosphere bacterial microflora compared to peanut following 1 year of switchgrass, or continuous switchgrass. Richness and diversity indices for continuous peanut rhizosphere and geocarposphere were not consistently different from peanut following switchgrass, but always differed in the specific genera present. These shifts in community structure were associated with changes in parasitic nematode populations. PMID:19265915

  9. Synergic actions of polyphenols and cyanogens of peanut seed coat (Arachis hypogaea) on cytological, biochemical and functional changes in thyroid.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Mondal, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sabyasachi; Chakraborty, Arijit; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2015-03-01

    In animals, long-term feeding with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed coats causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland. However, to date there have been no detailed studies. Here, we explored the thyroidal effects of dietary peanut seed coats (PSC) in rats. The PSC has high levels of pro-goitrogenic substances including phenolic and other cyanogenic constituents. The PSC was mixed with a standard diet and fed to rats for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Animals fed with the PSC-supplemented diet showed a significant increase in urinary excretion of thiocyanate and iodine, thyroid enlargement, and hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. In addition, there was inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, 5'-deiodinase-I (DIO1) activity, and (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity in the experimental groups of rats as compared to controls. Furthermore, the PSC fed animals exhibited decreased serum circulating total T4 and T3 levels, severe in the group treated for longer duration. These data indicate that PSC could be a novel disruptor of thyroid function, due to synergistic actions of phenolic as well as cyanogenic constituents. PMID:25872244

  10. Aluminum-induced programmed cell death promoted by AhSAG, a senescence-associated gene in Arachis hypoganea L.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jie; He, Hu-Yi; Wang, Tian-Ju; Wang, Ai-Qin; Li, Chuang-Zhen; He, Long-Fei

    2013-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a foundational cellular process in plant development and elimination of damaged cells under environmental stresses. In this study, Al induced PCD in two peanut (Arachis hypoganea L.) cultivars Zhonghua 2 (Al-sensitive) and 99-1507 (Al-tolerant) using DNA ladder, TUNEL detection and electron microscopy. The concentration of Al-induced PCD was lower in Zhonghua 2 than in 99-1507. AhSAG, a senescence-associated gene was isolated from cDNA library of Al-stressed peanut with PCD. Open reading frame (ORF) of AhSAG was 474bp, encoding a SAG protein composed of 157 amino acids. Compared to the control and the antisense transgenic tobacco plants, the fast development and blossom of the sense transgenic plants happened to promote senescence. The ability of Al tolerance in sense transgenic tobacco was lower than in antisense transgenic tobacco according to root elongation and Al content analysis. The expression of AhSAG-GFP was higher in sense transgenic tobacco than in antisense transgenic tobacco. Altogether, these results indicated that there was a negative relationship between Al-induced PCD and Al-resistance in peanut, and the AhSAG could induce or promote the occurrence of PCD in plants. PMID:23849118

  11. Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue. PMID:26154036

  12. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skin by combination of chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Oldoni, Tatiane L C; Melo, Priscilla S; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Rosalen, Pedro L; da Silva, Gil V J; Nascimento, Andréa M; Alencar, Severino M

    2016-02-01

    Purification and bioassay-guided fractionation were employed to isolate proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut skin (Arachis hypogaea Runner 886). The crude extract was prepared with acetone (60% v/v) and purified using chromatographic methods, including a semipreparative HPLC technique. As a result, two proanthocyanidins were isolated and identified using NMR, epicatechin-(2 β → O → 7, 4 β → 8)-catechin (proanthocyanidin A1) and epicatechin-(β → 2 O → 7, 4 β → 8)-epicatechin (proanthocyanidin A2). Despite the structural similarity, differences were observed in their antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidin A1 proved to be more active, with EC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging of 18.25 μg/mL and reduction of Fe(3+)-TPTZ complex of 7.59 mmol/g, higher than that of synthetic antioxidant BHT. This compound evaluated by ABTS(+) was similar to that of natural quercetin. Therefore, peanut skin is an important source of bioactive compounds that may be used as a mild antioxidant for food preservation. PMID:26304352

  13. Analysis of crude protein and allergen abundance in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea cv. Walter) from three growing regions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Walczyk, Nicole E; Smith, Penelope M C; Tovey, Euan; Wright, Graeme C; Fleischfresser, Dayle B; Roberts, Thomas H

    2013-04-17

    The effects of plant growth conditions on concentrations of proteins, including allergens, in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) kernels are largely unknown. Peanuts (cv. Walter) were grown at five sites (Taabinga, Redvale, Childers, Bundaberg, and Kairi) covering three commercial growing regions in Queensland, Australia. Differences in temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation during the growing season were evaluated. Kernel yield varied from 2.3 t/ha (Kairi) to 3.9 t/ha (Childers), probably due to differences in solar radiation. Crude protein appeared to vary only between Kairi and Childers, whereas Ara h 1 and 2 concentrations were similar in all locations. 2D-DIGE revealed significant differences in spot volumes for only two minor protein spots from peanuts grown in the five locations. Western blotting using peanut-allergic serum revealed no qualitative differences in recognition of antigens. It was concluded that peanuts grown in different growing regions in Queensland, Australia, had similar protein compositions and therefore were unlikely to show differences in allergenicity. PMID:23495786

  14. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K.; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut. PMID:26697032

  15. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut. PMID:26697032

  16. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  17. Chryseobacterium arachidiradicis sp. nov., isolated from the geocarposphere (soil around the peanut) of very immature peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; McInroy, John A; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-07-01

    A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, 91A-612(T), isolated from the geocarposphere (soil around the peanut) of very immature peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Alabama, USA, was studied for its taxonomic position. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence with the sequences of the type strains of the most closely related species showed that the strain belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium, showing the highest sequence similarities to the type strains of Chryseobacterium molle (98.4%), C. pallidum (98.3%) and C. hominis (97.8%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of all other species of the genus Chryseobacterium were below 97.0%. The fatty acid profile of strain 91A-612(T) consisted of the major fatty acids iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH/C16 : 1ω7c) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Major compounds in the polar lipid profile were phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids, including two lipids that did not contain a sugar moiety, an amino group or a phosphate group (L3, L8), and an aminolipid (AL1). The quinone system was composed mainly of MK-6. The polyamine pattern contained sym-homospermidine as the major compound and moderate amounts of spermidine and spermine. DNA-DNA hybridizations between strain 91A-612(T) and the type strains of C. molle, C. pallidum and C. hominis resulted in relatedness values well below 70%. These data and the differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties showed that isolate 91A-612(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which we propose the name Chryseobacterium arachidiradicis sp. nov. (type strain 91A-612(T) = LMG 27814(T)= CCM 8490(T) = CIP 110647(T)). PMID:25858249

  18. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinyan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Mingna; Yang, Zhen; He, Yanan; Liang, Xuanqiang; Yu, Shanlin

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs of approximately 21 nt that regulate gene expression in plants post-transcriptionally by endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes and many of them are conserved across species. Extensive studies of miRNAs have been done in a few model plants; however, less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Results A library of small RNA from peanut was constructed for deep sequencing. In addition to 126 known miRNAs from 33 families, 25 novel peanut miRNAs were identified. The miRNA* sequences of four novel miRNAs were discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Twenty of the novel miRNAs were considered to be species-specific because no homolog has been found for other plant species. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of seven miRNAs in different tissues and in seed at different developmental stages and some showed tissue- and/or growth stage-specific expression. Furthermore, potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted on the basis of the sequence homology search. Conclusions We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library. This study of the identification and characterization of miRNAs in peanut can initiate further study on peanut miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in peanut. PMID:22110666

  19. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  20. Subgroups of the Cowpea Miscellany: Symbiotic Specificity within Bradyrhizobium spp. for Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus lunatus, Arachis hypogaea, and Macroptilium atropurpureum†

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Janice E.; Bohlool, B. Ben; Singleton, Paul W.

    1991-01-01

    Rhizobia classified as Bradyrhizobium spp. comprise a highly heterogeneous group of bacteria that exhibit differential symbiotic characteristics on hosts in the cowpea miscellany cross-inoculation group. To delineate the degree of specificity exhibited by four legumes in the cowpea miscellany, we tested the symbiotic characteristics of indigenous cowpea bradyrhizobia on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). The most-probable-number counts of indigenous bradyrhizobia at three sites on Maui, Hawaii, were substantially different on the four hosts: highest on siratro, intermediate on cowpea, and significantly lower on both lima bean and peanut. Bradyrhizobia from single cowpea nodules from the most-probable-number assays were inoculated onto the four hosts. Effectiveness patterns of these rhizobia on cowpea followed a normal distribution but were strikingly different on the other legumes. The effectiveness profiles on siratro and cowpea were similar but not identical. The indigenous cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia were of only moderate effectiveness on siratro and were in all cases lower than the inoculant-quality reference strain. Between 5 and 51% of the bradyrhizobia, depending on site, failed to nodulate peanut, whereas 0 to 32% failed to nodulate lima bean. No significant correlation was observed between the relative effectiveness of the bradyrhizobia on cowpea and their corresponding effectiveness on either lima bean or peanut. At all sites, bradyrhizobia that were ineffective on cowpea but that effectively nodulated lima bean, peanut, or both were found. Eighteen percent or fewer of the bradyrhizobia were as effective on lima bean as the reference inoculant strain; 44% or fewer were as effective on peanut as the reference strain. Only 18% of all cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia tested were able to form N2-fixing nodules on both lima bean and peanut. These results indicate the need

  1. Mining tissue-specific contigs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for promoter cloning by deep transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lili; Duan, Xiaohong; Liang, Chun; Shu, Changlong; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oil legumes in the world, is heavily damaged by white grubs. Tissue-specific promoters are needed to incorporate insect resistance genes into peanut by genetic transformation to control the subterranean pests. Transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to analyze differential gene expression in this non-model species and contribute to promoter cloning. The transcriptomes of the roots, seeds and leaves of peanut were sequenced using Illumina technology. A simple digital expression profile was established based on number of transcripts per million clean tags (TPM) from different tissues. Subsequently, 584 root-specific candidate transcript assembly contigs (TACs) and 316 seed-specific candidate TACs were identified. Among these candidate TACs, 55.3% were root-specific and 64.6% were seed-specific by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the consistency of semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the simple digital expression profile was correlated with the length and TPM value of TACs. The results of gene ontology showed that some root-specific TACs are involved in stress resistance and respond to auxin stimulus, whereas, seed-specific candidate TACs are involved in embryo development, lipid storage and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. One root-specific promoter was cloned and characterized. We developed a high-yield screening system in peanut by establishing a simple digital expression profile based on Illumina sequencing. The feasible and rapid method presented by this study can be used for other non-model crops to explore tissue-specific or spatially specific promoters. PMID:25231965

  2. Arachis hypogaea PGPR isolated from Argentine soil modifies its lipids components in response to temperature and salinity.

    PubMed

    Paulucci, Natalia S; Gallarato, Lucas A; Reguera, Yanina B; Vicario, Julio C; Cesari, Adriana B; García de Lema, Mirta B; Dardanelli, Marta S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanism related to plant growth promoting of a bacterial strain (L115) isolated from Arachis hypogaea rhizospheres and the effects of high growth temperature and salinity on phospholipids and fatty acids composition. L115 was isolated from peanut rhizospheres and identified according to the sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Phenotypic, metabolic and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) characteristics of L115 were tested. Inoculation test in plant growth chamber was performed. In addition, L115 was exposed to a 37 °C and 300 mM NaCl and phospholipids and fatty acid composition were evaluated. L115 strain was identified as Ochrobactrum intermedium and was able to increase the peanut shoot and root length as well as dry weight, indicating a PGPR role by being able to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores and present ACC deaminase activity. In addition, L115 showed tolerance to both high growth temperature and 300 mM NaCl. The most striking change was a decreased percentage of 18:1 fatty acid and an increase in 16:0 and 18:0 fatty acids, under high growth temperature or a combination of increased temperature and salinity. The most important change in phospholipid levels was an increase in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in all growth conditions. L115 can promote the growth of peanut and can tolerate high growth temperature and salinity modifying the fatty acid unsaturation degree and increasing phosphatidylcholine levels. This work is the first to report the importance of the genus Ochrobactrum as PGPR on peanut growth as well as on the metabolic behaviour against abiotic stresses that occur in soil. This knowledge will be useful for developing strategies to improve the growth of this bacterium under stress and to enhance its bioprocess for the production of inoculants. PMID:25801965

  3. Protein quality, hematological properties and nutritional status of albino rats fed complementary foods with fermented popcorn, African locust bean, and bambara groundnut flour blends

    PubMed Central

    Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine protein quality and hematological properties of infant diets formulated from local food materials. The food materials were obtained locally, fermented, and milled into flour. The flours were mixed as 70% popcorn and 30% African locust bean (FPA), 70% popcorn and 30% bambara groundnut (FPB), and 70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, and 10% African locust bean (FPAB). Proximate analysis, protein quality, hematological properties, and anthropometric measurements of the animals fed with the formulations were investigated. The protein contents of the formulated diets were significantly higher than that of Cerelac (a commercial preparation) (15.75 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and ogi (traditional complementary food) (6.52 ± 0.31 g/100 g). The energy value of FPAB (464.94 ± 1.22 kcal) was higher than those of FPA (441.41 ± 3.05 kcal) and FPB (441.48 ± 3.05 kcal). The biological value (BV) of FPAB (60.20%) was the highest followed by FPB (44.24%) and FPA (41.15%); however, BV of the diets was higher than that of ogi (10.03%) but lower than that of Cerelac (70.43%). Net protein utilization (NPU) of the formulations was 41.16-60.20%, whereas true protein digestibility was 41.05-60.05%. Metabolizable energy (232.98 kcal) and digestible energy (83.69 kcal) of FPAB were the highest, whereas that of FPA had the lowest values. The protein digestibility values corrected for amino acid score of the diets (0.22-0.44) were lower than that of Cerelac (0.52), but higher than that of ogi (0.21). The growth patterns and hematological properties (packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume) of the formulated diets were higher than those of ogi, but lower than those of Cerelac. In conclusion, we established that the FPAB food sample was rated best in terms of protein quality over the other formulated diets. Therefore, a FPAB blend may be used as a

  4. Protein quality, hematological properties and nutritional status of albino rats fed complementary foods with fermented popcorn, African locust bean, and bambara groundnut flour blends.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine protein quality and hematological properties of infant diets formulated from local food materials. The food materials were obtained locally, fermented, and milled into flour. The flours were mixed as 70% popcorn and 30% African locust bean (FPA), 70% popcorn and 30% bambara groundnut (FPB), and 70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, and 10% African locust bean (FPAB). Proximate analysis, protein quality, hematological properties, and anthropometric measurements of the animals fed with the formulations were investigated. The protein contents of the formulated diets were significantly higher than that of Cerelac (a commercial preparation) (15.75 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and ogi (traditional complementary food) (6.52 ± 0.31 g/100 g). The energy value of FPAB (464.94 ± 1.22 kcal) was higher than those of FPA (441.41 ± 3.05 kcal) and FPB (441.48 ± 3.05 kcal). The biological value (BV) of FPAB (60.20%) was the highest followed by FPB (44.24%) and FPA (41.15%); however, BV of the diets was higher than that of ogi (10.03%) but lower than that of Cerelac (70.43%). Net protein utilization (NPU) of the formulations was 41.16-60.20%, whereas true protein digestibility was 41.05-60.05%. Metabolizable energy (232.98 kcal) and digestible energy (83.69 kcal) of FPAB were the highest, whereas that of FPA had the lowest values. The protein digestibility values corrected for amino acid score of the diets (0.22-0.44) were lower than that of Cerelac (0.52), but higher than that of ogi (0.21). The growth patterns and hematological properties (packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume) of the formulated diets were higher than those of ogi, but lower than those of Cerelac. In conclusion, we established that the FPAB food sample was rated best in terms of protein quality over the other formulated diets. Therefore, a FPAB blend may be used as a

  5. Phytase production by solid-state fermentation of groundnut oil cake by Aspergillus niger: A bioprocess optimization study for animal feedstock applications.

    PubMed

    Buddhiwant, Priyanka; Bhavsar, Kavita; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, Jayant M

    2016-08-17

    This investigation deals with the use of agro-industrial waste, namely groundnut oil cake (GOC), for phytase production by the fungi Aspergillus niger NCIM 563. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of 11 process variables and studies here showed that phytase production was significantly influenced by glucose, dextrin, distilled water, and MgSO4 · 7H2O. The use of response surface methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of experiments further enhanced the production by a remarkable 36.67-fold from the original finding of 15 IU/gds (grams of dry substrate) to 550 IU/gds. This is the highest solid-state fermentation (SSF) phytase production reported when compared to other microorganisms and in fact betters the best known by a factor of 2. Experiments carried out using dried fermented koji for phosphorus and mineral release and also thermal stability have shown the phytase to be as efficient as the liquid enzyme extract. Also, the enzyme, while exhibiting optimal activity under acidic conditions, was found to have significant activity in a broad range of pH values (1.5-6.5). The studies suggest the suitability of the koji supplemented with phytase produced in an SSF process by the "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) microorganism A. niger as a cost-effective value-added livestock feed when compared to that obtained by submerged fermentation (SmF). PMID:26176365

  6. Identification of rapidly induced genes in the response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) to water deficit and abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop, but droughts often affect peanut production. There is a lack of genomic information available for peanut; therefore, little is known about the molecular basis of its drought stress response. Results Previously, we found that peanut stomata close rapidly during water deficit and in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, and many genes show changes in their expression levels. To screen for candidate genes involved in the water deficit response, we used the Illumina HiSeq2000/MiSeq sequencing platform to conduct a global transcriptome analysis of peanut seedlings under water deficit with or without an ABA pretreatment. Three peanut tissues (leaves, roots, and stems) collected at each of three developmental stages (four-leaf, flowering, and podding stages) were used to construct sequence libraries. Then, 4.96 × 107 raw sequence reads were generated and the high quality reads were assembled into 47,842 unigenes. We analyzed these sequence libraries to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under water deficit with or without ABA pretreatment. In total, 621 genes were induced rapidly (≥1.5 fold change compared with control) under water deficit, 2,665 genes were induced rapidly under water deficit + ABA pretreatment, and 279 genes overlapped between water deficit and water deficit + ABA pretreatment. Of the 279 overlapping genes, 264 showed the same expression pattern and 15 showed opposite expression patterns. Among the DEGs, 257 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit + ABA pretreatment, while 19 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit alone. The genes induced under water deficit + ABA pretreatment included 100 putative transcription factor (TF) genes, while those induced under water deficit alone included only 22 putative TF genes. To validate the transcriptome results, we conducted quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to quantify the transcript levels of nine

  7. Species relations among wild Arachis species with the A genome as revealed by FISH mapping of rDNA loci and heterochromatin detection.

    PubMed

    Robledo, G; Lavia, G I; Seijo, G

    2009-05-01

    Section Arachis of the homonymous genus includes 29 wild diploid species and two allotetraploids (A. monticola and the domesticated peanut, A. hypogaea L.). Although, three different genomes (A, B and D) have been proposed for diploid species with x = 10, they are still not well characterized. Moreover, neither the relationships among species within each genome group nor between diploids and tetraploids (AABB) are completely resolved. To tackle these issues, particularly within the A genome, in this study the rRNA genes (5S and 18S-26S) and heterochromatic bands were physically mapped using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in 13 species of Arachis. These molecular cytogenetic landmarks have allowed individual identification of a set of chromosomes and were used to construct detailed FISH-based karyotypes for each species. The bulk of the chromosome markers mapped revealed that, although the A genome species have a common karyotype structure, the species can be arranged in three groups (La Plata River Basin, Chiquitano, and Pantanal) on the basis of the variability observed in the heterochromatin and 18S-26S rRNA loci. Notably, these groups are consistent with the geographical co-distribution of the species. This coincidence is discussed on the basis of the particular reproductive traits of the species such as autogamy and geocarpy. Combined with geographic distribution of the taxa, the cytogenetic data provide evidence that A. duranensis is the most probable A genome ancestor of tetraploid species. It is expected that the groups of diploid species established, and their relation with the cultigen, may aid to rationally select wild species with agronomic traits desirable for peanut breeding programs. PMID:19234686

  8. Antifungal activity of metabolites from the marine sponges Amphimedon sp. and Monanchora arbuscula against Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Arevabini, Cynthia; Crivelenti, Yasmin D; de Abreu, Mariana H; Bitencourt, Tamires A; Santos, Mário F C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Hajdu, Eduardo; Beleboni, Renê O; Fachin, Ana L; Marins, Mozart

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of preharvest and stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) by aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is an important economical and food safety problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The present investigation reports the antifungal activity of a halitoxins/amphitoxins enriched extract obtained from the sponge Amphimedon sp. (HAEEAsp), and of batzelladine L isolated from the sponge Monanchora arbuscula on Aspergillus flavus isolated from stored peanuts. A PCR system directed against the ITS region and aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes of A. flavus was applied for identification of aflatoxin producing strains. The HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range between 1.9 to 15.6 microg/mL and between 1.9 to 7.8 microg/mL, respectively. The minimal fungicide concentration (MFC) of HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L was in the range between 3.9 to 31.3 microg/mL and 3.9 to 15.6 microg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that these marine alkaloids may be further explored for the development of potential lead compounds active against aflatoxigenic fungi. PMID:24660456

  9. Grading dysplasia in colorectal adenomas by means of the quantitative binding pattern determination of Arachis hypogaea, Dolichos biflorus, Amaranthus caudatus, Maackia amurensis, and Sambucus nigra agglutinins.

