Science.gov

Sample records for group comparison studies the

  1. Group comparisons: imaging the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    D’Esposito, Mark

    2008-01-01

    With the recent growth of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scientists across a range of disciplines are comparing neural activity between groups of interest, such as healthy controls and clinical patients, children and young adults and younger and older adults. In this edition of Tools of the Trade, we will discuss why great caution must be taken when making group comparisons in studies using fMRI. Although many methodological contributions have been made in recent years, the suggestions for overcoming common issues are too often overlooked. This review focuses primarily on neuroimaging studies of healthy aging, but many of the issues raised apply to other group designs as well. PMID:18846241

  2. Losing Control: Conducting Studies with Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Studies in education often report the differences between participants' and non-participants' test scores, course grades, retention, and other criteria. When participants' average performance is higher, it can be difficult to attribute the improvements to participation. Comparing participants and non-participants on other measures can strengthen…

  3. Learning in Groups: A Comparison of Study Groups and T Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edward B.; Astrachan, Boris M.

    1971-01-01

    This paper focuses on a comparison of two models, with special attention to the ways in which authority and peer relations are viewed. The need for theoretical and technical amalgamation to advance our understanding of group phenomena is stressed. A comment by James Crowfoot, University of Michigan follows. (Author)

  4. Emphases of Parenting in the Light of Three Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Ella; Karppinen, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Parenthood is a phenomenon that is not easy to research. This study analyzed the emphases of parenting in the light of three comparison groups. The research was grounded on Bradley's (2007) theory of six fundamental parenting tasks. This was a case study focusing in one second-grade classroom. The teacher, 18 parents, and 19 pupils were recruited…

  5. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  6. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure. Dorzolamide Comparison Study Group.

    PubMed

    Rusk, C; Sharpe, E; Laurence, J; Polis, A; Adamsons, I

    1998-01-01

    A multicenter, parallel-design, randomized, double-masked study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide with those of 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (i.o.p). A total of 311 adults with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma were randomly allocated to receive either 2% dorzolamide administered topically TID or 0.5% betaxolol administered topically BID plus placebo administered topically QD for 12 weeks. After the washout of previous ocular hypotensive drugs, patients with IOP > or = 23 mm Hg in at least one eye at 10 AM or 4 PM on study day 1 were randomly allocated to receive one of the study treatments. Throughout the study, IOP was measured 2 and 8 hours after instillation of study medication for the morning peak effect (hour 2) and afternoon trough effect (hour 8). After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean change in IOP was not significantly different between the dorzolamide and betaxolol treatment groups at hour 8 (-3.6 mm Hg in both groups) or hour 2 (-5.4 vs -5.3 mm Hg, respectively). The differences between treatments (and 95% CIs associated with these differences) in mean IOP changes from baseline were 0.02 mm Hg (-0.870 to 0.901) for hour 8 and -0.14 mm Hg (-0.959 to 0.685) for hour 2. The ocular adverse experience (AE) most frequently reported by patients was ocular burning and/or stinging, and the most frequently reported nonocular AEs were taste perversion, upper respiratory infection, and headache. Only the incidence of taste perversion was significantly different between treatment groups (14.6% for the dorzolamide group and 0.0% for the betaxolol group). Two percent of patients in each treatment group discontinued the study due to AEs. This study confirmed the similar IOP-lowering effect of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol. Both treatments were generally well tolerated, and their safety profiles were similar. PMID:9663361

  7. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David O'C.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction. The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  8. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction (Browning et al, 1994). The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  9. Questionnaire Design in Broad-Based Evaluation Studies: Letting Someone Else Collect Comparison Group Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheldon B.; Boser, Judith A.

    A context in which existing items may provide a convenient source of questions for questionnaires was explored through a case study making use of existing comparison groups. Two programs at Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), the Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS) and the Laboratory Graduate Research Participation (Lab Grad)…

  10. On the Comparison of Group Performance with Categorical Data

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Carmen; Villar, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are many different evaluation problems that involve several groups (societies, firms or institutions) whose members can be classified into ordered categories, pursuant to their characteristics or their achievements. This paper addresses these types of problems and provides an evaluation criterion based on the distribution of the agents across categories. The starting point is that of dominance relations in pair-wise comparisons. We say that group i dominates group j when the expected category of a member of i is higher than the expected category of a member of j. We introduce the notion of relative advantage of a group to extend this principle to multi-group comparisons and show that there is a unique evaluation function that ranks all groups consistently in terms of this criterion. This function associates to each evaluation problem the (unique) dominant eigenvector of a matrix whose entries describe the dominance relations between groups in pair-wise comparisons. The working of the model is illustrated by means of three different applications. PMID:24391974

  11. A comparison of mebeverine with high-fibre dietary advice and mebeverine plus ispaghula in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an open, prospectively randomised, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, N D; Grillage, M G; Mazumder, R; Atkinson, S N

    1990-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and acceptability of mebeverine and high-fibre dietary advice versus mebeverine and ispaghula in fixed combination in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. DESIGN Open, prospectively randomised, parallel group comparison of mebeverine/dietary advice and mebeverine/ispaghula during an eight-week study period. SETTING General practices in the UK. PATIENTS One hundred and eleven patients with irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed by symptom profile or negative investigations between the ages of 18 and 75 years were entered. All patients had a history of abdominal pain occurring at least once a week for a period of three months or more. INTERVENTION Dosage was 135 mg of mebeverine hydrochloride, three times daily before meals, together with advice on high-fibre dietary intake, or 135 mg of mebeverine hydrochloride plus 3.5 g of ispaghula husk twice or three times daily before meals. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Details of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bowel frequency and stool consistency were recorded by means of clinicians' assessments and patient diaries. Pre-treatment assessments revealed no significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the parameters. Both treatment groups demonstrated highly significant improvements in the numbers of pain attacks and their severity; no statistically significant differences between the two groups were demonstrated. Five patients in the mebeverine/dietary advice group reported five concurrent effects and nine patients in the mebeverine/ispaghula group reported 13 concurrent effects. All of the mebeverine/dietary advice group found their treatment acceptable but up to 28% of the mebeverine/ispaghula group found their treatment unpalatable. CONCLUSION Both treatments are effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. The fixed combination of mebeverine/ispaghula, however, was found to be unpalatable by up to 28% of the patients in that group

  12. Comparison of single-dose oral grepafloxacin with cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. The STD Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E W; McCormack, W M; Martin, D; Jones, R B; Bean, K; Maroli, A N

    1997-01-01

    In a randomized open study, 351 male patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were given single oral doses of grepafloxacin (400 mg) or cefixime (400 mg). In the 299 microbiologically evaluable patients, urethral infections were cured in 99% (147 of 149) of those receiving grepafloxacin and 97% (145 of 150) of those given cefixime. Eradication rates for both regimens were 100% in the 16% (47 of 299) of participants who were infected with penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 97% in the 21% (62 of 299) of participants infected with tetracycline-resistant strains. Grepafloxacin is a well-tolerated alternative to cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in males. PMID:9257777

  13. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group. PMID:27582723

  14. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group. PMID:27582723

  15. An Empirical Comparison of Joint and Stratified Frameworks for Studying G × E Interactions: Systolic Blood Pressure and Smoking in the CHARGE Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun Ju; Winkler, Thomas W; Manning, Alisa K; Aschard, Hugues; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert V; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brown, Michael R; Morrison, Alanna C; Fornage, Myriam; Lin, Li-An; Richard, Melissa; Bartz, Traci M; Psaty, Bruce M; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Feitosa, Mary F; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Deng, Xuan; Fisher, Virginia A; Zhou, Yanhua; Bielak, Lawrence F; Smith, Jennifer; Huffman, Jennifer E; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Smith, Blair H; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva K; Arnett, Donna; Schwander, Karen; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I; Alfred, Tamuno; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J F; Amin, Najaf; Franco, Oscar H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vojinovic, Dina; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Kardia, Sharon; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Rice, Kenneth; Borecki, Ingrid B; Rao, Dabeeru C; Gauderman, W James; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2016-07-01

    Studying gene-environment (G × E) interactions is important, as they extend our knowledge of the genetic architecture of complex traits and may help to identify novel variants not detected via analysis of main effects alone. The main statistical framework for studying G × E interactions uses a single regression model that includes both the genetic main and G × E interaction effects (the "joint" framework). The alternative "stratified" framework combines results from genetic main-effect analyses carried out separately within the exposed and unexposed groups. Although there have been several investigations using theory and simulation, an empirical comparison of the two frameworks is lacking. Here, we compare the two frameworks using results from genome-wide association studies of systolic blood pressure for 3.2 million low frequency and 6.5 million common variants across 20 cohorts of European ancestry, comprising 79,731 individuals. Our cohorts have sample sizes ranging from 456 to 22,983 and include both family-based and population-based samples. In cohort-specific analyses, the two frameworks provided similar inference for population-based cohorts. The agreement was reduced for family-based cohorts. In meta-analyses, agreement between the two frameworks was less than that observed in cohort-specific analyses, despite the increased sample size. In meta-analyses, agreement depended on (1) the minor allele frequency, (2) inclusion of family-based cohorts in meta-analysis, and (3) filtering scheme. The stratified framework appears to approximate the joint framework well only for common variants in population-based cohorts. We conclude that the joint framework is the preferred approach and should be used to control false positives when dealing with low-frequency variants and/or family-based cohorts. PMID:27230302

  16. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  17. Cyclandelate in the prophylaxis of migraine: a randomized, parallel, double-blind study in comparison with placebo and propranolol. The Study group.

    PubMed

    Diener, H C; Föh, M; Iaccarino, C; Wessely, P; Isler, H; Strenge, H; Fischer, M; Wedekind, W; Taneri, Z

    1996-10-01

    Cyclandelate inhibits calcium-induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, platelet-activating-factor and adenosine, and also suppresses a provoked 5HT release from platelets. This pharmacological profile suggests that cyclandelate may have a potential prophylactic effect in migraine. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind multicentre study was performed in 214 patients to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of cyclandelate compared to placebo and propranolol. After a 4-week baseline period, eligible patients (randomization 3:2:3) were treated for 12 weeks with daily doses of 1.200 mg cyclandelate (n = 81), placebo (n = 55) or 120 mg propranolol (n = 78). The number of migraine attacks (> or = 50% responders) and the migraine duration/month were compared based on the difference between baseline and the last 4 weeks of prophylactic treatment. The percentage of patients with a reduction in migraine attacks of > or = 50% treated with cyclandelate (37.0%) or propranolol (42.3%) was not significantly superior to placebo (30.9%; p > 0.025). The mean duration of migraine in hours (h) per month decreased in both active treatment groups (cyclandelate: 36.8 h, p = 0.046; propranolol: 34.4 h, p = 0.039) compared to placebo (13.7 h) without reaching statistical significance (alpha/2 = 0.025). The clinical efficacy of cyclandelate and propranolol was comparable. Adverse experiences were reported by 13 patients (16.0%) treated with cyclandelate, by 5 patients (9.1%) treated with placebo and by 19 patients (24.4%) treated with propranolol. These were drug-related in 7.1% (n = 6) of patients treated with cyclandelate and in 9% (n = 7) of patients treated with propranolol. In summary, cyclandelate has a comparable efficacy to that of propranolol, an established drug of first choice in the prophylaxis of migraine. Both drugs were better than placebo, but not significantly so. Both active treatments were well tolerated. PMID

  18. Differential Item Functioning Detection across Two Methods of Defining Group Comparisons: Pairwise and Composite Group Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Halil Ibrahim; Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This study compares two methods of defining groups for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF): (a) pairwise comparisons and (b) composite group comparisons. We aim to emphasize and empirically support the notion that the choice of pairwise versus composite group definitions in DIF is a reflection of how one defines fairness in DIF…

  19. Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. HANE Trial Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, T.; Anlauf, M.; Distler, A.; Holzgreve, H.; Michaelis, J.; Wellek, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre trial over 48 weeks with double blind comparison of treatments. SETTING: 48 centres in four countries. PATIENTS: 868 patients with essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mm Hg) INTERVENTIONS: Initial treatment (step 1) consisted of 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n = 215), 25 mg atenolol (n = 215), 10 mg nitrendipine (n = 218), or 5 mg enalapril (n = 220) once daily. If diastolic blood pressure was not reduced to < 90 mm Hg within four weeks, doses were increased to 25 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg, 10 mg, respectively, once daily (step 2) and after two more weeks to twice daily (step 3). The eight week titration phase was followed by an additional 40 weeks for patients who had reached the target diastolic pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure by means of an automatic device with repeated measurements. RESULTS: After eight weeks the response rate for atenolol (63.7%) was significantly higher than for enalapril (50.0%), hydrochlorothiazide (44.7%), or nitrendipine (44.5%). After one year atenolol was still more effective (48.0%) than hydrochlorothiazide (35.4%) and nitrendipine (32.9%), but not significantly better than enalapril (42.7%). The treatment related dropout rate was higher (P < 0.001) in the nitrendipine group (n = 28). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of superiority for antihypertensive effectiveness or tolerability of the "new" classes of antihypertensives (calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). As these drugs are now widely used as treatment of first choice, our results further emphasise the need for studies confirming that they also reduce morbidity and mortality, as has been shown for diuretics and beta blockers. PMID:9251545

  20. The development and description of the comparison group in the Look AHEAD trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite more lifestyle intervention trials, there is little published information on the development of the comparison group intervention. This article describes the comparison group intervention, termed Diabetes Support and Education Intervention and its development for the Action for HEAlth in Dia...

  1. A comparison of the clinical effectiveness and costs of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing and independent medical prescribing: a post-test control group study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Supplementary prescribing for mental health nurses was first introduced in the UK in 2003. Since then, a number of studies have reported stakeholders' perceptions of the success of the initiative. However, there has been little experimental research conducted into its effectiveness. This paper reports findings from the first known study to compare the cost and clinical impact of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing to independent medical prescribing. Methods A post-test control group experimental design was used to compare the treatment costs, clinical outcomes and satisfaction of patients in receipt of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing with a matched group of patients in receipt of independent prescribing from consultant psychiatrists. The sample comprised 45 patients in receipt of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing for a minimum of six months and a matched group (by age, gender, diagnosis, and chronicity) of patients prescribed for by psychiatrists. Results There were no significant differences between patients in the nurse supplementary prescribers' group and the independent prescribers' group in terms of medication adherence, health status, side effects, and satisfaction with overall care. Total costs per patient for service use were £803 higher for the nurse prescribers' group but this difference was not significant (95% confidence interval -£1341 to £3020). Conclusions No significant differences were found between the health and social outcomes of patients in the mental health nurse supplementary prescribers' group, and those prescribed for by the independent medical prescribers. The cost appraisal also showed that there was no significant difference in the costs of the two types of prescribing, although the pattern of resources used differed between patients in the two prescriber groups. The results suggest that mental health nurse supplementary prescribers can deliver similar health benefits to patients as

  2. Comparison of the inhibitory capacity of two groups of pure natural extract on the crystallization of two types of material compound urinary stones in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghalia, Mohamed; Ghalem, Said; Allali, Hocine

    2015-10-01

    Urolithiasis is defined as the result of an abnormal precipitation within the urinary tract. This precipitation is most often from the normal constituents of the urine. This is a fairly common condition in the population. She is happy and recurrent etiology is often unknown if hypothetical. In Algeria, as in many countries, a large number of patients use herbal medicines in the treatment of their diseases including urolithiasis. Thus the aim of this study is the most widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, in the treatment of calcium urolithiasis oxalo-and magnesium-amoniaco in vitro. The study also examines the effect of these extracts on the states of crystallization (nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation), followed by photography on polarized light microscope.In this regard, we are devoted to studying the crystallization steps from oxalo-calcium and phospho-calcic prepared as artificial urine and supersaturated aqueous solutions, maintained at 37 °C to remain close to biological conditions. Extracts of the first group of herbs: Ammodaucus leucotrichus, Ajuga iva, Globularia alypum, Atriplex halimus are studied on the crystallization calcium oxalate, we cite the Ammodaucus leucotrichus which acts on the stages of nucleation, growth and the aggregation with a total inhibition. The second group of extracts plants tested on calcium phosphate crystallization : Acacia raddiana, Citrullus colocynthis, Rhus tripartita, Pistacia lentiscu, Warionia saharae, are able to significantly reduce phosphate crystallization in vitro. It is easily proved by FTIR and optical microscope. In conclusion the results of our work allows us to confirm the use of these plants as an aqueous decoction, in the field of urolithiasis. These activities may help to strengthen the body in depressed situations.

  3. Abstruse comparisons: the problems of numerical contrasts of two groups.

    PubMed

    Yueh, B; Feinstein, A R

    1999-01-01

    The most common quantitative comparison in medical literature is a contrast of two numbers, such as two means or two rates. The two numbers, A and B, can be compared as a direct increment (A-B), ratio (A/B), relative change ([A-B]/B), or other index of contrast. To appreciate the quantitative distinction, a reader must know the "setting" reflected by the basic values of A and B. For example, a ratio of 2.0 does not distinguish comparisons between rates of 60% versus 30% and 0.006% versus 0.003%. Despite the frequency of published comparisons, they can be expressed with two types of abstrusity: quantitatives, if the basic values for A and B are not readily evident; and qualitative, if the component underlying variables are unfamiliar and not suitably explained. Among the published articles during the first six months of 1995 for JAMA and New England Journal of Medicine, 57 that satisfied inclusion criteria were reviewed for compliance with standards for avoiding the two types of abstrusity. The standards for quantitative abstrusity were applied to the published abstract-summary, because it is often the only "sound bite" that is read and remembered by most readers. The standards for qualitative abstrusity, however, could be fulfilled in the text, not just in the abstract-summaries of each article. Among the 57 abstract-summaries, 30% were abstruse quantitatively, and 11 (48%) of 23 pertinent papers were qualitatively abstruse. Abstrusity can be eliminated if authors and editors insist that quantitative contrasts cite the basic numbers being compared and the meaning of the associated variables and their rating scales. PMID:9973069

  4. Social comparison orientation moderates the effects of group membership on the similarity-attraction relationship.

    PubMed

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined how the similarity-attraction relationship is affected by a combination of the tendency to compare oneself to other people (Social Comparison Orientation, SCO) and group membership. We expected that high-SCO individuals would prefer similar to dissimilar others only when the target belonged to their in-group and was relevant for the evaluation of their self-concept. It was also expected that among low-SCO individuals who are more certain about the self and less concerned about "being evaluated," a main effect of attitude similarity would appear, regardless of the group membership of the target. Results partially support these predictions and suggest that further research should be carried out into the combined effects of individual and group variables in the attraction literature. PMID:22208112

  5. The Hungaria population: A comparison between sub-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañada-Assandri, M.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Ribeiro, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if the two sub-groups in proper inclination found in the Hungaria region by Milani et al. (2010) could be characterized by physical parameters of the objects, we analyze two surfaces properties of the asteroids in the zone: the taxonomical distribution, obtained from the SDSS-MOC4, and the albedo distribution, taken from the WISE data. Our analysis suggests that both sub-groups are different. The asteroids with sinip < 0.4 exhibit a majority of X-types objects and an excess of high albedo objects. In contrast, the objects with sinip > 0.4 show a taxonomical distribution dominated by S-types asteroids and an albedo distribution without high albedo excess. Based on these results we propose that the sub-group in high proper inclination and dominated by S-types could be the primordial population while the high albedo excess observed in the other sub-group could be the consequence of a contamination in this region with a medium-belt object(s) that filled the Hungaria region with fresh X-types after suffering a catastrophic collision.

  6. Trimetazidine: a new concept in the treatment of angina. Comparison with propranolol in patients with stable angina. Trimetazidine European Multicenter Study Group.