    PubMed

    Bronckart, Y; Nagy, N; Decaestecker, C; Bouckaert, Y; Remmelink, M; Gielen, I; Hittelet, A; Darro, F; Pector, J C; Yeaton, P; Danguy, A; Kiss, R; Salmon, I

    1999-10-01

    The current study deals with the setting up of a new tool that enables the benign versus the malignant nature of colorectal adenomas to be determined accurately. The 2 objectives are to determine (1) whether adenomas should, or should not, be included in a 2- or a 3-tier grading system, and (2) whether severe dysplasias and carcinomas in situ share common or different biological characteristics. The levels of expression of different types of glycoconjugates were characterized in a series of 166 colorectal specimens, including 14 normal, 90 dysplastic, and 62 cancerous cases. The glycoconjugate expressions were demonstrated for 5 lectins, namely, Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Amaranthus caudatus (ACA), Maackia amurensis (MAA) and Sambucus nigra (SNA). The glycoconjugates demonstrated by these 5 lectins belong to the family of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigens. The binding patterns of the 5 lectins were quantitatively determined by means of computer-assisted microscopy. The quantitative data were submitted to discriminant analyses. Our results show that the specific glycochemical staining patterns could be identified unambiguously and without misclassification between benign (normal and low dysplasia) and malignant (ie, either as moderate/severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or cancer) cases. The data also strongly suggested that (1) dysplasias seem to be distinguishable in 2 instead of 3 groups, that is, low versus moderate/severe (high); and (2) moderate/severe dysplasias are biologically distinct from carcinomas in situ. The methodology developed can be applied directly in routine diagnosis to identify moderate/severe dysplasia specimens already exhibiting features common to carcinomas, and which therefore should be treated consistently in view of the fact that our data strongly suggest that most moderate/severe dysplasias are still benign, whereas carcinomas in situ are real carcinomatous lesions. PMID:10534165

  10. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dilip; Kumar, Sumit; Rampuria, Sakshi; Reddy, Attipalli R; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF) corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants. PMID:26938884

  11. Application of targeted metagenomics to explore abundance and diversity of CO₂-fixing bacterial community using cbbL gene from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Basit; Keshri, Jitendra; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-09-10

    Sequestration of CO(2) by autotrophic bacteria is a key process of biogeochemical carbon cycling in soil ecosystem. Rhizosphere is a rich niche of microbial activity and diversity, influenced by change in atmospheric CO(2). Structural changes in rhizosphere composition influence microbial communities and the nutrient cycling. In the present study, the bacterial diversity and population dynamics were established using cbbL and 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomics approach from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea. A total of 108 cbbL clones were obtained from the rhizospheric soil which revealed predominance of cbbL sequences affiliated to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bradyrhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium meliloti, Ochrobactrum anthropi and a variety of uncultured cbbL harboring bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene clone library exhibited the dominance of Firmicutes (34.4%), Proteobacteria (18.3%), Actinobacteria (17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (16.1%). About 43% nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene clone library were novel genera which showed <95% homology with published sequences. Gene copy number of cbbL and 16S rRNA genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT PCR), was 9.38 ± 0.75 × 10(7) and 5.43 ± 0.79 × 10(8) (per g dry soil), respectively. The results exhibited bacterial community structure with high bacterial diversity and abundance of CO(2)-fixing bacteria, which can be explored further for their role in carbon cycling, sustainable agriculture and environment management. PMID:22766402

  12. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dilip; Kumar, Sumit; Rampuria, Sakshi; Reddy, Attipalli R.; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF) corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants. PMID:26938884

  13. Development and characterization of BAC-end sequence derived SSRs, and their incorporation into a new higher density genetic map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop worldwide, valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. It has a very narrow genetic base that may well derive from a relatively recent single polyploidization event. Accordingly molecular markers have low levels of polymorphism and the number of polymorphic molecular markers available for cultivated peanut is still limiting. Results Here, we report a large set of BAC-end sequences (BES), use them for developing SSR (BES-SSR) markers, and apply them in genetic linkage mapping. The majority of BESs had no detectable homology to known genes (49.5%) followed by sequences with similarity to known genes (44.3%), and miscellaneous sequences (6.2%) such as transposable element, retroelement, and organelle sequences. A total of 1,424 SSRs were identified from 36,435 BESs. Among these identified SSRs, dinucleotide (47.4%) and trinucleotide (37.1%) SSRs were predominant. The new set of 1,152 SSRs as well as about 4,000 published or unpublished SSRs were screened against two parents of a mapping population, generating 385 polymorphic loci. A genetic linkage map was constructed, consisting of 318 loci onto 21 linkage groups and covering a total of 1,674.4 cM, with an average distance of 5.3 cM between adjacent loci. Two markers related to resistance gene homologs (RGH) were mapped to two different groups, thus anchoring 1 RGH-BAC contig and 1 singleton. Conclusions The SSRs mined from BESs will be of use in further molecular analysis of the peanut genome, providing a novel set of markers, genetically anchoring BAC clones, and incorporating gene sequences into a linkage map. This will aid in the identification of markers linked to genes of interest and map-based cloning. PMID:22260238

  14. High incidence of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins in stored groundnut in Ghana and the use of a microbial assay to assess the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on aflatoxin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Awuah, R T; Kpodo, K A

    1996-01-01

    Groundnut samples from 21 selected markets in the 10 regions of Ghana yielded high levels of the aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus on half-strength potato dextrose agar. The fungus was associated with 31.7 and 12.8%, respectively, of all damaged and undamaged kernels assayed. Only 0.24% of total kernels assayed yielded A. parasiticus. Other fungi detected from total kernels assayed were A. niger (34%), A. candidus (1.45%), A. tamarii (3.93%), A. ochraceous (5.26%), Fusarium spp. (1.7%) Penicillium spp. (5.19%), a Mucor sp. (2.3%), a Trichoderma sp. (0.2%), Rhizopus stolonifer (12%) and certain unidentifiable fungi (11.72%). Total aflatoxin levels ranging from 5.7 to 22, 168 ppb were identified with damaged kernel samples. The mycotoxin was not detected in 50% of undamaged kernel samples tested and very low levels mostly ranging from 0.1 to 12.2 ppb were associated with the undamaged samples that tested positive for aflatoxins. In a novel in vitro microbial assay to determine the effectiveness of certain plant extracts against aflatoxin synthesis, extracts from Xylopia aethiopica, Monodera myristica, Cinnamomum verum and Piper nigrum permitted fungal growth in 1.5% potato-dextrose broth while completely suppressing NOR formation. These extracts, however, could not suppress NOR formation in a yeast extract sucrose medium. PMID:8981776

  15. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanuts germplasm of Henan and detection of their elite allelic variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts i...

  16. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanut cultivars and breeding lines revealed by highly informative SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts e...

  17. Strategies in prevention of preharvest aflatoxin contamination in peanuts: Aflatoxin biosynthesis, genetics and genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), or groundnut, is an important crop economically and nutritionally worldwide. It is also one of the most susceptible host crops to Aspergillus flavus resulting in aflatoxin contamination. The reduction and elimination of aflatoxin contamination in pre-harvest and pos...

  18. Bradyrhizobium (Arachis) sp. strain NC92 contains two nodD genes involved in the repression of nodA and a nolA gene required for the efficient nodulation of host plants.

    PubMed Central

    Gillette, W K; Elkan, G H

    1996-01-01

    The common nodulation locus and closely linked nodulation genes of Bradyrhizobium (Arachis) sp. strain NC92 have been isolated on an 11.0-kb EcoRI restriction fragment. The nucleotide sequence of a 7.0-kb EcoRV-EcoRI subclone was determined and found to contain open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to the nodA, nodB, nodD1, nodD2, and nolA genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Nodulation assays of nodD1, nodD2, or nolA deletion mutants on the host plants Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) indicate that nolA is required for efficient nodulation, as nolA mutants exhibit a 6-day nodulation delay and reduced nodule numbers. The nolA phenotype was complemented by providing the nolA ORF in trans, indicating that the phenotype is due to the lack of the nolA ORF. nodD1 mutants displayed a 2-day nodulation delay, whereas nodD2 strains were indistinguishable from the wild type. Translational nodA-lacZ, nodD1-lacZ, nodD2-lacZ, and nolA-lacZ fusions were created. Expression of the nodA-lacZ fusion was induced by the addition of peanut, cowpea, and siratro seed exudates and by the addition of the isoflavonoids genistein and daidzein. In a nodD1 or nodD2 background, basal expression of the nodA-lacZ fusion increased two- to threefold. The level of expression of the nodD2-lacZ and nolA-lacZ fusions was low in the wild type but increased in nodD1, nodD2, and nodD1 nodD2 backgrounds independently of the addition of the inducer genistein. nolA was required for increased expression of the nodD2-lacZ fusion. These data suggest that a common factor is involved in the regulation of nodD2 and nolA, and they are also consistent with a model of nod gene expression in Bradyrhizobium (Arachis) sp. strain NC92 in which negative regulation is mediated by the products of the nodD1 and nodD2 genes. PMID:8631662

  19. A novel zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase 2 from Arachis diogoi, expressed in resistance responses against late leaf spot pathogen, induces cell death when transexpressed in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dilip; Rampuria, Sakshi; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kirti, Pulugurtha B

    2016-03-01

    A novel zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (AdZADH2) was significantly upregulated in a wild peanut, Arachis diogoi treated with conidia of late leaf spot (LLS) pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. This upregulation was not observed in a comparative analysis of cultivated peanut, which is highly susceptible to LLS. This zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase possessed a Rossmann fold containing NADB domain in addition to the MDR domain present in all previously characterized plant ADH genes/proteins. Transient over-expression of AdZADH2 under an estradiol inducible promoter (XVE) resulted in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death in tobacco leaf. However, the same level of cell death was not observed when the domains were transiently expressed individually. Cell death observed in tobacco was associated with overexpression of cell death related proteins, antioxidative enzymes such as SOD, CAT and APX and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. In A. diogoi, AdZADH2 expression was significantly upregulated in response to the plant signaling hormones salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and sodium nitroprusside. PMID:27047748

  20. Synthesis and non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes rings: new nanomaterials with lectin affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assali, Mohyeddin; Pernía Leal, Manuel; Fernández, Inmaculada; Khiar, Noureddine

    2013-03-01

    We present a mild and practical carbon nanotubes rings (CNRs) synthesis from non-covalent functionalized and water-soluble linear single-wall carbon nanotubes. The hemi-micellar-supramolecular self-organization of lactose-based glycolipid 1 on the ring surface, followed by photo-polymerization of the diacetylenic function triggered by UV light afforded the first water-soluble and biocompatible CNRs. The obtained donut-like nanoconstructs expose a high density of lactose moieties on their surface, and are able to engage specific interactions with Arachis hypogea lectin similar to glycoconjugates on the cell membrane.

  1. Simultaneous Expression of Abiotic Stress Responsive Transcription Factors, AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3 Improves Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pruthvi, Vittal; Narasimhan, Rama; Nataraja, Karaba N.

    2014-01-01

    Drought, salinity and extreme temperatures are the most common abiotic stresses, adversely affecting plant growth and productivity. Exposure of plants to stress activates stress signalling pathways that induce biochemical and physiological changes essential for stress acclimation. Stress tolerance is governed by multiple traits, and importance of a few traits in imparting tolerance has been demonstrated. Under drought, traits linked to water mining and water conservation, water use efficiency and cellular tolerance (CT) to desiccation are considered to be relevant. In this study, an attempt has been made to improve CT in drought hardy crop, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., cv. TMV2) by co-expressing stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs), AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3, associated with downstream gene expression. Transgenic plants simultaneously expressing these TFs showed increased tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stresses compared to wild type, with an increase in total plant biomass. The transgenic plants exhibited improved membrane and chlorophyll stability due to enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by proline synthesis under stress. The improvement in stress tolerance in transgenic lines were associated with induced expression of various CT related genes like AhGlutaredoxin, AhAldehyde reductase, AhSerine threonine kinase like protein, AhRbx1, AhProline amino peptidase, AhHSP70, AhDIP and AhLea4. Taken together the results indicate that co-expression of stress responsive TFs can activate multiple CT pathways, and this strategy can be employed to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. PMID:25474740

  2. Simultaneous expression of abiotic stress responsive transcription factors, AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3 improves salinity and drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Pruthvi, Vittal; Narasimhan, Rama; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2014-01-01

    Drought, salinity and extreme temperatures are the most common abiotic stresses, adversely affecting plant growth and productivity. Exposure of plants to stress activates stress signalling pathways that induce biochemical and physiological changes essential for stress acclimation. Stress tolerance is governed by multiple traits, and importance of a few traits in imparting tolerance has been demonstrated. Under drought, traits linked to water mining and water conservation, water use efficiency and cellular tolerance (CT) to desiccation are considered to be relevant. In this study, an attempt has been made to improve CT in drought hardy crop, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., cv. TMV2) by co-expressing stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs), AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3, associated with downstream gene expression. Transgenic plants simultaneously expressing these TFs showed increased tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stresses compared to wild type, with an increase in total plant biomass. The transgenic plants exhibited improved membrane and chlorophyll stability due to enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by proline synthesis under stress. The improvement in stress tolerance in transgenic lines were associated with induced expression of various CT related genes like AhGlutaredoxin, AhAldehyde reductase, AhSerine threonine kinase like protein, AhRbx1, AhProline amino peptidase, AhHSP70, AhDIP and AhLea4. Taken together the results indicate that co-expression of stress responsive TFs can activate multiple CT pathways, and this strategy can be employed to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. PMID:25474740

  3. Predatory behavior in a necrophagous bee Trigona hypogea (Hymenoptera; Apidae, Meliponini)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, Sidnei; Noll, Fernando B.

    Although most bees feed on nectar and pollen, several exceptions have been reported. The strangest of all is the habit found in some neotropical stingless bees, which have completely replaced pollen-eating by eating animal protein from corpses. For more than 20 years, it was believed that carrion was the only protein source for these bees. We report that these bees feed not only off dead animals, but on the living brood of social wasps and possibly other similar sources. Using well developed prey location and foraging behaviors, necrophagous bees discover recently abandoned wasps' nests and, within a few hours, prey upon all immatures found there.

  4. Predatory behavior in a necrophagous bee Trigona hypogea (Hymenoptera; Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Mateus, Sidnei; Noll, Fernando B

    2004-02-01

    Although most bees feed on nectar and pollen, several exceptions have been reported. The strangest of all is the habit found in some neotropical stingless bees, which have completely replaced pollen-eating by eating animal protein from corpses. For more than 20 years, it was believed that carrion was the only protein source for these bees. We report that these bees feed not only off dead animals, but on the living brood of social wasps and possibly other similar sources. Using well developed prey location and foraging behaviors, necrophagous bees discover recently abandoned wasps' nests and, within a few hours, prey upon all immatures found there. PMID:14991148

  5. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to tetraploid cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination and narrow genetic base of primary gene pool resulted in low genetic dive...

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  7. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhization in Sterile and Non-sterile Soils

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khaliel, Abdulla Saleh

    2010-01-01

    Mycorrhiza, a mutualistic association between fungi and higher plants, has been documented extensively, but much less is known about the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their effects on the growth of peanuts (Arachis hypogea L.). Therefore, the mycorrhizal status of Glomus spp. was investigated in the following diverse substrate soil conditions: non-autoclaved soil, autoclaved soil and autoclaved soil plus soil microbiota. The results indicated that both the arbuscular mycorrhizae, Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe, and Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske were infective to peanut, but displayed a differential impact on peanut growth depending on the microbial biomass content of the substrate soils. G. mosseae proved to be the most effective at improving peanut growth. PMID:24575190

  8. Concentration Dependencies of Some Effects of Ethylene on Etiolated Pea, Peanut, Bean, and Cotton Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Goeschl, John D.; Kays, Stanley J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of a series of concentrations of ethylene (10, 20, 40, to 10,240 nl/l) on elongation, diameter, and geotropism of the stems and roots of etiolated seedlings of Pisum sativum L., Arachis hypogea L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Gossypium hirsutum L. were measured or observed. Of the 24 possible responses, 4 were unaffected at the concentrations used, 5 were affected slightly, and the remaining responses exhibited a 14-fold range of apparent half-maximum concentration dependencies (i.e. 95 nl/l for the effect on pea epicotyl geotropism to 1350 nl/l for the promotion of cotton hypocotyl diameter). Six or possibly eight of these responses appear to have the same concentration dependencies while the others fell in pairs or as individual responses. The data, if interpreted in a manner analogous to enzyme kinetics, are indicative of more than one primary mechanism for ethylene action in plants. PMID:16659145

  9. Correlation between NDVI and the annual groundnut yield in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Samuel; Borondo, Javier; Morales, Alfredo; Losada, Juan Carlos; Tarquis, Ana M.; Benito, Rosa M.

    2016-04-01

    A key strategy to assert and minimize risk in agriculture is to gather information about the factors that may affect the production. That is why remote sensing measurements have become a fundamental tool in this area. Between all the existing measurements, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is one of the most useful. The NDVI, which is computed using satellite images, takes into account the physicochemical mechanism of the photosynthesis in order to quantify the photosynthetic activity of a an area. A natural question that arises from the risk and hazard management point of view is if this index can help us estimate or even forecast the yield of a given harvest. Intuitively, this should be possible if a correlation between NDVI and yield is found. We have focused our study in the country of Senegal, where more than 70% of the work force is employed in the agricultural sector. Since Senegal is also one of the most important peanut oil producer and exporter, the crop we have chosen for this research is the peanut. The economic relevance of this product guarantees that a significant fraction of the soil will be used for this crop. We have worked with NDVI data computed from satellite images taken with the MODIS instrument of the Terra satellite launched by NASA on 1999. In order to explore the correlations with agricultural yield, we have also retrieved production data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The results we have obtained suggest that a linear correlation between NDVI and yield do exist; moreover, this correlation can be enhanced if, instead of yearly averages of NDVI, the NDVI corresponding to a smaller time period -which lies within the growing season - is taken. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the Research Grant obtained from CEIGRAM in 2015

  10. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Expressed Sequence Tag Project: Progress and Application

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Suping; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Dang, Phat M.; Holbrook, C. Corley; Culbreath, Albert K.; Wu, Yaoting; Guo, Baozhu

    2012-01-01

    Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research community had the historic 2004 Atlanta Genomics Workshop and named the EST project as a main priority. As of August 2011, the peanut research community had deposited 252,832 ESTs in the public NCBI EST database, and this resource has been providing the community valuable tools and core foundations for various genome-scale experiments before the whole genome sequencing project. These EST resources have been used for marker development, gene cloning, microarray gene expression and genetic map construction. Certainly, the peanut EST sequence resources have been shown to have a wide range of applications and accomplished its essential role at the time of need. Then the EST project contributes to the second historic event, the Peanut Genome Project 2010 Inaugural Meeting also held in Atlanta where it was decided to sequence the entire peanut genome. After the completion of peanut whole genome sequencing, ESTs or transcriptome will continue to play an important role to fill in knowledge gaps, to identify particular genes and to explore gene function. PMID:22745594

  11. Spermidine and Flavonoid conjugates from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new triamide has been isolated from peanut flowers and identified as di-p-(EE)-coumaroylacetylspermidine on the basis of detailed analysis of NMR, MS, and UV data. Two other spermidine conjugates, N1, N5, N10-tri-p-(EEE)-coumaroylspermidine and di-p-(EE)-coumaroylspermidine, as well as four flavon...

  12. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  13. A novel technology to improve drinking water quality using natural treatment methods in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mbogo, Shaaban Aman

    2008-03-01

    It is estimated that one billion people worldwide do not have access to treated drinking water. This paper reports on an investigation into the potential of indigenous or natural water treatment methods as alternatives to conventional chemical water treatment methods. The seeds of five natural plant species--Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus mungo, Glycine max, Pisum sativam, and Arachis hypogea--were evaluated for the removal of turbidity, and their efficiency was compared with that of alum. The use of a solar energy-saving method to disinfect drinking water--leaving it to heat under the sun to reduce bacteria colonies--also was evaluated, The study revealed that for raw water with turbidity of 482 nephelometric turbidity units, coagulation with seed extracts from natural plant species reduced natural turbidity by 96.7 to 100 percent when the seed extract was used as the primary coagulant and by 100 percent when it was used as a coagulant aid. The study showed further that natural coagulants were as effective as commercial alum [Al2(SO4)3] and even superior for clarification because the optimum dosage was low compared with that of alum. Leaving samples of water clarified by natural coagulants on a black-painted roof for 8 hours achieved up to 100 percent bacteria kill. PMID:18348392

  14. Cryopreservation of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm obtained by transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands and electroejaculation.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Guerra, R; Ruiz, M J; Mendoza, N; Luna, C; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Hildebrandt, T B

    2013-01-15

    This study examines (1) the effectiveness of transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) combined with electroejaculation for obtaining aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm samples for cryopreservation, and (2) the effectiveness of a Tris-citric acid-glucose-based medium (TCG; usually used for freezing ibex sperm) and a TES-Tris-glucose-based medium (TTG; typically used in the cryopreservation of mouflon sperm) as sperm extenders. After TUMASG, just one to three electrical pulses were required for ejaculation to occur in five of the six animals studied; one ejaculated after TUMASG alone. Transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands would therefore appear to be useful in obtaining sperm samples from this species, requiring few subsequent electrical electroejaculation stimuli and sometimes none at all. After thawing, the membrane integrity (assessed by nigrosin-eosin staining) of sperm extended with TTG was greater than that of sperm extended with TCG (P < 0.05). The total percentage of sperm showing an intact acrosome, as assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut (Arachis hypogea) agglutinin, was also higher in the TTG-extended sperm (P < 0.05), and the percentage of dead sperm with a damaged acrosome was lower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen between TCG and TTG in terms of apoptotic manifestations (DNA damage, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and plasmalemma stability). Therefore, TTG appears to be a better extender than TCG for cryopreserving aoudad sperm. PMID:23158213

  15. Review of statutory and voluntary labelling of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Boden, Mark; Dadswell, Ruth; Hattersley, Sue

    2005-11-01

    Food allergy represents an increasingly important health problem, with prevalence in Western Europe continuing to rise. While some reactions are mild, others can include life-threatening anaphylactic shock. It is estimated that food allergies affect 1-2% of the adult population and < or =8% of children. Relatively few foods are to blame for a large majority of allergic reactions to food in the UK, with most reactions being to milk, eggs, peanuts (Arachis hypogea), nuts, fish, shellfish, soyabean, sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and wheat. There is currently no cure for food allergy and the few available treatments are focused on relieving the specific symptoms. Consumers with food allergies and food intolerances rely on food labelling to enable them to make informed choices about the foods they eat. Whilst there have recently been important advances in the labelling of food allergens, these advances relate only to requirements for the labelling of the deliberate use of specified food allergens in foods sold pre-packed. In other areas the development of guidance for food manufacturers and retailers on how to assess the risks of possible allergen cross-contamination during food production and manufacture, and then to determine appropriate advisory labelling, is well advanced. Work to address the issue of how to provide appropriate allergen information for foods sold loose, or in catering establishments, is also in progress. PMID:16313690

  16. Identification of perivitelline N-linked glycans as mediators of sperm-egg interaction in chickens.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L; Wishart, G J; Horrocks, A J

    2000-11-01

    This study demonstrates that carbohydrates play an essential role in sperm-egg interactions in birds. Sperm-egg interaction was measured in vitro as the ability of spermatozoa to hydrolyse a small hole in the inner perivitelline layer, the equivalent of the mammalian zona pellucida. Preincubation with Triticum vulgaris lectin (WGA) and succinyl-WGA (S-WGA) at 10 microgram ml(-1) resulted in complete inhibition of sperm-egg interaction, whereas at the same concentration a range of other lectins (Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Arachis hypogea (PNA), Ulex europaeus II (UEA II), Solanum tuberosum (STA), Tetragonolobus purpureas (LTA) and Pisum sativum (PSA)) were unable to inhibit sperm egg interaction significantly, although fluorescein-labelled derivatives of these lectins were found to stain the inner perivitelline layer. Significant inhibition of sperm-egg interaction was achieved by the addition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and fucoidin to the assay mixture; however, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-fucose and L-fucose had no significant effect on sperm-egg interaction. Pretreatment of the inner perivitelline layer with N-glycanase significantly reduced sperm-egg interaction, whereas treatment with O-glycanase had no effect. These results demonstrate that N-linked glycans play an essential role in sperm-egg interaction in chickens. PMID:11058456

  17. Identification of glycoprotein storage diseases by lectins: a new diagnostic method.

    PubMed

    Alroy, J; Orgad, U; Ucci, A A; Pereira, M E

    1984-12-01

    The specific diagnosis of glycoprotein storage diseases is made by demonstrating a deficiency in enzyme activity or an elevation of undegraded oligosaccharides in cells or body fluids. Prospective sampling and expensive specialized biochemistry, which is also time consuming, are required for such studies. We used lectin reagents on paraffin-embedded tissue sections to identify the specific sugars in undegraded stored substances. We studied 22 cases of glycoprotein storage diseases and differentiated histochemically between alpha- and beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis, and sialisidosis. Cells affected with alpha-mannosidosis stained with Concanavalia ensiformis (Con A), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), and succinyl-WGA (S-WGA), while beta-mannosidosis cells did not stain with any of the lectins used. In fucosidosis the affected cells stained with Ulex europeus-I (UEA-I), while sialisidosis-affected cells stained with WGA, and in three cases with Arachis hypogea (PNA). This study indicates that lectin histochemistry provides a reliable specific diagnostic pattern for some glycoprotein storage diseases using a simple and inexpensive method. PMID:6501863

  18. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    PubMed

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa). The hydrolysates and their peptide fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes <3 kDa had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced surface hydrophobicity when compared with peptides >3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p < 0.05) when compared to low molecular weight peptide fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p < 0.05) reducing power and ability to chelate metal ions except for the pepsin hydrolysate and its membrane fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders. PMID:27156453

  19. Physicochemical properties of starches with variable amylose contents extracted from bambara groundnut genotypes.

    PubMed

    Oyeyinka, Samson A; Singh, Suren; Adebola, Patrick O; Gerrano, Abe S; Amonsou, Eric O

    2015-11-20

    The physicochemical properties of starches extracted from five bambara genotypes were investigated. Bambara starch granules were predominantly oval shaped with a smooth surface and an average size of 26±0.2μm. The amylose contents (20-35%) varied significantly among genotypes. X-ray diffraction revealed the C-type pattern for all starches with relative crystallinity range: 29-35%. FTIR spectra of bambara starches showed variable peak intensities at 2931, 1655 and 860cm(-1), which corresponds to CH stretching, H2O bending vibrations and CO stretching, respectively. Bambara genotype with the highest amylose content showed the lowest intensity at wavenumber 2931cm(-1). With the exception of oil absorption which was similar, swelling power, water absorption and paste clarity of starches were significantly different among genotypes. Genotype with high amylose content showed restricted swelling, low paste clarity and great ability to absorb water. All bambara starches displayed a shear thinning behaviour (n<1). PMID:26344269

  20. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %). PMID:24733437

  1. Influence of the insecticides acetamiprid and carbofuran on arylamidase and myrosinase activities in the tropical black and red clay soils.

    PubMed

    Mohiddin, G Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M; Maddela, N R; Manjunatha, B; Rangaswamy, V; Koch Kaiser, Alma Rosel; Maisincho Asqui, Jessica Cristina; Darwin Rueda, O

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two insecticides, namely, acetamiprid and carbofuran on the enzymatic activities of arylamidase (as glucose formed from sinigrin) and myrosinase (as β-naphthylamine formed from L-leucine β-naphthylamide) in the black and red clay soils collected from a fallow groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields in the Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was realized within the framework of the laboratory experiments in which the acetamiprid and carbofuran were applied to the soils at different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha(-1)). Initially, the physicochechemical properties of the soil samples were analyzed. After 10 days of pesticide application, the soil samples were analyzed for the enzyme activities. Acetamiprid and carbofuran stimulated the arylamidase and myrosinase activities at lower concentrations after 10 days incubation. Striking stimulation in soil enzyme activities was noticed at 2.5 kg ha(-1), persists for 20 days in both the soils. Overall, higher concentrations (5.0-10.0 kg ha(-1)) of acetamiprid and carbofuran were toxic or innocuous to the arylamidase and myrosinase activities. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the present study clearly indicate that the use of these insecticides (at field application rates) in the groundnut fields (black and red clay soils) stimulated the enzyme (arylamidase and myrosinase) activities. PMID:26024750

  2. Newly identified natural high oleate mutant from Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural genetic variation exists in animals and plants. Mining and utilizing this variation may provide benefits for new breed/cultivar development. From screening over 4,000 cultivated peanut germplasm accessions, we identified two natural mutant lines with 80% oleic acid by gas chromatography anal...

  3. A Specific Qualitative Detection Method for Peanut (Arachis Hypogagea) in Foods Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A qualitative method for detection of peanuts in foods using polymerase chain reaction was developed. A universal primer pair CP 03-5 /CP 03-3 was designed to confirm the validity of the DNAs for PCR. The plant-specific amplified fragments were detected from 13 kinds of plants using the universal pr...

  4. A Specific Qualitative Detection Method for Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) in Foods Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a qualitative detection method for peanuts in foods using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We designed a universal primer pair CP 03-5’/ CP 03-3’ to confirm the validity of the DNAs for PCR. The plant specific amplified fragments were detected from 13 kinds of plants using the universal...

  5. Transcriptome-wide sequencing provides insights into geocarpy in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Qingli; Li, Haifen; Li, Heying; Hong, Yanbin; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Zhu, Fanghe; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Mingna; Liu, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Erhua; Wang, Tong; Zhong, Ni; Wang, Mian; Liu, Hong; Wen, Shijie; Li, Xingyu; Zhou, Guiyuan; Li, Shaoxiong; Wu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev; Liang, Xuanqiang; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-05-01

    A characteristic feature of peanut is the subterranean fructification, geocarpy, in which the gynophore ('peg'), a specialized organ that transitions from upward growth habit to downward outgrowth upon fertilization, drives the developing pod into the soil for subsequent development underground. As a step towards understanding this phenomenon, we explore the developmental dynamics of the peanut pod transcriptome at 11 successive stages. We identified 110 217 transcripts across developmental stages and quantified their abundance along a pod developmental gradient in pod wall. We found that the majority of transcripts were differentially expressed along the developmental gradient as well as identified temporal programs of gene expression, including hundreds of transcription factors. Thought to be an adaptation to particularly harsh subterranean environments, both up- and down-regulated gene sets in pod wall were enriched for response to a broad array of stimuli, like gravity, light and subterranean environmental factors. We also identified hundreds of transcripts associated with gravitropism and photomorphogenesis, which may be involved in the geocarpy. Collectively, this study forms a transcriptional baseline for geocarpy in peanut as well as provides a considerable body of evidence that transcriptional regulation in peanut aerial and subterranean fruits is complex. PMID:26502832

  6. Allergens of Arachis hypogaea and the effect of processing on their detection by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Amjad; Shah, Farooq; Hamayun, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Hussain, Anwar; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are an emerging public health problem in industrialized areas of the world. They represent a considerable health problem in these areas because of the relatively high number of reported cases. Usually, food allergens are proteins or glycoproteins with a molecular mass ranging from 10 to 70 kDa. Among the food allergies, peanut is accounted to be responsible for more than 50% of the food allergy fatalities. Threshold doses for peanut allergenic reactions have been found to range from as low as 100 µg to 1 g of peanut protein, which equal to 400 µg to 4 g peanut meal. Allergens from peanut are mainly seed storage proteins that are composed of conglutin, vicilin, and glycinin families. Several peanut proteins have been identified to induce allergic reactions, particularly Ara h 1-11. This review is mainly focused on different classes of peanut allergens, the effect of thermal and chemical treatment of peanut allergens on the IgY binding and detectability of these allergens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to provide knowledge for food industry. PMID:26931300

  7. Allergens of Arachis hypogaea and the effect of processing on their detection by ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Amjad; Shah, Farooq; Hamayun, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Hussain, Anwar; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are an emerging public health problem in industrialized areas of the world. They represent a considerable health problem in these areas because of the relatively high number of reported cases. Usually, food allergens are proteins or glycoproteins with a molecular mass ranging from 10 to 70 kDa. Among the food allergies, peanut is accounted to be responsible for more than 50% of the food allergy fatalities. Threshold doses for peanut allergenic reactions have been found to range from as low as 100 µg to 1 g of peanut protein, which equal to 400 µg to 4 g peanut meal. Allergens from peanut are mainly seed storage proteins that are composed of conglutin, vicilin, and glycinin families. Several peanut proteins have been identified to induce allergic reactions, particularly Ara h 1–11. This review is mainly focused on different classes of peanut allergens, the effect of thermal and chemical treatment of peanut allergens on the IgY binding and detectability of these allergens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to provide knowledge for food industry. PMID:26931300

  8. Annotation of trait loci on integrated genetic maps of Arachis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From lack of availability of molecular markers to the release of genome sequence of two of its diploid wild relative, the international peanut community has come a long way in the last decade, particularly during the last five years. However there still is long way to go when genomics-assisted breed...

  9. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M.; Chen, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations. PMID:26617627

  10. Identification of drought-induced transcription factors in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of genes involved in normal development as well as tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Specific transcription factors that are induced in peanut under drought conditions have not been identified. The objectives of this study were to comp...

  11. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Genes from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Mingna; Chen, Na; Pan, Lijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Quanfu; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final and only committed acylation step in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. In this study, three novel AhDGATs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the AhDGAT1-2 transcript was more abundant in roots, seeds, and cotyledons, whereas the transcript abundances of AhDGAT1-1 and AhDGAT3-3 were higher in flowers than in the other tissues examined. During seed development, transcript levels of AhDGAT1-1 remained relatively low during the initial developmental stage but increased gradually during later stages, peaking at 50 days after pegging (DAP). Levels of AhDGAT1-2 transcripts were higher at 10 and 60 DAPs and much lower during other stages, whereas AhDGAT3-3 showed higher expression levels at 20 and 50 DAPs. In addition, AhDGAT transcripts were differentially expressed following exposure to abiotic stresses or abscisic acid. The activity of the three AhDGAT genes was confirmed by heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAG-deficient quadruple mutant. The recombinant yeasts restored lipid body formation and TAG biosynthesis, and preferentially incorporated unsaturated C18 fatty acids into lipids. The present study provides significant information useful in modifying the oil deposition of peanut through molecular breeding. PMID:25181516

  12. Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. Owing to their importance in global food security, it is necessary to understand the genetic, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms controlling seed quality and nutritive attributes. A comprehens...

  13. Comparison of gene expression profiles in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) under strong artificial selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past five decades, cultivated peanut in China has been subjected to strong artificial selection in breeding programs. To investigate the impact of artificial selection on expression diversity, we compared gene expression profiles in pod and leaf of five widespread cultivars in Southern Chin...

  14. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) expressed sequence tag (EST) project: Progress and application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from several hundred plant species have been deposited in public EST databases. Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research commu...

  15. ARACHIS HYPOGAEA (PEANUT) SEED STORAGE PROTEIN ISO-ARA H3 MRNA COMPLETE SEQUENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to revolutionarily enhance crop genetic improvement and production. However, genome research in peanut is far behind those in other crops, such as maize, soybean, wheat, and sorghum due to the shortage of essential genome infrastructure, tools, an...

  16. Recent advances in molecular genetic linkage maps of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. Narrow genetic diversity and deficiency of polymorphic DNA markers have severely h...

  17. Localized Production of Phytoalexins by Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Kernels in Response to Fungal Invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts respond to fungal infection by synthesizing phytoalexins, most of which are antibiotic stilbenes. The mechanism and dynamics of phytoalexin formation in the peanut has not been studied. One of the most popular peanut cultivars in the southeastern U.S., Georgia Green, was investigated for its...

  18. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) genome contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  19. Impact of crossing conditions on the success of artificial hybridization of Arachis hypogaea L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to protect peanut yield and quality under dynamic farming conditions, pyramiding desirable traits from multiple lines has been the major task for peanut breeders. In addition, dissecting genetic components of heritable traits also relies on the development of large mapping populations. Ar...

  20. Preliminary Heritability Estimates for Drought Resistance Related Traits in Cultivated Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major factor in reduced productivity in peanuts. Cultivars that have high water-use efficiency have the potential to enhance the yield of the crop. Studies have shown that pod yield is a function of water transpired (T), water-use efficiency (WUE), and harvest index (HI). It is logisti...

  1. New Monomeric Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seeds Challenged by an Aspergillus flavus Strain.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S; Krausert, Nicole M; Gloer, James B

    2016-01-27

    Two new stilbene derivatives have been isolated from peanut seeds challenged by an Aspergillus flavus strain, along with chiricanine B, which has not been previously reported from peanuts, as well as a stilbenoid reported previously only as a synthetic product. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by analysis of (1)H and (13)C NMR, HRESIMS, MS(n), and UV data. The new stilbenoids were named arahypin-13 (21), arahypin-14 (22), and arahypin-15 (23). Together with other known bioactive peanut stilbenoids that were also produced in the challenged seeds, these new compounds may play a defensive role against invasive fungi. PMID:26672388

  2. Transcriptome and proteome response to water-deficit stress in peanut (Arachis sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut genotypes from the U.S. mini-core collection were screened under water-deficit stress conditions and two lines, COC041 (Tolerant) and COC166 (Susceptible) were selected for gene expression and protein profiling studies. For transcript profiling, we have developed a high-density oligonucleoti...

  3. Interaction of flumioxazin with dimethenamid or metolachlor in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in various peanut growing regions of Texas and Georgia to study peanut response to flumioxazin alone or in combination with dimethenamid or metolachlor. In southern Texas during 1997, flumioxazin plus metolachlor resulted in greater than 45% peanut stunt, while flumioxaz...

  4. Identification of stress-related small RNA's in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several classes of small RNAs have been studied in plants with the most extensively studied class being microRNAs (miRNAs). microRNAs (miRNAs) are an endogenous class of 20-25 nucleotide noncoding RNAs that are thought to play an important role in regulating gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cl...

  5. Fine phenotyping of pod and seed traits in Arachis germplasm accessions using digital image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable and objective phenotyping of peanut pod and seed traits is important for cultivar selection and genetic mapping of yield components. To develop useful and efficient methods to quantitatively define peanut pod and seed traits, a group of peanut germplasm with high levels of phenotypic varia...

  6. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment. PMID:25608978

  7. Development and utilization of InDel markers to identify peanut (Arachis hypogaea) disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, nearly 10,000 SSR-based markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% were mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. I...

  8. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Disease Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular ...

  9. Antifungal activity in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) conferred by a nonheme chloroperoxidase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nonheme chloroperoxidase gene (cpo-p) from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, a growth inhibitor of mycotoxin-producing fungi, was introduced into peanut via particle bombardment. The expression of the cpo-p gene is predicted to increase pathogen defense in peanut. Embryogenic peanut tissues were bombarded...

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of annexin genes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    He, MeiJing; Yang, XinLei; Cui, ShunLi; Mu, GuoJun; Hou, MingYu; Chen, HuanYing; Liu, LiFeng

    2015-08-15

    Annexin, Ca(2+) or phospholipid binding proteins, with many family members are distributed throughout all tissues during plant growth and development. Annexins participate in a number of physiological processes, such as exocytosis, cell elongation, nodule formation in legumes, maturation and stress response. Six different full-length cDNAs and two partial-length cDNAs of peanut, (AnnAh1, AnnAh2, AnnAh3, AnnAh5, AnnAh6, AnnAh7, AnnAh4 and AnnAh8) encoding annexin proteins, were isolated and characterized using a RT-PCR/RACE-PCR based strategy. The predicted molecular masses of these annexins were 36.0kDa with acidic pIs of 5.97-8.81. ANNAh1, ANNAh2, ANNAh3, ANNAh5, ANNAh6 and ANNAh7 shared sequence similarity from 35.76 to 66.35% at amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis revealed their evolutionary relationships with corresponding orthologous sequences in soybean and deduced proteins in various plant species. Real-time quantitative assays indicated that these genes were differentially expressed in various organs. Transcript level analysis for six annexin genes under stress conditions showed that these genes were regulated by drought, salinity, heavy metal stress, low temperature and hormone. Additionally, the prediction of cis-regulatory element suggested that different cis-responsive elements including stress- and hormone-responsive-related elements could respond to various stress conditions. These results indicated that members of AnnAhs family may play important roles in the adaptation of peanut to various environmental stresses. PMID:25958350

  11. Evaluation of yield and reproductive efficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under different available soil water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses to difference in available soil water levels for yield and reproductive characters of peanut genotypes and relate these responses to pod yield under drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels (Field Cap...

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  13. Regulation of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway: A Mechanism of Selenium Tolerance in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Wu, Liying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Wenjia; Zhang, Mengmeng; Li, Xiaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2016-05-11

    To clarify the mechanisms of selenium (Se) tolerance in peanut seedlings, we grew peanut seedlings with sodium selenite (0, 3, and 6 mg/L), and investigated the phenylpropanoids metabolism in seedling roots. The results showed that selenite up-regulated the expression of genes and related enzyme activities involving in the phenylpropanoids biosynthesis cascade, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, trans-cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase. Selenite significantly increased phenolic acids and flavonoids, which contributed to the alleviation of selenite-induced stress. Moreover, selenite enhanced the formation of endodermis in roots, which may be attributed to the up-regulation of lignin biosynthesis mediated by the selenite-induced changes of H2O2 and NO, which probably regulated the selenite uptake from an external medium. Accumulation of polyphenolic compounds via the phenylpropanoid pathway may be one of the mechanisms of the increasing selenite tolerance in plants, by which peanut seedlings survived in seleniferous soil, accompanied by accumulation of Se. PMID:27089243

  14. A SSR-based genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to construct a molecular linkage map of cultivated tetraploid peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Three recombinant inbre...

  15. New Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Kernels Challenged by an Aspergillus caelatus Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new stilbene derivatives termed arahypins have been isolated from peanut kernels challenged by an Aspergillus caelatus strain, along with two known stilbenoids that have not been previously reported in peanuts. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by analysis of NMR...

  16. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome and contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  17. Genetic variation of purified U.S. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many accessions of the USDA peanut germplasm collection are heterogeneous. Advances in genomics technology have highlighted the need for collections of homogeneous accessions. Using homogeneous accessions is critical for many types of phenotypic and genomic evaluations. The objectives of this resea...

  18. Production of phytoalexins in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed elicited by selected microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants accumulate defensive phytoalexins in response to the presence of pathogens, which in turn produce phytoalexin-detoxification enzymes for successfully invading the plant host. The detoxification of a number of phytoalexins by phytopathogenic fungi has been elucidated for various host plant fam...

  19. Reduction of IgE immunoreactivity of whole peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) after pulsed light illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed light (PL), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown in literature to reduce allergen levels on peanut, soybean, almond, and shrimp protein extracts. This study investigated how PL affected the immunoreactivity of whole peanut kernels at two sample-to-lamp distance...

  20. Extraction, Purification and Primary Characterization of Polysaccharides from Defatted Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Cakes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhi; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Li; Sheng, Xiaojing; Shi, Aimin; Hu, Hui; Yang, Ying; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The hot-water extraction, purification and characterization of polysaccharides from defatted peanut cake (PPC) were investigated in this study. A Box-Behnken factorial design (BBD) was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X₁), extraction time (X₂) and ratio of water to raw material (X₃). The optimum conditions were 85 °C, 3 h and 20:1 (mL/g) respectively. Regression analysis was done to reveal the experimental results which include 34.97% extraction rate while the value verified under these conditions was 34.49%. The crude PPC was sequentially further purified by Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one purified fraction was obtained. The PPC purified fraction was characterized by FT-IR, HPAEC; SEC-MALLS. The average molecular weight of the PPC purified fraction was 2.383 × 10⁵ Da. The polysaccharide was mainly composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose. The PPC have the typical absorption of polysaccharide. PMID:27258246

  1. New Monomeric Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seeds Challenged by an Aspergillus flavus Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new stilbene derivatives have been isolated from peanut seeds challenged by an Aspergillus flavus strain, along with chiricanine B that has not been reported from peanuts, as well as a stilbenoid that has been known as a synthetic product. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were d...

  2. New pterocarpenes elicited by Aspergillus caelatus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new substituted pterocarpenes named aracarpene-1 and aracarpene-2 have been isolated from wounded peanut seeds challenged by a strain of Aspergillus caelatus. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by interpretation of NMR and MS data. Together with peanut stilbenoids ...

  3. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Kudapa, Himabindu; Roorkiwal, Manish; Thudi, Mahendar; Pandey, Manish K; Saxena, Rachit K; Chamarthi, Siva K; Mohan, S Murali; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Upadhyaya, Hari; Gaur, Pooran M; Krishnamurthy, L; Saxena, K B; Nigam, Shyam N; Pande, Suresh

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), as compared to other crop species like cereals, has been very slow. With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput (HTP) genotyping methods, there is a shift in development of genomic resources including molecular markers in these crops. For instance, 2,000 to 3,000 novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers have been developed each for chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Based on Sanger, 454/FLX and Illumina transcript reads, transcriptome assemblies have been developed for chickpea (44,845 transcript assembly contigs, or TACs) and pigeonpea (21,434 TACs). Illumina sequencing of some parental genotypes of mapping populations has resulted in the development of 120 million reads for chickpea and 128.9 million reads for pigeonpea. Alignment of these Illumina reads with respective transcriptome assemblies have provided more than 10,000 SNPs each in chickpea and pigeonpea. A variety of SNP genotyping platforms including GoldenGate, VeraCode and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays have been developed in chickpea and pigeonpea. By using above resources, the first-generation or comprehensive genetic maps have been developed in the three legume speciesmentioned above. Analysis of phenotyping data together with genotyping data has provided candidate markers for drought-tolerance-related root traits in chickpea, resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and fertility restoration in pigeonpea. Together with these traitassociated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance

  4. Comparative mapping in intraspecific populations uncovers a high degree of macrosynteny between A- and B-genome diploid species of peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40). Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n = 2x = 20), which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. Results A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons) derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger) and 270,957 short-read (454) sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639) and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327) in the B-genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed when comparing the

  5. Determining the major Bt refuge crops for cotton bollworm in North China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Le-Fu; Fu, Xue; Ouyang, Fang; Xie, Bao-Yu; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of the effectiveness of refuge strategies involved in cotton bollworm Bt resistance management would be aided by technologies that allow monitoring and quantification of key factors that affect the process under field conditions. We hypothesized that characterization of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in adult bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths may aid in determining the larval host that they developed upon. We found moths reared from larvae fed on peanut, soybean or cotton, respectively, could be differentiated using isotopic analyses that also corresponded to their respective larval host origins. These techniques were then used to classify feral second-generation bollworm moths caught in Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields into different populations based on their isotopic signatures. In 2006-2007 feral moths captured in Bt cotton fields predominantly correlated with the peanut (Arachis hypogea) having served as their larval host, indicating this is the most important refuge crop for Bt-susceptible bollworm individuals (providing 58%-64% individuals) during independent moth peaks for the second generation in North China. The remaining feral moths correlated with soybean (Glycine max) (0-10%); other C3 plant (20%-22%) and non-C3 plant (12%-14%) host types also provided some Bt-sensitive moths. Field observations showed that peanut constitutes the primary refuge crop contributing to sustaining Bt-susceptible moths dispersing into cotton in North China. These results suggest that peanut may be a more effective refuge to sustain Bt-susceptible bollworm individuals and reduce the risk of development of a Bt-resistant biotype. PMID:25196072

  6. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions. PMID:3189886

  7. Tillage impact on herbicide loss by surface runoff and lateral subsurface flow.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Bosch, David D; Strickland, Timothy C

    2015-10-15

    There is worldwide interest in conservation tillage practices because they can reduce surface runoff, and agrichemical and sediment losses from farm fields. Since these practices typically increase infiltration, their use may increase subsurface transport of water-soluble contaminants. Thus, to assess long-term environmental benefits of conservation tillage data may be needed that quantify both surface and subsurface contaminant fluxes. This study focused on the herbicide fluometuron (N,N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-urea) and its soil degradate DMF (N-methyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-urea). Both compounds are classed as "leachable". They were measured for 10 years in surface runoff and lateral subsurface flow from paired fields located on a hill slope in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of the southeastern USA. One group of fields was conventionally tilled incorporating all crop residues into soil prior to planting. The second was strip tilled, a common conservation tillage practice. Seven fluometuron applications were made to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) produced in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogea). Combined fluometuron and DMF surface and subsurface losses from the conventionally tilled fields were equivalent to 1.2% and 0.13% of fluometuron applied and 0.31% and 0.32% from the strip tilled fields. Annual surface runoff losses were significantly greater from the conventionally tilled fields while the strip tilled fields had significantly greater annual subsurface losses. Results demonstrated that shifting from conventional to conservation tillage management of farm fields in this landscape will reduce surface runoff losses of herbicides like fluometuron but subsurface losses will likely increase. The same trends can be expected in landscapes with similar soil and hydrologic properties. This should be considered when planning implementation of programs that promote conservation tillage use. PMID:26057540

  8. Effects of micronisation and dehulling of pre-soaked bambara groundnut seeds on microstructure and functionality of the resulting flours.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Opeolu M; Minnaar, Amanda; Emmambux, M Naushad

    2017-01-01

    Functional properties of flours from pre-soaked and micronised (130°C) whole and dehulled bambara seeds (5, 10 and 15min) were determined. An increase in micronisation time significantly reduced the pasting viscosity of the flours. Significant reductions in the differential scanning calorimetry endothermic peak enthalpies and loss of birefringence in the starch were found, indicating starch pre-gelatinisation when micronised. The low viscous paste of resultant flours seems to be related to protein denaturation as shown by decrease in nitrogen solubility index. Starch was embedded in a protein matrix as shown by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This denatured protein matrixes could be in part preventing starch hydration and dispersion during pasting and thus reduced viscosity. Dehulling reduced the pasting viscosity suggesting higher effect of micronisation for dehulled than whole samples. Resulting flours can be useful ingredients in protein energy-dense foods due to low viscosity. PMID:27507522

  9. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics and yield responses in rainfed crops with variable potassium nutrition in K deficient semi-arid alfisols.