    PubMed

    Detry, J M; Sellier, P; Pennaforte, S; Cokkinos, D; Dargie, H; Mathes, P

    1994-03-01

    1. Trimetazidine has a direct anti-ischaemic effect on the myocardium without altering the rate x pressure product or coronary blood flow. 2. The effects of trimetazidine (20 mg three times daily) were compared with those of propranolol (40 mg three times daily) in a double-blind parallel group multicentre study in 149 men with stable angina. 3. Reproducibility of exercise performance was verified during a 3 week run-in placebo washout period. All patients had > 1 mm ST-depression on exercise test. 4. After 3 months, similar anti-anginal efficacy was observed between the trimetazidine (n = 71) and propranolol (n = 78) groups. No significant differences were observed between trimetazidine and propranolol as regards anginal attack rate per week (mean difference P-TMZ: 2; 95% CI: -4.4, 0.5) and exercise duration (mean difference P-TMZ: 0 s; 95% CI: -33, 34) or time to 1 mm ST segment depression (mean difference P-TMZ: 13 s; 95% CI: -24, 51). Heart rate and rate x pressure product at rest and at peak exercise remained unchanged in the trimetazidine group but significantly decreased with propranolol (P < 0.001 in all cases). With both drugs there was a trend to decreased ischaemic episodes in the 46% patients who experienced ambulatory ischaemia on Holter monitoring. Six patients stopped trimetazidine and 12 propranolol. Of these, five in each group were withdrawn because of deterioration in cardiovascular status. 5. The results suggest that trimetazidine and propranolol at the doses studied have similar efficacy in patients with stable angina pectoris.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8198938

  7. Comparison of the COPD Population Screener and International Primary Care Airway Group questionnaires in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study

    PubMed Central

    Tsukuya, Go; Samukawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Fukuyama, Satoru; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Uchida, Akifumi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing worldwide. In Japan and other countries, epidemiological studies have found that many patients with COPD are underdiagnosed and untreated, and thus, early detection and treatment of COPD has been emphasized. Screening questionnaires may have utility in the initial detection of COPD. Objective This study aimed to validate and compare the COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS) and the International Primary Care Airway Group (IPAG) questionnaires in a general Japanese population. Patients and methods Eligible subjects 40 years of age and older living in the town of Hisayama were solicited to participate in a health checkup in 2012. All subjects 40–79 years of age without physician-diagnosed asthma or lung resection were recruited, and 2,336 subjects who fully completed both questionnaires and who had valid spirometry measurements were analyzed. Persistent airflow obstruction (AO) was defined by a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.70. Receiver operating characteristic curves, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement were used to examine the ability of the COPD-PS and IPAG questionnaires to discriminate between subjects with and without AO. Results The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the COPD-PS questionnaire was 0.747 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707–0.788) and for the IPAG was 0.775 (95% CI, 0.735–0.816), with no significant difference (P=0.09). The net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were −0.107 (95% CI, −0.273–0.058; P=0.203) and −0.014 (95% CI, −0.033–0.006; P=0.182), respectively. Conclusion The five-item COPD-PS questionnaire was comparable to the eight-item IPAG for discriminating between subjects with and without AO. The COPD-PS is a simple and useful screening questionnaire for persistent AO. PMID

  8. Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

  9. Mothers with intellectual disability, their experiences of maltreatment, and their children's attachment representations: a small-group matched comparison study.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Forslund, Tommie; Fransson, Mari; Springer, Lydia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intellectual disability (ID) is regarded a risk factor in child development, but there is no scientific evidence on maternal ID in relation to children's attachment. Using a matched comparison design, a small group (n = 23) of mothers diagnosed with ID was studied to help fill this gap. Besides maternal ID, we examined the role of abuse/trauma/maltreatment (ATM) in the mothers' biographies, along with potential confounds. Comparison group mothers (n = 25) had normal variations in intelligence and matched mothers with ID on residential area, income, child age, and sex. History of maternal ATM was assessed using a semi-structured interview and was found to be significantly more likely in the ID group mothers' experience than the comparison group mothers. Children's (M age = 77 months) attachment representations were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test. Among children of mothers with ID, a substantial minority (35%) had a secure and the vast majority (>80%) an organized attachment representation. Mothers with ID who had suffered elevated ATM were significantly more likely to have children who were scored high on disorganization and insecurity. We discuss possible implications of our findings for societal considerations regarding parenting and child attachment in the context of parental ID status. PMID:24931835

  10. Finding a Comparison Group: Is Online Crowdsourcing a Viable Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek; Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the viability of online crowdsourcing for creating matched-comparison groups. This exploratory study compares survey results from a randomized control group to survey results from a matched-comparison group created from Amazon.com's MTurk crowdsourcing service to determine their comparability. Study findings indicate…

  11. Management of Myofascial Pain of Upper Trapezius: A Three Group Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Priya

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify the most effective therapeutic modality in the management of myofascial trigger points (MTPt). Thus we aimed to study the effect of therapeutic ultrasound, laser and ischemic compression in reducing pain and improving cervical range of motion among patients with MTPt. Experimental study comparing three groups was designed as a 5 days trial, a co-relational design was considered. Outcome measures: VAS for pain, provocative pain test using “soft tissue tenderness grading scheme” and active cervical lateral flexion using inch tape. Methods- Patients were divided into 3 groups, Gr 1 underwent treatment using therapeutic ultrasound, Gr 2 with therapeutic laserand Gr 3 with ischemic compression. Assessments were done on day 1 and day 5 of treatment respectively. Results: ANOVA revealed improvement among all 3 groups as statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the start and end of trial. Analysis using Chi square test shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement between laser and the other 2 groups. Mean difference in the change of scores between the assessments showed laser therapy to have a tendency towards progressive improvement over the treatment period and a better improvement than the other 2 groups. Weconclude that laser can be used as an effective treatment regimen in the management of myofascial trigger points thereby reducing disability caused due to musculoskeletal pathology. PMID:22980377

  12. Reducing Bias and Increasing Precision by Adding Either a Pretest Measure of the Study Outcome or a Nonequivalent Comparison Group to the Basic Regression Discontinuity Design: An Example from Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yang; Cook, Thomas D.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Regression discontinuity design (RD) has been widely used to produce reliable causal estimates. Researchers have validated the accuracy of RD design using within study comparisons (Cook, Shadish & Wong, 2008; Cook & Steiner, 2010; Shadish et al, 2011). Within study comparisons examines the validity of a quasi-experiment by comparing its…

  13. Comparison of the pathogenicity of porcine circovirus type 2 group 1 and group 2 isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Introduction and Objectives Phylogenetically, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can be divided into two major genotypic groups, PCV2-group 1 and PCV2-group 2 .1 It was noted that PCV2 group designations have no apparent association with disease status or geographic area. Interestingly, all of t...

  14. Disability pension and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a prospective comparison of farmers and other occupational groups. The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Agriculture has undergone major changes, and farmers have been found to have a high prevalence of depression symptoms. We investigated the risk of work disability in Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups, as well as the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and future disability pension. Methods We linked working participants of the HUNT2 Survey (1995–97) aged 20–61.9 years, of whom 3495 were farmers and 25 521 had other occupations, to national registry data on disability pension, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of disability pension, and to investigate the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression caseness at baseline (score on the anxiety or depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ≥8) and disability pension. Results Farmers had a twofold increased risk of disability pension (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.38) compared with higher grade professionals. Farmers with symptoms of depression caseness had a 53% increased risk of disability pension (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) compared with farmers below the cut-off point of depression caseness symptoms, whereas farmers with symptoms of anxiety caseness had a 51% increased risk (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.86). Conclusions Farmers have an increased risk of disability pension compared with higher grade professionals, but the risk is lower than in most other manual occupational groups. Farmers who report high levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are at substantially increased risk of future work disability, and the risk increase appears to be fairly similar across most occupational groups. PMID:26525724

  15. Life of Pizza Pie: The Implications of Sub-Group Comparisons in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tara N.

    2013-01-01

    Current educational statistics have pitted subgroups against one another without consideration of the actual population sizes of each group. This paper is intended to provided a clearer understanding of the current usage of sub-group comparisons in American education. (Contains 4 figures.)

  16. Racial-Ethnic Comparisons of Temperament Constructs for Three Age Groups Using the Student Styles Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Mary E.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses construct validity for comparisons of racial-ethnic group response patterns on the SSQ when age is considered as a factor. Assesses whether the SSQ's factor structure is similar for African American, Hispanic American, and Anglo American children and youth, grouped by ages 8-10, 11-13, and 14-17 years old. (RJM)

  17. Comparison of Some Risk Factors for Diabetes Across Different Social Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A; Rathod, HK; Konda, M; Bhawalkar, JS

    2014-01-01

    prevalent among the medical students, while smokeless tobacco use was more among the other groups. Conclusions: Physical inactivity, obesity, including central obesity, alcohol and tobacco use were found in various degrees in the study samples. An important finding was that both obesity and central obesity ascertained by BMI and WHR respectively were highest among the rural population implying the impact of social change on diabetic risk factors. PMID:25506486

  18. Cost-comparison of different management policies for tuberculosis patients in Italy. AIPO TB Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Migliori, G. B.; Ambrosetti, M.; Besozzi, G.; Farris, B.; Nutini, S.; Saini, L.; Casali, L.; Nardini, S.; Bugiani, M.; Neri, M.; Raviglione, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although in developing countries the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) cases is among the most cost-effective health interventions, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB control in low-prevalence countries. The aim of the present study was to carry out an economic analysis in Italy that takes into account both the perspective of the resource-allocating authority (i.e. the Ministry of Health) and the broader social perspective, including a cost description based on current outcomes applied to a representative sample of TB patients nationwide (admission and directly observed treatment (DOT) during the initial intensive phase of treatment); a cost-comparison analysis of two alternative programmes: current policy based on available data (scenario 1) and an hypothetical policy oriented more towards outpatient care (scenario 2) (both scenarios included the option of including or not including DOT outside hospital admission, and incentives) were compared in terms of cost per case treated successfully. Indirect costs (such as loss of productivity) were included in considerations of the broader social perspective. The study was designed as a prospective monitoring activity based on the supervised collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB units. Individual data were collected and analysed to obtain a complete economic profile of the patients enrolled and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A separate analysis was done for each scenario to determine the end-point at different levels of cure rate (50-90%). The mean length of treatment was 6.6 months (i.e. patients hospitalized during the intensive phase; length of stay was significantly higher in smear-positive patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients). Roughly six direct smear and culture examinations were performed during hospital admission and three during ambulatory treatment. The cost of a single bed day was US$186.90, whereas that of a

  19. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. PMID:26476596

  20. Comparison of legislation, regulations and national health strategies for palliative care in seven European countries (Results from the Europall Research Group): a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to EU policy, anyone in need of palliative care should be able to have access to it. It is therefore important to investigate which palliative care topics are subject to legislation and regulations in Europe and how these are implemented in (national) health care plans. This paper aims to deliver a structured overview of the legislation, existing regulations and the different health care policies regarding palliative care in seven European countries. Methods In 2008 an inventory of the organisation of palliative care was developed by the researchers of the Europall project. Included were two open questions about legislation, regulations, and health policy in palliative care. This questionnaire was completed using palliative care experts selected from Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain. Additionally, (grey) literature on palliative care health policy and regulations from the participating countries was collected to complete the inventory. Comparative analysis of country specific information was performed afterwards. Results In all countries palliative care regulations and policies existed (either in laws, royal decrees, or national policies). An explicit right to palliative care was mentioned in the Belgium, French and German law. In addition, access to palliative care was mentioned by all countries, varying from explicit regulations to policy intentions in national plans. Also, all countries had a national policy on palliative care, although sometimes mainly related to national cancer plans. Differences existed in policy regarding palliative care leave, advance directives, national funding, palliative care training, research, opioids and the role of volunteers. Conclusions Although all included European countries have policies on palliative care, countries largely differ in the presence of legislation and regulations on palliative care as well as the included topics. European healthcare policy recommendations

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Group Transdiagnostic Therapy and Group Cognitive Therapy on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADI, Abolfazl; BIRASHK, Behrooz; GHARAIE, Banafsheh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The cognitive behavioral interventions based on the transdiagnostic approach for emotional disorders have received useful empirical supports in recent years. Most of the researches on this area have been conducted without any control group. Moreover, little information about comparative effectiveness has reported. The current study was compared transdiagnostic group therapy with classical cognitive group therapy. Methods: Thirty three collages students with anxiety and depressive symptoms participated in eight two-hour sessions in Akhavan Hospital, Tehran, Iran during May and June 2011. The results were analyzed by The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale in pre and post intervention. Results: Both groups showed the significant difference in research variables pre and post test. However, there was no significant difference in the results analysis using ACOVAs except for anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: The effectiveness of transdiagnostic group therapy was confirmed in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Implications of the study are discussed. PMID:23514901

  2. On Sufism, Sufi Group Study and Group Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Sufism is an ancient tradition of experiential human development. Sufi human development specialists utilize the group setting as a major study format. Comparison with group counseling might broaden perspectives on the possibilities and pitfalls of group process, and pinpoint several important issues relevant to group leadership. (Author)

  3. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy and group interpersonal psychotherapy for the nonpurging bulimic individual: a controlled comparison.

    PubMed

    Wilfley, D E; Agras, W S; Telch, C F; Rossiter, E M; Schneider, J A; Cole, A G; Sifford, L A; Raeburn, S D

    1993-04-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating. Fifty-six women with nonpurging bulimia were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: CBT, IPT, or a wait-list control (WL). Treatment was administered in small groups that met for 16 weekly sessions. At posttreatment, both group CBT and group IPT treatment conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, whereas the WL condition did not. Binge eating remained significantly below baseline levels for both treatment conditions at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. These data support the central role of both eating behavior and interpersonal factors in the understanding and treatment of bulimia. PMID:8473584

  4. Report of the School Finance Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document reports the findings of a study assessing the status of school finance in Wisconsin and recommending preferred methods for funding the public schools. Seventy-nine topics were considered in five areas: state support, general aid, categorical aid, factors affecting school costs, and other topics. The study's recommendations regarding…

  5. The tryptophan synthase alpha 2 beta 2 complex: a comparison of the reactivity of amino groups in the alpha and beta 2 subunits and in the complex by differential labeling studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, E.W.; Fairwell, T.

    1984-05-01

    The interaction of the alpha and beta 2 subunits of tryptophan synthase of Escherichia coli to form an alpha 2 beta 2 complex has been probed by differential labeling studies. In the first step the separate alpha or beta 2 subunit or the alpha 2 beta 2 complex was labeled by reductive methylation with trace amounts of (/sup 3/H)HCHO in the presence of NaCNBH/sub 3/. In the second step the /sup 3/H-labeled preparation was fully labeled under denaturing conditions with (/sup 14/C)HCHO and NaCNBH/sub 3/. Peptides containing labeled monomethyl or dimethyl amino groups were isolated after thermolytic digestion or after cyanogen bromide treatment. The /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio of each peptide is a measure of the relative reactivity of the amino group or groups in each peptide. The most reactive amino group in the alpha subunit, lysine-109, is strongly shielded from modification in the alpha 2 beta 2 complex. The most reactive amino group in the beta 2 subunit, the amino-terminal threonine, is not shielded from modification in the alpha 2 beta 2 complex.

  6. A COMPARISON OF THE CLUSTERING PROPERTIES BETWEEN GALAXIES AND GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa

    2013-03-01

    In this study, I apply cluster analysis and perform comparative studies of clustering properties between galaxies and groups of galaxies. It is found that the number of objects N{sub max} of the richest system and the maximal length D{sub max} of the largest system for groups in all samples are apparently larger than ones for galaxies, and that galaxies preferentially form isolated, paired, and small systems, while groups preferentially form grouped and clustered systems. These results show that groups are more strongly clustered than galaxies, which is consistent with statistical results of the correlation function.

  7. Artifact removal in the context of group ICA: A comparison of single-subject and group approaches.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuhui; Allen, Elena A; He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely applied to identify intrinsic brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA computes group-level components from all data and subsequently estimates individual-level components to recapture intersubject variability. However, the best approach to handle artifacts, which may vary widely among subjects, is not yet clear. In this work, we study and compare two ICA approaches for artifacts removal. One approach, recommended in recent work by the Human Connectome Project, first performs ICA on individual subject data to remove artifacts, and then applies a group ICA on the cleaned data from all subjects. We refer to this approach as Individual ICA based artifacts Removal Plus Group ICA (IRPG). A second proposed approach, called Group Information Guided ICA (GIG-ICA), performs ICA on group data, then removes the group-level artifact components, and finally performs subject-specific ICAs using the group-level non-artifact components as spatial references. We used simulations to evaluate the two approaches with respect to the effects of data quality, data quantity, variable number of sources among subjects, and spatially unique artifacts. Resting-state test-retest datasets were also employed to investigate the reliability of functional networks. Results from simulations demonstrate GIG-ICA has greater performance compared with IRPG, even in the case when single-subject artifacts removal is perfect and when individual subjects have spatially unique artifacts. Experiments using test-retest data suggest that GIG-ICA provides more reliable functional networks. Based on high estimation accuracy, ease of implementation, and high reliability of functional networks, we find GIG-ICA to be a promising approach. PMID:26859308

  8. Report of the New Rings Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.; Dugan, G.; Marriner, J.

    1987-10-19

    We have taken the approach here of trying to understand both the feasibility and practicality of varied options for new rings at Fermilab, rather than trying to produce a single detailed design. In other words, this document is not a design report and should not be construed as such. Our perception of the potential needs for new rings (in order of priority) is as follows: Antiproton Storage and/or Recovery: A facility for storing up to 4 x 10/sup 12/ antiprotons is needed. Recovery of antiprotons from the collider becomes a viable option if the luminosity is indeed dominated by emittance dilution rather than beam loss. New or Post-Booster: The goal here would be to inject into the existing Main Ring above transition. Improved performance of the Main Ring would be anticipated. New Main Ring: Advantages would include better emittance preservation, a faster cycle time for antiproton production, and the removal of interference/backgrounds at the B0 and D0 detectors. We discuss in this paper various scenarios based on one or more combinations of the above possibilities. 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Study Abroad: The Reality of Building Dynamic Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransbury, Molly K.; Harris, Sandra A.

    1994-01-01

    The collaborative effort of a professor of human development with expertise in group process and a general education professor with expertise in Greek mythology and culture uses a case study format to apply theoretical models of group dynamics to the travel and learning experience of study abroad. Implications for course design and group process…

  10. Comparison of remifentanil versus regional anaesthesia in children anaesthetised with isoflurane/nitrous oxide. International Remifentanil Paediatric Anaesthesia Study group.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Lerman, J; Murat, I; Taivainen, T; Lopez, T; Lejus, C; Spahr-Schopfer, I; Splinter, W; Kirkham, A J

    2000-09-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of a remifentanil (0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)-based balanced anaesthetic technique with a bupivacaine-based regional anaesthetic technique in an open label, multicentre study in 271 ASA physical status 1 or 2 children aged 1-12 years. Subjects requiring major intra-abdominal, urological or orthopaedic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous remifentanil (group R; n = 185) or epidural bupivacaine (group B; n = 86) with isoflurane/nitrous oxide for their anaesthesia. The majority of children in both groups (85% in group R, 78% in group B) showed no defined response to skin incision, and although the mean increase in systolic blood pressure (+11 mm Hg) was significantly greater in group R than in group B, this change did not represent a serious haemodynamic disturbance. More children in group R (31%) required interventions to treat hypotension and/or bradycardia than those in group B (12%), but these were easily managed by administration of fluids or anticholinergic drugs. Adverse events, mainly nausea and/or vomiting, occurred in 45% of group R and 42% of group B (NS). The adverse event profile of remifentanil in this study was typical of a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist. Remifentanil was as effective as epidural or caudal block in providing analgesia and suppressing physiological responses to surgical stimuli in children aged between 1 and 12 years undergoing major abdominal, urological, or orthopaedic surgery under isoflurane/nitrous oxide anaesthesia. PMID:10947750

  11. Methodological issues regarding power of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT)-based approaches for the comparison of patient-reported outcomes in two groups of patients - a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients-Reported Outcomes (PRO) are increasingly used in clinical and epidemiological research. Two main types of analytical strategies can be found for these data: classical test theory (CTT) based on the observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT). However, whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to analyse PRO data remains unknown. The statistical properties of CTT and IRT, regarding power and corresponding effect sizes, were compared. Methods Two-group cross-sectional studies were simulated for the comparison of PRO data using IRT or CTT-based analysis. For IRT, different scenarios were investigated according to whether items or person parameters were assumed to be known, to a certain extent for item parameters, from good to poor precision, or unknown and therefore had to be estimated. The powers obtained with IRT or CTT were compared and parameters having the strongest impact on them were identified. Results When person parameters were assumed to be unknown and items parameters to be either known or not, the power achieved using IRT or CTT were similar and always lower than the expected power using the well-known sample size formula for normally distributed endpoints. The number of items had a substantial impact on power for both methods. Conclusion Without any missing data, IRT and CTT seem to provide comparable power. The classical sample size formula for CTT seems to be adequate under some conditions but is not appropriate for IRT. In IRT, it seems important to take account of the number of items to obtain an accurate formula. PMID:20338031

  12. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention. PMID:26537543

  13. Studying the HI content of the NGC 4930 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfinger, Kathrin; Kilborn, Virginia; Koribalski, Baerbel

    2011-10-01

    We propose to observe the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of the spiral-rich NGC 4930 group using the ATCA. This notable group lies 2.5° east of the Centaurus cluster core and is probably infalling for the first time. Our primary goal is to trace the evolutionary changes of spirals in different environments and to map the first signs of interaction and transformation. Our aims of the ATCA observations are (i) to study the HI properties of the group, (ii) to determine if there is an HI deficiency in the members, (iii) to look for any signs of ram pressure stripping that would indicate an interaction with a hot intra-group medium and (iv) to conduct a ‘blind’ survey for new group members, such as dwarf companions within the survey volume. We will further test the latest galaxy finding routines such as Duchamp, which are vital for the success of the upcoming ASKAP HI surveys. The NGC 4930 group is covered in the HI Parkes All Sky Survey but only two out of the nine group members are detected in HI. We propose to make mosaic observations and we expect to detect all of the known galaxies in this group.

  14. Is the Medium Really the Message? A Comparison of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Focus Group Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori

    2013-01-01

    With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…

  15. Evaluating "Baby Think It Over" Infant Simulators: A Comparison Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jerrold E.