    PubMed

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Shanker, Arun K; Kundu, Sumanta; Reddy, Sharanbhoopal

    2016-07-01

    Optimum potassium (K) nutrition in semi-arid regions may help crop plants to overcome constraints in their growth and development such as moisture stress, leading to higher productivity of rainfed crops, thus judicious K management is essential. A study was conducted to evaluate the importance of K nutrition on physiological processes like photosynthesis through chlorophyll a fluorescence and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics (OJIP) of rainfed crops viz., maize (Zea mays L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) under water stress conditions by studying their growth attributes, water relations, yield, K uptake and use efficiency under varied K levels. Highest chlorophyll content was observed under K60 in maize and pearl millet. Narrow and wide Chl a:b ratio was observed in castor and groundnut respectively. The fluorescence yield decreased in the crops as K dosage increased, evidenced by increasing of all points (O, J, I and P) of the OJIP curves. The fluorescence transient curve for K60 was lower than K0 and K40 for all the crops. Potassium levels altered the fluorescence induction and impaired photosynthetic systems in all the crops studied. There was no distinct trend observed in leaf water potential of crops under study. Uptake of K was high in sunflower with increased rate of K application. Quantitatively, K uptake by castor crop was lesser compared to all other crops. Our results indicate that the yield reduction under low K was due to the low capacity of the crops to translocate K from non-photosynthetic organs such as stems and petioles to upper leaves and harvested organs and this in turn influenced the capacity of the crops to produce a high economic yield per unit of K taken up thus reducing utilization efficiency of K. PMID:27101276

  10. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces. PMID:26743667

  11. [Effects of single-seed sowing on canopy microenvironment, photosynthetic characteristics and pod yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaca)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-yan; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Jia-lei; Meng, Jing-jing; Li, Lin; Wan, Shu-bo; Li, Xin-guo

    2015-12-01

    The large-seed peanut cultivar of Huayu 22 was used to study the differences of canopy microenvironment, photosynthetic characteristics, and pod yield at three single-seed sowing densities, i.e., 225000 (S₁), 195000 (S₂) and 165000 (S₃) holes per hectare, in field experiments. The results showed that the canopy light transmittance, canopy air temperature and canopy CO₂concentration all increased at these three single-seed sowing densities compared with those of double-seed sowing pattern (150000 holes per hectare), while the canopy humidity decreased. It seemed that single-seed sowing was helpful to improve microenvironment and the growth of peanut, especially at late growth stage. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic pigment contents and the net photosynthetic rate of peanut under single-seed sowing, especially in S₂ and S₃, were remarkably higher than those under traditional double-seed sowing. S₂ had the optimum population size with an equal distribution of individuals, which reduced the contradiction between individuals and population, optimized the canopy microenvironment, enhanced the photosynthetic characteristics, and increased the synthesis and accumulation of photosynthetic products to maximize the yield production of peanut. PMID:27112008

  12. Investigations into the agronomic and economic aspects of using peanut (Arachis hypogaea) as an on-farm biodiesel feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although farmers have benefited from the creation of transportation fuels from grain and oilseeds, little research has addressed single farm or community self-reliance on home-grown fuels. The Peanut Biodiesel Project is designed to determine if peanut is suitable for just such a concept through fi...

  13. Genetic linkage map and QTL analysis of resistance to TSWV and leaf spots in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The allotetraploid peanut genome assembly will be a valuable resource to researchers studying polyploidy species, in addition to peanut genome evolution and domestication other than facilitating QTL analysis and the tools for marker-assisted breeding. Therefore, a peanut linkage map will aid genome ...

  14. Characterization of the β-1,3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L X; Ding, X; Wang, H C; Sui, J M; Wang, J-S

    2014-01-01

    Plant β-1,3-glucanases are commonly involved in disease resistance. This report describes the cloning and genetic transformation of a β-1,3-glucanase gene from peanut. The gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The DNA sequence contained 1471 bp including two exons and one intron, and the coding sequence contained 1047 bp that coded for a 348-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 38.8 kDa. The sequence was registered in NCBI (GenBank accession No. JQ801335) and was designated as Ah-Glu. As determined by BLAST analysis, the Ah-Glu protein has 42-90% homology with proteins from Oryza sativa (BAC83070.1), Zea mays (NP_001149308), Arabidopsis thaliana (NP_200470.1), Medicago sativa (ABD91577.1), and Glycine max (XP_003530515.1). The over-expression vector pCAMBIA1301-Glu containing Ah-Glu was constructed, confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and transformed into peanut variety Huayu22 by Agrobacterium EHA105-mediated transformation. The putative transformed plants (T0) were confirmed by PCR amplification. RT-PCR analysis and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the transferred Ah-Glu was expressed as mRNA and protein. In a laboratory test, the transgenic plants were found to be more resistant to the fungal pathogen Cercospora personata than the non-transgenic plants were. PMID:24668677

  15. Genetic mapping of FAD2 genes and their relative contribution towards oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality is the major research objective in peanut because of its high economic impact on growers/traders and several health benefits to consumers. Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes are known to control quality traits but their position on the peanut genome and their relative contr...

  16. Can high quality DNA be extracted and utilized from Arachis seeds in long term storage with zero percent germination?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant germplasm collections are useful resources for both researchers and breeders. These collections provide a source of new gene combinations that can be used in breeding and molecular studies to thwart disease, introduce novel traits, and enhance nutritional benefits of a crop. The USDA maintai...

  17. Screening of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cDNA library to isolate a Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor clone.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Judith A; Viquez, Olga M; Konan, Koffi N; Dodo, Hortense W

    2005-03-23

    Peanut crop losses due to insect and pest infestation cost peanut farmers nearly 20% of their annual yields. The conventional use of chemicals to combat this problem is costly and toxic to humans and livestock and leads to the development of resistance by target insects. Transgenic plants expressing a trypsin inhibitor gene in tobacco and cowpea have proven to be efficient for resistance against insects. Therefore, a transgenic peanut overexpressing a trypsin inhibitor gene could be an alternative solution to the use of toxic chemicals. Five Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor (BBTI) proteins were previously isolated from peanut. However, to date, neither cDNA nor genomic DNA sequences are available. The objective of this research was to screen a peanut cDNA library to isolate and sequence at least one full-length peanut BBTI cDNA clone. Two heterologous oligonucleotides were constructed on the basis of a garden pea (Pisum sativa) trypsin inhibitor nucleotide sequence and used as probes to screen a peanut lambda gt-11 cDNA library. Two positive and identical cDNA clones were isolated, subcloned into a pBluescript vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed a full-length BBTI cDNA of about 243 bp, with a start codon ATG at position +1 and a stop codon TGA at position +243. In the 3' end, two poly adenylation signals (AATAAA) were identified at positions +261 and +269. The isolated cDNA clone encodes a protein of 80 amino acid residues including a leader sequence of 11 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is 100% identical to published sequences of peanut BBTI AI, AII, BI, and BIII and 81% identical to BII. PMID:15769131

  18. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. PMID:26458982

  19. Morphological and toxigenic variability in the Aspergillus flavus isolates from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production system in Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Diwakar; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Vinod; Bagwan, Naimoddin B; Basu, Mukti S; Dobaria, Jentilal R; Mishra, Gyan P; Chanda, Sumitra

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and toxigenic variability in 187 Aspergillus flavus isolates, collected from a major Indian peanut production system, from 10 districts of Gujarat was studied. On the basis of colony characteristics, the isolates were grouped as group A (83%), B (11%) and G (6%). Of all the isolates, 21%, 47% and 32% were found to be fast-growing, moderately-fast and slow-growing respectively, and nosclerotia and sclerotia production was recorded in 32.1% and 67% isolates respectively. Large, medium and small number of sclerotia production was observed in 55, 38 and 34 isolates respectively. Toxigenic potential based on ammonia vapour test was not found reliable, while ELISA test identified 68.5%, 18.7% and 12.8% isolates as atoxigenic, moderately-toxigenic and highly-toxigenic, respectively. On clustering, the isolates were grouped into 15 distinct clusters, 'A' group of isolates was grouped distinctly in different clusters, while 'B' and 'G' groups of isolates were clustered together. No association was observed between morphological-diversity and toxigenic potential of the isolates. From the present investigation, most virulent isolates were pooled to form a consortium for sick-plot screening of germplasm, against Aspergillus flavus. In future, atoxigenic isolates may be evaluated for their potential to be used as bio-control agent against toxigenicisolates. PMID:25895268

  20. A comparison of methods used to determine the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cheap source of protein compared to cheese and red meat and a good source of essential vitamins and minerals and are thus a common component of many oil and food products. The fatty acid composition of peanuts has become increasingly important with the realization that the onset of ra...

  1. Cloning and Characterization of 5′ Flanking Regulatory Sequences of AhLEC1B Gene from Arachis Hypogaea L.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guiying; Xu, Pingli; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhanji; Shan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a B subunit of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-YB) transcription factor that mainly accumulates during embryo development. We cloned the 5′ flanking regulatory sequence of AhLEC1B gene, a homolog of Arabidopsis LEC1, and analyzed its regulatory elements using online software. To identify the crucial regulatory region, we generated a series of GUS expression frameworks driven by different length promoters with 5′ terminal and/or 3′ terminal deletion. We further characterized the GUS expression patterns in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines. Our results show that both the 65bp proximal promoter region and the 52bp 5′ UTR of AhLEC1B contain the key motifs required for the essential promoting activity. Moreover, AhLEC1B is preferentially expressed in the embryo and is co-regulated by binding of its upstream genes with both positive and negative corresponding cis-regulatory elements. PMID:26426444

  2. De Novo Assembly of the Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seed Transcriptome Revealed Candidate Unigenes for Oil Accumulation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dongmei; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Hemin; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wanke; Chen, Shouyi

    2013-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the most important edible oil crops in the world. In order to survey key genes controlling peanut oil accumulation, we analyzed the seed transcriptome in different developmental stages of high- and low-oil peanut varieties. About 54 million high quality clean reads were generated, which corresponded to 4.85 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 59,236 unique sequences. Differential mRNA processing events were detected for most of the peanut Unigenes and found that 15.8% and 18.0% of the Unigenes were differentially expressed between high- and low-oil varieties at 30 DAF and 50 DAF, respectively. Over 1,500 Unigenes involved in lipid metabolism were identified, classified, and found to participate in FA synthesis and TAG assembly. There were seven possible metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of oil during seed development. This dataset provides more sequence resource for peanut plant and will serve as the foundation to understand the mechanisms of oil accumulation in oil crops. PMID:24040062

  3. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Resistance to TSWV in Cultivated Peanut (Arachis hypagea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic linkage map is critical for identifying the QTL (quantitative trait loci) underling targeted traits. Over the last few years, progress has been made in marker development from multiple sources enabling the expansion of quality resources needed for genotyping applications in cultivated x cu...

  4. A real-time PCR genotyping assay to detect FAD2A SNPs in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high oleic (C18:1) phenotype in peanuts has been previously demonstrated to result from a homozygous recessive genotype (ol1ol1ol2ol2) in two homeologous fatty acid desaturase genes (FAD2A and FAD2B) with two key SNPs. These mutant SNPs, specifically G448A in FAD2A and 442insA in FAD2B, signifi...

  5. Next-generation transcriptome sequencing, SNP discovery, and SNP validation in four market classes of peanut, arachis hypogaea L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms are ideally suited for making high-resolution genetic maps, investigating population evolutionary history, and discovering marker–trait linkages. With advances in sequencing technologies, it is possible to identify thousands or millions of SNPs from transcriptomes or ...

  6. Cutleafgroundcherry (physalis angulata) density, biomass and seed production in peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) following regrowth due to inadequate control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry density, biomass, seed production, and crop yield in a peanut system. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) alone at 0.027 kg ai h...

  7. An electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry screening of triacylglycerols in developing cultivated and wild peanut kernels (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Cherif, Aicha O; Leveque, Nathalie; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Kallel, Habib; Moussa, Fathi

    2013-06-01

    The accumulation of triacylglycerols during the development of three varieties of peanuts was monitored in two Tunisian cultivated peanut (Trabelsia (AraT) and Chounfakhi (AraC)) and one wild Tunisian peanut (Arbi (AraA)). The presence of TAGs composed of rare fatty acid residues such as hexacosanoic acid (C(23:0)) and heneicosanoic acid (C(21:0)) among the triacylglycerols C(23:0) LL, C(23:0) OO and C(21:0) LL was noted. The major molecular species of triacylglycerol detected in the three peanut varieties were dioleoyl linoleoyl (OOL), 1,2,3-trioleyl (OOO), 1,2-dioleyl-3-palmitoyl (POO), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-3-oleyl (OLL) and 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-linolenoyl (OLLn). The TAG composition and content were significantly different among the three peanut varieties. The three major TAGs were OOL (20.6%), OOO (15.6%) and OLLn (13.2%) in AraA; OOL (21.4%), OOO (20.1%) and POO (17.5%) in AraC and finally OLL (20.7%), OOO (19.8%) and OLL (17.7%) in AraT. PMID:23411219

  8. Characterization of B-1, 3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant ß-1,3-glucanase is commonly found to be involved in the disease resistance. A ß-1,3-glucanase gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively (GenBank Accession No. JQ801335). The genomic DNA sequence was 1,471 bp including two ext...

  9. Ozone and carbon dioxide effects on spider mites in white clover and peanut

    SciTech Connect

    Heagle, A.S.; Brandenburg, R.L.; Burns, J.C.; Miller, J.E.

    1994-11-01

    Effects of O{sub 3} and/or elevated CO{sub 2} on two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) grown on an O{sub 3}-sensitive and an O{sub 3}-resistant clone of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) were measured in greenhouse and field experiments. Peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.) {open_quote}NC-9{close_quote} was used in one greenhouse study with O{sub 3}. In field studies, O{sub 3} treatments were charcoal filtered air (CF), nonfiltered air (NF), and two NF treatments with O{sub 3} added for 12 h d{sup {minus}1} at proportions of {approx} 1.25 and 1.50 times the ambient O{sub 3} concentration. In greenhouse studies, constant amounts of O{sub 3} were added to CF for 6 h d{sup {minus}1} to achieve mean concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 nL L{sup {minus}1}. For the greenhouse O{sub 3} x CO{sub 2} experiment, CO{sub 2} concentrations were ambient and approximately twice-ambient for 24 h d{sup {minus}1}. Plants were exposed to O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for {approx} 7 d before infestation with mites; daily exposures continued for 14 to 28 d to allow reproduction for at least two generations. Leaves were sampled to count eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults. Ozone caused more chlorosis and necrosis on the O{sub 3}-sensitive clover clone (NC-S) than on the O{sub 3}-resistant clone (NC-R). Carbon dioxide enrichment increased shoot growth of both clones by {approx}33%. Statistical analyses indicated significant O{sub 3} effects in some experiments and nonsignificant O{sub 3} effects in others. A trend toward increased mite populations with increased O{sub 3} occurred, however, on NC-S in all trials. No consistent trends occurred with NC-R. With peanut, a significant linear increase in mite population occurred with increased O{sub 3}. Carbon dioxide enrichment increased the rate of population increase on both clover clones, but more so on NC-R. 47 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Effect of lectins on hepatic clearance and killing of Candida albicans by the isolated perfused mouse liver.

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, R T; Garner, R E; Hudson, J A

    1992-01-01

    The isolated perfused mouse liver model was used to study the effects of various lectins on hepatic trapping and killing of Candida albicans. After mouse livers were washed with 20 to 30 ml of perfusion buffer, 10(6) C. albicans CFU were infused into the livers. At the time of recovery, 63% +/- 2% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) of the infused C. albicans CFU were recovered from the liver and 14% +/- 1% were recovered from the effluent for a total recovery of 77% +/- 2%. This indicated that 86% +/- 9% of the original inoculum was trapped by the liver and that 23% +/- 2% was killed within the liver. When included in both preperfusion and postperfusion buffers (0.2 mg of lectin per ml), Ulex europeaus lectin (binding specificity for fucose) decreased hepatic trapping of C. albicans by 37% and eluted trapped C. albicans from the liver only when included in postperfusion buffer. By comparison, treatment of C. albicans with U. europeaus lectin before infusion had no effect on the trapping or killing of yeast cells. When Lens culinaris lectin (binding specificity for mannose) was included in the perfusion buffers, hepatic killing of C. albicans increased by 16% with no significant effect on hepatic killing when yeast cells were treated with L. culinaris lectin before infusion. Forty to 55% of the infused C. albicans were killed when concanavalin A (binding specificities for mannose and glucose), Glycine max (binding specificity for N-acetylgalactosamine), or Arachis hypogea (binding specificity for galactose) lectin was included in the perfusion buffer or when yeast cells were treated with these lectins before their infusion. When C. albicans was treated with concanavalin A at a concentration of less than 0.02 mg/ml, hepatic killing of yeast cells was not significantly increased. The data suggest that a fucose-containing receptor on the surface of either sinusoidal endothelial cells or Kupffer cells is involved in the trapping of C. albicans by the perfused mouse

  11. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    PubMed

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  12. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production

    PubMed Central

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  13. Serine-rich protein is a novel positive regulator for silicon accumulation in mangrove.

    PubMed

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Azizi, Parisa; Idris, A S

    2015-02-10

    Silicon (Si) plays an important role in reducing plant susceptibility against a variety of different biotic and abiotic stresses; and also has an important regulatory role in soil to avoid heavy metal toxicity and providing suitable growing conditions for plants. A full-length cDNAs of 696bp of serine-rich protein was cloned from mangrove plant (Rhizophora apiculata) by amplification of cDNA ends from an expressed sequence tag homologous to groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), submitted to NCBI (KF211374). This serine-rich protein gene encodes a deduced protein of 223 amino acids. The transcript titre of the serine-rich protein was found to be strongly enriched in roots compared with the leaves of two month old mangrove plants and expression level of this serine-rich protein was found to be strongly induced when the mangrove seedlings were exposed to SiO2. Expression of the serine-rich protein transgenic was detected in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, where the amount of serine increased from 1.02 to 37.8mg/g. The same trend was also seen in Si content in the roots (14.3%) and leaves (7.4%) of the transgenic A. thaliana compared to the wild-type plants under Si treatment. The biological results demonstrated that the accumulation of the serine amino acid in the vegetative tissues of the transgenic plants enhanced their ability to absorb and accumulate more Si in the roots and leaves and suggests that the serine-rich protein gene has potential for use in genetic engineering of different stress tolerance characteristics. PMID:25479011

  14. Bradyrhizobium kavangense sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium from root nodules of traditional Namibian pulses.

    PubMed

    Lasse Grönemeyer, Jann; Hurek, T; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Eight strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region, Namibia, were previously characterized and identified as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To clarify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. In phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence the novel group was most closely related to Bradyrhizobium iriomotense EK05T and Bradyrhizobium ingae BR 10250T, and to 'Bradyrhizobium arachidis' CCBAU 051107 in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK sequences placed the strains in a lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The species status was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis of nifH and nodC genes placed the novel strains in a group with 'B. arachidis' CCBAU 051107. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain 14-3T induces effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and Lablab purpureus. Based on the data presented, it is concluded that the strains represent a novel species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, for which the name Bradyrhizobium kavangense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 14-3T [ = DSM 100299T = LMG 28790T = NTCCM 0012T (Windhoek)]. The DNA G+C content of strain 14-3T is 63.8 mol% (Tm). PMID:26446190

  15. Stress Inducible Expression of AtDREB1A Transcription Factor in Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Conferred Tolerance to Soil-Moisture Deficit Stress.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan P; Dobaria, Jentilal R

    2016-01-01

    Peanut, an important oilseed crop, is gaining priority for the development of drought tolerant genotypes in recent times, since the area under drought is constantly on the rise. To achieve this, one of the important strategies is to genetically engineer the ruling peanut varieties using transcription factor regulating the expression of several downstream, abiotic-stress responsive gene(s). In this study, eight independent transgenic peanut (cv. GG20) lines were developed using AtDREB1A gene, encoding for a transcription factor, through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. The transgene insertion was confirmed in (T0) using PCR and Dot-blot analysis, while copy-number(s) was ascertained using Southern-blot analysis. The inheritance of AtDREB1A gene in individual transgenic plants (T1 and T2) was confirmed using PCR. In homozygous transgenic plants (T2), under soil-moisture deficit stress, elevated level of AtDREB1A transgene expression was observed by RT-PCR assay. The transgenic plants at 45-d or reproductive growth stage showed tolerance to severe soil-moisture deficit stress. Physio-biochemical parameters such as proline content, osmotic potential, relative water content, electrolytic leakage, and total-chlorophyll content were found positively correlated with growth-related traits without any morphological abnormality, when compared to wild-type. qPCR analysis revealed consistent increase in expression of AtDREB1A gene under progressive soil-moisture deficit stress in two homozygous transgenic plants. The transgene expression showed significant correlation with improved physio-biochemical traits. The improvement of drought-stress tolerance in combination with improved growth-related traits is very essential criterion for a premium peanut cultivar like GG20, so that marginal farmers of India can incur the economic benefits during seasonal drought and water scarcity. PMID:27446163

  16. Germinating Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings Attenuated Selenite-Induced Toxicity by Activating the Antioxidant Enzymes and Mediating the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2016-02-17

    Selenite can enhance the selenium nutrition level of crops, but excessive selenite may be toxic to plant growth. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of selenite in production and detoxification of oxidative toxicity, peanut seedlings were developed with sodium selenite (0, 3, and 6 mg/L). The effects of selenite on antioxidant capacity, transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme genes, and enzyme activities in hypocotyl were investigated. The CuZn-SOD, GSH-Px, GST, and APX gene expression levels and their enzyme activities in selenite treatments were 1.0-3.6-fold of the control. Selenite also significantly increased the glutathione and ascorbate concentrations by mediating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and the selenite-induced hydrogen peroxide may act as a second messenger in the signaling pathways. This work has revealed a complex antioxidative response to selenite in peanut seedling. Understanding these mechanisms may help future research in increasing selenite tolerance and selenium accumulation in peanut and other crops. PMID:26824138

  17. Influence of Light Conditions on Biology and Chemistry in the Peanut Plant: Flavonoids and Spermidines from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flowers and Studies of the Photoisomerization of Spermidine Conjugates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  18. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Maleki, Soheila J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients' IgE repertoires may mean that some patients' IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  19. The manufacture of particleboards using mixture of peanut hull (Arachis hypoqaea L.) and European Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) wood chips.

    PubMed

    Guler, Cengiz; Copur, Yalcin; Tascioglu, Cihat

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the suitability of peanut hull to produce general purpose particleboards. A series of panels were produced using peanut hull and mixture of peanut hull and European Black pine wood chips. Particleboards were manufactured using various hull ratios in the mixture (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Urea formaldehyde adhesive was utilized in board production and boards were produced to target panel's density of 0.7 g/cm3. Panels were tested for some physical (water absorption and thickness swelling), chemical (holocellulose content, lignin content, alcohol-benzene solubility, 1% NaOH solubility, hot water solubility and cold water solubility) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties. The main observation was that increase in peanut hull in the mixture resulted in a decrease in mechanical and physical properties of produced panels and panel including 25% hull in the mixture solely met the standard required by TS-EN 312 standard. Conclusively, a valuable renewable natural resource, peanut hull could be utilized in panel production while it has been mixed to the wood chips. PMID:17689074

  20. Progress on genetic linkage maps, traits/QTLs, and utilization in two recombinant inbred line populations of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a highly nutritional crop, is used in edible products or crushed for cooking oil, and is susceptible to a range of diseases, including Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early and late leaf spot (ELS and LLS). Losses in productivity and quality are also attributable to environmental stresses ...

  1. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for disease resistance using F2 and F5 mapping population derived from the same cross in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Achieving a high dense genetic map in peanut is very challenging due to availability of limited genomic resources, low polymorphism and large genome. Realizing the importance of dense genetic maps in several genetic and breeding applications, a mapping population derived from Tifrunner × GT-C20 (T p...

  2. Prevention of pre-harvest aflatoxin production and the effect of different harvest times on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Canavar, Öner; Kaynak, Mustafa Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aflatoxin and fatty acids and to determine the optimum harvest time to avoid pre-harvest aflatoxin formation. It was established that harvest time had statistically significant effects on the levels of saturated fatty acids: myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), heptadecanoic acid (C17:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), behenic acid (C22:0), lignoceric acid (C24:0), monounsaturated fatty acids; palmitoleic acid (C16:1), heptadecenoic acid (C17:1), oleic acid (C18:1) and gadoleic acid (C20:1); and on polyunsaturated fatty acids: linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). By delaying the harvest time, the ratio of saturated fatty acids decreased and unsaturated fatty acids increased. It was shown that the longer harvesting was delayed, the greater the quantity of oleic acid that was produced. Before harvest time, if the soil moisture was 5% or higher, aflatoxin was produced by fungi. It was found that the weather conditions of the region were suitable for aflatoxin production. Soil moisture appears to be more important than soil temperature for aflatoxin formation. The production of aflatoxin was not observed in the first and second harvests, both of which are at early harvest times. It was found that aflatoxin B1 during harvest time was the most significant of the four toxins. The third harvest time, which is the most widely used, was observed to have significant problems due to aflatoxin formation. Therefore, it is suggested as a result of this study that the harvest of peanuts must be done considering seed yield before the middle of September to avoid aflatoxin formation at harvest time. PMID:23889477

  3. Analysis and RT-PCR identification of viral sequences in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags from different peanut tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut plants grown in the field have been naturally infected with different viruses resulting in economic yield loss in the southeastern US, such as tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) in peanuts. The objectives of this study were to investigate peanut sequences of expressed sequence tags (EST) f...

  4. Comparing genome guided assembly and phased variants based assembly approach to separate the homoeolog transcripts in tetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homoeologous copies of transcripts are abundant in many self-pollinating species including tetraploid peanut, and can impose a challenge to build a transcriptome reference without the merging of homoeologs. De novo transcriptome assembly of tetraploid OLin with single kmer and multiple kmer approach...

  5. Identification of low Ca(2+) stress-induced embryo apoptosis response genes in Arachis hypogaea by SSH-associated library lift (SSHaLL).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Cai, Tie Cheng; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Shuangbiao; Zheng, Yixiong; Ma, Shiwei; Tang, Ronghua; Varshney, Rajeev K; Zhuang, Weijian

    2016-02-01

    Calcium is a universal signal in the regulation of wide aspects in biology, but few are known about the function of calcium in the control of early embryo development. Ca(2+) deficiency in soil induces early embryo abortion in peanut, producing empty pods, which is a general problem; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, embryo abortion was characterized to be caused by apoptosis marked with cell wall degradation. Using a method of SSH cDNA libraries associated with library lift (SSHaLL), 62 differentially expressed genes were isolated from young peanut embryos. These genes were classified to be stress responses, catabolic process, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, embryo morphogenesis, regulation, etc. The cell retardation with cell wall degradation was caused by up-regulated cell wall hydrolases and down-regulated cellular synthases genes. HsfA4a, which was characterized to be important to embryo development, was significantly down-regulated under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions from 15 days after pegging (DAP) to 30 DAP. Two AhCYP707A4 genes, encoding abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylases, key enzymes for ABA catabolism, were up-regulated by 21-fold under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions upstream of HsfA4a, reducing the ABA level in early embryos. Over-expression of AhCYP707A4 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed a phenotype of low ABA content with high numbers of aborted embryos, small pods and less seeds, which confirms that AhCYP707A4 is a key player in regulation of Ca(2+) deficiency-induced embryo abortion via ABA-mediated apoptosis. The results elucidated the mechanism of low Ca(2+) -induced embryo abortion and described the method for other fields of study. PMID:26079063

  6. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  7. Improvement of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) transformation efficiency and determination of transgene copy number by relative quantitative real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biolistic method is reliable for delivering genes of interest into various species. Low transformation efficiency has been a limiting factor for its application. The DNA coating agent protamine was shown to improve transformation efficiency in rice, while a reduction of plasmid DNA in the bomb...

  8. Controlled release study on microencapsulated mixture of fipronil and chlorpyrifos for the management of white grubs (Holotrichia parallela) in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Daibin; Li, Guangxing; Yan, Xiaojing; Yuan, Huizhu

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the release dynamics of a microencapsulated mixture of fipronil and chlorpyrifos in peanut fields and its efficacy against white grubs. The results indicated that microencapsulation significantly stabilized this mixture against degradation in the environment so that a single dose of this microencapsulated formulation applied through seed treatment effectively controlled white grubs throughout the entire growing season. During the experimental course, the concentration of chlorpyrifos in the soil with the microencapsulated formulation was 13.6 ± 9.9 (n = 6) times that of the conventional formulation, and the concentration of fipronil was at least 2.2 times that of the conventional formulation in the soil and peanut roots. However, the residue risks of chlorpyrifos and fipronil in the kernels were different. At harvest, there was a low risk that the residual chlorpyrifos in the kernels exceeded the MRLs (maximum residue limit). In contrast, the amount of residual fipronil in some kernel samples reached the statutory MRL set by the European Union, which suggested that a higher application rate or the repeated application of the microencapsulated fipronil formulation would not be acceptable. PMID:25260064

  9. Arachis hypogaea (peanut) oxalate oxidase (OxOxs)mRNA, complete sequence (accession No. EU024475), in peanut seed tissue and the relationship to White Mold (Sclerotium rolfsii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases in the U.S., such as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, southern stem rot/white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii), and sclerotinia blight (Sclerotinia minor). Peanut is also one of the...

  10. Ectopic over-expression of peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-08-15

    Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene (SbpAPX) of an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata imparts abiotic stress endurance and plays a key role in the protection against oxidative stress. The cloned SbpAPX gene was transformed to local variety of peanut and about 100 transgenic plants were developed using optimized in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation method. The T0 transgenic plants were confirmed for the gene integration; grown under controlled condition in containment green house facility; seeds were harvested and T1 plants were raised. Transgenic plants (T1) were further confirmed by PCR using gene specific primers and histochemical GUS assay. About 40 transgenic plants (T1) were selected randomly and subjected for salt stress tolerance study. Transgenic plants remained green however non-transgenic plants showed bleaching and yellowish leaves under salt stress conditions. Under stress condition, transgenic plants continued normal growth and completed their life cycle. Transgenic peanut plants exhibited adequate tolerance under salt stress condition and thus could be explored for the cultivation in salt affected areas for the sustainable agriculture. PMID:24954532

  11. Stress Inducible Expression of AtDREB1A Transcription Factor in Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Conferred Tolerance to Soil-Moisture Deficit Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan P.; Dobaria, Jentilal R.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut, an important oilseed crop, is gaining priority for the development of drought tolerant genotypes in recent times, since the area under drought is constantly on the rise. To achieve this, one of the important strategies is to genetically engineer the ruling peanut varieties using transcription factor regulating the expression of several downstream, abiotic-stress responsive gene(s). In this study, eight independent transgenic peanut (cv. GG20) lines were developed using AtDREB1A gene, encoding for a transcription factor, through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. The transgene insertion was confirmed in (T0) using PCR and Dot-blot analysis, while copy-number(s) was ascertained using Southern-blot analysis. The inheritance of AtDREB1A gene in individual transgenic plants (T1 and T2) was confirmed using PCR. In homozygous transgenic plants (T2), under soil-moisture deficit stress, elevated level of AtDREB1A transgene expression was observed by RT-PCR assay. The transgenic plants at 45-d or reproductive growth stage showed tolerance to severe soil-moisture deficit stress. Physio-biochemical parameters such as proline content, osmotic potential, relative water content, electrolytic leakage, and total-chlorophyll content were found positively correlated with growth-related traits without any morphological abnormality, when compared to wild-type. qPCR analysis revealed consistent increase in expression of AtDREB1A gene under progressive soil-moisture deficit stress in two homozygous transgenic plants. The transgene expression showed significant correlation with improved physio-biochemical traits. The improvement of drought-stress tolerance in combination with improved growth-related traits is very essential criterion for a premium peanut cultivar like GG20, so that marginal farmers of India can incur the economic benefits during seasonal drought and water scarcity. PMID:27446163

  12. Identification of QTLs associated with oil content and mapping FAD2 genes and their relative contribution to oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  13. Evaluation of insertion-deletion markers suitable for genetic diversity studies and marker-trait correlation analyses in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Meng, S; Yang, X L; Dang, P M; Cui, S L; Mu, G J; Chen, C Y; Liu, L F

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is one of the most important oil crops worldwide. We used insertion-deletion (InDel) markers to assess the genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated peanut. Fifty-four accessions from North China were genotyped using 48 InDel markers. The markers amplified 61 polymorphic loci with 1 to 8 alleles and an average of 2.6 alleles per marker. The polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.0364 to 0.9030, with an average of 0.5038. Population structure and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analyses suggested that all accessions could be divided into four clusters (A1-A4), using the NJ method. Likewise, four subpopulations (G1-G4) were identified using STRUCTURE analysis. A principal component analysis was also used and results concordant with the other analysis methods were found. A multi-linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that 13 InDel markers correlated with five measured agronomical traits. Our results will provide important information for future peanut molecular breeding and genetic research. PMID:27525935

  14. Genetic Mapping of QTLs Controlling Fatty Acids Provided Insights into the Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A.; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line ‘SunOleic 97R’ × low oleic line ‘NC94022’) and T-population (normal oleic line ‘Tifrunner’ × low oleic line ‘GT-C20’) were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  15. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Sarah S.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients’ IgE repertoires may mean that some patients’ IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  16. Characterization of IgE-binding epitopes of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) PNA lectin allergen cross-reacting with other structurally related legume lectins.

    PubMed

    Rougé, Pierre; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Rancé, Fabienne; Barre, Annick

    2010-08-01

    Sera from peanut allergic patients contain IgE that specifically interact with the peanut lectin PNA and other closely related legume lectins like LcA from lentil, PsA from pea and PHA from kidney bean. The IgE-binding activity of PNA and legume lectins was assessed by immunoblotting, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA measurements, using sera from peanut allergic patients as a IgE source. This IgE-binding cross-reactivity most probably depends on the occurrence of structurally related epitopes that have been identified on the molecular surface of PNA and other legume lectins. These epitopes definitely differ from those responsible for the allergenicity of the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3, also recognized by the IgE-containing sera of peanut allergic patients. Peanut lectin PNA and other legume lectins have been characterized as potential allergens for patients allergic to edible legume seeds. However, the clinical significance of the lectin-IgE interaction has to be addressed. PMID:20541807

  17. First insights into the microbiome of a carnivorous sponge.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Samuel; Corre, Erwan; Li, Yanyan; Vacelet, Jean; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2013-12-01

    Using 454 pyrosequencing, we characterized for the first time the associated microbial community of the deep-sea carnivorous Demosponge Asbestopluma hypogea (Cladorhizidae). Targeting the 16S rRNA gene V3 and V6 hypervariable regions, we compared the diversity and composition of associated microbes of two individual sponges of A. hypogea freshly collected in the cave with surrounding seawater and with one sponge sample maintained 1 year in an aquarium after collection. With more than 22 961 high quality sequences from sponge samples, representing c. 800 operational taxonomic units per sponge sample at 97% sequence similarities, the phylogenetic affiliation of A. hypogea-associated microbes was assigned to 20 bacterial and two archaeal phyla, distributed into 45 classes and 95 orders. Several differences between the sponge and seawater microbes were observed, highlighting a specific and stable A. hypogea microbial community dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes and Thaumarchaeota phyla. A high relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and a dominance of sulfate oxidizing/reducing bacteria were observed. Our findings shed lights on the potential roles of associated microbial community in the lifestyle of A. hypogea. PMID:23845054

  18. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci of Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and Leaf Spots in a Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from SunOleic 97R and NC94022.

    PubMed

    Khera, Pawan; Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Hui; Feng, Suping; Qiao, Lixian; Culbreath, Albert K; Kale, Sandip; Wang, Jianping; Holbrook, C Corley; Zhuang, Weijian; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots which will cause significant yield loss. The most sustainable, economical and eco-friendly solution for managing peanut diseases is development of improved cultivars with high level of resistance. We developed a recombinant inbred line population from the cross between SunOleic 97R and NC94022, named as the S-population. An improved genetic linkage map was developed for the S-population with 248 marker loci and a marker density of 5.7 cM/loci. This genetic map was also compared with the physical map of diploid progenitors of tetraploid peanut, resulting in an overall co-linearity of about 60% with the average co-linearity of 68% for the A sub-genome and 47% for the B sub-genome. The analysis using the improved genetic map and multi-season (2010-2013) phenotypic data resulted in the identification of 48 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) from 3.88 to 29.14%. Of the 48 QTLs, six QTLs were identified for resistance to TSWV, 22 QTLs for early leaf spot (ELS) and 20 QTLs for late leaf spot (LLS), which included four, six, and six major QTLs (PVE larger than 10%) for each disease, respectively. A total of six major genomic regions (MGR) were found to have QTLs controlling more than one disease resistance. The identified QTLs and resistance gene-rich MGRs will facilitate further discovery of resistance genes and development of molecular markers for these important diseases. PMID:27427980

  19. QTL mapping & quantitative disease resistance to TSWV and leaf spots in a recombinant inbred line population SunOleic 97R and C94022 of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is susceptible to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early leaf spot (ELS) and late leaf spot (LLS). Breeding line NC94022 has been identified with the highest resistance to TSWV in the field. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a highly effective approach fo...

  20. Simultaneous analysis of herbicides pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen, imazethapyr and quizalofop-p-ethyl by LC-MS/MS and safety evaluation of their harvest time residues in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Saha, Ajoy; Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik; Hingmire, Sandip; Bhaduri, Debarati; Jain, N K; Utture, Sagar

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a simple and rapid method for simultaneous determination of the residues of selected herbicides viz. pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen, imazethapyr and quizalofop-p-ethyl in peanut by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A modified approach of the QuEChERS methodology was used to extract the herbicides from the peanut kernel without any clean-up. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) with no significant matrix effect. Accuracy of the method in terms of average recoveries of all the four herbicides ranged between 69.4 -94.4 % at spiking levels of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25 mg kg(-1) with intra-day and inter-day precision RSD (%) between 2.6-16.6 and 8.0-11.3, respectively. Limit of quantification (LOQs) was 5.0 μg kg(-1) for pendimethalin, imazethapyr and quizalofop-p-ethyl and 10.0 μg kg(-1) for oxyfluorfen. The expanded uncertainties were <11 % for determination of these herbicides in peanut. The proposed method was successfully applied for analysis of these herbicide residues in peanut samples harvested from the experimental field and the residues were below the detection level. PMID:26139867

  1. Mapping quantitative trait loci conferring resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus and leaf spots in a recombinant inbred line population derived from SunOleic 97R and NC94022 in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots. The most sustainable and economical solution for managing peanut diseases is development of resistance cultivars. The new breeding line NC94022, high resistance to TSWV and moderate resistance to le...

  2. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci of Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and Leaf Spots in a Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from SunOleic 97R and NC94022

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Suping; Qiao, Lixian; Culbreath, Albert K.; Kale, Sandip; Wang, Jianping; Holbrook, C. Corley; Zhuang, Weijian; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots which will cause significant yield loss. The most sustainable, economical and eco-friendly solution for managing peanut diseases is development of improved cultivars with high level of resistance. We developed a recombinant inbred line population from the cross between SunOleic 97R and NC94022, named as the S-population. An improved genetic linkage map was developed for the S-population with 248 marker loci and a marker density of 5.7 cM/loci. This genetic map was also compared with the physical map of diploid progenitors of tetraploid peanut, resulting in an overall co-linearity of about 60% with the average co-linearity of 68% for the A sub-genome and 47% for the B sub-genome. The analysis using the improved genetic map and multi-season (2010–2013) phenotypic data resulted in the identification of 48 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) from 3.88 to 29.14%. Of the 48 QTLs, six QTLs were identified for resistance to TSWV, 22 QTLs for early leaf spot (ELS) and 20 QTLs for late leaf spot (LLS), which included four, six, and six major QTLs (PVE larger than 10%) for each disease, respectively. A total of six major genomic regions (MGR) were found to have QTLs controlling more than one disease resistance. The identified QTLs and resistance gene-rich MGRs will facilitate further discovery of resistance genes and development of molecular markers for these important diseases. PMID:27427980

  3. Peanuts and their nutritional aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is a legume crop that belongs to the family of Fabaceae, genus Arachis, and botanically named as Arachis hypogaea. Peanuts are consumed in many forms such as boiled peanuts, peanut oil, peanut butter, roasted peanuts, and added peanut meal in snack food, energy bars and candies. Peanuts are c...

  4. Astronomical Orientations in Sanctuaries of Daunia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.; Polcaro, V. F.; Sisto, A. M. Tunzi; Zupone, M. Lo

    2015-05-01

    Prehistoric sanctuaries of Daunia date back several thousand years. During the Neolithic and Bronze Ages the farmers in that region dug hypogea and holes whose characteristics suggest a ritual use. In the present article we summarize the results of the astronomical analysis of the orientation of the rows of holes in three different sites, and we point out the possible use of the setting of the stars of Centaurus. An interesting archaeological confirmation of an archaeoastronomical prediction is also reported.

  5. Aflatoxin contamination of Nigerian foods and feedingstuffs.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Atiku, A A; Lamorde, A G

    1994-01-01

    Human foods and animal feeds, and ingredients used for their preparation or formulation in Nigeria, were surveyed between 1988 and 1991 for the presence of the fungal metabolite and animal carcinogen aflatoxin. Groundnut and groundnut-containing materials were the most heavily contaminated, the highest value (1862 ppb) being found in a groundnut cake sample. This mycotoxin was also detected occasionally, but to a lesser extent, in some grains and cereals that are of nutritional importance in human foods and the livestock industry in Nigeria. The toxicological implications of this finding are discussed in relation to human health and animal production. PMID:8132166

  6. Bioconversion of low quality lignocellulosic agricultural waste into edible protein by Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Vijay Panjabrao; Patil, Shyam Sopanrao; Syed, Abrar Ahmed; Baig, Mirza Mushtaq Vaseem

    2007-01-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer was cultivated on selected agro wastes viz. cotton stalks, groundnut haulms, soybean straw, pigeon pea stalks and leaves and wheat straw, alone or in combinations. Cotton stalks, pigeon pea stalks and wheat straw alone or in combination were found to be more suitable than groundnut haulms and soybean straw for the cultivation. Organic supplements such as groundnut oilseed cake, gram powder and rice bran not only affected growth parameters but also increased yields. Thus bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. sajor-caju offers a promising way to convert low quality biomass into an improved human food. PMID:17910118

  7. Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Varieties by aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, V.; Bhat, Ramesh V.

    1973-01-01

    Levels of aflatoxin produced in peanuts differed with the genetic variety of plant and with the species and strain of invading fungus. Possibilities for identifying groundnut varieties partially resistant to aflatoxin production are discussed. PMID:4632857

  8. Simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mapping, forward genetic analyses, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) have been intractable in intraspecific populations of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), primarily because domestication and breeding bottlenecks have narrowed genetic diversity and depleted DNA polymorphisms. The DNA...

  9. Development of introgression lines and advanced backcross QTL analysis for disease resistance, oil quality and yield component traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ploidy difference between wild Arachis species and cultivated genotypes hinder transfer of useful alleles for agronomically important traits. To overcome this genetic barrier, several synthetics have been developed at ICRISAT. Furthermore, two synthetic amphidiploids viz., ISATGR 1212 (A. duranensis...

  10. Yield response of new runner-type peanut cultivars to fungicide inputs for leaf spot control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early and late leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum, respectively, cause substantial economic losses in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) through direct reduction of yield and costs associated with fungicidal control. Recently, several new peanut cultivars have been rele...