    2006-01-01

    To test the efficacy of Baby-Think-It-Over (BTIO) infant simulators, two versions of a sexuality education program were compared. While the program was designed to include BTIO as an important teaching technique, two schools (49 students) opted not to use them. These students completed all elements of the program except the BTIO activities. Their…

  16. Power and Sample Size Determination for the Group Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcomes with Rasch Family Models

    PubMed Central

    Blanchin, Myriam; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Guillemin, Francis; Falissard, Bruno; Sébille, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) that comprise all self-reported measures by the patient are important as endpoint in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Models from the Item Response Theory (IRT) are increasingly used to analyze these particular outcomes that bring into play a latent variable as these outcomes cannot be directly observed. Preliminary developments have been proposed for sample size and power determination for the comparison of PRO in cross-sectional studies comparing two groups of patients when an IRT model is intended to be used for analysis. The objective of this work was to validate these developments in a large number of situations reflecting real-life studies. Methodology The method to determine the power relies on the characteristics of the latent trait and of the questionnaire (distribution of the items), the difference between the latent variable mean in each group and the variance of this difference estimated using Cramer-Rao bound. Different scenarios were considered to evaluate the impact of the characteristics of the questionnaire and of the variance of the latent trait on performances of the Cramer-Rao method. The power obtained using Cramer-Rao method was compared to simulations. Principal Findings Powers achieved with the Cramer-Rao method were close to powers obtained from simulations when the questionnaire was suitable for the studied population. Nevertheless, we have shown an underestimation of power with the Cramer-Rao method when the questionnaire was less suitable for the population. Besides, the Cramer-Rao method stays valid whatever the values of the variance of the latent trait. Conclusions The Cramer-Rao method is adequate to determine the power of a test of group effect at design stage for two-group comparison studies including patient-reported outcomes in health sciences. At the design stage, the questionnaire used to measure the intended PRO should be carefully chosen in relation to the studied

  17. Effectiveness of the surviving the Teens® suicide prevention and depression awareness program: an impact evaluation utilizing a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Catherine M; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Sorter, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their effectiveness. This evaluation employs a comparison group to measure whether program group participants differed significantly from comparison group participants on pretest-posttest measures while assessing the immediate impact of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program. Findings indicate several positive outcomes in program group students' suicide and depression knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and behavioral intentions compared with the comparison group. Suicide prevention specialists and prevention planners may benefit from study findings. PMID:24786795

  18. Cooperative Study Groups: Give Your Students the Home Team Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this article I discuss the factors that led me to implement study groups in the teaching of mathematics. An important influence in this decision began with an experimental study conducted with two College Algebra classes in which students were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While there was no statistical difference between the study…

  19. Family composition and social class in bulimia. A catchment area study of a clinical and a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Dolan, B M; Evans, C; Lacey, J H

    1989-05-01

    Many theories of the etiology of eating disorders focus on the role of the family. However, these theories are based on clinical experience and uncontrolled clinical case series. We report a study comparing 50 bulimic women with 40 non-eating-disordered women all from the same clinical catchment area. This study revealed no significant differences in social class, family size, birth position, or sibling sex ratio between the two groups. However, the parents of bulimic women were found to have been significantly older than those of the control group at the time of birth of their daughter. These findings are discussed with reference to previous family studies of eating disorders. PMID:2651557

  20. Randomised double blind comparison of terbinafine and itraconazole for treatment of toenail tinea infection. Seventh Lamisil German Onychomycosis Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Bräutigam, M.; Nolting, S.; Schopf, R. E.; Weidinger, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and tolerability of terbinafine and itraconazole in the treatment of toenail tinea unguium. DESIGN--Multicentre, double blind, parallel group study. SETTING--17 university hospitals, one army hospital, and five dermatology practices. PATIENTS--195 patients with clinically suspected toenail tinea and growth of dermatophytes in baseline culture; data on 86 patients in the terbinafine group and 84 patients in the itraconazole group were fully evaluated for efficacy. INTERVENTIONS--Daily dose of 250 mg terbinafine or 200 mg itraconazole for 12 weeks, with follow up for a further 40 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mycological cure (negative results on microscopy and culture) and clinical improvement (length and area of unaffected nail) at week 52 or at discontinuation of treatment. RESULTS--At the end of the study mycological cure rates were 81% (70 out of 86) for terbinafine and 63% (53 out of 84) for itraconazole (2P < 0.01). Negative culture was achieved in 92% (79 out of 86) in the terbinafine group and 67% (56 out of 84) in the itraconazole group (2P < 0.0001). Length of unaffected nail was 9.44 mm in the terbinafine group and 7.85 mm in the itraconazole group (2P < 0.05). CONCLUSION--Terbinafine is more effective than itraconazole in the treatment of toenail tinea infection. PMID:7580551

  1. A Comparison of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory in a Delinquent Sample and a Comparison Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGurk, Barry J.; Bolton, Neil

    1981-01-01

    Compared the scores of reformatory inmates and technical college students on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory. Two factors accounted for most of the variance. Neuroticism was common to both groups. The second factor in the delinquent group was extraversion. (Author/JAC)

  2. Comparison of the Variations of Sunspot Number, Number of Sunspot Groups, and Sunspot Area, 1875 -2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Examined are the yearly variations and ratios of sunspot number, the number of sunspot groups, and the total corrected sunspot area for the interval 1875-2013. While yearly sunspot number independently correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with the yearly number of sunspot groups (y = -2 + 11.99x) and the total corrected sunspot area (y = 5 + 0.059x), the strongest correlation (Ry12 = 0.99) is the one based on the bivariate fit of sunspot number against the combined variations of the number of sunspot groups and sunspot area (y = 1 + 5.88x1 + 0.031x2, where y refers to sunspot number, x1 refers to the number of sunspot groups, and x2 refers to the sunspot area). While all cycle minima based on the bivariate fit are concurrent with the observed minimum in sunspot number, cycle maxima are sometimes found to differ. For sunspot cycles 12, 19, 20, and 23, cycle maximum is inferred to have occurred in 1884, 1958, 1970, and 2002, respectively, rather than in 1883, 1957, 1968, and 2000, based on the observed sunspot number. Also, cycle 19's maximum amplitude based on observed sunspot number seems too high in comparison to that found using the bivariate fit. During the 139-year interval 1875-2013, the difference between the observed and predicted sunspot number based on the bivariate fit is <1 standard error of estimate (se) (<6.4) for 111 years, between 1 and <2 se (6.4 to <12.8) for 28 years, and =2 se (=12.8) for only 4 years, these years being 1957 (16.6), 1978 (-15.8), 1980 (23), and 1982 (-16.3). For sunspot cycle 24, the difference between observed and predicted values has been only -0.7 and 3.2 (=0.5 se).

  3. The history of the EuroSPK - Study Group.

    PubMed

    Squifflet, J P; Malaise, J; Van Ophem, D; Marcelis, V; Land, W G

    2008-01-01

    The EuroSPK Study group was created during the 4th Spitzingsee 1997 workshop in Kühtai, Austria. Thanks to W. Land for the incentive to gather European Centres--with Switzerland and Israel--and propose them to joint efforts and share data in the field of pancreas transplantation. Today, two prospective randomized studies have been already performed; a lot of data and results have been generated and worldwide spread. The spirit of the group will continue with a new interest in innate immunity and prevention of the ischemic reperfusion injury in pancreas transplantation. PMID:18411576

  4. The dose-effect relationships between torture and psychiatric symptoms in Vietnamese ex-political detainees and a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Mollica, R F; McInnes, K; Pham, T; Smith Fawzi, M C; Murphy, E; Lin, L

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine in Vietnamese ex-political detainees newly arrived into the United States a) the prevalence of torture and psychiatric symptoms and b) the dose-effect relationships between cumulative torture experience and the psychiatric symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. The study population included Vietnamese ex-political detainees (N = 51) and a comparison group (N = 22). All respondents received culturally validated instruments with known psychometric properties including Vietnamese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The ex-political detainees, in contrast to the comparison group, had experienced more torture events (12.2 SD = 4.2 vs. 2.6 SD = 3.1) and had higher rates of PTSD (90% vs. 79%) and depression (49% vs. 15%). Dose-effect relationships between cumulative torture experience and psychiatric symptoms were positive with the PTSD subcategory of "increased arousal" revealing the strongest association. These findings provide evidence that torture is associated with psychiatric morbidity in Vietnamese refugees. The demonstration of significant dose-effect responses supports the hypothesis that torture is a major risk factor in the etiology of major depression and PTSD. The generalizability of these results to other torture survivor groups is unknown. The interaction between torture and other pre- and post-migration risk factors over time in different cultural settings still needs to be examined. PMID:9741560

  5. The Comparison of Nutritional Status Between Turkman and Non-Turkman Ethnic Groups in North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veghari, Gholam Reza; Jafar Golalipour, Mohammad

    Undernutrition and obesity are two most children health problems in world. Several agents can effect on food pattern among ethnic groups. This study was designed to determine nutritional status among rural children by two ethnic groups (Turkman and Non-Turkman) in north of Iran in 2004. We chose 20 villages of 118 by cluster and simple sampling. All of 2-5 years old children in this area were considered in this study. Sample size was 1446 cases (551 = Turkman and 895 = non-Turkman). Height, weight and personal identification were recorded by questioner. BMI percentile and under -1SD, -2SD and -3SD from NCHS were used for comparison. X2-test and T-test were used to analyze by software SPSS. Turkman children are about 426 g heavier and 4.9 cm taller than non-Turkman in all of age groups. T-test is significant between two groups by weight and height (p< 0.05). Stunting and underweight were observed in Turkman group 13.2 and 1.9%, respectively less than in non-Turkman by -2SD criterion. There is a significant difference between two groups by stunting (p< 0.05). Obesity and overweight exist in Turkman group 24.5 and 2.6%, respectively are less than in non-Turkman. Obesity is statistical significant between two groups (p< 0.05). Secular growth in two groups is incompatible and in Turkman group, it is better than Non-Turkman. There is severe height deficit in Non-Turkman group and it increases the BMI values. Thereby, malnutrition is the most health problem in rural area in north of Iran and nutritional intervention is necessary for solving these problems. BMI values are not suitable for children with stature failure.

  6. Comparison of the Efficiency of Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) Procedure in Older and Younger Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sivaslioglu, Akin; Ilhan, Türkan; Uçar, Mustafa Gazi; Dolen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal vault prolapsus is a challenging problem for the patients and physicians. There may be differences between young and elderly patients in terms of efficiency and safety of surgical procedures. Aim The aim of our study was to compare the efficiency of the Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) procedure in older versus younger patient groups. Materials and Methods A total of 40 patients who underwent the PIVS procedure were chosen. Twenty of these patients were younger than 60 years of age (Group I) while the other 20 patients were 60 years of age or older (Group II). Preoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapsed Quantification (POP-Q) reference points were compared with postoperative data at the first year following surgery. Student’s t-test was used to analyse continuous variables and the χ2 test was used to analyse categorical data. The Mann–Whitney test was used for data that were not normally distributed. Results Anatomical cure rates were 90 percent in both groups (p=1.00). There were significantly greater improvements in POP-Q points in group I than group II. Conclusion It could be concluded that PIVS as minimally invasive procedure for vaginal vault prolapsed and is effective in all age groups.

  7. Grassroots Growth: The Evolution of a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dana; Moore, Terry; Taylor, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, a group of teachers lingered after a district meeting, sharing a conversation about encouraging social responsibility in the school district of Tenafly, New Jersey. That conversation led to the eventual formation of a teacher study group, a grassroots professional learning community that has impacted its members and the school…

  8. Neighborhoods, Family, and Substance Use: Comparisons of the Relations across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how substance use among adolescents is related to several risk and protective factors derived from two ecological contexts: the neighborhood and the family. It explicitly investigates how the relationships between substance use and the factors vary across different racial and ethnic groups. Findings suggest many common correlates and processes of substance use for adolescents, regardless of race or ethnicity, including that neighborhood safety is associated with substance use. There are also some racial and ethnic group differences in relationships, including that low attachment to and lack of social opportunities in neighborhoods more strongly predict substance use among whites than among other racial and ethnic groups and that family management decreases the relationship between neighborhood safety and substance use among African Americans. A better understanding of the associations among factors that influence substance use across racial and ethnic subgroups can help effectively target preventive interventions for different groups. PMID:18461154

  9. When the group practice breaks up: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277

  10. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  11. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. PMID:23793198

  12. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended. PMID:24441299

  13. Receiving the Initial Down Syndrome Diagnosis: A Comparison of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Group Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Springer, Nicole; Foote, Laura Cline; Frantz, Courtney; Peak, Madison; Tracy, Courtney; Veh, Taylor; Bentley, Gail E.; Cross, Kayli A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the preliminary experiences of parents upon learning of their child's diagnosis of Down syndrome. Qualitative data from a web-based, national survey were analyzed based on two groups: prenatal ("n" = 46) or postnatal ("n" = 115) diagnosis. Three primary categories emerged from the data analysis:…

  14. Comparison of performance of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society, the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group and the modified New York criteria in a cohort of Chinese patients with spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Yin; Lau, Chak Sing; Wu, Ka Pik; Wong, Woon Sing; MOK, Mo Yin

    2011-07-01

    Early diagnosis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) is essential as anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy can achieve significant symptomatic relief and control of disease activity. This study aims to compare the clinical characteristics, disease activity, and functional status of a Chinese cohort of SpA patients who were re-classified into ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients fulfilling the modified New York (MNY) criteria, those with undifferentiated SpA (USpA) fulfilling the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) classification criteria only (USpA/ESSG) and those who fulfill Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) only (USpA/ASAS). Disease activity was evaluated by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), severity of morning stiffness, patient global assessment, and C-reactive protein. Functional status was evaluated by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), modified Schober index, and dimension of chest expansion. One hundred and twenty-eight patients with disease duration of 16.3 ± 10.4 years were recruited. Patients in USpA/ESSG and USpA/ASAS were significantly younger (p = 0.01), had shorter disease duration (p < 0.01), and lower BASFI (p = 0.03) than established AS patients. All three groups have active disease with comparable BASDAI >3. BASFI correlated inversely with dimension of chest expansion and negatively modified Schober index in AS patients (p < 0.01) and modestly with BASDAI (r = 0.25, p < 0.01). BASFI correlated moderately with BASDAI in USpA/ESSG (r = 0.61, p < 0.01) but not with chest expansion or modified Schober index. Compared with established AS patients recognized by MNY criteria, patients fulfilling USpA defined by ESSG or ASAS criteria had earlier disease, as active disease and less irreversible functional deficit. PMID:21336823

  15. The Langer-Improved Wald Test for DIF Testing with Multiple Groups: Evaluation and Comparison to Two-Group IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Cai, Li; Wang, Mian

    2013-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the probability of responding in a particular category to an item differs for members of different groups who are matched on the construct being measured. The identification of DIF is important for valid measurement. This research evaluates an improved version of Lord's chi [superscript 2] Wald…

  16. Levels of the Staff's Exposure to Violence at Locked Psychiatric Clinics: A Comparison by Occupational Groups.

    PubMed

    Bilici, Rabia; Sercan, Mustafa; Izci, Filiz

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the rates of exposure to violence among physicians, nurses, and other health care staff members working at the locked psychiatric clinics, to examine the quantity and types of violence exposed, and to compare occupational groups by the level of exposure to violence. In parallel with the existing literature, the present study supports the proposition that physicians and nurses working at psychiatric units represent a risky group in terms of exposure to violence. The survey found that 87.6% of staff members viewed security measures insufficient. It is considered by the authors that preventive actions should be taken to reduce the risk of exposure to violence against the staff members working at the locked psychiatric clinics. PMID:27104294

  17. Comparison of the interactions in the rare gas hydride and Group 2 metal hydride anions

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Joe P.; Manship, Daniel R.; Wright, Timothy G.; Breckenridge, W. H.

    2014-02-28

    We study both the rare gas hydride anions, RG–H{sup −} (RG = He–Rn) and Group 2 (Group IIa) metal hydride anions, M{sub IIa}H{sup −} (M{sub IIa} = Be–Ra), calculating potential energy curves at the CCSD(T) level with augmented quadruple and quintuple basis sets, and extrapolating the results to the basis set limit. We report spectroscopic parameters obtained from these curves; additionally, we study the Be–He complex. While the RG–H{sup −} and Be–He species are weakly bound, we show that, as with the previously studied BeH{sup −} and MgH{sup −} species, the other M{sub IIa}H{sup −} species are strongly bound, despite the interactions nominally also being between two closed shell species: M(ns{sup 2}) and H{sup −}(1s{sup 2}). We gain insight into the interactions using contour plots of the electron density changes and population analyses. For both series, the calculated dissociation energy is significantly less than the ion/induced-dipole attraction term, confirming that electron repulsion is important in these species; this effect is more dramatic for the M{sub IIa}H{sup −} species than for RG–H{sup −}. Our analyses lead us to conclude that the stronger interaction in the case of the M{sub IIa}H{sup −} species arises from sp and spd hybridization, which allows electron density on the M{sub IIa} atom to move away from the incoming H{sup −}.

  18. Motivating Study Groups across the Disciplines in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Clary, Deidre M.; Oglan, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces Project RAISSE: Reading Assistance Initiative for Secondary School Educators and shares the findings of a study into those factors found to motivate study group participants at two rural high schools in the southern USA. The research team collected qualitative data over a two-year period, including interviews, artifacts,…

  19. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  20. International neurocognitive normative study: neurocognitive comparison data in diverse resource-limited settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, S R; Marra, C M; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, T B; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S; Kumarasamy, N; la Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-08-01

    Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource-limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impedes research and clinical care. Here, we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At ten sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n = 240), India (n = 480), Malawi (n = 481), Peru (n = 239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n = 240), and Zimbabwe (n = 240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline and 770 at 6 months. Participants were enrolled in eight strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 and ≥10 years), and age (<35 and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the 6-month follow-up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p < 0.0001). There was variation between the age, gender, and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance, and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the necessary neurocognitive normative data needed to build infrastructure for future neurological and neurocognitive studies in diverse RLS. These normative data are a much-needed resource for both clinicians and researchers. PMID:26733457

  1. A Comparison of Web-based and Small-Group Palliative and End-of-Life Care Curricula: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Study at One Institution

    PubMed Central

    Day, Frank C.; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Griffin, Erin; Hoffman, Jerome R.; Wilkes, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have compared the effect of web-based eLearning versus small-group learning on medical student outcomes. Palliative and end-of-life (PEOL) education is ideal for this comparison, given uneven access to PEOL experts and content nationally. Method In 2010, the authors enrolled all third-year medical students at the University of California, Davis School of Medicine into a quasi-randomized controlled trial of web-based interactive education (eDoctoring) compared to small-group education (Doctoring) on PEOL clinical content over two months. All students participated in three 3-hour PEOL sessions with similar content. Outcomes included a 24-item PEOL-specific self-efficacy scale with three domains (diagnosis/treatment [Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92, CI: 0.91–0.93], communication/prognosis [alpha = 0.95; CI: 0.93–0.96], and social impact/self-care [alpha = 0.91; CI: 0.88–0.92]); eight knowledge items; ten curricular advantage/disadvantages, and curricular satisfaction (both students and faculty). Results Students were randomly assigned to web-based eDoctoring (n = 48) or small-group Doctoring (n = 71) curricula. Self-efficacy and knowledge improved equivalently between groups: e.g., prognosis self-efficacy, 19%; knowledge, 10–42%. Student and faculty ratings of the web-based eDoctoring curriculum and the small group Doctoring curriculum were equivalent for most goals, and overall satisfaction was equivalent for each, with a trend towards decreased eDoctoring student satisfaction. Conclusions Findings showed equivalent gains in self-efficacy and knowledge between students participating in a web-based PEOL curriculum, in comparison to students learning similar content in a small-group format. Web-based curricula can standardize content presentation when local teaching expertise is limited, but may lead to decreased user satisfaction. PMID:25539518

  2. Comparison of the Mindfulness Skills, Metacognitive Beliefs and Perceived Stress in Hypertension Patients and Control Group.

    PubMed

    Haji-Mirsaeidi, Zohreh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the skills of mindfulness, metacognitive beliefs and perceived stress in hypertension patients and control group. The study was a causal-comparative one. The population included all patients with high blood pressure who were admitted in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute in 2014, 90 of which were selected by purposive sampling. Research instruments include: Kentucky's mindfulness skills (Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004), metacognitive beliefs questionnaire (Welles, 1997) and questionnaire perceived stress (Cohen & Kamarck, 1983). Of all the questionnaires returned, 80 were fully completed and therefore analyzed. Data were analyzed using a t-test and multivariate analysis of variance. Results showed that there is a difference between mindfulness skills and beliefs of people with hypertension and control group. Moreover, the results showed that there isn't any meaningful difference between the perceived stress in patients with hypertension and control group. It can be said that mindfulness skills, metacognitive beliefs and perceived stress can help us to understand the psychological issues of patients with high blood pressure better. PMID:27530578

  3. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  4. The Influence of Learner Strategies on Oral Presentations: A Comparison between Group and Individual Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has frequently been used in language classrooms, from in-class task-based group work to group presentations. Research suggests that cooperative learning provides mutual support, as well as successful and effective learning outcomes of tasks. The present research addressed a number of problems discovered in group oral…

  5. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual: A Controlled Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…

  6. The quality of control groups in non-randomized studies published in Journal of Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate control group selection in non-randomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). Methods We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used non-randomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine if authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Results Thirty-seven non-randomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18(49%) identified sources of selection bias. Conclusions In our review of non-randomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Clinical relevance Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. PMID:25447000

  7. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  8. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  9. The specificity of emotional switching in borderline personality disorder in comparison to other clinical groups.

    PubMed

    Houben, Marlies; Bohus, Martin; Santangelo, Philip S; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Trull, Timothy J; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In an attempt to better understand the nature of emotion dysregulation in the daily lives of persons with a borderline personality disorder (BPD), Houben et al. (2016) recently identified emotional switching, which refers to the tendency to make large changes between positive and negative emotional states over time, as a possible defining characteristic of the emotion dynamics observed in BPD. The goal of this study was to examine the specificity of these previous findings in 2 samples by comparing BPD patients (N = 43 in sample 1; N = 81 in sample 2) to patients with bulimia nervosa (N = 20), posttraumatic stress disorder (N = 28), or healthy controls (N = 28) in sample 1, and to patients with depressive disorder (N = 50) in sample 2, with respect to measures of emotional switching. Analyses of these 2 experience sampling datasets revealed that contrary to expectations, BPD patients did not differ from the clinical groups regarding their mere tendency to switch between positive and negative emotional states on consecutive moments over time and regarding the magnitude of such changes between positive and negative emotional states over time. However, all clinical groups did differ from healthy controls regarding all switch measures in dataset 1. These results indicate that emotional switching, similar to other more traditional indicators of overall changes in emotional intensity in daily life, might reflect a feature of emotional responding characterizing a range of disorders with mood disturbances. PMID:26882282

  10. Platinum-group elements in the Eastern Deccan volcanic province and a comparison with platinum metals of the western Deccan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocket, James; Paul, Dalim; Lala, Trisha

    2013-08-01

    This study is the first detailed investigation of the platinum-group elements (PGE) at the eastern margin of the Deccan volcanic province of India. One of the PGE, osmium, is not included largely because of analytical problems. The study is focused on mafic volcanics and dykes from four areas including Amarkantak, Umaria, Shahdol and Chirimiri. The first two localities represent two lava piles of about 170 and 400 m thickness respectively. In Umaria, 16 flows have been demarcated based on petrography and field studies. The Shahdol samples are basal lava formations overlying Gondwana sediments (Carboniferous) and the Chirimiri samples are dykes. In this study, the western Deccan province is defined as the Western Ghats plus Kutch. On average, the PGE are ~20% higher in Amarkantak than Umaria and the flows are ~13% higher in PGE than the dykes. A Zr vs. Pd scattergram found a strong positive correlation for these two elements except for one Umaria sample which indicated severe Pd loss. A comparison of west and east parts of the Deccan volcanic province using primitive mantle normalization showed that higher values prevailed in the western province suite in the Ni-Ir-Ru-Pt region. In contrast, eastern province values dominated in the Pd-Au-Cu region at the `Cu' end of the profiles. A strong dominance of Pd in the eastern Deccan was also of interest. A number of factors, for example, percentage partial melting of the source rock and the temperature and pressure of partial melting strongly influence the character of these profiles. The observed PGE profile characteristics probably result in part from a long distance of subsurface transport of Deccan magma from the western to eastern regions.

  11. Study of the Moraxella Group I. Genus Moraxella and the Neisseria catarrhalis Group1

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, P.; Doudoroff, M.; Stanier, R. Y.

    1968-01-01

    A number of strains of oxidase-positive moraxellas and of neisserias related to Neisseria catarrhalis were characterized with respect to a number of nutritional and physiological properties and could be assigned to several species or species groups on the basis of their phenotypic traits. This grouping was consistent with that established by Bövre on the basis of transformation frequencies for streptomycin resistance. It is proposed to reserve the generic name Moraxella for the oxidase-positive rodshaped organisms, and a redescription of the genus is offered. Following the recent taxonomic proposals of Bövre and Henriksen, the specific name Moraxella osloensis is applied to the nutritionally unexacting strains that accumulate poly-β-hydroxybutyrate as carbon reserve. The nutritionally exacting strains are assigned to three distinct groups which can be regarded as separate species or as varieties of M. lacunata. The epithets applicable to these groups appear to be lacunata, nonliquefaciens, and bovis. The “false neisserias” could be assigned to at least three subgroups, one of which constitutes the clearly defined entity, N. catarrhalis, which could be distinguished from N. caviae and N. ovis. Images PMID:4866103

  12. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  13. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  14. The Role of Focus Group Venue: A Comparative Study of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Video-Based Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the equivalence or non-inferiority for comparisons of telephone focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, Internet video-based focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, and Internet video-based focus group venue to telephone focus group venue. Research questions examined the…

  15. A Comparison of Workplace Groups with Groups in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; James, Joyce E.

    The use of groups in both the workplace and schools has been increasing. In the workplace, groups reflective of a growing trend toward worker participation in management have been variously referred to as self-managing work teams, self-directed work groups, quality circles, autonomous work groups, and cross-functional teams. Schools have used many…

  16. Impact of tissue atrophy on high-pass filtered MRI signal phase-based assessment in large-scale group-comparison studies: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweser, Ferdinand; Dwyer, Michael G.; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.; Zivadinov, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of abnormal accumulation of tissue iron in the basal ganglia nuclei and in white matter plaques using the gradient echo magnetic resonance signal phase has become a research focus in many neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. A common and natural approach is to calculate the mean high-pass-filtered phase of previously delineated brain structures. Unfortunately, the interpretation of such an analysis requires caution: in this paper we demonstrate that regional gray matter atrophy, which is concomitant with many neurodegenerative diseases, may itself directly result in a phase shift seemingly indicative of increased iron concentration even without any real change in the tissue iron concentration. Although this effect is relatively small results of large-scale group comparisons may be driven by anatomical changes rather than by changes of the iron concentration.

  17. Comparison of suicide rates among industrial groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Waterbor, J W

    1994-02-01

    Suicide rates among industrial groups were examined systematically using death certificate data from 1984 through 1989 in Alabama. Poisson log-linear modelling was used to estimate the rate ratios (RR) of industries compared to a referent and to adjust for confounding. Marked differences in suicide rates were found among industrial groups. The rates ranged from 5.31 to 62.36 per 100,000 population per year. People employed in public administration had the lowest rate. In comparison with public administration, the construction industry had the highest risk (adjusted RR = 11.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.6-14.6). Employees of the mining industry experienced a similarly high risk (adjusted RR = 11.5, 95% CI: 8.2-16.3). Persons employed in farming, agriculture services, forestry, and fisheries, manufacturing, and transportation, communications, and other public utilities industries had intermediate risks. Smaller elevations of suicide rates compared to public administration were observed in the wholesale trade, retail trade, finance, insurance, and real estate, and services industries. The differences of suicide rates may be related to sociodemographic differences, self-selection for occupation, ease of access to lethal agents, or job stress. PMID:8147392

  18. Report of the APS Neutrino Study Reactor Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Anderson, K.; Barenboim, G.; Berger, B.; Blucher, E.; Bolton, T.; Choubey, S.; Conrad, J.; Formaggio, J.; Freedman, S.; Finely, D.; Fisher, P.; Fujikawa, B.; Gai, M.; Goodman, M.; de Goueva, A.; Hadley, N.; Hahn, R.; Horton-Smith, G.; Kadel, R.; Kayser, B.; Heeger, K.; Klein, J.; Learned, J.; Lindner, M.; Link, J.; Luk, K.-B.; McKeown, R.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohapatra, R.; Naples, D.; Peng, J.; Petcov, S.; Pilcher, J.; Rapidis, P.; Reyna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Stanton, N.; Stefanski, R.; Yamamoto, R.; Worcester, M.

    2004-10-28

    The worldwide program to understand neutrino oscillations and determine the neutrino mixing parameters, CP violating effects, and mass hierarchy will require a broad combination of measurements. The group believes that a key element of this future neutrino program is a multi-detector neutrino experiment (with baselines of {approx} 200 m and {approx} 1.5 km) with a sensitivity of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} = 0.01. In addition to oscillation physics, the reactor experiment may provide interesting measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} at Q{sup 2} = 0, neutrino couplings, magnetic moments, and mixing with sterile neutrino states. {theta}{sub 13} is one of the twenty-six parameters of the standard model, the best model of electroweak interactions for energies below 100 GeV and, as such, is worthy of a precision measurement independent of other considerations. A reactor experiment of the proposed sensitivity will allow a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} with no ambiguities and significantly better precision than any other proposed experiment, or will set limits indicating the scale of future experiments required to make progress. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the sensitivity of reactor experiments of different scales with accelerator experiments for setting limits on sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the mixing angle is very small, or for making a measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the angle is observable. A reactor experiment with a 1% precision may also resolve the degeneracy in the {theta}{sub 23} parameter when combined with long-baseline accelerator experiments. In combination with long-baseline measurements, a reactor experiment may give early indications of CP violation and the mass hierarchy. The combination of the T2K and Nova long-baseline experiments will be able to make significant measurements of these effects if sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.05 and with enhanced beam rates can improve their reach to the sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.02 level

  19. Reexamining the Impact of Nonnormality in Two-Group Comparison Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonjeong; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The authors performed a Monte Carlo simulation to empirically investigate the robustness and power of 4 methods in testing mean differences for 2 independent groups under conditions in which 2 populations may not demonstrate the same pattern of nonnormality. The approaches considered were the t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Welch-James test with…

  20. A Comparison of Approaches to Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.; And Others

    This panel is based on the assumptions that: (1) group counseling has a valuable contribution to make, (2) group counseling is feasible in terms of time and space at local institutions, (3) group counseling is particularly concerned with affective material, and (4) group counseling probably cannot be conducted effectively in groups as large as 30.…

  1. Dynamical study of the Atira group of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. O.; Roig, F.; De Prá, M. N.; Carvano, J. M.; DeSouza, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    We study the dynamics of the group of Atira asteroids, characterized by aphelion distance Q < 0.983 au. This group has a significant observational bias, and their number is expected to be an order of magnitude larger than is known today. Due to their orbital configuration, these asteroids may represent a potential danger to the Earth. Here, we construct dynamical maps of the region between 0.2 and 0.98 au using a simple chaos indicator, the mean standard deviation in semimajor axis, and also analyse the behaviour of the real Atira orbits by means of the diffusion coefficient in semimajor axis. Our results indicate that Atira asteroids are located in the most unstable regions of the inner Solar system, and their stability is determined by close encounters and collisions with Mercury, Venus, and the Earth. A fraction of the known Atiras may represent a potential threat to the Earth over a few 105 yr of evolution. We found two islands of low-eccentricity stable orbits that might harbour a long-lasting sub-population of Atiras not yet observed.

  2. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  3. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  4. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  5. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  6. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  7. Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M; Stoddart, H; Condon, L; Freeman, E; Grizzell, M; Mullen, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The uptake of the combined measles, mumps and rubella immunisation (MMR) in Britain has fallen since 1998, when a link was hypothesised with the development of bowel disorders and childhood autism. Despite reassurances about the safety of MMR, uptake levels remain lower than optimal. We need to understand what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept MMR or not so that health professionals can provide a service responsive to their needs. AIM: To investigate what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept or refuse the primary MMR immunisation and the impact of the recent controversy over its safety. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus group discussions. SETTING: Forty-eight parents, whose youngest child was between 14 months and three years old, attended groups at community halls in six localities in Avon and Gloucestershire. METHODS: Purposive sampling strategy was used to include parents from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Three groups comprised parents who had accepted MMR and three groups comprised parents who had refused MMR. Data analysis used modified grounded theory techniques incorporating the constant comparative method. RESULTS: All parents felt that the decision about MMR was difficult and stressful, and experienced unwelcome pressure from health professionals to comply. Parents were not convinced by Department of Health reassurances that MMR was the safest and best option for their children and many had accepted MMR unwillingly. Four key factors influenced parents' decisions: (a) beliefs about the risks and benefits of MMR compared with contracting the diseases, (b) information from the media and other sources about the safety of MMR, (c) confidence and trust in the advice of health professionals and attitudes towards compliance with this advice, and (d) views on the importance of individual choice within Government policy on immunisation. CONCLUSIONS: Parents wanted up-to-date information about the risks and

  8. Scandium in the open ocean: A comparison with other group 3 trivalent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, C. E.; Brown, M. T.; Bruland, K. W.

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the distribution of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean. Since the 1970s there has been only one published depth profile of dissolved Sc. The work presented here reports depth profiles of dissolved Sc from GEOTRACES cruises in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and South Pacific. This work also compares the reactivity of Sc with its trivalent periodic table groupmates in Group IIIB, yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La), and Group IIIA, aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga). Yttrium and La are classic nutrient-type metals that increase in concentration in aging deep water; Al and Ga are classic scavenged-type metals that do the opposite. Results indicate that Sc is a hybrid-type metal with an inferred residence time on the order of 1000 years, and that Sc's inorganic speciation and reactivity are similar to Fe's and have the potential to give insights into the nonnutrient side of oceanic Fe cycling.

  9. THE NORTH AMERICAN MERCURY MODEL INTER-COMPARISON STUDY (NAMMIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the North American Mercury Model Inter-comparison Study (NAMMIS). The NAMMIS is an effort to apply atmospheric Hg models in a tightly constrained testing environment with a focus on North America. With each model using the same input data sets for initial co...

  10. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  11. Multicenter Evaluation of the Solana Group A Streptococcus Assay: Comparison with Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Daly, Judy A.; Marti, Tara N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared group A Streptococcus (GAS) culture with a rapid helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) method using 1,082 throat swab specimens. The HDA method demonstrated 98.2% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity. GAS prevalence by culture was 20.7%, and it was 22.6% using the HDA method. In 35 min, the HDA method provided rapid, sensitive GAS detection, making culture confirmation unnecessary. PMID:27358464

  12. Comparison of usual podiatric care and early physical therapy intervention for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant number of individuals suffer from plantar heel pain (PHP) and many go on to have chronic symptoms and continued disability. Persistence of symptoms adds to the economic burden of PHP and cost-effective solutions are needed. Currently, there is a wide variation in treatment, cost, and outcomes of care for PHP with limited information on the cost-effectiveness and comparisons of common treatment approaches. Two practice guidelines and recent evidence of effective physical therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy intervention in the multidisciplinary management of PHP is unclear. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial presentation to podiatry versus usual podiatric care (uPOD) in individuals with PHP. Methods A parallel-group, block-randomized clinical trial will compare ePT and uPOD. Both groups will be seen initially by a podiatrist before allocation to a group that will receive physical therapy intervention consisting primarily of manual therapy, exercise, and modalities, or podiatric care consisting primarily of a stretching handout, medication, injections, and orthotics. Treatment in each group will be directed by practice guidelines and a procedural manual, yet the specific intervention for each participant will be selected by the treating provider. Between-group differences in the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure 6 months following the initial visit will be the primary outcome collected by an independent investigator. In addition, differences in the European Quality of Life – Five Dimensions, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change (GROC), health-related costs, and cost-effectiveness at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year will be compared between groups. The association between successful outcomes based on GROC score and participant expectations of recovery

  13. Comparison of cardiovascular risk profile between male employees of two automotives companies in France and Sweden. The Coeur Project Group.

    PubMed

    Simon, A; Dimberg, L; Levenson, J; Lanoiselée, C; Massonneau, M; Eriksson, B; Jern, S; Kumlin, L; Marin, P; Dahlöf, B; Hansson, L; Björntorp, P

    1997-12-01

    To determine whether or not the lower rate of coronary disease in France, in comparison with Sweden, might be explained by different cardiovascular risk profiles, a cross-sectional analysis (first step of a longitudinal study) of comparable samples of automotive workers was carried out in corporate occupational health clinics of Renault and Volvo. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated and the Framingham coronary risk was estimated for 1000 randomly selected 45-50 years old Caucasian males from each company. Compared with the Frenchmen, the Swedish men consisted of more white collar workers and were slightly older. After adjustment for age and blue/white collar status, the Swedish men showed lower body mass indexes, waist to hip rations and heart rates, lower frequency of treatment of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes than the Frenchmen. The Swedish males also exhibited higher averages of blood cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and glucose, but lower frequencies of hypercholestrolemia and diabetes, and a higher frequency of family histories of cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure, hypertension prevalence, triglycerides level, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) did not differ between the groups. The average number of traditional risk factors was 1.1/person for the Frenchmen and 0.8/person for the Swedes. However, the coronary risk as estimated using the Framingham index was not different between the groups. This, together with the more frequent family history of cardiovascular disease in Swedish men, suggests a lower susceptibility to risk factors as a possible explanation for the lower cardiovascular disease prevalence reported in France, and/or the possibility that factors not measured were involved. PMID:9476817

  14. Two-Year Comparison of a Stream Macroinvertebrate Functional Group Bioassessment Protocol for the Republic of Palau Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, A. A.; Benbow, M. E.; Holm, T.; Burky, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Macroinvertebrate functional feeding group data was collected in 2003 and 2004 to develop a rapid bioassessment protocol for Palauan streams. One reference stream, Ngardmau, was selected to test functional group ratios and associated ecosystem attributes against streams of variable impact. In both years qualitative samples were collected using 30s dip net samples in pool habitats and benthic scouring methods in cascades with additional quantitative cascade collections for sampling technique comparisons in 2004. In the reference stream riffle habitat, filtering-gatherers dominated the community (89.92% in 2003 and 47.37% in 2004) compared to all other functional groups. Among the impacted streams, riffle functional group composition was variable compared to the reference stream. In reference pool habitats, gathering-collectors and scrapers dominated in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Scrapers dominated pool habitats of impacted streams in 2004, with some functional groups missing. Changes in ecosystem attributes followed functional group variability depending on degree of impact. Functional group ratios indicated channel stability ratio ([filtering-collectors + scrapers]/[shredders + gathering-collectors]) was lowered with increasing impact, suggesting food and/or habitat quality for filtering-collectors was degraded in riffle habitats in 2003 with no trends in 2004. By this protocol streams were determined to be degraded in 2004 relative to 2003.

  15. Multicenter evaluation of the antimicrobial activity for six broad-spectrum beta-lactams in Venezuela: comparison of data from 1997 and 1998 using the Etest method. Venezuelan Antimicrobial Resistance Study Group.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N; Doern, G V

    1999-10-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations of six broad-spectrum beta-lactam antimicrobial agents were determined in 1998 by use of the Etest versus a total of 502 bacteria in seven Venezuelan hospital laboratories. These data were compared with results of a similar study performed in 1997. The organisms tested included 309 recent clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 70 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 54 Acinetobacter species, and 69 oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase production was noted among 30% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Hyperproduction of Amp C cephalosporinase producing resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime was observed with 10 to 37% of isolates of Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., and Citrobacter freundii. The overall rank order of activity of the six beta-lactams tested in this study against all clinical isolates was imipenem (96.6% susceptible) > cefepime (90.4%) > piperacillin/tazobactam (85.7%) > ceftazidime (73.5%) > cefotaxime (70.5%) > piperacillin (55.0%). These findings were very similar to those reported for 1997. PMID:10579096

  16. Validation of WHO classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) for myelodysplastic syndromes and comparison with the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). A study of the International Working Group for Prognosis in Myelodysplasia (IWG-PM).

    PubMed

    Della Porta, M G; Tuechler, H; Malcovati, L; Schanz, J; Sanz, G; Garcia-Manero, G; Solé, F; Bennett, J M; Bowen, D; Fenaux, P; Dreyfus, F; Kantarjian, H; Kuendgen, A; Levis, A; Cermak, J; Fonatsch, C; Le Beau, M M; Slovak, M L; Krieger, O; Luebbert, M; Maciejewski, J; Magalhaes, S M M; Miyazaki, Y; Pfeilstöcker, M; Sekeres, M A; Sperr, W R; Stauder, R; Tauro, S; Valent, P; Vallespi, T; van de Loosdrecht, A A; Germing, U; Haase, D; Greenberg, P L; Cazzola, M

    2015-07-01

    A risk-adapted treatment strategy is mandatory for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We refined the World Health Organization (WHO)-classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) by determining the impact of the newer clinical and cytogenetic features, and we compared its prognostic power to that of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). A population of 5326 untreated MDS was considered. We analyzed single WPSS parameters and confirmed that the WHO classification and severe anemia provide important prognostic information in MDS. A strong correlation was found between the WPSS including the new cytogenetic risk stratification and WPSS adopting original criteria. We then compared WPSS with the IPSS-R prognostic system. A highly significant correlation was found between the WPSS and IPSS-R risk classifications. Discrepancies did occur among lower-risk patients in whom the number of dysplastic hematopoietic lineages as assessed by morphology did not reflect the severity of peripheral blood cytopenias and/or increased marrow blast count. Moreover, severe anemia has higher prognostic weight in the WPSS versus IPSS-R model. Overall, both systems well represent the prognostic risk of MDS patients defined by WHO morphologic criteria. This study provides relevant in formation for the implementation of risk-adapted strategies in MDS. PMID:25721895

  17. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  18. Multicenter evaluation of antimicrobial resistance to six broad-spectrum beta-lactams in Colombia: comparison of data from 1997 and 1998 using the Etest method. The Colombian Antimicrobial Resistance Study Group.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N; Doern, G V; Salazar, J C

    1999-11-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations of six broad-spectrum beta-lactam antimicrobial agents were determined in 1998 by use of the Etest versus a total of 823 bacteria in 11 Colombian hospital laboratories. These data were compared with results of a similar study conducted in 1997. The organisms tested included 532 recent clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 108 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 94 Acinetobacter species, and 89 oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was noted among 27.8 to 33.9% of Escherichia coli isolates and 41.7 to 46.7% of Klebsiella spp. isolates. Hyperproduction of Amp C cephalosporinases was observed with 10.5 to 31.4% of isolates of Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., and Citrobacter spp. An increase in resistance to all of the beta-lactams was observed among Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa when 1998 results were compared with those obtained in 1997. The overall rank order of activity of the six beta-lactams tested in 1998 versus all clinical isolates was imipenem (93.2% susceptible) > cefoperazone/sulbactam (84.1%) > cefepime (80.9%) > ceftazidime (70.7%) > aztreonam (65.7%) > cefotaxime (65.6%). In contrast, the rank order of these same agents tested against a similar collection of Colombian isolates in 1997 was imipenem (96.6% susceptible) > cefepime (93.6%) > cefoperazone/sulbactam (90.5%) > cefotaxime (74.9%) > aztreonam (74.3%) > ceftazidime (73.2%). PMID:10626135

  19. Life Cycle Leadership Theory vs. Theory on the Phases of Small Group Discussion: Comparisons, Contrasts, and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Charles Thomas, Jr.