  11. Formulation and evaluation of indomethacin biomicroparticles.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sudeep; Gaur, Pawan; Soam, Kulwant; Suyal, Ruchi; Rana, Vinod; Dabral, Prashant

    2012-03-01

    Indomethacin microparticles prepared by extraction of bio polymer from arachis hypogen. in vitro drug release study was carried out through egg shell membrane for 3 hrs and analyzed sample by UV spectroscopy at 320 nm. A novel bio membrane from arachis hypogen was isolated by simplify economical process. The % yield was found to be 80% and particle range was 32-65 μm. PMID:23066194

  12. A Study of Krebs Citric Acid Cycle Enzymes in Rice Larvae (Corcyrace phalonica St) During Mycotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Umashashi C.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

    1967-01-01

    Krebs citric acid cycle enzymes have been studied in rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica St) reared in groundnut meal control and contaminated with A. flavus, wheat bran control and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus and also wheat bran containing aflatoxin. It was observed that the activity of enzymes other than succinic oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase and isocitric dehydrogenase were reduced significantly in larvae reared in contaminated groundnut meal when compared with the control. In the case of larvae reared in contaminated wheat bran all the enzymes except succinic oxidase were inhibited when compared to the control larvae. It was also observed that the inhibition of these enzymes is greater in the case of larvae reared in contaminated wheat bran than in contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran has been discussed. PMID:4229935

  13. Effect of oilseed cakes on alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, T; Chandra, A K

    1982-08-01

    The effects of oilseed cakes on extracellular thermostable alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305 was investigated. Each oilseed cake was made of groundnut, mustard, sesame, linseed, coconut copra, madhuca, or cotton. alpha-Amylase production was considerably improved in all instances and varied with the oilseed cake concentration in basal medium containing peptone and beef extract. Maximum increases were effected by a low concentration (0.5 to 1.0%) of groundnut or coconut, a high concentration (3%) of linseed or mustard, and an Rintermediate concentration (2%) of cotton, madhuca, or sesame. The oilseed cakes made of groundnut or mustard could completely replace the conventional peptone-beef extract medium as the fermentation base for the production of alpha-amylase by B. licheniformis. The addition of corn steep liquor to cotton, linseed, sesame, or madhuca cake in the medium improved alpha-amylase production. PMID:6181738

  14. Effect of oilseed cakes on alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, T; Chandra, A K

    1982-01-01

    The effects of oilseed cakes on extracellular thermostable alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305 was investigated. Each oilseed cake was made of groundnut, mustard, sesame, linseed, coconut copra, madhuca, or cotton. alpha-Amylase production was considerably improved in all instances and varied with the oilseed cake concentration in basal medium containing peptone and beef extract. Maximum increases were effected by a low concentration (0.5 to 1.0%) of groundnut or coconut, a high concentration (3%) of linseed or mustard, and an Rintermediate concentration (2%) of cotton, madhuca, or sesame. The oilseed cakes made of groundnut or mustard could completely replace the conventional peptone-beef extract medium as the fermentation base for the production of alpha-amylase by B. licheniformis. The addition of corn steep liquor to cotton, linseed, sesame, or madhuca cake in the medium improved alpha-amylase production. PMID:6181738

  15. In situ degradability and selected ruminal constituents of sheep fed with peanut forage hay.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gisele Machado; Possenti, Rosana Aparecida; Teixeira de Mattos, Waldssimiler; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida; Junior, Evaldo Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Because legumes are a very important feed source for ruminants, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ideal inclusion level of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in sheep diets by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI), concentration of volatile fatty acids, ammonia-nitrogen concentration, ruminal pH and the in situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP). In the experiment with four sheep, a 4 × 4 Latin Square design was used with four periods and four treatments (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% Arachis replacing grass hay). Significant interactions were observed between treatments and sampling times for ammonia-nitrogen and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by interaction between treatments and sampling time. The degradation of DM and CP was similar, rising with the increasing content of Arachis, showing a linear effect. The treatment containing 60% of Arachis showed best results, with good levels of daily weight gain and higher ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids. The legume showed high levels of CP, high digestibility and appropriate levels of fibre, with excellent standards of degradation and ruminal characteristics. The use of the legume  Arachis for ruminants is a promising option of nutrient supply to meet production demands of these animals. PMID:24016145

  16. Toxicity of Different Diets Contaminated with Various Fungi to Rice Moth Larvae (Corcyra Cephalonica St.)

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Umashashi C.; Chandra, T.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

    1967-01-01

    Growth studies of rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st) have been carried out in groundnut meal and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus, A. oryzae, P. purpurogenus and P. rubrum. It was observed that the diets contaminated with A. flavus only are toxic to these larvae. Wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus is more toxic than contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran contaminated diet has been discussed. Aflatoxins produced in different substrata are shown to differ when analysed chromatographically. Growth studies of rice moth larvae have also been carried out with aflatoxin and the susceptibility of these larvae has been established. PMID:4227044

  17. Western flower thrips and tospoviruses emerging as serious threats to tomato in central and southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of Tomato chlorotic spot virus and/or Groundnut ringspot virus have occurred in every season since their introduction into south Florida, and with each subsequent season disease severity has increased. In addition, these emerging viruses are widely present in southeast and southwest Florid...

  18. Achievements and prospects of genomics-assisted breeding in three legume crops of the semi-arid tropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies have enabled generation of several thousand markers including SSRs, SNPs, DArTs, hundreds of thousands transcript reads and BAC-end sequences in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, three major legume crops of the semi-arid tropics. Comprehensive tran...

  19. Further Insights Into The Epidemiology And Monitoring Practices Of Tomato Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of serious virus threats to tomato production in Florida. These include the whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and, more recently, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) which are both vectored by thrips. GRSV and TCSV are cl...

  20. Effect of legume seed extracts on the inhibition of proteolytic activity and muscle degradation of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors in the extracts from soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and red kidney bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) varied in amount and molecular weight. The soybean extract had the highest level of trypsin inhibitor with molecular weight (MW) of 21kDa, followed by bambara groundnut extract possessing trypsin inhibitor with MW of 15kDa. Both extracts showed a more effective inhibition towards crude protease extract (CE) from the hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) than the extracts from adzuki and red kidney beans. Activity staining also reconfirmed the higher inhibitory activity on CE from hepatopancreas by the extracts from both soybean and bambara groundnut. The extracts from all seeds were able to inhibit the degradation of fresh water prawn meat containing CE in a concentration dependent manner. Based on inhibitor study, the extracts from soybean and bambara groundnut can be a potential aid to suppress the muscle softening of fresh water prawn, mediated by trypsin-like proteases released from hepatopancreas, during extended iced storage. PMID:25212342

  1. Tospo-Resistant Variety Outlook for South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and/or Groundnut ringspot virus have occurred every season since being introduced to south Florida. With each subsequent season disease severity has increased. Use of insecticides for management of the thrips vector has proven ineffective in p...

  2. Biological Controls for Aflatoxin Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin exposure is frequent and widespread in most African countries where the key staples, maize and groundnut, are particularly vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin-producing fungi are ubiquitous in Africa where they occupy soil and colonize diverse organic matter while producing sp...

  3. New thrips-transmitted plant viruses in Florida crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thrips-transmitted tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus are present in south Florida. All three species cause economically significant disease in vegetable and ornamental crops, and may also be problematic in peanut. Control of both t...

  4. A natural M RNA reassortant arising from two species of plant-and-insect-infecting bunyaviruses and comparison of its sequences and biological properties to parental species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nucleic acid sequencing of viruses collected from Florida tomatoes contained a reassortment of two distinct species with the S and L segments belonging to Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), whereas the M segment belonged to tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV). Inoculations on resistance gene containin...

  5. Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, or groundnut, is a New World legume that is believed to be native to South America. Discovered in the 1500s by early Spanish and Portuguese explorers as an extensively cultivated crop of the Indians in the West Indian Islands, Mesoamerica and South America, peanut was disseminated throughou...

  6. Tospovirus emergence, interspecific reassortment and mixed infections in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) emerged in Florida in 2009 and 2012, respectively, joining Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), as economic threats to horticultural and agronomic crops in the southeastern U.S. Currently, GRSV, TCSV and TSWV infect solanaceous veg...

  7. Thrips transmission of a tospovirus reassortment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In late 2009 an M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and the closely related Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was detected in tomato in south Florida. A subsequent increase in geographic and host ranges has been documented. Previous studies of the thrips vector specificities for ...

  8. Population dyanamics of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanopatera: Thripidae) and the predator Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) as influenced by flower color of Lagerstroemia (Lythraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips are important vectors of tospoviruses including Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus. Minute pirate bugs are important predators of thrips worldwide. The studies reported here examine the relationship between thrips, minute pirate bugs and the ...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain RHNK22, Isolated from Rhizosphere with Biosurfactant (Surfactin, Iturin, and Fengycin) and Antifungal Activity.

    PubMed

    Narendra Kumar, Papathoti; Swapna, T H; Sathi Reddy, Koppula; Archana, K; Nageshwar, Lingampalli; Nalini, S; Khan, Mohamed Yahya; Hameeda, Bee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain RHNK22 isolated from groundnut rhizosphere showed direct and indirect plant growth-promoting traits along with biosurfactant activity and reduction in surface tension of water. Biosurfactants were identified as lipopeptides (surfactin, iturin, and fengycin) by molecular and biochemical analysis in our studies. PMID:26823600

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain RHNK22, Isolated from Rhizosphere with Biosurfactant (Surfactin, Iturin, and Fengycin) and Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Narendra Kumar, Papathoti; Swapna, T. H.; Sathi Reddy, Koppula; Archana, K.; Nageshwar, Lingampalli; Nalini, S.; Khan, Mohamed Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain RHNK22 isolated from groundnut rhizosphere showed direct and indirect plant growth-promoting traits along with biosurfactant activity and reduction in surface tension of water. Biosurfactants were identified as lipopeptides (surfactin, iturin, and fengycin) by molecular and biochemical analysis in our studies. PMID:26823600

  11. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet reports current management recommendations for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus and the thrips that transmits each of these viruses. All three viruses are important pathogens for Florida tomato crops. This information is useful for...

  12. Detection and characterization of tomato viruses: A case study of emerging tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) emerged in solanaceous vegetables in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from t...

  13. Vegetable viruses emerging in Florida and the Caribbean region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and a natural Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) reassortant (LGMTSG) with GRSV S and L RNAs and a TCSV M RNA have recently emerged and joined previously established Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as economically important vegetable pathogens in south Florida. TCSV...

  14. Thrips-vectored tospoviruses in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus are all thrips-transmitted tospoviruses and are present in south Florida. All three species cause economically significant disease in vegetable and ornamental crops including tomato, pepper and annual vinca. Use of...

  15. Registration of high-oleic peanut germplasm line ARSOK-S1 (TX996784) with enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight and pod rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high oleic Spanish peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) germplasm line ARSOK-S1 was developed cooperatively between the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Texas AgriLife Research, and Oklahoma State University, and was released in 2013. ARSOK-S1 (tested early as TX99678...

  16. Broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum effects on peanut yield and uptake of nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop that requires large amounts of soluble calcium and phosphorus. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) and super phosphate (SP) have been used for calcium and phosphorus fertilizer for peanut. Broiler litter ash (BLA), a high phosphorus byproduct pr...

  17. Effect of Feeding by a Burrower Bug, Pangaeus bilineatus (Say) (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), on Peanut Flavor and Oil Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract A burrower bug, Pangaeus bilineatus (Say) (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), is known to feed extensively on peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., pods; particularly under certain reduced tillage production conditions. These bugs produce a strong odor when infested peanuts are uprooted, and previous anecdot...

  18. An Integrated Linkage Map for Cultivated Peanut Derived from Two RILs Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparable integrated map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was constructed from the integration of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations in which two runner type cultivars, one Spanish type cultivar and one breeding line derived from a cross of Virginia type and hirsuta type wer...

  19. Further investigations into the suitability of peanuts for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted during 2007 at multiple locations to continue investigations into the suitability and practicality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as a biodiesel feedstock. An evaluation was conducted at Dawson, GA, to assess 24 peanut cultivars for performance under low input growing ...

  20. First report of seedling blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on wheat in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important crop in Oklahoma and throughout the Central Plains of the United States. The soilborne fungus, Sclerotium rolfsii, is a major pathogen on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) but is not known to cause major damage on wheat. During September of 1998, damping-off...

  1. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Peanut Seed and Seed Coat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. In a peanut, within the hull and encasing the cotyledon is the seed coat, which is commonly referred to within the peanut industry as the skin. The seed coat is a distinct plant structure critical for seed deve...

  2. Relationships between defoliation by late leaf spot and yield in new runner-type peanut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early and late leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum, respectively, can cause severe losses on susceptible peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars. Losses are primarily due to loss of peg integrity and loss of mature pods when peanut plants are inverted. Losses to bo...

  3. Establishment, agronomic characteristics, and dry matter yield of rhizoma peanut genotypes in cool environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) has potential to provide high quality forage during summer months; however establishment of the stand is slow and cold tolerance is limited. During the three growing seasons from 2006 to 2008, a randomized complete block design experiment was conducted at fo...

  4. Establishment of five cover crops and total soil nutrient extraction in a humid tropical soil in the Peruvian Amazon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the establishment of five cover crops and their potential to increase soil fertility through nutrient extraction, an experiment was installed in the Research Station of Choclino, San Martin, Peru. Five cover crops were planted: Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Greg, Calopogonium m...

  5. Environmental and varietal effects on the niacin content of raw and roasted peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are known to be a source of several important B-vitamins, including niacin (Vitamin B3). A total of 39 Florunner and NC7 samples from the 2007 and 2008 Uniform Peanut Performance Test (UPPT) were analyzed to compare their niacin content from 10 different growing locati...

  6. ESTs are a rich source of polymorphic SSRs for genomics and molecular breeding applications in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Narrow genetic diversity and a deficiency of polymorphic DNA markers have hindered genetic mapping and the application of genomics and molecular breeding approaches in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). We developed and mined a peanut EST database for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), assessed t...

  7. Endophytic associations and production of mycotoxins by the Aspergillus section Nigri species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli) are considered plant pathogens of maize (Zea mays) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) where they can cause similar disease symptoms as Fusarium verticillioides, such as seedling blight. However, the main concern with black aspergi...

  8. Molecular Characterization of the US Peanut Mini Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the second-most important legume crop in the United States. A limitation to increased peanut productivity is that peanut improvement is hampered by relatively low genetic variability in the germplasm commonly used by breeding programs. To facilitate accessibility to...

  9. Physiological genomics of abiotic stress responses in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) accessions from the U.S. mini-core collection were independently evaluated for heat and water-deficit stress tolerance using a battery of physiological assays including leaf-level gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence yield, membrane thermostability, leaf sugar content,...

  10. Analysis of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut seed testa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) contain numerous phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These secondary metabolites may be isolated as co-products from peanut skins or testae during peanut processing and have potential use in functional food or feed formulations. Peanut skins w...

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), in peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in peanut-cotton farmscapes. ...

  12. Germplasm evaluation of Rhizoma peanut for growth and forage potential.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a warm-season perennial forage legume, adapted to southern USA. It has similar dry matter (DM) and nutritive value to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Recent studies indicated that rhizoma peanut can be grown further north (zone '8b) than previously suggest...

  13. Molecular Diversity of the peanut rust pathogen and its host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia arachidis Speg is the causal agent of peanut rust, an important foliar disease of peanut in mainly low input peanut (Arachis hypogaea) producing countries with warm, tropical climates. Management of this disease in these countries is best realized through host resistance. Knowledge on the v...

  14. Genetic polymorphism of Puccinia arachidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia arachidis Speg is the causal agent of peanut rust, an important foliar disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in mainly low input peanut producing countries with warm, tropical climates. Management of this disease in these countries is best realized through host resistance. Knowledge on the v...

  15. Tillage Requirments for integrating winter-annual grazing in peanut production: Plant water status and productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of crop rotation systems involving winter-annual grazing can help peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producers increase profitability, although winter-annual grazing could result in excessive soil compaction, which can severely limit yields. We conducted a 3-yr field study on a Dothan loamy sand i...

  16. Tillage systems for cotton-peanut rotations following winter-annual grazing: impact on soil carbon, nitrogen and physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrating livestock with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production systems by grazing winter-annuals can offer additional income for producers provided it does not result in excessive soil compaction. We conducted a 3-yr field study on a Dothan loamy sand (fine-loa...

  17. Contributions of plant introductions to the ancestry of current U.S. peanut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant introductions (PIs) have been used in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) improvement in the U.S.A. since the inception of peanut breeding there in the 1930s. One might think that the era of screening collections of PIs for pest resistances or other economically important traits then crossing selecte...

  18. Registration of ‘AU-1101’ peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AU-1101’ (Reg. No. CV-xxx, PI 661498) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with high yield and medium maturity, uniform pod size and shape, high grade, superior shelling characters, low oil content, normal oleic acid content, and good flavor. AU-...

  19. In-field Peanut Processing for Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The costs and environmental impact for using petroleum-based fuels such as diesel, has triggered considerable interest in the development of sustainable, on-farm biodiesel production systems. Field studies have demonstrated that a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can produce 1138 kg/ha of peanut oil at ...

  20. Microbial community structure and functionality under peanut based cropping systems in a sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information on soil microbial and biochemical properties, important for nutrient cycling and organic matter dynamics, as affected by different peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cropping systems and how they relate to soil quality and functioning and system sustainability. We studied a sa...

  1. The Effects of Roast Intensity on the Texture of Peanut Paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texture is central to consumer acceptability of peanut butter and peanut-based food products in general. The majority of peanuts are roasted; however, the effect of this operation on peanut texture was unclear. Accordingly, runner peanut seed (Arachis hypogaea L.) were dry roasted in a forced air co...

  2. Proteomics of water-deficit stress in US peanut mini core accesions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) accessions from the US mini core collection were analyzed for differentially expressed leaf proteins during reproductive stage under water-deficit stress. Accessions showing tolerant and susceptible responses to stress were selected based on a bioassay involving chloroph...

  3. Peanut Performance and Weed Management in a High Residue Cover crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicates conservation tillage is a viable option for successful peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production, but more study is needed to help understand interactions between cover crop residues and peanut production. Specifically, additional information is needed about the effects o...

  4. Registration of 'OLé' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLé peanut (experimental designation ARSOK-S140-1OL) is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) that was cooperatively released by the USDA-ARS and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station in 2014. OLé is the product of a Tamspan 90 X F435, the ori...

  5. QTLs from genome to field using markers and genetic maps for peanut improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America where several stress factors together adversely affect productivity. Collaborative efforts led development of large scale genomic resources setting platform for genomics-assisted breeding (GA...

  6. COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION OF PEANUT RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists on the mineralizable nitrogen (N) content of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residue. The objective of this study was to determine the N contribution of pre- and post harvest peanut residue on two soil types. Aboveground peanut residue (cv. Georgia Green) was collected prio...

  7. Utilization of SNP, SSR, and biochemical data to evaluate genetic and phenotypic diversity in the U.S. peanut germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein, phytochemicals such as resveratrol, and antioxidants such as tocopherol and folic acid; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The genetic diversity and population stru...

  8. MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN SEMIARID AGRICULTURAL SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of management on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of three semiarid soils from Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in cotton -peanut (Arachis h...

  9. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  10. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  11. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  12. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  13. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  14. Resistance to Aspergillus flavus in maize and peanut: Molecular biology, breeding, environmental stress and future perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The colonization of maize (Zea mays L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus results in the contamination with carcinogenic mycotoxins known as aflatoxins leading to economic losses as well as a potential health threat to human. The interactio...

  15. Effects of seeding rate and cultivar on tomato spotted wilt of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is a very serious problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in the southeastern U.S. Establishment of within row plant densities of 13 or more plants/m of row moderately resistant cultivars is recommended as p...

  16. Development and evaluation of peanut germplasm with resistance to Aspergillus flavus from core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the main oil and cash crops in the world, is susceptible to Aspergillus flavus, resulting in loss in quality. Aspergillus flavus infection is a problem for peanut production and industry in China. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new peanut germplasm with ...

  17. Temporal and spatial distribution of an invasive thrips species Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersion of a new invasive thrips species, chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, was studied on three hosts, i.e., cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in the greenhouse and under field conditions in Homestead, Florida. The study of horizo...

  18. Registration of Peanut Germplasm Line TifGP-1 with Resistance to the Root-knot Nematode and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TifGP-1 (Reg. No. , PI ) is a runner-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) germplasm line that was released by the USDA-ARS and the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations in 2006. This material was released based on resistance to both tomato spotted wilt (caused b...

  19. Multiple disease reistances in a medium-maturity peanut cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several diseases limit peanut (Arachis hypogaea) production in the southeastern U.S. Runner-type peanut cultivars with multiple disease resistances have been developed; however, these cultivars have optimal maturity that is 2 to 3 weeks later than standard runner-type cultivars. Most growers prefer...

  20. EFFECTS OF WEED, DISEASE, AND INSECT CONTROL MEASURES ON SENSORY QUALITY OF PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) products is the main reason that consumers buy them. We previously documented a decline in the intensity of roasted peanut sensory attribute in Florunner and NC 7 peanuts over a 15-year period. Because the same two genotypes were evaluated throughout...

  1. Physiology and proteomics of the water-deficit stress response in three contrasting peanut genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) accessions from the US mini core collection were analyzed for differentially expressed leaf proteins during reproductive stage under water-deficit stress. Accessions showing tolerant and susceptible responses to stress were selected based on a bioassay involving chloroph...

  2. Transcript and Proteome Response to Water-deficit and Thermal Stress in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes from the U.S. mini-core collection were screened for contrasting responses to slow-onset water-deficit and supra-optimal temperature. Seventy accessions were initially screened for basal thermotolerance, photosynthetic response, cellular damage, and recovery f...

  3. Putative peanut TSWV resistance gene(s) and development of markers for breeding selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus, transmitted to plant via thrips, is a destructive pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV has caused a very serious problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producing areas in US. In past decades, different tactics (resistant cultivars, chemical, crop rotation and othe...

  4. Recombination is suppressed in an alien introgression in peanut harboring Rma, a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rma, a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene introduced into tetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea) from a synthetic allotetraploid donor (TxAG-6), has been widely deployed in modern cultivars. The genomic location and borders of the alien chromosome segment introgressed from TxAG-6 into NemaTAM...

  5. Biology, speciation, and utilization of peanut species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Arachis has a large number of highly diverse species. Large collections of cultivated peanut exist at multiple locations and several hundreds of wild species are maintained in germplasm banks. Many of the species have been characterized for agronomic traits, but much of the germplasm colle...

  6. Chemical Interruption of Flowering to Improve Harvested Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a botanically indeterminate plant where flowering, fruit initiation, and pod maturity occurs over an extended time period during the growing season. As a result, the maturity and size of individual peanut pods varies considerably at harvest. Immature kernels that meet...

  7. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their intended use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea...

  8. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  9. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  10. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  11. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Apricot kernel (persic oil) Prunus armeniaca L. Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine Arachis hypogaea L. Persic oil (see apricot kernel and peach kernel) Quince...