    The work of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard on life-cycle leadership was compared and contrasted to three studies on group phase theories. The studies on group phases were conducted by Robert Bales and Fred Strodtbeck in 1951, Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell in 1964, and B. Aubrey Fisher in 1970. The two theoretical approaches were found to…

  20. The healthy immigrant (migrant) effect: In search of a better native-born comparison group.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Tod G

    2015-11-01

    This paper evaluates whether immigrants' initial health advantage over their U.S.-born counterparts results primarily from characteristics correlated with their birth countries (e.g., immigrant culture) or from selective migration (e.g., unobserved characteristics such as motivation and ambition) by comparing recent immigrants' health to that of recent U.S.-born interstate migrants ("U.S.-born movers"). Using data from the 1999-2013 waves of the March Current Population Survey, I find that, relative to U.S.-born adults (collectively), recent immigrants have a 6.1 percentage point lower probability of reporting their health as fair or poor. Changing the reference group to U.S.-born movers, however, reduces the recent immigrant health advantage by 28%. Similar reductions in the immigrant health advantage occurs in models estimated separately by either race/ethnicity or education level. Models that examine health differences between recent immigrants and U.S.-born movers who both moved for a new job-a primary motivation behind moving for both immigrants and the U.S.-born-show that such immigrants have only a 1.9 percentage point lower probability of reporting their health as fair or poor. Together, the findings suggest that changing the reference group from U.S.-born adults collectively to U.S.-born movers reduces the identified immigrant health advantage, indicating that selective migration plays a significant role in explaining the initial health advantage of immigrants in the United States. PMID:26463553

  1. Chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and yeasts in the lower genital tract of females. Comparison between a group attending a venereal disease clinic and a control group.

    PubMed

    Møller, B R; Sparre Jørgensen, A; From, E; Stenderup, A

    1985-01-01

    162 women were investigated. Group I consisted of 85 women, who were partners to men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or presented macroscopic signs of cervicitis; patients who had harbored Neisseria gonorrhoeae were excluded from the study. Group II was a control group of 77 women without any complaints from the urogenital tract and with normal findings at pelvic examination. All the women were tested for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Candida albicans. In group I, chlamydiae and mycoplasmas were recovered in 44% and 36%, respectively, the corresponding figures for the control group (group II) being 5% and 19%. The difference is highly significant. No such difference between the two groups was found for ureaplasmas. Sixteen percent of the patients in group I were positive for C. albicans; 12% were positive in group II. Fifty per cent of asymptomatic NGU-partners were chlamydia-positive, and about one-third of patients with either dysuria or vaginal discharge harbored the organism. No difference in the isolation frequency of mycoplasmas was observed between asymptomatic partners to male NGU carriers and women with increased vaginal discharge, whereas the organism was isolated more frequently from patients with dysuria. Fifty-nine per cent of patients with cervicitis were chlamydia-positive, compared with 30% of patients with normal cervical appearance and normal vaginal discharge. Samples obtained from the cervix were more often positive than samples from the urethra. In conclusion, if samples can be taken from only one of the two sites in patients with lower genital tract infection, the cervix is the optimal sampling site. PMID:3885669

  2. Genetic structure of the Utah Mormons: comparison of results based on RFLPs, blood groups, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigrees.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, E; Rogers, A R; Beesley, J; Jorde, L B

    1994-10-01

    The genetic structure of the Utah Mormon population is examined using 25 blood group and 47 RFLP alleles obtained from 442 subjects living in 8 geographic subdivisions. Nei's GST was 0.013 (p < 0.002) for the RFLP data and 0.012 (p > 0.4) for the blood group data, showing that only 1% of the genetic variance in this population can be attributed to subdivision effects. A comparison of intersubdivision distance matrices based on blood groups, RFLPs, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigrees shows that genetic distances have relatively low and nonsignificant correlations with the other three types of data. However, the correlations based on RFLPs are considerably higher than those based on blood groups. Relationship matrices based on interindividual allele sharing were compared with known genealogical kinship coefficients between each pair of individuals. The correlation between the blood group and RFLP relationship matrices was small but marginally significant using the Mantel test (r = 0.014, p < 0.06). The RFLP relationship matrix correlated more highly with genealogical kinship than did the blood group relationship matrix (r = 0.023, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.012, p < 0.001, respectively). These correlations increased by approximately one order of magnitude when pairs of subjects having zero kinship coefficients were excluded. These results show that genetic distances derived from RFLPs correlate more strongly with other types of kinship than do distances based on blood groups. This probably reflects the fact that RFLPs are more neutral, have frequencies that are more accurately estimated, and contain more information about DNA sequence variation. PMID:8001907

  3. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  4. Renormalization-group study of the four-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Richard; Moroz, Sergej

    2010-05-15

    We perform a renormalization-group analysis of the nonrelativistic four-boson problem by means of a simple model with pointlike three- and four-body interactions. We investigate in particular the region where the scattering length is infinite and all energies are close to the atom threshold. We find that the four-body problem behaves truly universally, independent of any four-body parameter. Our findings confirm the recent conjectures of others that the four-body problem is universal, now also from a renormalization-group perspective. We calculate the corresponding relations between the four- and three-body bound states, as well as the full bound-state spectrum and comment on the influence of effective range corrections.

  5. Sharing the Holocaust Experience: A Comparison of Communication Patterns in Two Groups of Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kav-Venaki, Sophie; And Others

    This study focuses on the communication patterns (that is, talking of individual experiences and knowledge of other's experiences) of Holocaust related issues in the families of survivors and investigates the consequences of these patterns as reflected in the descendants' knowledge about the Holocaust and their attitudes toward its survivors. A…

  6. The Role of Family and Peer Relations in Adolescent Antisocial Behaviour: Comparison of Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekovic, Maja; Wissink, Inge B.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    The dominant theories about the development of antisocial behaviour during adolescence are based almost entirely on research conducted with mainstream, white, middle-class adolescents. The present study addresses this significant gap in the literature by examining whether the same model of family and peer influence on antisocial behaviour is…

  7. A Preliminary Comparison of the Effectiveness of Cluster Analysis Weighting Procedures for Within-Group Covariance Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoghue, John R.

    A Monte Carlo study compared the usefulness of six variable weighting methods for cluster analysis. Data were 100 bivariate observations from 2 subgroups, generated according to a finite normal mixture model. Subgroup size, within-group correlation, within-group variance, and distance between subgroup centroids were manipulated. Of the clustering…

  8. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  9. Yusho and its latest findings-A review in studies conducted by the Yusho Group.

    PubMed

    Mitoma, Chikage; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Yamada, Hideyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Imamura, Tomoaki; Utani, Atsushi; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-09-01

    The Yusho incident is an unprecedented mass food poisoning that occurred in Japan in 1968. It was caused by the ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The victims of Yusho have suffered from characteristic skin manifestations associated with systemic, ophthalmological, and mucosal symptoms for a long period of time. The Study Group of Yusho (the Yusho Group) has been conducting annual medical check-ups on Yusho victims for more than 45years. Since 2002, when concentrations of dioxins in the blood of Yusho patients started to be measured, the pharmacokinetics of dioxins, relationship between blood levels of dioxins and symptoms/signs in patients directly exposed to dioxins, and the adverse effects on the next generation have become dramatically clear. Herein we review recent findings of studies conducted by the Yusho Group to evaluate chronic dioxin-induced toxicity to the next generation as well as Yusho patients in comparison with a similar food mass poisoning, the Yucheng incident. Additionally, we summarized basic studies carried out by the Yusho Group to re-evaluate the mechanisms of dioxin toxicities in experimental models and various functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), known as the dioxin receptor, pathway. PMID:26010306

  10. Comparison of the Masaoka-Koga staging and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group proposal for the TNM staging systems based on the Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas retrospective database

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guanghui; Gu, Zhitao; Fu, Jianhua; Shen, Yi; Wei, Yucheng; Tan, Lijie; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yongtao; Chen, Chun; Zhang, Renquan; Chen, Keneng; Chen, Hezhong; Liu, Yongyu; Cui, Youbing; Wang, Yun; Pang, Liewen; Yu, Zhentao; Zhou, Xinming; Liu, Yangchun; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare the predictive effect of the Masaoka-Koga staging system and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group (ITMIG) proposal for the new TNM staging on prognosis of thymic malignancies using the Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART) retrospective database. Methods From 1992 to 2012, 2,370 patients in ChART database were retrospectively reviewed. Of these, 1,198 patients with complete information on TNM stage, Masaoka-Koga stage, and survival were used for analysis. Cumulative incidence of recurrence (CIR) was assessed in R0 patients. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated both in an R0 resected cohort, as well as in all patients (any R status). CIR and OS were first analyzed according to the Masaoka-Koga staging system. Then, they were compared using the new TNM staging proposal. Results Based on Masaoka-Koga staging system, significant difference was detected in CIR among all stages. However, no survival difference was revealed between stage I and II, or between stage II and III. Stage IV carried the highest risk of recurrence and worst survival. According to the new TNM staging proposal, CIR in T1a was significantly lower comparing to all other T categories (P<0.05) and there is a significant difference in OS between T1a and T1b (P=0.004). T4 had the worst OS comparing to all other T categories. CIR and OS were significantly worse in N (+) than in N0 patients. Significant difference in CIR and OS was detected between M0 and M1b, but not between M0 and M1a. OS was almost always statistically different when comparison was made between stages I–IIIa and stages IIIb–IVb. However, no statistical difference could be detected among stages IIIb to IVb. Conclusions Compared with Masaoka-Koga staging, the IASLC/ITMIG TNM staging proposal not only describes the extent of tumor invasion but also provides information on lymphatic involvement and tumor dissemination

  11. Motivational Differences among Students with ADHD Reading Disabilities, Combined Groups, and Typical Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reading motivational differences of students with reading disabilities/difficulties (RD), attention deficit hyperactive disorders/at-risk for ADHD, combined groups (RD+ADHD), and non-disabled comparisons (ND). Most motivational research has made academic motivational comparisons with typical students without…

  12. Comparison of the frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients with chronic low back pain and control group

    PubMed Central

    Farajirad, Elnaz; Tohidi, Hadi; Farajirad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints of patients referred to the clinics. Studies indicated that psychosocial factors have great impact on the patients’ complaints and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate a broad range of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic LBP (CLBP) and compare them with those of the control group. Patients and Methods: We applied Symptom Checklist 90-R to compare 50 CLBP patients in the case group with 100 participants without it in the control group. The questionnaire measured somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Results: Average “global severity index” was 1.10 in the case and 0.5 in the control group. Average “positive symptom total” was 45.26 in the case and 27.41 in the control group. Average “positive symptom distress index” was 2.50 in the case and 1.50 in the control group. Average scores for all test dimensions were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.00). Conclusions: All dimensions were significantly more common in CLBP patients. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of these disorders may improve the outcome of CLBP. PMID:27366258

  13. The ITU Structure and the ITU Study Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, M.

    2004-06-01

    The regulation of spectrum usage on the international stage is organized through the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Radio Astronomy is recognized as one of the many radiocommunication services in the ITU. This paper is concerned principally with those aspects of the ITU that are relevant to frequency coordination and which may thus affect radio astronomy.

  14. The Comparison of the Effects of a Didactic Stress Management Program and Group Counselling on the Coping Strategies of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management…

  15. Group and case study of the dysexecutive syndrome in alcoholism without amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, H; Berrios, G; London, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To test the dysexecutive syndrome (DES) hypothesis of chronic alcoholism by the neuropsychological group and case study approaches.
METHODS—A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, including the "behavioural assessment of dysexecutive syndrome", a battery of tests recently designed to be "ecologically valid", was administered to 17 patients with chronic alcoholism without amnesia to examine executive functions, intelligence, and memory. In terms of each neuropsychological measure, reciprocal analyses of group means and individual case profiles were conducted: for the first contrasting the alcoholic patients with 17 age matched healthy subjects; and for the second making intersubject and intrasubject comparison of the patients, according to percentile basis impairment indices obtained from the control subjects.
RESULTS—Despite relatively unimpaired memory and intelligence, the patients as a whole had the impairment of a wide range of executive domains, extending to "everyday" problem solving as well as more elementary aspects of executive functions, such as visuospatial performance, mental set shifting, and the inhibition of habitual behaviour. The profile analysis divided individual patients into four groups: the representative DES characterised by a clear dissociation between impaired executive functions and preserved intelligence and memory; the group of a modified dysexecutive pattern in which memory as well as executive functions were impaired with intelligence preserved; the group of general cognitive deterioration; and the group of unimpaired cognitive functioning. About two thirds of the patients were categorised into either the first or the second type of DES.
CONCLUSION—DES characterised by the even more pronounced impairment of executive functions than of intelligence and memory afflicts a considerable proportion of patients with chronic alcoholism. Due to its subtlety, this would be potentially left out, unless appropriate

  16. Group Dynamics: Toward a Study of the Administrative/Supervisory Leadership Role Within Group Decision-Making Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Francis, II

    Group processes are an integral part of the educational enterprise, but "effectiveness of group processes" does not necessarily follow from the simple act of group formation. The administrator has the responsibility of exercising effective group leadership. Group formation, group task functions or assignments, and decision-making processes are…

  17. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  18. Description of Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov., a novel species of the Bacillus cereus group, and pairwise genome comparisons of the species of the group by means of ANI calculations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Guillermo; Urdiain, Mercedes; Cifuentes, Ana; López-López, Aránzazu; Blanch, Anicet R; Tamames, Javier; Kämpfer, Peter; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Ramón, Daniel; Martínez, Juan F; Codoñer, Francisco M; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2013-09-01

    Strain BCT-7112(T) was isolated in 1966 in Japan from a survey designed to obtain naturally occurring microorganisms as pure cultures in the laboratory for use as probiotics in animal nutrition. This strain, which was primarily identified as Bacillus cereus var toyoi, has been in use for more than 30 years as the active ingredient of the preparation TOYOCERIN(®), an additive for use in animal nutrition (e.g. swine, poultry, cattle, rabbits and aquaculture). Despite the fact that the strain was initially classified as B. cereus, it showed significant genomic differences from the type strains of the B. cereus group that were large enough (ANI values below 92%) to allow it to be considered as a different species within the group. The polyphasic taxonomic study presented here provides sufficient discriminative parameters to classify BCT-7112(T) as a new species for which the name Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with BCT-7112(T) (=CECT 876(T); =NCIMB 14858(T)) being designated as the type strain. In addition, a pairwise comparison between the available genomes of the whole B. cereus group by means of average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations indicated that besides the eight classified species (including B. toyonensis), additional genomospecies could be detected, and most of them also had ANI values below 94%. ANI values were on the borderline of a species definition only in the cases of representatives of B. cereus versus B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanensis. PMID:23791203

  19. A Comparison of the Perceptions of Four Groups of University Constituents Concerning Institutional Effectiveness at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernecker, Kimberly James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of congruence in the perceptions of institutional effectiveness among four groups of stakeholders at a small, private university in the Southern United States. The constituency consisted of 923 on-campus students, 12 administrators, 60 faculty, and 120 staff members. A descriptive research design…

  20. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Group Treatments for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byom, Tianna K.

    2009-01-01

    Rising overweight and obesity rates in the United States and the accompanying health issues underscore the need for an effective treatment for weight loss. While most people tend to lose weight as a result of cognitive-behavioral treatment, the weight is often regained after treatment ends. Possible reasons for weight regain include not fully…

  1. Comparison of the genetic diversity of wild and captive groups of Microcebus murinus using the random amplified polymorphic DNA method.

    PubMed

    Neveu, H; Hafen, T; Zimmermann, E; Rumpler, Y

    1998-01-01

    Continued survival of most animal species depends on population management and active protection. It is generally agreed that, in order to avoid extinction of endangered species, ex situ and in situ conservation must be developed in tandem. However, even though many recommendations have been put forward to promote the survival of captive populations, some rapidly become extinct due to loss of genetic diversity (drift effect). Genetic markers, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, can be applied to rapid testing of many individuals. They also permit analysis of very small amounts of DNA, when small species such as mouse lemurs (Microcebus) are to be tested. Using RAPD markers, we compare genetic diversity in four captive groups of Microcebus murinus to that in a sample of 70 wild mouse lemurs. Following the principles of Mendelian inheritance, each amplified fragment of DNA may be considered as a 'locus' (or an amplifying site). The series of bands amplified by a particular primer in any individual is referred to as the individual's 'profile'. We tested 5 primers, or, in the above terms, we studied 98 different 'loci'. Results showed that the captive groups had lost genetic information with respect to the wild sample. Among the four captive groups, the loss of genetic diversity varied according to their number of founders and/or the management of their captive reproduction. Our study of polymorphism permitted us to establish tools for the genetic management of captive breeding, and for the determination of paternity which frequently give better results than behavioural studies; and simulation of introductions or departures of individuals in one very monomorphic group permitted estimation of future increases in its genetic diversity. PMID:9595690

  2. The epidemiology of vertebral fractures. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; O'Neill, T; Silman, A

    1993-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are recognised as a hallmark of osteoporosis, yet little is known of their epidemiology. This deficiency limits accurate characterisation of the public health importance of osteoporosis. Assessment of the impact of vertebral fractures has been hampered by the absence of formal criteria for identifying fractures on a thoracolumbar radiograph. Initial methods relying upon subjective radiological assessments have given way to morphometric measurements of vertebral heights, with deformities defined according to various algorithms. These methods have been used in a series of studies performed in Rochester, MN, to determine the incidence, outcome, and time trends of vertebral deformities. The results suggest a prevalence rate of vertebral deformity of 25.3 per 100 Rochester women aged 50 years and over (95% CI, 22.3-28.2), with an estimated incidence of 17.8 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures among women in the same population was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years, suggesting that around 30% of such deformities in women receive clinical attention. Morphometric measurement on the radiographs of women with clinically diagnosed fractures revealed that 80% had grade 2 ( > 4 SD) deformities. Comparable data on the occurrence and health impact of vertebral deformities throughout Europe are urgently required. The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) is a multicentre epidemiological study that aims to address this issue. It is designed as a radiographic prevalence study in 34 European centres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8110529

  3. How Can Comparison Groups Strengthen Regression Discontinuity Designs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Coady; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine some of the ways that different types of non-equivalent comparison groups can be used to strengthen causal inferences based on regression discontinuity design (RDD). First, they consider a design that incorporates pre-test data on assignment scores and outcomes that were collected either before the treatment…

  4. GRIN: “GRoup versus INdividual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: an assessor-masked randomised comparison trial”: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. The most common lower limb spasticity management is focal intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A accompanied by individually-delivered (one on one) physiotherapy rehabilitation. With increasing emphasis on improving goal-directed functional activity and participation within a family-centred framework, it is timely to explore whether physiotherapy provided in a group could achieve comparable outcomes, encouraging providers to offer flexible models of physiotherapy delivery. This study aims to compare individual to group-based physiotherapy following intramuscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy aged four to fourteen years. Methods/Design An assessor-masked, block randomised comparison trial will be conducted with random allocation to either group-based or individual physiotherapy. A sample size of 30 (15 in each study arm) will be recruited. Both groups will receive six hours of direct therapy following Botulinum Toxin-A injections in either an individual or group format with additional home programme activities (three exercises to be performed three times a week). Study groups will be compared at baseline (T1), then at 10 weeks (T2, efficacy) and 26 weeks (T3, retention) post Botulinum Toxin-A injections. Primary outcomes will be caregiver/s perception of and satisfaction with their child’s occupational performance goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and quality of gait (Edinburgh Visual Gait Score) with a range of secondary outcomes across domains of the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol including theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for this assessor-masked, randomised

  5. Exploratory Studies on the Effects of a Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.; Lee, Sarah J.; Pituc, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies evaluating a school-based, culturally responsive career exploration and assessment group for low-income, urban Chinese immigrant youth are described. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods compared the treatment (CEDAR group) versus the control group (no intervention). In Study 1, CEDAR group participants reported a significant…

  6. Phylogeny of the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group inferred from morphological comparisons, genomic fingerprinting, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Siering, P L; Ghiorse, W C

    1996-01-01

    Phase-contrast light microscopy revealed that only one of eight cultivated strains belonging to the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of sheathed bacteria actually produced a sheath in standard growth media. Two Sphaerotilus natans strains produced branched cells, but other morphological characteristics that were used to identify these bacteria were consistent with previously published descriptions. Genomic fingerprints, which were obtained by performing PCR amplification with primers corresponding to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences, were useful for distinguishing between the genera Sphaerotilus and Leptothrix, as well as among individual strains. The complete 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of two strains of "Leptothrix discophora" (strains SP-6 and SS-1) were determined. In addition, partial sequences (approximately 300 nucleotides) of one strain of Leptothrix cholodnii (strain LMG 7171), an unidentified Leptothrix strain (strain NC-1), and four strains of Sphaerotilus natans (strains ATCC 13338T [T = type strain], ATCC 15291, ATCC 29329, and ATCC 29330) were determined. We found that two of the S. natans strains (ATCC 15291 and ATCC 13338T), which differed in morphology and in their genomic fingerprints, had identical sequences in the 300-nucleotide region sequenced. Both parsimony and distance matrix methods were used to infer the evolutionary relationships of the eight strains in a comparison of the 16S rDNA sequences of these organisms with 16S rDNA sequences obtained from ribosomal sequence databases. All of the strains clustered in the Rubrivivax subdivision of the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria, which confirmed previously published conclusions concerning selected individual strains. Additional analyses revealed that all of the S. natans strains clustered in one closely related group, while the Leptothrix strains clustered in two separate lineages that were approximately equidistant from the S. natans cluster. This finding

  7. Estimation of Parameters of the Rasch Model and Comparison of Groups in Presence of Locally Dependent Items.

    PubMed

    Feddag, Mohand-Larbi; Blanchin, Myriam; Sébille, Véronique; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Measurement specialists routinely assume examinee responses to test are independent of one another. However, previous research has shown that many tests contain item dependencies, and not accounting for these dependencies leads to misleading estimates of item and person parameters. In this paper, the marginal maximum likelihood estimation in Rasch model with the violation of the local independence is studied. The power of the Wald test on a group effect parameter on the latent traits in cross-sectional studies is examined under the local independence and the local item dependence assumptions. The different results are illustrated with simulation studies. PMID:26753222

  8. Negotiating the Inquiry Question: A Comparison of Whole Class and Small Group Strategies in Grade Five Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two strategies for negotiating the question for exploration during science inquiry on student achievement and teachers' perceptions. The study is set in the context of the Science Writing Heuristic. The first strategy (small group) consisted of each group of four students negotiating a question for inquiry with the teacher while the second strategy (whole class) consisted of the entire class negotiating a single question for inquiry with the teacher. The study utilized a mixed-method approach. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was used to determine the effect of strategy on student achievement and semi-structured teacher interviews were used to probe the question of teacher perceptions of the two strategies. Teacher observations were conducted using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to check for variation in implementation of the two strategies. Iowa Test of Basic Skills Science (ITBSS) (2005 and 2006) and teacher/researcher developed unit exams (pre and post) were used as student achievement measures. No statistically significant differences were found among students in the two treatment groups on the ITBSS or unit exams. RTOP observations suggest that teacher implementation was consistent across the two treatment strategies. Teachers disclosed personal preferences for the two strategies, indicating the whole class treatment was easier to manage (at least at the beginning of the school year) as students gained experience with science inquiry and the associated increased responsibility. Possible mechanisms linking the two strategies, negotiated questions, and student outcomes are discussed.