  12. Peanut response to starter fertilizer, tillage, and planting date interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starter fertilizers are used in some crops for rapid early season establishment and growth. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), fast growth beyond emergence may allow for earlier planting, especially in strip-till management, and the ability to quickly grow through early season thrips feeding, thus po...

  13. The U.S. breeding program to develop peanut with drought tolerance and reduced aflatoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination costs the U.S. peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) industry over $20 million annually. The development of peanut cultivars with resistance to preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) would reduce these costs. Screening techniques have been developed that can measure genetic differ...

  14. Peanut, Cotton, and Corn Yield and Partial Net Income with Two Surface Drip Lateral Spacings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface drip irrigation laterals were spaced next to crop rows (0.91 m) and in alternate row middles (1.83 m) to document crop yield and partial net economic returns compared with non-irrigated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and corn (Zea mays). A drip irrigation system was ...

  15. Comparative assessment of herbicide and fungicide runoff risk: a case study for peanut production in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is produced intensively in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern USA. To effectively protect the region’s water quality data are needed which quantify runoff of pesticides used to protect these crops. Fungicides are used intensively yet there is little publishe...

  16. Developing an in vitro method to assess aflatoxin biosynthesis suppression in Aspergillus flavus through RNAi technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil-inhabitant fungus Aspergillus flavus is consistently associated with agronomical fields, where it promptly colonizes important crops such as corn (Zea mays) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). The consumption of A. flavus-contaminated of food grains poses a potential threat for human and animal...

  17. Proteomic analysis of differential protein expression and processing induced modifications in peanuts and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. Proteomics has become a powerful tool in plant research; however, studies involving legumes, and especially peanuts, are in their infancy. Furthermore, protein expression in the peanut seed coat (skin), which is...

  18. Roadmap of the USDA peanut germplasm collection: past, present and future direction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS PGRCU maintains the second largest Arachis germplasm collection in the world with 9,321 cultivated and 655 wild entries. In the last twenty years, USA germplasm has been provided to over 52 countries around the world for research and breeding purposes. This collection has proven to be...

  19. Comparison of peanut gentics and physical maps provided insights on collinearity, reversions and translocations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and physical maps are the valuable resources for peanut research community in understanding genome organization and serving as the basis for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection. Physical maps of two diploid wild peanut progenitor species, Arachis duranensis (A genome) and A. ipae...

  20. Registration of "Sugg" Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Sugg’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with partial resistance to four diseases that occur commonly in the Virginia-Carolina production area: early leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Cylindroc...

  1. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  2. REGISTRATION OF 'CHAMPS' PEANUT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut growers in the Virginia-North Carolina area need new cultivars with enhanced grade characteristics such as brighter pod color, earlier maturity, higher value, and increased disease resistance in order to meet market demands. ‘CHAMPS’ is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L....

  3. Yield and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) and furrow diking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) was installed yearly in conjunction with furrow diking to document yield and economic benefit of these techniques on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). This research was conducted for three years from 2005...

  4. PROPAGATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF PERENNIAL PEANUTS FOR GROUND COVERS ALONG ROADSIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Arachis pintoi cultivars and accessions have the potential for use as ground covers along roadsides and highway ramps. They tolerate drought conditions, grow well in both sandy and calcareous soils of low fertility, fix N, recycle nutrients, prevent soil erosion through a thick above-ground co...

  5. High-oleic Virginia peanuts in the Southwestern US: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in t...

  6. Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic methods in their production. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are materials used in organic weed control. These were used alone, or in conjunction with cultivation, to evaluate their ef...

  7. Resveratrol Content in Seeds of Peanut Germlasm Quantified by HPLC.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound uniquely identified in plants greatly contributes to human health. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds of 20 germplasm accessions were harvested from the same field and used for resveratrol analysis by high performance liqui...

  8. Chemical and flavor profiles of genetically modified peanut varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop throughout the world. It is susceptible to many types of fungal pathogens. Genetic engineering offers great potential for developing peanut cultivars resistant to a broad spectrum of pathogens that pose a recurring threat to peanut hea...

  9. Microbial community structure and functionality under peanut based cropping systems in a sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on soil microbial and biochemical properties, important for understanding nutrient cycling and organic matter (OM) dynamics, as affected by different peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cropping systems and how they relate to soil functioning. Peanut is typically produced i...

  10. The impact of a parasitic nematode Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the feeding behavior and vector competence of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least seven thrips species reported to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipp...

  11. Relationship between root characteristics of peanut in hydroponics and pot studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large root system can be an important character for drought tolerance. Measuring root characteristics in soil medium is tedious, time consuming, and labor intensive. The objective of this study was to determine the association between root characteristics of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Grown in...

  12. Effect of gypsum application on mineral composition in peanut pod walls and seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alleviation of soil-Ca deficiency through gypsum amendment increases the yield potential and ensures high seed quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The effects of gypsum treatment, plant life cycle stage, and the fruit development stages on the accrual of several essential minerals (Ca, S, Mg, P...

  13. Registration of 'Red River Runner' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Red River Runner' (tested as TX 994313) is a high oleic runner peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivar cooperatively developed and released by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Texas AgriLife Research and Extension, and Oklahoma Agricultura...

  14. Registration of ‘Titan’ Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Titan’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea), developed and tested as VT 9506083-3 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in May 2010. In Virginia, Titan was tested from 1997 to 2005 at several locations thr...

  15. Generating a Natural Porcine Model of Gastrointestinal Food Allergy to Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an extremely potent allergen and is one of the most life-threatening food sensitivities known. Peanuts cause the majority of food-related anaphylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults. There is no good animal model currently in place to study peanut allergies. Exp...

  16. Tomato spotted wilt and early leaf spot reactions in peanut genotypes from the U.S. and China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), and early leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola are important diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). As part of a study examining genotypic and phenotypic variation, disease reactions to these two diseases were evaluated in twe...

  17. Tomato spotted wilt and early leaf spot reaction in peanut genotypes from the U.S. and China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), and early leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola are important diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). As part of a study examining genotypic and phenotypic variation, disease reactions to these two diseases were evaluated in twe...

  18. Variability in field response of peanut genotypes from the U.S. and China to tomato spotted wilt virus and leaf spots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips, and early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola) and late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum) are among the most important diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in the southeastern United States. The objective ...

  19. Field evaluations of leaf spot resistance and yield in peanut genotypes in the United States and Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2002-2006 to characterize yield potential and disease resistance to Cercospora arachidicola (early leaf spot) and Cercosporidium personatum (late leaf spot) in the Bolivian peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivar, Bayo Grande, and breeding lines developed from crosses ...

  20. Pilot scale production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from aflatoxin contaminated peanut meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the high protein (45-50%) by-product remaining after commercial extraction of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil. Applications of PM are limited to feeds and fertilizers because it typically contains a high concentration of aflatoxin. Recently, our lab has developed a process to r...

  1. SUBMITTED TO NEW JOURNAL (12/06/2002): EFFECT OF PEANUT PLANT FUNGAL INFECTION ON OVIPOSITION PREFERENCE BY SPODOPTERA EXIGUA AND ON HOST SEARCHING BEHAVIOR BY COTESIA MARGINIVENTRIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (1.) In the present study we tested the effect of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Leguminosae), stem infection by the white mold fungus, Sclerotium rolfsii Saccodes (Basidiomycetes), on the oviposition preference of beet armyworms (BAW), Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) and on the host...

  2. EST-based Microsatellite Marker Data Mining and Characterizing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop for oil production. In the recent years, molecular marker technologies have been widely applied to genetic diversity analysis, genetic mapping, molecular marker-assisted breeding, gene tagging and QTLs analysis. However, it is expensive, labor-intens...

  3. Determining the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in a single peanut seed: A comparison of two methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) is among the greatest yield-reducing viruses affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in all peanut-producing states in US. Due to the lack of molecular information on TSWV-isolates that are associated with peanut in the Southwestern states, the aim of this study was ...

  4. Release of Lariat Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lariat is a high-oleic runner-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Red River Runner. Lariat (experimental designation ARSOK-R35) is the result of a cross between cultivar Red River Ru...

  5. Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitism reduces both the feeding of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peanut and the transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least nine thrips species to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipping & Nguyen, a natural enemy of F....

  6. Characterization of TSWV - isloates infecting peanut in Oklahoma and Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is among the greatest yield-reducing viruses affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in all peanut-producing states in U.S. Due to the lack of molecular information on TSWV-isolates that are associated with peanut in the Southwestern states, the aim of this study was...

  7. Physiological Response to Drought Stress at Different Stages in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major factor in reducing productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the response patterns of relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry mater content (LDMC) to drought stress at three stages of 30 60, and ...

  8. Potential nitrogen credits from peanut residue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of residue nitrogen (N) to succeeding crops is dependent on N mineralization rates during decomposition. Following peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production, extension currently recommends 22-67 kg N ha-1 credit to subsequent crops, but these recommendations are not supported in the liter...

  9. Registration of N96076L peanut germplasm line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N96076L (Reg. no. GP-125, PI 641950) is a large-seeded Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) germplasm line with resistance to multiple diseases including early leafspot (caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori), Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) {caused by Cylindr...

  10. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  11. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium and phosphorus uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  12. Identification and cloning of TSWV resistance gene(s) in cultivated peanuts and development of markers for breeding selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus, transmitted to plant via thrips, is a destructive pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV has caused a very serious problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producing areas in US. In past decades, different tactics (resistant cultivars, chemical, crop rotation and othe...

  13. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  14. Root vs Pod Infection by Root-Knot Nematodes on Aflatoxin Contamination of Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens produced by some Aspergillus spp. Infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria) can lead to an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels when the plants are subjected to drought stress during pod maturation. It is not cle...

  15. Effects of fertilization, tillage, and phorate on thrips and TSWV incidence in early planted peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips feeding is usually more prevalent in early planted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), which often directly results in higher incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Several management tools are available to reduce thrips feeding and/or the threat of TSWV in early planted peanuts, includin...

  16. Analysis of Peanut Seed Oil by NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) were collected from Arachis hypogaea seed samples and used in predictive models to rapidly identify varieties with high oleic acid. The method was developed for shelled peanut seeds with intact testa. Spectra were evaluated initially by principal component an...

  17. Quantification of Niacin and Folate Contents in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are known to be sources of several important B-vitamins, including niacin and folate. Recent research has shown that therapeutic doses of niacin are beneficial for vascular health; therefore, determination of the concentrations found in current varieties in production ...

  18. Soil organic carbon dynamics in a sod-based rotation on coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A frequently used cropping system in the southeastern Coastal Plain is an annual rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under conventional tillage (CT). The traditional peanut-cotton rotation (TR) often results in erosion and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC). In...

  19. USING GROUND-BASED REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS AS SELECTION CRITERION FOR DROUGHT AND AFLATOXIN RESISTANT PEANUT GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress and aflatoxin contamination continue to challenge peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producers across the U.S. Thus, the continued development of drought and aflatoxin resistant peanut cultivars is essential to maintain productivity under less than ideal growing conditions. Remote sensing...

  20. Aflatoxin-Phytoalexin Interrelationship in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the pathogens that attack peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are of fungal origin. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus invade peanuts and subsequently lead to their contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxins. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination makes peanuts unsafe for consumption and is a major ...

  1. Transglutaminase Effects of the Rheological Characteristics of Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION: Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a stable food commodity around the world. In the last few decades, peanut flour (PF) has been used as a food ingredient. Previously, microbial transglutaminase(mTGase), an enzyme that catalyzes protein cross-linking via acyl-transfer reactions (1) was ...

  2. Divergence in drought-resistance traits among parents of recombinant peanut inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is often grown in climates of intermittent drought on sandy soils. Plants expressing water-conservative traits would minimize exposure to end-of-season, severe drought. Two traits resulting in conservative transpiration rates (TR s) are limitations on TR with soil dryi...

  3. Proto-historic and Historical Atlantic Navigation: Archaeological Evidence from the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Nuno; Joaquinito, Anabela; Pimenta, Fernando; Sauren, Herbert; Rodrigues, António Félix; Costa, Antonieta; Pereira, António Sérgio; Juliano, Maria de Fraga; Fernandes, Joaquim; Freitas, Ricardo; Ventura, Ricardo; Tirapicos, Luís

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents unpublished data on archaeological sites located in the Azores Islands that suggests the possibility of sailing in ancient times in the Atlantic, namely in the Proto-historic and Roman periods. Several structures, identified as hypogea, are reminiscent of Phoenician sanctuaries and, in their architecture, seem to represent the goddess Tanit. In addition, results of the epigraphic analysis of an inscribed stone, are presented wherein the "god of the Dacians" is mentioned, suggesting their presence in the islands during the Roman period. Overall, these preliminary finds raise new questions regarding the pre-Portuguese occupation of the archipelago as well as pre-compass navigation in the Atlantic, possibly using the stars.

  4. Assessment of the carcinogenic potential of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, M R; Wilson, R; Hepburn, P A

    1998-01-01

    The carcinogenic potential of the food emulsifier ADMUL WOL brand of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) was evaluated in rats and mice. Groups of 60 male and 60 female rats were given purified diets containing 5% of either PGPR or groundnut oil for 2 years. Groups of 25 male and 25 female mice were given purified diets containing 5% of either PGPR or groundnut oil for 80 weeks. No carcinogenic effect of PGPR was observed. In addition, dietary PGPR had no adverse effect on growth, food consumption, longevity and haematology. Organ weight analysis revealed an increase in liver and kidney weight in both male and female rats and female mice. Histological analysis of tissues revealed no treatment related adverse effects. PMID:9737421

  5. Aflatoxin contamination in food commodities in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Roy, Monika; Harris, Julie; Afreen, Sadia; Deak, Eszter; Gade, Lalitha; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Park, Benjamin; Chiller, Tom; Luby, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    During September 2009, we performed a rapid cross-sectional study to investigate the extent of aflatoxin contamination among common Bangladeshi foods. We collected eight common human food commodities (rice, lentils, wheat flour, dates, betelnut, red chili powder, ginger and groundnuts) and poultry feed samples from two large markets in each of three cities in Bangladesh. We quantified aflatoxin levels from pooled subsamples using fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels were highest in dates and groundnuts (maximum 623 and 423 ng/g), respectively. Samples of betelnut (mean 30.6 ng/g), lentils (mean 21.2 ng/g) and red chili powder (>20 ng/g) also had elevated levels. The mean aflatoxin level among poultry feed samples was 73.0 ng/g. Aflatoxin levels were above the US maximum regulatory levels of 20 ng/g in five of eight commonly ingested human food commodities tested. PMID:24786620

  6. Agricultural waste as a source for the production of silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaibhav, Vineet; Vijayalakshmi, U.; Roopan, S. Mohana

    2015-03-01

    The major interest of the paper deals with the extraction of silica from four natural sources such as rice husk, bamboo leaves, sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shell. These waste materials in large quantities can create a serious environmental problem. Hence, there is a need to adopt proper strategy to reduce the waste. In the present investigation, all the waste materials are subjected to moisture removal in a hot plate and sintered at 900 °C for 7 h. The sintered powder was treated with 1 M NaOH to form sodium silicate and then with 6 M H2SO4 to precipitate silica. The prepared silica powders were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM-EDAX analysis. The silica recovered from different sources was found to vary between 52% and 78%. Magnesium substituted silica was formed from the groundnut waste and further treatment is required to precipitate silica.

  7. Agricultural waste as a source for the production of silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vaibhav, Vineet; Vijayalakshmi, U; Roopan, S Mohana

    2015-03-15

    The major interest of the paper deals with the extraction of silica from four natural sources such as rice husk, bamboo leaves, sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shell. These waste materials in large quantities can create a serious environmental problem. Hence, there is a need to adopt proper strategy to reduce the waste. In the present investigation, all the waste materials are subjected to moisture removal in a hot plate and sintered at 900°C for 7 h. The sintered powder was treated with 1 M NaOH to form sodium silicate and then with 6M H2SO4 to precipitate silica. The prepared silica powders were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM-EDAX analysis. The silica recovered from different sources was found to vary between 52% and 78%. Magnesium substituted silica was formed from the groundnut waste and further treatment is required to precipitate silica. PMID:25576950

  8. Copper, lead and zinc removal from metal-contaminated wastewater by adsorption onto agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Janyasuthiwong, Suthee; Phiri, Sheila M; Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Rene, Eldon R; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural wastes (groundnut shell, orange and banana peel, rice husk, coconut husk and Wawa tree saw dust) as potential cost-effective adsorbent for heavy metal removal from wastewater was evaluated. The effect of pH (2.0-6.0), adsorbent dosage (0.6-2.2 g), contact time (10-130 min) and initial concentration (Pb: 5-105 mg/L, Cu and Zn: 2.5-52.7 mg/L) on the metal removal efficiency and uptake capacity were investigated using response surface methodology to optimize the process conditions. Groundnut shell showed a high potential to remove Cu, Pb and Zn from synthetic wastewater. The highest removal efficiencies with groundnut as the adsorbent were 85% at pH 5.0 for Cu and 98% at pH 3.0 for Pb and Zn. The optimum conditions obtained were 2.5 g adsorbent with 40.7 mg/L Cu at pH 4.4 and 64 min contact time, 2.5 g adsorbent with 196.1 mg/L Pb at pH 5.6 and 60 min contact time and 3.1 g adsorbent with 70.2 mg/L Zn at pH 4.3 and 50 min contact time, for Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. The regeneration of the groundnut shell was possible for a maximum of three cycles using 0.2 M HCl as the desorbing solution without any significant change in the adsorbing efficiency. PMID:26001037

  9. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    PubMed

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes. PMID:23637490

  10. Root Exudate-Induced Alterations in Bacillus cereus Cell Wall Contribute to Root Colonization and Plant Growth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Swarnalee; Rani, T. Swaroopa; Podile, Appa Rao

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs). We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430). There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE), compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE). In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2), in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion. PMID:24205213

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of WRKY Gene Family in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Lin, Jer-Young; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Bi, Yuping; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    WRKY, an important transcription factor family, is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many reports focused on analysis of phylogenetic relationship and biological function of WRKY protein at the whole genome level in different plant species. However, little is known about WRKY proteins in the genome of Arachis species and their response to salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. In this study, we identified 77 and 75 WRKY proteins from the two wild ancestral diploid genomes of cultivated tetraploid peanut, Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis, using bioinformatics approaches. Most peanut WRKY coding genes were located on A. duranensis chromosome A6 and A. ipaënsis chromosome B3, while the least number of WRKY genes was found in chromosome 9. The WRKY orthologous gene pairs in A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis chromosomes were highly syntenic. Our analysis indicated that segmental duplication events played a major role in AdWRKY and AiWRKY genes, and strong purifying selection was observed in gene duplication pairs. Furthermore, we translate the knowledge gained from the genome-wide analysis result of wild ancestral peanut to cultivated peanut to reveal that gene activities of specific cultivated peanut WRKY gene were changed due to SA and JA treatment. Peanut WRKY7, 8 and 13 genes were down-regulated, whereas WRKY1 and 12 genes were up-regulated with SA and JA treatment. These results could provide valuable information for peanut improvement. PMID:27200012

  12. Reference genes for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction expression studies in wild and cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Wild peanut species (Arachis spp.) are a rich source of new alleles for peanut improvement. Plant transcriptome analysis under specific experimental conditions helps the understanding of cellular processes related, for instance, to development, stress response, and crop yield. The validation of these studies has been generally accomplished by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) which requires normalization of mRNA levels among samples. This can be achieved by comparing the expression ratio between a gene of interest and a reference gene which is constitutively expressed. Nowadays there is a lack of appropriate reference genes for both wild and cultivated Arachis. The identification of such genes would allow a consistent analysis of qRT-PCR data and speed up candidate gene validation in peanut. Results A set of ten reference genes were analyzed in four Arachis species (A. magna; A. duranensis; A. stenosperma and A. hypogaea) subjected to biotic (root-knot nematode and leaf spot fungus) and abiotic (drought) stresses, in two distinct plant organs (roots and leaves). By the use of three programs (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) and taking into account the entire dataset, five of these ten genes, ACT1 (actin depolymerizing factor-like protein), UBI1 (polyubiquitin), GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), 60S (60S ribosomal protein L10) and UBI2 (ubiquitin/ribosomal protein S27a) emerged as top reference genes, with their stability varying in eight subsets. The former three genes were the most stable across all species, organs and treatments studied. Conclusions This first in-depth study of reference genes validation in wild Arachis species will allow the use of specific combinations of secure and stable reference genes in qRT-PCR assays. The use of these appropriate references characterized here should improve the accuracy and reliability of gene expression analysis in both wild and cultivated Arachis and

  13. Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related) sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes involved in responses to

  14. The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Loyola, Anacleta S; Sagum, Rosario S; Encabo, Rosario R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary fibre has been shown to have important health implications in the prevention of risks of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine the potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre. Six to ten local legumes were studied as follows: cowpeas, mung beans, pole sitao, chickpeas, green peas, groundnuts, pigeon peas, kidney beans, lima beans and soyabeans. The following studies were conducted: (a) mineral availability, in vitro; (b) glycaemic index (GI) in non-diabetic and diabetic human subjects; (c) the cholesterol-lowering effect in human subjects with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. The highest Fe availability among legumes was for lima beans (9.5 (sem 0.1)) while for Zn and Ca, the highest availability was for kidney beans (49.3 (sem 4.5)) and pigeon peas (75.1 (sem 7.1)), respectively. Groundnuts have the lowest Fe (1.3 (sem 1.1)), Zn (7.9 (sem 1.3)) and Ca (14.6 (sem 2.8)) availability. Legumes are low-GI foods ( < 55), ranging from 6 (chickpeas) to 13 (mung beans). Kidney beans showed significant reductions for both total (6 %) and LDL-cholesterol (9 %), and groundnuts for total cholesterol (7 %; P < 0.05). We conclude that mineral availability from legumes differs and may be attributed to their mineral content, mineral-mineral interaction and from their phytic and tannic acid content; legumes are considered low-GI foods and have shown potential hypocholesterolaemic effects. The above studies can be a scientific basis for considering legumes as functional foods. PMID:19825218

  15. An integrated crop model and GIS decision support system for assisting agronomic decision making under climate change.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, M D M; Nedumaran, S; Singh, Piara; S, Chukka; Irshad, Mohammad A; Bantilan, M C S

    2015-07-15

    The semi-arid tropical (SAT) regions of India are suffering from low productivity which may be further aggravated by anticipated climate change. The present study analyzes the spatial variability of climate change impacts on groundnut yields in the Anantapur district of India and examines the relative contribution of adaptation strategies. For this purpose, a web based decision support tool that integrates crop simulation model and Geographical Information System (GIS) was developed to assist agronomic decision making and this tool can be scalable to any location and crop. The climate change projections of five global climate models (GCMs) relative to the 1980-2010 baseline for Anantapur district indicates an increase in rainfall activity to the tune of 10.6 to 25% during Mid-century period (2040-69) with RCP 8.5. The GCMs also predict warming exceeding 1.4 to 2.4°C by 2069 in the study region. The spatial crop responses to the projected climate indicate a decrease in groundnut yields with four GCMs (MPI-ESM-MR, MIROC5, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES) and a contrasting 6.3% increase with the GCM, GFDL-ESM2M. The simulation studies using CROPGRO-Peanut model reveals that groundnut yields can be increased on average by 1.0%, 5.0%, 14.4%, and 20.2%, by adopting adaptation options of heat tolerance, drought tolerant cultivars, supplemental irrigation and a combination of drought tolerance cultivar and supplemental irrigation respectively. The spatial patterns of relative benefits of adaptation options were geographically different and the greatest benefits can be achieved by adopting new cultivars having drought tolerance and with the application of one supplemental irrigation at 60days after sowing. PMID:25829290

  16. Mycotoxins in foods--occurrence, health & economic significance & food control measures.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, S; Bhat, R V

    1998-11-01

    Mycotoxins of importance in India include aflatoxin, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ergot alkaloids and ochratoxins. The ICMR multicentric study on the occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in risk commodities namely, maize and groundnut showed that 21 per cent of groundnut samples and 26 per cent of maize samples analysed exceeded Indian tolerance limits of 30 micrograms/kg. A study on the aflatoxin intake from maize-based diets in a rural region of Andhra Pradesh showed the intakes to be in the range of 4-100 ng/kg body wt/day. Studies on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk in the southern and western regions of India indicated levels in the range of 0.05-3.0 micrograms/l. Analysis of feed samples indicated high incidence of aflatoxin B1 contamination in the groundnut cake component. Fumonisins have been shown to occur in Indian maize and sorghum. Studies showed high levels of fumonisins in rain-affected maize and sorghum consumption of which resulted in an outbreak of fumonisin mycotoxicosis in rural regions of the Deccan Plateau. A similar disease outbreak occurred in poultry due to consumption of fumonisin contaminated feed containing rain damaged maize. Biomarkers have been developed for assessing the risk of exposure for two mycotoxins viz., aflatoxin by measurement by ELISA of aflatoxin B1 N7-guanine adduct which has a detection limit of 15.6 pmol aflatoxin B1 N7 guanine; and fumonisin B1 by measurement in urine using HPLC with a detection limit of 8 ng/ml urine. Assessment of the economic implications of aflatoxin contamination showed economic losses resulting in rejection of export consignment of hand-picked-selected (HPS) groundnut and losses in the poultry industry. Approaches for prevention and control of mycotoxin contamination in foods have shown that methods involving the segregation of contaminated or mouldy grains by hand picking and density segregation resulted in a reduction of 70-90 per cent of aflatoxin and fumonisin present in the grains

  17. Nutrient content of Prosopis africana seeds.

    PubMed

    Barminas, J T; Maina, H M; Ali, J

    1998-01-01

    The proximate and mineral compositions of Prosopis africana seeds used in the preparation of a local condiment in Nigeria and as animal feed were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that protein, ash and fiber values were comparable to Parkia africana seeds. However, the crude lipid content was lower than Parkia filicoidea seeds and decorticated groundnut. Phosphorus, potassium and calcium were the major mineral elements of the seeds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute partially to the overall daily intake of these elements. PMID:10426119

  18. Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 by using the synergistic effect of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, U D; Govindarajan, P; Dave, P J

    1989-01-01

    Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 was studied by using gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide. A 100-krad dose of gamma radiation was sufficient to inactivate 50 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of 5% hydrogen peroxide, and 400 krad was required for total degradation of 100 micrograms of aflatoxin in the same system. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. Ames microsomal mutagenicity test showed loss of aflatoxin activity. This method of detoxification also reduces the toxin levels effectively in artificially contaminated groundnuts. Images PMID:2497710

  19. A novel viral RNA helicase with an independent translation enhancement activity.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ambily; Savithri, Handanahal S

    2016-04-01

    RNA helicases have not been identified among negative sense RNA viruses. In this study, it is shown that Nonstructural protein (NSs) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) acts as a Mg(2+) - and ATP-dependent bipolar RNA helicase. Biophysical and biochemical analysis of the deletion mutants (NΔ124 NSs, CΔ80 NSs) revealed that both the N- and C-terminal residues are required for substrate binding, oligomerization and helicase activity, but are dispensable for ATPase activity. Interestingly, NSs could enhance the translation of RNA (~ 10-fold) independent of its helicase activity. This is the first report of a RNA helicase from negative strand RNA viruses. PMID:27001161

  20. Bacterially mediated mineralisation processes lead to biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese catacombs.

    PubMed

    Zammit, Gabrielle; Sánchez-Moral, Sergio; Albertano, Patrizia

    2011-06-15

    Mineral structures formed by bacterial and microalgal biofilms growing on the archaeological surface in Maltese hypogea were studied using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), X-ray micro-diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These techniques have shown that mineral structures having different morphologies and chemical composition were associated with the microorganisms in the subaerophytic biofilm. Salt efflorescences and mineral deposits on the archaeological surface were often formed from gypsum (CaSO(4)∙2H(2)O), halite (NaCl) and calcite (CaCO(3)). Biogenic carbonates produced by microbial activities were a common occurrence. These assumed different forms, such as the production of mineral coats around cyanobacterial sheaths and the occurrence of calcite fibres with different morphologies on the surface of the biofilms. Moreover, vaterite (CaCO(3)) spherulites which appeared hollow in cross-section were observed. The presence of struvite was recorded from one catacomb site. These investigations have facilitated the study of the neoformation of metastable minerals by microbially mediated processes, which potentially contribute to a better understanding of the biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese palaeo-Christian catacombs. PMID:21550635

  1. Biocalcifying Bacillus subtilis cells effectively consolidate deteriorated Globigerina limestone.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Roderick; Vella, Daniel; Sinagra, Emmanuel; Zammit, Gabrielle

    2016-07-01

    Microbially induced calcite precipitation occurs naturally on ancient limestone surfaces in Maltese hypogea. We exploited this phenomenon and treated deteriorated limestone with biocalcifying bacteria. The limestone was subjected to various mechanical and physical tests to present a statistically robust data set to prove that treatment was indeed effective. Bacillus subtilis conferred uniform bioconsolidation to a depth of 30 mm. Drilling resistance values were similar to those obtained for freshly quarried limestone (9 N) and increased up to 15 N. Treatment resulted in a high resistance to salt deterioration and a slow rate of water absorption. The overall percentage porosity of treated limestone varied by ±6 %, thus the pore network was preserved. We report an eco-friendly treatment that closely resembles the mineral composition of limestone and that penetrates into the porous structure without affecting the limestones' natural properties. The treatment is of industrial relevance since it compares well with stone consolidants available commercially. PMID:27072564

  2. Photoinhibition of cyanobacteria and its application in cultural heritage conservation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Paul; Pedersen, Jens Z; Bruno, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light has bilateral effects on phototrophic organisms. As cyanobacteria in Roman hypogea are long acclimatized to dim environment, moderate intensity of illumination can be used to alleviate biodeterioration problems on the stone substrata. Moderate intensity of light inactivates cyanobacteria by causing photoinhibition, photobleaching and photodamage to the cells. The effectiveness of light depends not only on its intensity but also on the composition and pigmentation of the component cyanobacteria in the biofilms. Red light is the most effective for the species rich in phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, such as Leptolyngbya sp. and Scytonema julianum, whereas green light is effective to inhibit the species rich in phycoerythrin, like Oculatella subterranea. White light is effective to control the grayish and the black cyanobacteria, such as Symphyonemopsis sp. and Eucapsis sp. abundant in all of these pigments. Blue light is the least effective. 150 μmol photons m(-2)  s(-1) of blue light cannot cause biofilm damage while the same intensity of red, green or white irradiation for 14 days can severely damage the cyanobacterial cells in the biofilms due to ROS formation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy detected the formation of radicals in different cyanobacterial cellular extracts exposed to 80 μmol photons m(-2)  s(-1) of light. PMID:24320697

  3. Improved stability of w/o/w multiple emulsions by addition of hydrophilic colloid components in the aqueous phases.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, A; Warburton, B

    1995-01-01

    To improve the stability of w/o/w multiple emulsions of arachis and olive oil the stabilizing effect of cherry gum, in combination with acacia and gelatin, was examined. The outstanding film-forming properties of this gum having already been noted; the effect of its addition to the aqueous phases was measured by the coalescence of emulsion globules. The enhanced stability, as compared to controls, was achieved at a minimum concentration which liquid crystal-bearing interfacial films seem to appear. Creation of more coherent interfaces, inhibiting transfer of phases, could be the basis of the improved stability of the emulsion. PMID:7730952

  4. Recognition of a CD4+ mouse medullary thymocyte subpopulation by Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin.

    PubMed

    Lascurain, R; Chávez, R; Gorocica, P; Pérez, A; Montaño, L F; Zenteno, E

    1994-11-01

    We have used the Gal beta(1-->3)GalNAc-specific Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin to isolate a thymus cell subpopulation which is different from that sorted with Arachis hypogaea lectin. The cells recognized by A. leucocarpus lectin were predominantly CD4+, whereas a minor proportion of CD8+ cells (approximately 11%) were also identified. The A. leucocarpus-positive cells were located in the thymus medulla and the cortico-medullary junction. The cortex was negative for A. leucocarpus cells. PMID:7835965

  5. Metabolism of very low density lipoproteins--effect of sardine oil.

    PubMed

    Anil, K; Abraham, R; Kumar, G S; Sudhakaran, P R; Kurup, P A

    1992-06-01

    The effect of feeding fish oil on the metabolism of lipoproteins was studied in rats. Rats were fed diet containing 10% sardine or groundnut oil for 6 weeks. There was a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides as well as the amount of the lipids associated with VLDL and LDL in serum in fish oil-fed rats. The synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins particularly apoB containing lipoproteins by primary cultures of hepatocytes from these rats were studied by 14(C)-acetate or 3(H)-leucine labelling. Primary cultures of hepatocytes derived from sardine oil-fed rats showed reduced incorporation of 3(H)-leucine into apoB containing lipoproteins secreted into the medium when compared to those fed groundnut oil, indicating a decreased synthesis and secretion of apoB. This was further confirmed by significantly lower incorporation of 14(C)-radioactivity into total and individual lipids of VLDL secreted into the medium, as well as that associated with different lipids in cell layer. The activity of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue and aorta was significantly higher in rats fed sardine oil which may cause an increased clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from circulation. These results indicate that the fish oil exerts hypolipidemic effect particularly by decreasing the synthesis and secretion of VLDL by liver and possibly by an increased clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from circulation. PMID:1506035

  6. Some aspects of the biology and control using botanicals of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), on some pulses.

    PubMed

    Allotey; Azalekor

    2000-07-01

    The life cycle of Corcyra cephalonica was studied under ambient laboratory conditions (temperature range 27.5-30 degrees C and 60-73% r.h.) on groundnut, bambara groundnut and cowpea. The mean developmental period ranged from 33.2+/-0.2 to 45.3+/-1.8 days on whole, broken and powdered forms of the food media. Egg hatchability was found to be 83%, while adult longevity ranged from 1.5+/-0.5 to 11.9+/-1.3 days for males and 1.5+/-0.5 to 16.5+/-1.2 days for females. Sex ratio (male symbol:female symbol) of emerged adults ranged from 1:1 to 1:2.1. Mean fecundities ranged from 128+/-5 to 157+/-8 on the food media. In experiments to assess the insecticidal potential of three plant materials against C. cephalonica, Eichhornia crassipes powder showed a higher efficacy than both Citrus sinensis peel powder and the leaf powder of Chromolaena odorata at dosages of 0.5-2.0 g per 40 g of legume seed. At the higher dosage of 2.5 g, C. sinensis was more effective and reduced the population of C. cephalonica by half when compared to the population in control jars over a period of 1.5 months. PMID:10758262

  7. Field evaluation of some bait additives against Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) (Rodentia: Hystricidae).

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Hussain, Iftikhar; Mian, Afsar; Munir, Shahid; Ahmed, Irfan; Khan, Abdul Aziz

    2013-09-01

    This research study evaluated the effect of different additives on the bait consumption by Indian crested porcupine, a serious forest and agricultural pest, under field conditions. Different additives (saccharin, common salt, bone meal, fish meal, peanut butter, egg yolk, egg shell powder, yeast powder, mineral oil and coconut oil) at 2 and 5% each were tested for their relative preference, using groundnut-maize (1:1) as basic bait. All the additives were tested under a no-choice test pattern. For control tests, no additive was mixed with the basic bait. Saccharin at 5% concentration significantly enhanced the consumption of bait over the basic bait, while 2% saccharin supplemented bait resulted in a non-significant bait consumption. All other additives did not enhance the consumption of the bait material; rather, these worked as repellents. However, the repellency was lowest with the common salt, followed by egg yolk, egg shell powder, bone meal, peanut butter, mineral oil, fish meal and yeast powder, while coconut remained the most repellent compound. The present study suggested that groundnut-maize (1:1) supplemented with 5% saccharin was the preferred bait combination, and can be used with different rodenticides for the management of Indian crested porcupine. PMID:24020467

  8. Production, optimization, and partial purification of lipase from Pseudomonas sp. strain BUP6, a novel rumen bacterium characterized from Malabari goat.

    PubMed

    Priji, Prakasan; Unni, Kizhakkepowathial Nair; Sajith, Sreedharan; Binod, Parameswaran; Benjamin, Sailas

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a novel bacterium-Pseudomonas sp. strain BUP6-isolated from the rumen of the Malabari goat with efficiency for producing lipase. It showed significant production of lipase when grown in a newly designed basal medium, supplemented with vegetable oil. Suitability of five vegetable oils such as groundnut oil, coconut oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil as inducer for the production of lipase was examined, and groundnut oil supported the highest production of lipase (96.15 U/mL). Various physical parameters required for the maximum production of lipase were statistically optimized. Plackett-Burmann design was employed to study the interactive effects of physical parameters and found that temperature, agitation, and pH effected the production of lipase significantly. The optimum conditions for lipase production (37 °C, 200 rpm, and pH 6.9) were detected by Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology, which resulted in the 0.3-fold increase (i.e., 126 U/mL) of the lipase activity over the unoptimized condition. The apparent molecular mass of partially purified lipase was 35 kDa, as judged by SDS-PAGE; the activity of lipase was also confirmed by native PAGE. Thus, this study focuses on the need for the exploitation of rumen microbes for the production of industrially significant and human-friendly biomolecules to meet the future needs. PMID:24773509

  9. Hypolipidemic effect of oryzanol concentrate and low temperature extracted crude rice bran oil in experimental male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Preeti; Kumar, P K Prasanth; Ramesh, H P; Lokesh, B R; Krishna, A G Gopala

    2014-07-01

    Blends of refined groundnut oil (GNO) and oryzanol concentrate having 3, 5, and 10% oryzanol in the blend, and a rice bran oil (RBO) which had retained all the nutrients such as oryzanol, tocopherols and tocotrienols and the unsaponifiable matter components of crude oil (GWF RBO) were prepared. Weanling rats were fed with diet containing the oil blends/rice bran oil at 10% level for 60 days and then dissected. The lipid profiles in serum, liver were investigated and the cholesterol levels were marginally reduced (7-16% in serum, 10-14.5% in liver) in rats fed oryzanol containing diet. RBO, GWF RBO containing diets showed a reduction of serum cholesterol by 14%, 15% respectively when compared to those fed with GNO. Serum and liver lipid analysis also showed significant change in TG concentration in rats fed blended oils containing oryzanol compared to the rats given GNO. Histology of liver and kidneys did not show changes. These studies indicated that oryzanol has an effect in lowering serum and liver cholesterol and shows antiatherogenic properties when incorporated into groundnut oil. PMID:24966420

  10. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

  11. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC. PMID:23742142

  12. Efficacy of live adjuvanted mesogenic Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Venugopalan, A T; Koteeswaran, A

    1999-06-01

    120 white leghorn chickens primed with a lentogenic Newcastle disease (ND) live vaccine at 7 days of age were divided into three equal groups of 8 weeks of age and vaccinated with a live mesogenic ND vaccine (NDV). One group received only Newcastle disease mesogenic vaccine (RDVK) in normal saline, the second group received RDVK with groundnut oil as adjuvant and the third group received RDVK with liquid paraffin as adjuvant. Sera were collected at different time points for the assessment of antibody level against ND virus (NDV) by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The commonly used non-adjuvanted RDVK could not evince 100% protective HI titre beyond 11 weeks of age but in both the adjuvanted groups 100% protective HI titre was evident up to 20 weeks of age. On challenge at 20 weeks of age both the adjuvanted groups withstood challenge but in the non-adjuvanted group 80% of chickens withstood the challenge. A significant difference in immune response between the adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted groups was seen but not between both the adjuvanted groups. The advantage of vegetable oil (groundnut oil) as an adjuvant for live mesogenic ND vaccine has been discussed. PMID:10418918

  13. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Dillehay, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the Ñanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 14C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 14C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Ñanchoc region by 8000 14C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture. PMID:19066222

  14. A gene-based map of the Nod factor-independent Aeschynomene evenia sheds new light on the evolution of nodulation and legume genomes

    PubMed Central

    Chaintreuil, Clémence; Rivallan, Ronan; Bertioli, David J.; Klopp, Christophe; Gouzy, Jérôme; Courtois, Brigitte; Leleux, Philippe; Martin, Guillaume; Rami, Jean-François; Gully, Djamel; Parrinello, Hugues; Séverac, Dany; Patrel, Delphine; Fardoux, Joël; Ribière, William; Boursot, Marc; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Czernic, Pierre; Ratet, Pascal; Mournet, Pierre; Giraud, Eric; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Aeschynomene evenia has emerged as a new model legume for the deciphering of the molecular mechanisms of an alternative symbiotic process that is independent of the Nod factors. Whereas most of the research on nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, legume genetics and genomics has so far focused on Galegoid and Phaseolid legumes, A. evenia falls in the more basal and understudied Dalbergioid clade along with peanut (Arachis hypogaea). To provide insights into the symbiotic genes content and the structure of the A. evenia genome, we established a gene-based genetic map for this species. Firstly, an RNAseq analysis was performed on the two parental lines selected to generate a F2 mapping population. The transcriptomic data were used to develop molecular markers and they allowed the identification of most symbiotic genes. The resulting map comprised 364 markers arranged in 10 linkage groups (2n = 20). A comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of peanut, indicated blocks of conserved macrosynteny. Altogether, these results provided important clues regarding the evolution of symbiotic genes in a Nod factor-independent context. They provide a basis for a genome sequencing project and pave the way for forward genetic analysis of symbiosis in A. evenia. PMID:27298380

  15. A gene-based map of the Nod factor-independent Aeschynomene evenia sheds new light on the evolution of nodulation and legume genomes.

    PubMed

    Chaintreuil, Clémence; Rivallan, Ronan; Bertioli, David J; Klopp, Christophe; Gouzy, Jérôme; Courtois, Brigitte; Leleux, Philippe; Martin, Guillaume; Rami, Jean-François; Gully, Djamel; Parrinello, Hugues; Séverac, Dany; Patrel, Delphine; Fardoux, Joël; Ribière, William; Boursot, Marc; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Czernic, Pierre; Ratet, Pascal; Mournet, Pierre; Giraud, Eric; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2016-08-01

    Aeschynomene evenia has emerged as a new model legume for the deciphering of the molecular mechanisms of an alternative symbiotic process that is independent of the Nod factors. Whereas most of the research on nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, legume genetics and genomics has so far focused on Galegoid and Phaseolid legumes, A. evenia falls in the more basal and understudied Dalbergioid clade along with peanut (Arachis hypogaea). To provide insights into the symbiotic genes content and the structure of the A. evenia genome, we established a gene-based genetic map for this species. Firstly, an RNAseq analysis was performed on the two parental lines selected to generate a F2 mapping population. The transcriptomic data were used to develop molecular markers and they allowed the identification of most symbiotic genes. The resulting map comprised 364 markers arranged in 10 linkage groups (2n = 20). A comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of peanut, indicated blocks of conserved macrosynteny. Altogether, these results provided important clues regarding the evolution of symbiotic genes in a Nod factor-independent context. They provide a basis for a genome sequencing project and pave the way for forward genetic analysis of symbiosis in A. evenia. PMID:27298380

  16. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Piperno, Dolores R; Dillehay, Tom D

    2008-12-16

    Previous research indicates that the Nanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 (14)C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 (14)C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Nanchoc region by 8000 (14)C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture. PMID:19066222

  17. Calcium carbonate crystallizations on hypogean mural paintings: a pilot study of monitoring and diagnostics in Roman catacombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, D.; Fratini, F.; Mazzei, B.; Camaiti, M.; Cantisani, E.; Riminesi, C.; Manganelli Del Fà, R.; Cuzman, O.; Tiano, P.

    2012-04-01

    One of the deterioration processes affecting mural paintings and rock surfaces within manmade hypogea consists in the formation of calcium carbonate crystallizations, which can create thick coverage and incrustations, even in some cases speleothems. These chemical reactions necessarily require the availability of calcium sources, which can be also of anthropogenic origin (e.g., lime-based mortars). Microclimate parameters also represent environmental forcing factors, on which the morphology and the degree of crystallinity of the precipitated carbonates depend. Understanding past/recent dynamics of carbonate precipitation implies a deep knowledge of the relationships between the exposed surfaces and the microclimate conditions, the impacts of external factors (e.g., groundwater infiltration and percolation from the overlying soil) and how they change over time. This is particularly fundamental for the preservation of hypogean sites which have not comparison with other typologies of environment due to their uniqueness, such as the ancient catacombs carved underneath the suburbs of Rome (Italy), since the 2nd century AD. In this paper we present the multidisciplinary methodological approach designed for the instrumental monitoring of the microphysical environment of the Catacombs of Saints Mark, Marcellian and Damasus, in the framework of the co-operation between the Institute for the Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage and Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology, Vatican, on the project HYPOGEA. Temperature inside the catacomb and on the surfaces, air relative humidity and CO2 concentration are the main of the parameters continuously measured by means of data loggers installed within the cubicles. Contemporarily, standardized methods of photographic documentation and digital micro-photogrammetry are used for change detection analysis of the painted surfaces and ancient plasters, as well as of the test areas purposely realized by applying fresh

  18. Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-07-15

    Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of

  19. Safety evaluation of Simarouba glauca seed fat.

    PubMed

    Rout, P K; Rao, Y R; Jena, K S; Sahoo, D; Ali, Shakir

    2014-07-01

    Simarouba glauca DC is a tree of the family Simaroubaceae, which grows well up to 1,000 m above sea level in all types of well-drained soils (pH 5.5 to 8.0) and in places with 250 to 2,500 mm annual rainfall. The seed oil has been extracted both by mechanical expelling and solvent extraction. The fatty acid composition and iodine value of the oil indicate that it possesses saturated (40.8-42.6%), monounsaturated (52.9-55.0%), and polyunsaturated (2.5-3.4%) fatty acid in ratios close to that of palm oil. These characteristics are suitable for its use as edible oil. Acute oral toxicity and safety evaluation in a 13-week feeding trial on albino rats showed that the oil is comparable to groundnut oil in all the parameters. PMID:24966429

  20. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura E; Prendergast, Andrew J; Turner, Paul C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention. PMID:26602301