  9. Group dynamics during the EXEMSI isolation study. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cazes, C; Rosnet, E; Bachelard, C; Le Scanff, C; Rivolier, J

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the social behavior, interrelations, cohesion, efficiency and team formation of the crew during 60 days of isolation and confinement, to make a critical comparison of a variety of test methods used for this purpose and to formulate recommendations for their applications in selection, training and support for future studies of this kind. The study consisted of three phases: (1) the pre-isolation period, in which initial individual and group assessment were made to understand the motivation, characteristics, and styles of the crew members, the state of the crew, and to make a prognosis for the behavior of the group and its members, (2) the isolation period, with tests and observations to follow and analyze behavior and group dynamics of the crew, and to detect manifestations of stress, and (3) the post-isolation period with final assessment and debriefing. During these three periods individual and group tests were carried out. Direct methods, questionnaires and tests, as well as indirect methods, observations of behavior, were used. These had cognitive, affective-emotional and social components; they were quantitative, qualitative or a combination. Before isolation the crew members expressed strong confidence in the team and in their own personal capability. The leadership of the Commander seemed uncontested. Crew functioning during this period was conflict-free, but was structured in a rather rigid and defensive way (isolation of affects, denial of anxiety). Apparently, the members strongly needed to present a good image image of themselves. The relatively short period of the experiment, and the absence of real risk suggested that the crew would be able to maintain their cohesion, but in a real spaceflight situation this behavior could be inadequate and even dangerous. The pre-isolation prognosis for crew behavior during isolation was validated to a large extent. During isolation there were no clear manifestations of

  10. A comparison group analysis of DOE`s Energy-Related Inventions Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Curlee, T.R.; Elliott, S.R.; Franchuk, C.A.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past decade, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted four evaluations of the economic impacts of the US DOE`s Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). None of these evaluations has involved the use of a comparison group. Instead, statistics on the innovation process have been compiled from a review of the literature. Unfortunately, the types of technologies and inventors documents by previous studies do not match those supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program. ERIP-supported technologies are diverse in both application and technical complexity. ERIP-supported inventors are a particular subset of inventors: the Program targets inventors who are either independently employed or are employees of a small business. The purpose of this task is to identify and characterize a matched comparison group of inventors whose progress can be compared with the progress of ERIP inventors. With this comparison group, we will be able to assess more accurately the impact of the ERIP support and thereby strengthen the program`s impact evaluations. This report is divided into six sections. As background to understanding the comparison group design and the results provided in this report, section 1.3 provides an overview of the Energy-Related Inventions Program. Section 2 describes the research design used to define and characterize a suitable comparison group. Section 3 presents comparative statistics describing both the comparison group and the ERIP technologies. Section 4 is more qualitative in nature; it describes four technologies in the comparison group that were commercially successful, focusing on how they succeeded in the absence of DOE/ERIP support. The report ends with a summary of its findings (section 5) and a list of references (section 6).

  11. A comparison group analysis of DOE's Energy-Related Inventions Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Curlee, T.R.; Elliott, S.R.; Franchuk, C.A.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past decade, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted four evaluations of the economic impacts of the US DOE's Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). None of these evaluations has involved the use of a comparison group. Instead, statistics on the innovation process have been compiled from a review of the literature. Unfortunately, the types of technologies and inventors documents by previous studies do not match those supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program. ERIP-supported technologies are diverse in both application and technical complexity. ERIP-supported inventors are a particular subset of inventors: the Program targets inventors who are either independently employed or are employees of a small business. The purpose of this task is to identify and characterize a matched comparison group of inventors whose progress can be compared with the progress of ERIP inventors. With this comparison group, we will be able to assess more accurately the impact of the ERIP support and thereby strengthen the program's impact evaluations. This report is divided into six sections. As background to understanding the comparison group design and the results provided in this report, section 1.3 provides an overview of the Energy-Related Inventions Program. Section 2 describes the research design used to define and characterize a suitable comparison group. Section 3 presents comparative statistics describing both the comparison group and the ERIP technologies. Section 4 is more qualitative in nature; it describes four technologies in the comparison group that were commercially successful, focusing on how they succeeded in the absence of DOE/ERIP support. The report ends with a summary of its findings (section 5) and a list of references (section 6).

  12. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Radhika; Bhupatiraju, Prameela; Duddu, Mahesh; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Dandempally, Arthi; Panthula, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient's feelings toward noise in the dental clinic and its possible link to dental anxiety. Two-hundred and fifty children and adolescents of age group 6-15 years participated in the study. Results of the study showed that 50% of females, 29% males avoided a visit to the dentist because of anxiety and fear, 38% subjects of age group 6-11 years reported that sound of the drill makes them uncomfortable, followed by having to wait in the reception area. Gender gap was also observed with more females feeling annoyed than males on the 1-10 annoyance level scale. More than 60% felt "annoyed" to "extremely annoyed" by noise in the dental clinic. 45% of subjects preferred watching television to cope with such noise. This study concludes that the noise produced in dental clinic is anxiety provoking and significantly contributes to avoidance of dental treatment and the best way opted by the majority of subjects to overcome this anxiety was audiovisual distraction method. PMID:23689302

  13. Group Work and the Learning of Critical Thinking in the Hong Kong Secondary Liberal Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of group work on the development of students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary schools. It explores whether the participation of teachers in a group-based teaching intervention adapted from an earlier study conducted in the United Kingdom…

  14. A comparison study on the measurement of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen-Yu; Pan, Shan-Peng; Peng, Gwo-Sheng; Tsai, Jen-Hui

    2005-08-01

    Despite the fact that there exists several techniques capable of characterizing the nanoparticle sizes, their measurement results from the same sample often deviate from each other at an amount that is considered significant in the nanometer scale. The principles of measurements these techniques or instruments based upon might contribute a notable portion to the disagreement of the measurement results. The sample preparation itself could only further add to the complexity of the problem. In the absence of international standards, or world-wide recognized protocols dealing with nanoparticle characterization, a comparison study was carried out to investigate the systematic deviations in measuring nanoparticle diameters. Three types of commonly used nanoparticle sizing instruments, Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were utilized to take measurements on traceable polystyrene latex samples at 100 nm, 50 nm, and 20 nm in diameter. The final analysis showed a fairly satisfactory agreement of the measured data from the samples' certified values, with the exception of the result from the Field-Emission TEM (FE-TEM). It was later determined that the major source of the deviation was attributed to the instrument rather than to the sample. Instrument calibration was the course of action taken to bring the outlier to the desired accuracy. Additionally, discussions were also made with regards to the need of standardization in nanoparticle measurements.

  15. Through the Vanishing Point, Study Group Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Harley W.

    Under the impact of electronic immediacy the world is being reorganized in sensory terms toward the primacy of the audile-tactile. In the educational system, emphasis remains on traditional methods of logical (visual) and sequential learning. The effect on literature is an increased interest in the spoken, as opposed to the written word. Through…

  16. Bonobos show limited social tolerance in a group setting: a comparison with chimpanzees and a test of the relational model.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Katherine A; De Groot, Evelien; Stevens, Jeroen M G

    2015-01-01

    Social tolerance is a core aspect of primate social relationships with implications for the evolution of cooperation, prosociality and social learning. We measured the social tolerance of bonobos in an experiment recently validated with chimpanzees to allow for a comparative assessment of group-level tolerance, and found that the bonobo group studied here exhibited lower social tolerance on average than chimpanzees in this paradigm. Furthermore, following the Relational Model of de Waal, we investigated whether bonobos responded to an increased potential for social conflict with tolerance, conflict avoidance or conflict escalation, and found that only behaviours indicative of conflict escalation differed across conditions. Taken together, these findings contribute to the current debate over the level of social tolerance of bonobos and lend support to the position that the social tolerance of bonobos may not be notably high compared with other primates. PMID:25926027

  17. Attachment relationships of adolescents who spent their infancy in residential group care: The Greek Metera study.

    PubMed

    Vorria, Panayiota; Ntouma, Maria; Vairami, Maria; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A prospective longitudinal study beginning whilst the infants were living in the Metera Babies Centre showed that the great majority showed a disorganized attachment during the period of residential care, even though neither abuse/neglect nor subnutrition were involved. There was an initial follow-up post-adoption age at four years. This paper concerns a further follow-up of the 52 adopted adolescents aged 13 years who had spent their first two years of life in Metera Babies Centre. They were compared to 36 adolescents reared in their biological families who, during their infancy, attended full-time public day care. The key aim was to examine continuities and discontinuities between early and contemporary relationships. The Child Attachment Interview was employed in adolescence. The main findings were a significant decrease in the rate of disorganization and a lack of a significant difference between the previously institutionalized group and the family care comparison group on attachment qualities in adolescence. There was not sufficient statistical power, however, to detect a small difference. PMID:25862310

  18. Machine intelligence and robotics: Report of the NASA study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Opportunities for the application of machine intelligence and robotics in NASA missions and systems were identified. The benefits of successful adoption of machine intelligence and robotics techniques were estimated and forecasts were prepared to show their growth potential. Program options for research, advanced development, and implementation of machine intelligence and robot technology for use in program planning are presented.

  19. Petroleum potential of the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois: A coordinated geological and geochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, J.E.; Oltz, D.F. ); Kruge, M.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois, predominantly composed of shale, calcareous shale, and carbonates, has long been considered a potential source for Illinois basin hydrocarbons. Methods used to better define the petroleum potential of the Maquoketa in the Illinois basin were lithostratigraphic study, Rock-Eval (pyrolysis) analyses, comparison of molecular markers from whole-rock extracts and produced oil, and construction of burial history models. Organic-rich submature Maquoketa potential source rocks are present in western Illinois at shallow depths on the basin flank. Deeper in the basin in southern Illinois, Rock-Eval analyses indicate that the Maquoketa shale is within the oil window. Solvent extracts of the Maquoketa from western Illinois closely resemble the Devonian New Albany Shale, suggesting that past studies may have erroneously attributed Maquoketa-generated petroleum to a New Albany source or failed to identify mixed source oils. Subtle differences between Maquoketa and New Albany solvent extracts include differences in pristane/phytane ratios, proportions of steroids, and distribution of dimethyldibenzothiophene isomers. Maquoketa solvent extracts show little resemblance to Middle Ordovician oils from the Illinois or Michigan basins. Lithostratigraphic studies identified localized thick carbonate facies in the Maquoketa, suggesting depositional response to upper Ordovician paleostructures. Sandstone facies in the Maquoketa in southwestern Illinois offer a potential source/trap play, as well as serving as potential carrier beds for hydrocarbon migration. Maquoketa source and carrier beds may feed older Ordovician rocks in faulted areas along and south of the Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois.

  20. The Women’s Recovery Group Study: A Stage I trial of women-focused group therapy for substance use disorders versus mixed-gender group drug counseling

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Trucco, Elisa M.; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Lincoln, Melissa; Gallop, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Stage I Behavioral Development Trial was to develop a manual-based 12-session Women’s Recovery Group (WRG) and to pilot test this new treatment in a randomized controlled trial against a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC), an effective manual-based treatment for substance use disorders. After initial manual development, two pre-pilot groups of WRG were conducted to determine feasibility and initial acceptability of the treatment among subjects and therapists. In the pilot stage, women were randomized to either WRG or GDC. No significant differences in substance use outcomes were found between WRG and GDC during the 12-week group treatment. However, during the 6-month post-treatment follow-up, WRG members demonstrated a pattern of continued reductions in substance use while GDC women did not. In addition, pilot WRG women with alcohol dependence had significantly greater reductions in average drinks/drinking day than GDC women 6 months post-treatment (p < .03, effect size = 0.81). While satisfaction with both groups was high, women were significantly more satisfied with WRG than GDC (p < .009, effect size = 1.11). In this study, the newly developed 12-session women-focused WRG was feasible with high satisfaction among participants. It was equally effective as mixed-gender GDC in reducing substance use during the 12-week in-treatment phase, but demonstrated significantly greater improvement in reductions in drug and alcohol use over the post-treatment follow-up phase compared with GDC. A women-focused single-gender group treatment may enhance longer-term clinical outcomes among women with substance use disorders. PMID:17446014

  1. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  2. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed. PMID:27374738

  3. Improving the Entrepreneurial Competencies of Dutch Dairy Farmers through the Use of Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevoet, R. H. M.; Van Woerkum, Cees

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and analyse the role that study groups might play in improving the entrepreneurial competencies of farmers. The most important competencies are described. Emphasis is placed on group learning processes and participatory approaches. Theories of adult learning and extension paradigms in relation to our…

  4. The ignition physics study group supports the compact ignition tokamak and engineering test reactor programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Vugraphs dealing with the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The role of the Ignition Physics Study Group is defined. Several design goals are presented. (JDH)

  5. Biases and Power for Groups Comparison on Subjective Health Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Jean-François; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Le Neel, Tanguy; Kubis, Gildas; Roquelaure, Yves; Sébille, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Subjective health measurements are increasingly used in clinical research, particularly for patient groups comparisons. Two main types of analytical strategies can be used for such data: so-called classical test theory (CTT), relying on observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT) relying on a response model relating the items responses to a latent parameter, often called latent trait. Whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to compare two independent groups of patients on a patient reported outcomes measurement remains unknown and was investigated using simulations. For CTT-based analyses, groups comparison was performed using t-test on the scores. For IRT-based analyses, several methods were compared, according to whether the Rasch model was considered with random effects or with fixed effects, and the group effect was included as a covariate or not. Individual latent traits values were estimated using either a deterministic method or by stochastic approaches. Latent traits were then compared with a t-test. Finally, a two-steps method was performed to compare the latent trait distributions, and a Wald test was performed to test the group effect in the Rasch model including group covariates. The only unbiased IRT-based method was the group covariate Wald’s test, performed on the random effects Rasch model. This model displayed the highest observed power, which was similar to the power using the score t-test. These results need to be extended to the case frequently encountered in practice where data are missing and possibly informative. PMID:23115620

  6. Comparison of Safety and Immunogenicity of PVRV and PCECV Immunized in Patients with WHO Category II Animal Exposure: A Study Based on Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity between purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings In one-year clinical observation after vaccination with PVRV or PCECV under Zagreb (2-1-1) or Essen (1-1-1-1-1) regimens, information collection for the demographic and adverse events (AEs) and rabies virus laboratory examination of neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were performed for all patients with WHO category II animal exposure in Wuhan city. The results showed no significant differences of safety and immunogenicity between PVRV and PCECV both in Zagreb and Essen regimens. However, when compared with other age groups, most systemic AEs (36/61) occurred in <5-year-old patients, and <5-year-old patients have significant lower RVNA titer and seroconversion rate (RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml) at day 7 both in Zagreb and Essen regimens or PVRV and PCECV groups. Conclusions Our data showed that vaccination with PVRV is as safe and immunogenic as PCECV in patients of all age groups, but might be more popular for clinical use. When performing a vaccination with rabies vaccine in young children, the most optimal vaccine regimen should be selected. PMID:25522244

  7. Prevalence of Types of Cancers in the Elderly Covered by Insurance of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Company in 2015 - Comparison with Younger Groups.

    PubMed

    Roshani, Zahra; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Shati, Mohsen; Sahaf, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the world population of the elderly is growing. By improving health hygiene and welfare indicators, mortality and birth rates decrease and life expectancy increases, making the present century the century of elderly. Aging is one of the main risk factors for development of cancer, which itself is the second cause of death in old people. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cancer in the elderly covered by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) insurance program and to obtain suitable programs for cancer screening and early detection, increase patient survival, improve elderly care and to reclaim the cost of treatment in comparison to the national and international statistics. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on all elderly patients diagnosed with malignancy based on their pathology reports. In this study, of the total 75,500 patients covered by IRIB insurance, 17.2% belonged to the elderly group, males accounting for 53.3%. The most common cancers in old men were prostatic cancer (61.3%), colon cancer (10.3%) cancer of the hematologic system, bladder cancer (9.6%), lung cancer (9.1%), thyroid cancer (3.9%) and brain tumors (1.3%). In the elderly women, the most common cancers were breast cancer (80.1%), colon cancer (5.1%), thyroid cancers (4.4%), bladder and hematologic system malignancies (3.6), lung cancer (2.9%) and brain tumors (0.7%). In addition, the prevalence of cancer was almost the same as national and international statistics. With the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer no difference was shown in prevalence of cancer between IRIB elderly patients and the other groups of cancer patients in Iran. PMID:27165237

  8. Offender experiences and opinions of mixed-gender group work in the community: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Nina; Day, Jo

    2011-10-01

    The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology. PMID:20940342

  9. Transcriptomic and Epigenetic Profiling of the Lung of Influenza-Infected Pigs: A Comparison of Different Birth Weight and Susceptibility Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie M.; Gunvaldsen, Rayna E.; Detmer, Susan E.; Dyck, Michael K.; Dixon, Walter T.; Foxcroft, George R.; Plastow, Graham S.; Harding, John C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a common cause of respiratory disease in swine. Infections range in severity from asymptomatic to causing significant morbidity. The main objective of this study was to compare lung transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to influenza infection in pigs from high or low birth weight litters. The latter is a potential indicator of intrauterine growth restriction, a significant risk factor for prenatal programming effects. Individual pigs from high (HBW) or low birth weight (LBW) litters (n = 17) were inoculated with influenza A virus and euthanized 48 hours later. Lesion severity and viral loads were assessed as previously described. The transcriptional response to infection in LBW and HBW groups (n = 16) was assessed by microarray. A separate analysis of pigs classified as ‘Resilient’ (RES) or ‘Susceptible’ (SUS) (n = 6) on the basis of severity of lung pathology was also conducted. Eight genes were confirmed as differentially expressed for the birth weight comparison, including three antiviral genes with lower expression in LBW: ISG15, OAS1, and OAS2 (P<0.05). The promoter region methylation status of these three genes was assessed for each birth weight group, and no differences were found. These expression data are consistent with our previous finding that LBW pigs had less severe lesion scores and a trend towards lower viral titres in lung than the HBW cohort. The SUS v RES comparison identified 91 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05) that were enriched with functional annotation terms and pathways associated with inflammation. The cytokine genes IL6, IL8, and CCL2 were all upregulated in SUS pigs, and may have driven disease severity in these animals. In conclusion, this study found no evidence that the transcriptional immune response to influenza was adversely affected by low litter birth weight, but did identify several candidate genes for driving disease pathology. PMID:26393920

  10. Cheiloscopy and its patterns in comparison with ABO blood groups

    PubMed Central

    Telagi, Neethu; Mujib, Ahmed; Spoorthi, BR; Naik, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups and to determine the correlation between their characters and blood groups. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 150 individuals who were randomly selected and blood groups of these subjects were analyzed. Results: The results revealed no association between distribution of lip print (cheiloscopy) pattern and blood groups. Conclusion: Lip print pattern does not show any correlation between blood groups. PMID:22408325

  11. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1994 Annual Meeting (Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 3-7, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers from the 1994 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are divided into the following sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; (4) ad hoc groups; and (5) reports on ICMI (International Committee on Mathematical Instruction) studies. Papers include: (1)…

  12. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011–2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01–0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4–6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for “average consumer” was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for “high consumers” in the group 4–6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18–59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day (“high consumers”, middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18–59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18–59 years old compared to the other population groups. PMID:26378578

  13. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-09-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011-2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01-0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4-6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for "average consumer" was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for "high consumers" in the group 4-6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18-59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day ("high consumers", middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18-59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18-59 years old compared to the other population groups. PMID:26378578

  14. The Roles of a University Professor in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on…

  15. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting (York, Ontario, Canada, May 28-June 1, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1993 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are presented in four sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; and (4) ad hoc groups. Papers include: (1) "What is a Square Root? A Study of Geometrical Representation in Different…

  16. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  17. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  18. A comparison of the relationships between psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability among 4 ethnic teacher groups in China.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-03-01

    The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces. PMID:25158226

  19. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  20. Computer Science and Technology: Findings of the Standard Benchmark Library Study Group. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Dennis M.

    This report presents the findings of a joint government/industry study group which investigated the technical feasibility of standard benchmark programs for testing vendor systems in the competitive selection of computer systems within both private industry and the federal government. As part of its investigation, the study group reviewed earlier…

  1. Comparison of the Wave Amplitude of Visually Evoked Potential in Amblyopic Eyes between Patients with Esotropia and Anisometropia and a Normal Group

    PubMed Central

    Talebnejad, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinmenni, Saeedeh; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Mirzajani, Ali; Osroosh, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: We compared the wave amplitude of visually evoked potential (VEP) between patients with esotropic and anisometropic amblyopic eyes and a normal group. Methods: The wave amplitude of VEP was documented in 2 groups of persons with amblyopia (15 with esotropia and 28 with anisometropia) and 1 group of individuals with normal visual acuity (n, 15). The amplitude of P100 was recorded monocularly with different spatial frequencies. Results: Our statistical analysis revealed that the wave amplitude in the 2 groups with amblyopia was significantly decreased compared to that in the normal group (P<0.001). There was a significant difference regarding the amplitude in high spatial frequencies in both high- and low-contrast conditions between the groups with esotropia and anisometropia and the normal group (P<0.001). There were also significant differences in large check-size stimuli and low-contrast condition between the amblyopic groups with esotropia and anisometropia and the normal group (P=0.013 and P=0.044, respectively). In large check-size stimuli and high-contrast condition, a significant difference was indicated only in the comparison between the esotropic amblyopic eyes and the normal eyes (P=0.036). Conclusion: The wave amplitude parameter of VEP was influenced by both types of amblyopia, but it seems that this parameter was more sensitive to esotropic amblyopia than anisometropic amblyopia. This outcome may reflect a non-parallel pattern of cortical responses in the comparison of the 2 types of amblyopia with each other and with the control group, which may be beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia. PMID:26989279

  2. Comparison of the calystegine composition and content of potato sprouts and tubers from Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja and Solanum tuberosum Group Tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D Wynne; Shepherd, Tom; Stewart, Derek

    2008-07-01

    The calystegines detected in tubers from 17 Phureja ( S. tuberosum Group Phureja) lines and five Tuberosum ( S. tuberosum Group Tuberosum) cultivars were identified as the A 3 and B 2 structural types. Their concentration in whole tubers was of a similar order of magnitude in both species, as was the variability in the ratio of B 2 to A 3. On average, calystegine concentrations in the peel were about 13 times that found in the flesh for the five Tuberosum cultivars, and 4 times higher for four Phureja lines. Removal of the peel reduced the calystegine content by an average of over 50% in Tuberosum but by only 30% in Phureja, despite the latter having the greater proportion of peel. The calystegine content of sprouts was also determined for five Tuberosum cultivars and four Phureja lines and was found to include small amounts of four additional types, B 3, B 4, N 1, and X 2, in addition to the more abundant A 3 and B 2. Concentrations in the sprouts of Tuberosum were on average 100 times higher than that in the tuber flesh and 8 times higher than in the peel, whereas for Phureja, the equivalent values were 30 and 7 times higher, respectively. No correlation was found between sprout concentration and either flesh or peel calystegine concentration. PMID:18533664

  3. Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Mass CPCR Training in Different Groups of the Society, an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573) PMID:26020392

  4. Minority Groups Study in the Work Opportunity Center. Report Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, M. P.; Almen, R. E.

    Some 18% of the total enrollment at the Work Opportunity Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, at the time of this study, were from some minority group background: Negro, American-Indian, or Spanish-speaking. This study reports some characteristics of students in minority groups. They came from senior or junior high schools where their attendance had…

  5. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    PubMed Central

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  6. Juvenile Group Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Group Leaders and Followers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child…

  7. Neuropsychological comparison of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and an IQ-matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-05-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual-motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ. PMID:21349236

  8. Comparison of Focus Groups on Cancer and Employment Conducted Face to Face or by Telephone

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Linda M.; Miller, Virginia A.; Horbelt, Douglas V.; Delmore, James E.; Miller, Brigitte E.; Paschal, Angelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Findings from telephone focus groups have not been compared previously to findings from face-to-face focus groups. We conducted four telephone focus groups and five face-to-face focus groups in which a single moderator used the same open-ended questions and discussion facilitation techniques. This comparison was part of a larger study to gain a better understanding of employment experiences after diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. Offering the telephone option made it easier to recruit women from rural areas and geographically distant cities. Interaction between participants occurred in both types of focus group. Content analysis revealed that similar elements of the employment experience after cancer diagnosis were described by telephone and face-to-face participants. Participants disclosed certain emotionally sensitive experiences only in the telephone focus groups. Telephone focus groups provide useful data and can reduce logistical barriers to research participation. Visual anonymity might help some participants feel more comfortable discussing certain personal issues. PMID:20142606

  9. Comparison of methimazole/hydrocortisone ointment with oral methimazole in patients with graves disease: A prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, 18-month study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Wang, Hong-qing; Gao, Yan-yan; Liang, Jun; Wang, Men; Bai, Jie; Qi, Wen-bo; Zhang, Jun-sheng; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Juan-qing; Li, Hui-qing

    2008-01-01

    Background: Thionamide antithyroid drugs (ATDs) have certain disadvantages and are associated with some adverse events (AEs). To overcome the problems associated with ATDs, a compound antithyroid ointment (CATO) containing methimazole (MMI) and hydrocortisone has been developed for use as a local thyroid treatment (LTT). Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness and tolerability of CATO LTT in patients with Graves disease (GD). Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group clinical trial conducted at the Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University (Jinan, China). Patients with GD aged 19 to 65 years were randomized to receive either CATO LTT 0.3 g/d or oral MMI 37.5 mg/d (control group) treatment for 18 months, with a 4-year follow-up period. Hyperthyroid symptoms, thyroid function, granulocyte count, liver function, and AEs were assessed at baseline and every 2 weeks until serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentration normalized, at which point patients were assessed monthly. The primary efficacy end points were the duration of treatment required for serum TH concentration to normalize and the remission rate after completing the 18-month treatment regimen. Results: A total of 154 patients (133 women, 21 men; mean [SD] age, 39.6 [11.8] years; all Han Chinese) participated in the study; all patients completed the 18-month treatment period. Compared with the MMI group (n 76), the CATO- treated group (n 78) had a significantly shorter median (range) time to restoration of normal serum thyroid hormone concentration (43 [12–150] vs 22 [7–60] days; P < 0.001), a significantly lower rate of recurrence of hyperthyroidism (309/1520 [20.3%] vs 193/1368 [14.1%] person-time; P < 0.001), a significantly lower drug hypothyroidism rate (185/1520 [12.2%] vs 54/1368 [3.9%] person-time; P < 0.001), and a higher remission rate (year 1:46/69 [66.7%] vs 65/72 [90.3%] patients, P 0.001; year 2:40/69 [58.0%] vs 60/72 [83

  10. VAST PLANES OF SATELLITES IN A HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE LOCAL GROUP: COMPARISON TO ANDROMEDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gillet, N.; Ocvirk, P.; Aubert, D.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2015-02-10

    We search for vast planes of satellites (VPoS) in a high-resolution simulation of the Local Group performed by the CLUES project, which improves significantly the resolution of previous similar studies. We use a simple method for detecting planar configurations of satellites, and validate it on the known plane of M31. We implement a range of prescriptions for modeling the satellite populations, roughly reproducing the variety of recipes used in the literature, and investigate the occurrence and properties of planar structures in these populations. The structure of the simulated satellite systems is strongly non-random and contains planes of satellites, predominantly co-rotating, with, in some cases, sizes comparable to the plane observed in M31 by Ibata et al. However, the latter is slightly richer in satellites, slightly thinner, and has stronger co-rotation, which makes it stand out as overall more exceptional than the simulated planes, when compared to a random population. Although the simulated planes we find are generally dominated by one real structure forming its backbone, they are also partly fortuitous and are thus not kinematically coherent structures as a whole. Provided that the simulated and observed planes of satellites are indeed of the same nature, our results suggest that the VPoS of M31 is not a coherent disk and that one-third to one-half of its satellites must have large proper motions perpendicular to the plane.

  11. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  12. Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeholzer, Jamie; Salem, Joseph A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores student use of the mobile Web in general and expectations for an academic library's mobile Web site in particular through focus groups with students at Kent State University. Participants expressed more interest in using their mobile Web device to interact with library resources and services than anticipated. Results showed an…

  13. Current Assessment Practices: A Report from the Virginia Assessment Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Adult Educators Research Network, Dayton.

    The report details the activities of the Virginia Assessment Study Group in documenting the utility of various approaches to assessing adult education programs and instruction within the state. A group of diverse practitioners convened during 1997 to establish project objectives and research questions and to report on their work. The reports of…

  14. Comparison of Serpent and HELIOS-2 as applied for the PWR few-group cross section generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, E.; Leppaenen, J.; Wemple, C.

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses recent modifications to the Serpent Monte Carlo code methodology and related to the calculation of few-group diffusion coefficients and reflector discontinuity factors The new methods were assessed in the following manner. First, few-group homogenized cross sections calculated by Serpent for a reference PWR core were compared with those generated 1 commercial deterministic lattice transport code HELIOS-2. Second, Serpent and HELIOS-2 fe group cross section sets were later employed by nodal diffusion code DYN3D for the modeling the reference PWR core. Finally, the nodal diffusion results obtained using the both cross section sets were compared with the full core Serpent Monte Carlo solution. The test calculations show that Serpent can calculate the parameters required for nodal analyses similar to conventional deterministic lattice codes. (authors)

  15. The Effects of Style and Sex of Consultants and Sex of Members in Self-Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Fred

    1976-01-01

    Defines the self-study group and differentiates it from other laboratory training groups. Investigates the effects of sex and style of the facilitators on group members. Presented at the American Group Psychotherapy Association Convention, Boston, Mass., February, 1976. (HMV)

  16. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups on Student Progress: Evidence from a National Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; Whitebread, David

    2007-01-01

    Nurture groups (NGs) are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. Although the first groups were established over 30 years ago, growth in the number of NGs in the UK has been exponential over the past ten years. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of NGs in promoting positive…

  17. Innovation in the teaching of astrophysics and space science - spacecraft design group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, C.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes how the design of a scientific satellite can be used to provide both a stimulating and effective subject for a physics based group study. The group study divides the satellite into distinct subsystems and small teams of two or three students carry out the detailed design of each subsystem. The aim is to produce a complete satellite system design along with the choice of launch vehicle, orbit and communications system so that all the mission requirements can be met. An important feature of the group study is that it is a student led activity with staff acting as mentors. The development of key skills and important learning outcomes from the group study is discussed along with the method for assessment, structuring and resourcing the study.

  18. IR spectroscopic study of hydroxyl groups of molecular sieves in the fundamental and combination tone regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, E.; Zscherpel, U.; Peuker, Ch.; Staudte, B.

    1993-03-01

    The fundamental and combination vibrations of hydroxyl groups in zeolites (Y, ZSM-5) and silicoaluminophosphates (SAPO-5, -17, -34) are investigated. The influence of adsorbed molecules (C 6F 6, n-hexane) on the combination vibrations is also studied. Finally, remarks on quantitative evaluation of DRIFT spectra of NaHZSM-5 containing different amounts of bridging OH groups are given.

  19. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  20. Uni- Versus Multidimensional Comparison of Political Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    Journalists view the left-right continuum as a dimension on which political entities array themselves in order to vie for a similarly arrayed public. Such a spatial measuring device is useful, since it allows journalists to compare political entities on a common scale that readers supposedly understand and on which they can relate their own…

  1. Modifications of the ionosphere prior to large earthquakes: report from the Ionosphere Precursor Study Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Devi, M.; Ryu, K.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, H.; Bankov, L.; Kodama, T.

    2016-12-01

    The current status of ionospheric precursor studies associated with large earthquakes (EQ) is summarized in this report. It is a joint endeavor of the "Ionosphere Precursor Study Task Group," which was formed with the support of the Mitsubishi Foundation in 2014-2015. The group promotes the study of ionosphere precursors (IP) to EQs and aims to prepare for a future EQ dedicated satellite constellation, which is essential to obtain the global morphology of IPs and hence demonstrate whether the ionosphere can be used for short-term EQ predictions. Following a review of the recent IP studies, the problems and specific research areas that emerged from the one-year project are described. Planned or launched satellite missions dedicated (or suitable) for EQ studies are also mentioned.

  2. Independent and Small Group Activities for Social Studies in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Barbara; And Others

    A teachers' guide for social studies, this manual stresses geography curriculum and activities for the primary grades. It is suggested that a teacher work with one group while the other children work individually. Children first work independently for a team, and then progress to less structured small group activities. Positive reinforcement by…

  3. Critical Teaching in Higher Education: An Interview with the Front Range Critical Studies Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The Front Range Critical Studies Group, comprised of four California State University teacher educators, aims to provide a scholarly, informal forum for interdisciplinary discussion of theoretical, political, and cultural issues. The group facilitates collegial scholar/student relationships, promotes enlightened discussion through lecture series…

  4. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  5. The Tavistock Group Relations Conference: Description and Comparison with Laboratory Training. A CRUSK-ISR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowfoot, James E.

    Laboratory training and the Tavistock Conference, two types of experiential learning, contrast in important ways. They are designed to respond to different societal issues and make different types of responses to these issues. Tavistock conferences focus consciously and exclusively on group operation, role, role relationships, intergroup…

  6. The Italian AIPO study on tuberculosis treatment results, report 1995. National AIPO "Tuberculosis" Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, M; Besozzi, G; Codecasa, L R; Farris, B; Nutini, S; Saini, L; Casali, L; Nardini, S; Migliori, G B

    1999-02-01

    In Italy, no national data on tuberculosis (TB) treatment results were available. In 1995, the AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pneumologists) TB Study Group, in collaboration with the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (technical branch of the Ministry of Health), started a prospective monitoring activity based on World Health Organization (WHO) and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) recommendations. Data were collected from a nationwide network of 41 TB units, managing a significant proportion of all TB cases notified in Italy each year. The aim of this study was to analyse the case findings and treatment results for the year 1995. Seven hundred and seventy eight TB cases were reported (59% males; 21% immigrants), 640 (82%) being new cases. Of these cases, 517 (66%) were pulmonary, 239 (31%) extrapulmonary and 22 (3%) both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The main risk factors for TB were a history of recent contact and alcohol abuse among native Italians and human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive status among immigrants. The majority of immigrants were from Africa and South America, and had been in Italy > 24 months before diagnosis of TB. Thirty-seven per cent of patients had a positive direct sputum smear examination for alcohol acid-fast bacilli; 20% were resistant to any drug (monoresistance to isoniazid 3.5%; multidrug resistance 5.2%). In 95% of cases, the duration of treatment was < 12 months. The overall success rate (cured plus treatment completed) was 81.1%. A significantly higher percentage of deaths was found in native Italians (being age-related), whereas immigrants had a higher default rate. PMID:10218371

  7. The Effectiveness of Lecture-Integrated, Web-Supported Case Studies in Large Group Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzawi, May; Dawson, Maureen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of lecture-integrated and web-supported case studies in supporting a large and academically diverse group of undergraduate students was evaluated in the present study. Case studies and resource (web)-based learning were incorporated as two complementary interactive learning strategies into the traditional curriculum. A truncated…

  8. Police officers: a high-risk group for the development of mental health disturbances? A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van der Velden, Peter G; Rademaker, Arthur R; Vermetten, Eric; Portengen, Marie-Anne; Yzermans, Joris C; Grievink, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Policing is generally considered a high-risk profession for the development of mental health problems, but this assumption lacks empirical evidence. Research question of the present study is to what extent mental health disturbances, such as (very) severe symptoms of anxiety, depression and hostility are more prevalent among police officers than among other occupational groups. Design Multicomparative cross-sectional study using the data of several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in the Netherlands. Participants Two samples of police officers (N=144 and 503), employees of banks (N=1113) and employees of banks who were robbed (N=144); employees of supermarkets (N=335), and a psychiatric hospital (N=219), employees of a governmental social welfare organisation (N=76), employees who followed a training based on rational-motive therapy to strengthen their assertiveness (N=710), soldiers before deployment (N=278) and before redeployment (N=236) and firefighters (N=123). The numbers refer to respondents with complete data. Primary outcomes Prevalence of severe (subclinical level) and very severe symptoms (clinical level) were computed using the Dutch norm tables (80th percentile and 95th percentile, respectively) of the Symptom Check List Revised (SCL-90-R). All comparisons were controlled for age, gender and education. Results Multivariate logistic regression and analyses showed that the prevalence of clinical and subclinical levels of symptoms of anxiety, depression and hostility among police officers were not significantly higher than among comparison groups. The same pattern was found for the other SCL-90-R subscales. Conclusions We found no indications that self-reported mental health disturbances were more prevalent among police officers than among groups of employees that are not considered high-risk groups, such as employees of banks, supermarkets, psychiatric hospital and soldiers before deployment. PMID:23355659

  9. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  10. Comparison of dental maturity between two ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Stefanac-Papić, J; Alkadri, K Z; Legović, M; Galić, N

    1998-12-01

    Dental maturity is one of the indicators of the craniofacial region growth and development. The aim of the study was to identify and compare dental growth and development in two ethnic groups. The material consisted of 480 orthopantomograms; 240 selected from orthodontic and dental patients from Zagreb (Croatia) and Damascus (Syria) each. Each ethnic group included 120 boys and 120 girls, while the radiographs were classified into 6 groups of 20 each, according to sex and chronologic age (8-13 years). Dental maturity was evaluated by the method of Nolla. The results were statistically analyzed and presented in tables. The subjects from Damascus showed a delay in dental maturity by 1 (girls) to 2 (boys) years compared to the homologous group from Zagreb. The reference values determined in the study may serve as a diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic tool in the orthodontics and pedodontics of the respective cities. PMID:9951152

  11. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  12. [Quality analyses of the development of preterm infants: results of the Lower-Saxonian preterm infant follow-up project and a comparison group of term infants].

    PubMed

    Damm, Gabriele; Macha, Thorsten; Petermann, Franz; Voss, Wolfgang; Sens, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Based on perinatal and neonatal quality assurance programmes, a follow-up project for the high-risk group of extremely preterm infants, unparalleled in Germany, was initiated in the federal state of Lower Saxony in 2004. Here we describe the new approach of examining a comparison group of term infants, which, for the first time, allows a valid interpretation of the collection of area-wide long-term outcome data on preterm children. The prospective long-term outcome project investigates the medical care situation for children born at less than 28 weeks of gestation up to school age. Based on the information obtained about the children's development the quality of health care will be optimised. A standardised examining concept with established development tests at defined follow-up intervals (at the age of 6 months, 2, 5 and 10 years) is used. At the age of five years 75 % of the examined premature children exhibited impairments. In order to better assess remarkable results, a comparison group of term infants (n=305) selected by a matched-pairs method was examined at the age of five using an analogous concept in kindergartens in Lower Saxony. The results were compared with the first two age cohorts of the follow-up-project (n=226) and quality analyses performed. As expected, significant differences have been found in the children's motor, cognitive and linguistic development between the preterm and term infants examined. This fact draws attention to the importance of early support for the majority of extremely premature infants. Feedback on the results given to the medical staff involved allows for the implementation of best practices and quality improvements. Identifying potential for improvement in everyday health care will help to develop specific optimisation measures. PMID:25839361

  13. Methods of Costing in Universities. Brief Comparison Between the NCHEMS Approach and the Approach Used by the French-Speaking Research Group Associated with the IMHE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossu, Claude

    1975-01-01

    A group of French universities modified the NCHEMS accounting method for use in a study of its budget control procedures and cost-evaluation methods. The conceptual differences in French university education (as compared to American higher education) are keyed to the adjustments in the accounting method. French universities, rather than being…

  14. The Project Approach Catalog 2 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  15. The Project Approach Catalog 3 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  16. Improving the Reading Ability of Science Students through Study Groups and Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Tunde; Okebukola, Foluso

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of appropriate pedagogical skills (study groups and multiple intelligences) on students' efficiencies in reading skills. It employed a factorial design using three variables. A sample of 90 science students choosing from three intact classes were involved in the study. Data analyses were carried out using mean,…

  17. The American Cowboy: Developing Small Group Social Studies Interaction Experiences in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Edward, Jr.

    Appropriate for elementary school students, this resource unit on the American cowboy provides four activities for small group work. The unit also lists objectives and discusses the organization and dynamics of small groups. The general objective is for the student to learn how to work within groups and how to resolve group conflict. The…

  18. XMM study of the interplay between the intra-group medium and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniati, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Current models of galaxy evolution rely critically on AGN and SN feedback processes. However, these ideas have not been fully tested, particularly in the intra-group medium (IGM), the environment most commonly experienced by galaxies. For this purpose we propose to use XMM-Newton to study the thermodynamic properties of the IGM (via its diffuse X-ray emission), which retains a fossil record of the energy released by past star formation and AGN activity, for an unbiased sample of 23 groups with fully determined galaxy population and AGN properties. The 23 target groups are selected from our Zurich ENvironmental Survey, for which we have optical spectroscopic, photometric and morphological information as well as HI mass content.

  19. The TAFES multi-family group intervention for Kosovar refugees: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Weine, Stevan M; Raina, Dheeraj; Zhubi, Merita; Delesi, Mejreme; Huseni, Dzana; Feetham, Suzanne; Kulauzovic, Yasmina; Mermelstein, Robin; Campbell, Richard T; Rolland, John; Pavkovic, Ivan

    2003-02-01

    The object of this study was to describe a feasibility study of the Tea and Families Education and Support (TAFES) intervention used in a group of newly resettled adult refugees from Kosova. The subjects were 86 newly resettled Kosovar refugees in Chicago who gave informed consent to participate in an investigation of the TAFES intervention. All subjects received family home visits, and most participated in the TAFES multi-family groups. The instruments were administered to adult participants before and 3 months after the intervention. The TAFES program had contact with 61 Kosovar refugee families, of which 42 families (69%) engaged in TAFES groups, including families with educated and working members. Several characteristics were associated with engaging in TAFES groups and included lower monthly family income and higher age of the first child. The uncontrolled postintervention assessments demonstrated increases in social support and psychiatric service use associated with engagement in the TAFES group. Participants also showed time changes in scale scores assessing trauma mental health knowledge, trauma mental health attitudes, and family hardiness. This study provides preliminary evidence that multi-family support and education groups are a feasible and possibly beneficial intervention for newly resettled refugees and indicates the need for further studies. PMID:12586963

  20. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  1. Efficacy and safety of Ascoril in the management of cough--National Study Group report.

    PubMed

    Ainapure, S S; Desai, A; Korde, K

    2001-02-01

    A total of 768 patients were recruited by 81 physicians and paediatricians all over the country in this National Study Group of 'Ascoril + Expectorant'. The results of this first large scale study of a cough formula indicates that 'Ascoril + Expectorant' is effective in controlling cough, breathlessness and decreasing the volume of sputum. No serious adverse events were noted. Ascoril was well accepted by the patients and its efficacy was rated very high by the physician. The National Study Group concludes that 'Ascoril + Expectorant' is highly effective in the management of cough associated with lower respiratory tract infection and COPDs. PMID:11482804

  2. [A comparison of dynamic psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and analytic group psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Dührssen, A

    1986-01-01

    Three groups of patients (N = 30) distributed as well as possible according to indication among standard psychoanalytic therapy, analytic group therapy and dynamic psychotherapy were submitted to testing in order to investigate the risk indices for stress factors (Dührssen) and to factor analysis with the aid of the Freiburg Personality Inventory, the Giessen-Test, and the Extended Giessen Complaint Sheet. A fourth group of Patients (N = 30), originally assigned to group therapy but having discontinued treatment, was used as control group. It was found that among patients assigned to any of these types of therapy the stress index was significantly higher than among patients seeing the physician for merely an initial examination and the taking of their case histories. Furthermore, the different groups showed different indices for stress factors: Patients in dynamic psychotherapy had by far the highest index of stress, followed by the patients who had discontinued group therapy. Group therapy patients who completed their treatment had again a slightly higher risk index than those who had been assigned to standard psychoanalytic therapy. Application of the above mentioned tests or complaint sheets revealed significant differences between the specific groups. But therapy also resulted in significant improvement of isolated aspects. An investigation concerned with the number of days of hospitalization and the number of days of disablement in a randomly selected group of patients in 1977 showed a statistically significant reduction of these numbers in the five-year period following therapy when compared to the last five years prior to therapy. On the whole the investigation has made it apparent that any comparative psychotherapy study is more or less futile when the patients under observation are parallelized merely according to age, sex, and symptoms while the respective risk indices with the accompanying stress factors in childhood and adolescence are being neglected

  3. Intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers and a comparison group of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa; Rakestraw, Vivian Leffler

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to determine the efficacy of the theory of reasoned action in predicting intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (n = 64) and a comparison group of adolescent girls (n = 65) and (b) to explore the role of empirically suggested variables (e.g., social support and current symptoms of depression) in increasing the explanatory power of the model. Findings between the two groups differed. Subjective norms, but not attitude, was a significant predictor of intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (F = 4.82, P = .00; R(2) = .14). In the comparison group of adolescent girls, both attitude and subjective norms predicted intention to seek depression treatment (F = 8.56, P = .00, R(2) = .22). The addition of depressive symptoms and social support increased the explanatory power of the model in the comparison group of adolescent girls (R(2) change = 0.10, P = .02) but resulted in the deletion of subjective norms from the regression equation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. PMID:19216987

  4. The relationship between three-dimensional imaging and group decision making: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Litynski, D M; Grabowski, M; Wallace, W A

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes an empirical investigation of the effect of three dimensional (3-D) imaging on group performance in a tactical planning task. The objective of the study is to examine the role that stereoscopic imaging can play in supporting face-to-face group problem solving and decision making-in particular, the alternative generation and evaluation processes in teams. It was hypothesized that with the stereoscopic display, group members would better visualize the information concerning the task environment, producing open communication and information exchanges. The experimental setting was a tactical command and control task, and the quality of the decisions and nature of the group decision process were investigated with three treatments: 1) noncomputerized, i.e., topographic maps with depth cues; 2) two-dimensional (2-D) imaging; and 3) stereoscopic imaging. The results were mixed on group performance. However, those groups with the stereoscopic displays generated more alternatives and spent less time on evaluation. In addition, the stereoscopic decision aid did not interfere with the group problem solving and decision-making processes. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential benefits, and the need to resolve demonstrated weaknesses of the technology. PMID:11541531

  5. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group

    PubMed Central

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; de Castro, Solange L; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco VC; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia AF; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena PS; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide. PMID:26018452

  6. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; Castro, Solange L de; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco V C; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia A F; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena P S; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO 2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide. PMID:26018452

  7. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group.

    PubMed

    Li, Cailan; Xie, Jianhui; Chen, Xiaoying; Mo, Zhizhun; Wu, Wen; Liang, Yeer; Su, Zuqing; Li, Qian; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease. PMID:26669678

  8. Development of Peer-Group-Classification Criteria for the Comparison of Cost Efficiency among General Hospitals under the Korean NHI Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Chung; Hong, Jae-Seok; Park, Heon-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To classify general hospitals into homogeneous systematic-risk groups in order to compare cost efficiency and propose peer-group-classification criteria. Data Sources Health care institution registration data and inpatient-episode-based claims data submitted by the Korea National Health Insurance system to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from July 2007 to December 2009. Study Design Cluster analysis was performed to classify general hospitals into peer groups based on similarities in hospital characteristics, case mix complexity, and service-distribution characteristics. Classification criteria reflecting clustering were developed. To test whether the new peer groups better adjusted for differences in systematic risks among peer groups, we compared the R2 statistics of the current and proposed peer groups according to total variations in medical costs per episode and case mix indices influencing the cost efficiency. Data Collection A total of 1,236,471 inpatient episodes were constructed for 222 general hospitals in 2008. Principal Findings New criteria were developed to classify general hospitals into three peer groups (large general hospitals, small and medium general hospitals treating severe cases, and small and medium general hospitals) according to size and case mix index. Conclusions This study provides information about using peer grouping to enhance fairness in the performance assessment of health care providers. PMID:22356558

  9. Radiostratigraphic study of the deposits of the Maikop Group, Western Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendieva, M.; Babaev, R.; Johnson, C.; Feyzullayev, A.; Aliev, Ch.

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the results of biostratigraphic study of natural outcrops of the Maikop Group, which were first carried together with detailed radiometric studies in the Ganja oil and gas-bearing region, Western Azerbaijan. The paleontological research method included determination of the genus or species (depending on the preservation) of microfaunistic remains (foraminifera, ostracods, fish remains). The radiometric research method included measurements of the integral radioactivity in the field, the sampling, as well as laboratory radionuclide (spectral) analysis. As a result of our research, the stratigraphic control of variation in the radioactivity of rocks of the Maikop Group of the Ganja oil and gas-bearing region has been established. The radioactivity of Oligocene rocks is predominantly determined by potassium content. The radioactivity of the Miocene part of the section of the Maikop Group is determined by uranium-potassium contents. Within the Ganja oil and gas-bearing region, deposits of the Kotsakhurian regional stage, which are usually referred to "barren" formations or anoxic "fish facies", contain a significant number of species of benthic foraminiferal fauna.

  10. Studying high redshift galaxy groups with the Athena Wide-Field-Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacaud, Florian; Reiprich, Thomas; Ramos Ceja, Miriam Elizabeth; Lovisari, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we will discuss the potential of Athena to study high redshift galaxy groups (1the detection efficiency of such groups in Athena WFI observations and our ability to identify them as extended sources among the numerous active galactic nuclei (AGN) at similar fluxes. Our analysis also includes the determination of the physical properties of these galaxy groups (average gas temperature, luminosity). Based on these tools, we discuss the science achievable with such systems thanks to Athena and its dependance on the final instrumental set-up. In particular, we investigate the impact of different levels of contamination by AGNs and assumptions on the luminosity of the groups as a function of their mass.

  11. Case studies putting the decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) into practice.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Neubauer, Nicole; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Case studies covering carbonaceous nanomaterials, metal oxide and metal sulphate nanomaterials, amorphous silica and organic pigments were performed to assess the Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping). The usefulness of the DF4nanoGrouping for nanomaterial hazard assessment was confirmed. In two tiers that rely exclusively on non-animal test methods followed by a third tier, if necessary, in which data from rat short-term inhalation studies are evaluated, nanomaterials are assigned to one of four main groups (MGs). The DF4nanoGrouping proved efficient in sorting out nanomaterials that could undergo hazard assessment without further testing. These are soluble nanomaterials (MG1) whose further hazard assessment should rely on read-across to the dissolved materials, high aspect-ratio nanomaterials (MG2) which could be assessed according to their potential fibre toxicity and passive nanomaterials (MG3) that only elicit effects under pulmonary overload conditions. Thereby, the DF4nanoGrouping allows identifying active nanomaterials (MG4) that merit in-depth investigations, and it provides a solid rationale for their sub-grouping to specify the further information needs. Finally, the evaluated case study materials may be used as source nanomaterials in future read-across applications. Overall, the DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard assessment strategy that strictly uses animals as a last resort. PMID:26687418

  12. The role of a teacher study group in negotiating constructivist science teaching in an elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Ellen Louise

    2000-12-01

    This study arose from the frustrations expressed by elementary teachers in a mid-size, urban school district who were involved in implementing a new district-wide science curriculum. The new curriculum was designed to meet the recommendations for constructivist teaching espoused in the current science education reform movement. As a fifth-grade teacher in the district as well, as a member of the science curriculum committee that wrote the new curriculum, I was in the position to hear the frustrations vented by fellow teachers as they struggled to make the shift from a loosely-supervised, textbook-based curriculum to one which emphasized hands-on instruction through four in-depth units at each grade level. In response to teachers' frustrations, I conducted an action-research study designed to provide a sustained, personalized, professional development opportunity for a group of elementary teachers in the building in which I taught. The study group of five teachers met during the course of the 1996--97 school year to work on familiarizing ourselves with the tenets of constructivist science teaching and learning and incorporating this type of teaching into our own practice. Activities engaged in included: reading relevant literature, viewing videotapes of teachers practicing constructivist science teaching, attending physics workshops, working with the intermediate school-district science consultant, and videotaping our own science lessons for the purposes of sharing with the other group members and studying our practice. During the year, I conducted individual interviews with the teacher participants and audiotaped all group meetings in an effort to learn if this experience held value as a means of helping the group members become more constructivist science teachers. During the year, it became clear that the teachers continued to face many obstacles as they worked to improve their science teaching. While the participants felt they made progress and all agreed that

  13. Status of the IAA study group on traffic management rules for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Corinne; Lala, Petr; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2007-10-01

    The investigation of space traffic and its management has only recently become a point of wider discussion. In particular, the series of workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other international organizations on international cooperation highlighted the issue. It was discussed thoroughly at the workshops, which took place in 1999 and 2001, respectively. It was at the 2001 workshop, when the suggestion was made that an International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Study on the subject of space traffic management should be prepared. This suggestion was taken up and a proposal was presented to the Board of Trustees of IAA, which, in late 2001, accepted this proposal. Following this, an interdisciplinary study group of around 20 persons was composed. One early milestone in the process of work was the conduct of an International Institute of Space Law (IISL)/European Center of Space Law (ECSL) Symposium alongside the 2002 session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) Legal Subcommittee. This symposium consisted of presentations of members of the IAA study group. Also, close coordination with other study projects of IAA, in particular with the one on space debris, is sought. This paper presents the status of work of the study group, in particular, the approach and the scope of the study as well as its preliminary findings. The study group intends to finalize its work in early 2004, in order to be able to put the study before IAA and launch its review process before the 2004 International Astronautical Congress. Following this review, the study will be published and may be expected to make an impact in fora like the UNCOPUOS. The authors of this paper act as the coordinators/the rapporteur to this study. The paper will be presented in the IAA—as well as the IISL—session dealing with space traffic, by that bridging the two areas and seeking input from various sources.

  14. Teaching the Moon: A Study of Teaching Methodology Across Age Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, F.; Paust, N.

    2012-08-01

    In this study I attempted to determine the most effective teaching style for teaching elementary, middle school, and undergraduate students about lunar phases and eclipses. Within each age group, there were two sub groups, one of which was introduced to the material in a standard lecture format while the other sub-group interacted with the content through activities and demonstrations. After their respective lessons, both sub-groups were given the same post-instruction test in order to assess their comprehension of the content. The results from this experiment provided insight into effective teaching styles and common misconceptions about lunar phases and eclipses at different age levels, as well as introducing new interactive teaching activities for elementary, middle school and undergraduate students.

  15. Preliminary dose comparisons for the MRS Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides preliminary information on the radiological doses to the public and the workers for alternative system configurations proposed in the MRS Systems Study. Information published in the MRS Environmental Assessment (DOE 1986) was used as a basis for this analysis. The risk differences between alternative configurations were found to be small and should not be viewed as a major factor in selecting alternative configurations. 1 ref.

  16. The impacts of racial group membership on people's distributive justice: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Deng, Yuqin

    2014-04-16

    How individuals and societies distribute benefits has long been studied by psychologists and sociologists. Previous work has highlighted the importance of social identity on people's justice concerns. However, it is not entirely clear how racial in-group/out-group relationship affects the brain activity in distributive justice. In this study, event-related potentials were recorded while participants made their decisions about donation allocation. Behavioral results showed that racial in-group factor affected participants' decisions on justice consideration. Participants were more likely to make relatively equity decisions when racial in-group factor was congruent with equity compared with the corresponding incongruent condition. Moreover, this incongruent condition took longer response times than congruent condition. Meanwhile, less equity decisions were made when efficiency was larger in the opposite side to equity than it was equal between the two options. Scalp event-related potential analyses revealed that greater P300 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited by the incongruent condition compared with the congruent condition. These findings suggest that the decision-making of distributive justice could be modulated by racial group membership, and greater attentional resources or cognitive efforts are required when racial in-group factor and equity conflict with each other. PMID:24394904

  17. The Problem of Japan: Qualitative Studies and International Educational Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald K.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews qualitative (historical and ethnographic) studies of education in Japan that advance a general understanding of educational theory and practice. Japan, which is neither an educational paradise nor an examination hell, is the source of much data of value to educational research in the United States. (SLD)

  18. Comparison of different force fields for the study of disaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen empirical force fields and the semi-empirical quantum method PM3CARB-1 were compared for studying ß-cellobiose, a-maltose, and a-galabiose [a-D-Galp-(1'4)-a-D-Galp]. For each disaccharide, the energies of 54 conformers with differing hydroxymethyl, hydroxyl and glycosidic linkage orientatio...

  19. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PANEL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three different methods of analysis of panels were compared using asthma panel data from a 1970-1971 study done by EPA in Riverhead, New York. The methods were (1) regression analysis using raw attack rates; (2) regression analysis using the ratio of observed attacks to expected ...

  20. Empirical Studies on the Network of Social Groups: The Case of Tencent QQ

    PubMed Central

    You, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Lü, Linyuan; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in social groups are important but the collective behaviors of human as a group are difficult to analyze due to the difficulties to quantify ordinary social relation, group membership, and to collect a comprehensive dataset. Such difficulties can be circumvented by analyzing online social networks. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we analyze a comprehensive dataset released from Tencent QQ, an instant messenger with the highest market share in China. Specifically, we analyze three derivative networks involving groups and their members—the hypergraph of groups, the network of groups and the user network—to reveal social interactions at microscopic and mesoscopic level. Conclusions/Significance Our results uncover interesting behaviors on the growth of user groups, the interactions between groups, and their relationship with member age and gender. These findings lead to insights which are difficult to obtain in social networks based on personal contacts. PMID:26176850

  1. Complete sequence of three plasmids from Bacillus thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4 environmental isolate and comparison with related plasmids from the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Amadio, Ariel F; Benintende, Graciela B; Zandomeni, Rubén O

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen used worldwide as a bioinsecticide. It belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group as well as Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus. Plasmids from this group of organisms have been implicated in pathogenicity as they carry the genes responsible for different types of diseases that affect mammals and insects. Some plasmids, like pAW63 and pBT9727, encode a functional conjugation machinery allowing them to be transferred to a recipient cell. They also share extensive homology with the non-functional conjugation apparatus of pXO2 from B. anthracis. In this study we report the complete sequence of three plasmids from an environmental B. thuringiensis isolate from Argentina, obtained by a shotgun sequencing method. We obtained the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pFR12 (12,095bp), pFR12.5 (12,459bp) and pFR55 (55,712bp) from B. thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4. pFR12 and pFR12.5 were classified as cryptic as they do not code for any obvious functions besides replication and mobilization. Both small plasmids were classified as RCR plasmids due to similarities with the replicases they encode. Plasmid pFR55 showed a structural organization similar to that observed for plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. pFR55 also shares a tra region with these plasmids, containing genes related to T4SS and conjugation. A comparison between pFR55 and conjugative plasmids led to the postulation that pFR55 is a conjugative plasmid. Genes related to replication functions in pFR55 are different to those described for plasmids with known complete sequences. pFR55 is the first completely sequenced plasmid with a replication machinery related to that of ori44. The analysis of the complete sequence of plasmids from an environmental isolate of B. thuringiensis permitted the identification of a near complete conjugation apparatus in pFR55, resembling those of plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. The availability of this sequence is a step forward in the study

  2. The Impact of Homogeneity on Intra-Group Cohesion: A Macro-Level Comparison of Minority Communities in a Western Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffa, Oromiya-Jalata

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to earlier studies dealing with the cultural identity development of diasporic minorities, this paper assesses the impact of homogeneity on intra-group cohesion and ethnic orientation. To this end, Oromo-Americans, an ethnic group originally located within the national borders of Ethiopia, will be compared to Armenian-Americans,…

  3. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  4. Cryptographic Research and NSA: Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davida, George I.

    1981-01-01

    The Public Cryptography Study Group accepted the claim made by the National Security Agency that some information in some publications concerning cryptology could be inimical to national security, and is allowing the establishment of a voluntary mechanism, on an experimental basis, for NSA to review cryptology manuscripts. (MLW)

  5. A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Parents Attending a Psychoanalytically Informed Parent-Toddler Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Maria; Kitson, Annabel; Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent-toddler group. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three "superordinate themes", each…

  6. Comparison of Health-Related Measures of Two Groups of Adolescents in a Rural Southeastern County in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Charles D.; Hensarling, Robert W.; Angel, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish baseline values on physiological parameters for 7-11 graders (n = 146) in a rural area of Alabama and to examine whether differences existed among the adolescents in the county. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Many adolescents in the southern portion of the United States suffer disproportionately…

  7. Proceedings of the 1979 Meeting [of the] Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    These proceedings contain: two lectures; reports from four working groups, four review groups, and three special groups; and a list of participants. Lecture I, by Joseph Agassi, was entitled "On Mathematics Education: The Lakatosian Revolution." Lecture II, by Jack Easley, was entitled "Alternative Research Metaphore and the Social Context of…

  8. Staff Attitudes towards the Sexuality of People with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Different Professional Groups and Residential Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, Alan; McLaren, Shona; Lindsay, William; Culling, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    The role of care staff is invaluable in the day to day living of many people with learning disabilities. Consequently, care staff can often have substantial influence, although this may not always serve the best interests of the individual. Previous studies have shown significant levels of stigma towards people with learning disabilities, both…

  9. Developing fair tests for mathematics curriculum comparison studies: the role of content analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, Óscar; Papick, Ira; Ross, Daniel J.; Grouws, Douglas A.

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the process of development of assessment instruments for a three-year longitudinal comparative study that focused on evaluating American high school students' mathematics learning from two distinct approaches to content organization: curriculum built around a sequence of three full-year courses (Algebra 1, Geometry, and Algebra 2) and a sequence of integrated mathematics courses (algebra and geometry content, together with functions, data analysis, and discrete mathematics is integrated each year). The study was conducted in six school districts in five states involving over 4,000 students from schools that were using both curricular approaches but with different groups of students. In order to develop assessment instruments that were not biased towards either of the two curriculum programs (Fair Tests), an iterative process of content analyses, identification of common topics, internal and external reviews, pilot tests, and revisions was followed, resulting in five tests that were used in the three years of the study. Results indicate that these tests have solid discrimination properties and address adequately mathematics content common to both secondary curriculum programs. The corresponding scoring rubrics are highly reliable, with interrater reliability above 94% for all tests. Mathematics education researchers involved in curriculum comparison studies need to conduct content analyses of the curriculum materials under study in order to identify salient relationships between curriculum programs and student outcomes.

  10. Group membership prediction when known groups consist of unknown subgroups: a Monte Carlo comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Finch, W Holmes; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Classification using standard statistical methods such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or logistic regression (LR) presume knowledge of group membership prior to the development of an algorithm for prediction. However, in many real world applications members of the same nominal group, might in fact come from different subpopulations on the underlying construct. For example, individuals diagnosed with depression will not all have the same levels of this disorder, though for the purposes of LDA or LR they will be treated in the same manner. The goal of this simulation study was to examine the performance of several methods for group classification in the case where within group membership was not homogeneous. For example, suppose there are 3 known groups but within each group two unknown classes. Several approaches were compared, including LDA, LR, classification and regression trees (CART), generalized additive models (GAM), and mixture discriminant analysis (MIXDA). Results of the study indicated that CART and mixture discriminant analysis were the most effective tools for situations in which known groups were not homogeneous, whereas LDA, LR, and GAM had the highest rates of misclassification. Implications of these results for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24904445